Science.gov

Sample records for evaluate cover system

  1. EVALUATION OF THE TEMPORARY TENT COVER TRUSS SYSTEM AP PRIMARY VENT SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    HAQ MA

    2009-12-31

    The purpose of this calculation is to evaluate a temporary ten cover truss system. This system will be used to provide weather protection to the workers during replacement of the filter for the Primary Ventilation System in AP Tank Farm. The truss system has been fabricated utilizing tubes and couplers, which are normally used for scaffoldings.

  2. A RULE-BASED SYSTEM FOR EVALUATING FINAL COVERS FOR HAZARDOUS WASTE LANDFILLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter examines how rules are used as a knowledge representation formalism in the domain of hazardous waste management. A specific example from this domain involves performance evaluation of final covers used to close hazardous waste landfills. Final cover design and associ...

  3. ETV REPORT & STATEMENT: EVALUATION OF THE KCH SERVICES, INC. AUTOMATED COVERED TANK SYSTEM FOR ENERGY CONSERVATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    KCH Services, Inc. manufacturers a commercial-ready energy conserving automatic covered tank system for use in the metal finishing industry. The ACTSEC technology is a system designed to provide an efficient removal of air contaminants from the workplace at a reasonable cost and ...

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF A LONG-TERM MONITORING SYSTEM TO EVALUATE COVER SYSTEM PERFORMANCE

    SciTech Connect

    Kumthekar, U.; Chiou, J. D.; Prochaska, M.; Benson, C. H.

    2002-02-25

    Environmental remediation at the Fernald Environmental Management Project is nearing completion, but long-term technology needs continue to emerge at the site. Remote, real-time, autonomous monitoring technologies are needed to ensure the integrity of the site and its remedy systems once cleanup is complete. The Fernald Post Closure Stewardship Technology Project (PCSTP), through the work of the Integrating Stewardship Technology Team (ISTT), has selected technologies to address initial site needs. This paper will explore the monitoring requirements of the Fernald On-Site Disposal Facility (OSDF), the parameters selected as critical for comprehensive long-term monitoring of the facility, and the process by which technologies were chosen to monitor those parameters.

  5. LANDFILL CONTAINMENT AND COVER SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency through its research and field experiences has developed control strategies for hazardous and municipal solid waste landfills and surface impoundments. hese control strategies include liner and cover systems. he liner systems include doubl...

  6. Evaluating stocker cattle in a Southern Piedmont conservation tillage cotton-cover crop system to increase productivity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Managing cover crop with cattle offers a way to offset costs and increase farm revenue in conservation tillage systems. Cattle may have positive benefits on economic returns but negative impacts on cotton production. Treading of surfaces and reductions in surface residues may increase risks of soil ...

  7. Graphical methods for evaluating covering arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Youngil; Jang, Dae -Heung; Anderson-Cook, Christine M.

    2015-08-10

    Covering arrays relax the condition of orthogonal arrays by only requiring that all combination of levels be covered but not requiring that the appearance of all combination of levels be balanced. This allows for a much larger number of factors to be simultaneously considered but at the cost of poorer estimation of the factor effects. To better understand patterns between sets of columns and evaluate the degree of coverage to compare and select between alternative arrays, we suggest several new graphical methods that show some of the patterns of coverage for different designs. As a result, these graphical methods for evaluating covering arrays are illustrated with a few examples.

  8. Regulatory guidance on soil cover systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kane, J.D.

    1991-12-31

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in September 1991, completed revisions to 14 sections of the Standard Review Plan (SRP) for the Review of a License Application for a Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility. The major purposes of the SRP are to ensure the quality and uniformity of the NRC staff`s safety reviews, and to present a well-defined base from which to evaluate the acceptability of information and data provided in the Safety Analysis Report (SAR) portion of the license application. SRP 3.2, entitled, Design Considerations for Normal and Abnormal/Accident Conditions, was one of the sections that was revised by the NRC staff. This revision was completed to provide additional regulatory guidance on the important considerations that need to be addressed for the proper design and construction of soil cover systems that are to be placed over the LLW. The cover system over the waste is acknowledged to be one of the most important engineered barriers for the long-term stable performance of the disposal facility. The guidance in revised SRP 3.2 summarizes the previous efforts and recommendations of the US Army Corps of Engineers (COE), and a peer review panel on the placement of soil cover systems. NRC published these efforts in NUREG/CR-5432. The discussions in this paper highlight selected recommendations on soil cover issues that the NRC staff considers important for ensuring the safe, long-term performance of the soil cover systems. The development phases to be discussed include: (1) cover design; (2) cover material selection; (3) laboratory and field testing; (4) field placement control and acceptance; and (5) penetrations through the constructed covers.

  9. Evaluating stocker cattle in a southern Piedmont conservation tillage cotton-cover crop system to increase productivity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton producers are often reluctant to plant winter cover crops because of added cost. However, grazing of winter annual cover crops by stocker cattle may help offset cover crop costs and increase farm revenue. Identifying temporal and spatial management needs within cropped/grazed fields can help ...

  10. Evaluation of tropical legume cover crops for copper use efficiency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cover crops are important components of cropping systems due to their role in improving soil quality. Lack of adequate levels of soil micronutrients prevent the success of cover crops in highly weathered tropical soils. A greenhouse experiment was conducted with the objective to evaluate copper use ...

  11. Graphical methods for evaluating covering arrays

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Kim, Youngil; Jang, Dae -Heung; Anderson-Cook, Christine M.

    2016-06-01

    Covering arrays relax the condition of orthogonal arrays by only requiring that all combination of levels be covered but not requiring that the appearance of all combination of levels be balanced. This allows for a much larger number of factors to be simultaneously considered but at the cost of poorer estimation of the factor effects. To better understand patterns between sets of columns and evaluate the degree of coverage to compare and select between alternative arrays, we suggest several new graphical methods that show some of the patterns of coverage for different designs. As a result, these graphical methods formore » evaluating covering arrays are illustrated with a few examples.« less

  12. 49 CFR 193.2167 - Covered systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Covered systems. 193.2167 Section 193.2167...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Design Impoundment Design and Capacity § 193.2167 Covered systems. A covered impounding system is prohibited except for concrete wall designed tanks where the concrete wall is an...

  13. Evaluating a core germplasm collection of the cover crop hairy vetch for use in sustainable farming systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding linkage between genotype and agronomically important phenotypes (early flowering, hard seed and winter hardiness) will facilitate cultivar selection and inform breeding programs concerned with the cover crop hairy vetch (Vicia villosa). . We used molecular and biochemical techniques to...

  14. EVALUATION OF HYDROLOGIC MODELS IN THE DESIGN OF STABLE LANDFILL COVERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The study evaluates the utility of two hydrologic models in designing stable landfill cover systems. The models evaluated were HELP (Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance) and CREAMS (Chemicals, Runoff, and Erosion from Agricultural Management Systems). Studies of paramet...

  15. Estimating juniper cover from NAIP imagery and evaluating relationships between potential cover and environmental variables

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Juniper management is constrained by limited tools to estimate juniper cover and potential cover at stand closure across landscapes. We evaluated if remotely sensed imagery (NAIP) could be used to estimate juniper cover and if environmental characteristic could be used to determine potential junipe...

  16. An engineered cover system for mine tailings using a hardpan layer: a solidification/stabilization method for layer and field performance evaluation.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Joo Sung; Song, Hocheol; Yim, Gil-Jae; Ji, Sang Woo; Kim, Jae-Gon

    2011-12-15

    A cover system for mine tailings with a solidified layer (called an engineered hardpan) was developed in this study to reduce water infiltration, acid generation and sulfide oxidation. Hydrated lime and waterglass were used to produce calcium silicate, which can serve as a binder when constructing a hardpan layer. The compressive strength of each solidified/stabilized material was found to be sufficient in the lab, and the amounts of heavy metals were significantly reduced in chemical leaching tests. Various characteristics of tailings may affect the layer's mechanical strength early on, but a long curing period is capable of compensating for these effects. Heavy metals were stabilized as carbonate-bound phases and sulfide minerals were surrounded by calcium silicate matrix, thereby preventing further reaction. To evaluate the field performance of the system, a hardpan layer was installed on top of tailings on a pilot scale. Leachate with high salt content was generated in the tailings layer in the early stages of monitoring, but after approximately 6 months, the objective was achieved as the hardpan layer gradually stabilized. Notably, during the heavy rainfall season of the later monitoring stage, water infiltration was continuously prevented by the system. PMID:21974852

  17. EVALUATING A FIBERGLASS ROLLER COVERING ON A ROLLER GIN STAND

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An experimental roller covering, made from woven fiberglass, was tested on a roller gin stand to evaluate its ginning performance and effect on fiber quality. The experimental roller covering was much more aggressive than the standard covering; it ginned at twice the rate (2.4 vs. 1.2 bales per hour...

  18. EVALUATION OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILL COVER DESIGNS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The HELP (Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance) Model was used to evaluate the hydrologic behavior of a series of one-, two-, and three-layer cover designs for municipal solid waste landfill cover designs were chosen to isolate the effects of features such as surface veg...

  19. EVALUATING ECOREGIONS FOR SAMPLING AND MAPPING LAND-COVER PATTERNS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ecoregional stratification has been proposed for sampling and mapping land- cover composition and pattern over time. Using a wall-to-wall land-cover map of the United States, we evaluated geographic scales of variance for 17 landscape pattern indices, and compared stratification ...

  20. Waveband evaluation of proposed thematic mapper in forest cover classification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Latty, R. S.; Hoffer, R. M.

    1981-01-01

    This study involved the evaluation of the characteristics of multispectral scanner data relative to forest cover type mapping, using NASA's NS-001 multispectral scanner to simulate the proposed Thematic Mapper (TM). The objectives were to determine: (1) the optimum number of wavebands to utilize in computer classifications of TM data; (2) which channel combinations provide the highest expected classification accuracy; and (3) the relative merit of each channel in the context of the cover classes examined. Transformed divergence was used as a measure of statistical distance between spectral class densities associated with each of twelve cover classes. The maximum overall mean pair-wise transformed divergence was used as the basis for evaluating all possible waveband combinations available for use in computer-assisted forest cover classifications.

  1. Shuttle landing facility cloud cover study: Climatological analysis and two tenths cloud cover rule evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atchison, Michael K.; Schumann, Robin; Taylor, Greg; Warburton, John; Wheeler, Mark; Yersavich, Ann

    1993-01-01

    The two-tenths cloud cover rule in effect for all End Of Mission (EOM) STS landings at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) states: 'for scattered cloud layers below 10,000 feet, cloud cover must be observed to be less than or equal to 0.2 at the de-orbit burn go/no-go decision time (approximately 90 minutes before landing time)'. This rule was designed to protect against a ceiling (below 10,000 feet) developing unexpectedly within the next 90 minutes (i.e., after the de-orbit burn decision and before landing). The Applied Meteorological Unit (AMU) developed and analyzed a database of cloud cover amounts and weather conditions at the Shuttle Landing Facility for a five-year (1986-1990) period. The data indicate the best time to land the shuttle at KSC is during the summer while the worst time is during the winter. The analysis also shows the highest frequency of landing opportunities occurs for the 0100-0600 UTC and 1300-1600 UTC time periods. The worst time of the day to land a shuttle is near sunrise and during the afternoon. An evaluation of the two-tenths cloud cover rule for most data categorizations has shown that there is a significant difference in the proportions of weather violations one and two hours subsequent to initial conditions of 0.2 and 0.3 cloud cover. However, for May, Oct., 700 mb northerly wind category, 1500 UTC category, and 1600 UTC category there is some evidence that the 0.2 cloud cover rule may be overly conservative. This possibility requires further investigation. As a result of these analyses, the AMU developed nomograms to help the Spaceflight Meteorological Group (SMG) and the Cape Canaveral Forecast Facility (CCFF) forecast cloud cover for EOM and Return to Launch Site (RTLS) at KSC. Future work will include updating the two tenths database, further analysis of the data for several categorizations, and developing a proof of concept artificial neural network to provide forecast guidance of weather constraint violations for shuttle

  2. Shuttle landing facility cloud cover study: Climatological analysis and two tenths cloud cover rule evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atchison, Michael K.; Schumann, Robin; Taylor, Greg; Warburton, John; Wheeler, Mark; Yersavich, Ann

    1993-05-01

    The two-tenths cloud cover rule in effect for all End Of Mission (EOM) STS landings at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) states: 'for scattered cloud layers below 10,000 feet, cloud cover must be observed to be less than or equal to 0.2 at the de-orbit burn go/no-go decision time (approximately 90 minutes before landing time)'. This rule was designed to protect against a ceiling (below 10,000 feet) developing unexpectedly within the next 90 minutes (i.e., after the de-orbit burn decision and before landing). The Applied Meteorological Unit (AMU) developed and analyzed a database of cloud cover amounts and weather conditions at the Shuttle Landing Facility for a five-year (1986-1990) period. The data indicate the best time to land the shuttle at KSC is during the summer while the worst time is during the winter. The analysis also shows the highest frequency of landing opportunities occurs for the 0100-0600 UTC and 1300-1600 UTC time periods. The worst time of the day to land a shuttle is near sunrise and during the afternoon. An evaluation of the two-tenths cloud cover rule for most data categorizations has shown that there is a significant difference in the proportions of weather violations one and two hours subsequent to initial conditions of 0.2 and 0.3 cloud cover. However, for May, Oct., 700 mb northerly wind category, 1500 UTC category, and 1600 UTC category there is some evidence that the 0.2 cloud cover rule may be overly conservative. This possibility requires further investigation. As a result of these analyses, the AMU developed nomograms to help the Spaceflight Meteorological Group (SMG) and the Cape Canaveral Forecast Facility (CCFF) forecast cloud cover for EOM and Return to Launch Site (RTLS) at KSC. Future work will include updating the two tenths database, further analysis of the data for several categorizations, and developing a proof of concept artificial neural network to provide forecast guidance of weather constraint violations for shuttle

  3. Covering the Bases: Exploring Alternative Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurz, Terri L.; Garcia, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Since the 1950s, the understanding of how the base 10 system works has been encouraged through alternative base systems (Price 1995; Woodward 2004). If high school students are given opportunities to learn other base systems and analyze what they denote, we believe that they will better understand the structure of base 10 and its operations…

  4. Cover crops in vegetable production systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Current vegetable production systems require an intensive amount Current vegetable production systems require an intensive amount of work and inputs, and if not properly managed could have detrimental effects on soil and the environment. Practices such as intensive tillage, increased herbicide use, ...

  5. MATCON MODIFIED ASPHALT COVER CONTAINMENT SYSTEM DEMONSTRATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    In order to make improvements to conventional paving asphalt to make it more suitable for containment applications, Wilder Construction Co. of Everett, WA offers MatCon, a polymer modified asphalt system comprised of proprietary binder, when coupled with a selected aggregate type...

  6. Grazing winter cover crops in a cotton-cover crop conservation tillage system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grazing of winter annual cover crops with cattle offers a way to offset costs and increase farm revenue in conservation tillage systems. However, cattle may create problems due to soil treading and reduction in surface residues needed to reduce soil erosion. Optimizing production efficiencies may re...

  7. Incoherent systems and coverings in finite dimensional Banach spaces

    SciTech Connect

    Temlyakov, V N

    2014-05-31

    We discuss the construction of coverings of the unit ball of a finite dimensional Banach space. There is a well-known technique based on comparing volumes which gives upper and lower bounds on covering numbers. However, this technique does not provide a method for constructing good coverings. Here we study incoherent systems and apply them to construct good coverings. We use the following strategy. First, we build a good covering using balls with a radius close to one. Second, we iterate this construction to obtain a good covering for any radius. We shall concentrate mainly on the first step of this strategy. Bibliography: 14 titles.

  8. View of steel flume (Irving intake system) that is covered ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of steel flume (Irving intake system) that is covered with old flume stock, flattened to protect from debris, animals and daylight, and is supported by wood trestles, as it continues downhill toward the Irving Powerhouse. Truck in photo provides scale. Looking north - Childs-Irving Hydroelectric Project, Irving System, Intake System, Forest Service Road 708/502, Camp Verde, Yavapai County, AZ

  9. Evaluation of cover effects on bare stent mechanical response.

    PubMed

    McGrath, D J; O'Brien, B; Bruzzi, M; Kelly, N; Clauser, J; Steinseifer, U; McHugh, P E

    2016-08-01

    Covered tracheobronchial stents are used to prevent tumour growth from reoccluding the airways. In the present work a combination of experimental and computational methods are used to present the mechanical effects that adhered covers can have on stent performance. A prototype tracheobronchial stent is characterised in bare and covered configurations using radial force, flat plate and a novel non-uniform radial force test, while computational modelling is performed in parallel to extensively inform the physical testing. Results of the study show that cover configuration can have a significant structural effect on stent performance, and that stent response (bare or covered) is especially loading specific, highlighting that the loading configuration that a stent is about to be subjected to should be considered before stent implantation. PMID:27140523

  10. Sun pipeline`s tensioned cover system saves storage costs

    SciTech Connect

    Blaisdell, J.R.; Lydick, L.

    1996-02-01

    Sun Pipe Line chose the Columbia tensioned floating cover (TFC) system from Columbia Geosystems for several reasons. First, capital costs for the TFC system are considerably lower than those for structural metal or concrete systems. Installation requires less time than fixed structures, and construction costs are about one-tenth as much. A second reason for the choice is its patented tower/tension cover design which easily accommodates fluctuating fluid levels in brine ponds, even in a rapid drawdown. When brine is pumped into the storage chambers, changes in brine ponds can be as great as ten feet. The tensioned design maintains folds of extra material on the outer perimeter of the cover above fluid level. As fluid levels fall, the curtain unfolds and adequate reservoir coverage is maintained.

  11. Indicator Systems and Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canright, Shelley; Grabowski, Barbara

    1995-01-01

    Participants in the workshop session were actively engaged in a hands-on, minds-on approach to learning about indicators and evaluation processes. The six hour session was broken down into three two hour sessions. Each session was built upon an instructional model which moved from general understanding to specific IITA application. Examples and practice exercises served to demonstrate tand reinforce the workshop concepts. Each successive session built upon the previous session and addressed the major steps in the evaluation process. The major steps covered in the workshop included: project descriptions, writing goals and objectives for categories, determining indicators and indicator systems for specific projects, and methods and issues of data collection. The workshop served as a baseline upon which the field centers will build during the summer in undertaking a comprehensive examination and evaluation of their existing K-12 education projects.

  12. Delayed tillage and cover crop effects in potato systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Delayed tillage and the inclusion of cover crops can substantially reduce erosion in intensively tilled potato systems. Both of these practices can potentially impact potato (Solanum tuberosum L.)yield and quality via changes in soil temperature and soil water status, and suppression or enhancement...

  13. COVER CROP SYSTEMS AFFECT WEED COMMUNITIES IN A CALIFORNIA VINEYARD

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vineyard weed communities were examined under four dormant season cover crop systems representative of those used in the north-coastal grape-growing region of California: no-till annuals (rose clover, soft brome, zorro fescue; ANoT), no-till perennials (blue wildrye, California brome, meadow barley,...

  14. Hydrologic modeling of soil water storage in landfill cover systems

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, F.J.; Rodgers, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    The accuracy of modeling soil water storage by two hydrologic models, CREAMS and HELP, was tested by comparing simulation results with field measurements of soil moisture in eight experimental landfill cover systems having a range of well-defined soil profiles and vegetative covers. Regression analysis showed that CREAMS generally represented soil moisture more accurately than HELP simulations. Soil profiles that more closely resembled natural agricultural soils were more accurately modeled than highly artificial layered soil profiles. Precautions for determining parameter values for model input and for interpreting simulation results are discussed.

  15. Soil cover by natural trees in agroforestry systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz-Ambrona, C. G. H.; Almoguera Millán, C.; Tarquis Alfonso, A.

    2009-04-01

    The dehesa is common agroforestry system in the Iberian Peninsula. These open oak parklands with silvo-pastoral use cover about two million hectares. Traditionally annual pastures have been grazed by cows, sheep and also goats while acorns feed Iberian pig diet. Evergreen oak (Quercus ilex L.) has other uses as fuelwood collection and folder after tree pruning. The hypothesis of this work is that tree density and canopy depend on soil types. We using the spanish GIS called SIGPAC to download the images of dehesa in areas with different soil types. True colour images were restoring to a binary code, previously canopy colour range was selected. Soil cover by tree canopy was calculated and number of trees. Processing result was comparable to real data. With these data we have applied a dynamic simulation model Dehesa to determine evergreen oak acorn and annual pasture production. The model Dehesa is divided into five submodels: Climate, Soil, Evergreen oak, Pasture and Grazing. The first three require the inputs: (i) daily weather data (maximum and minimum temperatures, precipitation and solar radiation); (ii) the soil input parameters for three horizons (thickness, field capacity, permanent wilting point, and bulk density); and (iii) the tree characterization of the dehesa (tree density, canopy diameter and height, and diameter of the trunk). The influence of tree on pasture potential production is inversely proportional to the canopy cover. Acorn production increase with tree canopy cover until stabilizing itself, and will decrease if density becomes too high (more than 80% soil tree cover) at that point there is competition between the trees. Main driving force for dehesa productivity is soil type for pasture, and tree cover for acorn production. Highest pasture productivity was obtained on soil Dystric Planosol (Alfisol), Dystric Cambisol and Chromo-calcic-luvisol, these soils only cover 22.4% of southwest of the Iberian peninssula. Lowest productivity was

  16. Assessment of Performance for Alternative Cover Systems on a Waste Rock Storage Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argunhan, C.; Yazicigil, H.

    2015-12-01

    A cover is usually applied to the top of the mining wastes to prevent exposure of sulphide minerals in the waste to water and oxygen ingress in order to mitigate the unwanted consequences such as acid rock drainage. Hence, the selection and design of the appropriate cover system by considering the climatic conditions, local unsaturated and saturated properties and the availability of the cover materials become an important issue. This study aims to investigate the performance of various cover systems and designs for the North Waste Rock Storage Area in Kışladağ Gold Mine located in Uşak in Western Turkey. SEEP/W and VADOSE/W softwares are used to model the flow in unsaturated and saturated zones and to assess the performance of various cover systems. The soil water characteristics and parameters used in the model for saturated and unsaturated conditions were taken from field tests and literature. Accuracy of input data is checked during calibration for steady state conditions with SEEP/W. Then, bedrock, waste rock and cover alternatives are modeled under transient conditions for 20 years using daily climatic data. The effectiveness of the various cover systems for minimizing the ingress of water and air that cause acid rock drainage is evaluated and recommendations are made so that the impacts to groundwater from the waste rock storage areas during closure period are minimized.

  17. Evaluating computer-drawn ground-cover maps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arvanitis, L. G.; Newburne, R.; Reich, R.

    1981-01-01

    Computer-generated character maps from LANDSAT data are compared to aerial photos for test sites in Florida. Report Describes extraction of ground features by two analytical techniques: unsupervised clustering algorithm, called LANDSAT Signature Development Program (LSDP), and interactive algorithm based on multispectral image analyzer. Study concluded that computer classification of digital LANDSAT multispectral data, supplemented with certain ground-cover information, is valuable tool for analysis of renewable resources.

  18. Evaluation of space SAR as a land-cover classification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brisco, B.; Ulaby, F. T.; Williams, T. H. L.

    1985-01-01

    The multidimensional approach to the mapping of land cover, crops, and forests is reported. Dimensionality is achieved by using data from sensors such as LANDSAT to augment Seasat and Shuttle Image Radar (SIR) data, using different image features such as tone and texture, and acquiring multidate data. Seasat, Shuttle Imaging Radar (SIR-A), and LANDSAT data are used both individually and in combination to map land cover in Oklahoma. The results indicates that radar is the best single sensor (72% accuracy) and produces the best sensor combination (97.5% accuracy) for discriminating among five land cover categories. Multidate Seasat data and a single data of LANDSAT coverage are then used in a crop classification study of western Kansas. The highest accuracy for a single channel is achieved using a Seasat scene, which produces a classification accuracy of 67%. Classification accuracy increases to approximately 75% when either a multidate Seasat combination or LANDSAT data in a multisensor combination is used. The tonal and textural elements of SIR-A data are then used both alone and in combination to classify forests into five categories.

  19. The Role of Terrestrial Snow Cover in the Climate System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vavrus, S. J.

    2005-12-01

    Snow cover is known to exert a strong influence on the overlying atmosphere and underlying soil, but quantifying this impact is difficult. Besides its well-accepted ability to cool locally, snow cover can also force climate remotely in complex ways by inducing changes in the atmospheric circulation. Most research on the impact of snow cover has focused on the regional rather than global scale. By contrast, this study investigates the global impact of terrestrial snow cover in the present climate by comparing a pair of Community Climate System Model (CCSM3) simulations run with prognostic snow cover (control case) and with all snow cover on land eliminated (NOSNOWCOVER). In this experiment all snowfall over land was converted into liquid water-equivalent upon reaching the surface. Compared with the control run, NOSNOWCOVER produces mean-annual surface air temperatures up to 5 K higher over northern North America and Eurasia and 8 to 9 K greater in these regions during winter. The global-mean warming of 0.8 K in NOSNOWCOVER is nearly 1/3 as large as the simulated 2 x CO2 response. This pronounced surface heating dramatically increases geopotential heights throughout the troposphere: annual increases of up to 50 m occur at the 250 hPa level, along with even larger inflations during winter. Despite the large surface warming, the absence of an insulating snow pack causes soil temperatures in NOSNOWCOVER to fall throughout northern Asia and Canada, including extreme wintertime cooling of more than 20 K in Siberia and a 5 to 10o equatorward expansion of simulated permafrost. The absence of local melt-water percolation causes significantly drier soils over northern boreal regions and a consequent decrease in cloudiness. The removal of snow cover also drastically affects extreme weather in middle latitudes. Extreme cold-air outbreaks (CAOs), defined relative to the control simulation, essentially disappear in NOSNOWCOVER. The loss of CAOs appears to stem from both the local

  20. Development and Evaluation of a Cloud-Gap-Filled MODIS Daily Snow-Cover Product

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Dorothy K.; Riggs, George A.; Foster, James L.; Kumar, Sujay V.

    2010-01-01

    The utility of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) snow-cover products is limited by cloud cover which causes gaps in the daily snow-cover map products. We describe a cloud-gap-filled (CGF) daily snowcover map using a simple algorithm to track cloud persistence, to account for the uncertainty created by the age of the snow observation. Developed from the 0.050 resolution climate-modeling grid daily snow-cover product, MOD10C1, each grid cell of the CGF map provides a cloud-persistence count (CPC) that tells whether the current or a prior day was used to make the snow decision. Percentage of grid cells "observable" is shown to increase dramatically when prior days are considered. The effectiveness of the CGF product is evaluated by conducting a suite of data assimilation experiments using the community Noah land surface model in the NASA Land Information System (LIS) framework. The Noah model forecasts of snow conditions, such as snow-water equivalent (SWE), are updated based on the observations of snow cover which are obtained either from the MOD1 OC1 standard product or the new CGF product. The assimilation integrations using the CGF maps provide domain averaged bias improvement of -11 %, whereas such improvement using the standard MOD1 OC1 maps is -3%. These improvements suggest that the Noah model underestimates SWE and snow depth fields, and that the assimilation integrations contribute to correcting this systematic error. We conclude that the gap-filling strategy is an effective approach for increasing cloud-free observations of snow cover.

  1. Evaluation of wavelength groups for discrimination of agricultural cover types

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, R.

    1978-01-01

    Multispectral scanner data in twelve spectral channels, in the wavelength range 0.46 to 11.7 microns, acquired in July, 1971, for three flightlines, were analyzed by applying automatic pattern recognition techniques. These twelve spectral channels were divided into four wavelength groups (W1, W2, W3 and W4), each consisting of three wavelength groups - with respect to their estimated probability of correct classification (Pc) - in discriminating agricultural cover types. The same analysis was also done for the data acquired in August, to investigate the effect of time on these results. The effect of deletion of each of the wavelength groups on Pc, in the subsets of one to nine channels, is given. Values of Pc for all possible combinations of wavelength groups, in the subsets of one to eleven channels, are also given.

  2. 10 CFR 709.3 - Covered persons subject to a CI evaluation and polygraph.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Covered persons subject to a CI evaluation and polygraph. 709.3 Section 709.3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY COUNTERINTELLIGENCE EVALUATION PROGRAM General Provisions § 709.3 Covered persons subject to a CI evaluation and polygraph. (a) Mandatory CI evaluation. Except as provided in § 709.5 of this part...

  3. The Use of Cover Crops as Climate-Smart Management in Midwest Cropping Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basche, A.; Miguez, F.; Archontoulis, S.; Kaspar, T.

    2014-12-01

    institutions established to evaluate how conservation practices, including cover crops, improve the resilience of Midwest agriculture to future change. Such collaborations can help better quantify long term impacts of conservation practices on the landscape that ultimately lead to more climate-smart management of such agricultural systems.

  4. Re-evaluating estimates of impervious cover and riparian zone condition in New England watersheds

    EPA Science Inventory

    Under EPA’s Green Infrastructure Initiative, research activities are underway to evaluate the effectiveness of green infrastructure in mitigating the effects of urbanization and stormwater impacts on stream biota and habitat. Preliminary analyses, using impervious cover es...

  5. Comparison and evaluation of five global land cover datasets for Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez-Espinoza, E. D.; Zavala-Hidalgo, J.; Gómez-Ramos, O.; Osorio-Tai, M. E.; Romero-Centeno, R.

    2013-05-01

    A comparison and evaluation of five global and continental land use and land cover datasets was carried out over Mexico. The analysis includes the IGBP-DISCover1993 map, version 1.2, produced by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) in collaboration with the University of Nebraska-Lincoln and the European Commission's Joint Research Centre (JRC); the GLC2000 map, produced by the JRC in collaboration with 30 institutions; the NALCMS2005 map, produced by a collaborative effort of governmental agencies in Canada, Mexico and the United States coordinated by the Commission for Environmental Cooperation (CEC); and the 2005 and 2009 GLOBCOVER maps, produced by the ESA-GlobCover (European Space Agency) project. Since the five datasets differ in map projection, resolution and legend system, a step of standardization was performed. The analysis shows that all databases have an agreement of 16.82% for the Mexican territory. The classes with a better agreement in all datasets are evergreen broadleaf forest in the Yucatán peninsula, the urban and built land in the center of the country and shrubland in the north. Moreover, the quantitative assessment showed that classification accuracy obtained by NALCMS2005 is the highest compared to the other four analyzed maps, the GLOBCOVER2005 land cover map ranked second, while the GLC2000 and IGBP-DISCover1993 maps ranked third. GLOBCOVER2009 is the map that more poorly describes the Mexican land use and land cover. In general, this analysis shows that a dataset does not represent a region more accurately by the fact of being the most recently created, so it is recommended to carry out regional reviews in order to deciding which dataset is more useful.

  6. Using cover crops and cropping systems for nitrogen management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The reasons for using cover crops and optimized cropping sequences to manage nitrogen (N) are to maximize economic returns, improve soil quality and productivity, and minimize losses of N that might adversely impact environmental quality. Cover crops and cropping systems’ effects on N management are...

  7. Black oat cover crop management in watermelon production systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Black oats (Avena strigosa Schreb.) were sown as a cover crop near Weslaco, Texas (Lat. 26 deg N) in Fall 2010. The cover crop was allowed to senesce naturally and was planted to watermelons in both the spring and in the fall of 2011. Watermelon transplants planted in the spring into mowed black o...

  8. The role of ERTS in the establishment and of a nationwide land cover information system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abram, P.; Tullos, J.

    1974-01-01

    The economic potential of utilizing an ERTS type satellite in the development, updating, and maintenance of a nation-wide land cover information system in the post-1977 time frame was examined. Several alternative acquisition systems were evaluated for land cover data acquisition, processing, and interpretation costs in order to determine, on a total life cycle cost basis, under which conditions of user demand (i.e., area of coverage, frequency of coverage, timeliness of information, and level of information detail) an ERTS type satellite would be cost effective, and what the annual cost savings benefits would be. It was concluded that a three satellite system with high and low altitude aircraft and ground survey team utilizing automatic interpretation and classification techniques is an economically sound proposal.

  9. Evaluation of forest cover estimates for Haiti using supervised classification of Landsat data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Churches, Christopher E.; Wampler, Peter J.; Sun, Wanxiao; Smith, Andrew J.

    2014-08-01

    This study uses 2010-2011 Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery to estimate total forested area in Haiti. The thematic map was generated using radiometric normalization of digital numbers by a modified normalization method utilizing pseudo-invariant polygons (PIPs), followed by supervised classification of the mosaicked image using the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations Land Cover Classification System. Classification results were compared to other sources of land-cover data produced for similar years, with an emphasis on the statistics presented by the FAO. Three global land cover datasets (GLC2000, Globcover, 2009, and MODIS MCD12Q1), and a national-scale dataset (a land cover analysis by Haitian National Centre for Geospatial Information (CNIGS)) were reclassified and compared. According to our classification, approximately 32.3% of Haiti's total land area was tree covered in 2010-2011. This result was confirmed using an error-adjusted area estimator, which predicted a tree covered area of 32.4%. Standardization to the FAO's forest cover class definition reduces the amount of tree cover of our supervised classification to 29.4%. This result was greater than the reported FAO value of 4% and the value for the recoded GLC2000 dataset of 7.0%, but is comparable to values for three other recoded datasets: MCD12Q1 (21.1%), Globcover (2009) (26.9%), and CNIGS (19.5%). We propose that at coarse resolutions, the segmented and patchy nature of Haiti's forests resulted in a systematic underestimation of the extent of forest cover. It appears the best explanation for the significant difference between our results, FAO statistics, and compared datasets is the accuracy of the data sources and the resolution of the imagery used for land cover analyses. Analysis of recoded global datasets and results from this study suggest a strong linear relationship (R2 = 0.996 for tree cover) between spatial resolution and land cover estimates.

  10. An Investigation of the Potential for a Computer-based Tutorial Program Covering the Cardiovascular System to Replace Traditional Lectures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewhurst, D. G.; Williams, A. D.

    1998-01-01

    Presents the results of a comparative study to evaluate the effectiveness of two interactive computer-based learning (CBL) programs, covering the cardiovascular system, as an alternative to lectures for first year undergraduate students at a United Kingdom University. Discusses results in relation to the design of evaluative studies and the future…

  11. Performance evaluation of intermediate cover soil barrier for removal of heavy metals in landfill leachate.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Kazuyuki; Anegawa, Aya; Endo, Kazuto; Yamada, Masato; Ono, Yusaku; Ono, Yoshiro

    2008-11-01

    This pilot-scale study evaluated the use of intermediate cover soil barriers for removing heavy metals in leachate generated from test cells for co-disposed fly ash from municipal solid waste incinerators, ash melting plants, and shredder residue. Cover soil barriers were mixtures of Andisol (volcanic ash soil), waste iron powder, (grinder dust waste from iron foundries), and slag fragments. The cover soil barriers were installed in the test cells' bottom layer. Sorption/desorption is an important process in cover soil bottom barrier for removal of heavy metals in landfill leachate. Salt concentrations such as those of Na, K, and Ca in leachate were extremely high (often greater than 30 gL(-1)) because of high salt content in fly ash from ash melting plants. Concentrations of all heavy metals (nickel, manganese, copper, zinc, lead, and cadmium) in test cell leachates with a cover soil barrier were lower than those of the test cell without a cover soil barrier and were mostly below the discharge limit, probably because of dilution caused by the amount of leachate and heavy metal removal by the cover soil barrier. The cover soil barriers' heavy metal removal efficiency was calculated. About 50% of copper, nickel, and manganese were removed. About 20% of the zinc and boron were removed, but lead and cadmium were removed only slightly. Based on results of calculation of the Langelier saturation index and analyses of core samples, the reactivity of the cover soil barrier apparently decreases because of calcium carbonate precipitation on the cover soil barriers' surfaces. PMID:18842283

  12. Multi-well sample plate cover penetration system

    DOEpatents

    Beer, Neil Reginald

    2011-12-27

    An apparatus for penetrating a cover over a multi-well sample plate containing at least one individual sample well includes a cutting head, a cutter extending from the cutting head, and a robot. The cutting head is connected to the robot wherein the robot moves the cutting head and cutter so that the cutter penetrates the cover over the multi-well sample plate providing access to the individual sample well. When the cutting head is moved downward the foil is pierced by the cutter that splits, opens, and folds the foil inward toward the well. The well is then open for sample aspiration but has been protected from cross contamination.

  13. DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION, AND MAINTENANCE OF COVER SYSTEMS FOR HAZARDOUS WASTE: AN ENGINEERING GUIDANCE DOCUMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Engineering for cover over solid hazardous waste addresses complex interactions among many technical, environmental, and economical factors. The document emphasizes the special characteristics of solid waste management as they bear on the cover system while at the same time stres...

  14. Evaluation Systems in HRD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1996

    This document contains three papers presented at a symposium on evaluation systems in human resource development (HRD) moderated by Jerry Gilley at the 1996 conference of the Academy of Human Resource Development. "PLS [Performance-Learning-Satisfaction] Evaluation System: Sales Communication Case Study" (Richard A. Swanson, Timothy R. McClernon)…

  15. Arc Jet Testing of the TIRS Cover Thermal Protection System for Mars Exploration Rover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szalai, Christine E.; Chen, Y.-K.; Loomis, Mark; Hui, Frank; Scrivens, Larry

    2002-01-01

    This paper summarizes the arc jet test results of the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Silicone Impregnated Reusable Ceramic Ablator (SIRCA) Transverse Impulse Rocket System (TIRS) Cover test series in the Panel Test Facility (PTF) at NASA Ames Research Center (ARC). NASA ARC performed aerothermal environment analyses, TPS sizing and thermal response analyses, and arc jet testing to evaluate the MER SIRCA TIRS Cover design and interface to the aeroshell structure. The primary objective of this arc jet test series was to evaluate specific design details of the SIRCA TIRS Cover interface to the MER aeroshell under simulated atmospheric entry heating conditions. Four test articles were tested in an arc jet environment with various sea] configurations. The test condition was designed to match the predicted peak flight heat load at the gap region between the SIRCA and the backshell TPS material, SLA-561S, and resulted in an over-test (with respect to heat flux and heat load) for the apex region of the SIRCA TIRS Cover. The resulting pressure differential was as much as twenty times that predicted for the flight case, depending on the location, and there was no post-test visual evidence of over-heating or damage to the seal, bracket, or backshell structure. The exposed titanium bolts were in good condition at post-test and showed only a small amount of oxidation at the leading edge locations. Repeatable thermocouple data were obtained and SIRCA thermal response analyses were compared to applicable thermocouple data. For the apex region of the SIRCA TIRS Cover, a one-dimensional thermal response prediction proved overly conservative, as there were strong multi-dimensional conduction effects evident from the thermocouple data. The one-dimensional thermal response prediction compared well with the thermocouple data for the leading edge "lip" region at the bolt location. In general, the test results yield confidence in the baseline seal design to prevent hot gas ingestion at the

  16. Evaluation of cover crop and reduced cultivation for reducing nitrate leaching in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Hooker, K V; Coxon, C E; Hackett, R; Kirwan, L E; O'Keeffe, E; Richards, K G

    2008-01-01

    Nitrate (NO(3)) loss from arable systems to surface and groundwater has attracted considerable attention in recent years in Ireland. Little information exists under Irish conditions, which are wet and temperate, on the effects of winter cover crops and different tillage techniques on NO(3) leaching. This study investigated the efficacy of such practices in reducing NO(3) leaching from a spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) system in the Barrow River valley, southeast Ireland. The study compared the effect of two tillage systems (plow-based tillage and noninversion tillage) and two over-winter alternatives (no vegetative cover and a mustard cover crop) on soil solution NO(3) concentrations at 90 cm depth over two winter drainage seasons (2003/04 and 2004/05). Soil samples were taken and analyzed for inorganic N. During both years of the study, the use of a mustard cover crop significantly reduced NO(3) losses for the plowed and reduced cultivation treatments. Mean soil solution NO(3) concentrations were between 38 and 70% lower when a cover crop was used, and total N load lost over the winter was between 18 and 83% lower. Results from this study highlight the importance of drainage volume and winter temperatures on NO(3) concentrations in soil solution and overall N load lost. It is suggested that cover crops will be of particular value in reducing NO(3) loss in temperate regions with mild winters, where winter N mineralization is important and high winter temperatures favor a long growing season. PMID:18178886

  17. Necessity to adapt land use and land cover classification systems to readily accept radar data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, B.

    1977-01-01

    A hierarchial, four level, standardized system for classifying land use/land cover primarily from remote-sensor data (USGS system) is described. The USGS system was developed for nonmicrowave imaging sensors such as camera systems and line scanners. The USGS system is not compatible with the land use/land cover classifications at different levels that can be made from radar imagery, and particularly from synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) imagery. The use of radar imagery for classifying land use/land cover at different levels is discussed, and a possible revision of the USGS system to more readily accept land use/land cover classifications from radar imagery is proposed.

  18. Assessment of cover systems at the Grand Junction, Colorado, uranium mill tailings pile: 1987 field measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Gee, G.W.; Campbell, M.D.; Freeman, H.D.; Cline, J.F.

    1989-02-01

    Four Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) scientists and a technician conducted an onsite evaluation of radon gas exhalation, water content profiles, and plant and animal intrusion for a series of cover systems located on the uranium mill tailings pile at Grand Junction, Colorado. These six plots were sampled extensively down to the radon control layer (e.g., asphalt or wet clay) for soil moisture content and permeability. Radon gas emission through the surface was measured. Soil samples were collected and analyzed in the lab for particle-size distribution, particle density, bulk density, and ambient water content. Prairie dog burrows were excavated to discover the extent to which they penetrated the barriers. Plant type, density, and cover characteristics were measured.

  19. Annotated bibliography covering generation and use of evaluated cross section uncertainty files

    SciTech Connect

    Peelle, R.W.; Burrows, T.W.

    1983-03-01

    Literature references related to definition, generation, and use of evaluated cross section uncertainty (variance-covariance) files are listed with comments intended primarily to guide the reader toward materials of immediate interest. Papers are also cited that cover covariance information for individual experiments and that relate to production and use of multigroup covariance matrices. Titles are divided among several major categories.

  20. Evaluation of native bees as pollinators of cucurbit crops under floating row covers.

    PubMed

    Minter, Logan M; Bessin, Ricardo T

    2014-10-01

    Production of cucurbit crops presents growers with numerous challenges. Several severe pests and diseases can be managed through the use of rotation, trap cropping, mechanical barriers, such as row covers, and chemical applications. However, considerations must also be made for pollinating insects, as adequate pollination affects the quantity and quality of fruit. Insecticides may negatively affect pollinators; a concern enhanced in recent years due to losses in managed Apis melifera L. colonies. Row covers can be used in place of chemical control before pollination, but when removed, pests have access to fields along with the pollinators. If pollination services of native bees could be harnessed for use under continuous row covers, both concerns could be balanced for growers. The potential of two bee species which specialize on cucurbit flowers, Peponapis pruinosa Say and Xenoglossa strenua Cresson, were assessed under continuous row covers, employed over acorn squash. Experimental treatments included plots with either naturally or artificially introduced bees under row covers and control plots with row covers either permanently removed at crop flowering, or employed continuously with no added pollinating insects. Pests in plots with permanently removed row covers were managed using standard practices used in certified organic production. Marketable yields from plots inoculated with bees were indistinguishable from those produced under standard practices, indicating this system would provide adequate yields to growers without time and monetary inputs of insecticide applications. Additionally, application of this technique was investigated for muskmelon production and discussed along with considerations for farm management. PMID:25199100

  1. Evaluating cover depth of steel fiber reinforced concrete using impact-echo testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yu-Feng

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this research is to estimate of the cover depth of steel fiber reinforced concrete using the impact-echo testing. In order to evaluate the security of the construction, usually need to estimate the cover depth of the reinforced concrete. At present, the examination technique of the cover depth of the reinforced concrete without the steel fiber is mainly applied in the magnetic and electrical methods, its rapid detection and good results. But the research of the reactive powder concrete be gradually progress, with the steel fiber concrete structure will be increased, if should still operate the examination with the magnetic and electrical methods, theoretically the steel fiber will have the interference to its electromagnetism field. Therefore, this research designs four kinds of reinforced concrete plate that include different steel fiber contents, to evaluate test results of estimate of the cover depth of the reinforcing bar. The results showed that: estimate of the cover depth of steel fiber reinforced concrete reinforcing bar using the impact-echo testing, the variety of the steel fiber content does not have much influence, the test measurement error within ± 10%, and the most important source of uncertainty is the velocity of concrete.

  2. Evaluation of solar cell covers and encapsulant materials for space application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, D. A.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of space radiation (electrons and protons), vacuum, and thermal cycling on a variety of solar cell covers are investigated. Cover materials evaluated include glass resins, 2 mil glass applied with adhesives or electrostatically bonded, and thin plastic films of FEP or PFA applied with adhesive. Solar cells were exposed to environmental conditions simulating those encountered in outer space. These test conditions include 1 MeV electrons, 0.5 MeV protons, and thermal cycling in vacuum. During testing the solar cells were monitored for variations in electrical characteristics and structural changes.

  3. [Experiment and numerical simulation of percolation control using evapotranspirative landfill cover system].

    PubMed

    Liu, Chuan-shun; Zhao, Hui; Luo, Ji-wu

    2009-01-01

    An Evapotranspirative Landfill Cover (ET Landfill Cover) is a simple and economical percolation control system that involves a monolithic soil layer with a vegetative cover.Percolation control in an ET cover system relies on the storage of moisture within the cover soils during precipitation events and subsequently returns it to the atmosphere by evapotranspiration. Percolation control experiments of a bare soil cover and 5 different ET covers were implemented in comprehensive experimental station of water environment of Wuhan University and the water balance calculation of each cover system was conducted, the results shown that the ET cover of 60 cm loamy soil layer with shrub was the most effective among the 6 experimental disposals. However, the experiments demonstrated 60 cm thick of soil layer was not enough to prevent percolation during rainy season and keep the shrub alive during drought season without irrigation. So the Hydrus 2D was selected to simulate the soil water movement in ET covers with different cover thicknesses, the simulations shown that the optimal ET cover in Wuhan area should be 120-140 cm loamy soil layer with shrub. PMID:19353895

  4. Evaluation of engineering properties for the use of leached brown coal ash in soil covers.

    PubMed

    Mudd, Gavin M; Chakrabarti, Srijib; Kodikara, Jayantha

    2007-01-31

    The need to engineer cover systems for the successful rehabilitation or remediation of a wide variety of solid wastes is increasing. Some common applications include landfills, hazardous waste repositories, or mine tailings dams and waste rock/overburden dumps. The brown coal industry of the Latrobe Valley region of Victoria, Australia, produces significant quantities of coal ash and overburden annually. There are some site-specific acid mine drainage (AMD) issues associated with overburden material. This needs to be addressed both during the operational phase of a project and during rehabilitation. An innovative approach was taken to investigate the potential to use leached brown coal ash in engineered soil covers on this overburden dump. The basis for this is two-fold: first, the ash has favourable physical characteristics for use in cover systems (such as high storage capacity/porosity, moderately low permeability, and an ability to act as a capillary break layer generating minimal leachate or seepage); and second, the leachate from the ash is mildly alkaline (which can help to mitigate and reduce the risk of AMD). This paper will review the engineering issues involved in using leached brown coal ash in designing soil covers for potentially acid-forming overburden dumps. It presents the results of laboratory work investigating the technical feasibility of using leached brown coal ash in engineered solid waste cover systems. PMID:16621267

  5. 10 CFR 1304.115 - Systems of records covered by exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Systems of records covered by exemptions. 1304.115 Section 1304.115 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.115 Systems of records covered by exemptions. The Board currently has no exempt systems of records....

  6. 10 CFR 1304.115 - Systems of records covered by exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Systems of records covered by exemptions. 1304.115 Section 1304.115 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.115 Systems of records covered by exemptions. The Board currently has no exempt systems of records....

  7. 10 CFR 1304.115 - Systems of records covered by exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Systems of records covered by exemptions. 1304.115 Section 1304.115 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.115 Systems of records covered by exemptions. The Board currently has no exempt systems of records....

  8. 10 CFR 1304.115 - Systems of records covered by exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Systems of records covered by exemptions. 1304.115 Section 1304.115 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.115 Systems of records covered by exemptions. The Board currently has no exempt systems of...

  9. 10 CFR 1304.115 - Systems of records covered by exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Systems of records covered by exemptions. 1304.115 Section 1304.115 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.115 Systems of records covered by exemptions. The Board currently has no exempt systems of records....

  10. 4 CFR 200.15 - Systems of records covered by exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Systems of records covered by exemptions. 200.15 Section 200.15 Accounts RECOVERY ACCOUNTABILITY AND TRANSPARENCY BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 200.15 Systems of records covered by exemptions. The Board currently has no exempt systems of records....

  11. Evaluating intensified camera systems

    SciTech Connect

    S. A. Baker

    2000-07-01

    This paper describes image evaluation techniques used to standardize camera system characterizations. Key areas of performance include resolution, noise, and sensitivity. This team has developed a set of analysis tools, in the form of image processing software used to evaluate camera calibration data, to aid an experimenter in measuring a set of camera performance metrics. These performance metrics identify capabilities and limitations of the camera system, while establishing a means for comparing camera systems. Analysis software is used to evaluate digital camera images recorded with charge-coupled device (CCD) cameras. Several types of intensified camera systems are used in the high-speed imaging field. Electro-optical components are used to provide precise shuttering or optical gain for a camera system. These components including microchannel plate or proximity focused diode image intensifiers, electro-static image tubes, or electron-bombarded CCDs affect system performance. It is important to quantify camera system performance in order to qualify a system as meeting experimental requirements. The camera evaluation tool is designed to provide side-by-side camera comparison and system modeling information.

  12. Effectiveness Evaluation of Skin Covers against Intravascular Brachytherapy Sources Using VARSKIN3 Code

    PubMed Central

    Baghani, H R; Nazempour, A R; Aghamiri, S M R; Hosseini Daghigh, S M; Mowlavi, A A

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objective: The most common intravascular brachytherapy sources include 32P, 188Re, 106Rh and 90Sr/90Y. In this research, skin absorbed dose for different covering materials in dealing with these sources were evaluated and the best covering material for skin protection and reduction of absorbed dose by radiation staff was recognized and recommended. Method: Four materials including polyethylene, cotton and two different kinds of plastic were proposed as skin covers and skin absorbed dose at different depths for each kind of the materials was calculated separately using the VARSKIN3 code. Results: The results suggested that for all sources, skin absorbed dose was minimized when using polyethylene. Considering this material as skin cover, maximum and minimum doses at skin surface were related to 90Sr/90Y and 106Rh, respectively. Conclusion: polyethylene was found the most effective cover in reducing skin dose and protecting the skin. Furthermore, proper agreement between the results of VARSKIN3 and other experimental measurements indicated that VRASKIN3 is a powerful tool for skin dose calculations when working with beta emitter sources. Therefore, it can be utilized in dealing with the issue of radiation protection. PMID:25505758

  13. An Evaluation of New High-Resolution Image Collection and Processing Techniques for Estimating Shrub Cover and Detecting Landscape Changes

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, D.J.; Ostler, W.K.

    2001-05-01

    Research funded by the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency as part of the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) evaluated novel techniques for collecting and processing high-resolution images in the Mojave Desert. Several camera types, lens, films, and digital processing techniques were evaluated on the basis of their ability to correctly estimate canopy cover of shrubs. A high degree of accuracy was obtained with photo scales of 1:1000 to 1:4000 and flatbed scanning rates from films or prints of 300 lines per inch or larger. Smaller scale images were of value in detecting retrospective changes in cover of large shrubs, but failed to detect smaller shrubs. New image-processing software, typically used in light microscopy, forensics, and industrial engineering, make it possible to accurately measure areas for total cover of up to four dominant shrub species in minutes compared to hours or days of field work. Canopy cover and individual shrub parameters such as width, length, circumference, and shape factors can be readily measured yielding size distribution histograms and other statistical data on plant community structure. These novel techniques are being evaluated in a four-year study of military training impacts at Fort Irwin, California. Results will be compared among the new and conventional imagery and processing, including 1-meter (m) pixel IKONOS images. The new processes create georectified color-coded contour maps of shrub cover for use with Geographic Information System (GIS) software. The technique is a valuable new emerging tool to accurately assess vegetation structure and landscape changes due to military or other land-use disturbances.

  14. Pyrolysis system evaluation study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    An evaluation of two different pyrolysis concepts which recover energy from solid waste was conducted in order to determine the merits of each concept for integration into a Integrated Utility System (IUS). The two concepts evaluated were a Lead Bath Furnace Pyrolysis System and a Slagging Vertical Shaft, Partial Air Oxidation Pyrolysis System. Both concepts will produce a fuel gas from the IUS waste and sewage sludge which can be used to offset primary fuel consumption in addition to the sanitary disposal of the waste. The study evaluated the thermal integration of each concept as well as the economic impact on the IUS resulting from integrating each pyrolysis concepts. For reference, the pyrolysis concepts were also compared to incineration which was considered the baseline IUS solid waste disposal system.

  15. Remote terminal system evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, T. L.; Grams, H. L.; Lindenlaub, J. C.; Schwingendorf, S. K.; Swain, P. H.; Simmons, W. R.

    1975-01-01

    An Earth Resources Data Processing System was developed to evaluate the system for training, technology transfer, and data processing. In addition to the five sites included in this project two other sites were connected to the system under separate agreements. The experience of these two sites is discussed. The results of the remote terminal project are documented in seven reports: one from each of the five project sites, Purdue University, and an overview report summarizing the other six reports.

  16. Evaluation of land cover change detection techniques using Landsat MSS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, G. S.; Joyce, A. T.

    1982-01-01

    Four techniques for detecting land cover change with Landsat MSS data were evaluated for a test site in east central Louisiana where forestland is being converted to cropland and pasture. The four techniques were: (1) post-classification differencing, (2) composite classification, (3) radiance value shift, and (4) regression modeling. Three of the techniques gave acceptable accuracies. The main differences were the amount of computer time and the level of complexity.

  17. Pigweed Emergence and Seed Cotton Yield as Affected by Rye Cover and Tillage System

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Winter cover crop residue and tillage has previously been shown to influence weed establishment. An experiment was conducted at two locations in Alabama from 2007 through 2009 evaluating pigweed response to four levels of winter cover crop residue amounts compared to a conventional surface tillage ...

  18. System status display evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Summers, Leland G.

    1988-01-01

    The System Status Display is an electronic display system which provides the crew with an enhanced capability for monitoring and managing the aircraft systems. A flight simulation in a fixed base cockpit simulator was used to evaluate alternative design concepts for this display system. The alternative concepts included pictorial versus alphanumeric text formats, multifunction versus dedicated controls, and integration of the procedures with the system status information versus paper checklists. Twelve pilots manually flew approach patterns with the different concepts. System malfunctions occurred which required the pilots to respond to the alert by reconfiguring the system. The pictorial display, the multifunction control interfaces collocated with the system display, and the procedures integrated with the status information all had shorter event processing times and lower subjective workloads.

  19. Evaluating intensified camera systems

    SciTech Connect

    S. A. Baker

    2000-06-30

    This paper describes image evaluation techniques used to standardize camera system characterizations. The authors group is involved with building and fielding several types of camera systems. Camera types include gated intensified cameras, multi-frame cameras, and streak cameras. Applications range from X-ray radiography to visible and infrared imaging. Key areas of performance include sensitivity, noise, and resolution. This team has developed an analysis tool, in the form of image processing software, to aid an experimenter in measuring a set of performance metrics for their camera system. These performance parameters are used to identify a camera system's capabilities and limitations while establishing a means for camera system comparisons. The analysis tool is used to evaluate digital images normally recorded with CCD cameras. Electro-optical components provide fast shuttering and/or optical gain to camera systems. Camera systems incorporate a variety of electro-optical components such as microchannel plate (MCP) or proximity focused diode (PFD) image intensifiers; electro-static image tubes; or electron-bombarded (EB) CCDs. It is often valuable to evaluate the performance of an intensified camera in order to determine if a particular system meets experimental requirements.

  20. Use of Remote Sensed Imagery to Evaluate Land Cover Change: North Platte River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerr, G.; Piburn, J.; Rudolph, J.; Tootle, G.; Marks, J. A.

    2012-12-01

    High resolution remote sensed data for land cover classification, such as LiDAR, is often times not readily available in rural areas. For basin-wide and other small-scale projects, proprietary LiDAR collection may not be cost effective and an alternative is found with the use of the National Agricultural Imagery Program (NAIP). NAIP imagery provides 1-meter resolution aerial imagery for the entire United States, temporally updated on a state by state basis at no charge to the user. NAIP imagery was used to classify forest cover change due to beetle infestation in the roughly 4,000 square-mile North Platte River Basin (NPRB). Using an interactive classification method with an underlying maximum likelihood classification algorithm, it was found that forest cover in the NPRB decreased by approximately 25% from 2005-2006 to 2009. Using focal histograms to refine the classifications to large-scale USGS 7.5 minute quadrangles, the land cover results will be used as parameters in the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) Macroscale Hydrologic Model to estimate how this physical change in land cover affects the riparian system of the NPRB, specifically streamflow response.

  1. Performance Evaluation of the Engineered Cover at the Lakeview, Oregon, Uranium Mill Tailings Site

    SciTech Connect

    Waugh, J.; Smith, G.; Danforth, B.; Gee, G.; Kothari, V.; Pauling, T.

    2007-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) is evaluating the performance of disposal cell covers at LM sites and exploring ways to enhance their sustainability. The cover of the Lakeview, Oregon, disposal cell relies on a compacted soil layer (CSL) to limit radon escape and water percolation into underlying tailings. The design created habitat favorable for growth of woody plants that sent roots through the CSL. The mean saturated hydraulic conductivity (K{sub sat}) of the CSL, measured at 17 locations, was 3.0 x 10{sup -5} cm s{sup -1}, 300 times greater than the design target. The highest K{sub sat} values were measured near the top of the CSL at locations both with and without roots; the lowest K{sub sat} values were measured deeper in the CSL. Water flux meters (WFMs) installed in 2005 to directly measure percolation flux show significant percolation through the cover. Three WMFs began recording percolation in mid-November, 7 days after the start of a prolonged precipitation event, and continued until early June 2006. Percolation flux during this period ranged between 3.1 x 10{sup -5} and 8.5 x 10{sup -5} cm s{sup -1}. The cumulative percolation was greater than total precipitation during the period, probably because of a water-harvesting effect. The WFMs were strategically placed in down-gradient positions on the cover top slope where water likely accumulated in a sand drainage layer. Routine monitoring at Lakeview shows that the ground water remains protected. LM plans to evaluate potential effects of high percolation rates in covers to ensure that disposal cells remain protective for the long term. (authors)

  2. Assessment of an active dry barrier for a landfill cover system

    SciTech Connect

    Stormont, J.C.; Ankeny, M.D.; Burkhard, M.E.; Tansey, M.K.; Kelsey, J.A.

    1994-03-01

    A dry barrier is a layer of geologic material that is dried by air flow. An active dry barrier system can be designed, installed, and operated as part of a landfill cover system. An active system uses blowers and fans to move air through a high-permeability layer within the cover system. Depending principally on the air-flow rate, it is possible for a dry barrier to remove enough water to substantially reduce the likelihood of water percolating through the cover system. If a material with a relatively great storage capacity, such as processed tuff, is used as the coarse layer, then the efficiency of the dry barrier will be increased.

  3. Test report, earth orbiter teleoperator visual system evaluation program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkpatrick, M.; Shields, N. L., Jr.; Malone, T. B.

    1974-01-01

    Work carried out to identify human performance requirements for remotely manned system is reported. Specifically, an evaluation was made of the human visual system. Data cover distance estimation 4, solid target alignment 2, motion detection 1, and motion detection 2.

  4. Process evaluation distributed system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moffatt, Christopher L. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    The distributed system includes a database server, an administration module, a process evaluation module, and a data display module. The administration module is in communication with the database server for providing observation criteria information to the database server. The process evaluation module is in communication with the database server for obtaining the observation criteria information from the database server and collecting process data based on the observation criteria information. The process evaluation module utilizes a personal digital assistant (PDA). A data display module in communication with the database server, including a website for viewing collected process data in a desired metrics form, the data display module also for providing desired editing and modification of the collected process data. The connectivity established by the database server to the administration module, the process evaluation module, and the data display module, minimizes the requirement for manual input of the collected process data.

  5. MODULAR CONSTRUCTION SYSTEM EVALUATION

    SciTech Connect

    S. Gillespie

    2002-08-08

    The purpose of this study is to respond to U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Technical Direction Letter (TDL) 02-003 (Waisley 2001), which directs Bechtel SAIC Company, LLC (BSC) to complete a design study to recommend repository design options to support receipt and/or emplacement of any or all of the following: commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF), high-level radioactive waste (HLW), DOE-managed spent nuclear fuel (DSNF) (including naval spent nuclear fuel [SNF]), and immobilized plutonium (if available), as soon as practicable, but no later than 2010. From the possible design options, a recommended approach will be determined for further evaluation to support the preliminary design of the repository. This study integrates the results of the repository Design Evolution Study (Rowe 2002) with supporting studies concerning national transportation options (BSC 2002b) and Nevada transportation options (Gehner 2002). The repository Design Evolution Study documents the processes used to reevaluate the design, construction, operation, and cost of the repository in response to TDL 02-003 (Waisley 2001), and to determine possible repository conceptual design options. The transportation studies evaluate the national and Nevada transportation options that support the repository conceptual design options. An evaluation methodology was established, based on Program-level requirements developed for the study in reference BSC 2001a, to allow the repository and system design options to be evaluated on a consistent basis. The transportation options and the design components were integrated into system design implementation options, which were evaluated using receipt and emplacement scenarios. The scenarios tested the ability of the design concept to adapt to changes in funding, waste receipt rate, and Nevada rail transportation availability. The results of the evaluation (in terms of system throughput, cost, and schedule) were then compared to the Program-level requirements, and

  6. Evaluating Recommendation Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shani, Guy; Gunawardana, Asela

    Recommender systems are now popular both commercially and in the research community, where many approaches have been suggested for providing recommendations. In many cases a system designer that wishes to employ a recommendation system must choose between a set of candidate approaches. A first step towards selecting an appropriate algorithm is to decide which properties of the application to focus upon when making this choice. Indeed, recommendation systems have a variety of properties that may affect user experience, such as accuracy, robustness, scalability, and so forth. In this paper we discuss how to compare recommenders based on a set of properties that are relevant for the application. We focus on comparative studies, where a few algorithms are compared using some evaluation metric, rather than absolute benchmarking of algorithms. We describe experimental settings appropriate for making choices between algorithms. We review three types of experiments, starting with an offline setting, where recommendation approaches are compared without user interaction, then reviewing user studies, where a small group of subjects experiment with the system and report on the experience, and finally describe large scale online experiments, where real user populations interact with the system. In each of these cases we describe types of questions that can be answered, and suggest protocols for experimentation. We also discuss how to draw trustworthy conclusions from the conducted experiments. We then review a large set of properties, and explain how to evaluate systems given relevant properties. We also survey a large set of evaluation metrics in the context of the properties that they evaluate.

  7. Performance evaluation of four-wave mixing in a graphene-covered tapered fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Qiang; Lu, Jiamei; Li, Xibin; Yan, Qiang; Gao, Qianyu; Gao, Shiming

    2016-07-01

    Four-wave mixing in a monolayer graphene-covered tapered fiber is theoretically analyzed by taking into account the influence of the graphene layer on the light-field distribution. A figure-of-merit (FOM) coefficient, considering both the high nonlinearity and the heavy absorption, is redefined to evaluate nonlinear performance. The fiber diameter and length are optimized to acquire a higher FOM. Using such a graphene-covered tapered fiber with an optimal diameter of 0.736 μm, a maximum conversion efficiency of ‑38.07 dB is numerically obtained for the 1.55 μm pump when the graphene length is 34.4 μm and the peak pump power is 10 W. Moreover, a 3 dB bandwidth as broad as 430 nm can be realized in the 1.55 μm telecommunication band.

  8. Snow Cover in Canada: Data and Information for Understanding the Role of the Cryosphere in the Climate System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodison, B. E.; Brown, R. D.; Walker, A. E.

    2001-12-01

    Snow cover exhibits the largest spatial extent of any component of the cryosphere in Canada, and exerts a significant influence on climate and hydrology through modification of energy and moisture transfers and the storage of water. In addition, snow cover information (extent, depth, and water equivalent) is used in many applications such as numerical weather forecast modelling, water resource management, agriculture, construction, calculation of forest fire severity and validation of satellite algorithms and snow process models. Improved knowledge of the interactions and feedbacks of terrestrial snow and ice in the current climate system, in land surface processes, and in the hydrological cycle are required to address potential future changes in the cryosphere. A reliable database of snow cover information over a range of time and space scales is essential to achieve improved understanding of the changing nature of the cryosphere in Canada. Canada's snow cover observing system has undergone substantial changes over the last 30 years, making it a challenge to develop consistent spatial and temporal information. In-situ measurements of SWE and snow depth have declined markedly with network rationalization and automation of observing systems. Changes in methods of observation, such as for winter precipitation, have produced new systematic errors and the need to develop new adjustment and analytical techniques. On the other hand, Canadian advances in satellite-based monitoring of snow cover, especially using passive microwave data, provide the capability to derive snow cover properties in varying landscapes, and to provide new insights into snow cover-atmosphere interactions. Merging of in-situ and satellite information has yielded new information on variability and change in continental snow cover since the early 1900s. A renewed interest in the cryosphere system in Canada has provided the impetus to rescue snow data and make it easily available to the community

  9. Grazing winter rye cover crop in a cotton no-till system: yield and economics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Winter cover crop adoption in conservation management systems continues to be limited in the US but could be encouraged if establishment costs could be offset. A 4-yr field experiment was conducted near Watkinsville, Georgia in which a rye (Secale cereale L.) cover crop was either grazed by catt...

  10. A Centralized Regional Database for Winter Cover Crops in Annual Cropping Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Winter cover crops have the potential to reduce erosion, minimize losses of nitrogen and phosphorus, and increase soil carbon in annual cropping systems in the Midwest. Public support, however, for incentives to farmers to adopt cover crops is minimal. Therefore, development of location-specific rec...

  11. Utilizing cover crop mulches to reduce tillage in organic systems in the southeastern USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organic sytems in the southeast offer unique challenges and solutions due to regional soil and climate characterized by highly weather soil types, high precipitation, and the capacity to grow cover crops in the winter. Recently high-residue cover crops and conservation tillage systems have increased...

  12. Utilizing Cover Crop Mulches to Reduce TIllage in Organic Systems in the Southeast

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cover crop roller-crimper trials have been conducted across the southeastern U.S. during the past decade. Regional climatic conditions make the system particularly attractive but also pose their own challenges. Winter annual cover crops productivity can exceed 8 Mg ha-1 (dry weight) for rye (Secale ...

  13. The effects of combined cover crop termination and planting in a cotton no-till system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One method to save resources while positively impacting the environment is combining agricultural field operations. In no-till systems, cover crop termination and cash crop planting can be performed simultaneously utilizing a tractor as a single power source. A no-till field experiment merging cover...

  14. Optimal vegetation cover in the Horqin Sands of Inner Mongolia: an evaluation of Eagleson's ecohydrological optimality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mo, K.; Cong, Z.; Lei, H.

    2014-12-01

    Vegetation distribution has received much attention in ecohydrological research because of its essential role in terrestrial hydraulic cycling. Although tightly coupled to precipitation and temperature, the real-life vegetation cover pattern under certain climate conditions is hard to be reproduced theoretically. Eagleson proposed an optimality theory on calculating the optimum vegetation cover (M, defined as fraction of total ground surface covered by vegetation) through a solution of simultaneous equations reflecting the balance of water demand and water supply. Two equations were built under a long-term equilibrium state with fixed vegetation species, climate and soil types. One represented water demand which was derived from the potential canopy conductance- the ratio of potential transpiration to potential bare soil evaporation. The other was for water supply composed of information about precipitation and soil conditions. Their joint solution would be the theoretical optimum vegetation cover. Although the optimality theory was proposed as the theoretical basis of ecohydrology, only few works have been carried out to evaluate it. In this work, we tested Eagleson's optimality in the Horqin Sand in Inner Mongolia, China, featured by natural vegetation types of grassland and bushes. MODIS datasets were used as basic data to evaluate two vegetation parameters- vegetation cover (M) and leaf area index (LAI). M was conducted from normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) with temporal resolution of 15 days and spatial resolution of 250 meters (from 2000 to 2012), and was averaged by 0.39 on the whole area during rainy season (May to September).LAI was used with temporal resolution of 4 days and spatial resolution of 1 kilometers (from 2003 to 2012), and mean LAI on the whole area was 0.45 during rainy season. Meteorological data over 50 years (1951-2012) were obtained from three weather stations in this area. Annual mean precipitation was 365.0mm; annual mean

  15. Agronomic feasibility of sunflower as an oilseed cover crop for Florida vegetable production systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oil producing sunflower (Helianthus annuus) was evaluated as a cover crop for Florida vegetable growers. The performance of a traditional, dwarf and herbicide resistant hybrid was evaluated at two locations (Martin and St. Lucie counties) in replicated 0.6 acre plots and a grain combine was used ha...

  16. Evaluation and parameterization of ATCOR3 topographic correction method for forest cover mapping in mountain areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balthazar, Vincent; Vanacker, Veerle; Lambin, Eric F.

    2012-08-01

    A topographic correction of optical remote sensing data is necessary to improve the quality of quantitative forest cover change analyses in mountainous terrain. The implementation of semi-empirical correction methods requires the calibration of model parameters that are empirically defined. This study develops a method to improve the performance of topographic corrections for forest cover change detection in mountainous terrain through an iterative tuning method of model parameters based on a systematic evaluation of the performance of the correction. The latter was based on: (i) the general matching of reflectances between sunlit and shaded slopes and (ii) the occurrence of abnormal reflectance values, qualified as statistical outliers, in very low illuminated areas. The method was tested on Landsat ETM+ data for rough (Ecuadorian Andes) and very rough mountainous terrain (Bhutan Himalayas). Compared to a reference level (no topographic correction), the ATCOR3 semi-empirical correction method resulted in a considerable reduction of dissimilarities between reflectance values of forested sites in different topographic orientations. Our results indicate that optimal parameter combinations are depending on the site, sun elevation and azimuth and spectral conditions. We demonstrate that the results of relatively simple topographic correction methods can be greatly improved through a feedback loop between parameter tuning and evaluation of the performance of the correction model.

  17. Evaluation of historical land cover, land use, and land-use change emissions in the GCAM integrated assessment model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvin, K. V.; Wise, M.; Kyle, P.; Janetos, A. C.; Zhou, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Integrated Assessment Models (IAMs) are often used as science-based decision-support tools for evaluating the consequences of climate and energy policies, and their use in this framework is likely to increase in the future. However, quantitative evaluation of these models has been somewhat limited for a variety of reasons, including data availability, data quality, and the inherent challenges in projections of societal values and decision-making. In this analysis, we identify and confront methodological challenges involved in evaluating the agriculture and land use component of the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM). GCAM is a global integrated assessment model, linking submodules of the regionally disaggregated global economy, energy system, agriculture and land-use, terrestrial carbon cycle, oceans and climate. GCAM simulates supply, demand, and prices for energy and agricultural goods from 2005 to 2100 in 5-year increments. In each time period, the model computes the allocation of land across a variety of land cover types in 151 different regions, assuming that farmers maximize profits and that food demand is relatively inelastic. GCAM then calculates both emissions from land-use practices, and long-term changes in carbon stocks in different land uses, thus providing simulation information that can be compared to observed historical data. In this work, we compare GCAM results, both in recent historic and future time periods, to historical data sets. We focus on land use, land cover, land-use change emissions, and albedo.

  18. Topography Mediates the Influence of Cover Crops on Soil Nitrate Levels in Row Crop Agricultural Systems.

    PubMed

    Ladoni, Moslem; Kravchenko, Alexandra N; Robertson, G Phillip

    2015-01-01

    Supplying adequate amounts of soil N for plant growth during the growing season and across large agricultural fields is a challenge for conservational agricultural systems with cover crops. Knowledge about cover crop effects on N comes mostly from small, flat research plots and performance of cover crops across topographically diverse agricultural land is poorly understood. Our objective was to assess effects of both leguminous (red clover) and non-leguminous (winter rye) cover crops on potentially mineralizable N (PMN) and [Formula: see text] levels across a topographically diverse landscape. We studied conventional, low-input, and organic managements in corn-soybean-wheat rotation. The rotations of low-input and organic managements included rye and red clover cover crops. The managements were implemented in twenty large undulating fields in Southwest Michigan starting from 2006. The data collection and analysis were conducted during three growing seasons of 2011, 2012 and 2013. Observational micro-plots with and without cover crops were laid within each field on three contrasting topographical positions of depression, slope and summit. Soil samples were collected 4-5 times during each growing season and analyzed for [Formula: see text] and PMN. The results showed that all three managements were similar in their temporal and spatial distributions of NO3-N. Red clover cover crop increased [Formula: see text] by 35% on depression, 20% on slope and 32% on summit positions. Rye cover crop had a significant 15% negative effect on [Formula: see text] in topographical depressions but not in slope and summit positions. The magnitude of the cover crop effects on soil mineral nitrogen across topographically diverse fields was associated with the amount of cover crop growth and residue production. The results emphasize the potential environmental and economic benefits that can be generated by implementing site-specific topography-driven cover crop management in row

  19. Topography Mediates the Influence of Cover Crops on Soil Nitrate Levels in Row Crop Agricultural Systems

    PubMed Central

    Ladoni, Moslem; Kravchenko, Alexandra N.; Robertson, G. Phillip

    2015-01-01

    Supplying adequate amounts of soil N for plant growth during the growing season and across large agricultural fields is a challenge for conservational agricultural systems with cover crops. Knowledge about cover crop effects on N comes mostly from small, flat research plots and performance of cover crops across topographically diverse agricultural land is poorly understood. Our objective was to assess effects of both leguminous (red clover) and non-leguminous (winter rye) cover crops on potentially mineralizable N (PMN) and NO3--N levels across a topographically diverse landscape. We studied conventional, low-input, and organic managements in corn-soybean-wheat rotation. The rotations of low-input and organic managements included rye and red clover cover crops. The managements were implemented in twenty large undulating fields in Southwest Michigan starting from 2006. The data collection and analysis were conducted during three growing seasons of 2011, 2012 and 2013. Observational micro-plots with and without cover crops were laid within each field on three contrasting topographical positions of depression, slope and summit. Soil samples were collected 4–5 times during each growing season and analyzed for NO3--N and PMN. The results showed that all three managements were similar in their temporal and spatial distributions of NO3—N. Red clover cover crop increased NO3--N by 35% on depression, 20% on slope and 32% on summit positions. Rye cover crop had a significant 15% negative effect on NO3--N in topographical depressions but not in slope and summit positions. The magnitude of the cover crop effects on soil mineral nitrogen across topographically diverse fields was associated with the amount of cover crop growth and residue production. The results emphasize the potential environmental and economic benefits that can be generated by implementing site-specific topography-driven cover crop management in row-crop agricultural systems. PMID:26600462

  20. Evaluating the effects of historical land cover change on summertime weather and climate in New Jersey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wichansky, Paul Stuart

    The 19th-century agrarian landscape of New Jersey (NJ) and the surrounding region has been extensively transformed to the present-day land cover by urbanization, reforestation, and localized areas of deforestation. This study used a mesoscale atmospheric numerical model to investigate the sensitivity of the warm season climate of NJ to these land cover changes. Reconstructed 1880s-era and present-day land cover datasets were used as surface boundary conditions for a set of simulations performed with the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS). Three-member ensembles with historical and present-day land cover were compared to examine the sensitivity of surface air and dewpoint temperatures, rainfall, the individual components of the surface energy budget, horizontal and vertical winds, and the vertical profiles of temperature and humidity to these land cover changes. Mean temperatures for the present-day landscape were 0.3-0.6°C warmer than for the historical landscape over a considerable portion of NJ and the surrounding region, with daily maximum temperatures at least 1.0°C warmer over some of the highly urbanized locations. Reforested regions in the present-day landscape, however, showed a slight cooling. Surface warming was generally associated with repartitioning of net radiation from latent to sensible heat flux, and conversely for cooling. Reduced evapotranspiration from much of the present-day land surface led to dewpoint temperature decreases of 0.3-0.6°C. While urbanization was accompanied by strong surface albedo decreases and increases in net shortwave radiation, reforestation and potential changes in forest composition have generally increased albedos and also enhanced landscape heterogeneity. The increased deciduousness of forests may have further reduced net downward longwave radiation. These land cover changes have modified boundary-layer dynamics by increasing low-level convergence and upper-level divergence in the interior of NJ, especially

  1. Passing Muster: Evaluating Teacher Evaluation Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glazerman, Steven; Goldhaber, Dan; Loeb, Susanna; Raudenbush, Stephen; Staiger, Douglas; Whitehurst, Grover J.

    2011-01-01

    This report addresses the comparison of teacher evaluation systems in the context of a particular administrative and legislative challenge: How a state or the federal government could achieve a uniform standard for dispensing funds to school districts for the recognition of exceptional teachers without imposing a uniform evaluation system on those…

  2. Evaluation of the uncertainty due to land cover observation and conversion into plant functional types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgievski, Goran; Hartley, Andrew; MacBean, Natasha; Hagemann, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    Land surface processes represented in the latest generation of climate models (IPCC AR5) use the concept of Plant Functional Types (PFTs) to group different vegetation types and species according to similar physiological, biochemical and structural characteristics. The 5th IPCC Assessment Report recognizes the role of the Land Surface Models (LSMs) as one of the key contributors to uncertainty in climate change impacts projections. In the frame of the European Space Agency (ESA) Climate Change Initiative (CCI), a new global land cover (LC) data set was derived. We aim to investigate two sources of uncertainties in LSMs and their ranges: (i) uncertainty of ESA-CCI state of the art satellite observation of LC classes, and (ii) uncertainty due to LC conversion ("cross-walking (CW) procedure") into PFTs. Therefore, we have derived 5 perturbations of PFTs maps: (i) reference map (REF), (ii) map that minimizes biomass in LC observation and CW procedure (MinLC MinCW), (iii) map that minimizes biomass in LC observation with reference CW procedure (MinLC RefCW), (iv) map that maximizes biomass in LC observation with reference CW procedure (MaxLC RefCW), and (v) map that maximizes biomass in LC observation and CW procedure (MaxLC MaxCW). Our analysis demonstrates that there is still considerable uncertainty in the methods used to convert LC classes into the PFTs used by LSMs. Furthermore, uncertainty in the labelling of LC classes has an equal magnitude compared to the cross-walking uncertainty. In the next phase, we aim to quantify the sensitivity of the carbon, hydrological and energy cycles to LC and CW uncertainty with 3 LSMs (JSBACH, JULES, and ORHCIDEE). This work will enable us to both advice the land cover mapping community about the accuracy requirements for land cover maps, and to provide insights to the earth system modelling community on the implications of decisions taken when converting from land cover classes to PFTs.

  3. Evaluation of SLAR and thematic mapper MSS data for forest cover mapping using computer-aided analysis techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffer, R. M. (Principal Investigator); Knowlton, D. J.; Dean, M. E.

    1981-01-01

    A set of training statistics for the 30 meter resolution simulated thematic mapper MSS data was generated based on land use/land cover classes. In addition to this supervised data set, a nonsupervised multicluster block of training statistics is being defined in order to compare the classification results and evaluate the effect of the different training selection methods on classification performance. Two test data sets, defined using a stratified sampling procedure incorporating a grid system with dimensions of 50 lines by 50 columns, and another set based on an analyst supervised set of test fields were used to evaluate the classifications of the TMS data. The supervised training data set generated training statistics, and a per point Gaussian maximum likelihood classification of the 1979 TMS data was obtained. The August 1980 MSS data was radiometrically adjusted. The SAR data was redigitized and the SAR imagery was qualitatively analyzed.

  4. Evaluation of aperture cover tank vent nozzles for the IRAS spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richter, R.

    1983-01-01

    The influence of coefficients for the three axes of the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) were established to determine the maximum allowable thrust difference between the two vent nozzles of the aperture cover tank low thrust vent system and their maximum misalignment. Test data generated by flow and torque measurements permitted the selection of two nozzles whose thrust differential was within the limit of the attitude control capability. Based on thrust stand data, a thrust vector misalignment was indicated that was slightly higher than permissible for the worst case, i.e., considerable degradation of the torque capacity of the attitude control system combined with venting of helium at its upper limit. The probability of destabilizing the IRAS spacecraft by activating the venting system appeared to be very low. The selection and mounting of the nozzles have satisfied all the requirements for the safe venting of helium.

  5. Designing a Retirement System for Federal Workers Covered by Social Security.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Library of Congress, Washington, DC. Congressional Research Service.

    A study examined principal cost and benefit issues to be resolved in designing a new retirement system for Federal workers covered by Social Security. The new Federal system would be built on the base of Social Security and would take into account the Social Security program's taxes and benefits. The current Civil Service Retirement System (CSRS)…

  6. Ground cover rice production system facilitates soil carbon and nitrogen stocks at regional scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, M.; Dannenmann, M.; Lin, S.; Saiz, G.; Yan, G.; Yao, Z.; Pelster, D.; Tao, H.; Sippel, S.; Tao, Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zheng, X.; Zuo, Q.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.

    2015-02-01

    Rice production is increasingly challenged by irrigation water scarcity, however covering paddy rice soils with films (ground cover rice production system: GCRPS) can significantly reduce water demand as well as overcome temperature limitations at the beginning of the vegetation period resulting in increased grain yields in colder regions of rice production with seasonal water shortages. It has been speculated that the increased soil aeration and temperature under GCRPS may result in losses of soil organic carbon and nitrogen stocks. Here we report on a regional scale experiment, conducted by sampling paired adjacent Paddy and GCRPS fields at 49 representative sites in the Shiyan region, which is typical for many mountainous areas across China. Parameters evaluated included soil C and N stocks, soil physical and chemical properties, potential carbon mineralization rates, fractions of soil organic carbon and stable carbon isotopic composition of plant leaves. Furthermore, root biomass was quantified at maximum tillering stage at one of our paired sites. Against expectations the study showed that: (1) GCRPS significantly increased soil organic C and N stocks 5-20 years following conversion of production systems, (2) there were no differences between GCRPS and Paddy in soil physical and chemical properties for the various soil depths with the exception of soil bulk density, (3) GCRPS had lower mineralization potential for soil organic C compared with Paddy over the incubation period, (4) GCRPS showed lower δ15N in the soils and plant leafs indicating less NH3 volatilization in GCRPS than in Paddy; and (5) GCRPS increased yields and root biomass in all soil layers down to 40 cm depth. Our results suggest that GCRPS is an innovative rice production technique that not only increases yields using less irrigation water, but that it also is environmentally beneficial due to increased soil C and N stocks at regional scale.

  7. Evaluation of methods to assess termination rates of cover crops using visual and non-visible light active sensors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Determination of cover crop termination rate has been based exclusively on visual evaluation of color by a trained evaluator to describe the life state of the plant. However, visual color-based assessment is a subjective method and can vary from one evaluator to another. Differences are associated w...

  8. USING PERFLUOROCARBON TRACERS FOR VERIFICATION OF CAP AND COVER SYSTEMS PERFORMANCE.

    SciTech Connect

    HEISER,J.; SULLIVAN,T.

    2001-11-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management (EM) office has committed itself to an accelerated cleanup of its national facilities. The goal is to have much of the DOE legacy waste sites remediated by 2006. This includes closure of several sites (e.g., Rocky Flats and Fernald). With the increased focus on accelerated cleanup, there has been considerable concern about long-term stewardship issues in general, and verification and long-term monitoring (LTM) of caps and covers, in particular. Cap and cover systems (covers) are vital remedial options that will be extensively used in meeting these 2006 cleanup goals. Every buried waste site within the DOE complex will require some form of cover system. These covers are expected to last from 100 to 1000 years or more. The stakeholders can be expected to focus on system durability and sustained performance. DOE EM has set up a national committee of experts to develop a long-term capping (LTC) guidance document. Covers are subject to subsidence, erosion, desiccation, animal intrusion, plant root infiltration, etc., all of which will affect the overall performance of the cover. Very little is available in terms of long-term monitoring other than downstream groundwater or surface water monitoring. By its very nature, this can only indicate that failure of the cover system has already occurred and contaminants have been transported away from the site. This is unacceptable. Methods that indicate early cover failure (prior to contaminant release) or predict approaching cover failure are needed. The LTC committee has identified predictive monitoring technologies as a high priority need for DOE, both for new covers as well as existing covers. The same committee identified a Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) technology as one approach that may be capable of meeting the requirements for LTM. The Environmental Research and Technology Division (ERTD) at BNL developed a novel methodology for verifying and monitoring

  9. Evaluation of three techniques for classifying urban land cover patterns using LANDSAT MSS data. [New Orleans, Louisiana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumann, P. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1979-01-01

    Three computer quantitative techniques for determining urban land cover patterns are evaluated. The techniques examined deal with the selection of training samples by an automated process, the overlaying of two scenes from different seasons of the year, and the use of individual pixels as training points. Evaluation is based on the number and type of land cover classes generated and the marks obtained from an accuracy test. New Orleans, Louisiana and its environs form the study area.

  10. The evaluation of alternate methodologies for land cover classification in an urbanizing area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smekofski, R. M.

    1981-01-01

    The usefulness of LANDSAT in classifying land cover and in identifying and classifying land use change was investigated using an urbanizing area as the study area. The question of what was the best technique for classification was the primary focus of the study. The many computer-assisted techniques available to analyze LANDSAT data were evaluated. Techniques of statistical training (polygons from CRT, unsupervised clustering, polygons from digitizer and binary masks) were tested with minimum distance to the mean, maximum likelihood and canonical analysis with minimum distance to the mean classifiers. The twelve output images were compared to photointerpreted samples, ground verified samples and a current land use data base. Results indicate that for a reconnaissance inventory, the unsupervised training with canonical analysis-minimum distance classifier is the most efficient. If more detailed ground truth and ground verification is available, the polygons from the digitizer training with the canonical analysis minimum distance is more accurate.

  11. Photovoltaic systems development and evaluation projects

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, J.W.

    1985-02-01

    The Sixth Annual Photovoltaic Systems Development Projects Integrated Meeting was held at the Sheraton Old Town, March 5, 6, and 7, 1985, in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The meeting was sponsored by Sandia National Laboratories and the United States Department of Energy. This document contains abstracts and visual materials used for the presentations as well as current contract summaries. The topics of the presentations covered System Research, Utility Interface, Power Conditioning Development, Array Field Designs, and the Evaluation of Systems Level Experiments. A panel discussion held on the final day focused on the government role in PV system development.

  12. Cover and startup gas supply system for solid oxide fuel cell generator

    DOEpatents

    Singh, P.; George, R.A.

    1999-07-27

    A cover and startup gas supply system for a solid oxide fuel cell power generator is disclosed. Hydrocarbon fuel, such as natural gas or diesel fuel, and oxygen-containing gas are supplied to a burner. Combustion gas exiting the burner is cooled prior to delivery to the solid oxide fuel cell. The system mixes the combusted hydrocarbon fuel constituents with hydrogen which is preferably stored in solid form to obtain a non-explosive gas mixture. The system may be used to provide both non-explosive cover gas and hydrogen-rich startup gas to the fuel cell. 4 figs.

  13. Cover and startup gas supply system for solid oxide fuel cell generator

    DOEpatents

    Singh, Prabhakar; George, Raymond A.

    1999-01-01

    A cover and startup gas supply system for a solid oxide fuel cell power generator is disclosed. Hydrocarbon fuel, such as natural gas or diesel fuel, and oxygen-containing gas are supplied to a burner. Combustion gas exiting the burner is cooled prior to delivery to the solid oxide fuel cell. The system mixes the combusted hydrocarbon fuel constituents with hydrogen which is preferably stored in solid form to obtain a non-explosive gas mixture. The system may be used to provide both non-explosive cover gas and hydrogen-rich startup gas to the fuel cell.

  14. Reduction of acid rock drainage using steel slag in cover systems over sulfide rock waste piles.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Rodrigo Pereira; Leite, Adilson do Lago; Borghetti Soares, Anderson

    2015-04-01

    The extraction of gold, coal, nickel, uranium, copper and other earth-moving activities almost always leads to environmental damage. In metal and coal extraction, exposure of sulfide minerals to the atmosphere leads to generation of acid rock drainage (ARD) and in underground mining to acid mine drainage (AMD) due to contamination of infiltrating groundwater. This study proposes to develop a reactive cover system that inhibits infiltration of oxygen and also releases alkalinity to increase the pH of generated ARD and attenuate metal contaminants at the same time. The reactive cover system is constructed using steel slag, a waste product generated from steel industries. This study shows that this type of cover system has the potential to reduce some of the adverse effects of sulfide mine waste disposal on land. Geochemical and geotechnical characterization tests were carried out. Different proportions of sulfide mine waste and steel slag were studied in leachate extraction tests. The best proportion was 33% of steel slag in dry weight. Other tests were conducted as follows: soil consolidation, saturated permeability and soil water characteristic curve. The cover system was numerically modeled through unsaturated flux analysis using Vadose/w. The solution proposed is an oxygen transport barrier that allows rain water percolation to treat the ARD in the waste rock pile. The results showed that the waste pile slope is an important factor and the cover system must have 5 m thickness to achieve an acceptable effectiveness. PMID:25750056

  15. Earth Observing System (EOS) Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Global Snow-Cover Maps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Dorothy K.; Riggs, George A.; Salomonson, Vincent V.; Scharfen, Greg R.

    2000-01-01

    Following the 1999 launch of the Earth Observing System (EOS) Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), the capability exists to produce global snow-cover maps on a daily basis at 500-m resolution. Eight-day composite snow-cover maps will also be available. MODIS snow-cover products are produced at Goddard Space Flight Center and archived and distributed by the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) in Boulder, Colorado. The products are available in both orbital and gridded formats. An online search and order tool and user-services staff will be available at NSIDC to assist users with the snow products. The snow maps are available at a spatial resolution of 500 m, and 1/4 degree x 1/4 degree spatial resolution, and provide information on sub-pixel (fractional) snow cover. Pre-launch validation work has shown that the MODIS snow-mapping algorithms perform best under conditions of continuous snow cover in low vegetation areas, but can also map snow cover in dense forests. Post-launch validation activities will be performed using field and aircraft measurements from a February 2000 validation mission, as well as from existing satellite-derived snow-cover maps from NOAA and Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+).

  16. Evaluating the effects of historical land cover change on summertime weather and climate in New Jersey: Land cover and surface energy budget changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wichansky, Paul S.; Steyaert, Louis T.; Walko, Robert L.; Weaver, Christopher P.

    2008-05-01

    The 19th-century agrarian landscape of New Jersey (NJ) and the surrounding region has been extensively transformed to the present-day land cover by urbanization, reforestation, and localized areas of deforestation. This study used a mesoscale atmospheric numerical model to investigate the sensitivity of the warm season climate of NJ to these land cover changes. Reconstructed 1880s-era and present-day land cover data sets were used as surface boundary conditions for a set of simulations performed with the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS). Three-member ensembles with historical and present-day land cover were compared to examine the sensitivity of surface air and dew point temperatures, rainfall, and the individual components of the surface energy budget to these land cover changes. Mean temperatures for the present-day landscape were 0.3-0.6°C warmer than for the historical landscape over a considerable portion of NJ and the surrounding region, with daily maximum temperatures at least 1.0°C warmer over some of the highly urbanized locations. Reforested regions, however, were slightly cooler. Dew point temperatures decreased by 0.3-0.6°C, suggesting drier, less humid near-surface air for the present-day landscape. Surface warming was generally associated with repartitioning of net radiation from latent to sensible heat flux, and conversely for cooling. While urbanization was accompanied by strong surface albedo decreases and increases in net shortwave radiation, reforestation and potential changes in forest composition have generally increased albedos and also enhanced landscape heterogeneity. The increased deciduousness of forests may have further reduced net downward longwave radiation.

  17. Evaluating the effects of historical land cover change on summertime weather and climate in New Jersey: Land cover and surface energy budget changes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wichansky, P.S.; Steyaert, L.T.; Walko, R.L.; Waever, C.P.

    2008-01-01

    The 19th-century agrarian landscape of New Jersey (NJ) and the surrounding region has been extensively transformed to the present-day land cover by urbanization, reforestation, and localized areas of deforestation. This study used a mesoscale atmospheric numerical model to investigate the sensitivity of the warm season climate of NJ to these land cover changes. Reconstructed 1880s-era and present-day land cover data sets were used as surface boundary conditions for a set of simulations performed with the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS). Three-member ensembles with historical and present-day land cover were compared to examine the sensitivity of surface air and dew point temperatures, rainfall, and the individual components of the surface energy budget to these land cover changes. Mean temperatures for the present-day landscape were 0.3-0.6??C warmer than for the historical landscape over a considerable portion of NJ and the surrounding region, with daily maximum temperatures at least 1.0??C warmer over some of the highly urbanized locations. Reforested regions, however, were slightly cooler. Dew point temperatures decreased by 0.3-0.6??C, suggesting drier, less humid near-surface air for the present-day landscape. Surface warming was generally associated with repartitioning of net radiation from latent to sensible heat flux, and conversely for cooling. While urbanization was accompanied by strong surface albedo decreases and increases in net shortwave radiation, reforestation and potential changes in forest composition have generally increased albedos and also enhanced landscape heterogeneity. The increased deciduousness of forests may have further reduced net downward longwave radiation. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  18. Effects of cover cropping on soil and rhizosphere microbial community structure in tomato production systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Black polyethylene film is frequently used in vegetable farming systems to promote rapid warming of the soil in spring, conserve soil moisture, and suppress weeds. Alternative systems have been developed using cover cropping with legumes to provide a weed-suppressive mulch while also fixing nitrogen...

  19. Quantifying Urban Watershed Stressor Gradients and Evaluating How Different Land Cover Datasets Affect Stream Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    We used a gradient (divided into impervious cover categories), spatially-balanced, random design (1) to sample streams along an impervious cover gradient in a large coastal watershed, (2) to characterize relationships between water chemistry and land cover, and (3) to document di...

  20. Making Safe Surgery Affordable: Design of a Surgical Drill Cover System for Scale.

    PubMed

    Buchan, Lawrence L; Black, Marianne S; Cancilla, Michael A; Huisman, Elise S; Kooyman, Jeremy J R; Nelson, Scott C; OʼHara, Nathan N; OʼBrien, Peter J; Blachut, Piotr A

    2015-10-01

    Many surgeons in low-resource settings do not have access to safe, affordable, or reliable surgical drilling tools. Surgeons often resort to nonsterile hardware drills because they are affordable, robust, and efficient, but they are impossible to sterilize using steam. A promising alternative is to use a Drill Cover system (a sterilizable fabric bag plus surgical chuck adapter) so that a nonsterile hardware drill can be used safely for surgical bone drilling. Our objective was to design a safe, effective, affordable Drill Cover system for scale in low-resource settings. We designed our device based on feedback from users at Mulago Hospital (Kampala, Uganda) and focused on 3 main aspects. First, the design included a sealed barrier between the surgical field and hardware drill that withstands pressurized fluid. Second, the selected hardware drill had a maximum speed of 1050 rpm to match common surgical drills and reduce risk of necrosis. Third, the fabric cover was optimized for ease of assembly while maintaining a sterile technique. Furthermore, with the Drill Cover approach, multiple Drill Covers can be provided with a single battery-powered drill in a "kit," so that the drill can be used in back-to-back surgeries without requiring immediate sterilization. The Drill Cover design presented here provides a proof-of-concept for a product that can be commercialized, produced at scale, and used in low-resource settings globally to improve access to safe surgery. PMID:26356212

  1. Anniversary paper: evaluation of medical imaging systems.

    PubMed

    Krupinski, Elizabeth A; Jiang, Yulei

    2008-02-01

    Medical imaging used to be primarily within the domain of radiology, but with the advent of virtual pathology slides and telemedicine, imaging technology is expanding in the healthcare enterprise. As new imaging technologies are developed, they must be evaluated to assess the impact and benefit on patient care. The authors review the hierarchical model of the efficacy of diagnostic imaging systems by Fryback and Thornbury [Med. Decis. Making 11, 88-94 (1991)] as a guiding principle for system evaluation. Evaluation of medical imaging systems encompasses everything from the hardware and software used to acquire, store, and transmit images to the presentation of images to the interpreting clinician. Evaluation of medical imaging systems can take many forms, from the purely technical (e.g., patient dose measurement) to the increasingly complex (e.g., determining whether a new imaging method saves lives and benefits society). Evaluation methodologies cover a broad range, from receiver operating characteristic (ROC) techniques that measure diagnostic accuracy to timing studies that measure image-interpretation workflow efficiency. The authors review briefly the history of the development of evaluation methodologies and review ROC methodology as well as other types of evaluation methods. They discuss unique challenges in system evaluation that face the imaging community today and opportunities for future advances. PMID:18383686

  2. Fire Emissions Estimates in Siberia: Evaluation of Uncertainties in Area Burned, Land Cover, and Fuel Consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukavskaya, E.; Soja, A. J.; Ivanova, G. A.; Petkov, A.; Ponomarev, E. I.; Conard, S. G.

    2012-12-01

    Wildfire is one of the main disturbance factors in the boreal zone of Russia. Fires in the Russian boreal forest range from low-severity surface fires to high-severity crown fires. Estimates of carbon emissions from fires in Russia vary substantially due to differences in ecosystem classification and mapping, burned area calculations, and estimates of fuel consumption. We examined uncertainties in different parameters used to estimate biomass burning emissions. Several fire datasets (Institute of Forest burned area product, MCD45, MCD64, MOD14/MYD14, official data) were compared to estimate uncertainties in area burned in Siberia. Area burned was found to differ significantly by data source, with satellite data being by an order of magnitude greater than ground-based data. Differences between mapped ecosystems were also compared and contrasted on the basis of five land cover maps (GLC-2000, Globcover-2009, MODIS Collection 4 and 5 Global Land Cover, and the Digitized Ecosystem map of the Former Soviet Union) to evaluate the potential for error resulting from disparate vegetation structure and fuel consumption estimates. The examination of land cover maps showed that estimates of relative proportion of fire by ecosystem type varied substantially for the same year from map to map. Fuel consumption remains one of the main uncertainties in estimates of biomass burning emissions in Siberia. Accurate fuel consumption estimates are obtained in the course of fire experiments with pre- and post-fire biomass measuring. Our large-scale experiments carried out in the course of the FIRE BEAR (Fire Effects in the Boreal Eurasia Region) Project provided quantitative and qualitative data on ecosystem state and carbon emissions due to fires of known behavior in major forest types of Siberia that could be used to verify large-scale carbon emissions estimates. Global climate change is expected to result in increase of fire hazard and area burned, leading to impacts on global air

  3. Technical and systems evaluations

    SciTech Connect

    Skolnik, E.G.; DiPietro, J.P.

    1998-08-01

    During FY 1998 Energetics performed a variety of technology-based evaluations for the Hydrogen Program. Three evaluations are summarized below: hydrogen bromine-based electricity storage, carbon-based hydrogen storage, and hydrogen-fueled buses.

  4. Cover crops and crop residue management under no-till systems improve soils and environmental quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Sandeep; Wegner, Brianna; Vahyala, Ibrahim; Osborne, Shannon; Schumacher, Thomas; Lehman, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Crop residue harvest is a common practice in the Midwestern USA for the ethanol production. However, excessive removal of crop residues from the soil surface contributes to the degradation of important soil quality indicators such as soil organic carbon (SOC). Addition of a cover crop may help to mitigate these negative effects. The present study was set up to assess the impacts of corn (Zea mays L.) residue removal and cover crops on various soil quality indicators and surface greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes. The study was being conducted on plots located at the North Central Agricultural Research Laboratory (NCARL) in Brookings, South Dakota, USA. Three plots of a corn and soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) rotation under a no-till (NT) system are being monitored for soils and surface gas fluxes. Each plot has three residue removal (high residue removal, HRR; medium residue removal, MRR; and low residue removal, LRR) treatments and two cover crops (cover crops and no cover crops) treatments. Both corn and soybean are represented every year. Gas flux measurements were taken weekly using a closed static chamber method. Data show that residue removal significantly impacted soil quality indicators while more time was needed for an affect from cover crop treatments to be noticed. The LRR treatment resulted in higher SOC concentrations, increased aggregate stability, and increased microbial activity. The LRR treatment also increased soil organic matter (SOM) and particulate organic matter (POM) concentrations. Cover crops used in HRR (high corn residue removal) improved SOC (27 g kg-1) by 6% compared to that without cover crops (25.4 g kg-1). Cover crops significantly impacted POM concentration directly after the residue removal treatments were applied in 2012. CO2 fluxes were observed to increase as temperature increased, while N2O fluxes increased as soil moisture increased. CH4 fluxes were responsive to both increases in temperature and moisture. On average, soils under

  5. Evaluation of gridded snow water equivalent and satellite snow cover products for mountain basins in a hydrologic model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dressler, K. A.; Leavesley, G. H.; Bales, R. C.; Fassnacht, S. R.

    2006-03-01

    The USGS precipitation-runoff modelling system (PRMS) hydrologic model was used to evaluate experimental, gridded, 1 km2 snow-covered area (SCA) and snow water equivalent (SWE) products for two headwater basins within the Rio Grande (i.e. upper Rio Grande River basin) and Salt River (i.e. Black River basin) drainages in the southwestern USA. The SCA product was the fraction of each 1 km2 pixel covered by snow and was derived from NOAA advanced very high-resolution radiometer imagery. The SWE product was developed by multiplying the SCA product by SWE estimates interpolated from National Resources Conservation Service snow telemetry point measurements for a 6 year period (1995-2000). Measured SCA and SWE estimates were consistently lower than values estimated from temperature and precipitation within PRMS. The greatest differences occurred in the relatively complex terrain of the Rio Grande basin, as opposed to the relatively homogeneous terrain of the Black River basin, where differences were small. Differences between modelled and measured snow were different for the accumulation period versus the ablation period and had an elevational trend. Assimilating the measured snowfields into a version of PRMS calibrated to achieve water balance without assimilation led to reduced performance in estimating streamflow for the Rio Grande and increased performance in estimating streamflow for the Black River basin. Correcting the measured SCA and SWE for canopy effects improved simulations by adding snow mostly in the mid-to-high elevations, where satellite estimates of SCA are lower than model estimates.

  6. Abrolhos Bank Reef Health Evaluated by Means of Water Quality, Microbial Diversity, Benthic Cover, and Fish Biomass Data

    PubMed Central

    Bruce, Thiago; Meirelles, Pedro M.; Garcia, Gizele; Paranhos, Rodolfo; Rezende, Carlos E.; de Moura, Rodrigo L.; Filho, Ronaldo-Francini; Coni, Ericka O. C.; Vasconcelos, Ana Tereza; Amado Filho, Gilberto; Hatay, Mark; Schmieder, Robert; Edwards, Robert; Dinsdale, Elizabeth; Thompson, Fabiano L.

    2012-01-01

    The health of the coral reefs of the Abrolhos Bank (southwestern Atlantic) was characterized with a holistic approach using measurements of four ecosystem components: (i) inorganic and organic nutrient concentrations, [1] fish biomass, [1] macroalgal and coral cover and (iv) microbial community composition and abundance. The possible benefits of protection from fishing were particularly evaluated by comparing sites with varying levels of protection. Two reefs within the well-enforced no-take area of the National Marine Park of Abrolhos (Parcel dos Abrolhos and California) were compared with two unprotected coastal reefs (Sebastião Gomes and Pedra de Leste) and one legally protected but poorly enforced coastal reef (the “paper park” of Timbebas Reef). The fish biomass was lower and the fleshy macroalgal cover was higher in the unprotected reefs compared with the protected areas. The unprotected and protected reefs had similar seawater chemistry. Lower vibrio CFU counts were observed in the fully protected area of California Reef. Metagenome analysis showed that the unprotected reefs had a higher abundance of archaeal and viral sequences and more bacterial pathogens, while the protected reefs had a higher abundance of genes related to photosynthesis. Similar to other reef systems in the world, there was evidence that reductions in the biomass of herbivorous fishes and the consequent increase in macroalgal cover in the Abrolhos Bank may be affecting microbial diversity and abundance. Through the integration of different types of ecological data, the present study showed that protection from fishing may lead to greater reef health. The data presented herein suggest that protected coral reefs have higher microbial diversity, with the most degraded reef (Sebastião Gomes) showing a marked reduction in microbial species richness. It is concluded that ecological conditions in unprotected reefs may promote the growth and rapid evolution of opportunistic microbial

  7. Abrolhos bank reef health evaluated by means of water quality, microbial diversity, benthic cover, and fish biomass data.

    PubMed

    Bruce, Thiago; Meirelles, Pedro M; Garcia, Gizele; Paranhos, Rodolfo; Rezende, Carlos E; de Moura, Rodrigo L; Filho, Ronaldo-Francini; Coni, Ericka O C; Vasconcelos, Ana Tereza; Amado Filho, Gilberto; Hatay, Mark; Schmieder, Robert; Edwards, Robert; Dinsdale, Elizabeth; Thompson, Fabiano L

    2012-01-01

    The health of the coral reefs of the Abrolhos Bank (Southwestern Atlantic) was characterized with a holistic approach using measurements of four ecosystem components: (i) inorganic and organic nutrient concentrations, [1] fish biomass, [1] macroalgal and coral cover and (iv) microbial community composition and abundance. The possible benefits of protection from fishing were particularly evaluated by comparing sites with varying levels of protection. Two reefs within the well-enforced no-take area of the National Marine Park of Abrolhos (Parcel dos Abrolhos and California) were compared with two unprotected coastal reefs (Sebastião Gomes and Pedra de Leste) and one legally protected but poorly enforced coastal reef (the "paper park" of Timbebas Reef). The fish biomass was lower and the fleshy macroalgal cover was higher in the unprotected reefs compared with the protected areas. The unprotected and protected reefs had similar seawater chemistry. Lower vibrio CFU counts were observed in the fully protected area of California Reef. Metagenome analysis showed that the unprotected reefs had a higher abundance of archaeal and viral sequences and more bacterial pathogens, while the protected reefs had a higher abundance of genes related to photosynthesis. Similar to other reef systems in the world, there was evidence that reductions in the biomass of herbivorous fishes and the consequent increase in macroalgal cover in the Abrolhos Bank may be affecting microbial diversity and abundance. Through the integration of different types of ecological data, the present study showed that protection from fishing may lead to greater reef health. The data presented herein suggest that protected coral reefs have higher microbial diversity, with the most degraded reef (Sebastião Gomes) showing a marked reduction in microbial species richness. It is concluded that ecological conditions in unprotected reefs may promote the growth and rapid evolution of opportunistic microbial pathogens

  8. A Killed-Cover Crop Production System For Sweetpotatoes: Effects on Pests and Beneficial Insects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three sweetpotato genotypes were grown in either conventionally tilled plots (CT) or in a killed-cover crop (KCC) tillage system. In general, injury to sweetpotato roots by soil insect pests was significantly lower in the KCC plots than in the CT plots. Also, injury by sweetpotato weevils was sign...

  9. Cover crops alter phosphorus soil fractions and organic matter accumulation in a Peruvian cacao agroforestry system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In many tropical soils, excessive weathering of primary minerals confounded by intense agricultural production has resulted in the depletion of organic matter and plant available forms of phosphorus (P). Long-term growth of cover crops in tropical agroforestry systems have been shown to influence nu...

  10. NITROGEN MANAGEMENT FOR COTTON GROWN IN A HIGH-RESIDUE COVER CROP CONSERVATION TILLAGE SYSTEM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over 70% of the cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) in the Tennessee Valley of northern Alabama is currently raised using conservation tillage techniques. High-residue small grain cover crops are becoming a common tool in these systems, but N immobilization may occur causing previous N recommendations t...

  11. The effect of cover cropping systems and nitrogen fertilization on sorghum grain characteristics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    No-till farming has become an increasing popular cropping practice, due to increased water and soil conservation. Recently, cover cropping has been added to the system to aid in weed prevention and also increase soil fertility. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of cropping sy...

  12. Diversity and activity of methanotrophs in landfill cover soils with and without landfill gas recovery systems.

    PubMed

    Su, Yao; Zhang, Xuan; Xia, Fang-Fang; Zhang, Qi-Qi; Kong, Jiao-Yan; Wang, Jing; He, Ruo

    2014-05-01

    Aerobic CH4 oxidation plays an important role in mitigating CH4 release from landfills to the atmosphere. Therefore, in this study, oxidation activity and community of methanotrophs were investigated in a subtropical landfill. Among the three sites investigated, the highest CH4 concentration was detected in the landfill cover soil of the site (A) without a landfill gas (LFG) recovery system, although the refuse in the site had been deposited for a longer time (∼14-15 years) compared to the other two sites (∼6-11 years) where a LFG recovery system was applied. In April and September, the higher CH4 flux was detected in site A with 72.4 and 51.7gm(-2)d(-1), respectively, compared to the other sites. The abundance of methanotrophs assessed by quantification of pmoA varied with location and season. A linear relationship was observed between the abundance of methanotrophs and CH4 concentrations in the landfill cover soils (R=0.827, P<0.001). The key factors influencing the methanotrophic diversity in the landfill cover soils were pH, the water content and the CH4 concentration in the soil, of which pH was the most important factor. Type I methanotrophs, including Methylococcus, Methylosarcina, Methylomicrobium and Methylobacter, and type II methanotrophs (Methylocystis) were all detected in the landfill cover soils, with Methylocystis and Methylosarcina being the dominant genera. Methylocystis was abundant in the slightly acidic landfill cover soil, especially in September, and represented more than 89% of the total terminal-restriction fragment abundance. These findings indicated that the LFG recovery system, as well as physical and chemical parameters, affected the diversity and activity of methanotrophs in landfill cover soils. PMID:24332193

  13. 10 CFR 709.3 - Covered persons subject to a CI evaluation and polygraph.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... eligibility under 10 CFR part 710. In addition, in the circumstances described in this paragraph, any covered...) Paragraph (a) of this section applies to covered persons: (1) In an intelligence or counterintelligence program office (or with programmatic reporting responsibility to an intelligence or...

  14. 10 CFR 709.3 - Covered persons subject to a CI evaluation and polygraph.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... eligibility under 10 CFR part 710. In addition, in the circumstances described in this paragraph, any covered...) Paragraph (a) of this section applies to covered persons: (1) In an intelligence or counterintelligence program office (or with programmatic reporting responsibility to an intelligence or...

  15. 10 CFR 709.3 - Covered persons subject to a CI evaluation and polygraph.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... eligibility under 10 CFR part 710. In addition, in the circumstances described in this paragraph, any covered...) Paragraph (a) of this section applies to covered persons: (1) In an intelligence or counterintelligence program office (or with programmatic reporting responsibility to an intelligence or...

  16. 10 CFR 709.3 - Covered persons subject to a CI evaluation and polygraph.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... eligibility under 10 CFR part 710. In addition, in the circumstances described in this paragraph, any covered...) Paragraph (a) of this section applies to covered persons: (1) In an intelligence or counterintelligence program office (or with programmatic reporting responsibility to an intelligence or...

  17. Using Eddy Covariance Tower Clusters To Evaluate Biogeophysical Impacts Of Land Cover In The Community Land Model (CLM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burakowski, E. A.; Ollinger, S. V.; Bonan, G. B.; Ouimette, A.; Lepine, L. C.; Tawfik, A. B.; Zarzycki, C. M.; Fogarty, S.; Novick, K. A.

    2015-12-01

    The Community Land Model (CLM) land surface model has been used widely to evaluate biogeophysical responses to land cover and land use change. Here, we compare surface attributes collected from eddy covariance towers clusters to uncoupled point CLM (PTCLM) simulations. The tower clusters collect surface energy fluxes over adjacent forested and deforested land surface types located within 10-km of each other in temperate eastern North America. Summer surface albedo is very well simulated over cropland, C-3 grassland, and broadleaf deciduous temperate forests. In winter, modeled snow cover persists longer in spring than at the tower sites, resulting in higher average winter and spring albedo. Latent heat does not vary significantly among the three tower sites. PTCLM underestimates forest latent heat and overestimates cropland and grassland summer latent heat. We evaluate temperature differences between forested and deforested sites due to changes in surface albedo, energy redistribution due to changes in surface roughness, and energy redistribution due to changes in latent and sensible heat partitioning (e.g., Bowen ratio). Surprisingly, temperature differences resulting from radiative forcing due to changes in surface albedo are relatively minor at the tower sites and generally too high in PTCLM. We conclude that the increased surface roughness of forests contributes strongly to nocturnal cooling over deforested tower sites in winter and daytime warming in summer. The importance of biogeophysical coupling between the land surface and atmosphere on energy redistribution due to surface roughness is explored using high-resolution (28-km) Variable Resolution Community Earth System Model (VR-CESM) simulations.

  18. COVER CROP EXTRACT EFFECTS ON RADISH RADICLE ELONGATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conservation systems using cover crops offer many benefits, including enhanced weed suppression. Researchers have shown that some cover crops leach allelopathic chemicals that contribute to weed growth inhibition. Twelve cover crops were evaluated for allelopathic potential in two experiments usin...

  19. Quantifying Urban Watershed Stressor Gradients and Evaluating How Different Land Cover Datasets Affect Stream Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smucker, Nathan J.; Kuhn, Anne; Charpentier, Michael A.; Cruz-Quinones, Carlos J.; Elonen, Colleen M.; Whorley, Sarah B.; Jicha, Terri M.; Serbst, Jonathan R.; Hill, Brian H.; Wehr, John D.

    2016-03-01

    Watershed management and policies affecting downstream ecosystems benefit from identifying relationships between land cover and water quality. However, different data sources can create dissimilarities in land cover estimates and models that characterize ecosystem responses. We used a spatially balanced stream study (1) to effectively sample development and urban stressor gradients while representing the extent of a large coastal watershed (>4400 km2), (2) to document differences between estimates of watershed land cover using 30-m resolution national land cover database (NLCD) and <1-m resolution land cover data, and (3) to determine if predictive models and relationships between water quality and land cover differed when using these two land cover datasets. Increased concentrations of nutrients, anions, and cations had similarly significant correlations with increased watershed percent impervious cover (IC), regardless of data resolution. The NLCD underestimated percent forest for 71/76 sites by a mean of 11 % and overestimated percent wetlands for 71/76 sites by a mean of 8 %. The NLCD almost always underestimated IC at low development intensities and overestimated IC at high development intensities. As a result of underestimated IC, regression models using NLCD data predicted mean background concentrations of NO3 - and Cl- that were 475 and 177 %, respectively, of those predicted when using finer resolution land cover data. Our sampling design could help states and other agencies seeking to create monitoring programs and indicators responsive to anthropogenic impacts. Differences between land cover datasets could affect resource protection due to misguided management targets, watershed development and conservation practices, or water quality criteria.

  20. Quantifying Urban Watershed Stressor Gradients and Evaluating How Different Land Cover Datasets Affect Stream Management.

    PubMed

    Smucker, Nathan J; Kuhn, Anne; Charpentier, Michael A; Cruz-Quinones, Carlos J; Elonen, Colleen M; Whorley, Sarah B; Jicha, Terri M; Serbst, Jonathan R; Hill, Brian H; Wehr, John D

    2016-03-01

    Watershed management and policies affecting downstream ecosystems benefit from identifying relationships between land cover and water quality. However, different data sources can create dissimilarities in land cover estimates and models that characterize ecosystem responses. We used a spatially balanced stream study (1) to effectively sample development and urban stressor gradients while representing the extent of a large coastal watershed (>4400 km(2)), (2) to document differences between estimates of watershed land cover using 30-m resolution national land cover database (NLCD) and <1-m resolution land cover data, and (3) to determine if predictive models and relationships between water quality and land cover differed when using these two land cover datasets. Increased concentrations of nutrients, anions, and cations had similarly significant correlations with increased watershed percent impervious cover (IC), regardless of data resolution. The NLCD underestimated percent forest for 71/76 sites by a mean of 11 % and overestimated percent wetlands for 71/76 sites by a mean of 8 %. The NLCD almost always underestimated IC at low development intensities and overestimated IC at high development intensities. As a result of underestimated IC, regression models using NLCD data predicted mean background concentrations of NO3 (-) and Cl(-) that were 475 and 177 %, respectively, of those predicted when using finer resolution land cover data. Our sampling design could help states and other agencies seeking to create monitoring programs and indicators responsive to anthropogenic impacts. Differences between land cover datasets could affect resource protection due to misguided management targets, watershed development and conservation practices, or water quality criteria. PMID:26614349

  1. Pervious Pavement System Evaluation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Porous pavement is a low impact development stormwater control. The Urban Watershed Management Branch is evaluating interlocking concrete pavers as a popular implementation. The pavers themselves are impermeable, but the spaces between the pavers are backfilled with washed, grade...

  2. Evaluation Systems, Ethics, and Development Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Vinod

    2010-01-01

    After some 65 years of international development assistance, it is still difficult to show the effectiveness of aid in ways that are fully convincing. In part, this reflects inadequacies in the evaluation systems of the bilateral, multilateral, and global organizations that provide official development aid. Underlying these weaknesses often are a…

  3. Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles to Assess Vegetative Cover and Identify Biotic Resources in Sagebrush Steppe Ecosystems: Preliminary Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Robert P. Breckenridge

    2006-04-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL), in conjunction with the University of Idaho, is evaluating novel approaches for using unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) as a quicker and safer method for monitoring biotic resources. Evaluating vegetative cover is an important factor in understanding the sustainability of many ecosystems. In assessing vegetative cover, methods that improve accuracy and cost efficiency could revolutionize how biotic resources are monitored on western federal lands. Sagebrush steppe ecosystems provide important habitat for a variety of species, some of which are important indicator species (e.g., sage grouse). Improved methods are needed to support monitoring these habitats because there are not enough resource specialists or funds available for comprehensive ground evaluation of these ecosystems. In this project, two types of UAV platforms (fixed wing and helicopter) were used to collect still-frame imagery to assess cover in sagebrush steppe ecosystems. This paper discusses the process for collecting and analyzing imagery from the UAVs to (1) estimate total percent cover, (2) estimate percent cover for six different types of vegetation, and (3) locate sage grouse based on representative decoys. The field plots were located on the INL site west of Idaho Falls, Idaho, in areas with varying amounts and types of vegetative cover. A software program called SamplePoint developed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service was used to evaluate the imagery for percent cover for the six vegetation types (bare ground, litter, shrubs, dead shrubs, grasses, and forbs). Results were compared against standard field measurements to assess accuracy.

  4. The international geosphere biosphere programme data and information system global land cover data set (DIScover)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Loveland, T.R.; Belward, A.S.

    1997-01-01

    The International Geosphere Biosphere Programme Data and Information System (IGBP-DIS), through the mapping expertise of the U.S. Geological Survey and the European Commission's Joint Research Centre, recently guided the completion of a 1-km resolution global land cover data set from advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) data. The 1-km resolution land cover product, 'DISCover,' was based on monthly normalized difference vegetation index composites from 1992 and 1993. The development of DISCover was coordinated by the IGBP-DIS Land Cover Working Group as part of the IGBP-DIS Focus 1 activity. DISCover is a 17-class land cover data set based on the scientific requirements of IGBP elements. The mapping used unsupervised classification and postclassification refinement using ancillary data. The development of this data set was motivated by the need for global land cover data with higher spatial resolution, improved temporal specificity, and known classification accuracy. The completed DISCover data set will soon be validated to determine the accuracy of the global classification.

  5. EVALUATION OF LAND USE/LAND COVER DATASETS FOR URBAN WATERSHED MODELING

    SciTech Connect

    S.J. BURIAN; M.J. BROWN; T.N. MCPHERSON

    2001-08-01

    Land use/land cover (LULC) data are a vital component for nonpoint source pollution modeling. Most watershed hydrology and pollutant loading models use, in some capacity, LULC information to generate runoff and pollutant loading estimates. Simple equation methods predict runoff and pollutant loads using runoff coefficients or pollutant export coefficients that are often correlated to LULC type. Complex models use input variables and parameters to represent watershed characteristics and pollutant buildup and washoff rates as a function of LULC type. Whether using simple or complex models an accurate LULC dataset with an appropriate spatial resolution and level of detail is paramount for reliable predictions. The study presented in this paper compared and evaluated several LULC dataset sources for application in urban environmental modeling. The commonly used USGS LULC datasets have coarser spatial resolution and lower levels of classification than other LULC datasets. In addition, the USGS datasets do not accurately represent the land use in areas that have undergone significant land use change during the past two decades. We performed a watershed modeling analysis of three urban catchments in Los Angeles, California, USA to investigate the relative difference in average annual runoff volumes and total suspended solids (TSS) loads when using the USGS LULC dataset versus using a more detailed and current LULC dataset. When the two LULC datasets were aggregated to the same land use categories, the relative differences in predicted average annual runoff volumes and TSS loads from the three catchments were 8 to 14% and 13 to 40%, respectively. The relative differences did not have a predictable relationship with catchment size.

  6. Evaluation of the satellite derived snow cover area - Runoff forecasting models for the inaccessible basins of western Himalayas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dey, B.

    1985-01-01

    In this study, the existing seasonal snow cover area runoff forecasting models of the Indus, Kabul, Sutlej and Chenab basins were evaluated with the concurrent flow correlation model for the period 1975-79. In all the basins under study, correlation of concurrent flow model explained the variability in flow better than by the snow cover area runoff models. Actually, the concurrent flow correlation model explained more than 90 percent of the variability in the flow of these rivers. Compared to this model, the snow cover area runoff models explained less of the variability in flow. In the Himalayan river basins under study and at least for the period under observation, the concurrent flow correlation model provided a set of results with which to compare the estimates from the snow cover area runoff models.

  7. Experimental evaluation of ALS point cloud ground extraction over different land cover in the Malopolska Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korzeniowska, Karolina; Mandlburger, Gottfried; Klimczyk, Agata

    2013-04-01

    The paper presents an evaluation of different terrain point extraction algorithms for Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS) point clouds. The research area covers eight test sites in the Małopolska Province (Poland) with varying point density between 3-15points/m² and surface as well as land cover characteristics. In this paper the existing implementations of algorithms were considered. Approaches based on mathematical morphology, progressive densification, robust surface interpolation and segmentation were compared. From the group of morphological filters, the Progressive Morphological Filter (PMF) proposed by Zhang K. et al. (2003) in LIS software was evaluated. From the progressive densification filter methods developed by Axelsson P. (2000) the Martin Isenburg's implementation in LAStools software (LAStools, 2012) was chosen. The third group of methods are surface-based filters. In this study, we used the hierarchic robust interpolation approach by Kraus K., Pfeifer N. (1998) as implemented in SCOP++ (Trimble, 2012). The fourth group of methods works on segmentation. From this filtering concept the segmentation algorithm available in LIS was tested (Wichmann V., 2012). The main aim in executing the automatic classification for ground extraction was operating in default mode or with default parameters which were selected by the developers of the algorithms. It was assumed that the default settings were equivalent to the parameters on which the best results can be achieved. In case it was not possible to apply an algorithm in default mode, a combination of the available and most crucial parameters for ground extraction were selected. As a result of these analyses, several output LAS files with different ground classification were achieved. The results were described on the basis of qualitative and quantitative analyses, both being in a formal description. The classification differences were verified on point cloud data. Qualitative verification of ground extraction was

  8. An Interactive Real-time Decision Support System for Leachate Irrigation on Evapotranspiration Landfill Covers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Landfill disposal is still the most common and economical practice for municipal solid waste in most countries. However, heavily polluted leachate generated by excess rainwater percolating through the landfill waste is the major drawback of this practice. Evapotranspiration (ET) cover systems are increasingly being used as alternative cover systems to minimize percolation by evapotranspiration. Leachate recirculation is one of the least expensive options for leachate treatment. The combination of ET cover systems and leachate recirculation can be an economical and environment-friendly practice for landfill leachate management. An interactive real-time decision support system is being developed to better manage leachate irrigation using historical and forecasting weather data, and real time soil moisture data. The main frame of this system includes soil water modules, and plant-soil modules. An inverse simulation module is also included to calibrate certain parameters based on observed data when necessary. It would be an objectives-oriented irrigation management tool to minimize landfill operation costs and negative environmental impacts.

  9. Variation in runoff and erosion rates from different trench cap cover systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, E.A.; Barnes, F.J.; Kincaid, M.L.; Antonio, E.J.

    1989-01-01

    A field-scale demonstration study was established at Los Alamos National Laboratory to evaluate the interactive effects of soil surface mulches and type of vegetative cover on site water balance and erosion under natural precipitation conditions. The study was established on an inactive, low-level radioactive waste site, and consists of clusters of plots on 3 different soil profiles. Each cluster consists of two pairs of plots. Each pair of plots has either shrub or grass vegetative cover, and one plot of each pair received a gravel surface mulch at the time of insulation. Soil moisture was measured biweekly, and plant and soil surface cover were measured seasonally. Total runoff and sediment transport from each plot was measured after each precipitation event or each snowmelt event. Data from 1987 and 1988 show increased stabilization of the soil surface with time. Runoff and sediment transport is five to ten times greater on unmulched plots in comparison to plots with a gravel mulch. Higher precipitation than usual in 1988 resulted in erosion rates that exceeded tolerance limits on several unmulched plots. Runoff from snowmelt was greater on mulched plots, and generally had low sediment concentrations. Continued monitoring of the site through 1989 will result in a unique data base of the effects of natural precipitation and different cover designs on site performance. 10 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  10. A web-based system for supporting global land cover data production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Gang; Chen, Jun; He, Chaoying; Li, Songnian; Wu, Hao; Liao, Anping; Peng, Shu

    2015-05-01

    Global land cover (GLC) data production and verification process is very complicated, time consuming and labor intensive, requiring huge amount of imagery data and ancillary data and involving many people, often from different geographic locations. The efficient integration of various kinds of ancillary data and effective collaborative classification in large area land cover mapping requires advanced supporting tools. This paper presents the design and development of a web-based system for supporting 30-m resolution GLC data production by combining geo-spatial web-service and Computer Support Collaborative Work (CSCW) technology. Based on the analysis of the functional and non-functional requirements from GLC mapping, a three tiers system model is proposed with four major parts, i.e., multisource data resources, data and function services, interactive mapping and production management. The prototyping and implementation of the system have been realised by a combination of Open Source Software (OSS) and commercially available off-the-shelf system. This web-based system not only facilitates the integration of heterogeneous data and services required by GLC data production, but also provides online access, visualization and analysis of the images, ancillary data and interim 30 m global land-cover maps. The system further supports online collaborative quality check and verification workflows. It has been successfully applied to China's 30-m resolution GLC mapping project, and has improved significantly the efficiency of GLC data production and verification. The concepts developed through this study should also benefit other GLC or regional land-cover data production efforts.

  11. Estimation of runoff mitigation by morphologically different cover crop root systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yang; Loiskandl, Willibald; Kaul, Hans-Peter; Himmelbauer, Margarita; Wei, Wei; Chen, Liding; Bodner, Gernot

    2016-07-01

    Hydrology is a major driver of biogeochemical processes underlying the distinct productivity of different biomes, including agricultural plantations. Understanding factors governing water fluxes in soil is therefore a key target for hydrological management. Our aim was to investigate changes in soil hydraulic conductivity driven by morphologically different root systems of cover crops and their impact on surface runoff. Root systems of twelve cover crop species were characterized and the corresponding hydraulic conductivity was measured by tension infiltrometry. Relations of root traits to Gardner's hydraulic conductivity function were determined and the impact on surface runoff was estimated using HYDRUS 2D. The species differed in both rooting density and root axes thickness, with legumes distinguished by coarser axes. Soil hydraulic conductivity was changed particularly in the plant row where roots are concentrated. Specific root length and median root radius were the best predictors for hydraulic conductivity changes. For an intensive rainfall simulation scenario up to 17% less rainfall was lost by surface runoff in case of the coarsely rooted legumes Melilotus officinalis and Lathyrus sativus, and the densely rooted Linum usitatissimum. Cover crops with coarse root axes and high rooting density enhance soil hydraulic conductivity and effectively reduce surface runoff. An appropriate functional root description can contribute to targeted cover crop selection for efficient runoff mitigation.

  12. Pervious Pavement System Evaluation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pervious pavement is a low impact development stormwater control. The Urban Watershed Management Branch of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in Edison, NJ, is evaluating concrete pavers as a popular implementation. The pollutant removal of a bench-scale permeable interlo...

  13. Evaluation of the odour reduction potential of alternative cover materials at a commercial landfill.

    PubMed

    Solan, P J; Dodd, V A; Curran, T P

    2010-02-01

    The availability of virgin soils and traditional landfill covers are not only costly and increasingly becoming scarce, but they also reduce the storage capacity of landfill. The problem can be overcome by the utilisation of certain suitable waste streams as alternative landfill covers. The objective of this study was to assess the suitability of Construction & Demolition fines (C&D), Commercial & Industrial fines (C&I) and woodchip (WC) as potential landfill cover materials in terms of odour control. Background odour analysis was conducted to determine if any residual odour was emitted from the cover types. It was deemed negligible for the three materials. The odour reduction performance of each of the materials was also examined on an area of an active landfill site. A range of intermediate cover compositions were also studied to assess their performance. Odour emissions were sampled using a Jiang hood and analysed. Results indicate that the 200 mm deep combination layer of C&D and wood chip used on-site is adequate for odour abatement. The application of daily cover was found to result in effective reduction allowing for the background odour of woodchip. PMID:19786346

  14. Systems effectiveness evaluation program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicely, H. P., Jr.; Givens, W. D.

    1972-01-01

    Eight integrated computer programs provide needed capability to reduce man-hours needed to perform routine monitoring and assessment of effectiveness, reliability, and maintainability of large electronic equipment systems.

  15. Applications systems verification and transfer project. Volume 1: Operational applications of satellite snow cover observations: Executive summary. [usefulness of satellite snow-cover data for water yield prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rango, A.

    1981-01-01

    Both LANDSAT and NOAA satellite data were used in improving snowmelt runoff forecasts. When the satellite snow cover data were tested in both empirical seasonal runoff estimation and short term modeling approaches, a definite potential for reducing forecast error was evident. A cost benefit analysis run in conjunction with the snow mapping indicated a $36.5 million annual benefit accruing from a one percent improvement in forecast accuracy using the snow cover data for the western United States. The annual cost of employing the system would be $505,000. The snow mapping has proven that satellite snow cover data can be used to reduce snowmelt runoff forecast error in a cost effective manner once all operational satellite data are available within 72 hours after acquisition. Executive summaries of the individual snow mapping projects are presented.

  16. Evaluating and Comparing Interventions Designed to Enhance Math Fact Accuracy and Fluency: Cover, Copy, and Compare versus Taped Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poncy, Brian C.; Skinner, Christopher H.; Jaspers, Kathryn E.

    2007-01-01

    An adapted alternating treatments design was used to evaluate and compare the effects of two procedures designed to enhance math fact accuracy and fluency in an elementary student with low cognitive functioning. Results showed that although the cover, copy, compare (CCC) and the taped problems (TP) procedures both increased the student's math fact…

  17. UNREVIEWED DISPOSAL QUESTION EVALUATION: CENTER SLIT TRENCHES ONE THROUGH FIVE OPERATIONAL COVERS REANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, F.; Swingle, R.

    2011-05-26

    Operational inventory limits for the disposal of solid low-level waste in Slit Trenches 1-7 were established by the Special Analysis (SA) performed by Collard and Hamm (2008). To determine disposal limits for the Slit Trenches, the SA followed the methodology used in the 2008 PA (WSRC, 2008) which assumed that the inventories in each trench were instantaneously placed in 12/1995, which is the date when SLIT1 began operation. The 2008 SA analyzed the impact from placing storm-water runoff covers simultaneously over Slit Trenches 1-7 at 5, 10 and 15 years after the inventory was introduced. To include a measure of conservatism in the limits, the lowest of the limits calculated for any storm-water runoff cover placement time or that calculated in the original 2008 PA was chosen as the operational limit for each radionuclide. Through the availability of funding provided by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), storm-water runoff covers were placed over Slit Trenches 1-5 in December 2010. SRNL was requested to perform a UDQE for this accelerated action. Table 1 below lists the operational dates for Slit Trenches 1-5 and the time elapsed between when the first waste package was disposed in each Slit Trench and when the storm-water runoff covers were placed. As shown in Table 1, SLIT1 was covered 15.0 years after the date of the first waste package disposal. SLIT2 was covered 9.2 years after the date of the first waste package disposal in SLIT2 which falls within the window of {+-} 1.0 year within which the 2008 SA cover time analysis was assumed to be valid (Crowley and Butcher, 2008). Therefore, the analysis of SLIT1 and SLIT2 in the 2008 SA is considered adequate. However, the cover timings for SLIT3, SLIT4 and SLIT5 are from 2.2 to 1.6 years beyond the nearest cover time of 5 years assumed in the 2008 SA analysis and fall outside of the acceptable one-year margin. Therefore, an additional study was conducted by Collard et al. (2011) that assessed the

  18. Evaluating The National Land Cover Database Tree Canopy and Impervious Cover Estimates Across the Conterminous United States: A Comparison with Photo-Interpreted Estimates

    PubMed Central

    Greenfield, Eric J.

    2010-01-01

    The 2001 National Land Cover Database (NLCD) provides 30-m resolution estimates of percentage tree canopy and percentage impervious cover for the conterminous United States. Previous estimates that compared NLCD tree canopy and impervious cover estimates with photo-interpreted cover estimates within selected counties and places revealed that NLCD underestimates tree and impervious cover. Based on these previous results, a wall-to-wall comprehensive national analysis was conducted to determine if and how NLCD derived estimates of tree and impervious cover varies from photo-interpreted values across the conterminous United States. Results of this analysis reveal that NLCD significantly underestimates tree cover in 64 of the 65 zones used to create the NCLD cover maps, with a national average underestimation of 9.7% (standard error (SE) = 1.0%) and a maximum underestimation of 28.4% in mapping zone 3. Impervious cover was also underestimated in 44 zones with an average underestimation of 1.4% (SE = 0.4%) and a maximum underestimation of 5.7% in mapping zone 56. Understanding the degree of underestimation by mapping zone can lead to better estimates of tree and impervious cover and a better understanding of the potential limitations associated with NLCD cover estimates. PMID:20676888

  19. Evaluation of gridded snow water equivalent and satellite snow cover products for mountain basins in a hydrologic model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dressler, K.A.; Leavesley, G.H.; Bales, R.C.; Fassnacht, S.R.

    2006-01-01

    The USGS precipitation-runoff modelling system (PRMS) hydrologic model was used to evaluate experimental, gridded, 1 km2 snow-covered area (SCA) and snow water equivalent (SWE) products for two headwater basins within the Rio Grande (i.e. upper Rio Grande River basin) and Salt River (i.e. Black River basin) drainages in the southwestern USA. The SCA product was the fraction of each 1 km2 pixel covered by snow and was derived from NOAA advanced very high-resolution radiometer imagery. The SWE product was developed by multiplying the SCA product by SWE estimates interpolated from National Resources Conservation Service snow telemetry point measurements for a 6 year period (1995-2000). Measured SCA and SWE estimates were consistently lower than values estimated from temperature and precipitation within PRMS. The greatest differences occurred in the relatively complex terrain of the Rio Grande basin, as opposed to the relatively homogeneous terrain of the Black River basin, where differences were small. Differences between modelled and measured snow were different for the accumulation period versus the ablation period and had an elevational trend. Assimilating the measured snowfields into a version of PRMS calibrated to achieve water balance without assimilation led to reduced performance in estimating streamflow for the Rio Grande and increased performance in estimating streamflow for the Black River basin. Correcting the measured SCA and SWE for canopy effects improved simulations by adding snow mostly in the mid-to-high elevations, where satellite estimates of SCA are lower than model estimates. Copyright ?? 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Evaluation of building ventilation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, R.T.; O'Brien, D.M.

    1986-04-01

    Over the past several years, NIOSH has responded to health hazard evaluation requests from workers in dozens of office environments. Typically, the employees have complained of headache, eye and upper respiratory tract irritation, dizziness, lethargy and the inability to concentrate. Most often inadequate ventilation has been blamed for these complaints. Of paramount importance in the evaluation and correction of these problems is an effective evaluation of the building's ventilation system. Heating, ventilating and air-conditioning conditions that can cause worker stresses include: migration of odors or chemical hazards between building areas; reentrainment of exhaust from building fume hoods or through heat wheels; buildup of microorganisms in the HVAC system components; and poor odor or environmental control due to insufficient fresh outdoor air or system heating or cooling malfunction. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of building ventilation systems, the ventilation problems associated with poorly designed or operating systems, and the methodology for effectively evaluating system performance.

  1. Effect of different cover crops on C and N cycling in sorghum NT systems.

    PubMed

    Frasier, Ileana; Quiroga, Alberto; Noellemeyer, Elke

    2016-08-15

    In many no-till (NT) systems, residue input is low and fallow periods excessive, for which reasons soil degradation occurs. Cover crops could improve organic matter, biological activity, and soil structure. In order to study changes in soil carbon, nitrogen and microbial biomass a field experiment (2010-2012) was set up with sorghum (Sorghum bicolor Moench.) monoculture and with cover crops. Treatments were control (NT with bare fallow), rye (Secale cereale L.) (R), rye with nitrogen fertilization (R+N), vetch (Vicia villosa Roth.) (V), and rye-vetch mixture (VR) cover crops. A completely randomized block design with 4 replicates was used. Soil was sampled once a year at 0.06 and 0.12m depth for total C, microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and-nitrogen (MBN) determinations. Shoot and root biomass of sorghum and cover crops, litter biomass, and their respective carbon and nitrogen contents were determined. Soil temperatures at 0.06 and 0.12m depth, volumetric water contents and nitrate concentrations were determined at sowing, and harvest of each crop, and during sorghum's vegetative phase. NT led to a small increase in MBC and MBN, despite low litter and root biomass residue. Cover crops increased litter, root biomass, total C, MBC, and MBN. Relationships between MBC, MBN, and root-C and -N adjusted to logistic models (R(2)=0.61 and 0.43 for C and N respectively). Litter cover improved soil moisture to 45-50% water filled pore space and soil temperatures not exceeding 25°C during the warmest month. Microbial biomass stabilized at 20.1gCm(-2) and 1.9gNm(-2) in the upper 0.06m. Soil litter disappearance was a good indicator of mineral N availability. These findings support the view that cover crops, specifically legumes in NT systems can increase soil ecosystem services related to water and carbon storage, habitat for biodiversity, and nutrient availability. PMID:27107651

  2. Balance Evaluation Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    NeuroCom's Balance Master is a system to assess and then retrain patients with balance and mobility problems and is used in several medical centers. NeuroCom received assistance in research and funding from NASA, and incorporated technology from testing mechanisms for astronauts after shuttle flights. The EquiTest and Balance Master Systems are computerized posturography machines that measure patient responses to movement of a platform on which the subject is standing or sitting, then provide assessments of the patient's postural alignment and stability.

  3. Evaluation of MODIS snow cover products in the Upper Rio Grande River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, A.; Barnett, A.; Lee, S.

    2003-04-01

    Snow cover is an important water resource for the Upper Rio Grande River Basin of Colorado and New Mexico. Global daily snow cover maps currently are produced from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data and are freely distributed by the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC). The classification accuracy of these daily snow maps was assessed by comparing MODIS snow cover maps with operational snow cover maps produced by the National Operational Hydrologic Remote Sensing Center (NOHRSC) and against in situ SNOTEL (Snowpack Telemetry) measurements for the 2000-2001 snow season. For days during the 2000-2001 snow season where both MODIS and NOHRSC snow maps exist the overall snow classification agreement is 86 percent. Comparisons of both snow maps against in situ SNOTEL measurements for the same days indicate snow mapping accuracies of 94 percent and 76 percent for MODIS and NOHRSC, respectively. A lengthened comparison of MODIS against SNOTEL measurements which increases the number of comparisons for snow-free conditions indicates a slightly lower overall classification accuracy of 88 percent. In addition, assessment of the usefulness of these two snow cover products as inputs into the Snowmelt Runoff Model (SRM) for streamflow prediction in the Upper Rio Grande River Basin is ongoing.

  4. Flexible manufacturing system (FMS) evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Setter, D.L.

    1993-02-01

    The applicability of the flexible manufacturing system (FMS) concept to automate machining and inspecting a family of stainless steel and aluminum hardware for electrical components has been evaluated. FMS was found to be appropriate and justifiable and a project was initiated to purchase and implement an FMS system. System specifications and procurement methodologies were developed that resulted in a conventional competitive bid procurement A proposal evaluation technique was developed consisting of 40% price, 40% technical compliance, and 20% supplier management capabilities.

  5. Land-cover observations as part of a Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS): progress, activities, and prospects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herold, M.; Woodcock, C.E.; Loveland, Thomas R.; Townshend, J.; Brady, M.; Steenmans, C.; Schmullius, C. C.

    2008-01-01

    The international land-cover community has been working with GEO since 2005 to build the foundations for land-cover observations as an integral part of a Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS). The Group on Earth Observation (GEO) has provided the platform to elevate the societal relevance of land cover monitoring and helped to link a diverse set of global, regional, and national activities. A dedicated 2007-2009 GEO work plan task has resulted in achievements on the strategic and implementation levels. Integrated Global Observations of the Land (IGOL), the land theme of the Integrated Global Observation Strategy (IGOS), has been approved and is now in the process of transition into GEO implementation. New global land-cover maps at moderate spatial resolutions (i.e., GLOBCOVER) are being produced using guidelines and standards of the international community. The Middecadal Global Landsat Survey for 2005-2006 is extending previous 1990 and 2000 efforts for global, high-quality Landsat data. Despite this progress, essential challenges for building a sustained global land-cover-observing system remain, including: international cooperation on the continuity of global observations; ensuring consistency in land monitoring approaches; community engagement and country participation in mapping activities; commitment to ongoing quality assurance and validation; and regional networking and capacity building.

  6. Evaluating Educative Temporary Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickinson, Gary; Lamoureux, Marvin E.

    1975-01-01

    The framework of temporary systems theory was the basis for forming theoretical units and propositions pertaining to the outcomes of intensive adult education programs. Empirical indicators and research hypotheses were then developed and applied in the 1972 residential program of the Labour College of Canada. (Author)

  7. Evaluation of modeled surface ozone biases as a function of cloud cover fraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, H. C.; Lee, P.; Ngan, F.; Tang, Y.; Yoo, H. L.; Pan, L.

    2015-09-01

    A regional air-quality forecast system's model of surface ozone variability based on cloud coverage is evaluated using satellite-observed cloud fraction (CF) information and a surface air-quality monitoring system. We compared CF and daily maximum ozone from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Air Quality Forecast Capability (NOAA NAQFC) with CFs from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the US Environmental Protection Agency's AirNow surface ozone measurements during May to October 2014. We found that observed surface ozone shows a negative correlation with the MODIS CFs, showing around 1 ppb decrease for 10 % MODIS CF change over the contiguous United States, while the correlation of modeled surface ozone with the model CFs is much weaker, showing only -0.5 ppb per 10 % NAQFC CF change. Further, daytime CF differences between MODIS and NAQFC are correlated with modeled surface-ozone biases between AirNow and NAQFC, showing -1.05 ppb per 10 % CF change, implying that spatial and temporal misplacement of the modeled cloud field might have biased modeled surface ozone level. Current NAQFC cloud fields seem to have fewer CFs compared to MODIS cloud fields (mean NAQFC CF = 0.38 and mean MODIS CF = 0.55), contributing up to 35 % of surface-ozone bias in the current NAQFC system.

  8. Evaluation of modeled surface ozone biases as a function of cloud cover fraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, H. C.; Lee, P.; Ngan, F.; Tang, Y.; Yoo, H. L.; Pan, L.

    2015-04-01

    A regional air-quality forecast system's model of surface ozone variability based on cloud coverage is evaluated using satellite-observed cloud fraction (CF) information and a surface air-quality monitoring system. We compared CF and daily maximum ozone from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Air Quality Forecast Capability (NOAA NAQFC) with CFs from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's AirNow surface ozone measurements during May to October 2014. We found that observed surface ozone shows a clear (negative) correlation with the MODIS CFs, showing around 1 ppb decrease for 10% MODIS CF change over the Contiguous United States, while the correlation of modeled surface ozone with the model CFs is much weaker, showing only -0.5 ppb per 10% NAQFC CF change. Further, daytime CF differences between MODIS and NAQFC are correlated with modeled surface-ozone biases between AirNow and NAQFC, showing -1.05 ppb per 10% CF change, implying that spatial- and temporal-misplacement of the modeled cloud field might have biased modeled surface ozone-level. Current NAQFC cloud fields seem to be too bright compared to MODIS cloud fields (mean NAQFC CF = 0.38 and mean MODIS CF = 0.55), contributing up to 35% of surface-ozone bias in the current NAQFC system.

  9. Evaluation of Land Cover Features over Jeddah, Saudi Arabia Using ALOS AVNIR-2 Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustapha, M. R.; Lim, H. S.; Hassan, Faez M.; Jafri, M. Z. Mat

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to classify the land cover mapping over Jeddah, Saudi Arabia using ALOS AVNIR-2 satellite image and to determine which classifier is suitable for that area which surrounded by desert terrain. The image was captured on 27 June 2008. Standard supervised classification method which is Maximum Likelihood Classifier was applied to the imageries to extract the spectral information from acquired scene. Besides, the advance classification method which is Neural Network Classification also conducted in this study. Then, the results from both classifiers will be compared and the discussion about it will be done. Training sites were selected using polygon and land cover classes were assigned to each classifier. Accuracy assessment was carried out to compute the probability of error for the classified map. A total of 250 random samples were chosen for accuracy assessment. Finally, land cover map over Jeddah was generated and the best classifier was determined.

  10. Design of a covered lagoon methane recovery system for a flush dairy

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, D.W.; Moser, M.; Smith, J.

    1996-12-31

    A lagoon-type methane recovery system was designed for the Cal Poly Dairy, which milks 130 cows with a total population of 296 animals. Most of the herd is housed in freestall barns where the manure is deposited on concrete and flushed with fresh or recycled water to an existing lagoon with a volume of 19,300 cubic meters. The design includes a new, primary covered lagoon of 17,000 cubic meters volume. The floating cover will be made of very low density polyethylene (VLDPE), with an area of 4,500 square meters. The predicted output of the lagoon is an average of over 310 cubic meters of biogas per day containing 60 percent methane. The methane production from the covered lagoon is adequate to produce 18 to 24 kW on a continuous basis from the present cow population. In order to account for future herd size increases, a 40 kW engine generator was specified to operate in parallel with the utility system at a varying level of output controlled by the biogas supply. The non-economic benefits of this covered lagoon include the demonstration of its operation to the students and visitors at Cal Poly which in turn will serve the California Dairy Community. Odor control is the most important non-economic benefit. Conversion of volatile solids to biogas and recovery and use of the biogas limits odor to surrounding areas. The economic benefits of the methane recovery system include the approximately 160,000 kWh of electricity produced annually, worth almost $13,000. Financial analyses for the project showed a payback of 13.7 years with a 4% internal rate of return.

  11. A land use and land cover classification system for use with remote sensor data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, James R.; Hardy, Ernest E.; Roach, John T.; Witmer, Richard E.

    1976-01-01

    The framework of a national land use and land cover classification system is presented for use with remote sensor data. The classification system has been developed to meet the needs of Federal and State agencies for an up-to-date overview of land use and land cover throughout the country on a basis that is uniform in categorization at the more generalized first and second levels and that will be receptive to data from satellite and aircraft remote sensors. The proposed system uses the features of existing widely used classification systems that are amenable to data derived from remote sensing sources. It is intentionally left open-ended so that Federal, regional, State, and local agencies can have flexibility in developing more detailed land use classifications at the third and fourth levels in order to meet their particular needs and at the same time remain compatible with each other and the national system. Revision of the land use classification system as presented in U.S. Geological Survey Circular 671 was undertaken in order to incorporate the results of extensive testing and review of the categorization and definitions.

  12. MTA Computer Based Evaluation System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brenner, Lisa P.; And Others

    The MTA PLATO-based evaluation system, which has been implemented by a consortium of schools of medical technology, is designed to be general-purpose, modular, data-driven, and interactive, and to accommodate other national and local item banks. The system provides a comprehensive interactive item-banking system in conjunction with online student…

  13. Evaluation of simultaneous biodegradation of methane and toluene in landfill covers.

    PubMed

    Su, Yao; Zhang, Xuan; Wei, Xiao-Meng; Kong, Jiao-Yan; Xia, Fang-Fang; Li, Wei; He, Ruo

    2014-06-15

    The biodegradation of CH4 and toluene in landfill cover soil (LCS) and waste biocover soil (WBS) was investigated with a serial toluene concentration in the headspace of landfill cover microcosms in this study. Compared with the LCS sample, the higher CH4 oxidation activity and toluene-degrading capacity occurred in the WBS sample. The co-existence of toluene in landfill gas would positively or negatively affect CH4 oxidation, mainly depending on the toluene concentrations and exposure time. The nearly complete inhibition of toluene on CH4 oxidation was observed in the WBS sample at the toluene concentration of ∼ 80,000 mg m(-3), which was about 10 times higher than that in the LCS sample. The toluene degradation rates in both landfill covers fitted well with the Michaelis-Menten model. These findings showed that WBS was a good alternative landfill cover material to simultaneously mitigate emissions of CH4 and toluene from landfills to the atmosphere. PMID:24801894

  14. Evaluation of pulse-oximetry oxygen saturation taken through skin protective covering

    PubMed Central

    James, Jyotsna; Tiwari, Lokesh; Upadhyay, Pramod; Sreenivas, Vishnubhatla; Bhambhani, Vikas; Puliyel, Jacob M

    2006-01-01

    Background The hard edges of adult finger clip probes of the pulse oximetry oxygen saturation (POOS) monitor can cause skin damage if used for prolonged periods in a neonate. Covering the skin under the probe with Micropore surgical tape or a gauze piece might prevent such injury. The study was done to see if the protective covering would affect the accuracy of the readings. Methods POOS was studied in 50 full-term neonates in the first week of life. After obtaining consent from their parents the neonates had POOS readings taken directly (standard technique) and through the protective covering. Bland-Altman plots were used to compare the new method with the standard technique. A test of repeatability for each method was also performed. Results The Bland-Altman plots suggest that there is no significant loss of accuracy when readings are taken through the protective covering. The mean difference was 0.06 (SD of 1.39) and 0.04 (SD 1.3) with Micropore and gauze respectively compared to the standard method. The mean difference was 0.22 (SD 0.23) on testing repeatability with the standard method. Conclusion Interposing Micropore or gauze does not significantly affect the accuracy of the POOS reading. The difference between the standard method and the new method was less than the difference seen on testing repeatability of the standard method. PMID:16677394

  15. Evaluation of Cowpea Germplasm Lines Adapted for Use as a Cover Crop in the Southeastern US

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata) are desirable as a cover crop, because they are tolerant of heat, drought and poor soils, grow vigorously and compete well against weeds, and provide nitrogen for rotational crops. Cowpeas were grown extensively as a forage and green manure crop in the southeastern U.S. ...

  16. Critical evaluations of vegetation cover measurement techniques: a response to Thacker et al. (2015)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Comparison studies are necessary to reconcile methods that have arisen among disparate rangeland monitoring programs. However, Thacker et al.'s study comparing Daubenmire frame (DF) and line-point intercept (LPI) methods for estimating vegetation cover ignores definitional differences between what t...

  17. RETROSPECTIVE LANDSCAPE ANALYSIS, AN APPROACH FOR EVALUATION LAND COVER CHANGE: SAN PEDRO RIVER CASE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory


    Vegetation change in the American West has been the subject of much concern and controversy throughout the twentieth century. Over the years, a considerable number and variety of 'claims have been made regarding cause related to changes in land cover. The evidence for vegetat...

  18. Evaluating source area contributions from aircraft flux measurements over heterogeneous land cover by large eddy simulation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The estimation of spatial patterns in surface fluxes from aircraft observations poses several challenges in presence of heterogeneous land cover. In particular, the effects of turbulence on scalar transport and the different behavior of passive (e.g. moisture) versus active (e.g. temperature) scalar...

  19. Air Sampling System Evaluation Template

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2000-05-09

    The ASSET1.0 software provides a template with which a user can evaluate an Air Sampling System against the latest version of ANSI N13.1 "Sampling and Monitoring Releases of Airborne Radioactive Substances from the Stacks and Ducts of Nuclear Facilities". The software uses the ANSI N13.1 PIC levels to establish basic design criteria for the existing or proposed sampling system. The software looks at such criteria as PIC level, type of radionuclide emissions, physical state ofmore » the radionuclide, nozzle entrance effects, particulate transmission effects, system and component accuracy and precision evaluations, and basic system operations to provide a detailed look at the subsystems of a monitoring and sampling system/program. A GAP evaluation can then be completed which leads to identification of design and operational flaws in the proposed systems. Corrective measures can then be limited to the GAPs.« less

  20. Evaluation of SLAR and thematic mapper MSS data for forest cover mapping using computer-aided analysis techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffer, R. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1979-01-01

    The spatial characteristics of the data were evaluated. A program was developed to reduce the spatial distortions resulting from variable viewing distance, and geometrically adjusted data sets were generated. The potential need for some level of radiometric adjustment was evidenced by an along track band of high reflectance across different cover types in the Varian imagery. A multiple regression analysis was employed to explore the viewing angle effect on measured reflectance. Areas in the data set which appeared to have no across track stratification of cover type were identified. A program was developed which computed the average reflectance by column for each channel, over all of the scan lines in the designated areas. A regression analysis was then run using the first, second, and third degree polynomials, for each channel. An atmospheric effect as a component of the viewing angle source of variance is discussed. Cover type maps were completed and training and test field selection was initiated.

  1. DIETARY RISK EVALUATION SYSTEM: DRES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Dietary Risk Evaluation System (DRES) estimates exposure to pesticides in the diet by combining information concerning residues on raw agricultural commodities with information on consumption of those commodities. It then compares the estimated exposure level to a toxicologi...

  2. Evaluating the Australian Traineeship System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, R. J.

    1987-01-01

    Describes the Australian Traineeship System (ATS), a program integrating formal education and employment designed to increase options for dropouts. Discusses problems involving the centrality of ATS's educational component and implementation of a program evaluation strategy. Includes two references. (MLH)

  3. OCEAN DATA EVALUATION SYSTEM (ODES)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Ocean Data Evaluation System (ODES) maintains a variety of marine monitoring data pertaining to water quality, oceanographic descriptions, sediment pollutants, physical/chemical characteristics, biological characteristics, and estuary information. ODES was initially develope...

  4. High-resolution wave forecasting system for the seasonally ice-covered Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuomi, Laura; Lehtiranta, Jonni

    2016-04-01

    When forecasting surface waves in seasonally ice-covered seas, the inclusion of ice conditions in the modelling is important. The ice cover affects the propagation and also changes the fetch over which the waves grow. In wave models the ice conditions are often still given as a boundary condition and handled by excluding areas where the ice concentration exceeds a certain threshold value. The ice data used are typically based on satellite analysis or expert analysis of local Ice Services who combine data from different sources. This type of data is sufficiently accurate to evaluate the near-real time ice concentrations, but when making forecasts it is also important to account for the possible changes in ice conditions. For example in a case of a high wind situation, there can be rapid changes in the ice field, when the wind and waves may push the ice towards shores and cause fragmentation of ice field. To enhance handling of ice conditions in the Baltic Sea wave forecasts, utilisation of ice model data was studied. Ice concentration, thickness produced by FMI's operational ice model HELMI were used to provide ice data to wave model as follows: Wave model grid points where the ice concentration was more than or equal to 70% and the ice thickness more than1 cm, were excluded from calculations. Ice concentrations smaller than that were taken into account as additional grid obstructions by decreasing the wave energy passed from one grid cell to another. A challenge in evaluating wave forecast accuracy in partly ice covered areas it that there's typically no wave buoy data available, since the buoys have to be recovered well before the sea area freezes. To evaluate the accuracy of wave forecast in partially ice covered areas, significant wave heights from altimeter's ERS2, Envisat, Jason-1 and Jason-2 were extracted from Ifremer database. Results showed that the more frequent update of the ice data was found to improve the wave forecast especially during high wind

  5. Laboratory measurements of radon diffusion through multilayered cover systems for uranium tailings

    SciTech Connect

    Nielson, K.K.; Rogers, V.C.; Rich, D.C.; Nederhand, F.A.; Sandquist, G.M.; Jensen, C.M.

    1981-12-01

    Laboratory measurements of radon fluxes and radon concentration profiles were conducted to characterize the effectiveness of multilayer cover systems for uranium tailings. The cover systems utilized soil and clay materials from proposed disposal sites for the Vitro, Durango, Shiprock, Grand Junction and Riverton tailings piles. Measured radon fluxes were in reasonable agreement with values predicted by multilayer diffusion theory. Results obtained by using air-filled porosities in the diffusion calculations were similar to those obtained by using total porosities. Measured diffusion coefficients were a better basis for predicting radon fluxes than were correlations of diffusion coefficient with moisture or with air porosity. Radon concentration profiles were also fitted by equations for multilayer diffusion in the air-filled space. Layer-order effects in the multilayer cover systems were examined and estimated to amount to 10 to 20 percent for the systems tested. Quality control measurements in support of the multilayer diffusion tests indicated that moisture absorption was not a significant problem in radon flux sampling with charcoal canisters, but that the geometry of the sampler was critical. The geometric design of flux-can samplers was also shown to be important. Enhanced radon diffusion along the walls of the test columns was examined and was found to be insignificant except when the columns had been physically disturbed. Additional moisture injected into two test columns decreased the radon flux, as expected, but appeared to migrate into surrounding materials or to be lost by evaporation. Control of moisture content and compaction in the test columns appeared to be the critical item affecting the accuracies of the experiments.

  6. EVALUATION OF THERMAL STRESS ANALYSIS FOR SIDE WALLS OF CUT-AND-COVER TUNNELS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwanami, Motoi; Sadato, Seiichiro; Ikarashi, Yuki

    Cracks due to thermal stresses that occur in the side walls of large cut-and-cover tunnels adversely affect tunnel durability. In many cases, therefore, thermal stress is analyzed to control thermal stress cracking. However, the analytical accuracy is not good enough for estimation. This paper discusses methods for improvmg the accuracy of thermal stress analyses, taking as an example a side wall about 1.0 m thick of a large cut-and-cover tunnel. The methods involve the following three points: consideration of drying shrinkage, utilization of the diagrams in the Standard Specifications for Concrete Structures-Design(JSCE), and three dimensional thermal stress analysis considering drying shrinkage induced by humidity migration.

  7. Evaluate the application of ERTS-A data for detecting and mapping snow cover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, J. C. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Analysis of ERTS-1 data covering the test sites in the western United States indicate that the MSS-4 and 5 spectral bands are the most useful for detecting and mapping snow cover. Of these two bands, the MSS-5 is the most consistently useful, as snow-covered areas in some MSS-4 images are nearly saturated causing some loss of detail. Snow can be readily detected and can be distinguished from clouds through a number of interpretive keys. At the ERTS-1 resolution, numerous terrestrial features not visible in lower resolution meteorological satellite data can be detected. In addition to various natural features, man-made features such as roads, electric power lines, cultivated fields, and timber cuts are visible. In two cases analyzed for the Salt-Verde Watershed in Arizona, good agreement is observed between the location of the snowline as mapped from the ERTS-1 data and as depicted on aerial snow survey charts compiled within a few days of the ERTS-1 passage. Results indicate that the snowline can be mapped in more detail from ERTS-1 imagery than can be achieved by current aerial survey methods.

  8. IBM PC/IX operating system evaluation plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (Editor); Granier, Martin; Hall, Philip P.; Triantafyllopoulos, Spiros

    1984-01-01

    An evaluation plan for the IBM PC/IX Operating System designed for IBM PC/XT computers is discussed. The evaluation plan covers the areas of performance measurement and evaluation, software facilities available, man-machine interface considerations, networking, and the suitability of PC/IX as a development environment within the University of Southwestern Louisiana NASA PC Research and Development project. In order to compare and evaluate the PC/IX system, comparisons with other available UNIX-based systems are also included.

  9. Englacial Drainage Systems in Himalayan Debris-covered Glaciers, and Implications for Supraglacial Lake Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benn, D.; Gulley, J.; Thompson, S. S.

    2011-12-01

    Rates of mass loss on Himalayan debris-covered glaciers are controlled by a complex web of processes, including melting below debris, melting of exposed ice, and calving around supraglacial lakes. Ablation rates around lakes are typically one to two orders of magnitude higher than beneath supraglacial debris, so the extent and lifespan of supraglacial lakes exert strong controls on rates of glacier downwasting. Using a combination of speleological observations of englacial conduits and ASTER image analysis, we show that there is a close coupling between lake evolution and englacial hydrology. Surface meltwater on Himalayan glaciers commonly drains via shallow englacial conduits, formed by the incision of surface streams that become isolated from the surface by roof closure ('cut and closure'). Cut-and-closure conduits are typically beneath less than 30 m of ice, where low rates of creep closure allow them to persist for several years even after active enlargement has ceased. How conduits affect lake life cycle depends on whether lakes are 'perched' or at 'base level'. Moraine dams at debris-covered glacier snouts determine hydrological base level for the drainage system. Lakes at elevations above the moraine dam (perched lakes) can drain when connections are made to active or relict englacial conduits, which offer lines of high hydraulic conductivity through otherwise impermeable ice. Englacial drainage of warm lake water can then cause significant conduit enlargement, roof collapse and glacier surface subsidence. Regions of subsidence, particularly where bare ice is exposed, can then act as nuclei for the formation of new supraglacial lakes. In contrast, base-level lakes cannot drain englacially. Conduits connecting with base-level lakes, however, can encourage rapid lake growth and integration, by providing lines of enhanced internal ablation. Links between englacial and supraglacial hydrology and conduit formation and collapse result in strongly non-linear mass

  10. FORTRAN code-evaluation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Capps, J. D.; Kleir, R.

    1977-01-01

    Automated code evaluation system can be used to detect coding errors and unsound coding practices in any ANSI FORTRAN IV source code before they can cause execution-time malfunctions. System concentrates on acceptable FORTRAN code features which are likely to produce undesirable results.

  11. New Evaluation System Wins Approval

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Laura

    2011-01-01

    All Massachusetts school districts will have to adopt new evaluation systems based on a state framework that was approved by the Board of Elementary and Secondary Education on June 28. The new system will be phased in over three years, beginning with Level 4 schools--those designated "underperforming" by the state--in the 2011-12 school year.…

  12. Characterization of internal geometry / covered surface defects with a visible light sensing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straub, Jeremy

    2016-05-01

    Previous work has used visible light scanning to detect and characterize defects in 3D printed objects. This paper focuses on assessing the internal structures and external surfaces (that will be later hidden) of complex objects. These features make in-process defect detection far more important than it would be with an object that can be fully assessed with a post-completion scan, as it is required both for in-process correction and end-product quality assurance. This paper presents work on the use of a multi-camera visible light 3D scanning system to identify defects with printed objects' interior and covered / obscured exterior surfaces.

  13. Design, development, and testing of a lightweight optical sensor cover system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurley, Mike; Christiansen, Scott

    1994-01-01

    This paper discusses aspects of the design, development, and testing of the sensor cover on the Clementine (DSPSE) spacecraft. Particular attention is given to defining the typically ambiguous issue of cleanliness. To characterize performance with respect to these requirements, a simple and effective method for testing prototype seals was developed. This testing was useful for comparing various types of seals as well as for providing information about achievable cleanliness levels. The results were invaluable input for defining a realistic final cleanliness requirement that satisfied everyone from mechanisms to sensor engineers. Balancing torque margins (reliability) versus cost and/or weight of the system can be significantly influenced by the choice of seal type. Several seal types are discussed in terms of both cleanliness and ease of implementation. These design issues influence the actuator selection and structural integrity of the door. The cover system designed and fabricated as described above was thoroughly tested both on a component level and on the Clementine system level. Testing included characterization, vibration, pyro-shock, life, and thermal/vacuum. The extensive testing identified problems early enough that they could be resolved prior to integration and launch.

  14. Evaluation of Soil Manipulation to Prepare Engineered Earthen Waste Covers for Revegetation.

    PubMed

    Waugh, W Joseph; Benson, Craig H; Albright, William H; Smith, Gregory M; Bush, Richard P

    2015-11-01

    Seven ripping treatments designed to improve soil physical conditions for revegetation were compared on a test pad simulating an earthen cover for a waste disposal cell. The field test was part of study of methods to convert compacted-soil waste covers into evapotranspiration covers. The test pad consisted of a compacted layer of fine-textured soil simulating a barrier protection layer overlain by a gravelly sand bedding layer and a cobble armor layer. Treatments included combinations of soil-ripping implements (conventional shank [CS], wing-tipped shank [WTS], and parabolic oscillating shank with wings [POS]), ripping depths, and number of passes. Dimensions, dry density, moisture content, and particle size distribution of disturbance zones were determined in two trenches excavated across rip rows. The goal was to create a root-zone dry density between 1.2 and 1.6 Mg m and a seedbed soil texture ranging from clay loam to sandy loam with low rock content. All treatments created V-shaped disturbance zones as measured on trench faces. Disturbance zone size was most influenced by ripping depth. Winged implements created larger disturbance zones. All treatments lifted fines into the bedding layer, moved gravel and cobble down into the fine-textured protection layer, and thereby disrupted the capillary barrier at the interface. Changes in dry density within disturbance zones were comparable for the CS and WTS treatments but were highly variable among POS treatments. Water content increased in the bedding layer and decreased in the protection layer after ripping. The POS at 1.2-m depth and two passes created the largest zone with a low dry density (1.24 Mg m) and the most favorable seedbed soil texture (gravely silt loam). However, ripping also created large soil aggregates and voids in the protection layer that may produce preferential flow paths and reduce water storage capacity. PMID:26641343

  15. Evaluation of soil manipulation to prepare engineered earthen waste covers for revegetation

    SciTech Connect

    Waugh, W. Joseph; Benson, Craig H.; Albright, William H.; Smith, Gregory M.; Bush, Richard P.

    2015-10-21

    Seven ripping treatments designed to improve soil physical conditions for revegetation were compared on a test pad simulating an earthen cover for a waste disposal cell. The field test was part of study of methods to convert compacted-soil waste covers into evapotranspiration covers. The test pad consisted of a compacted layer of fine-textured soil simulating a barrier protection layer overlain by a gravelly sand bedding layer and a cobble armor layer. Treatments included combinations of soil-ripping implements (conventional shank [CS], wing-tipped shank [WTS], and parabolic oscillating shank with wings [POS]), ripping depths, and number of passes. Dimensions, dry density, moisture content, and particle size distribution of disturbance zones were determined in two trenches excavated across rip rows. The goal was to create a root-zone dry density between 1.2 and 1.6 Mg m-3 and a seedbed soil texture ranging from clay loam to sandy loam with low rock content. All treatments created V-shaped disturbance zones as measured on trench faces. Disturbance zone size was most influenced by ripping depth. Winged implements created larger disturbance zones. All treatments lifted fines into the bedding layer, moved gravel and cobble down into the fine-textured protection layer, and thereby disrupted the capillary barrier at the interface. Changes in dry density within disturbance zones were comparable for the CS and WTS treatments but were highly variable among POS treatments. Water content increased in the bedding layer and decreased in the protection layer after ripping. The POS at 1.2-m depth and two passes created the largest zone with a low dry density (1.24 Mg m-3) and the most favorable seedbed soil texture (gravely silt loam). Furthermore, ripping also created large soil aggregates and voids in the protection layer that may produce preferential flow paths and reduce water storage capacity.

  16. Evaluation of soil manipulation to prepare engineered earthen waste covers for revegetation

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Waugh, W. Joseph; Benson, Craig H.; Albright, William H.; Smith, Gregory M.; Bush, Richard P.

    2015-10-21

    Seven ripping treatments designed to improve soil physical conditions for revegetation were compared on a test pad simulating an earthen cover for a waste disposal cell. The field test was part of study of methods to convert compacted-soil waste covers into evapotranspiration covers. The test pad consisted of a compacted layer of fine-textured soil simulating a barrier protection layer overlain by a gravelly sand bedding layer and a cobble armor layer. Treatments included combinations of soil-ripping implements (conventional shank [CS], wing-tipped shank [WTS], and parabolic oscillating shank with wings [POS]), ripping depths, and number of passes. Dimensions, dry density, moisturemore » content, and particle size distribution of disturbance zones were determined in two trenches excavated across rip rows. The goal was to create a root-zone dry density between 1.2 and 1.6 Mg m-3 and a seedbed soil texture ranging from clay loam to sandy loam with low rock content. All treatments created V-shaped disturbance zones as measured on trench faces. Disturbance zone size was most influenced by ripping depth. Winged implements created larger disturbance zones. All treatments lifted fines into the bedding layer, moved gravel and cobble down into the fine-textured protection layer, and thereby disrupted the capillary barrier at the interface. Changes in dry density within disturbance zones were comparable for the CS and WTS treatments but were highly variable among POS treatments. Water content increased in the bedding layer and decreased in the protection layer after ripping. The POS at 1.2-m depth and two passes created the largest zone with a low dry density (1.24 Mg m-3) and the most favorable seedbed soil texture (gravely silt loam). Furthermore, ripping also created large soil aggregates and voids in the protection layer that may produce preferential flow paths and reduce water storage capacity.« less

  17. Comparisons of cloud cover evaluated from LANDSAT imagery and meteorological stations across the British Isles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, E. C. (Principal Investigator); Grant, C. K.

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. This stage of the study has confirmed the initial supposition that LANDSAT data could be analyzed to provide useful data on cloud amount, and that useful light would be thrown thereby on the performance of the ground observer of this aspect of the state of the sky. This study, in comparison with previous studies of a similar nature using data from meteorological satellites, has benefited greatly from the much higher resolution data provided by LANDSAT. This has permitted consideration of not only the overall performance of the surface observer in estimating total cloud cover, but also his performance under different sky conditions.

  18. Evaluation of ISLSCP Initiative II satellite-based land cover data sets and assessment of progress in land cover data for global modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown de Colstoun, Eric C.; Defries, Ruth S.; Townshend, John R. G.

    2006-11-01

    As an important component of the International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project (ISLSCP) Initiative II data collection, eight state-of-the-art land cover/use data sets have been compiled and made consistent with the ISLSCP Initiative II land/water mask in support of global modeling efforts. These data sets contain new and improved global data sets at coarse resolutions (1/4, 1/2 and 1°) describing historical, recent and present land cover conditions and are a testament to the tremendous progress made in this area over the past decade. In addition to the historical data, data describing the subcell heterogeneity in land cover are also provided, both in terms of subcell proportions of land cover classes and vegetation continuous fields such as % tree, grass and bare cover. Here we present the various ISLSCPII land cover data sets and compare the principal satellite-derived data sets and the effect of their respective aggregation methods. We find that despite some notable disagreements among similar classes, the satellite-based data sets agree remarkably well over large portions of the Earth's surface (over 50% for all resolutions). We also find that the methods of aggregation, whether done by a strictly dominant type, or using more information on subcell tree cover, can have an important impact on the final output and need to be considered by the user. Finally, by integrating the vegetation continuous fields data into our analyses we are able to show that the principal differences in terms of discrete land cover classes are in fact transition zones between similar classes.

  19. Sky cover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerth, Jordan J.

    Of all of the standard meteorological parameters collected and observed daily, sky cover is not only one of the most complex, but the one that is fairly ambiguously defined and difficult to quantify. Despite that, the implications of how cloud fraction and sky cover are understood not only impact daily weather forecasts, but also present challenges to assessing the state of the earth's climate system. Part of the reason for this is the lack of observational methods for verifying the skill of clouds represented and parameterized in numerical models. While human observers record sky cover as part of routine duties, the spatial coverage of such observations in the United States is relatively sparse. There is greater spatial coverage of automated observations, and essentially complete coverage from geostationary weather satellites that observe the Americas. A good analysis of sky cover reconciles differences between manual observations, automated observations, and satellite observations, through an algorithm that accounts for the strengths and weaknesses of each dataset. This work describes the decision structure for trusting and weighting these similar observations. Some of the issues addressed include: human and instrument error resulting from approximations and estimations, a deficiency in high cloud detectability using surface-based ceilometers, poorly resolved low cloud using infrared channels on space-based radiometers during overnight hours, and decreased confidence in satellite-detected cloud during stray light periods. Using the blended sky cover analysis as the best representation of cloudiness, it is possible to compare the analysis to numerical model fields in order to assess the performance of the model and the parameterizations therein, as well as confirm or uncover additional relationships between sky cover and pertinent fields using an optimization methodology. The optimizer minimizes an affine expression of adjusted fields to the "truth" sky cover

  20. The Use of Analog Sites for Designing and Evaluating Long Term Performance of Evapotranspiration Covers in the Northern Mojave Desert, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafer, D. S.

    2001-12-01

    Support is growing for using evapotranspiration (ET) covers for closing low-level waste (LLW) and other types of waste disposal sites, particularly in the lower latitude arid regions of the western United States. ET covers are planned at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) for closure of LLW shallow land burial waste cells. To better predict the long-term performance of ET covers, and to identify design criteria that will potentially improve their performance, the hydrologic and ecological processes occurring on analog surfaces for ET covers are being studied. Four analog sites on the NTS have been selected to study performance of ET covers over a 1000-year compliance period. Two are relatively recently disturbed sites (less than 40 years ago) and have been selected to evaluate processes and changes on covers for the early period of post-institutional controls when the waste cell covers will no longer be maintained. The histories of these control sites were evaluated by an archeologist to help determine the mode and timing of site disturbance to understand baseline conditions. Two other sites, late to mid-Holocene in age, are intended as analogs for the end of the compliance period for LLW closure (>1000 years). Both are abandoned alluvial/colluvial deposits, dated by thermoluminscence analysis. Observations to date on the younger analog sites suggest that bioturbation by small mammals begins immediately after site abandonment and may alter surface properties that effect the hydrologic performance and vegetation succession of the cover system. Bioturbation has resulted in local mounds of larger surface clasts, which are favorable sites for the establishment of native shrubs. Vegetation density and diversity decrease away from these mounds. While infiltration is expected to be greater in the vicinity of these shrubs because of their co-occurrence with bioturbated surface soils, ET potential may also be greater because of deeper root penetration. However, the bioturbation

  1. Ground cover rice production systems increase soil carbon and nitrogen stocks at regional scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, M.; Dannenmann, M.; Lin, S.; Saiz, G.; Yan, G.; Yao, Z.; Pelster, D. E.; Tao, H.; Sippel, S.; Tao, Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zheng, X.; Zuo, Q.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.

    2015-08-01

    Rice production is increasingly limited by water scarcity. Covering paddy rice soils with films (so-called ground cover rice production system: GCRPS) can significantly reduce water demand as well as overcome temperature limitations at the beginning of the growing season, which results in greater grain yields in relatively cold regions and also in those suffering from seasonal water shortages. However, it has been speculated that both increased soil aeration and temperature under GCRPS result in lower soil organic carbon and nitrogen stocks. Here we report on a regional-scale experiment conducted in Shiyan, a typical rice-producing mountainous area of China. We sampled paired adjacent paddy and GCRPS fields at 49 representative sites. Measured parameters included soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) stocks (to 1 m depth), soil physical and chemical properties, δ15N composition of plants and soils, potential C mineralization rates, and soil organic carbon (SOC) fractions at all sampling sites. Root biomass was also quantified at one intensively monitored site. The study showed that: (1) GCRPS increased SOC and N stocks 5-20 years following conversion from traditional paddy systems; (2) there were no differences between GCRPS and paddy systems in soil physical and chemical properties for the various soil depths, with the exception of soil bulk density; (3) GCRPS increased above-ground and root biomass in all soil layers down to a 40 cm depth; (4) δ15N values were lower in soils and plant leaves indicating lower NH3 volatilization losses from GCRPS than in paddy systems; and (5) GCRPS had lower C mineralization potential than that observed in paddy systems over a 200-day incubation period. Our results suggest that GCRPS is an innovative production technique that not only increases rice yields using less irrigation water, but that it also increases SOC and N stocks.

  2. The potential application of red mud and soil mixture as additive to the surface layer of a landfill cover system.

    PubMed

    Ujaczki, Éva; Feigl, Viktória; Molnár, Mónika; Vaszita, Emese; Uzinger, Nikolett; Erdélyi, Attila; Gruiz, Katalin

    2016-06-01

    Red mud, the by-product of aluminum production, has been regarded as a problematic residue all over the world. Its storage involves risks as evidenced by the Ajka red mud spill, an accident in Hungary where the slurry broke free, flooding the surrounding areas. As an immediate remediation measure more than 5cm thick red mud layer was removed from the flooded soil surface. The removed red mud and soil mixture (RMSM) was transferred into the reservoirs for storage. In this paper the application of RMSM is evaluated in a field study aiming at re-utilizing waste, decreasing cost of waste disposal and providing a value-added product. The purpose was to investigate the applicability of RMSM as surface layer component of landfill cover systems. The field study was carried out in two steps: in lysimeters and in field plots. The RMSM was mixed at ratios ranging between 0 and 50% w/w with low quality subsoil (LQS) originally used as surface layer of an interim landfill cover. The characteristics of the LQS+RMSM mixtures compared to the subsoil (LQS) and the RMSM were determined by physical-chemical, biological and ecotoxicological methods. The addition of RMSM to the subsoil (LQS) at up to 20% did not result any ecotoxic effect, but it increased the water holding capacity. In addition, the microbial substrate utilization became about triple of subsoil (LQS) after 10months. According to our results the RMSM mixed into subsoil (LQS) at 20% w/w dose may be applied as surface layer of landfill cover systems. PMID:27266315

  3. Evaluation of Electroscope Electroshield System.

    PubMed

    1995-01-01

    Hospitals have used a number of approaches to managing the risks of serious complications during laparoscopic monopolar electrosurgery: implementing clinician credentialing policies, considering the interaction of the primary equipment selected for laparoscopy, and introducing an accessory safety device--the Electroscope Electroshield System, which we evaluate here--to reduce the effects of high leakage currents originating on the shaft of the active electrode. We evaluated only the monopolar electrode shielding feature of the device. PMID:7713715

  4. Land Use and Land Cover Changes 1977 to 2000 in the Steppe Region of Ukraine, and Preliminary Results of Evaluating its Ecological and Land Form Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, G. J.; Prydatko, V.; Luhmann, E. P.

    2001-05-01

    Ukraine's history as agro-economic region dates back hundreds of years, being the most productive portion of the "black earth region" for the now defunct Soviet Union. This incredible level of agricultural production brought tremendous changes to the landscape matrix, largely eliminating forests and prairie systems from the southern steppe regions of Ukraine. The age of industrialization has had far less significant impacts to the land use patterns as large farms were operated and managed under Soviet Era cooperatives. The recent, 1992, independence of Ukraine has brought new pressures to the landscape. These pressures are initiated by economic needs of Ukraine seeking to be resolved through increased farm production and rapid land and industrial privatization. This study examines land cover changes between 1977, 1988 and 2000 within a representative region of southern Ukraine and northern Crimea. The region covers prototypical landscapes of the steppe region of agriculture at various scales and crops. The study area also allows an examination of changes along coastal areas in the Azov and Black Seas, specifically barrier systems. Additionally, areas of rapid privatization of industries and introduction of western industries exist within this region. The years selected for documentation were chosen as being one near the height of Soviet autonomy, near separation of the Soviet Union and independence of Ukraine and current times. The study looks at ways of documenting land cover change using satellite imagery with ancillary ground based information. The study evaluates effects of these land cover changes through associated losses of hydrologic characteristics in the landscape such as stream, as well as landform changes especially in coastal barrier systems. These changes are correlated to landscape changes and ecological parameters recorded during this nearly 30 year period. Preliminary conclusions are presented as to alternative land use practices and actions for

  5. Effect of roller/crimper designs in terminating rye cover crop in small-scale conservation systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In recent years, use of cover crops in no-till organic production systems has steadily increased. When cover crops are terminated at an appropriate growth stage, the unincorporated residue mulch protects the soil from erosion, runoff, soil compaction, and weed pressure, and conserves soil water. In ...

  6. Evaluating Anthropogenic Risk of Grassland and Forest Habitat Degradation Using Land-Cover Data

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of landscape context on habitat quality are receiving increased attention in conservation biology. The objective of this research is to demonstrate an approach to mapping and evaluating the anthropogenic risks of grassland and forest habitat degradation by examining ...

  7. Theoretical Accuracy of Global Snow-Cover Mapping Using Satellite Data in the Earth Observing System (EOS) Era

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, D. K.; Foster, J. L.; Salomonson, V. V.; Klein, A. G.; Chien, J. Y. L.

    1998-01-01

    Following the launch of the Earth Observing System first morning (EOS-AM1) satellite, daily, global snow-cover mapping will be performed automatically at a spatial resolution of 500 m, cloud-cover permitting, using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data. A technique to calculate theoretical accuracy of the MODIS-derived snow maps is presented. Field studies demonstrate that under cloud-free conditions when snow cover is complete, snow-mapping errors are small (less than 1%) in all land covers studied except forests where errors are greater and more variable. The theoretical accuracy of MODIS snow-cover maps is largely determined by percent forest cover north of the snowline. Using the 17-class International Geosphere-Biosphere Program (IGBP) land-cover maps of North America and Eurasia, the Northern Hemisphere is classified into seven land-cover classes and water. Snow-mapping errors estimated for each of the seven land-cover classes are extrapolated to the entire Northern Hemisphere for areas north of the average continental snowline for each month. Average monthly errors for the Northern Hemisphere are expected to range from 5 - 10%, and the theoretical accuracy of the future global snow-cover maps is 92% or higher. Error estimates will be refined after the first full year that MODIS data are available.

  8. Clinical evaluations of autologous fibrin glue and polyglycolic acid sheets as oral surgical wound coverings after partial glossectomy.

    PubMed

    Kouketsu, Atsumu; Nogami, Shinnosuke; Fujiwara, Minami; Mori, Shiro; Yamauchi, Kensuke; Hashimoto, Wataru; Miyashita, Hitoshi; Kurihara, Jun; Kawai, Tadashi; Higuchi, Keisuke; Takahashi, Tetsu

    2016-08-01

    Polyglycolic acid (PGA) sheets and commercial fibrin glue are commonly used to cover open wound surfaces in oral surgery. Compared to commercial fibrin glue composed of pooled allogeneic blood, autologous fibrin glue is less expensive and poses lower risks of viral infection and allergic reaction. Here, we evaluated postoperative pain, scar contracture, ingestion, tongue dyskinesia, and postoperative bleeding in 24 patients who underwent partial glossectomy plus the application of a PGA sheet and an autologous fibrin glue covering (autologous group) versus 11 patients in whom a PGA sheet and commercial fibrin glue were used (allogeneic group). The evaluated clinical measures were nearly identical in both groups. Remarkable wound surface granulation was recognized in two cases in the autologous group. No complications were observed in either group, including viral infection or allergic reaction. Abnormal postoperative bleeding in the wound region was observed in one case in the allogeneic group. Coagulation and adhesion of the autologous fibrin glue were equivalent to those of conventional therapy with a PGA sheet and commercial fibrin glue. Thus, our results show that covering wounds with autologous fibrin glue and PGA sheets may help avoid the risks of viral infection and allergic reaction in partial glossectomy cases. PMID:27341770

  9. A priori evaluation of two-stage cluster sampling for accuracy assessment of large-area land-cover maps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wickham, J.D.; Stehman, S.V.; Smith, J.H.; Wade, T.G.; Yang, L.

    2004-01-01

    Two-stage cluster sampling reduces the cost of collecting accuracy assessment reference data by constraining sample elements to fall within a limited number of geographic domains (clusters). However, because classification error is typically positively spatially correlated, within-cluster correlation may reduce the precision of the accuracy estimates. The detailed population information to quantify a priori the effect of within-cluster correlation on precision is typically unavailable. Consequently, a convenient, practical approach to evaluate the likely performance of a two-stage cluster sample is needed. We describe such an a priori evaluation protocol focusing on the spatial distribution of the sample by land-cover class across different cluster sizes and costs of different sampling options, including options not imposing clustering. This protocol also assesses the two-stage design's adequacy for estimating the precision of accuracy estimates for rare land-cover classes. We illustrate the approach using two large-area, regional accuracy assessments from the National Land-Cover Data (NLCD), and describe how the a priorievaluation was used as a decision-making tool when implementing the NLCD design.

  10. Plant functional type classification for earth system models: results from the European Space Agency's Land Cover Climate Change Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poulter, B.; MacBean, N.; Hartley, A.; Khlystova, I.; Arino, O.; Betts, R.; Bontemps, S.; Boettcher, M.; Brockmann, C.; Defourny, P.; Hagemann, S.; Herold, M.; Kirches, G.; Lamarche, C.; Lederer, D.; Ottlé, C.; Peters, M.; Peylin, P.

    2015-07-01

    Global land cover is a key variable in the earth system with feedbacks on climate, biodiversity and natural resources. However, global land cover data sets presently fall short of user needs in providing detailed spatial and thematic information that is consistently mapped over time and easily transferable to the requirements of earth system models. In 2009, the European Space Agency launched the Climate Change Initiative (CCI), with land cover (LC_CCI) as 1 of 13 essential climate variables targeted for research development. The LC_CCI was implemented in three phases: first responding to a survey of user needs; developing a global, moderate-resolution land cover data set for three time periods, or epochs (2000, 2005, and 2010); and the last phase resulting in a user tool for converting land cover to plant functional type equivalents. Here we present the results of the LC_CCI project with a focus on the mapping approach used to convert the United Nations Land Cover Classification System to plant functional types (PFTs). The translation was performed as part of consultative process among map producers and users, and resulted in an open-source conversion tool. A comparison with existing PFT maps used by three earth system modeling teams shows significant differences between the LC_CCI PFT data set and those currently used in earth system models with likely consequences for modeling terrestrial biogeochemistry and land-atmosphere interactions. The main difference between the new LC_CCI product and PFT data sets used currently by three different dynamic global vegetation modeling teams is a reduction in high-latitude grassland cover, a reduction in tropical tree cover and an expansion in temperate forest cover in Europe. The LC_CCI tool is flexible for users to modify land cover to PFT conversions and will evolve as phase 2 of the European Space Agency CCI program continues.

  11. A parametric model for classifying land cover and evaluating training data based on multi-temporal remote sensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glanz, Hunter; Carvalho, Luis; Sulla-Menashe, Damien; Friedl, Mark A.

    2014-11-01

    Time series of multispectral images are widely used to monitor and map land cover. However, high dimensionality and missing data present significant challenges for classification algorithms that use multi-temporal remotely sensed data. Further, generation and assessment of high quality training data, including detection of outliers and changed pixels in training data, is difficult. In this paper we present a new statistical framework that is based on a parametric model that enables a targeted principal component analysis (PCA) to reduce the dimensionality of multi-temporal remote sensing data. In doing so, the model provides a novel basis for land cover classification and evaluating the nature and quality of training data used for supervised classifications. The methodology we describe uses a Kronecker operator to reduce the spectral dimensionality of multi-temporal images while preserving their temporal structure, thereby providing low-dimensional data that is well-suited for classification and outlier detection problems. As part of our framework, we use an expectation-maximization method to impute missing data, and propose new metrics that characterize the representativeness and pixel-to-pixel homogeneity of training sites used for supervised classification. To evaluate our approach, we use data from NASA's Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and extracted more than 200 training sites where the land cover has been characterized from high spatial resolution imagery. The original input data was composed of 196 features (28 dates × 7 bands), and the PCA-based approach we describe captured 91% of the variance, in these 7 bands, in 3 components. Results from maximum likelihood classification show that the retained principal components successfully distinguish land cover classes from one another, with classification results that were comparable to supervised machine learning methods applied to the original MODIS data. Analysis of our site composition

  12. Hierarchical storage management system evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodrow, Thomas S.

    1993-01-01

    The Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation (NAS) Program at NASA Ames Research Center has been developing a hierarchical storage management system, NAStore, for some 6 years. This evaluation compares functionality, performance, reliability, and other factors of NAStore and three commercial alternatives. FileServ is found to be slightly better overall than NAStore and DMF. UniTree is found to be severely lacking in comparison.

  13. Adaptive cover crop implementation and evaluation in the Chesapeake Bay watersheds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four years of applied research, led by the USDA-ARS Choptank River Conservation Reserve Assessment Project (CEAP), have demonstrated that satellite remote sensing, used in combination with cost-share program farm implementation records, can provide a powerful tool for evaluating the nutrient conserv...

  14. Nondestructive evaluation: A survey of NASA contributions, chapter 1, Chapter 11, cover page, acknowledgements, and contents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    A survey of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) technology, which is discussed in terms of popular demands for a greater degree of quality, reliability, and safety in industrial products, is presented as an overview of the NDE field to serve the needs of middle management. Three NDE methods are presented: acoustic emission, the use of coherent (laser)light, and ultrasonic holography.

  15. Concurrent ultrasonic weld evaluation system

    DOEpatents

    Hood, Donald W.; Johnson, John A.; Smartt, Herschel B.

    1987-01-01

    A system for concurrent, non-destructive evaluation of partially completed welds for use in conjunction with an automated welder. The system utilizes real time, automated ultrasonic inspection of a welding operation as the welds are being made by providing a transducer which follows a short distance behind the welding head. Reflected ultrasonic signals are analyzed utilizing computer based digital pattern recognition techniques to discriminate between good and flawed welds on a pass by pass basis. The system also distinguishes between types of weld flaws.

  16. Concurrent ultrasonic weld evaluation system

    DOEpatents

    Hood, D.W.; Johnson, J.A.; Smartt, H.B.

    1985-09-04

    A system for concurrent, non-destructive evaluation of partially completed welds for use in conjunction with an automated welder. The system utilizes real time, automated ultrasonic inspection of a welding operation as the welds are being made by providing a transducer which follows a short distance behind the welding head. Reflected ultrasonic signals are analyzed utilizing computer based digital pattern recognition techniques to discriminate between good and flawed welds on a pass by pass basis. The system also distinguishes between types of weld flaws.

  17. Concurrent ultrasonic weld evaluation system

    DOEpatents

    Hood, D.W.; Johnson, J.A.; Smartt, H.B.

    1987-12-15

    A system for concurrent, non-destructive evaluation of partially completed welds for use in conjunction with an automated welder is disclosed. The system utilizes real time, automated ultrasonic inspection of a welding operation as the welds are being made by providing a transducer which follows a short distance behind the welding head. Reflected ultrasonic signals are analyzed utilizing computer based digital pattern recognition techniques to discriminate between good and flawed welds on a pass by pass basis. The system also distinguishes between types of weld flaws. 5 figs.

  18. Laboratory evaluation of adhesive systems.

    PubMed

    Barkmeier, W W; Cooley, R L

    1992-01-01

    Adhesive bonding of resin materials to acid-conditioned enamel is a clinically proven technique in preventative, restorative, and orthodontic procedures. Laboratory evaluations of etched-enamel resin bonding have shown excellent bond strengths and the virtual elimination of marginal microleakage. Adhesion to dentin has been more of a challenge. Earlier-generation dentin bonding systems did not yield high bond strengths in the laboratory or prevent marginal microleakage. Newer-generation adhesive systems generally use a dentin conditioner to modify or remove the smear layer and a subsequent application of an adhesive resin bonding agent. Laboratory evaluations of newer systems have shown bond strengths that approach or actually exceed that of etched enamel resin bonding. Bond strengths have improved with the evolution of dentin bonding systems, and microleakage from the cementum/dentin margin has been significantly reduced or prevented with the newer systems. Although laboratory testing of adhesive systems provides a mechanism to screen and compare newly developed systems, clinical trials are essential to document long-term clinical performance. PMID:1470553

  19. The Adaptability Evaluation of Enterprise Information Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Junjuan; Xue, Chaogai; Dong, Lili

    In this paper, a set of evaluation system is proposed by GQM (Goal-Question-Metrics) for enterprise information systems. Then based on Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS), the evaluation model is proposed to evaluate enterprise information systems' adaptability. Finally, the application of the evaluation system and model is proved via a case study, which provides references for optimizing enterprise information systems' adaptability.

  20. Evaluation of anti-migration properties of biliary covered self-expandable metal stents

    PubMed Central

    Minaga, Kosuke; Kitano, Masayuki; Imai, Hajime; Harwani, Yogesh; Yamao, Kentaro; Kamata, Ken; Miyata, Takeshi; Omoto, Shunsuke; Kadosaka, Kumpei; Sakurai, Toshiharu; Nishida, Naoshi; Kudo, Masatoshi

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To assess anti-migration potential of six biliary covered self-expandable metal stents (C-SEMSs) by using a newly designed phantom model. METHODS: In the phantom model, the stent was placed in differently sized holes in a silicone wall and retracted with a retraction robot. Resistance force to migration (RFM) was measured by a force gauge on the stent end. Radial force (RF) was measured with a RF measurement machine. Measured flare structure variables were the outer diameter, height, and taper angle of the flare (ODF, HF, and TAF, respectively). Correlations between RFM and RF or flare variables were analyzed using a linear correlated model. RESULTS: Out of the six stents, five stents were braided, the other was laser-cut. The RF and RFM of each stent were expressed as the average of five replicate measurements. For all six stents, RFM and RF decreased as the hole diameter increased. For all six stents, RFM and RF correlated strongly when the stent had not fully expanded. This correlation was not observed in the five braided stents excluding the laser cut stent. For all six stents, there was a strong correlation between RFM and TAF when the stent fully expanded. For the five braided stents, RFM after full stent expansion correlated strongly with all three stent flare structure variables (ODF, HF, and TAF). The laser-cut C-SEMS had higher RFMs than the braided C-SEMSs regardless of expansion state. CONCLUSION: RF was an important anti-migration property when the C-SEMS did not fully expand. Once fully expanded, stent flare structure variables plays an important role in anti-migration. PMID:27570427

  1. Efficiently evaluate complex pressure relief systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, R.K.; Walker, A.G.

    1997-01-01

    This article will present the steps necessary to perform a comprehensive analysis of complex pressure relief systems. The goal is not to discuss detailed calculations for proper valve sizing and selection, but rather to analyze and verify existing system configurations. Sizing and selection have been covered in detail by the American Petroleum Institute (API) RP 520, API RP 521, various AIChE Design Institute for Emergency Relief Systems (DIERS) publications, and other sources. In their work with industry, the authors have noticed a tendency for some engineers to proceed with detailed calculations without first preparing an overall strategy and implementation plan to make sure that the calculations yield the desired results. They have seen detailed pressure relief system analyses costing hundreds of thousands of dollars which, for any number of reasons, are incorrect. The old adage GIGO (garbage in/garbage out) certainly applies to pressure relief system analysis. They will address the thought processes and actions necessary to correctly and efficiently evaluate complex pressure relief systems.

  2. Evaluation of SLAR and simulated thematic mapper MSS data for forest cover mapping using computer-aided analysis techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffer, R. M.; Dean, M. E.; Knowlton, D. J.; Latty, R. S.

    1982-01-01

    Kershaw County, South Carolina was selected as the study site for analyzing simulated thematic mapper MSS data and dual-polarized X-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data. The impact of the improved spatial and spectral characteristics of the LANDSAT D thematic mapper data on computer aided analysis for forest cover type mapping was examined as well as the value of synthetic aperture radar data for differentiating forest and other cover types. The utility of pattern recognition techniques for analyzing SAR data was assessed. Topics covered include: (1) collection and of TMS and reference data; (2) reformatting, geometric and radiometric rectification, and spatial resolution degradation of TMS data; (3) development of training statistics and test data sets; (4) evaluation of different numbers and combinations of wavelength bands on classification performance; (5) comparison among three classification algorithms; and (6) the effectiveness of the principal component transformation in data analysis. The collection, digitization, reformatting, and geometric adjustment of SAR data are also discussed. Image interpretation results and classification results are presented.

  3. Evaluation of simple model for net radiation estimates above various vegetation covers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hlavinka, P.; Trnka, M.; Fischer, M.; Kucera, J.; Mozny, M.; Zalud, Z.

    2010-09-01

    The main objective of submitted study was to calibrate and verify the simple model for net radiation (Rn) estimates during the growing periods of selected agricultural crops. In the same time the soil heat flux (G) measurements were analysed. The model needs incoming solar radiation, air temperature, vapor pressure measurements and information about albedo as input. The net radiation is determined as difference between the incoming net shortwave radiation (Rns) and the outgoing net longwave radiation (Rnl). The Rns is estimated from incoming solar radiation using albedo. The Rnl is estimated from daily maximum and minimum temperature, vapour pressure, incoming solar radiation and derived clear-sky radiation. The accuracy of the model was assessed on the basis of radiation balance measurements (by Net radiometer Schenk 8110) at two experimental stations in the Czech Republic (i.e. Polkovice 49°23´ (N), 17°17´ (E), 205 m a.s.l.; Domanínek 49°32´ (N), 16°15´ (E), 544 m a.s.l.) during the years 2009 and 2010. The parameter G was measured by Hukseflux Thermal Sensor HFP01. For the purpose of mentioned analyses the measurements were conducted during the growing season of spring barley, winter wheat, winter rape, grass, poplars and above field after harvest of cereals (after/without tillage). These covers are very common type of surface within agricultural landscape in Central Europe. The enhanced method of Rn and G estimation were then used for the SoilClim model runs. The present version of SoilClim uses very simple algorithm for radiation balance and should be modified to be closer to reality. Namely the estimates of reference evapotranspiration (ETo), actual evapotranspiration (ETa) and soil water content could be substantially improved by this way. Acknowledgement: We gratefully acknowledge the support of the Grant Agency of the Czech Republic (no. 521/09/P479) and Research plan No. MSM6215648905 "Biological and technological aspects of sustainability of

  4. Agricultural land cover mapping in the context of a geographically referenced digital information system. [Carroll, Macon, and Gentry Counties, Missouri

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoner, E. R.

    1982-01-01

    The introduction of soil map information to the land cover mapping process can improve discrimination of land cover types and reduce confusion among crop types that may be caused by soil-specific management practices and background reflectance characteristics. Multiple dates of LANDSAT MSS digital were analyzed for three study areas in northern Missouri to produce cover types for major agricultural land cover classes. Digital data bases were then developed by adding ancillary data such as digitized soil and transportation network information to the LANDSAT-derived cover type map. Procedures were developed to manipulate the data base parameters to extract information applicable to user requirements. An agricultural information system combining such data can be used to determine the productive capacity of land to grow crops, fertilizer needs, chemical weed control rates, irrigation suitability, and trafficability of soil for planting.

  5. Evaluation of Intrusion Detection Systems

    PubMed Central

    Ulvila, Jacob W.; Gaffney, John E.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive method for evaluating intrusion detection systems (IDSs). It integrates and extends ROC (receiver operating characteristic) and cost analysis methods to provide an expected cost metric. Results are given for determining the optimal operation of an IDS based on this expected cost metric. Results are given for the operation of a single IDS and for a combination of two IDSs. The method is illustrated for: 1) determining the best operating point for a single and double IDS based on the costs of mistakes and the hostility of the operating environment as represented in the prior probability of intrusion and 2) evaluating single and double IDSs on the basis of expected cost. A method is also described for representing a compound IDS as an equivalent single IDS. Results are presented from the point of view of a system administrator, but they apply equally to designers of IDSs.

  6. Performance Criteria and Evaluation System

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1992-06-18

    The Performance Criteria and Evaluation System (PCES) was developed in order to make a data base of criteria accessible to radiation safety staff. The criteria included in the package are applicable to occupational radiation safety at DOE reactor and nonreactor nuclear facilities, but any data base of criteria may be created using the Criterion Data Base Utiliity (CDU). PCES assists personnel in carrying out oversight, line, and support activities.

  7. High Pressure Electrolyzer System Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prokopius, Kevin; Coloza, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    This report documents the continuing efforts to evaluate the operational state of a high pressure PEM based electrolyzer located at the NASA Glenn Research Center. This electrolyzer is a prototype system built by General Electric and refurbished by Hamilton Standard (now named Hamilton Sunstrand). It is capable of producing hydrogen and oxygen at an output pressure of 3000 psi. The electrolyzer has been in storage for a number of years. Evaluation and testing was performed to determine the state of the electrolyzer and provide an estimate of the cost for refurbishment. Pressure testing was performed using nitrogen gas through the oxygen ports to ascertain the status of the internal membranes and seals. It was determined that the integrity of the electrolyzer stack was good as there were no appreciable leaks in the membranes or seals within the stack. In addition to the integrity testing, an itemized list and part cost estimate was produced for the components of the electrolyzer system. An evaluation of the system s present state and an estimate of the cost to bring it back to operational status was also produced.

  8. Innovative permeable cover system to reduce risks at a chemical munitions burial site

    SciTech Connect

    Powels, C.C.; Bon, I.; Okusu, N.M.

    1997-12-31

    An innovative permeable sand cover with various integrated systems has been designed to contain and treat the Old O-Field chemical munitions landfill at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. The 18,200 m{sup 2} (4.5 acre) landfill was used from the mid 1930s to the mid 1950s for the disposal of chemical, incendiary, and explosive munitions from domestic and foreign origins, together with contaminated wastes associated with the development and production of chemical warfare agents (CWA). The site is suspected to be contaminated with white phosphorous (WP) (which when dry, spontaneously burns when exposed to air), shock sensitive picric acid fuses and has the potential to contain large quantities of CWA-filled munitions. Historically, one to three explosions or fires occurred per ten-year period at the landfill. Such events have the potential to cause a CWA release to the environment, which could potentially affect densely populated areas. Recovery and decontamination projects conducted at the site in the late 1940s and early 1950s used large amounts of decontamination chemicals (containing solvents) and fuels which further contaminated the area. The groundwater downgradient of the landfill is contaminated with volatile organic compounds, metals, explosives and CWA degradation compounds and is currently being contained by a groundwater extraction and treatment system. This report describes a remedial action program for the site.

  9. On the Implementation of a Land Cover Classification System for SAR Images Using Khoros

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Medina Revera, Edwin J.; Espinosa, Ramon Vasquez

    1997-01-01

    The Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) sensor is widely used to record data about the ground under all atmospheric conditions. The SAR acquired images have very good resolution which necessitates the development of a classification system that process the SAR images to extract useful information for different applications. In this work, a complete system for the land cover classification was designed and programmed using the Khoros, a data flow visual language environment, taking full advantages of the polymorphic data services that it provides. Image analysis was applied to SAR images to improve and automate the processes of recognition and classification of the different regions like mountains and lakes. Both unsupervised and supervised classification utilities were used. The unsupervised classification routines included the use of several Classification/Clustering algorithms like the K-means, ISO2, Weighted Minimum Distance, and the Localized Receptive Field (LRF) training/classifier. Different texture analysis approaches such as Invariant Moments, Fractal Dimension and Second Order statistics were implemented for supervised classification of the images. The results and conclusions for SAR image classification using the various unsupervised and supervised procedures are presented based on their accuracy and performance.

  10. Effect of inert cover gas on performance of radioisotope Stirling space power system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, R.; Kumar, V.; Or, C.; Schock, A.

    2001-02-01

    This paper describes an updated Orbital design of a radioisotope Stirling power system and its predicted performance at the beginning and end of a six-year mission to the Jovian moon Europa. The design is based on General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules identical to those previously developed and safety-qualified by the Department of Energy (DOE) which were successfully launched on missions to Jupiter and Saturn by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). In each generator, the heat produced by the decay of the Pu-238 isotope is converted to electric power by two free-piston Stirling engines and linear alternators developed by Stirling Technology Company (STC), and their rejected waste heat is transported to radiators by heat pipes. The principal difference between the proposed system design and previous Orbital designs (Or et al., 2000) is the thermal insulation between the heat source and the generator's housing. Previous designs had employed multifoil insulation, whereas the design described here employs Min-K-1800 thermal insulation. Such insulation had been successfully used by Teledyne and GE in earlier RTGs (Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators). Although Min-K is a much poorer insulator than multifoil in vacuum and requires a substantially greater thickness for equivalent performance, it offers compensating advantages. Specifically it makes it possible to adjust the generator's BOM temperatures by filling its interior volume with inert cover gas. This makes it possible to meet the generator's BOM and EOM performance goals without exceeding its allowable temperature at the beginning of the mission. .

  11. Effect of Inert Cover Gas on Performance of Radioisotope Stirling Space Power System

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, Robert; Kumar, V; Ore, C; Schock, Alfred

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes an updated Orbital design of a radioisotope Stirling power system and its predicted performance at the beginning and end of a six-year mission to the Jovian moon Europa. The design is based on General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules identical to those previously developed and safety-qualified by the Department of Energy (DOE) which were successfully launched to Jupiter and Saturn by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). In each generator, the heat produced by the decay of the Pu-238 isotope is converted to electric power by two free-piston Stirling engines and linear alternators developed by Stirling Technology Company (STC), and their rejected waste heat is transported to radiators by heat pipes. The principal difference between the proposed system design and previous Orbital designs (Or et al. 2000) is the thermal insulation between the heat source and the generator's housing. Previous designs had employed multifoil insulation, whereas the design described here employs Min-K-1800 thermal insulation. Such insulation had been successfully used by Teledyne and GE in earlier RTGs (Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators). Although Min-K is a much poorer insulator than multifoil in vacuum and requires a substantially greater thickness for equivalent performance, it offers compensating advantages. Specifically it makes it possible to adjust the generator's BOM temperatures by filling its interior volume with inert cover gas. This makes it possible to meet the generator's BOM and EOM performance goals without exceeding its allowable temperature at the beginning of the mission.

  12. Detailed analysis of the energy yield of systems with covered sheet-and-tube PVT collectors

    SciTech Connect

    Santbergen, R.; Rindt, C.C.M.; van Zolingen, R.J.Ch.; Zondag, H.A.

    2010-05-15

    Solar cells have a typical efficiency in the range of 5-20%, implying that 80% or more of the incident solar energy can be harvested in the form of heat and applied for low-temperature heating. In a PVT collector one tries to collect this heat. In this work, the electrical and thermal yield of solar domestic hot water systems with one-cover sheet-and-tube PVT collectors were considered. Objectives of the work were to understand the mechanisms determining these yields, to investigate measures to improve these yields and to investigate the yield consequences if various solar cell technologies are being used. The work was carried out using numerical simulations. A detailed quantitative understanding of all loss mechanisms was obtained, especially of those being inherent to the use of PVT collectors instead of PV modules and conventional thermal collectors. The annual electrical efficiencies of the PVT systems investigated were up to 14% (relative) lower compared to pure PV systems and the annual thermal efficiencies up to 19% (relative) lower compared to pure thermal collector systems. The loss of electrical efficiency is mainly caused by the relatively high fluid temperature. The loss of thermal efficiency is caused both by the high emissivity of the absorber and the withdrawal of electrical energy. However, both the loss of electrical and thermal efficiency can be reduced further by the application of anti-reflective coatings. The thermal efficiency can be improved by the application of a low-emissivity coating on the absorber, however at the cost of a reduced electrical efficiency. (author)

  13. Research priorities in land use and land-cover change for the Earth system and integrated assessment modelling

    SciTech Connect

    Hibbard, Kathleen A.; Janetos, Anthony C.; Van Vuuren, Detlef; Pongratz, Julia; Rose, Steven K.; Betts, Richard; Herold, Martin; Feddema, Johannes J.

    2010-11-15

    This special issue has highlighted recent and innovative methods and results that integrate observations and AQ3 modelling analyses of regional to global aspect of biophysical and biogeochemical interactions of land-cover change with the climate system. Both the Earth System and the Integrated Assessment modeling communities recognize the importance of an accurate representation of land use and land-cover change to understand and quantify the interactions and feedbacks with the climate and socio-economic systems, respectively. To date, cooperation between these communities has been limited. Based on common interests, this work discusses research priorities in representing land use and land-cover change for improved collaboration across modelling, observing and measurement communities. Major research topics in land use and land-cover change are those that help us better understand (1) the interaction of land use and land cover with the climate system (e.g. carbon cycle feedbacks), (2) the provision of goods and ecosystem services by terrestrial (natural and anthropogenic) land-cover types (e.g. food production), (3) land use and management decisions and (4) opportunities and limitations for managing climate change (for both mitigation and adaptation strategies).

  14. Evaluation of Snow Cover Depletion to Support Snowmelt Runoff Prediction for the Cache la Poudre River, Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richer, E. E.; Kampf, S. K.; Fassnacht, S. R.

    2008-12-01

    The Cache la Poudre River in northeastern Colorado is a source of water for many agricultural, municipal, and industrial users. Most runoff in the basin is generated from snowmelt, but snow measurements are sparse, located only at a few high elevation SNOTEL stations and snow courses. Over much of the watershed, no snow measurements are available to support runoff forecasts. For this study we analyzed snow covered area (SCA) depletion characteristics to evaluate whether SCA data could improve snowmelt runoff prediction. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) 8-day snow-cover products were obtained for the Cache la Poudre basin from 2000 to 2006 for March through June of each year. We analyzed snow cover depletion characteristics for spatial subsets of the basin, including sub-basins and elevation bands. Regression analyses compare the 8-day SCA images to 8-day average stream flow at the USGS canyon mouth gauge (the forecasting location). Results from regression analyses show a wide range of relationships between SCA and streamflow (0.032<0.92), mostly as a result of high inter- annual variability in the flow regime. SCA image impairment from cloud cover was generally low but did impact results in some years. For sub-basins, the strongest correlations between SCA and streamflow were for high elevation sub-basins (0.602<0.92), whereas for elevation bands, the strongest correlations were for a mid-elevation band, 2680-3042 m (0.602<0.92). The poorest relationships between SCA and streamflow occurred for low elevation bands, 1591-1953 m and 1954-2315 m, and very high elevation bands, 3406-3768 m and 3769-4131 m. The strong relationship between SCA and discharge at middle elevations suggests that runoff prediction can be improved by monitoring snow cover within these areas. The initial rise in the snowmelt hydrograph correlates well with SCA depletion at middle elevations, whereas the onset of peak flow does not occur until a significant change in snow

  15. Cover cropping and no-tillage improve soil health in arid irrigated cropping systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The impact on soil health of long-term no-tillage (NT) and cover cropping (CC) practices, alone and in combination, was measured and compared with standard tillage (ST) with and without cover crops (NO) in irrigated row crops after 15 years of management in the San Joaquin Valley, CA. Soil aggregat...

  16. Drivers of forest cover dynamics in smallholder farming systems: the case of northwestern Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Jadin, Isaline; Vanacker, Veerle; Hoang, Huong Thi Thu

    2013-04-01

    The national-scale forest recovery of Vietnam started in the early 1990s and is associated with a shift from net deforestation to net reforestation. Large disparities in forest cover dynamics are, however, observed at the local scale. This study aims to unravel the mechanisms driving forest cover change for a mountainous region located in northwest Vietnam. Statistical analyses were used to explore the association between forest cover change and household characteristics. In Sa Pa district, deforestation rates are decreasing, but forest degradation continues at similar rates. Deforestation is not necessarily associated with impoverished ethnic communities or high levels of subsistence farming, and the largest forest cover dynamics are found in villages with the best socio-economic conditions. Our empirical study does not provide strong evidence of a dominant role of agriculture in forest cover dynamics. It shows that empirical studies on local-scale forest dynamics remain important to unravel the complexity of human-environment interactions. PMID:23001944

  17. Models and techniques for evaluating the effectiveness of aircraft computing systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, J. F.

    1978-01-01

    Progress in the development of system models and techniques for the formulation and evaluation of aircraft computer system effectiveness is reported. Topics covered include: analysis of functional dependence: a prototype software package, METAPHOR, developed to aid the evaluation of performability; and a comprehensive performability modeling and evaluation exercise involving the SIFT computer.

  18. System for reducing heat losses from indoor swimming pools by use of automatic covers. Final report, October 1, 1993--September 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    This final report is an account of the principal activities of Lof Energy Systems, Inc. in a two-year project funded by the Energy Related Inventions Program (ERIP) of the U.S. Department of Energy. The primary objective has been the development of a fully practical and economical system for saving energy in indoor swimming pools by use of motorized covers. The goal is wide-spread use of a fully developed product, in institutional swimming pools. Four major tasks, depicted in the accompanying Performance Schedule, have been completed, and one other has been initiated and its completion committed. Principal accomplishments have been the selection and improvement of cover materials and designs, lengthening and strengthening of reels and improvements in motorized components and their control, design and installation of pool covers in full scale demonstration and evaluation of fully developed commercial system, preparation and dissemination of manuals and reports, finalization of arrangements for Underwriters Laboratory certification of products, and final report preparation and submission. Of greatest significance has been the successful demonstration of the fully developed system and the verification and reporting by an energy consultant of the large savings resulting from pool cover use. Probably the best evidence of success of the DOE-ERIP project in advancing this invention to a commercial stage is its acceptance for sale by the Lincoln Equipment Company, a national distributor of swimming pool supplies and equipment. A copy of the relevant page in the Lincoln catalog is included in this report as Annex A. Representatives of that company now offer Tof motorized pool cover systems to their pool owner customers. In addition to the plans for securing UL certification the company expects to continue making design improvements that can increase system reliability, durability, and cost-effectiveness.

  19. Evaluation of ShARP Passive Rainfall Retrievals over Snow-Covered Land Surfaces and Coastal Zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebtehaj, Ardeshir M.; Bras, Rafael L.; Foufoula-Georgiou, Efi

    2016-04-01

    For precipitation retrievals over land, using satellite measurements in microwave bands, it is important to properly discriminate the weak rainfall signals from strong and highly variable background surface emission. Traditionally, land rainfall retrieval methods often rely on a weak signal of rainfall scattering on high-frequency channels (85 GHz) and make use of empirical thresholding and regression-based techniques. Due to the increased ground surface signal interference, precipitation retrieval over radiometrically complex land surfaces, especially over snow-covered lands, deserts and coastal areas, is of particular challenge for this class of retrieval techniques. This paper evaluates the results by the recently proposed Shrunken locally linear embedding Algorithm for Retrieval of Precipitation (ShARP), over a radiometrically complex terrain and coastal areas using the data provided by the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite. To this end, the ShARP retrieval experiments are performed over a region in Southeast Asia, partly covering the Tibetan Highlands, Himalayas, Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna river basins and its delta. We elucidate promising results by ShARP over snow covered land surfaces and at the vicinity of coastlines, in comparison with the land rainfall retrievals of the standard TRMM-2A12 product. Specifically, using the TRMM-2A25 radar product as a reference, we provide evidence that the ShARP algorithm can significantly reduce the rainfall over estimation due to the background snow contamination and markedly improve detection and retrieval of rainfall at the vicinity of coastlines. During the calendar year 2013, we demonstrate that over the study domain the root mean squared difference can be reduced up to 38% annually, while the reduction can reach up to 70% during the cold months.

  20. Insects associated with winter legume cover crops in a sorghum for Bio-fuel and cotton rotation system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Use of novel crops for bio-fuel production requires evaluating the potential for sound ecological and economical implementation in a particular region. We examined the pest and generalist beneficial insect species associated with various winter cover crops (including narrowleaf lupin, white vetch, ...

  1. Development of an Integrity Evaluation System for Nuclear Power Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Young-Jin; Choi, Jae-Boong; Lee, Joon-Seong; Jun, Hyun-Kyu; Park, Youn-Won

    This paper describes the structure and development strategy for integrity evaluation system for nuclear power plants called NPP-KINS/SAFE. NPP-KINS/SAFE consists of three different programs covering the integrity assessment of reactor pressure vessel, pipings, and pressure tubes, respectively. The system has been developed based on currently available codes and standards, and includes a number of databases, expert systems, and numerical analysis schemes. NPP-KINS/SAFE is applicable for various types of nuclear power plants constructed in Korea with the aid of attached database systems including plant specific data. Case studies for the developed system are also provided.

  2. Evaluating Storage Systems for Lustre

    SciTech Connect

    Oral, H. Sarp

    2015-08-20

    Storage systems are complex, including multiple subsystems and components. Sustained operations with top performance require all these subsystems and components working as expected. Having a detailed performance profile helps establishing a baseline. This baseline can be used for easier identification of possible future problems. A systematic bottom-to-top approach, starting with a detailed performance analysis of disks and moving up across layers and subsystems, provides a quantitative breakdown of each component's capabilities and bottlenecks. Coupling these low-level tests with Lustre-level evaluations will present a better understanding of performance expectations under different I/O workloads.

  3. Evaluating geographic information systems technology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guptill, Stephen C.

    1989-01-01

    Computerized geographic information systems (GISs) are emerging as the spatial data handling tools of choice for solving complex geographical problems. However, few guidelines exist for assisting potential users in identifying suitable hardware and software. A process to be followed in evaluating the merits of GIS technology is presented. Related standards and guidelines, software functions, hardware components, and benchmarking are discussed. By making users aware of all aspects of adopting GIS technology, they can decide if GIS is an appropriate tool for their application and, if so, which GIS should be used.

  4. Plant functional type classification for Earth System Models: results from the European Space Agency's Land Cover Climate Change Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poulter, B.; MacBean, N.; Hartley, A.; Khlystova, I.; Arino, O.; Betts, R.; Bontemps, S.; Boettcher, M.; Brockmann, C.; Defourny, P.; Hagemann, S.; Herold, M.; Kirches, G.; Lamarche, C.; Lederer, D.; Ottlé, C.; Peters, M.; Peylin, P.

    2015-01-01

    Global land cover is a key variable in the earth system with feedbacks on climate, biodiversity and natural resources. However, global land-cover datasets presently fall short of user needs in providing detailed spatial and thematic information that is consistently mapped over time and easily transferable to the requirements of earth system models. In 2009, the European Space Agency launched the Climate Change Initiative (CCI), with land cover (LC_CCI) as one of thirteen Essential Climate Variables targeted for research development. The LC_CCI was implemented in three phases, first responding to a survey of user needs, then developing a global, moderate resolution, land-cover dataset for three time periods, or epochs, 2000, 2005, and 2010, and the last phase resulting in a user-tool for converting land cover to plant functional type equivalents. Here we present the results of the LC_CCI project with a focus on the mapping approach used to convert the United Nations Land Cover Classification System to plant functional types (PFT). The translation was performed as part of consultative process among map producers and users and resulted in an open-source conversion tool. A comparison with existing PFT maps used by three-earth system modeling teams shows significant differences between the LC_CCI PFT dataset and those currently used in earth system models with likely consequences for modeling terrestrial biogeochemistry and land-atmosphere interactions. The LC_CCI tool is flexible for users to modify land cover to PFT conversions and will evolve as Phase 2 of the European Space Agency CCI program continues.

  5. Preliminary evaluation of the SIR-B response to soil moisture, surface roughness, and crop canopy cover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dobson, M. C.; Ulaby, F. T.

    1986-01-01

    Two predawn ascending data-takes by the Shuttle Imaging Radar-B (SIR-B) were used to evaluate the effects of surface roughness, crop canopy, and soil moisture on radar backscatter. The two images, separated by three days, were both obtained at 30-deg local angle of incidence, but with opposite azimuth viewing directions. The imagery was externally calibrated with respect to the radar backscattering coefficient sigma(0) via response to arrays of point and area-extended targets of known radar cross section. Three land-cover classes: (1) corn, (2) corn stubble and plowed bare soil, and (3) disked bare soil, soybeans, soybean stubble, alfalfa, and clover could be readily separated for either observation date on the basis of image tone alone. The dependence of sigma(0) on the surface roughness and canopy brightness inhibits the capability of SIR to globally estimate the near-surface soil moisture from the value of sigma(0) for single date observations, unless the surface roughness or canopy cover conditions are accounted for. However, within given ranges of these conditions, the sigma(0) was found to be highly correlated with the soil moisture.

  6. Evaluation of SLAR and thematic mapper MSS data for forest cover mapping using computer-aided analysis techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffer, R. M. (Principal Investigator); Latty, R. S.; Dean, E.; Knowlton, D. J.

    1980-01-01

    Separate holograms of horizontally (HH) and vertically (HV) polarized responses obtained by the APQ-102 side-looking radar were processed through an optical correlator and the resulting image was recorded on positive film from which black and white negative and positive prints were made. Visual comparison of the HH and HV images reveals a distinct dark band in the imagery which covers about 30% of the radar strip. Preliminary evaluaton of the flight line 1 date indicates that various features on the HH and HV images seem to have different response levels. The amount of sidelap due to the look angle between flight lines 1 and 2 is negligible. NASA mission #425 to obtain flightlines of NS-001 MSS data and supporting aerial photography was successfully flown. Flight line 3 data are of very good quality and virtually cloud-free. Results of data analysis for selection of test fields and for evaluation of waveband combination and spatial resolution are presented.

  7. Cryptogamic covers control spectral vegetation indices and their seasonal variation in dryland systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez-Caballero, Emilio; Knerr, Tanja; Büdel, Burkhard; Hill, Joachim; Weber, Bettina

    2016-04-01

    Remote sensing data provide spatially continuous information on vegetation dynamics by means of long-term series of vegetation indices (VI). However, most of these indices show problematic results in drylands, as a consequence of the scarce vegetation cover and the strong effect of the open space between plants. Open soil between plants as well as rock surfaces in dryland ecosystems are often covered by complex communities of cyanobacteria, algae, lichens and mosses. These cryptogamic covers show a faster phenological response to water pulses than vascular vegetation, turning green almost immediately after the first rain following a dry period and modifying their spectral response. However, only few studies quantified the effects of cryptogamic covers on VI, and none of them considered them in the analysis of temporal series of satellite images, where differences in physiology and reflectance between cryptogamic covers and vascular vegetation interact. For this reason, we quantified how cryptogamic covers modify the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI), based on field and lab spectral measurements. For two different biocrust-dominated ecosystems within the South African Karoo, we analyzed the effect of biocrusts on spectrally analyzed vegetation dynamics using multi-temporal series of VI obtained from LANDSAT and MODIS images . Cryptogamic covers exerted a considerable effect on both NDVI and EVI calculated from field and lab spectra. As previously described for vegetation, also increasing cryptogam cover caused an increase of both VI values, and this effect also became apparent at LANDSAT image scale. However, the response of VI extracted from LANDSAT images upon environmental factors differed between pixels dominated by cryptogams and vascular vegetation. Whereas vegetation showed the highest changes in VI values in response to water availability and temperature, cryptogamic covers, which are the main surface

  8. Evaluation of Small Mass Spectrometer Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arkin, C. Richard; Griffin, Timothy P.; Ottens, Andrew K.; Diaz, Jorge A.; Follistein, Duke W.; Adams, Fredrick W.; Helms, William R.; Voska, N. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Various mass analyzer systems were evaluated. Several systems show promise, including the Stanford Research Systems RGA-100, Inficon XPR-2, the University of Florida's Ion Trap, and the Compact Double Focus Mass Spectrometer. Areas that need improvement are the response time, recovery time, system volume, and system weight. Future work will investigate techniques to improve systems and will evaluate engineering challenges.

  9. EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) evaluation of the gyroscopic wheel cover device under Section 511 of the Motor Vehicle Information and Cost Savings Act. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Syria, S.L.

    1983-06-01

    This report announces the conclusions of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) evaluation of the Gyroscopic Wheel Cover under the provisions of Section 511 of the Motor Vehicle Information and Cost Savings Act. The evaluation of the Gyroscopic Wheel Cover device was conducted upon the application of Simmer Wheels, Incorporated. The device is a mechanical assembly which replaces each of the standard wheel covers on a vehicle. The device is claimed to improve fuel economy, handling and braking characteristics, and the life of the brakes and tires.

  10. Cover Crop Management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potential benefits of cover crops in vegetable production systems depend on the type of cover crop that is used and how it is managed from planting to termination date. This chapter focuses on management practices that are applicable to a broad range cover crops and vegetable production systems ...

  11. Evaluating fractionated space systems - Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornford, S.; Jenkins, S.; Wall, S.; Cole, B.; Bairstow, B.; Rouquette, N.; Dubos, G.; Ryan, T.; Zarifian, P.; Boutwell, J.

    DARPA has funded a number of teams to further refine its Fractionated Spacecraft vision. Several teams, including this team led by JPL, have been tasked to develop a tool for the evaluation of the Business case for a fractionated system architecture. This evaluation is to understand under what conditions and constraints the fractionated architecture make more sense (in a cost/benefit sense) than the traditional monolithic paradigm. Our approach to this evaluation is to generate and evaluate a variety of trade space options. These options include various sets of stimuli, various degrees of fractionation and various subsystem element properties. The stimuli include many not normally modeled such as technology obsolescence, funding profile changes and changes in mission objectives during the mission itself. The degrees of fractionation enable various traditional subsystem elements to be distributed across different free flyers which then act in concert as needed. This will enable key technologies to be updated as need dictates and availability allows. We have described our approach in a previous IEEE Aerospace conference paper but will briefly summarize here. Our approach to generate the Business Case evaluation is to explicitly model both the implementation and operation phases for the life cycle of a fractionated constellation. A variety of models are integrated into the Phoenix ModelCenter framework and are used to generate various intermediate data which is aggregated into the Present Strategic Value (PSV). The PSV is essentially the value (including the value of the embedded real options) minus the cost. These PSVs are calculated for a variety of configurations and scenarios including variations of various stimuli or uncertainties (e.g. supply chain delays, launch vehicle failures and orbital debris events). There are various decision options (e.g. delay, accelerate, cancel) which can now be exercised for each stimulus. We can compute the PSV for the various comb

  12. Evaluation of Physical Coverings Used To Control Escherichia coli O157:H7 at the Compost Heap Surface ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Shepherd, Marion W.; Kim, Jinkyung; Jiang, Xiuping; Doyle, Michael P.; Erickson, Marilyn C.

    2011-01-01

    Throughout four field trials, compost heaps covered with finished compost maintained temperatures under the physical covering that were ca. 7 to 15.5°C higher, resulting in rapid Escherichia coli O157:H7 reduction, than those of the heaps covered with fresh straw or left uncovered. Our results validated recommendations made by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for covering fresh compost. PMID:21622780

  13. Evaluating the need for integrated land use and land cover analysis for robust assessment of climate adaptation and mitigation strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Vittorio, Alan; Mao, Jiafu; Shi, Xiaoying

    2016-04-01

    Several climate adaptation and mitigation strategies incorporate land use and land cover change to address global carbon balance and also food, fuel, fiber, and water resource sustainability. However, Land Use and Land Cover Change (LULCC) are not consistent across the CMIP5 model simulations because only the land use input was harmonized. Differences in LULCC impede understanding of global change because such differences can dramatically alter land-atmosphere mass and energy exchange in response to differences in associated use and distribution of land resources. For example, the Community Earth System Model (CESM) overestimates 2005 atmospheric CO2 concentration by 18 ppmv, and we explore the contribution of historical LULCC to this bias in relation to the effects of CO2 fertilization and nitrogen deposition on terrestrial carbon. Using identical land use input, a chronologically referenced LULCC that accounts for pasture, as opposed to the default year-2000 referenced LULCC, increases this bias to 27 ppmv because more forest needs to be cleared for land use. Assuming maximum forest retention for all land conversion reduces the new bias to ~21 ppmv, while minimum forest retention increases the new bias to ~32 ppmv. Corresponding ecosystem carbon changes from the default in 2005 are approximately -28 PgC, -10 PgC, and -43 PgC, respectively. This 33 PgC uncertainty range due to maximizing versus minimizing forest area is 66% of the estimated 50 PgC gain in ecosystem carbon due to CO2 fertilization from 1850-2005, and 150% of the estimated 22 PgC gain due to nitrogen deposition. This range is also similar to the 28 PgC difference generated by changing the LULCC reference year and accounting for pasture. These results indicate that LULCC uncertainty is not only a major driver of bias in simulated atmospheric CO2, but that it could contribute even more to this bias than uncertainty in CO2 fertilization or nitrogen deposition. This highlights the need for more accurate

  14. Water consumption and water-saving characteristics of a ground cover rice production system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Xinxin; Zuo, Qiang; Ma, Wenwen; Li, Sen; Shi, Jianchu; Tao, Yueyue; Zhang, Yanan; Liu, Yang; Liu, Xiaofei; Lin, Shan; Ben-Gal, Alon

    2016-09-01

    The ground cover rice production system (GCRPS) offers a potentially water-saving alternative to the traditional paddy rice production system (TPRPS) by furrow irrigating mulched soil beds and maintaining soils under predominately unsaturated conditions. The guiding hypothesis of this study was that a GCRPS would decrease both physiological and non-physiological water consumption of rice compared to a TPRPS while either maintaining or enhancing production. This was tested in a two-year field experiment with three treatments (TPRPS, GCRPSsat keeping root zone average soil water content near saturated, and GCRPS80% keeping root zone average soil water content as 80-100% of field water capacity) and a greenhouse experiment with four treatments (TPRPS, GCRPSsat, GCRPSfwc keeping root zone average soil water content close to field water capacity, and GCRPS80%). The water-saving characteristics of GCRPS were analyzed as a function of the measured soil water conditions, plant parameters regarding growth and production, and water input and consumption. In the field experiment, significant reduction in both physiological and non-physiological water consumption under GCRPS lead to savings in irrigation water of ∼61-84% and reduction in total input water of ∼35-47%. Compared to TPRPS, deep drainage was reduced ∼72-88%, evaporation was lessened ∼83-89% and transpiration was limited ∼6-10% under GCRPS. In addition to saving water, plant growth and grain yield were enhanced under GCRPS due to increased soil temperature in the root zone. Therefore, water use efficiencies (WUEs), based on transpiration, irrigation and total input water, were respectively improved as much as 27%, 609% and 110% under GCRPS. Increased yield attributed to up to ∼19%, decreased deep drainage accounted for ∼75%, decreased evaporation accounted for ∼14% and reduced transpiration for ∼5% of the enhancement in WUE of input water under GCRPS, while increased runoff and water storage had

  15. Java Mission Evaluation Workstation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pettinger, Ross; Watlington, Tim; Ryley, Richard; Harbour, Jeff

    2006-01-01

    The Java Mission Evaluation Workstation System (JMEWS) is a collection of applications designed to retrieve, display, and analyze both real-time and recorded telemetry data. This software is currently being used by both the Space Shuttle Program (SSP) and the International Space Station (ISS) program. JMEWS was written in the Java programming language to satisfy the requirement of platform independence. An object-oriented design was used to satisfy additional requirements and to make the software easily extendable. By virtue of its platform independence, JMEWS can be used on the UNIX workstations in the Mission Control Center (MCC) and on office computers. JMEWS includes an interactive editor that allows users to easily develop displays that meet their specific needs. The displays can be developed and modified while viewing data. By simply selecting a data source, the user can view real-time, recorded, or test data.

  16. The characteristics of water-carbon regime of Banzhai karst subterranean stream system covered by virgin forest with soil deficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, C.; Liu, Z.

    2012-04-01

    Three hydrological years' automatic monitoring (from January, 2007 to June, 2010) was made in the discharge area of karst subterranean stream system covered by virgin forest with soil deficiency by use of hydro-chemical auto-recordable instrument to investigate the characteristics of water-carbon regime of discharge from this subterranean stream system. The methods of water balance calculation, karst water discharge recession analysis and stable isotope and hydrochemistry were used. The results show that: first, the evapotranspiration of virgin forest is unexpectedly high, indicated by low infiltration coefficient and low subterranean river runoff generation; second, under the conditions of deficiency of soil cover, even the virgin forest has only moderate ability of regulation and control of hydrological (Q) and hydrochemical (e.g., bicarbonate concentration) processes, so that the karstification intensity and the relevant carbon sink capacity keep low. These characteristics reflect that soil cover plays important roles in the regulation and control of water resources and carbon cycle.

  17. Evaluation of SLAR and thematic mapper MSS data for forest cover mapping using computer-aided analysis techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffer, R. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    Training and test data sets for CAM1S from NS-001 MSS data for two dates (geometrically adjusted to 30 meter resolution) were used to evaluate wavelength band. Two sets of tapes containing digitized HH and HV polarization data were obtained. Because the SAR data on the 9 track tapes contained no meaningful data, the 7 track tapes were copied onto 9 track tapes at LARS. The LARSYS programs were modified and a program was written to reformat the digitized SAR data into a LARSYS format. The radar imagery is being qualitatively interpreted. Results are to be used to identify possible cover types, to produce a classification map to aid in the numerical evaluation classification of radar data, and to develop an interpretation key for radar imagery. The four spatial resolution data sets were analyzed. A program was developed to reduce the spatial distortions resulting from variable viewing distance, and geometrically adjusted data sets were generated. A flowchart of steps taken to geometrically adjust a data set from the NS-001 scanner is presented.

  18. Evaluation of computer-based ultrasonic inservice inspection systems

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, R.V. Jr.; Angel, L.J.; Doctor, S.R.; Park, W.R.; Schuster, G.J.; Taylor, T.T.

    1994-03-01

    This report presents the principles, practices, terminology, and technology of computer-based ultrasonic testing for inservice inspection (UT/ISI) of nuclear power plants, with extensive use of drawings, diagrams, and LTT images. The presentation is technical but assumes limited specific knowledge of ultrasonics or computers. The report is divided into 9 sections covering conventional LTT, computer-based LTT, and evaluation methodology. Conventional LTT topics include coordinate axes, scanning, instrument operation, RF and video signals, and A-, B-, and C-scans. Computer-based topics include sampling, digitization, signal analysis, image presentation, SAFI, ultrasonic holography, transducer arrays, and data interpretation. An evaluation methodology for computer-based LTT/ISI systems is presented, including questions, detailed procedures, and test block designs. Brief evaluations of several computer-based LTT/ISI systems are given; supplementary volumes will provide detailed evaluations of selected systems.

  19. Urban vegetation cover extraction from hyperspectral imagery and geographic information system spatial analysis techniques: case of Athens, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petropoulos, George P.; Kalivas, Dionissios P.; Georgopoulou, Iro A.; Srivastava, Prashant K.

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed at evaluating the performance of two different pixel-based classifiers [spectral angle mapper (SAM) and support vector machines (SVMs)] in discriminating different land-cover classes in a typical urban setting, focusing particularly on urban vegetation cover by utilizing hyperspectral (EO-1 Hyperion) data. As a case study, the city of Athens, Greece, was used. Validation of urban vegetation predictions was based on the error matrix statistics. Additionally, the final urban vegetation cover maps were compared at a municipality level against reference urban vegetation cover estimates derived from the digitization of very high-resolution imagery. To ensure consistency and comparability of the results, the same training and validation points dataset were used to compare the different classifiers. The results showed that SVMs outperformed SAM in terms of both classification and urban vegetation cover mapping with an overall accuracy of 86.53% and Kappa coefficient 0.823, whereas for SAM classification, the accuracy statistics obtained were 75.13% and 0.673, respectively. Our results confirmed the ability of both techniques, when combined with Hyperion imagery, to extract urban vegetation cover for the case of a densely populated city with complex urban features, such as Athens. Our findings offer significant information at the local scale as regards to the presence of open green spaces in the urban environment of Athens. Such information is vital for successful infrastructure development, urban landscape planning, and improvement of urban environment. More widely, this study also contributes significantly toward an objective assessment of Hyperion in detecting and mapping urban vegetation cover.

  20. Evaluation of Robotic Systems to Carry Out Traverse Execution, Opportunistic Science, and Landing Site Evaluation Tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Stephen J.; Leonard, Matther J.; Pacal, Lee

    2011-01-01

    This report covers the execution of and results from the activities proposed and approved in Exploration Analogs and Mission Development (EAMD) Field Test Protocol HMP2010: Evaluation of Robotic Systems to carry out Traverse Execution, Opportunistic Science, and Landing Site Evaluation Tasks. The field tests documented in this report examine one facet of a larger program of planetary surface exploration. This program has been evolving and maturing for several years, growing from a broad policy statement with a few specified milestones for NASA to an international effort with much higher fidelity descriptions of systems and operations necessary to accomplish this type of exploration.

  1. Evaluation of SLAR and thematic mapper MSS data for forest cover mapping using computer-aided analysis techniques. [south carolina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffer, R. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1979-01-01

    A literature review on radar and spectral band information was conducted and a NC-130 mission was flown carrying the NS001 scanner system which basically corresponds to the channel configuration of the proposed thematic mapper. Aerial photography and other reference data were obtained for the study site, an area approximately 290 sq miles in north central South Carolina. A cover type map was prepared and methods were devised for reformatting and geometrically correcting MSS CRT data. Arrangements were made to obtain LANDSAT data for dates approximating the NC-130 mission. Because of the waveband employed to obtain SEASAT radar data, it was decided to determine if X-band (2.40 cm to 3.75 cm wavelength) imagery is available.

  2. Evaluation of Cover Crops with Potential for Use in Anaerobic Soil Disinfestation (ASD) for Susceptibility to Three Species of Meloidogyne

    PubMed Central

    Kokalis-Burelle, Nancy; Butler, David M.; Rosskopf, Erin N.

    2013-01-01

    Several cover crops with potential for use in tropical and subtropical regions were assessed for susceptibility to three common species of root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne arenaria, M. incognita, and M. javanica. Crops were selected based on potential use as organic amendments in anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD) applications. Nematode juvenile (J2) numbers in soil and roots, egg production, and host plant root galling were evaluated on arugula (Eruca sativa, cv. Nemat), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata, cv. Iron & Clay), jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis, cv. Comum), two commercial mixtures of Indian mustard and white mustard (Brassica juncea & Sinapis alba, mixtures Caliente 61 and Caliente 99), pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum, cv. Tifleaf III), sorghum-sudangrass hybrid (Sorghum bicolor × S. bicolor var. sudanense, cv. Sugar Grazer II), and three cultivars of sunflower (Helianthus annuus, cvs. 545A, Nusun 660CL, and Nusun 5672). Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum, cv. Rutgers) was included in all trials as a susceptible host to all three nematode species. The majority of cover crops tested were less susceptible than tomato to M. arenaria, with the exception of jack bean. Sunflower cv. Nusun 5672 had fewer M. arenaria J2 isolated from roots than the other sunflower cultivars, less galling than tomato, and fewer eggs than tomato and sunflower cv. 545A. Several cover crops did not support high populations of M. incognita in roots or exhibit significant galling, although high numbers of M. incognita J2 were isolated from the soil. Arugula, cowpea, and mustard mixture Caliente 99 did not support M. incognita in soil or roots. Jack bean and all three cultivars of sunflower were highly susceptible to M. javanica, and all sunflower cultivars had high numbers of eggs isolated from roots. Sunflower, jack bean, and both mustard mixtures exhibited significant galling in response to M. javanica. Arugula, cowpea, and sorghum-sudangrass consistently had low numbers of all three

  3. Evaluating Water and Energy Fluxes across Three Land Cover Types in a Desert Urban Environment through a Mobile Eddy Covariance Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierini, N.; Vivoni, E. R.; Schreiner-McGraw, A.; Lopez-Castrillo, I.

    2015-12-01

    The urbanization process transforms a natural landscape into a built environment with many engineered surfaces, leading to significant impacts on surface energy and water fluxes across multiple spatial and temporal scales. Nevertheless, the effects of different urban land covers on energy and water fluxes has been rarely quantified across the large varieties of construction materials, landscaping and vegetation types, and industrial, commercial and residential areas in cities. In this study, we deployed a mobile eddy covariance tower at three different locations in the Phoenix, Arizona, metropolitan area to capture a variety of urban land covers. The three locations each represent a common urban class in Phoenix: 1) a dense, xeric landscape (gravel cover and native plants with drip-irrigation systems near tall buildings); 2) a high-density urban site (asphalt-paved parking lot near a high-traffic intersection); and 3) a suburban mesic landscape (sprinkler-irrigated turf grass in a suburban neighborhood). At each site, we measured meteorological variables, including air temperature and relative humidity at three heights, precipitation and pressure, surface temperature, and soil moisture and temperature (where applicable), to complement the eddy covariance measurements of radiation, energy, carbon dioxide and water vapor fluxes. We evaluated the tower footprint at each site to characterize the contributing surface area to the flux measurements, including engineered and landscaping elements, as a function of time for each deployment. The different sites allowed us to compare how turbulent fluxes of water vapor and carbon dioxide vary for these representative urban land covers, in particular with respect to the role of precipitation events and irrigation. While the deployments covered different seasons, from winter to summer in 2015, the variety of daily conditions allowed quantification of the differential response to precipitation events during the winter, pre

  4. 45 CFR 1159.17 - Which of the Endowment's systems of records are covered by exemptions in the Privacy Act?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Which of the Endowment's systems of records are covered by exemptions in the Privacy Act? 1159.17 Section 1159.17 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE ARTS IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PRIVACY ACT...

  5. 45 CFR 1159.17 - Which of the Endowment's systems of records are covered by exemptions in the Privacy Act?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Which of the Endowment's systems of records are covered by exemptions in the Privacy Act? 1159.17 Section 1159.17 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE ARTS IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PRIVACY ACT...

  6. 45 CFR 1182.17 - Institute systems of records that are covered by exemptions in the Privacy Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Institute systems of records that are covered by exemptions in the Privacy Act. 1182.17 Section 1182.17 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES INSTITUTE OF MUSEUM AND LIBRARY SERVICES IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PRIVACY ACT...

  7. 45 CFR 1182.17 - Institute systems of records that are covered by exemptions in the Privacy Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Institute systems of records that are covered by exemptions in the Privacy Act. 1182.17 Section 1182.17 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES INSTITUTE OF MUSEUM AND LIBRARY SERVICES IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PRIVACY ACT...

  8. 45 CFR 1159.17 - Which of the Endowment's systems of records are covered by exemptions in the Privacy Act?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Which of the Endowment's systems of records are covered by exemptions in the Privacy Act? 1159.17 Section 1159.17 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE ARTS IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PRIVACY ACT...

  9. 45 CFR 1159.17 - Which of the Endowment's systems of records are covered by exemptions in the Privacy Act?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Which of the Endowment's systems of records are covered by exemptions in the Privacy Act? 1159.17 Section 1159.17 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE ARTS IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PRIVACY ACT...

  10. 45 CFR 1159.17 - Which of the Endowment's systems of records are covered by exemptions in the Privacy Act?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Which of the Endowment's systems of records are covered by exemptions in the Privacy Act? 1159.17 Section 1159.17 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE ARTS IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PRIVACY ACT...

  11. 45 CFR 1182.17 - Institute systems of records that are covered by exemptions in the Privacy Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Institute systems of records that are covered by exemptions in the Privacy Act. 1182.17 Section 1182.17 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES INSTITUTE OF MUSEUM AND LIBRARY SERVICES IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PRIVACY ACT...

  12. 45 CFR 1182.17 - Institute systems of records that are covered by exemptions in the Privacy Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Institute systems of records that are covered by exemptions in the Privacy Act. 1182.17 Section 1182.17 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES INSTITUTE OF MUSEUM AND LIBRARY...

  13. 45 CFR 1182.17 - Institute systems of records that are covered by exemptions in the Privacy Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Institute systems of records that are covered by exemptions in the Privacy Act. 1182.17 Section 1182.17 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES INSTITUTE OF MUSEUM AND LIBRARY...

  14. Effects of cover crop management and planting operations on cotton establishment and yield in a no-till system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One method to save resources while positively impacting the environment is combining agricultural field operations. In no-till systems, for example, termination of cover crops and planting of the cash crop can be performed simultaneously utilizing a tractor as a single power source. A no-till field ...

  15. 40 CFR 60.5416 - What are the initial and continuous cover and closed vent system inspection and monitoring...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... centrifugal compressor affected facility? 60.5416 Section 60.5416 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... for my storage vessel and centrifugal compressor affected facility? For each closed vent system or cover at your storage vessel or centrifugal compressor affected facility, you must comply with...

  16. 40 CFR 60.5416 - What are the initial and continuous cover and closed vent system inspection and monitoring...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... centrifugal compressor affected facility? 60.5416 Section 60.5416 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... for my storage vessel and centrifugal compressor affected facility? For each closed vent system or cover at your storage vessel or centrifugal compressor affected facility, you must comply with...

  17. EFFECTS OF COVER CROPPING AND PLASTICULTURE ON SOIL AND RHIZOSPHERE MICROBIAL COMMUNITY STRUCTURE IN TOMATO PRODUCTION SYSTEMS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In a previous study (Carrera et al., submitted for publication) we found that soil microbial community structure was distinctly different under black polyethylene film than under hairy vetch cover crops in tomato production systems. In order to determine the major factors affecting microbial communi...

  18. EFFECTS OF COVER CROPPING AND PLASTICULTURE ON SOIL AND RHIZOSPHERE MICROBIAL COMMUNITY STRUCTURE IN TOMATO PRODUCTION SYSTEMS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In a previous study (Carrera et al., submitted for publication) we found that soil microbial community structure was distinctly different under plasticulture than under hairy vetch cover crops in tomato production systems. In order to determine the major factors affecting microbial communities we se...

  19. Microbial community structure and abundance in the rhizosphere and bulk soil of a tomato cropping system that includes cover crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this report we use Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphisms (TRFLP) in a tomato production system to “finger printing” the soil microbial community structure with Phylum specific primer sets. Factors influencing the soil microbes are a cover crop of Hairy Vetch (Vicia villosa) or Rye (...

  20. 37 CFR 201.17 - Statements of Account covering compulsory licenses for secondary transmissions by cable systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Statements of Account covering compulsory licenses for secondary transmissions by cable systems. 201.17 Section 201.17 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT OFFICE AND PROCEDURES GENERAL PROVISIONS § 201.17 Statements of...

  1. 37 CFR 201.17 - Statements of Account covering compulsory licenses for secondary transmissions by cable systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Statements of Account covering compulsory licenses for secondary transmissions by cable systems. 201.17 Section 201.17 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT OFFICE AND PROCEDURES GENERAL PROVISIONS § 201.17 Statements of...

  2. Models and techniques for evaluating the effectiveness of aircraft computing systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, J. F.

    1978-01-01

    The development of system models that can provide a basis for the formulation and evaluation of aircraft computer system effectiveness, the formulation of quantitative measures of system effectiveness, and the development of analytic and simulation techniques for evaluating the effectiveness of a proposed or existing aircraft computer are described. Specific topics covered include: system models; performability evaluation; capability and functional dependence; computation of trajectory set probabilities; and hierarchical modeling of an air transport mission.

  3. Effects of a custom cover crop residue manager in a no-till cotton system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cover crops are an important part of no-till conservation agriculture, and these crops must produce optimum biomass amounts to effectively protect the soil surface from erosion and runoff, conserve soil water, and provide a physical barrier against weeds. Because of the large amount of residue produ...

  4. Peanut Performance and Weed Management in a High Residue Cover crop System

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous research indicates conservation tillage is a viable option for successful peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) production, but more study is needed to help understand interactions between cover crop residues and peanut production. Specifically, additional information is needed about the effects o...

  5. Rye cover crop effects on nitrous oxide emissions from a corn-soybean system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural activities are a major source nitrous oxide emitted to the atmosphere. Development of management practices to reduce these emissions is needed. Non-leguminous cover crops are efficient scavengers of residual soil nitrate, but their effects on nitrous oxide emissions have not been well d...

  6. Sustainable cropping systems using cover crops, native species field borders and riparian buffers for environmental quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This presentation will focus on the application of sustainable management practices for no-till cultivation using cover crops, native species field borders, and fast growing woody species integrated in vegetative strips and riparian buffers. An ongoing field project at the Bradford Research and Exte...

  7. Using Remotely Sensed Data and Watershed and Hydrodynamic Models to Evaluate the Effects of Land Cover Land Use Change on Aquatic Ecosystems in Mobile Bay, AL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Al-Hamdan, Mohammad Z.; Estes, Maurice G., Jr.; Judd, Chaeli; Thom, Ron; Woodruff, Dana; Ellis, Jean T.; Quattrochi, Dale; Watson, Brian; Rodriquez, Hugo; Johnson, Hoyt

    2012-01-01

    Alabama coastal systems have been subjected to increasing pressure from a variety of activities including urban and rural development, shoreline modifications, industrial activities, and dredging of shipping and navigation channels. The impacts on coastal ecosystems are often observed through the use of indicator species. One such indicator species for aquatic ecosystem health is submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV). Watershed and hydrodynamic modeling has been performed to evaluate the impact of land cover land use (LCLU) change in the two counties surrounding Mobile Bay (Mobile and Baldwin) on SAV stressors and controlling factors (temperature, salinity, and sediment) in the Mobile Bay estuary. Watershed modeling using the Loading Simulation Package in C++ (LSPC) was performed for all watersheds contiguous to Mobile Bay for LCLU scenarios in 1948, 1992, 2001, and 2030. Remotely sensed Landsat-derived National Land Cover Data (NLCD) were used in the 1992 and 2001 simulations after having been reclassified to a common classification scheme. The Prescott Spatial Growth Model was used to project the 2030 LCLU scenario based on current trends. The LSPC model simulations provided output on changes in flow, temperature, and sediment for 22 discharge points into the estuary. These results were inputted in the Environmental Fluid Dynamics Computer Code (EFDC) hydrodynamic model to generate data on changes in temperature, salinity, and sediment on a grid throughout Mobile Bay and adjacent estuaries. The changes in the aquatic ecosystem were used to perform an ecological analysis to evaluate the impact on SAV habitat suitability. This is the key product benefiting the Mobile Bay coastal environmental managers that integrates the influences of temperature, salinity, and sediment due to LCLU driven flow changes with the restoration potential of SAVs. Data products and results are being integrated into NOAA s EcoWatch and Gulf of Mexico Data Atlas online systems for

  8. Using Remotely Sensed Data and Watershed and Hydrodynamic Models to Evaluate the Effects of Land Cover Land Use Change on Aquatic Ecosystems in Mobile Bay, AL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Hamdan, M. Z.; Estes, M. G.; Judd, C.; Thom, R.; Woodruff, D.; Ellis, J. T.; Quattrochi, D.; Watson, B.; Rodriguez, H.; Johnson, H.

    2012-12-01

    Alabama coastal systems have been subjected to increasing pressure from a variety of activities including urban and rural development, shoreline modifications, industrial activities, and dredging of shipping and navigation channels. The impacts on coastal ecosystems are often observed through the use of indicator species. One such indicator species for aquatic ecosystem health is submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV). Watershed and hydrodynamic modeling has been performed to evaluate the impact of land cover land use (LCLU) change in the two counties surrounding Mobile Bay (Mobile and Baldwin) on SAV stressors and controlling factors (temperature, salinity, and sediment) in the Mobile Bay estuary. Watershed modeling using the Loading Simulation Package in C++ (LSPC) was performed for all watersheds contiguous to Mobile Bay for LCLU scenarios in 1948, 1992, 2001, and 2030. Remotely sensed Landsat-derived National Land Cover Data (NLCD) were used in the 1992 and 2001 simulations after having been reclassified to a common classification scheme. The Prescott Spatial Growth Model was used to project the 2030 LCLU scenario based on current trends. The LSPC model simulations provided output on changes in flow, temperature, and sediment for 22 discharge points into the estuary. These results were inputted in the Environmental Fluid Dynamics Computer Code (EFDC) hydrodynamic model to generate data on changes in temperature, salinity, and sediment on a grid throughout Mobile Bay and adjacent estuaries. The changes in the aquatic ecosystem were used to perform an ecological analysis to evaluate the impact on SAV habitat suitability. This is the key product benefiting the Mobile Bay coastal environmental managers that integrates the influences of temperature, salinity, and sediment due to LCLU driven flow changes with the restoration potential of SAVs. Data products and results are being integrated into NOAA's EcoWatch and Gulf of Mexico Data Atlas online systems for

  9. Data driven uncertainty evaluation for complex engineered system design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Boyuan; Huang, Shuangxi; Fan, Wenhui; Xiao, Tianyuan; Humann, James; Lai, Yuyang; Jin, Yan

    2016-05-01

    Complex engineered systems are often difficult to analyze and design due to the tangled interdependencies among their subsystems and components. Conventional design methods often need exact modeling or accurate structure decomposition, which limits their practical application. The rapid expansion of data makes utilizing data to guide and improve system design indispensable in practical engineering. In this paper, a data driven uncertainty evaluation approach is proposed to support the design of complex engineered systems. The core of the approach is a data-mining based uncertainty evaluation method that predicts the uncertainty level of a specific system design by means of analyzing association relations along different system attributes and synthesizing the information entropy of the covered attribute areas, and a quantitative measure of system uncertainty can be obtained accordingly. Monte Carlo simulation is introduced to get the uncertainty extrema, and the possible data distributions under different situations is discussed in detail. The uncertainty values can be normalized using the simulation results and the values can be used to evaluate different system designs. A prototype system is established, and two case studies have been carried out. The case of an inverted pendulum system validates the effectiveness of the proposed method, and the case of an oil sump design shows the practicability when two or more design plans need to be compared. This research can be used to evaluate the uncertainty of complex engineered systems completely relying on data, and is ideally suited for plan selection and performance analysis in system design.

  10. Land-use poverty traps identified in shifting cultivation systems shape long-term tropical forest cover

    PubMed Central

    Coomes, Oliver T.; Takasaki, Yoshito; Rhemtulla, Jeanine M.

    2011-01-01

    In this article we illustrate how fine-grained longitudinal analyses of land holding and land use among forest peasant households in an Amazonian village can enrich our understanding of the poverty/land cover nexus. We examine the dynamic links in shifting cultivation systems among asset poverty, land use, and land cover in a community where poverty is persistent and primary forests have been replaced over time—with community enclosure—by secondary forests (i.e., fallows), orchards, and crop land. Land cover change is assessed using aerial photographs/satellite imagery from 1965 to 2007. Household and plot level data are used to track land holding, portfolios, and use as well as land cover over the past 30 y, with particular attention to forest status (type and age). Our analyses find evidence for two important types of “land-use” poverty traps—a “subsistence crop” trap and a “short fallow” trap—and indicate that the initial conditions of land holding by forest peasants have long-term effects on future forest cover and household welfare. These findings suggest a new mechanism driving poverty traps: insufficient initial land holdings induce land use patterns that trap households in low agricultural productivity. Path dependency in the evolution of household land portfolios and land use strategies strongly influences not only the wellbeing of forest people but also the dynamics of tropical deforestation and secondary forest regrowth. PMID:21873179

  11. Land-use poverty traps identified in shifting cultivation systems shape long-term tropical forest cover.

    PubMed

    Coomes, Oliver T; Takasaki, Yoshito; Rhemtulla, Jeanine M

    2011-08-23

    In this article we illustrate how fine-grained longitudinal analyses of land holding and land use among forest peasant households in an Amazonian village can enrich our understanding of the poverty/land cover nexus. We examine the dynamic links in shifting cultivation systems among asset poverty, land use, and land cover in a community where poverty is persistent and primary forests have been replaced over time--with community enclosure--by secondary forests (i.e., fallows), orchards, and crop land. Land cover change is assessed using aerial photographs/satellite imagery from 1965 to 2007. Household and plot level data are used to track land holding, portfolios, and use as well as land cover over the past 30 y, with particular attention to forest status (type and age). Our analyses find evidence for two important types of "land-use" poverty traps--a "subsistence crop" trap and a "short fallow" trap--and indicate that the initial conditions of land holding by forest peasants have long-term effects on future forest cover and household welfare. These findings suggest a new mechanism driving poverty traps: insufficient initial land holdings induce land use patterns that trap households in low agricultural productivity. Path dependency in the evolution of household land portfolios and land use strategies strongly influences not only the wellbeing of forest people but also the dynamics of tropical deforestation and secondary forest regrowth. PMID:21873179

  12. Modeling and Analysis of Process Parameters for Evaluating Shrinkage Problems During Plastic Injection Molding of a DVD-ROM Cover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Öktem, H.

    2012-01-01

    Plastic injection molding plays a key role in the production of high-quality plastic parts. Shrinkage is one of the most significant problems of a plastic part in terms of quality in the plastic injection molding. This article focuses on the study of the modeling and analysis of the effects of process parameters on the shrinkage by evaluating the quality of the plastic part of a DVD-ROM cover made with Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) polymer material. An effective regression model was developed to determine the mathematical relationship between the process parameters (mold temperature, melt temperature, injection pressure, injection time, and cooling time) and the volumetric shrinkage by utilizing the analysis data. Finite element (FE) analyses designed by Taguchi (L27) orthogonal arrays were run in the Moldflow simulation program. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was then performed to check the adequacy of the regression model and to determine the effect of the process parameters on the shrinkage. Experiments were conducted to control the accuracy of the regression model with the FE analyses obtained from Moldflow. The results show that the regression model agrees very well with the FE analyses and the experiments. From this, it can be concluded that this study succeeded in modeling the shrinkage problem in our application.

  13. Biodiversity Pressure Maps to evaluate the impact of land use and land cover change on Endangered Ecological Communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chisholm, L. A.; Gill, N.

    2014-12-01

    The dynamics of biodiversity are associated with human activities such as land use and land cover change (LULCC). An integrated spatial approach to identify the effects of LULCC is helpful to determine the impact or pressure of human activities on biodiversity. The concept of creating 'biodiversity pressure maps' includes the use of spatial technologies (remote sensing, GIS) over time on areas of sensitivity, for example, areas classified as endangered ecological communities (EEC). The use of a cross-tabulation matrix often forms the basis of creating pressure maps, yet spatial datasets appropriate as input are not always available. The focus of this study was to investigate and evaluate spatial datasets and cross-tabulation techniques useful for producing biodiversity pressure maps. A method will be presented in the form of a case study for an area in the Shoalhaven Local Government Area on the south coast of NSW, Australia. This area is a focus of investigation of the spatial distribution of invasive plants and landholder management practices.

  14. Merging LANDSAT Derived Land Covers into Quad-referenced Geographic Information Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, J. M.; Ragan, R. M.; Lade, K. P.

    1982-01-01

    An approach for merging multiscene LANDSAT data bases into existing geographic information systems having 5-second or smaller cells is described. The approach uses the output from the State of Maryland's UNIVAC 1180-based LANDSAT classification program ASTEP (Algorithm Simulation Test and Evaluation) developed by NASA. The structure of the technique was designed to address the problems that emerged as part of the LANDSAT classification of the 64,000 square mile Chesapeake water shed involving twelve scenes. The removal of overlap among adjacent scenes, the crossreferencing of ground control points, and the isolation of the appropriate pixels from the LANDSAT data base for subsequent positioning into a file containing ancillary data referenced to a specific USGS 7 1/2 minute quadrangle sheet are described. Examples illustrate the clustering of classified LANDSAT pixels to define the dominant land use for each of 8,100 cells within a series of quadrangle sheets distributed over the State of Maryland. The approach uses a hard copy terminal tied to an ASTEP algorithm through telephone lines. A coordinate digitizing board for inputing the position of ground control points is also valuable, although manual measurements are possible. The approach is quite efficient and should be especially attractive for use on regional scale studies.

  15. Feedback Improvement in Automatic Program Evaluation Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skupas, Bronius

    2010-01-01

    Automatic program evaluation is a way to assess source program files. These techniques are used in learning management environments, programming exams and contest systems. However, use of automated program evaluation encounters problems: some evaluations are not clear for the students and the system messages do not show reasons for lost points.…

  16. Land Cover Change Community-based Processing and Analysis System (LC-ComPS): Lessons Learned from Technology Infusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masek, J.; Rao, A.; Gao, F.; Davis, P.; Jackson, G.; Huang, C.; Weinstein, B.

    2008-12-01

    The Land Cover Change Community-based Processing and Analysis System (LC-ComPS) combines grid technology, existing science modules, and dynamic workflows to enable users to complete advanced land data processing on data available from local and distributed archives. Changes in land cover represent a direct link between human activities and the global environment, and in turn affect Earth's climate. Thus characterizing land cover change has become a major goal for Earth observation science. Many science algorithms exist to generate new products (e.g., surface reflectance, change detection) used to study land cover change. The overall objective of the LC-ComPS is to release a set of tools and services to the land science community that can be implemented as a flexible LC-ComPS to produce surface reflectance and land-cover change information with ground resolution on the order of Landsat-class instruments. This package includes software modules for pre-processing Landsat-type satellite imagery (calibration, atmospheric correction, orthorectification, precision registration, BRDF correction) for performing land-cover change analysis and includes pre-built workflow chains to automatically generate surface reflectance and land-cover change products based on user input. In order to meet the project objectives, the team created the infrastructure (i.e., client-server system with graphical and machine interfaces) to expand the use of these existing science algorithm capabilities in a community with distributed, large data archives and processing centers. Because of the distributed nature of the user community, grid technology was chosen to unite the dispersed community resources. At that time, grid computing was not used consistently and operationally within the Earth science research community. Therefore, there was a learning curve to configure and implement the underlying public key infrastructure (PKI) interfaces, required for the user authentication, secure file

  17. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF THE DUAL DIGESTION SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The dual digestion system (DDS) was developed to provide stabilized, pathogen free sludge. DDS consists of a 1-day detention time, pure-oxygen, covered aerobic digester (Step I) followed by an 8-day detention time anaerobic reactor. The temperature in the Step I digester is contr...

  18. Evaluating the relationship between biomass, percent groundcover and remote sensing indices across six winter cover crop fields in Maryland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Planting cover crops is an effective method to reduce both nitrogen leaching and sedimentation into waterways. Winter cover crops are planted post-harvest on corn and soybean fields to scavenge residual nitrogen that remains in the soil, and to meet soil erosion guidelines, providing positive water...

  19. Evaluation Strategy. Paper Preservation Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FMC Corp., Gastonia, NC. Lithium Div.

    After a decade of slow but steady progress, the pace of development of technologies to deacidify and strengthen deteriorating books and documents has quickened significantly. These developments accentuate the need for the conservation community to scientifically evaluate the technical merits of potential processes. This draft evaluation strategy…

  20. Internal structure and current evolution of very small debris-covered glacier systems located in alpine permafrost environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosson, Jean-Baptiste; Lambiel, Christophe

    2016-04-01

    This contribution explores the internal structure of very small debris-covered glacier systems located in permafrost environments and their current dynamical responses to short-term climatic variations. Three systems were investigated with electrical resistivity tomography and dGPS monitoring over a 3-year period. Five distinct sectors are highlighted in each system: firn and bare-ice glacier, debris-covered glacier, heavily debris-covered glacier of low activity, rock glacier and ice-free debris. Decimetric to metric movements, related to ice ablation, internal deformation and basal sliding affect the glacial zones, which are mainly active in summer. Conversely, surface lowering is close to zero (-0.04 m yr-1) in the rock glaciers. Here, a constant and slow internal deformation was observed (c. 0.2 m yr-1). Thus, these systems are affected by both direct and high magnitude responses and delayed and attenuated responses to climatic variations. This differential evolution appears mainly controlled by (1) the proportion of ice, debris and the presence of water in the ground, and (2) the thickness of the superficial debris layer.

  1. Covering Politics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gruber, Ryan; Wind, Andrew; Trevidi, Neema

    2000-01-01

    Presents four articles considering: (1) the media's role in the coverage of politics; (2) the influence of photography particularly in terms of the president; (3) an event where an Iowa student had a chance to work with professionals while covering politics; and (4) considering scholastic reporters covering national candidates as they learn and…

  2. Development of a fiber-less fNIRS system and its application to hair-covered head

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Toru; Ohashi, Mitsuo; Umeyama, Shinji

    2014-03-01

    While most commercially available functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) systems employ optical fibers for both the measurement optode and the transmission cable for optical signals, their material inflexibility presents some problems in stable optode fixation to the head surface and adequate cable lining to the main system. In practice, mechanical fluctuations of optical fibers in fNIRS measurement often lead to motion artifacts in the signals. A few fiberless fNIRS systems are available and equipped with light sources and detectors that directly adhere to the scalp surface. However, their shapes and detection sensitivities are not suitable for usage on a hair-covered head. Based on the commercial fiber-less fNIRS system OEG-16 (Spectratech Inc., Japan), we developed a new source-detector unit that was designed with LEDs for enhanced illumination, avalanche photodiodes instead of photodiodes, and a new holder system. The electrical circuits of the system were modified after the design. By simultaneous implementation of multidistance fNIRS measurement and hemodynamic modality separation on conventional fNIRS data at the bilateral parietal area during single-sided motor tasks, significant functional signals were observed only at the position contralateral to the side of movement. This is the first report describing a fiber-less fNIRS system that can detect functional signals on a hair-covered head. We believe this fiber-less system will improve the utility of fNIRS, particularly in less restraining conditions.

  3. Satellite power system concept development and evaluation program system definition technical assessment report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-01

    The results of the system definition studies conducted by NASA as a part of the Department of Energy/National Aeronautics and Space Administration SPS Concept Development and Evaluation Program are summarized. The purpose of the system definition efforts was to identify and define candidate SPS concepts and to evaluate the concepts in terms of technical and cost factors. Although the system definition efforts consisted primarily of evaluation and assessment of alternative technical approaches, a reference system was also defined to facilitate economic, environmental, and societal assessments by the Department of Energy. This reference system was designed to deliver 5 GW of electrical power to the utility grid. Topics covered include system definition; energy conversion and power management; power transmission and reception; structures, controls, and materials; construction and operations; and space transportation.

  4. Alternative Landfill Cover and Monitoring Systems for Landfills in Arid Environments

    SciTech Connect

    S. E. Rawlinson

    2002-09-01

    In December 2000, a performance monitoring facility was constructed adjacent to the mixed waste disposal unit U-3ax/bl at the Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site at the Nevada Test Site. This facility consists of eight drainage lysimeters measuring 10 feet in diameter, 8 feet deep, and backfilled with native soil. The lysimeters have three different surface treatments: two were left bare, two were revegetated with native species, and two were allowed to revegetate with invader species (two are reserved for future studies). The lysimeters are instrumented with an array of soil water content and soil water potential sensors and have sealed bottoms so that any drainage can be measured. All sensors are working properly and indicate that the bare lysimeters are the wettest, as expected. The vegetated lysimeters, both seeded and those allowed to revegetate with invader species, are significantly drier than the bare cover treatments. No drainage has occurred in any of the lysimeters. The Accelerated Site Technology Deployment program under the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Science and Technology provided the funding for this project with the objective of reducing the uncertainty associated with the performance of monolayer-evapotranspiration waste covers in arid regions such as the one deployed at U-3ax/bl.

  5. Evaluating Impacts of Land Use/Land Cover Changes on Water Balance of a Small Watershed using a Distributed Hydrologic Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jha, S. K.; Ostrowski, M. W.; Jain, A.

    2005-12-01

    The impacts of land use/land cover changes due to varying agricultural practices, urbanization, and forestation/deforestation can impact the water cycle of a region significantly. The changes in the hydrologic characteristics of a region are closely linked to its environment and ecology. Therefore, an accurate evaluation of such impacts is important from the environmental and water resources management point of view. This paper presents the results of an investigative study aimed at evaluating the effects of changes in dynamic land uses on water balance of a small watershed. The detailed meteorological and hydrological data from Tarrawara watershed of area 10.5 hectares in Australia were employed to carry out the sensitivity analyses. The Tarrawara watershed mainly consists of grass, and is used for cattle grazing. The watershed has smoothly undulating terrain with no perennial streams or channels. The climate is temperate with mean annual rainfall of 820 mm and potential evapotranspiration of 830 mm. A physically based, spatially distributed conceptual hydrological model, called Water Balance Model (WBM), developed at the Institute for Hydraulics and Water Resources Engineering, Technical University Darmstadt, Germany, was employed in this study. The WBM model simulates the watershed using a raster element with four layers: infiltration layer, root layer, transport layer, and groundwater layer. Each raster element is capable of simulating the soil-vegetation-atmosphere-transfer system (SVAT) accounting for separation of precipitation into storage processes in a vertical column and runoff generation. The effect of changes in root depth, vegetation cover, leaf area index, and land uses in terms of various combinations of coniferous and deciduous forests on the interception evaporation, soil evaporation, transpiration, evapotranspiration, and through fall have been studied. The data in terms of precipitation (mm), temperature (0C), evapotranspiration (mm/hr), and

  6. Evaluating hydrologic response to land cover and climate change: An example from the Palmyra Atoll National Wildlife Refuge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lane, J. W.; Briggs, M.; Kulongoski, J. T.; Pollock, A. L.

    2013-12-01

    The Palmyra Atoll National Wildlife Refuge is located in the central Pacific Ocean, about 1,000 miles south of the island of Oahu. Impacts on the atoll's hydrologic and ecologic systems are anticipated from two key anthropogenic drivers of change: (1) eradication of invasive coconut palms and replanting of native Pisonia grandis trees, and (2) global climate change. In the near-term, the palm eradication program is expected to modify the distribution and quality of groundwater proximal to the reforested areas. Longer term, sea level rise, changes in precipitation, and changes in storm frequency and intensity are expected to have a broader impact on the freshwater resources of the atoll. We have initiated a project to characterize current climatic and hydrologic conditions on Palmyra, and monitor changes in order to model baseline conditions and future changes in groundwater distribution. Because rain water harvest satisfies human need on Palmyra, the atoll enables study of groundwater resource change uncomplicated by groundwater pumping stress. Field trips conducted in 2008 and 2013 have included geophysical surveys, weather station upgrades, installation of monitoring wells, and geochemical sampling. Nine wells have been installed on Cooper Island (the largest island of the atoll), each instrumented with a combination of temperature, conductivity, and pressure sensors. Repeated frequency-domain electromagnetic conductivity surveys indicate a reduction in the thickness of the freshwater lens on the southern side of the Cooper Island since 2008, possibly linked to recent modification to the atoll's runway and drainage system. These results indicate that we can successfully capture future transformations induced by land cover and climate changes. The Palmyra Atoll project provides open-source information and insight about human-driven change to the vulnerable freshwater resources of low-lying islands; we hope others will take interest in, and make use of the

  7. An evaluation of sampling strategies to improve precision of estimates of gross change in land use and land cover

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stehman, S.V.; Sohl, T.L.; Loveland, T.R.

    2005-01-01

    Statistical sampling offers a cost-effective, practical alternative to complete-coverage mapping for the objective of estimating gross change in land cover over large areas. Because land cover change is typically rare, the sampling strategy must take advantage of design and analysis tools that enhance precision. Using two populations of land cover change in the eastern United States, we demonstrate that the choice of sampling unit size and use of a survey sampling regression estimator can significantly improve precision with only a minor increase in cost. ?? 2005 Taylor & Francis.

  8. Using Remotely Sensed Data and Watershed and Hydrodynamic Models to Evaluate the Effects of Land Cover Land Use Change on Aquatic Ecosystems in Mobile Bay, AL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Al-Hamdan, Mohammad; Estes, Maurice G., Jr.; Judd, Chaeli; Woodruff, Dana; Ellis, Jean; Quattrochi, Dale; Watson, Brian; Rodriquez, Hugo; Johnson, Hoyt

    2012-01-01

    Alabama coastal systems have been subjected to increasing pressure from a variety of activities including urban and rural development, shoreline modifications, industrial activities, and dredging of shipping and navigation channels. The impacts on coastal ecosystems are often observed through the use of indicator species. One such indicator species for aquatic ecosystem health is submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV). Watershed and hydrodynamic modeling has been performed to evaluate the impact of land cover land use (LCLU) change in the two counties surrounding Mobile Bay (Mobile and Baldwin) on SAV stressors and controlling factors (temperature, salinity, and sediment) in the Mobile Bay estuary. Watershed modeling using the Loading Simulation Package in C++ (LSPC) was performed for all watersheds contiguous to Mobile Bay for LCLU scenarios in 1948, 1992, 2001, and 2030. Remotely sensed Landsat-derived National Land Cover Data (NLCD) were used in the 1992 and 2001 simulations after having been reclassified to a common classification scheme. The Prescott Spatial Growth Model was used to project the 2030 LCLU scenario based on current trends. The LSPC model simulations provided output on changes in flow, temperature, and sediment for 22 discharge points into the estuary. These results were inputted in the Environmental Fluid Dynamics Computer Code (EFDC) hydrodynamic model to generate data on changes in temperature, salinity, and sediment on a grid throughout Mobile Bay and adjacent estuaries. The changes in the aquatic ecosystem were used to perform an ecological analysis to evaluate the impact on SAV habitat suitability. This is the key product benefiting the Mobile Bay coastal environmental managers that integrates the influences of temperature, salinity, and sediment due to LCLU driven flow changes with the restoration potential of SAVs. Data products and results are being integrated into NOAA s EcoWatch and Gulf of Mexico Data Atlas online systems for

  9. Pervious Pavement System Evaluation- Abstract

    EPA Science Inventory

    Porous pavement is a low impact development stormwater control. The Urban Watershed Management Branch is evaluating interlocking concrete pavers as a popular implementation. The pavers themselves are impermeable, but the spaces between the pavers are backfilled with washed, gra...

  10. Evaluation of multiband, multitemporal, and transformed LANDSAT MSS data for land cover area estimation. [North Central Missouri

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoner, E. R.; May, G. A.; Kalcic, M. T. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    Sample segments of ground-verified land cover data collected in conjunction with the USDA/ESS June Enumerative Survey were merged with LANDSAT data and served as a focus for unsupervised spectral class development and accuracy assessment. Multitemporal data sets were created from single-date LANDSAT MSS acquisitions from a nominal scene covering an eleven-county area in north central Missouri. Classification accuracies for the four land cover types predominant in the test site showed significant improvement in going from unitemporal to multitemporal data sets. Transformed LANDSAT data sets did not significantly improve classification accuracies. Regression estimators yielded mixed results for different land covers. Misregistration of two LANDSAT data sets by as much and one half pixels did not significantly alter overall classification accuracies. Existing algorithms for scene-to scene overlay proved adequate for multitemporal data analysis as long as statistical class development and accuracy assessment were restricted to field interior pixels.

  11. Shuttle orbiter Ku-band radar/communications system design evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dodds, J.; Holmes, J.; Huth, G. K.; Iwasaki, R.; Maronde, R.; Polydoros, A.; Weber, C.; Broad, P.

    1980-01-01

    Tasks performed in an examination and critique of a Ku-band radar communications system for the shuttle orbiter are reported. Topics cover: (1) Ku-band high gain antenna/widebeam horn design evaluation; (2) evaluation of the Ku-band SPA and EA-1 LRU software; (3) system test evaluation; (4) critical design review and development test evaluation; (5) Ku-band bent pipe channel performance evaluation; (6) Ku-band LRU interchangeability analysis; and (7) deliverable test equipment evaluation. Where discrepancies were found, modifications and improvements to the Ku-band system and the associated test procedures are suggested.

  12. Fuel Systems Architecture (FSA) evaluation criteria and concept evaluation methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendershot, J. E.; Corban, R. R.; Stevenson, S. M.

    1991-01-01

    Consideration is given to two methods developed for the evaluation, screening, and ranking of concepts for Space Exploration Initiative vehicle propellant management systems. The methods selected for handling this multicriteria decision problem are based on the utility theory which transforms both qualitative and quantitative criteria into a nondimensional utility scale for comparison of dissimilar figures of merit. The development of the resultant FSA evaluation criteria and concept evaluation methodology is summarized.

  13. A review and evaluation of alternatives for updating U.S. Geological Survey land use and land cover maps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Milazzo, Valerie A.

    1980-01-01

    Since 1974, the U.S. Geological Survey has been engaged in a nationwide program of baseline mapping of land use and land cover and associated data at a scale of 1:250,000. As l:100,000-scale bases have become available, they have been used for mapping certain areas and for special applications. These two scales are appropriate for mapping land use and land cover data on a nationwide basis within a practical time frame, and with an acceptable degree of standardization, accuracy, and level of detail. An essential requisite to better use of the land is current information on land use and land cover conditions and on the rates and trends of changes with time. Thus, plans are underway to update these maps and data. The major considerations in planning a nationwide program for updating U.S. Geological Survey land use and land cover maps are as follows: (1) How often should maps be updated? (2) What remotely sensed source materials should be used for detecting and compiling changes in land use and land cover? (3) What base maps should be used for presenting data on land use and land cover changes? (4) What maps or portions of a map should be updated? (5) What methods should be used for identifying and mapping changes? (6) What procedures should be followed for updating maps and what formats should be used? These factors must be considered in developing a map update program that portrays an appropriate level of information, relates to and builds upon the existing U.S. Geological Survey land use and land cover digital and statistical data base, is timely, cost-effective and standardized, and meets the varying needs of land use and land cover data users.

  14. Efficient Evaluation System for Learning Management Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavus, Nadire

    2009-01-01

    A learning management system (LMS) provides the platform for web-based learning environment by enabling the management, delivery, tracking of learning, testing, communication, registration process and scheduling. There are many LMS systems on the market that can be obtained for free or through payment. It has now become an important task to choose…

  15. An expert system shell for inferring vegetation characteristics: Changes to the historical cover type database (Task F)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    All the options in the NASA VEGetation Workbench (VEG) make use of a database of historical cover types. This database contains results from experiments by scientists on a wide variety of different cover types. The learning system uses the database to provide positive and negative training examples of classes that enable it to learn distinguishing features between classes of vegetation. All the other VEG options use the database to estimate the error bounds involved in the results obtained when various analysis techniques are applied to the sample of cover type data that is being studied. In the previous version of VEG, the historical cover type database was stored as part of the VEG knowledge base. This database was removed from the knowledge base. It is now stored as a series of flat files that are external to VEG. An interface between VEG and these files was provided. The interface allows the user to select which files of historical data to use. The files are then read, and the data are stored in Knowledge Engineering Environment (KEE) units using the same organization of units as in the previous version of VEG. The interface also allows the user to delete some or all of the historical database units from VEG and load new historical data from a file. This report summarizes the use of the historical cover type database in VEG. It then describes the new interface to the files containing the historical data. It describes minor changes that were made to VEG to enable the externally stored database to be used. Test runs to test the operation of the new interface and also to test the operation of VEG using historical data loaded from external files are described. Task F was completed. A Sun cartridge tape containing the KEE and Common Lisp code for the new interface and the modified version of the VEG knowledge base was delivered to the NASA GSFC technical representative.

  16. Earth orbital teleoperator visual system evaluation program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frederick, P. N.; Shields, N. L., Jr.; Kirkpatrick, M., III

    1977-01-01

    Visual system parameters and stereoptic television component geometries were evaluated for optimum viewing. The accuracy of operator range estimation using a Fresnell stereo television system with a three dimensional cursor was examined. An operator's ability to align three dimensional targets using vidicon tube and solid state television cameras as part of a Fresnell stereoptic system was evaluated. An operator's ability to discriminate between varied color samples viewed with a color television system was determined.

  17. Aided targeting system simulation evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demaio, Joe; Becker, Curtis

    1994-01-01

    Simulation research was conducted at the Crew Station Research and Development Facility on the effectiveness and ease of use of three targeting systems. A manual system required the aviator to scan a target array area with a simulated second generation forward looking infrared (FLIR) sensor, locate and categorize targets, and construct a target hand-off list. The interface between the aviator and the system was like that of an advanced scout helicopter (manual mode). Two aided systems detected and categorized targets automatically. One system used only the FLIR sensor and the second used FLIR fused with Longbow radar. The interface for both was like that of an advanced scout helicopter aided mode. Exposure time while performing the task was reduced substantially with the aided systems, with no loss of target hand-off list accuracy. The fused sensor system showed lower time to construct the target hand-off list and a slightly lower false alarm rate than the other systems. A number of issues regarding system sensitivity and criterion, and operator interface design are discussed.

  18. Early 21st century snow cover state over the western river basins of the Indus River system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasson, S.; Lucarini, V.; Khan, M. R.; Petitta, M.; Bolch, T.; Gioli, G.

    2014-10-01

    In this paper we assess the snow cover and its dynamics for the western river basins of the Indus River system (IRS) and their sub-basins located in Afghanistan, China, India and Pakistan for the period 2001-2012. First, we validate the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) daily snow products from Terra (MOD10A1) and Aqua (MYD10A1) against the Landsat Thematic Mapper/Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (TM/ETM+) data set, and then improve them for clouds by applying a validated non-spectral cloud removal technique. The improved snow product has been analysed on a seasonal and annual basis against different topographic parameters (aspect, elevation and slope). Our results show a decreasing tendency for the annual average snow cover for the westerlies-influenced basins (upper Indus basin (UIB), Astore, Hunza, Shigar and Shyok) and an increasing tendency for the monsoon-influenced basins (Jhelum, Kabul, Swat and Gilgit). Seasonal average snow cover decreases during winter and autumn, and increases during spring and summer, which is consistent with the observed cooling and warming trends during the respective seasons. Sub-basins at relatively higher latitudes/altitudes show higher variability than basins at lower latitudes/middle altitudes. Northeastern and northwestern aspects feature greater snow cover. The mean end-of-summer regional snow line altitude (SLA) zones range from 3000 to 5000 m a.s.l. for all basins. Our analysis provides an indication of a descending end-of-summer regional SLA zone for most of the studied basins, which is significant for the Shyok and Kabul basins, thus indicating a change in their water resources. Such results are consistent with the observed hydro-climatic data, recently collected local perceptions and glacier mass balances for the investigated period within the UIB. Moreover, our analysis shows a significant correlation between winter season snow cover and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index of the previous autumn

  19. Early 21st century climatology of snow cover for the western river basins of the Indus River System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasson, S.; Lucarini, V.; Khan, M. R.; Petitta, M.; Bolch, T.; Gioli, G.

    2013-11-01

    In this paper we assess the snow cover and its dynamics for the western river basins of the Indus River System (IRS) and their sub-basins located in Afghanistan, China, India and Pakistan for the period 2001-2012. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectro-radiometer (MODIS) daily snow products from Terra (MOD) and Aqua (MYD) have been first improved and then analysed on seasonal and annual basis against different topographic parameters (aspect, elevation and slope). Our applied cloud filtering technique has reduced the cloud cover from 37% (MOD) and 43% (MYD) to 7%, thus improving snow cover estimates from 7% (MOD) and 5% (MYD) to 14% for the area of interest (AOI) during the validation period (2004). Our results show a decreasing tendency for the annual average snow cover for the westerlies-influenced basins (Upper Indus Basin, Astore, Hunza, Shigar, Shyok) and an increasing tendency for the monsoon-influenced basins (Jhelum, Kabul, Swat and Gilgit). Regarding the seasonal snow cover, decrease during winter and autumn and increase during spring and summer has been found, which is consistent with the observed cooling and warming trends during the respective seasons. Sub-basins at relatively higher latitude/altitude show higher variability than basins at lower latitude/mid-altitude. Northeastern and northwestern aspects feature larger snow cover. The mean regional snow line altitude (SLA) zones range between 3000 and 5000 m a.s.l. for all basins. Our analysis provides an indication of a decrease in the regional SLA zone, thus indicating a change in the water resources of the studied basins, particularly for the Upper Indus Basin (UIB). Such results are consistent with the observed hydro-climate data, recently collected local perceptions and glacier mass balances for the investigated period. Moreover, our analysis suggests some potential for the seasonal stream flow forecast as a significant negative correlation has been detected for the inter-annual variability of winter

  20. Arsenic Removal from Drinking Water by Adsorptive Media - U.S. EPA Demonstration Project at Covered Wells in Tohono O’odham Nation, AZ - Final Performance Evaluation Report

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report documents the activities performed and the results obtained from the arsenic removal treatment technology demonstration project at Covered Wells in Tohono O’odham Nation, AZ. The main objective of the project was to evaluate the effectiveness of AdEdge Technologies’ ...

  1. DEGREASING SYSTEM POLLUTION PREVENTION EVALUATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses a joint EPA/USAF study, the objective of which was to evaluate the capability of cost effective degreaser control concepts that eliminate solvent methylchloroform emissions to the atmosphere while complying with industrial hygiene limits. The study represents ...

  2. Faculty Evaluation System: Counseling Faculty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saint Louis Community Coll., MO.

    This manual provides a series of forms and instruments and outlines the procedures used by St. Louis Community College in its annual evaluation of counseling faculty performance. First, general information is provided in lists of the performance indicators and other criteria upon which the assessment of teachers, counselors, and instructional…

  3. Internet Systems for Evaluation Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watt, James H.

    1999-01-01

    Provides a detailed description of diverse data collection tools based on the World Wide Web and enumerates their advantages, disadvantages, and logistical challenges. Web-based data collection can offer cost-effective, flexible, and timely solutions to many evaluation needs. (Author/SLD)

  4. Evaluation Methods for Intelligent Tutoring Systems Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greer, Jim; Mark, Mary

    2016-01-01

    The 1993 paper in "IJAIED" on evaluation methods for Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITS) still holds up well today. Basic evaluation techniques described in that paper remain in use. Approaches such as kappa scores, simulated learners and learning curves are refinements on past evaluation techniques. New approaches have also arisen, in…

  5. Evaluation of automated emergency response systems

    SciTech Connect

    Addis, R.P.

    1988-12-31

    Automated Emergency Response (ER) systems are playing a greater role in providing prompt and reliable predictions of the impact of inadvertent releases of hazardous materials to the environment. Observed and forecast environmental and accident source term data are input into environmental transport and dispersion models to provide dosimetry estimates used as decision making aids for responding to emergencies. Several automated ER systems have been developed for US Federal Government facilities and many are available commercially. For such systems to be useful, they must reliably and consistently deliver a timely product to the decision makers. Evaluation of the entire ER system is essential to determine the performance that can be expected from the system during an emergency. Unfortunately, seldom are ER systems evaluated as a whole. Usually Quality Assurance programs evaluate the performance of individual components of the system. Most atmospheric pollution model evaluation methods usually involve an evaluation of the predictive performance of the transport and dispersion model when compared either with experimental tracer results or results from other models. Rarely, however, is the ability of the ER system to provide timely, reliable and consistent information evaluated. Such an evaluation is vital to determine the system performance during an emergency and to provide valuable information to aid in improving the system.

  6. Framework for Evaluating Educational Systemic Initiatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ikegulu, T. Nelson

    This paper describes the implementation of the Holistic Systemic Evaluation (HSE), a component of an Education Systemic Initiative's strategic management. The HSE provides general guidance for the implementation and continual improvement of an Education Systemic Initiative Reform (ESIR). The implementation of the education system initiative plan:…

  7. Armored Geomembrane Cover Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Foye, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    Geomembranes are an important component of modern engineered barriers to prevent the infiltration of stormwater and runoff into contaminated soil and rock as well as waste containment facilities—a function generally described as a geomembrane cover. This paper presents a case history involving a novel implementation of a geomembrane cover system. Due to this novelty, the design engineers needed to assemble from disparate sources the design criteria for the engineering of the cover. This paper discusses the design methodologies assembled by the engineering team. This information will aid engineers designing similar cover systems as well as environmental and public health professionals selecting site improvements that involve infiltration barriers. PMID:21776229

  8. Earth orbital teleoperator systems evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shields, N. L., Jr.; Slaughter, P. H.; Brye, R. G.; Henderson, D. E.

    1979-01-01

    The mechanical extension of the human operator to remote and specialized environments poses a series of complex operational questions. A technical and scientific team was organized to investigate these questions through conducting specific laboratory and analytical studies. The intent of the studies was to determine the human operator requirements for remotely manned systems and to determine the particular effects that various system parameters have on human operator performance. In so doing, certain design criteria based on empirically derived data concerning the ultimate control system, the human operator, were added to the Teleoperator Development Program.

  9. Temporal dynamics of total and particulate organic carbon and nitrogen in cover crop grazed cropping systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil organic C and N are important indicators of agricultural sustainability, yet numerous field studies have revealed a multitude of responses in the extent and rate of change imposed by conservation management, and therefore, a lack of clarity on responses. We conducted an evaluation of total and...

  10. UNIX-based operating systems robustness evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Yu-Ming

    1996-01-01

    Robust operating systems are required for reliable computing. Techniques for robustness evaluation of operating systems not only enhance the understanding of the reliability of computer systems, but also provide valuable feed- back to system designers. This thesis presents results from robustness evaluation experiments on five UNIX-based operating systems, which include Digital Equipment's OSF/l, Hewlett Packard's HP-UX, Sun Microsystems' Solaris and SunOS, and Silicon Graphics' IRIX. Three sets of experiments were performed. The methodology for evaluation tested (1) the exception handling mechanism, (2) system resource management, and (3) system capacity under high workload stress. An exception generator was used to evaluate the exception handling mechanism of the operating systems. Results included exit status of the exception generator and the system state. Resource management techniques used by individual operating systems were tested using programs designed to usurp system resources such as physical memory and process slots. Finally, the workload stress testing evaluated the effect of the workload on system performance by running a synthetic workload and recording the response time of local and remote user requests. Moderate to severe performance degradations were observed on the systems under stress.

  11. NEUROPHYSIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF SENSORY SYSTEMS'

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to many neurotoxic compounds has been shown to produce a sensory system dysfunction. Neurophysiological assessment of sensory function in humans and animal models often uses techniques known as sensory evoked potentials. Because both humans and animals show analogous res...

  12. System for electronic transformation and geographic correlation of satellite television information. [cloud cover photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dubenskiy, V. P.; Nemkovskiy, B. L.; Rodionov, B. N.

    1974-01-01

    An electronic transformation and correlation system has been developed for the Meteor space weather system which provides transformation and scaling of the original picture, accounts for satellite flight altitude and inclinations of the optical axes of the transmitting devices, and simultaneously superposes the geographical coordinate grid on the transformed picture.

  13. Evaluation of SLAR and thematic mapper MSS data for forest cover mapping using computer-aided analysis techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffer, R. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    To facilitate comparison between the four different spatial resolution of the NS-001 MSS data sets, a supervised approach was taken in defining training blocks for each of the different cover types. The training fields representing each cover type category were grouped and this group was clustered to determine the individual spectral classes within each cover type category which would effectively characterize the entire test site. Graphs show the variation in spectral response level with respect to distance in the across track dimension for four sampling intervals. Radar digitization procedures were developd. Flight characteristics and parameters for digitization of radar imagery are tabulated. The statement of work for phase 3 was reviewed and modifications were suggested to meet funding reduction.

  14. Influence of cover crop and intercrop systems on Bemisia argentifolli (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) infestation and associated squash silverleaf disorder in zucchini.

    PubMed

    Manandhar, Roshan; Hooks, Cerruti R R; Wright, Mark G

    2009-04-01

    Field experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of cover cropping and intercropping on population densities of silverleaf whitefly, Bemisia argentifolli Bellow and Perring, and the incidence of squash silverleaf disorder (SSL) in zucchini, Cucurbita pepo L., in Oahu, HI. Two cover crops, buckwheat (BW), Fagopyrum esculentum Moench, and white clover (WC), Trifolium repens L., or sunn hemp (SH), Crotolaria juncea L., and an intercropped vegetable, okra, Abelmonchus esculentus L., were evaluated during the 2003, 2005, and 2006 growing seasons, respectively. Population densities of whiteflies and SSL severity varied during the three field experiments. In 2003, the severity of SSL and percentage of leaves displaying symptoms were significantly lower on zucchini plants in WC than BW plots throughout the crops' growth cycle. Additionally, the percentage of leaves per plant displaying SSL symptoms was significantly greater in bare-ground (BG) compared with the pooled BW and WC treatments on each inspection date. In 2005, zucchini intercropped with okra had lower numbers of adult whiteflies and resulted in significantly lower severity of SSL than pooled BW and WC treatments. During 2006, zucchini grown with SH had significantly lower numbers of all whitefly stages (i.e., egg, immature, and adult) and less SSL severity symptoms than BW. Despite these differences in whitefly numbers and SSL severity, marketable yields were not significantly lower in BW compared with WC or SH treatment plots during the study. The mechanisms underlying these results and the feasibility of using cover crops and intercrops to manage B. argentifolli and SSL are discussed. PMID:19389294

  15. Evaluating and synthesizing broadcasting satellite systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knouse, G. H.

    1974-01-01

    A system model and a computer program have been developed which are representative of broadcasting satellite systems employing several types of receiving terminals. The program provides a user-oriented tool for (1) evaluating performance/cost tradeoffs, (2) synthesizing minimum cost systems for a given set of system requirements, and (3) performing sensitivity analyses to identify critical user requirements, system parameters, and technology. The types of systems which can be evaluated are described, and the capabilities of the program are illustrated by means of several examples.

  16. Design requirements for SRB production control system. Volume 3: Package evaluation, modification and hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The software package evaluation was designed to analyze commercially available, field-proven, production control or manufacturing resource planning management technology and software package. The analysis was conducted by comparing SRB production control software requirements and conceptual system design to software package capabilities. The methodology of evaluation and the findings at each stage of evaluation are described. Topics covered include: vendor listing; request for information (RFI) document; RFI response rate and quality; RFI evaluation process; and capabilities versus requirements.

  17. Designing and Evaluating Explanations for Recommender Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tintarev, Nava; Masthoff, Judith

    This chapter gives an overview of the area of explanations in recommender systems. We approach the literature from the angle of evaluation: that is, we are interested in what makes an explanation "good", and suggest guidelines as how to best evaluate this. We identify seven benefits that explanations may contribute to a recommender system, and relate them to criteria used in evaluations of explanations in existing systems, and how these relate to evaluations with live recommender systems. We also discuss how explanations can be affected by how recommendations are presented, and the role the interaction with the recommender system plays w.r.t. explanations. Finally, we describe a number of explanation styles, and how they may be related to the underlying algorithms. Examples of explanations in existing systems are mentioned throughout.

  18. Flexible manufacturing system (FMS) evaluation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Setter, D.L.

    1993-02-01

    The applicability of the flexible manufacturing system (FMS) concept to automate machining and inspecting a family of stainless steel and aluminum hardware for electrical components has been evaluated. FMS was found to be appropriate and justifiable and a project was initiated to purchase and implement an FMS system. System specifications and procurement methodologies were developed that resulted in a conventional competitive bid procurement A proposal evaluation technique was developed consisting of 40% price, 40% technical compliance, and 20% supplier management capabilities.

  19. Evaluation of Cover Crops with Potential for Use in Anaerobic Soil Disinfestation (ASD) for Susceptibility to Three Species of Meloidogyne

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several cover crops with potential for use in tropical and subtropical regions were assessed for susceptibility to three common species of root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne arenaria, M. incognita, and M. javanica. Crops were selected based on potential use as organic amendments in anaerobic soil disin...

  20. An Evaluation of Copy Cover and Compare Spelling Intervention for an Elementary Student with Learning Disabilities: A Replication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breach, Celena; McLaughlin, T. F.; Derby, K. Mark

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to increase the spelling performance for a 4th grade student with learning disabilities. The second objective was to replicate the document with the efficacy of Copy, Cover, and Compare (CCC) in spelling. The study was conducted in a resource room in a low socio-economic school in the Pacific Northwest. The skill…

  1. Using large eddy simulation to evaluate source area contributions from aircraft flux measurements over heterogeneous land cover

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The estimation of spatial patterns in surface fluxes from aircraft observations poses several challenges in presence of heterogeneous land cover, related to the effects of turbulence on scalar transport, the different behavior of passive (moisture) versus active (temperature) scalars. This in turn h...

  2. Evaluating Health Information Systems Using Ontologies

    PubMed Central

    Anderberg, Peter; Larsson, Tobias C; Fricker, Samuel A; Berglund, Johan

    2016-01-01

    Background There are several frameworks that attempt to address the challenges of evaluation of health information systems by offering models, methods, and guidelines about what to evaluate, how to evaluate, and how to report the evaluation results. Model-based evaluation frameworks usually suggest universally applicable evaluation aspects but do not consider case-specific aspects. On the other hand, evaluation frameworks that are case specific, by eliciting user requirements, limit their output to the evaluation aspects suggested by the users in the early phases of system development. In addition, these case-specific approaches extract different sets of evaluation aspects from each case, making it challenging to collectively compare, unify, or aggregate the evaluation of a set of heterogeneous health information systems. Objectives The aim of this paper is to find a method capable of suggesting evaluation aspects for a set of one or more health information systems—whether similar or heterogeneous—by organizing, unifying, and aggregating the quality attributes extracted from those systems and from an external evaluation framework. Methods On the basis of the available literature in semantic networks and ontologies, a method (called Unified eValuation using Ontology; UVON) was developed that can organize, unify, and aggregate the quality attributes of several health information systems into a tree-style ontology structure. The method was extended to integrate its generated ontology with the evaluation aspects suggested by model-based evaluation frameworks. An approach was developed to extract evaluation aspects from the ontology that also considers evaluation case practicalities such as the maximum number of evaluation aspects to be measured or their required degree of specificity. The method was applied and tested in Future Internet Social and Technological Alignment Research (FI-STAR), a project of 7 cloud-based eHealth applications that were developed and

  3. Operational Solar Forecasting System for DNI and GHI for Horizons Covering 5 Minutes to 72 Hours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coimbra, C. F.

    2014-12-01

    I will describe the methodology used to develop and deploy operationally a comprehensive solar forecasting system for both concentrated and non-concentrated solar technologies. This operational forecasting system ingests data from local telemetry, remote sensing and Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) models, processes all the diferent types of data (time series, sky images, satellite images, gridded data, etc.) to produce concatenated solar forecasts from 5 minutes out to 72 hours into the future. Each forecast is optimized with stochastic learning techniques that include input selection, model topology optimization, model output statistics, metric fitness optimization and machine learning. These forecasts are used by solar generators (plant managers), utilities and independent system operators for operations, scheduling, dispatching and market participation.

  4. Evaluation of implement monitoring systems.

    PubMed

    Rakhra, A K; Mann, D D

    2013-01-01

    During monitoring of rear-mounted equipment, frequent rearward turning of tractor drivers causes awkward postures that can cause musculoskeletal disorders related to the back, neck, and shoulders. The objective of this study was to compare three implement monitoring strategies (direct viewing via physical turning, indirect viewing via rear-view mirrors, and indirect viewing via a camera-monitor system) in a lab environment using a tractor and air seeder driving simulator Comparison was based on monitoring performance of the operator (i.e., response error), physical impact on the operator (i.e., head/neck acceleration and increase in neck muscle temperature), and operator preference. Indirect viewing via a camera-monitor system caused the least physical impact on subjects and was the preferred implement monitoring strategy. No significant differences (alpha = 0.05) in monitoring performance were observed. PMID:23600169

  5. Computerized ultrasound risk evaluation system

    DOEpatents

    Duric, Nebojsa; Littrup, Peter J.; Holsapple, III, Earle; Barter, Robert Henry; Moore, Thomas L.; Azevedo, Stephen G.; Ferguson, Sidney W.

    2007-10-23

    A method and system for examining tissue are provided in which the tissue is maintained in a position so that it may be insonified with a plurality of pulsed spherical or cylindrical acoustic waves. The insonifying acoustic waves are scattered by the tissue so that scattered acoustic radiation including a mix of reflected and transmitted acoustic waves is received. A representation of a portion of the tissue is then derived from the received scattered acoustic radiation.

  6. Exploring cover crops as carbon sources for anaerobic soil disinfestation in a vegetable production system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In a raised-bed plasticulture vegetable production system utilizing anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD) in Florida field trials, pathogen, weed, and parasitic nematode control was equivalent to or better than the methyl bromide control. Molasses was used as the labile carbon source to stimulate micr...

  7. Interactions of tillage and cover crop on runoff water quality from glyphosate-resistant cotton systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conservation management systems need to be optimized for glyphosate [N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine]-resistant cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) (GRC) in the lower Mississippi River alluvial basin to balance production goals with environmental concerns. A rainfall simulation study was conducted in experim...

  8. Cover Crop, Amendment, and Tillage Effects on Decomposers, Nematodes, and Collembolans in An Organic Vegetable System

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil organisms are sensitive indicators of changes in soil properties. This study reports the effects of different organic management practices on microbial biomass, nematodes and collembolans. Cropping systems treatments are traditional post-harvest, fall-seeded cereal rye-hairy vetch mix; relay-...

  9. Cover crop use for weed management in Southern reduced-tillage vegetable cropping systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With growing agricultural demands from both conventional and organic systems comes the need for sustainable practices to ensure long-term productivity. Implementation of reduced- or no-till practices offers a number of environmental benefits for agricultural land and maintains adequate yield for cu...

  10. Comprehensive system models: Strategies for evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Field, Christopher; Kutzbach, John E.; Ramanathan, V.; Maccracken, Michael C.

    1992-01-01

    The task of evaluating comprehensive earth system models is vast involving validations of every model component at every scale of organization, as well as tests of all the individual linkages. Even the most detailed evaluation of each of the component processes and the individual links among them should not, however, engender confidence in the performance of the whole. The integrated earth system is so rich with complex feedback loops, often involving components of the atmosphere, oceans, biosphere, and cryosphere, that it is certain to exhibit emergent properties very difficult to predict from the perspective of a narrow focus on any individual component of the system. Therefore, a substantial share of the task of evaluating comprehensive earth system models must reside at the level of whole system evaluations. Since complete, integrated atmosphere/ ocean/ biosphere/ hydrology models are not yet operational, questions of evaluation must be addressed at the level of the kinds of earth system processes that the models should be competent to simulate, rather than at the level of specific performance criteria. Here, we have tried to identify examples of earth system processes that are difficult to simulate with existing models and that involve a rich enough suite of feedbacks that they are unlikely to be satisfactorily described by highly simplified or toy models. Our purpose is not to specify a checklist of evaluation criteria but to introduce characteristics of the earth system that may present useful opportunities for model testing and, of course, improvement.

  11. Earth orbital teleoperator visual system evaluation program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shields, N. L., Jr.; Kirkpatrick, M., III; Frederick, P. N.; Malone, T. B.

    1975-01-01

    Empirical tests of range estimation accuracy and resolution, via television, under monoptic and steroptic viewing conditions are discussed. Test data are used to derive man machine interface requirements and make design decisions for an orbital remote manipulator system. Remote manipulator system visual tasks are given and the effects of system parameters of these tasks are evaluated.

  12. Economic Evaluation of Townhouse Solar Energy System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Solar-energy site in Columbia, South Carolina, is comprised of four townhouse apartments. Report summarizes economic evaluation of solar--energy system and projected performance of similar systems in four other selected cities. System is designed to supply 65 percent of heating and 75 percent of hot water.

  13. Evaluating the Impact of Vegetation Cover and Atmospheric Characteristics on the Estimation of Snow Water Equivalent from Spaceborne Microwave Radiometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choudhury, Bhaskar J.; Foster, James L.

    2010-01-01

    A radiative transfer model for estimating snow water equivalent (SWE, mm) from satellite-observed brightness temperature (K) at 19 and 37 GHz (respectively, T(sub B(sub, sat,19)) and T(sub B(sub, sat,37)) over partially forested area is presented, as an extension of a previously published model, by considering scattering of radiation within the canopy. For the specific case of dense vegetation covering fractional area f, the model can be written as, SWE = alpha{ A. delta (T(sub B(sub, sat)) + B - C. f}/(l f), where delta T(sub B(sub, sat)), is the difference of T(sub B(sub, sat,19)) and T(sub B(sub, sat,37)), alpha(mm/K) is the slope of SWE vs. brightness temperature difference at 19 and 37 GHz that would be obtained by ignoring the presence of atmosphere, delta(T(sub B)sub g)), for a homogeneous snow cover (which varies with grain size). The parameters A, B, and C, are determined primarily by atmospheric characteristics, and for a likely range of atmospheric conditions appear to be in the range of, respectively, 1.15-1.63, 0.69-2.84 K and 0.59-2.39 K. Ignoring atmospheric correction would introduce bias towards underestimation of SWE (and also, snow cover area and snow depth). Increasing cloud liquid water path (L) has the effect of increasing A, and ignoring this variation of A with L would have the impact of biasing the estimate of SWE (and snow extent). Such biasing is further exacerbated with increasing f, because of the appearance of term (l-f) in the denominator. The impact of ignoring the intercept parameters (B and C) would be noticeable at low values of SWE (appearing as a bias towards underestimation of SWE), which has been determined to be about 6 mm for average environmental conditions. The uncertainty in estimating SWE due to variations in the atmospheric characteristics is likely to be less than 15%, but could be up to 25% for non-vegetated snow-covered areas. Better estimates of SWE (and snow extent) would be obtained by adjusting the parameters of

  14. Evaluation of accuracy of calculations of VVER-1000 core states with incomplete covering of fuel by the absorber

    SciTech Connect

    Tikhomirov, A. V.; Ponomarenko, G. L.

    2012-07-01

    An additional verification of bundled software (BS) SAPFIR-95 and amp;RC [1] and code KORSAR/GP [2] was performed. Both software products were developed in A.P. Alexandrov NITI and certified by ROSTEKHNADZOR of RF for numeric simulation of stationary, transitional and emergency conditions of VVER reactors. A benchmark model for neutronics calculations was created within the limits of this work. The cold subcritical state of VVER - 1000 reactor stationary fuelling was simulated on the basis of FA with an increased height of the fuel column (TVS-2M) considering detailed presentation of radial and front neutron reflectors. A case of passing of pure condensate slug through the core in initially deep subcritical state during start of the first RCP set after refueling was considered as an examined condition of reactor operation. A relatively small size of the slug, its spatial position near the reflectors (lower and lateral), as well as failure of the inserted control rods of the control and protection system (CPS CR) to reach the lower limit of the fuel column stipulate for methodical complexity of a correct calculation of the neutron multiplication constant (K{sub eff}) using engineering codes. Code RC was used as a test program in the process of reactor calculated 3-D modeling. Code MCNP5 [3] was used as the precision program, which solves the equation of neutrons transfer by Monte-Carlo method and which was developed in the US (Los-Alamos). As a result of comparative calculations dependency of K{sub eff} on two parameters was evaluated - boron acid concentration (Cb) and CPS CR position. Reactivity effect was evaluated, which is implemented as a result of failure of all CPS control rods to reach the lower fuel limit calculated using the engineering codes mentioned above. (authors)

  15. Cover Crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cover crops are great tools to improve soil quality and health, and great tools to increase carbon sequestration. They are nutrient management tools that can help scavenge nitrate, cycle nitrogen to the following crop, mine NO3 from groundwater, and increase nitrogen use efficiency of cropping syste...

  16. Wall Covering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The attractive wall covering shown below is one of 132 styles in the Mirror Magic II line offered by The General Tire & Rubber Company, Akron, Ohio. The material is metallized plastic fabric, a spinoff from space programs. Wall coverings are one of many consumer applications of aluminized plastic film technology developed for NASA by a firm later bought by King-Seeley Thermos Company, Winchester, Massachusetts, which now produces the material. The original NASA use was in the Echo 1 passive communications satellite, a "space baloon" made of aluminized mylar; the high reflectivity of the metallized coating enabled relay of communications signals from one Earth station to another by "bouncing" them off the satellite. The reflectivity feature also made the material an extremely efficient insulator and it was subsequently widely used in the Apollo program for such purposes as temperature control of spacecraft components and insulation of tanks for fuels that must be maintained at very low temperatures. I Used as a wall covering, the aluminized material offers extra insulation, reflects light and I resists cracking. In addition to General Tire, King-Seeley also supplies wall covering material to Columbus Coated Fabrics Division of Borden, Incorporated, Columbus, Ohio, among others.

  17. Mid-infrared imaging system based on polarizers for detecting marine targets covered in sun glint.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Huijie; Ji, Zheng; Zhang, Ying; Sun, Xiaofeng; Song, Pengfei; Li, Yansong

    2016-07-25

    When a marine target is detected by a mid-infrared detector on a sunny day, the target's information could be lost if it is located in sun glint. Therefore, we developed a new mid-infrared imaging system capable of effectively detecting marine targets in regions of strong sun glint, which is presented in this report. Firstly, the theory of the analysis methods employed in different detection scenarios is briefly described to establish whether one or two polarizers should be utilized to suppress further the p-polarized component of sun glint. Secondly, for the case in which a second polarizer is employed, the formula for the optimum angle between the two polarizers is given. Then, the results of our field experiment are presented, demonstrating that the developed system can significantly reduce sun glint and can enhance the contrast of target images. A commonly used image processing algorithm proved capable of identifying a target in sun glint, confirming the effectiveness of our proposed mid-infrared polarization imaging system. PMID:27464092

  18. ENGINEERING BULLETIN: LANDFILL COVERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Landfill covers are used at Superfund sites to minimize surface water infiltration and control gas migration. In many cases covers are used in conjunction with other waste treatment technologies, such as slurry walls, ground water pump-and-treat systems, and gas collection. This ...

  19. Performance Evaluation and Benchmarking of Next Intelligent Systems

    SciTech Connect

    del Pobil, Angel; Madhavan, Raj; Bonsignorio, Fabio

    2009-10-01

    Performance Evaluation and Benchmarking of Intelligent Systems presents research dedicated to the subject of performance evaluation and benchmarking of intelligent systems by drawing from the experiences and insights of leading experts gained both through theoretical development and practical implementation of intelligent systems in a variety of diverse application domains. This contributed volume offers a detailed and coherent picture of state-of-the-art, recent developments, and further research areas in intelligent systems. The chapters cover a broad range of applications, such as assistive robotics, planetary surveying, urban search and rescue, and line tracking for automotive assembly. Subsystems or components described in this book include human-robot interaction, multi-robot coordination, communications, perception, and mapping. Chapters are also devoted to simulation support and open source software for cognitive platforms, providing examples of the type of enabling underlying technologies that can help intelligent systems to propagate and increase in capabilities. Performance Evaluation and Benchmarking of Intelligent Systems serves as a professional reference for researchers and practitioners in the field. This book is also applicable to advanced courses for graduate level students and robotics professionals in a wide range of engineering and related disciplines including computer science, automotive, healthcare, manufacturing, and service robotics.

  20. Evaluating the use of uncertainty visualization for exploratory analysis of land cover change: A qualitative expert user study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinkeldey, Christoph; Schiewe, Jochen; Gerstmann, Henning; Götze, Christian; Kit, Oleksandr; Lüdeke, Matthias; Taubenböck, Hannes; Wurm, Michael

    2015-11-01

    Extensive research on geodata uncertainty has been conducted in the past decades, mostly related to modeling, quantifying, and communicating uncertainty. But findings on if and how users can incorporate this information into spatial analyses are still rare. In this paper we address these questions with a focus on land cover change analysis. We conducted semi-structured interviews with three expert groups dealing with change analysis in the fields of climate research, urban development, and vegetation monitoring. During the interviews we used a software prototype to show change scenarios that the experts had analyzed before, extended by visual depiction of uncertainty related to land cover change. This paper describes the study, summarizes results, and discusses findings as well as the study method. Participants came up with several ideas for applications that could be supported by uncertainty, for example, identification of erroneous change, description of change detection algorithm characteristics, or optimization of change detection parameters. Regarding the aspect of reasoning with uncertainty in land cover change data the interviewees saw potential in better-informed hypotheses and insights about change. Communication of uncertainty information to users was seen as critical, depending on the users' role and expertize. We judge semi-structured interviews to be suitable for the purpose of this study and emphasize the potential of qualitative methods (workshops, focus groups etc.) for future uncertainty visualization studies.

  1. Evaluation of SLAR and thematic mapper MSS data for forest cover mapping using computer-aided analysis techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffer, R. M. (Principal Investigator); Knowlton, D. J.; Dean, M. E.

    1981-01-01

    Supervised and cluster block training statistics were used to analyze the thematic mapper simulation MSS data (both 1979 and 1980 data sets). Cover information classes identified on SAR imagery include: hardwood, pine, mixed pine hardwood, clearcut, pasture, crops, emergent crops, bare soil, urban, and water. Preliminary analysis of the HH and HV polarized SAR data indicate a high variance associated with each information class except for water and bare soil. The large variance for most spectral classes suggests that while the means might be statistically separable, an overlap may exist between the classes which could introduce a significant classification error. The quantitative values of many cover types are much larger on the HV polarization than on the HH, thereby indicating the relative nature of the digitized data values. The mean values of the spectral classes in the areas with larger look angles are greater than the means of the same cover type in other areas having steeper look angles. Difficulty in accurately overlaying the dual polarization of the SAR data was resolved.

  2. VEGETATIVE COVERS FOR WASTE CONTAINMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Disposal of municipal ahd hazardous waste in the United States is primarily accomplished by containment in lined and capped landfills. Evapotranspiration cover systems offer an alternative to conventional landfill cap systems. These covers work on completely different principles ...

  3. INTEGRATED WATER TREATMENT SYSTEM PERFORMANCE EVALUATION

    SciTech Connect

    SEXTON RA; MEEUWSEN WE

    2009-03-12

    This document describes the results of an evaluation of the current Integrated Water Treatment System (IWTS) operation against design performance and a determination of short term and long term actions recommended to sustain IWTS performance.

  4. EVALUATION OF A FTIR SOURCE MEASUREMENT SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    An initial evaluation was made of a prototype Fourier transform infrared spectrometer on its ability to measure mobile source emissions. This prototype represents the commercialization of research technology developed by the Ford Motor Co. The system utilizes a Mattson Instrument...

  5. Pervious Pavement System Evaluation-Poster

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pervious pavement is a low impact development stormwater control. The Environmental Protection Agency's Urban Watershed Management Branch is evaluating interlocking concrete pavingstone pervious pavement systems. The pavingstones themselves are impermeable, but the spaces between...

  6. System evaluations of laser power beaming options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, Edward E., IV

    1992-01-01

    The major technology options for high-energy FELs and adaptive optics available to the Space Laser Energy (SELENE) program are reviewed. Initial system evaluations of these options are described. A feasibility assessment of laser power beaming is given.

  7. From The Cover: Massive nitrogen loss from the Benguela upwelling system through anaerobic ammonium oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuypers, Marcel M. M.; Lavik, Gaute; Woebken, Dagmar; Schmid, Markus; Fuchs, Bernhard M.; Amann, Rudolf; Barker Jørgensen, Bo; Jetten, Mike S. M.

    2005-05-01

    In many oceanic regions, growth of phytoplankton is nitrogen-limited because fixation of N2 cannot make up for the removal of fixed inorganic nitrogen (NH+4, NO-2, and NO-3) by anaerobic microbial processes. Globally, 30-50% of the total nitrogen loss occurs in oxygen-minimum zones (OMZs) and is commonly attributed to denitrification (reduction of nitrate to N2 by heterotrophic bacteria). Here, we show that instead, the anammox process (the anaerobic oxidation of ammonium by nitrite to yield N2) is mainly responsible for nitrogen loss in the OMZ waters of one of the most productive regions of the world ocean, the Benguela upwelling system. Our in situ experiments indicate that nitrate is not directly converted to N2 by heterotrophic denitrification in the suboxic zone. In the Benguela system, nutrient profiles, anammox rates, abundances of anammox cells, and specific biomarker lipids indicate that anammox bacteria are responsible for massive losses of fixed nitrogen. We have identified and directly linked anammox bacteria to the removal of fixed inorganic nitrogen in the OMZ waters of an open-ocean setting. We hypothesize that anammox could also be responsible for substantial nitrogen loss from other OMZ waters of the ocean.

  8. Principles for Evaluating Intelligent Tutoring Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shute, Valerie J.; Regian, J. Wesley

    1993-01-01

    Discussion of intelligent tutoring systems (ITS) focuses on what is required to evaluate the efficacy of an ITS. Research and development aspects of ITS are examined; and seven main principles that may be used to design, plan, and implement an effective ITS evaluation are described. (Contains 40 references.) (LRW)

  9. A Clinical Evaluation System for Anesthesiology Residents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viets, J. L.; Foster, Scot D.

    1988-01-01

    Baylor College of Medicine's system for evaluating the clinical progress of anesthesiology residents, developed in response to problems of standards, staff cooperation, and student dissatisfaction with evaluation, assesses resident progress in terms of performance levels based on case complexity and degree of staff intervention. (Author/MSE)

  10. [Evaluation of the new radiovisiography system].

    PubMed

    Benz, C; Schwarz, P; Sonnabend, E

    1990-11-01

    The latest version of the Radiovisiography-system was evaluated in comparison to its predecessor and a high speed periapical film (Agfa Dentus M4). Both RVG-systems proved to have the same sensitivity and are capable of displaying a similar contrast range. Nevertheless additional functions of the new system allow a much better visualisation of the radiographed structure. Compared with Dentus M4 periapical films the RVG-System provides less sensitivity but a wider range of contrast. PMID:2269093

  11. Evapotranspiration (ET) covers.

    PubMed

    Rock, Steve; Myers, Bill; Fiedler, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) cover systems are increasingly being used at municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills, hazardous waste landfills, at industrial monofills, and at mine sites. Conventional cover systems use materials with low hydraulic permeability (barrier layers) to minimize the downward migration of water from the surface to the waste (percolation), ET cover systems use water balance components to minimize percolation. These cover systems rely on soil to capture and store precipitation until it is either transpired through vegetation or evaporated from the soil surface. Compared to conventional membrane or compacted clay cover systems, ET cover systems are expected to cost less to construct. They are often aesthetic because they employ naturalized vegetation, require less maintenance once the vegetative system is established, including eliminating mowing, and may require fewer repairs than a barrier system. All cover systems should consider the goals of the cover in terms of protectiveness, including the pathways of risk from contained material, the lifecycle of the containment system. The containment system needs to be protective of direct contact of people and animals with the waste, prevent surface and groundwater water pollution, and minimize release of airborne contaminants. While most containment strategies have been based on the dry tomb strategy of keeping waste dry, there are some sites where adding or allowing moisture to help decompose organic waste is the current plan. ET covers may work well in places where complete exclusion of precipitation is not needed. The U.S. EPA Alternative Cover Assessment Program (ACAP), USDOE, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and others have researched ET cover design and efficacy, including the history of their use, general considerations in their design, performance, monitoring, cost, current status, limitations on their use, and project specific examples. An on-line database has been developed with information

  12. Evaluating the relationship between biomass, percent groundcover and remote sensing indices across six winter cover crop fields in Maryland, United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prabhakara, Kusuma; Hively, W. Dean; McCarty, Gregory W.

    2015-07-01

    Winter cover crops are an essential part of managing nutrient and sediment losses from agricultural lands. Cover crops lessen sedimentation by reducing erosion, and the accumulation of nitrogen in aboveground biomass results in reduced nutrient runoff. Winter cover crops are planted in the fall and are usually terminated in early spring, making them susceptible to senescence, frost burn, and leaf yellowing due to wintertime conditions. This study sought to determine to what extent remote sensing indices are capable of accurately estimating the percent groundcover and biomass of winter cover crops, and to analyze under what critical ranges these relationships are strong and under which conditions they break down. Cover crop growth on six fields planted to barley, rye, ryegrass, triticale or wheat was measured over the 2012-2013 winter growing season. Data collection included spectral reflectance measurements, aboveground biomass, and percent groundcover. Ten vegetation indices were evaluated using surface reflectance data from a 16-band CROPSCAN sensor. Restricting analysis to sampling dates before the onset of prolonged freezing temperatures and leaf yellowing resulted in increased estimation accuracy. There was a strong relationship between the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and percent groundcover (r2 = 0.93) suggesting that date restrictions effectively eliminate yellowing vegetation from analysis. The triangular vegetation index (TVI) was most accurate in estimating high ranges of biomass (r2 = 0.86), while NDVI did not experience a clustering of values in the low and medium biomass ranges but saturated in the higher range (>1500 kg/ha). The results of this study show that accounting for index saturation, senescence, and frost burn on leaves can greatly increase the accuracy of estimates of percent groundcover and biomass for winter cover crops.

  13. Evaluating the relationship between biomass, percent groundcover and remote sensing indices across six winter cover crop fields in Maryland, United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prabhakara, Kusuma; Hively, W. Dean; McCarty, Greg W.

    2015-01-01

    Winter cover crops are an essential part of managing nutrient and sediment losses from agricultural lands. Cover crops lessen sedimentation by reducing erosion, and the accumulation of nitrogen in aboveground biomass results in reduced nutrient runoff. Winter cover crops are planted in the fall and are usually terminated in early spring, making them susceptible to senescence, frost burn, and leaf yellowing due to wintertime conditions. This study sought to determine to what extent remote sensing indices are capable of accurately estimating the percent groundcover and biomass of winter cover crops, and to analyze under what critical ranges these relationships are strong and under which conditions they break down. Cover crop growth on six fields planted to barley, rye, ryegrass, triticale or wheat was measured over the 2012–2013 winter growing season. Data collection included spectral reflectance measurements, aboveground biomass, and percent groundcover. Ten vegetation indices were evaluated using surface reflectance data from a 16-band CROPSCAN sensor. Restricting analysis to sampling dates before the onset of prolonged freezing temperatures and leaf yellowing resulted in increased estimation accuracy. There was a strong relationship between the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and percent groundcover (r2 = 0.93) suggesting that date restrictions effectively eliminate yellowing vegetation from analysis. The triangular vegetation index (TVI) was most accurate in estimating high ranges of biomass (r2 = 0.86), while NDVI did not experience a clustering of values in the low and medium biomass ranges but saturated in the higher range (>1500 kg/ha). The results of this study show that accounting for index saturation, senescence, and frost burn on leaves can greatly increase the accuracy of estimates of percent groundcover and biomass for winter cover crops.

  14. Visual Support System for Report Distinctiveness Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sunayama, Wataru; Kawaguchi, Toshiaki

    In recent years, as the Internet has grown, electronic reports have come to be used in educational organizations such as universities. Though reports written by hand must be evaluated by hand except for stereotype descriptions or numerical answers, electronic reports can be rated by computer. There are two major criteria in rating reports, correctness and distinctiveness. Correctness is rated by absolute criteria and distinctiveness is rated by relative criteria. Relative evaluation is difficult because raters should memorize all contents of submitted reports to provide objective rates. In addition, electronic data are easily copied or exchanged by students. This paper presents a report evaluation support system with which raters can compare each report and give objective rates for distinctiveness. This system evaluates each report by objective similarity criteria and visualizes them in a two-dimensional interface as the calculated distinctiveness order. Experimental results show the system is valid and effective for estimating associations between reports.

  15. MSFC Skylab contamination control systems mission evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Cluster external contamination control evaluation was made throughout the Skylab Mission. This evaluation indicated that contamination control measures instigated during the design, development, and operational phases of this program were adequate to reduce the general contamination environment external to the Cluster below the threshold senstivity levels for experiments and affected subsystems. Launch and orbit contamination control features included eliminating certain vents, rerouting vents for minimum contamination impact, establishing filters, incorporating materials with minimum outgassing characteristics and developing operational constraints and mission rules to minimize contamination effects. Prior to the launch of Skylab, contamination control math models were developed which were used to predict Cluster surface deposition and background brightness levels throughout the mission. The report summarizes the Skylab system and experiment contamination control evaluation. The Cluster systems and experiments evaluated include Induced Atmosphere, Corollary and ATM Experiments, Thermal Control Surfaces, Solar Array Systems, Windows and Star Tracker.

  16. Using a coupled atmospheric-biospheric modeling system (GEMRAMS) to model the effects of land-use/land-cover changes on the near-surface atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beltran, Adriana Beatriz

    A coupled atmospheric-biospheric model is a particularly valuable tool to study the potential effects of land-use/land-cover changes on near-surface atmosphere since the atmosphere and biosphere are allowed to dynamically interact through the surface and canopy energy balance. GEMRAMS is an ecophysiological process-based model, comprised of the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) and the General Energy and Mass Transport Model (GEMTM), and was used in this study. At a regional and seasonal scale, several spring-early summer simulations were conducted on a southern South America domain. GEMRAMS were able to simulate the observed monthly temperature and precipitation. Sensitivity to lateral boundary conditions was explored for RAMS using NCEP and ECMWF reanalysis as atmospheric forcing. Land-cover scenarios representing current, natural, and afforestation conditions were implemented for this region and used to simulate the impacts of land-cover changes on near-surface atmosphere. Changes in near-surface fluxes and temperature depended on the type of vegetation conversion and the season. Warmer temperatures were found in the conversion from wooded grasslands or forest to agriculture. Afforestation and conversion from grass to agriculture led to a cooler and wetter near-surface atmosphere. Additional simulations with a double CO2 concentration were also performed to assess the relative contributions of the land-cover and doubled CO2 forcing to meteorological and biological variables. At a local and diurnal scale, GEMRAMS was used to evaluate the effects of observed vegetation changes that occurred in the northern Chihuahuan Desert, from grasslands in the mid-1800s to shrublands in the late 1900s. Simulations were performed using detailed vegetation maps for 1858 and 1998. Surface flux changes and the associated effects on near-surface temperature were spatially heterogeneous: different vegetation changes led to different effects, but albedo was the dominant

  17. Advanced technology wind shear prediction system evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gering, Greg

    1992-01-01

    The program overviews: (1) American Airline (AA)/Turbulence Prediction Systems (TPS), which have installed forward looking infrared predictive windshear system on 3 MD-80 aircraft; (2) AA/TPS AWAS III evaluation, which is a joint effort and is installed in the noise landing gear (NLG) area and a data recorder installed in the E/E compartment.

  18. Evaluation System Weighing down Tennessee Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heitin, Liana

    2011-01-01

    A state law, which helped Tennessee win Race to the Top money, pushed schools to implement a system that had limited pilot-testing. Education officials in Tennessee are taking flak from teachers and unions for rushing the implementation of the new teacher-evaluation system that will eventually undergird tenure decisions--a move, some worry, that…

  19. Evaluation of an Automated Touch Typing System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dierks, Caroll J.

    The Automated Instruction Touch Typing System, an individualized self-paced instructional method of teaching typewriting skills using the principles of response conditioning, was evaluated. The system is divided into four phases. Phase 1 presents keyboard instruction in four to six hours. These lessons are response conditioning sessions during…

  20. School Planning, Evaluation and Communication System (SPECS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flocco, Edward C.

    A comprehensive school planning tool is available from General Learning Corporation and the Center for the Advanced Study of Educational Administration at the University of Oregon. This School Planning, Evaluation and Communication System (SPECS) provides a deliverable system of training, implementation strategies and materials and technical…

  1. Evaluation in the Design of Complex Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Li-An; Schwen, Thomas M.

    2006-01-01

    We identify literature that argues the process of creating knowledge-based system is often imbalanced. In most knowledge-based systems, development is often technology-driven instead of requirement-driven. Therefore, we argue designers must recognize that evaluation is a critical link in the application of requirement-driven development models…

  2. Performance evaluation of video colonoscope systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picciano, Lawrence D.; Keller, James P.

    1994-05-01

    A comparative engineering performance evaluation was performed on video colonoscope systems from all three of the current U.S. suppliers: Fujinon, Olympus, and Pentax. Video system test methods, results, and conclusions based on their clinical significance are the focus of this paper.

  3. An Evaluation of a Distributed Learning System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawther, Peter M; Walker, Derek H. T.

    2001-01-01

    A survey of 306 undergraduate and graduate students, focus groups, and lecturers' reports evaluated a Web-enabled distributed learning system. The system was popular with students, flexible, self-paced, and empowering; technical support difficulties generated frustration. There was less interaction than desired and a lack of instant feedback and…

  4. Using Satellite Data to Evaluate Linkages Between Land Cover/Land Use and Hypertension in a National Cohort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McClure, Leslie; Crosson, Bill; Al-Hamdan, Mohammed; Estes, Maury; Estes, Sue; Quattrochi, Dale

    2009-01-01

    Coincident with global expansion of urban areas has been an increase in hypertension. It is unclear how much the urban environment contributes as a risk factor for blood pressure differences, and how much is due to a variety of environmental, lifestyle, and demographic correlates of urbanization. Objectives/Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between living environment (defined as urban, suburban, or rural) and hypertension in selected regions from the REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) cohort. Methods: REGARDS is a national cohort of 30,228 participants from the 48 contiguous United States. We used data from 4 metropolitan regions (Philadelphia, Atlanta, Minneapolis and Chicago) for this study (n=3928). We used Land Cover/Land Use (LCLU) information from the 30-meter National Land Cover Data. Results: Overall, 1996 (61%) of the participants were hypertensive. We characterized participants into urban, suburban or rural living environments using the LCLU data. In univariate models, we found that living environment is associated with hypertension, but that after adjustment for known hypertension risk factors, the relationship was no longer present at the 95% confidence level. Conclusions: LCLU data can be utilized to characterize the living environment, which in turn can be applied to studies of public health outcomes. Further study regarding the relationship between hypertension and living environment should focus on additional characteristics of the associated environment.

  5. MicroSIFT Courseware Evaluations (169-198). Set 9. Including Subject and Title Indexes Covering Sets 1-9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Dave, Ed.

    This document consists of 30 microcomputer software package evaluations prepared for the MicroSIFT (Microcomputer Software and Information for Teachers) Clearinghouse at the Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory (NWREL). The concise, single-sheet resume describing and evaluating each software package includes source, cost, ability level,…

  6. The off-axis viewing device: a rifle-mounted sighting system for search and engagement from covered positions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, Thomas; Brady, Christopher

    2007-04-01

    Soldiers involved in urban operations are at a higher risk of receiving a bullet or fragment wound to the head or face compared to other parts of their body. One reason for this vulnerability is the need for the soldier to expose their head when looking and shooting from behind cover. Research conducted by DSTO Australia, using weapon-mounted cameras, has validated the concept of off-axis shooting but has emphasized the requirement for a system that closely integrates with both the soldier and his weapon. A system was required that would not adversely effect the usability, utility or accuracy of the weapon. Several Concept Demonstrators were developed over a two-year period and the result of this development is the Off-Axis Viewing Device (OAVD). The OAVD is an un-powered sighting attachment that integrates with a red dot reflex sight and enables the soldier to scan for and engage targets from a position of cover. The image from the weapon's scope is transmitted through the OAVD's periscopic mirror system to the soldier. Mounted directly behind the sight, the OAVD can also be swiveled to a redundant position on the side of the weapon to allow normal on-axis use of the sight. The OAVD can be rotated back into place behind the sight with one hand, or removed and stored in the soldier's webbing. In May 2004, a rapid acquisition program was initiated to develop the concept to an in-service capability and the OAVD is currently being deployed with the Australian Defence Force.

  7. Web-Based Evaluation System for Learning Management Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Momani, Alaa

    2010-01-01

    E-learning systems have become an issue in recent years. A learning management system (LMS) is an electronic environment helps the educational society to communicate, exchange information, manage, and schedule the learning process. This study has provided a web-based evaluation system that may help the users to choose the convenient system…

  8. Performance Evaluation and Benchmarking of Intelligent Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Madhavan, Raj; Messina, Elena; Tunstel, Edward

    2009-09-01

    To design and develop capable, dependable, and affordable intelligent systems, their performance must be measurable. Scientific methodologies for standardization and benchmarking are crucial for quantitatively evaluating the performance of emerging robotic and intelligent systems technologies. There is currently no accepted standard for quantitatively measuring the performance of these systems against user-defined requirements; and furthermore, there is no consensus on what objective evaluation procedures need to be followed to understand the performance of these systems. The lack of reproducible and repeatable test methods has precluded researchers working towards a common goal from exchanging and communicating results, inter-comparing system performance, and leveraging previous work that could otherwise avoid duplication and expedite technology transfer. Currently, this lack of cohesion in the community hinders progress in many domains, such as manufacturing, service, healthcare, and security. By providing the research community with access to standardized tools, reference data sets, and open source libraries of solutions, researchers and consumers will be able to evaluate the cost and benefits associated with intelligent systems and associated technologies. In this vein, the edited book volume addresses performance evaluation and metrics for intelligent systems, in general, while emphasizing the need and solutions for standardized methods. To the knowledge of the editors, there is not a single book on the market that is solely dedicated to the subject of performance evaluation and benchmarking of intelligent systems. Even books that address this topic do so only marginally or are out of date. The research work presented in this volume fills this void by drawing from the experiences and insights of experts gained both through theoretical development and practical implementation of intelligent systems in a variety of diverse application domains. The book presents

  9. Cotton population and yield following different cover crops termination practices in an Alabama no-till system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In Alabama, under optimal weather conditions, a three-week time period is required after rolling down a cover crop to achieve termination rates above 90%, and to eliminate competition for soil moisture between the cover crop and cash crop. A common method to enhance the cover crop termination proces...

  10. Pilot Evaluations of Runway Status Light System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Steven D.; Wills, Robert W.; Smith, R. Marshall

    1996-01-01

    This study focuses on use of the Transport Systems Research Vehicle (TSRV) Simulator at the Langley Research Center to obtain pilot opinion and input on the Federal Aviation Administration's Runway Status Light System (RWSL) prior to installation in an operational airport environment. The RWSL has been designed to reduce the likelihood of runway incursions by visually alerting pilots when a runway is occupied. Demonstrations of the RWSL in the TSRV Simulator allowed pilots to evaluate the system in a realistic cockpit environment.

  11. a Reliability Evaluation System of Association Rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jiangping; Feng, Wanshu; Luo, Minghai

    2016-06-01

    In mining association rules, the evaluation of the rules is a highly important work because it directly affects the usability and applicability of the output results of mining. In this paper, the concept of reliability was imported into the association rule evaluation. The reliability of association rules was defined as the accordance degree that reflects the rules of the mining data set. Such degree contains three levels of measurement, namely, accuracy, completeness, and consistency of rules. To show its effectiveness, the "accuracy-completeness-consistency" reliability evaluation system was applied to two extremely different data sets, namely, a basket simulation data set and a multi-source lightning data fusion. Results show that the reliability evaluation system works well in both simulation data set and the actual problem. The three-dimensional reliability evaluation can effectively detect the useless rules to be screened out and add the missing rules thereby improving the reliability of mining results. Furthermore, the proposed reliability evaluation system is applicable to many research fields; using the system in the analysis can facilitate obtainment of more accurate, complete, and consistent association rules.

  12. Assessing quality and quantity of groundwater DOC in relation to plant export from different over-winter green-cover treatments in tillage farming systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Premrov, Alina; Coxon, Catherine; Hackett, Richard; Richards, Karl

    2010-05-01

    The biogeochemistry of nitrogen is often connected to carbon and C/N dynamics. The dissolved organic carbon (DOC) electron donor availability can be related to groundwater denitrification (Buss, et al. 2005). Therefore groundwater nitrate attenuation processes are also frequently linked to carbon availability. In recent years the role of over-winter green cover in tillage farming has been studied extensively. Nevertheless further research on the biogeochemical effect of green cover on soil/sediment and groundwater quality is still needed. In particular plant roots are known to exude different types of organic compounds, but their role in groundwater quality has not been investigated in depth. According to Cannavo et al. (2004a,b), in addition to quantity, the quality of water-extractable soil organic matter (e.g. molecular size/weight) has also an important role for microbial activity. In this study we investigate the effect of over-winter green-cover on potential DOC export to shallow groundwater (2 - 5 m below ground level), located on tillage land in Oak Park, Carlow, Ireland. The experiment includes three over-winter green-cover treatments: natural green-cover, mustard and no-cover (sprayed with herbicide following harvest); and is underlain by a sand and gravel aquifer. The site is equipped with 4 shallow piezometers per treatment (total no. of piezometers is 20, including treatments and surrounding piezometers). In addition to monitoring the quantity of DOC concentrations in shallow groundwater under different green cover treatments over time, an attempt was made to evaluate the quality of dissolved organic matter in shallow groundwater using Excitation Emission Fluorescence Matrix (EEFM) profiles obtained from analyses performed on a Varian Fluorescence Spectrophotometer of a single batch of samples (from all 20 installed piezometers in September 2009). To evaluate the quality of dissolved organic matter in shallow groundwater, computation of the

  13. ROLE OF ALLELOPATHY IN THE STIMULATORY AND INHIBITORY EFFECTS OF HAIRY VETCH COVER CROP RESIDUE IN NO-TILLAGE SUSTAINABLE PRODUCTION SYSTEMS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cover crops can provide multiple benefits to sustainable cropping systems including building soil organic matter, controlling soil and nutrient losses from fields, moderating radiation and moisture exchange, releasing nutrients for subsequent crops, and suppressing weed and pest populations. Many o...

  14. Continuous evaluation of land cover restoration of tsunami struck plains in Japan by using several kinds of optical satellite image in time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashiba, H.

    2015-09-01

    The Mw 9.0 earthquake that struck Japan in 2011 was followed by a large-scale tsunami in the Tohoku region. The damage in the coastal plane was extensively displayed through many satellite images. Furthermore, satellite imaging is requested for the ongoing evaluation of the restoration process. The reconstruction of the urban structure, farmlands, grassland, and coastal forest that collapsed under the large tsunami requires effective long-term monitoring. Moreover, the post-tsunami land cover dynamics can be effectively modeled using time-constrained satellite data to establish a prognosis method for the mitigation of future tsunami impact. However, the remote satellite capture of a long-term restoration process is compromised by accumulating spatial resolution effects and seasonal influences. Therefore, it is necessary to devise a method for data selection and dataset structure. In the present study, the restoration processes were investigated in four years following the disaster in a part of the Sendai plain, northeast Japan, from same-season satellite images acquired by different optical sensors. Coastal plains struck by the tsunami are evaluated through land-cover classification processing using the clustering method. The changes in land cover are analyzed from time-series optical images acquired by Landsat-5/TM, 7/ETM+, 8/OLI, EO-1/ALI, and ALOS-1/AVNIR-2. The study reveals several characteristics of the change in the inundation area and signs of artificial and natural restoration.

  15. Evaluating Evaluation Systems: Policy Levers and Strategies for Studying Implementation of Educator Evaluation. Policy Snapshot

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matlach, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    Evaluation studies can provide feedback on implementation, support continuous improvement, and increase understanding of evaluation systems' impact on teaching and learning. Despite the importance of educator evaluation studies, states often need support to prioritize and fund them. Successful studies require expertise, time, and a shared…

  16. WRF model evaluation for the urban heat island assessment under varying land use/land cover and reference site conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhati, Shweta; Mohan, Manju

    2015-08-01

    Urban heat island effect in Delhi has been assessed using Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF v3.5) coupled with urban canopy model (UCM) focusing on air temperature and surface skin temperature. The estimated heat island intensities for different land use/land cover (LULC) have been compared with those derived from in situ and satellite observations. The model performs reasonably well for urban heat island intensity (UHI) estimation and is able to reproduce trend of UHI for urban areas. There is a significant improvement in model performance with inclusion of UCM which results in reduction in root mean-squared errors (RMSE) for temperatures from 1.63 °C (2.89 °C) to 1.13 °C (2.75 °C) for urban (non-urban) areas. Modification of LULC also improves performance for non-urban areas. High UHI zones and top 3 hotspots are captured well by the model. The relevance of selecting a reference point at the periphery of the city away from populated and built-up areas for UHI estimation is examined in the context of rapidly growing cities where rural areas are transforming fast into built-up areas, and reference site may not be appropriate for future years. UHI estimated by WRF model (with and without UCM) with respect to reference rural site compares well with the UHI based on observed in situ data. An alternative methodology is explored using a green area with minimum temperature within the city as a reference site. This alternative methodology works well with observed UHIs and WRF-UCM-simulated UHIs but has poor performance for WRF-simulated UHIs. It is concluded that WRF model can be applied for UHI estimation with classical methodology based on rural reference site. In general, many times WRF model performs satisfactorily, though WRF-UCM always shows a better performance. Hence, inclusion of appropriate representation of urban canopies and land use-land cover is important for improving predictive capabilities of the mesoscale models.

  17. NHI Component Technical Readiness Evaluation System

    SciTech Connect

    Steven R. Sherman; Dane F. Wilson; Steven J. Pawel

    2007-09-01

    A decision process for evaluating the technical readiness or maturity of components (i.e., heat exchangers, chemical reactors, valves, etc.) for use by the U.S. DOE Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative is described. This system is used by the DOE NHI to assess individual components in relation to their readiness for pilot-scale and larger-scale deployment and to drive the research and development work needed to attain technical maturity. A description of the evaluation system is provided, and examples are given to illustrate how it is used to assist in component R&D decisions.

  18. The conical scanner evaluation system design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cumella, K. E.; Bilanow, S.; Kulikov, I. B.

    1982-01-01

    The software design for the conical scanner evaluation system is presented. The purpose of this system is to support the performance analysis of the LANDSAT-D conical scanners, which are infrared horizon detection attitude sensors designed for improved accuracy. The system consists of six functionally independent subsystems and five interface data bases. The system structure and interfaces of each of the subsystems is described and the content, format, and file structure of each of the data bases is specified. For each subsystem, the functional logic, the control parameters, the baseline structure, and each of the subroutines are described. The subroutine descriptions include a procedure definition and the input and output parameters.

  19. Evaluation of Automated Yeast Identification System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGinnis, M. R.

    1996-01-01

    One hundred and nine teleomorphic and anamorphic yeast isolates representing approximately 30 taxa were used to evaluate the accuracy of the Biolog yeast identification system. Isolates derived from nomenclatural types, environmental, and clinica isolates of known identity were tested in the Biolog system. Of the isolates tested, 81 were in the Biolog database. The system correctly identified 40, incorrectly identified 29, and was unable to identify 12. Of the 28 isolates not in the database, 18 were given names, whereas 10 were not. The Biolog yeast identification system is inadequate for the identification of yeasts originating from the environment during space program activities.

  20. An evaluation of new high resolution image collection and processing techniques for estimating shrub cover and detecting landscape changes associated with military training in arid lands

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, D.J.; Ostler, W.K.

    2000-02-01

    Research funded by the US Department of Defense, US Department of Energy, and the US Environmental Protection Agency as part of Project CS-1131 of the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program evaluated novel techniques for collecting high-resolution images in the Mojave Desert using helicopters, helium-filled blimps, kites, and hand-held telescoping poles at heights from 1 to 150 meters. Several camera types, lens, films, and digital techniques were evaluated on the basis of their ability to correctly estimate canopy cover of shrubs. A high degree of accuracy was obtained with photo scales of 1:4,000 or larger and flatbed scanning rates from films or prints of 300 lines per inch or larger. Smaller scale images were of value in detecting retrospective changes in cover of large shrubs, but failed to detect smaller shrubs. Excellent results were obtained using inexpensive 35-millimeter cameras and new super-fine grain film such as Kodak's Royal Gold{trademark} (ASA 100) film or megapixel digital cameras. New image-processing software, such as SigmaScan Pro{trademark}, makes it possible to accurately measure areas up to 1 hectare in size for total cover and density in 10 minutes compared to several hours or days of field work. In photographs with scales of 1:1,000 and 1:2,000, it was possible to detect cover and density of up to four dominant shrub species. Canopy cover and other parameters such as width, length, feet diameter, and shape factors can be nearly instantaneously measured for each individual shrub yielding size distribution histograms and other statistical data on plant community structure. Use of the technique is being evaluated in a four-year study of military training impacts at Fort Irwin, California, and results compared with image processing using conventional aerial photography and satellite imagery, including the new 1-meter pixel IKONOS images. The technique is a valuable new emerging tool to accurately assess vegetation structure

  1. Evaluating the influence of ivy canopy cover on brickwork: A case study from Warnham, West Sussex, UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coombes, Martin; Viles, Heather

    2014-05-01

    Biogeomorphological understanding is becoming increasingly applied in a range of environmental management contexts. The concept of 'bioprotection' is of particular relevance in the built environment. Here, the influence of higher plants on the condition of buildings and building materials, particularly vulnerable historic structures, is of great interest for conservationists and managing authorities tasked with preserving built cultural heritage. Ivy (Hedera spp.) is a widespread and prolific creeping and climbing plant that is commonly found on built structures. Opinion varies as to whether ivy is good or bad for buildings, but there is evidence to suggest it can have both protective and deteriorative influences. Here we present a case study assessment of ivy removal from a brick and mortar wall (c.100 years old) in West Sussex, UK. Using measurements of hardness (Equotip L), moisture (protimeter %WME) and visual inspection we find that the condition of brickwork varied with ivy canopy cover extent, but that this effect was not consistent between different heights on the wall. The roles of ivy in moderating wall moisture dynamics is discussed as a possible contributing factor.

  2. MicroSIFT Courseware Evaluations (199-222). Set 10. Including Subject and Title Indexes Covering Sets 1-10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Regional Educational Lab., Portland, OR.

    This document consists of 24 microcomputer software package evaluations prepared by the MicroSIFT (Microcomputer Software and Information for Teachers) Clearinghouse at the Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory. Each software review lists source, cost, ability level, subject, topic, medium of transfer, required hardware, required software,…

  3. Water-saving ground cover rice production system reduces net greenhouse gas fluxes in an annual rice-based cropping system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Z.; Du, Y.; Tao, Y.; Zheng, X.; Liu, C.; Lin, S.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.

    2014-11-01

    To safeguard food security and preserve precious water resources, the technology of water-saving ground cover rice production system (GCRPS) is being increasingly adopted for rice cultivation. However, changes in soil water status and temperature under GCRPS may affect soil biogeochemical processes that control the biosphere-atmosphere exchanges of methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2). The overall goal of this study is to better understand how net ecosystem greenhouse gas exchanges (NEGE) and grain yields are affected by GCRPS in an annual rice-based cropping system. Our evaluation was based on measurements of the CH4 and N2O fluxes and soil heterotrophic respiration (CO2 emissions) over a complete year, and the estimated soil carbon sequestration intensity for six different fertilizer treatments for conventional paddy and GCRPS. The fertilizer treatments included urea application and no N fertilization for both conventional paddy (CUN and CNN) and GCRPS (GUN and GNN), and solely chicken manure (GCM) and combined urea and chicken manure applications (GUM) for GCRPS. Averaging across all the fertilizer treatments, GCRPS increased annual N2O emission and grain yield by 40 and 9%, respectively, and decreased annual CH4 emission by 69%, while GCRPS did not affect soil CO2 emissions relative to the conventional paddy. The annual direct emission factors of N2O were 4.01, 0.09 and 0.50% for GUN, GCM and GUM, respectively, and 1.52% for the conventional paddy (CUN). The annual soil carbon sequestration intensity under GCRPS was estimated to be an average of -1.33 Mg C ha-1 yr-1, which is approximately 44% higher than the conventional paddy. The annual NEGE were 10.80-11.02 Mg CO2-eq ha-1 yr-1 for the conventional paddy and 3.05-9.37 Mg CO2-eq ha-1 yr-1 for the GCRPS, suggesting the potential feasibility of GCRPS in reducing net greenhouse effects from rice cultivation. Using organic fertilizers for GCRPS considerably reduced annual emissions of CH4

  4. Water-saving ground cover rice production system reduces net greenhouse gas fluxes in an annual rice-based cropping system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Z.; Du, Y.; Tao, Y.; Zheng, X.; Liu, C.; Lin, S.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.

    2014-06-01

    To safeguard food security and preserve precious water resources, the technology of water-saving ground cover rice production system (GCRPS) is being increasingly adopted for the rice cultivation. However, changes in soil water status and temperature under GCRPS may affect soil biogeochemical processes that control the biosphere-atmosphere exchanges of methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2). The overall goal of this study is to better understand how net ecosystem greenhouse gas exchanges (NEGE) and grain yields are affected by GCRPS in an annual rice-based cropping system. Our evaluation was based on measurements of the CH4 and N2O fluxes and soil heterotrophic respiration (CO2 emission) over a complete year, as well as the estimated soil carbon sequestration intensity for six different fertilizer treatments for conventional paddy and GCRPS. The fertilizer treatments included urea application and no N fertilization for both conventional paddy (CUN and CNN) and GCRPS (GUN and GNN), solely chicken manure (GCM) and combined urea and chicken manure applications (GUM) for GCRPS. Averaging across all the fertilizer treatments, GCRPS increased annual N2O emission and grain yield by 40% and 9%, respectively, and decreased annual CH4 emission by 69%, while GCRPS did not affect soil CO2 emissions relative to the conventional paddy. The annual direct emission factors of N2O were 4.01, 0.087 and 0.50% for GUN, GCM and GUM, respectively, and 1.52% for the conventional paddy (CUN). The annual soil carbon sequestration intensity under GCRPS was estimated to be an average of -1.33 Mg C ha-1 yr-1, which is approximately 44% higher than the conventional paddy. The annual NEGE were 10.80-11.02 Mg CO2-eq ha-1 yr-1 for the conventional paddy and 3.05-9.37 Mg CO2-eq ha-1 yr-1 for the GCRPS, suggesting the potential feasibility of GCRPS in reducing net greenhouse effect from rice cultivation. Using organic fertilizers for GCRPS considerably reduced annual emissions

  5. Physical and numerical modeling of an inclined three-layer (silt/gravelly sand/clay) capillary barrier cover system under extreme rainfall.

    PubMed

    Ng, Charles W W; Liu, Jian; Chen, Rui; Xu, Jie

    2015-04-01

    As an extension of the two-layer capillary barrier, a three-layer capillary barrier landfill cover system is proposed for minimizing rainfall infiltration in humid climates. This system consists of a compacted clay layer lying beneath a conventional cover with capillary barrier effects (CCBE), which is in turn composed of a silt layer sitting on top of a gravelly sand layer. To explore the effectiveness of the new system in minimizing rainfall infiltration, a flume model (3.0 m × 1.0 m × 1.1 m) was designed and set up in this study. This physical model was heavily instrumented to monitor pore water pressure, volumetric water content, surface runoff, infiltration and lateral drainage of each layer, and percolation of the cover system. The cover system was subjected to extreme rainfall followed by evaporation. The experiment was also back-analyzed using a piece of finite element software called CODE_BRIGHT to simulate transient water flows in the test. Based on the results obtained from various instruments, it was found that breakthrough of the two upper layers occurred for a 4-h rainfall event having a 100-year return period. Due to the presence of the newly introduced clay layer, the percolation of the three-layer capillary barrier cover system was insignificant because the clay layer enabled lateral diversion in the gravelly sand layer above. In other words, the gravelly sand layer changed from being a capillary barrier in a convention CCBE cover to being a lateral diversion passage after the breakthrough of the two upper layers. Experimental and back-analysis results confirm that no infiltrated water seeped through the proposed three-layer barrier system. The proposed system thus represents a promising alternative landfill cover system for use in humid climates. PMID:25582391

  6. Evaluating Ventilation Systems for Existing Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Aldrich, Robb; Arena, Lois

    2013-02-01

    In an effort to improve housing options near Las Vegas, Nevada, the Clark County Community Resources Division (CCCRD) performs substantial renovations to foreclosed homes. After dramatic energy, aesthetic, and health and safety improvements are made, homes are rented or sold to qualified residents. This report describes the evaluation and selection of ventilation systems for these homes, including key considerations when selecting an ideal system. The report then describes CCCRD’s decision process with respect to ventilation.

  7. Applications systems verification and transfer project. Volume 5: Operational applications of satellite snow-cover observations, northwest United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dillard, J. P.

    1981-01-01

    The study objective was to develop or modify methods in an operational framework that would allow incorporation of satellite derived snow cover observations for prediction of snowmelt derived runoff. Data were reviewed and verified for five basins in the Pacific Northwest. The data were analyzed for up to a 6-year period ending July 1978, and in all cases cover a low, average, and high snow cover/runoff year. Cloud cover is a major problem in these springtime runoff analyses and have hampered data collection for periods of up to 52 days. Tree cover and terrain are sufficiently dense and rugged to have caused problems. The interpretation of snowlines from satellite data was compared with conventional ground truth data and tested in operational streamflow forecasting models. When the satellite snow-covered area (SCA) data are incorporated in the SSARR (Streamflow Synthesis and Reservoir Regulation) model, there is a definite but minor improvement.

  8. Load calculation and system evaluation for electric vehicle climate control

    SciTech Connect

    Aceves-Saborio, S.; Comfort, W.J. III

    1993-10-27

    Providing air conditioning for electric vehicles (EVs) represents an important challenge, because vapor compression air conditioners, which are common in gasoline powered vehicles, may consume a substantial part of the total energy stored in the EV battery. This report consists of two major parts. The first part is a cooling and heating load calculation for electric vehicles. The second part is an evaluation of several systems that can be used to provide the desired cooling and heating in EVs. Four cases are studied. Short range and full range EVs are each analyzed twice, first with the regular vehicle equipment, and then with a fan and heat reflecting windows, to reduce hot soak. Recent legislation has allowed the use of combustion heating whenever the ambient temperature drops below 5{degrees}C. This has simplified the problem of heating, and made cooling the most important problem. Therefore, systems described in this project are designed for cooling, and their applicability to heating at temperatures above 5{degrees}C is described. If the air conditioner systems cannot be used to cover the whole heating load at 5{degrees}C, then the vehicle requires a complementary heating system (most likely a heat recovery system or electric resistance heating). Air conditioners are ranked according to their overall weight. The overall weight is calculated by adding the system weight and the weight of the battery necessary to provide energy for system operation.

  9. [Monitoring of seasonal variation of vegetation cover and evaluation of biological-control factor in orchards of China].

    PubMed

    Yu, Yue; Zhang, Wen-bo; Wang, Guo-yan

    2015-03-01

    Biological-control factor (B) can quantitatively reflect the effect of vegetation on soil erosion. Vertical photography method was used to monitor the seasonal changes of orchard coverage in 18 small watersheds, covering all five water erosion zones in China. The canopy coverage and ground green coverage were then calculated, and the B values were estimated. The result indicated that the orchard canopy coverage varied with season and distributed with a bell shape. The trend of ground green coverage and total coverage changed with season and was affected by the land management. For the orchard where the land surface was not treated and the weeds could grow freely, the distribution of the green coverage season change for all five soil erosion zones had a bell shape. The total coverage in the Northwest Loess Plateau area changed with season with a bell shape as well. The total coverage in the other four areas did not vary with the season and almost kept constant. For the orchard where land surface was cleaned up from time to time, the green coverage and total coverage in all five water erosion areas irregularly varied with season. The average B value of orchards in Northeast black soil area was the minimum with a value of 0.0006, while that in the Northwest Loess Plateau area was the maximum (0.1212). The average orchard B values in the Northern rocky earthy area, the Southern red soil area and the Southwest rocky earthy area were not significantly different and were 0.0548, 0.0627 and 0.0639, respectively. PMID:26211057

  10. ICCE/ICCAI 2000 Full & Short Papers (Evaluation of Learning and Systems).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    This document contains the full and short papers on evaluation of learning and systems from ICCE/ICCAI 2000 (International Conference on Computers in Education/International Conference on Computer-Assisted Instruction) covering the following topics: a new method for efficient study of Kanji using mnemonics and software; a study on the relation…

  11. Energy feedbacks of northern high-latitude ecosystems to the climate system due to reduced snow cover during 20th century warming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Euskirchen, E.S.; McGuire, A.D.; Chapin, F.S.

    2007-01-01

    The warming associated with changes in snow cover in northern high-latitude terrestrial regions represents an important energy feedback to the climate system. Here, we simulate snow cover-climate feedbacks (i.e. changes in snow cover on atmospheric heating) across the Pan-arctic over two distinct warming periods during the 20th century, 1910-1940 and 1970-2000. We offer evidence that increases in snow cover-climate feedbacks during 1970-2000 were nearly three times larger than during 1910-1940 because the recent snow-cover change occurred in spring, when radiation load is highest, rather than in autumn. Based on linear regression analysis, we also detected a greater sensitivity of snow cover-climate feedbacks to temperature trends during the more recent time period. Pan-arctic vegetation types differed substantially in snow cover-climate feedbacks. Those with a high seasonal contrast in albedo, such as tundra, showed much larger changes in atmospheric heating than did those with a low seasonal contrast in albedo, such as forests, even if the changes in snow-cover duration were similar across the vegetation types. These changes in energy exchange warrant careful consideration in studies of climate change, particularly with respect to associated shifts in vegetation between forests, grasslands, and tundra. ?? 2007 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. EVALUATION OF CONFOCAL MICROSCOPY SYSTEM PERFORMANCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    BACKGROUND. The confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) has enormous potential in many biological fields. Currently there is a subjective nature in the assessment of a confocal microscope's performance by primarily evaluating the system with a specific test slide provided by ea...

  13. Secondary School Evaluation Systems and Student Disengagement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Natriello, Gary; Scott, Paul

    This paper examines the relationship between the evaluation (for both behavior and academic work) and authority systems of public high schools and the extent to which students in those schools become disengaged. Student disengagement is reflected in student absenteeism, low-level student participation in school, and student participation in…

  14. Pervious Pavement System Evaluation-Paper

    EPA Science Inventory

    The use of a pervious pavement can be effective as a low impact development stormwater control. The Urban Watershed Management Branch is evaluating interlocking concrete paver systems as a type of porous pavement. Although the pavers are impermeable, the spaces between the pave...

  15. MOLECULAR BONDING SYSTEM - INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document presents an evaluation of the Molecular Bonding System (MBS) and its ability to chemically stabilize three metals-contaminated wstes/soils during a SITe demo. The MBS process treated approximately 500 tons each of soil/Fill, Slag, and Miscellaneous Smelter Waste wit...

  16. CTBT integrated verification system evaluation model supplement

    SciTech Connect

    EDENBURN,MICHAEL W.; BUNTING,MARCUS; PAYNE JR.,ARTHUR C.; TROST,LAWRENCE C.

    2000-03-02

    Sandia National Laboratories has developed a computer based model called IVSEM (Integrated Verification System Evaluation Model) to estimate the performance of a nuclear detonation monitoring system. The IVSEM project was initiated in June 1994, by Sandia's Monitoring Systems and Technology Center and has been funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Nonproliferation and National Security (DOE/NN). IVSEM is a simple, ''top-level,'' modeling tool which estimates the performance of a Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) monitoring system and can help explore the impact of various sensor system concepts and technology advancements on CTBT monitoring. One of IVSEM's unique features is that it integrates results from the various CTBT sensor technologies (seismic, in sound, radionuclide, and hydroacoustic) and allows the user to investigate synergy among the technologies. Specifically, IVSEM estimates the detection effectiveness (probability of detection), location accuracy, and identification capability of the integrated system and of each technology subsystem individually. The model attempts to accurately estimate the monitoring system's performance at medium interfaces (air-land, air-water) and for some evasive testing methods such as seismic decoupling. The original IVSEM report, CTBT Integrated Verification System Evaluation Model, SAND97-25 18, described version 1.2 of IVSEM. This report describes the changes made to IVSEM version 1.2 and the addition of identification capability estimates that have been incorporated into IVSEM version 2.0.

  17. The three-dimensional vortex system near the cover of a rectangular package shape mounted in a duct

    SciTech Connect

    Boyle, M.T.; Wardwell, S.E.

    1995-12-31

    An experimental program is reported where the three-dimensional vortex adjacent to the cover of a rectangular surface mount package is described. An LDV system is used to measure two velocity components. The wind tunnel model is translated relative to the optical axis of the LDV in order to provide a three dimensional description of the vortex. The limiting streamline pattern on the surface of the block is visualized and is used to determine the direction of flow along the reattachment line. The model is tested over a free stream velocity range from 1.5 m/s to 7.8 m/s. This corresponds to Reynolds number values based upon block length of 1.04 {times} 10{sup 4} and 5.4 {times} 10{sup 4} and represents realistic values for the electronics cooling problem. The model is tested, heated and unheated. The velocity field data show clearly that buoyancy is not important for the range of Gr tested. For the Re increase reported herein, the size of the vortex approximately doubles. The velocity field data and the surface flow visualization provide a qualitative and quantitative description of the vortex system flow.

  18. Performance Evaluation of a Data Validation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, Edmond (Technical Monitor); Sowers, T. Shane; Santi, L. Michael; Bickford, Randall L.

    2005-01-01

    Online data validation is a performance-enhancing component of modern control and health management systems. It is essential that performance of the data validation system be verified prior to its use in a control and health management system. A new Data Qualification and Validation (DQV) Test-bed application was developed to provide a systematic test environment for this performance verification. The DQV Test-bed was used to evaluate a model-based data validation package known as the Data Quality Validation Studio (DQVS). DQVS was employed as the primary data validation component of a rocket engine health management (EHM) system developed under NASA's NGLT (Next Generation Launch Technology) program. In this paper, the DQVS and DQV Test-bed software applications are described, and the DQV Test-bed verification procedure for this EHM system application is presented. Test-bed results are summarized and implications for EHM system performance improvements are discussed.

  19. Cover Picture.

    PubMed

    Krömer; Rios-Carreras; Fuhrmann; Musch; Wunderlin; Debaerdemaeker; Mena-Osteritz; Bäuerle

    2000-10-01

    The cover picture shows the synthesis of novel conjugated macrocycles assembled from oligothiophenes bearing terminal acetylene groups. Under pseudo-high-dilution conditions the oxidative cyclooligomerization first gives the oligothiophenediynes, the precursors to the new class of alpha-cyclo[n]thiophenes. The detailed structure of macrocycles with up to 76 ring members and cavities of up to 3 nm could be investigated by means of X-ray structure analysis, scanning tunneling microscopy, and quantum chemical calculations (see the molecular model top right). The novel rings combine the excellent electronic properties of the corresponding linearly conjugated oligomers with the possibility of complexing large organic guest molecules or other objects (the tower of the Cathedral at Ulm represents a nanometer-sized, rodlike entity), which should have new fundamental properties and applications. The background shows the image obtained by scanning electron microscopy of a self-assembled and perfectly ordered monolayer of macrocycles on a graphite surface. More on these fascinating nanometer-sized rings can be found in the communication by P. Bäuerle et al. on p. 3481 ff. PMID:11091367

  20. Removal of faecal bacteria from septage by treating it in a full-scale duckweed-covered pond system.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulos, Frantzis H; Tsihrintzis, Vassilios A; Zdragas, Antonios G

    2011-12-01

    Performance of a full-scale duckweed-covered treatment system in removing faecal bacteria is presented. The system consisted of three ponds in series and received septage from holding tanks. Inflow averaged between 36 m(3) d(-1) in the cold season and 60 m(3) d(-1) in the warm season, resulting in a total hydraulic retention time of 88 and 58 days, respectively. Duckweed (Lemna minor) colonized the ponds in the summer and continued to grow in the cold season. Due to the difficult harvesting process of the duckweed biomass, the investigation of the treatment efficiency was carried out without plant harvesting. The system was monitored for temperature, pH, oxygen, chlorophyll-a, Escherichia coli and Enterococci. Duckweed growth resulted in chlorophyll-a concentration reduction from 924 to 13 μg L(-1), causing neutral and anoxic conditions in the pond water. A temperature effect was noticed on the E. coli decay coefficient with a decreasing trend along the treatment system. Enterococci always decayed less than E. coli. Differences on decay coefficients and removal efficiencies were not observed between the three ponds for both bacterial types. Effluent quality in terms of E. coli was 489 and 1377 cfu/100 mL, in the warm and the cold seasons, respectively, with average removals of 99.65 ± 1.46% and 99.33 ± 3.03%. Total Enterococci removal was 88.91 ± 23.1% in the warm season and 94.43 ± 24.45% in the cold season, resulting in mean effluent values of 1058 and 1404 cfu/100 mL, respectively. The seasonal differences in total removal efficiencies were insignificant for both bacterial types. PMID:21872385

  1. Criteria for evaluation of grid generation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ascoli, Edward P.; Barson, Steven L.; Decroix, Michele E.; Hsu, Wayne W.

    1993-01-01

    Many CFD grid generation systems are in use nationally, but few comparative studies have been performed to quantify their relative merits. A study was undertaken to systematically evaluate and select the best CFD grid generation codes available. Detailed evaluation criteria were established as the basis for the evaluation conducted. Descriptions of thirty-four separate criteria, grouped into eight general categories are provided. Benchmark test cases, developed to test basic features of selected codes, are described in detail. Scoring guidelines were generated to establish standards for measuring code capabilities, ensuring uniformity of ratings, and minimizing personal bias among the three code evaluators. Ten candidate codes were identified from government, industry, universities, and commercial software companies. A three phase evaluation was conducted. In Phase 1, ten codes identified were screened through conversations with code authors and other industry experts. Seven codes were carried forward into a Phase 2 evaluation in which all codes were scored according to the predefined criteria. Two codes emerged as being significantly better than the others: RAGGS and GRIDGEN. Finally, these two codes were carried forward into a Phase 3 evaluation in which complex 3-D multizone grids were generated to verify capability.

  2. Colorado State University program for developing, testing, evaluating and optimizing solar heating and cooling systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1990-09-01

    This paper is a progress report for the period of July 1, 1990 to 31 August 1990 on activities at Colorado State University in a program for developing, testing, evaluating and optimizing solar heating and cooling systems. Topics covered are: solar heating with isothermal collectors; solid cooling with solid desiccant; liquid desiccant cooling systems; solar heating systems; solar water heaters; fields tests; and program management.

  3. WRF Model Evaluation for the Urban Heat Island Assessment under Varying Land Use/Land Cover and Reference Site Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhati, S.

    2015-12-01

    Urban heat island effect has been assessed using Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF v3.5) coupled with urban canopy model (UCM) focusing on air temperature and surface skin temperature in the sub-tropical urban Indian megacity of Delhi. The estimated heat island intensities for different land use/land cover (LULC) have been compared with those derived from in-situ and satellite observations. There is a significant improvement in model performance with inclusion of UCM both for meteorological parameters (T and RH) and the UHIs. Overall, RMSEs for near surface temperature improved from 1.63°C to 1.13°C for urban areas and from 2.89°C to 2.75°C for non-urban areas with inclusion of urban canopy model in WRF. Similarly, index of agreement and RMSEs for mean urban heat island intensities (UHI) improved from 0.77 to 0.88 and 1.91°C to 1.60°C respectively with WRF-UCM. Hit rate from the model simulated mean heat island intensities using WRF model are 72 % for urban areas and 58 % for non-urban areas such as green areas and riverside areas. The corresponding values improved in WRF-UCM with a hit rate of 75% for urban areas and 72 % for non-urban areas. In general, model is able to capture the magnitude of UHI well though it performs better during night than during the daytime. High UHI zones and top 3 hotspots are captured well by the model. The relevance of selecting a rural reference point for UHI estimation near the urban area is examined in the context of rapidly growing cities where nearby rural areas are transforming fast into built-up areas themselves and reference site may not be appropriate for future years. Both WRF and WRF-UCM simulated UHI shows satisfactory performance against benchmarks for the statistical measures with classical methodology using rural site as a reference point. Using an alternate methodology of considering a green area within the city having minimum temperature as a reference site worked satisfactorily only with WRF- UCM. In

  4. Evaluation of SLAR and thematic mapper MSS data for forest cover mapping using computer-aided analysis techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffer, R. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    Several possibilities were considered for defining the data set in which the same test areas could be used for each of the four different spatial resolutions being evaluated. The LARSYS CLUSTER was used to sort the vectors into spectral classes to reduce the within-spectral class variability in an effort to develop training statistics. A data quality test was written to determine the basic signal to noise characteristics within the data set being used. Because preliminary analysis of the LANDSAT MSS data revealed the presence of high cirrus clouds, other data sets are being sought.

  5. The NASA teleconferencing system: An evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connors, M. M.; Lindsey, G.; Miller, R. H.

    1976-01-01

    The communication requirements of the Apollo project led to the development of a teleconferencing network which linked together, in an audio-fax mode, the several NASA centers and supporting contractors of the Apollo project. The usefulness of this communication linkage for the Apollo project suggested that the system might be extended to include all NASA centers, enabling them to conduct their in-house business more efficiently than by traveling to other centers. A pilot project was run in which seventeen NASA center and subcenters, some with multiple facilities, were connected into the NASA teleconferencing network. During that year, costs were charted and, at the end of the year, an evaluation was made to determine how the system had been used and with what results. The year-end evaluation of the use of NASA teleconferencing system is summarized.

  6. Alisse : Advanced life support system evaluator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunet, Jean; Gerbi, Olivier; André, Philippe; Davin, Elisabeth; Avezuela Rodriguez, Raul; Carbonero, Fernando; Soumalainen, Emilia; Lasseur, Christophe

    Long duration missions, such as the establishment of permanent bases on the lunar surface or the travel to Mars, require such an amount of life support consumables (e.g. food, water and oxygen) that direct supply or re-supply from Earth is not an option anymore. Regenerative Life Support Systems are therefore necessary to sustain long-term manned space mission to increase recycling rates and so reduce the launched mass. The architecture of an Environmental Controlled Life Support System widely depends on the mission scenario. Even for a given mission scenario, different architectures could be envisaged which need to be evaluated and compared with appropriate tools. As these evaluation and comparison, based on the single criterion of Equivalent System Mass, was not considered com-prehensive enough, ESA is developing a multi-criteria evaluation tool: ALISSE (Advanced Life Support System Evaluator). The main objective of ALISSE, and of the work presented here, is the definition and implemen-tation of a metrics system, addressing the complexity of any ECLSS along its Life Cycle phases. A multi-dimensional and multi-criteria (i.e. mass, energy, efficiency, risk to human, reliability, crew time, sustainability, life cycle cost) approach is proposed through the development of a computing support platform. Each criterion being interrelated with the others, a model based system approach is used. ALISSE is expected to provide significant inputs to the ESA Concurrent Design Facility and, as a consequence, to be a highly valuable tool for decision process linked to any manned space mission. Full contact detail for the contact author : Jean Brunet Sherpa Engineering General Manager Phone : 0033(0)608097480 j.brunet@sherpa-eng.com

  7. Evaluating Radionuclide Air Emission Stack Sampling Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ballinger, Marcel Y.

    2002-12-16

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) operates a number of research and development (R&D) facilities for the U.S. Department of Energy at the Hanford Site, Washington. These facilities are subject to Clean Air Act regulations that require sampling of radionuclide air emissions from some of these facilities. A revision to an American National Standards Institute (ANSI) standard on sampling radioactive air emissions has recently been incorporated into federal and state regulations and a re-evaluation of affected facilities is being performed to determine the impact. The revised standard requires a well-mixed sampling location that must be demonstrated through tests specified in the standard. It also carries a number of maintenance requirements, including inspections and cleaning of the sampling system. Evaluations were performed in 2000 – 2002 on two PNNL facilities to determine the operational and design impacts of the new requirements. The evaluation included inspection and cleaning maintenance activities plus testing to determine if the current sampling locations meet criteria in the revised standard. Results show a wide range of complexity in inspection and cleaning activities depending on accessibility of the system, ease of removal, and potential impact on building operations (need for outages). As expected, these High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA)-filtered systems did not show deposition significant enough to cause concerns with blocking of the nozzle or other parts of the system. The tests for sampling system location in the revised standard also varied in complexity depending on accessibility of the sample site and use of a scale model can alleviate many issues. Previous criteria to locate sampling systems at eight duct diameters downstream and two duct diameters upstream of the nearest disturbances is no guarantee of meeting criteria in the revised standard. A computational fluid dynamics model was helpful in understanding flow and

  8. SPATIAL VARIABILITY IN NET RETURNS FOR CONSERVATION TILLAGE SYSTEMS WITH ALTERNATIVE MIXTURES OF HIGH RESIDUE COVER CROPS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Given that farmers are faced with uncertainties due to unpredictable factors when using a cover crop such as nutrient availability, weather and pests, farmers may be concerned about the risk of lowering net returns when using a cover crop. This concern grows as the cost of planting and managing the ...

  9. Effects of recurrent rolling/crimping operations on cover crop termination, soil moisture, and soil strength for conservation organic systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rolling/crimping technology has been utilized to mechanically terminate cover crops in conservation agriculture. In the southeastern United States, to eliminate competition for valuable soil moisture, three weeks are typically required after rolling to plant a cash crop into the desiccated cover cro...

  10. Seeding Rate and Planting Arrangement Effects on a Legume-Oat Cover Crop in Organic Vegetable Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Winter cover crops are integral components in rotations on high-value, organic vegetable farms in the central coast of California, and can provide benefits such as reducing nitrate leaching, suppressing weeds, and adding soil organic matter. Legume-cereal mixed cover crops may also reduce reliance o...

  11. Evaluation of SLAR and thematic mapper MSS data for forest cover mapping using computer-aided analysis techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffer, R. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    The column normalizing technique was used to adjust the data for variations in the amplitude of the signal due to look angle effects with respect to solar zenith angle along the scan lines (i.e., across columns). Evaluation of the data set containing the geometric and radiometric adjustments, indicates that the data set should be satisfactory for further processing and analysis. Software was developed for degrading the spatial resolution of the aircraft data to produce a total of four data sets for further analysis. The quality of LANDSAT 2 CCT data for the test site is good for channels four, five, and six. Channel seven was not present on the tape. The data received were reformatted and analysis of the test site area was initiated.

  12. Test and evaluation of the generalized gate logic system simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miner, Paul S.

    1991-01-01

    The results of the initial testing of the Generalized Gate Level Logic Simulator (GGLOSS) are discussed. The simulator is a special purpose fault simulator designed to assist in the analysis of the effects of random hardware failures on fault tolerant digital computer systems. The testing of the simulator covers two main areas. First, the simulation results are compared with data obtained by monitoring the behavior of hardware. The circuit used for these comparisons is an incomplete microprocessor design based upon the MIL-STD-1750A Instruction Set Architecture. In the second area of testing, current simulation results are compared with experimental data obtained using precursors of the current tool. In each case, a portion of the earlier experiment is confirmed. The new results are then viewed from a different perspective in order to evaluate the usefulness of this simulation strategy.

  13. Evaluation of a multiport groundwater monitoring system

    SciTech Connect

    Gilmore, T.J.; Hall, S.H.; Olsen, K.B.; Spane, F.A. Jr.

    1991-03-01

    In 1988 and 1989, Pacific Northwest Laboratory installed a multiport groundwater monitoring system in two wells on the Hanford Site: one near the 216-B-3 Pond in the center of the Hanford Site and one just north of the 300 Area near the Columbia River. The system was installed to provide the US Department of Energy with needed three-dimensional data on the vertical distribution of contaminants and hydraulic heads on the Hanford Site. This study evaluates the ability of the multiport system to obtain hydrogeologic data at multiple points vertically in a single borehole, and addresses the representativeness of the data. Data collected from the two wells indicate that the multiport system is well suited for groundwater monitoring networks requiring three-dimensional characterization of the hydrogeologic system. A network of these systems could provide valuable information on the hydrogeologic environment. However, the advantages of the multiport system diminish when the system is applied to long-term monitoring networks (30+ years) and to deeper wells (<300 ft). For shallow wells, the multiport system provides data in a cost-effective manner that would not be reasonably obtainable with the conventional methods currently in use at the Hanford Site. 17 refs., 28 figs., 6 tabs.

  14. Cover crops and N credits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cover crops often provide many short- and long-term benefits to cropping systems. Legume cover crops can significantly reduce the N fertilizer requirement of non-legume cash crops that follow. The objectives of this presentation were to: I) educate stakeholders about the potential benefits of cover ...

  15. Simulating long-term impacts of winter rye cover crop on hydrologic cycling and nitrogen dynamics for a corn-soybean crop system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Planting winter cover crops into corn-soybean rotation is a promising approach for reducing subsurface drainage and nitrate loss. However, the long-term impact of this practice needs investigation. We evaluated the performance of the RZWQM-DSSAT model against five years of comprehensive field data n...

  16. Evaluation of the structural steel corrosion behaviour, covered with epoxy-type paints, by means of electrochemical DC techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salas, Y.; Guerrero, L.; Martinez, R.; Chicino, T.; Devia, C.

    2016-02-01

    In this work we have studied the behaviour of the electrochemical corrosion of structural steel AISI SAE 1007 with epoxy coatings, using epoxy-type paints, through techniques such as DC resistance Polarization and Potentio-dynamic tests. In order to determine potential and corrosion rates of these coatings, have been correlated this results with different used electrolytes. For this, coatings were characterized by thickness measurement and continuity measurements. The coatings showed a slight degradation in the testing time, due to defects present in their structure, and the attack by the electrolyte; however, epoxy coating system tends to react with the electrolytes based on their chemical composition.

  17. Do cover crops enhance N₂O, CO₂ or CH₄ emissions from soil in Mediterranean arable systems?

    PubMed

    Sanz-Cobena, A; García-Marco, S; Quemada, M; Gabriel, J L; Almendros, P; Vallejo, A

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluates the effect of planting three cover crops (CCs) (barley, Hordeum vulgare L.; vetch, Vicia villosa L.; rape, Brassica napus L.) on the direct emission of N₂O, CO₂ and CH₄ in the intercrop period and the impact of incorporating these CCs on the emission of greenhouse gas (GHG) from the forthcoming irrigated maize (Zea mays L.) crop. Vetch and barley were the CCs with the highest N₂O and CO₂ losses (75 and 47% increase compared with the control, respectively) in the fallow period. In all cases, fluxes of N₂O were increased through N fertilization and the incorporation of barley and rape residues (40 and 17% increase, respectively). The combination of a high C:N ratio with the addition of an external source of mineral N increased the fluxes of N₂O compared with -Ba and -Rp. The direct emissions of N₂O were lower than expected for a fertilized crop (0.10% emission factor, EF) compared with other studies and the IPCC EF. These results are believed to be associated with a decreased NO₃(-) pool due to highly denitrifying conditions and increased drainage. The fluxes of CO₂ were in the range of other fertilized crops (i.e., 1118.71-1736.52 kg CO₂-Cha(-1)). The incorporation of CC residues enhanced soil respiration in the range of 21-28% for barley and rape although no significant differences between treatments were detected. Negative CH₄ fluxes were measured and displayed an overall sink effect for all incorporated CC (mean values of -0.12 and -0.10 kg CH₄-Cha(-1) for plots with and without incorporated CCs, respectively). PMID:23906854

  18. Performance evaluation of two OCR systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, S.; Subramaniam, S.; Haralick, R.M.; Phillips, I.T.

    1994-12-31

    An experimental protocol for the performance evaluation of Optical Character Recognition (OCR) algorithms is described. The protocol is intended to serve as a model for using the University of Washington English Document Image Database-I to evaluate OCR systems. The plain text zones (without special symbols) in this database have over 2,300,000 characters. The performances of two UNIX-based OCR systems, namely Caere OCR v109a and Xerox ScanWorX v2.0, are measured. The results suggest that Caere OCR outperforms ScanWorX in terms of recognition accuracy; however, ScanWorX is more robust in the presence of image flaws.

  19. A performance evaluation system for photomultiplier tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, J.; Qian, S.; Wang, W.; Ning, Z.; Cheng, Y.; Wang, Z.; Li, X.; Qi, M.; Heng, Y.; Liu, S.; Lei, X.

    2015-03-01

    A comprehensive performance evaluation system for Photomultiplier tubes has been built up. The system is able to review diverse cathode and anode properties for PMTs with different sizes and dimensions. Relative and direct methods were developed for the quantum efficiency measurement and the results are consistent with each other. Two-dimensional and three-dimensional scanning platforms were built to test both the cathode and anode uniformity for either the plane type or spherical type photocathode. A Flash Analog-to-Digital Convertor module is utilized to achieve high speed waveforms sampling. The entire system is highly automatic and flexible. Details of the system and some typical experimental results are presented in this paper.

  20. An evaluation framework for comparing geocoding systems

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Geocoding, the process of converting textual information describing a location into one or more digital geographic representations, is a routine task performed at large organizations and government agencies across the globe. In a health context, this task is often a fundamental first step performed prior to all operations that take place in a spatially-based health study. As such, the quality of the geocoding system used within these agencies is of paramount concern to the agency (the producer) and researchers or policy-makers who wish to use these data (consumers). However, geocoding systems are continually evolving with new products coming on the market continuously. Agencies must develop and use criteria across a number axes when faced with decisions about building, buying, or maintaining any particular geocoding systems. To date, published criteria have focused on one or more aspects of geocode quality without taking a holistic view of a geocoding system’s role within a large organization. The primary purpose of this study is to develop and test an evaluation framework to assist a large organization in determining which geocoding systems will meet its operational needs. Methods A geocoding platform evaluation framework is derived through an examination of prior literature on geocoding accuracy. The framework developed extends commonly used geocoding metrics to take into account the specific concerns of large organizations for which geocoding is a fundamental operational capability tightly-knit into its core mission of processing health data records. A case study is performed to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of five geocoding platforms currently available in the Australian geospatial marketplace. Results The evaluation framework developed in this research is proven successful in differentiating between key capabilities of geocoding systems that are important in the context of a large organization with significant investments in geocoding

  1. SEC sensor parametric test and evaluation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    This system provides the necessary automated hardware required to carry out, in conjunction with the existing 70 mm SEC television camera, the sensor evaluation tests which are described in detail. The Parametric Test Set (PTS) was completed and is used in a semiautomatic data acquisition and control mode to test the development of the 70 mm SEC sensor, WX 32193. Data analysis of raw data is performed on the Princeton IBM 360-91 computer.

  2. MSFC Skylab corollary experiment systems mission evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Evaluations are presented of the performances of corollary experiment hardware developed by the George C. Marshall Space Flight Center and operated during the three manned Skylab missions. Also presented are assessments of the functional adequacy of the experiment hardware and its supporting systems, and indications are given as to the degrees by which experiment constraints and interfaces were met. It is shown that most of the corollary experiment hardware performed satisfactorily and within design specifications.

  3. CTBT Integrated Verification System Evaluation Model

    SciTech Connect

    Edenburn, M.W.; Bunting, M.L.; Payne, A.C. Jr.

    1997-10-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has developed a computer based model called IVSEM (Integrated Verification System Evaluation Model) to estimate the performance of a nuclear detonation monitoring system. The IVSEM project was initiated in June 1994, by Sandia`s Monitoring Systems and Technology Center and has been funded by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Nonproliferation and National Security (DOE/NN). IVSEM is a simple, top-level, modeling tool which estimates the performance of a Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) monitoring system and can help explore the impact of various sensor system concepts and technology advancements on CTBT monitoring. One of IVSEM`s unique features is that it integrates results from the various CTBT sensor technologies (seismic, infrasound, radionuclide, and hydroacoustic) and allows the user to investigate synergy among the technologies. Specifically, IVSEM estimates the detection effectiveness (probability of detection) and location accuracy of the integrated system and of each technology subsystem individually. The model attempts to accurately estimate the monitoring system`s performance at medium interfaces (air-land, air-water) and for some evasive testing methods such as seismic decoupling. This report describes version 1.2 of IVSEM.

  4. TurboTech Technical Evaluation Automated System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tiffany, Dorothy J.

    2009-01-01

    TurboTech software is a Web-based process that simplifies and semiautomates technical evaluation of NASA proposals for Contracting Officer's Technical Representatives (COTRs). At the time of this reporting, there have been no set standards or systems for training new COTRs in technical evaluations. This new process provides boilerplate text in response to interview style questions. This text is collected into a Microsoft Word document that can then be further edited to conform to specific cases. By providing technical language and a structured format, TurboTech allows the COTRs to concentrate more on the actual evaluation, and less on deciding what language would be most appropriate. Since the actual word choice is one of the more time-consuming parts of a COTRs job, this process should allow for an increase in quantity of proposals evaluated. TurboTech is applicable to composing technical evaluations of contractor proposals, task and delivery orders, change order modifications, requests for proposals, new work modifications, task assignments, as well as any changes to existing contracts.

  5. 40 CFR 35.927-2 - Sewer system evaluation survey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sewer system evaluation survey. 35.927... § 35.927-2 Sewer system evaluation survey. (a) The sewer system evaluation survey shall identify the... results of the sewer system evaluation survey. In addition, the report shall include: (1) A...

  6. 40 CFR 35.927-2 - Sewer system evaluation survey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sewer system evaluation survey. 35.927... § 35.927-2 Sewer system evaluation survey. (a) The sewer system evaluation survey shall identify the... results of the sewer system evaluation survey. In addition, the report shall include: (1) A...

  7. 40 CFR 35.927-2 - Sewer system evaluation survey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sewer system evaluation survey. 35.927... § 35.927-2 Sewer system evaluation survey. (a) The sewer system evaluation survey shall identify the... results of the sewer system evaluation survey. In addition, the report shall include: (1) A...

  8. Perceived Usability Evaluation of Learning Management Systems: Empirical Evaluation of the System Usability Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orfanou, Konstantina; Tselios, Nikolaos; Katsanos, Christos

    2015-01-01

    Perceived usability affects greatly student's learning effectiveness and overall learning experience, and thus is an important requirement of educational software. The System Usability Scale (SUS) is a well-researched and widely used questionnaire for perceived usability evaluation. However, surprisingly few studies have used SUS to evaluate the…

  9. Evaluation of a novel phantom-based neurosurgical training system

    PubMed Central

    Müns, Andrea; Meixensberger, Jürgen; Lindner, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Background: The complexity of neurosurgical interventions demands innovative training solutions and standardized evaluation methods that in recent times have been the object of increased research interest. The objective is to establish an education curriculum on a phantom-based training system incorporating theoretical and practical components for important aspects of brain tumor surgery. Methods: Training covers surgical planning of the optimal access path based on real patient data, setup of the navigation system including phantom registration and navigated craniotomy with real instruments. Nine residents from different education levels carried out three simulations on different data sets with varying tumor locations. Trainings were evaluated by a specialist using a uniform score system assessing tumor identification, registration accuracy, injured structures, planning and execution accuracy, tumor accessibility and required time. Results: Average scores improved from 16.9 to 20.4 between first and third training. Average time to craniotomy improved from 28.97 to 21.07 min, average time to suture improved from 37.83 to 27.47 min. Significant correlations were found between time to craniotomy and number of training (P < 0.05), between time to suture and number of training (P < 0.05) as well as between score and number of training (P < 0.01). Conclusion: The training system is evaluated to be a suitable training tool for residents to become familiar with the complex procedures of autonomous neurosurgical planning and conducting of craniotomies in tumor surgeries. Becoming more confident is supposed to result in less error-prone and faster operation procedures and thus is a benefit for both physicians and patients. PMID:25593757

  10. Hydrological response to land cover changes and human activities in arid regions using a geographic information system and remote sensing.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, Shereif H; Alazba, A A

    2015-01-01

    The hydrological response to land cover changes induced by human activities in arid regions has attracted increased research interest in recent decades. The study reported herein assessed the spatial and quantitative changes in surface runoff resulting from land cover change in the Al-Baha region of Saudi Arabia between 1990 and 2000 using an ArcGIS-surface runoff model and predicted land cover and surface runoff depth in 2030 using Markov chain analysis. Land cover maps for 1990 and 2000 were derived from satellite images using ArcGIS 10.1. The findings reveal a 26% decrease in forest and shrubland area, 28% increase in irrigated cropland, 1.5% increase in sparsely vegetated land and 0.5% increase in bare soil between 1990 and 2000. Overall, land cover changes resulted in a significant decrease in runoff depth values in most of the region. The decrease in surface runoff depth ranged from 25-106 mm/year in a 7020-km2 area, whereas the increase in such depth reached only 10 mm/year in a 243-km2 area. A maximum increase of 73 mm/year was seen in a limited area. The surface runoff depth decreased to the greatest extent in the central region of the study area due to the huge transition in land cover classes associated with the construction of 25 rainwater harvesting dams. The land cover prediction revealed a greater than twofold increase in irrigated cropland during the 2000-2030 period, whereas forest and shrubland are anticipated to occupy just 225 km2 of land area by 2030, a significant decrease from the 747 km2 they occupied in 2000. Overall, changes in land cover are predicted to result in an annual increase in irrigated cropland and dramatic decline in forest area in the study area over the next few decades. The increase in surface runoff depth is likely to have significant implications for irrigation activities. PMID:25923712

  11. Hydrological Response to Land Cover Changes and Human Activities in Arid Regions Using a Geographic Information System and Remote Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoud, Shereif H.; Alazba, A. A.

    2015-01-01

    The hydrological response to land cover changes induced by human activities in arid regions has attracted increased research interest in recent decades. The study reported herein assessed the spatial and quantitative changes in surface runoff resulting from land cover change in the Al-Baha region of Saudi Arabia between 1990 and 2000 using an ArcGIS-surface runoff model and predicted land cover and surface runoff depth in 2030 using Markov chain analysis. Land cover maps for 1990 and 2000 were derived from satellite images using ArcGIS 10.1. The findings reveal a 26% decrease in forest and shrubland area, 28% increase in irrigated cropland, 1.5% increase in sparsely vegetated land and 0.5% increase in bare soil between 1990 and 2000. Overall, land cover changes resulted in a significant decrease in runoff depth values in most of the region. The decrease in surface runoff depth ranged from 25-106 mm/year in a 7020-km2 area, whereas the increase in such depth reached only 10 mm/year in a 243-km2 area. A maximum increase of 73 mm/year was seen in a limited area. The surface runoff depth decreased to the greatest extent in the central region of the study area due to the huge transition in land cover classes associated with the construction of 25 rainwater harvesting dams. The land cover prediction revealed a greater than twofold increase in irrigated cropland during the 2000-2030 period, whereas forest and shrubland are anticipated to occupy just 225 km2 of land area by 2030, a significant decrease from the 747 km2 they occupied in 2000. Overall, changes in land cover are predicted to result in an annual increase in irrigated cropland and dramatic decline in forest area in the study area over the next few decades. The increase in surface runoff depth is likely to have significant implications for irrigation activities. PMID:25923712

  12. Solar energy system economic evaluation: IBM System 2, Togus, Maine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The economic analysis of the solar energy system, is developed for Torgus and four other sites typical of a wide range of environmental and economic conditions in the continental United States. This analysis is accomplished based on the technical and economic models in the f-chart design procedure with inputs taken on the characteristics of the installed system and local conditions. The results are expressed in terms of the economic parameters of present worth of system cost over a projected twenty year life, life cycle savings, year of positive savings and year of payback for the optimized solar energy system at each of the analysis sites. The sensitivity of the economic evaluation to uncertainties in constituent system and economic variables is also investigated. Results demonstrate that the solar energy system is economically viable at all of the five sites for which the analysis was conducted.

  13. Influence of cover crops and crop residue treatment on soil organic carbon stocks evaluated in Swedish long-term field experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poeplau, Christopher; Bolinder, Martin A.; Börjesson, Gunnar; Kätterer, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks in agricultural soils are strongly controlled by management. In this study we quantified the effect of cover crops and crop residue management on SOC stocks in Swedish long-term experiments. Eight pairs of cover crop (undersown ryegrass) vs. no cover crop were investigated in Swedish long-term field experiments (16 to 24 years). Yields of the main crop were not affected by the cover crop. Cover crops significantly increased SOC stocks, with a mean carbon sequestration rate in all experiments (excluding one) of 0.32±0.29 Mg C ha-1 yr-1. Interestingly, this sequestration is similar to that estimated for a U.S.experiment, where ryegrass growth is much less temperature- and light-limited than under Swedish conditions. This sequestration rate is also the same as that recently reported for many other cover crops in a global meta-analysis but less than SOC changes in ley-dominated rotations which under Nordic conditions were shown to accumulate in average 0.5 Mg C ha-1 yr-1 more carbon compared to exclusively annual cropping systems. Thus, originally introduced in agricultural rotations to reduce nitrate leaching, cover crops are also an effective practice to increase SOC stocks, even at relatively high latitudes. The effect of crop residue treatment was studied in 16 pairs of straw incorporated (SI) vs. straw removed (SR) treatments in six Swedish long-term field experiments. Data series on SOC with 5-28 sampling dates during 27-53 years were analysed using ICBM, a dynamic SOC model. At five out of six sites, the humification coefficient for straw (hlitter; the fraction of straw C that is entering the slow C pool) was much smaller (0-0.09) than the ICBM default h-value for plant material estimated in previous studies (0.125). The derived hlitter-values and thus the stabilization of straw-derived carbon increased significantly with clay content. For an Italian site (with five pairs of SI vs. SR) that was used for model validation we found

  14. Evaluation of CDMA system capacity for mobile satellite system applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Partrick O.; Geraniotis, Evaggelos A.

    1988-01-01

    A specific Direct-Sequence/Pseudo-Noise (DS/PN) Code-Division Multiple-Access (CDMA) mobile satellite system (MSAT) architecture is discussed. The performance of this system is evaluated in terms of the maximum number of active MSAT subscribers that can be supported at a given uncoded bit-error probability. The evaluation decouples the analysis of the multiple-access capability (i.e., the number of instantaneous user signals) from the analysis of the multiple-access mutliplier effect allowed by the use of CDMA with burst-modem operation. We combine the results of these two analyses and present numerical results for scenarios of interest to the mobile satellite system community.

  15. Dynamic neural networks for real-time water level predictions of sewerage systems - covering gauged and ungauged sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, Y.-M.; Chang, L.-C.; Tsai, M.-J.; Wang, Y.-F.; Chang, F.-J.

    2010-04-01

    In this research, we propose recurrent neural networks (RNNs) to build a relationship between rainfalls and water level patterns of an urban sewerage system based on historical torrential rain/storm events. The RNN allows a signal to propagate in backward direction which gives this network a dynamic memory to effectively deal with time-varying systems. The RNN is implemented at both gauged and ungauged sites for 5-, 10-, 15-, and 20-min-ahead water level predictions. The results show that the RNN is capable of learning the nonlinear sewerage system and producing satisfactory predictions at the gauged sites. Concerning the ungauged sites, there are no historical data of water level to support prediction. In order to overcome such problem, a set of synthetic data, generated from a storm water management model (SWMM) under cautious verification process of applicability based on the data from nearby gauging stations, are introduced as the learning target to the training procedure of the RNN and moreover evaluating the performance of the RNN at the ungauged sites. The results demonstrate that the potential role of the SWMM coupled with nearby rainfall and water level information can be of great use in enhancing the capability of the RNN at the ungauged sites. Hence we can conclude that the RNN is an effective and suitable model for successfully predicting the water levels at both gauged and ungauged sites in urban sewerage systems.

  16. Evaluation of the boron tolerant grass, Puccinellia distans, as an initial vegetative cover for the Phytorestoration of a boron-contaminated mining site in Southern California.

    PubMed

    Stiles, Amanda R; Liu, Chunguang; Kayama, Yuriko; Wong, Josephine; Doner, Harvey; Funston, Roger; Terry, Norman

    2011-10-15

    Land damaged by boron (B) mining should be restored to its natural state with a zero net impact on biodiversity. In an earlier study (Environ. Sci. Technol.2010,44, 7089-7095), we characterized a Turkish ecotype of the grass, Puccinellia distans, which exhibited extreme tolerance to B. Here we evaluated the use of a US ecotype of P. distans as an initial vegetative cover for the phytorestoration of a B mine in southern California. Hydroponic studies revealed that this P. distans ecotype tolerated B concentrations >100 mg B/L and could be germinated and grown in B-contaminated soils taken from the sites to be restored. P. distans grew well in moderately B-contaminated soil (∼88 mg B/L saturated extract) amended with added organic matter (peat moss); other soil treatments such as gypsum addition or pH correction were not needed. P. distans also grew in severely B-contaminated soil (∼1506 mg B/L) provided that toxic levels of soil B were diluted by the addition of sand and/or organic matter. Our results provide evidence in support of the concept of using the US ecotype of P. distans as an initial vegetative cover for the phytorestoration of B-contaminated soil. PMID:21882844

  17. Evaluating Ventilation Systems for Existing Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Aldrich, R.; Arena, L.

    2013-02-01

    During the course of this project, an affordable and high performance ductwork system to directly address the problems of thermal losses, poor efficiency, and air leakage was designed. To save space and enable direct connections between different floors of the building, the ductwork system was designed in such a way that it occupied interior or exterior frame wall cavities. The ductwork system satisfied building regulations for structural support when bridging multiple floors, the spread of fire and smoke, and insulation to reduce the heat flow into or out of the building. Retrofits of urban residential buildings will be the main focus for the application of this ductwork system. Highly reflective foils and insulating materials were used to aid in the increase of the overall R-value of the ductwork itself and the wall assembly. It is expected that the proposed system will increase the efficiency of the HVAC system and the thermal resistance of the building envelope. The performance of the proposed ductwork design was numerically evaluated in a number of different ways. Our results indicate that the duct method is a very cost attractive alternative to the conventional method.

  18. Evaluation of Small Mass Spectrometer Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arkin, C. Richard; Griffin, Timothy P.; Ottens, Andrew K.; Diaz, Jorge A.; Follistein, Duke W.; Adams, Fredrick W.; Helms, William R.; Voska, N. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This work is aimed at understanding the aspects of designing a miniature mass spectrometer (MS) system. A multitude of commercial and government sectors, such as the military, environmental agencies and industrial manufacturers of semiconductors, refrigerants, and petroleum products, would find a small, portable, rugged and reliable MS system beneficial. Several types of small MS systems are evaluated and discussed, including linear quadrupole, quadrupole ion trap, time of flight and sector. The performance of each system in terms of accuracy, precision, limits of detection, response time, recovery time, scan rate, volume and weight is assessed. A performance scale is setup to rank each systems and an overall performance score is given to each system. All experiments involved the analysis of hydrogen, helium, oxygen and argon in a nitrogen background with the concentrations of the components of interest ranging from 0-5000 part-per-million (ppm). The relative accuracies of the systems vary from < 1% to approx. 40% with an average below 10%. Relative precisions varied from 1% to 20%, with an average below 5%. The detection limits had a large distribution, ranging from 0.2 to 170 ppm. The systems had a diverse response time ranging from 4 s to 210 s as did the recovery time with a 6 s to 210 s distribution. Most instruments had scan times near, 1 s, however one instrument exceeded 13 s. System weights varied from 9 to 52 kg and sizes from 15 x 10(exp 3)cu cm to 110 x 10(exp 3) cu cm.

  19. Solar energy system economic evaluation: IBM System 4, Clinton, Mississippi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    An economic analysis of the solar energy system was developed for five sites, typical of a wide range of environmental and economic conditions in the continental United States. The analysis was based on the technical and economic models in the F-chart design procedure, with inputs based on the characteristic of the installed system and local conditions. The results are of the economic parameters of present worth of system cost over a 20 year time span: life cycle savings, year of positive savings and year of payback for the optimized solar energy system at each of the analysis sites. The sensitivity of the economic evaluation to uncertainties in constituent system and economic variables is also investigated.

  20. Runway Incursion Prevention System Simulation Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Denise R.

    2002-01-01

    A Runway Incursion Prevention System (RIPS) was evaluated in a full mission simulation study at the NASA Langley Research center in March 2002. RIPS integrates airborne and ground-based technologies to provide (1) enhanced surface situational awareness to avoid blunders and (2) alerts of runway conflicts in order to prevent runway incidents while also improving operational capability. A series of test runs was conducted in a high fidelity simulator. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the RIPS airborne incursion detection algorithms and associated alerting and airport surface display concepts. Eight commercial airline crews participated as test subjects completing 467 test runs. This paper gives an overview of the RIPS, simulation study, and test results.

  1. Living cover crops have immediate impacts on soil microbial community structure and function

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cover cropping is a widely promoted strategy to enhance soil health in agricultural systems. Despite a substantial body of literature demonstrating links between cover crops and soil biology, an important component of soil health, research evaluating how specific cover crop species influence soil mi...

  2. Judging Books by Their Covers: A Cover Art Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Edward T.

    1998-01-01

    A group of 21 young adults (11-17) were asked to rate books by their cover art only and write explanations for their ratings. Discusses ratings and their rationales and concludes that the participants expected a cover to give them an idea of what a story was about. Includes a list of the books evaluated. (PEN)

  3. Economic Evaluation of Observatory Solar-Energy System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Long-term economic performance of a commercial solar-energy system was analyzed and used to predict economic performance at four additional sites. Analysis described in report was done to demonstrate viability of design over a broad range of environmental/economic conditions. Topics covered are system description, study approach, economic analysis and system optimization.

  4. Simulating the impact of past and future land cover and climate change on the global hydrological system using PCR-GLOBWB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosmans, J.; Van Beek, L. P.; Sutanudjaja, E.; Bierkens, M. F.

    2015-12-01

    We investigate the influence of both human-induced land cover change and climate change in a series of experiments with a global hydrological model (PCR-GLOBWB 2.0, Sutanudjaja et al., 2014). First, we analyze the impact of land cover changes by applying the static land cover of 1850 and 2000 in two separate experiments that are otherwise subject to the same forcing (CRU-derived daily temperature, precipitation and reference potential evapotranspiration, 1979-2010). This land cover change alone, mainly due to expansion of crop and pasture, results in differences in annual mean discharge of over 1000 m3/s and over 10% in large areas of the world. Evapotranspiration changes reach 30 mm/month. Furthermore, for validation purposes we compare these results to an experiment that includes human effects such as irrigation and reservoirs, as well as to a default experiment with a slightly different land cover parameterization.To investigate the influence of both land cover and climate change over time, we perform longer experiments applying input from the EC-Earth and CESM GCMs to PCR-GLOBWB. This allows us to extend the experiments from 1850 to 2100. We use two greenhouse gas emission scenarios for the 21st century: RCP2.6, a low-end scenario, as well as the high-end RCP8.5 scenario. Daily precipitation, temperature and reference potential evapotranspiration are bias-corrected using the ISI-MIP method (Hempel et al., 2013). First, land cover is fixed at 1850 and PCR-GLOBWB only experiences climate change from 1850 to 2100. Then, land cover is varied according to the historical reconstructions and future projections per RCP (Hurtt et al., 2011). Anthropogenic effects are excluded, so differences between these experiments are only due to land cover change. We analyze changes in discharge over catchment areas as well as evapotranspiration on cell basis. This is the first study with PCR-GLOBWB to evaluate the impact of both climate and land cover change over time for both past

  5. Deployment of an Alternative Closure Cover and Monitoring System at the Mixed Waste Disposal Unit U-3ax/bl at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Levitt, D.G.; Fitzmaurice, T.M.

    2001-02-01

    closure cover provide soil water content data, whereas sensors installed in the lysimeters provide soil water content, soil water potential, soil temperature, and drainage data for a detailed evaluation of the cover performance. Revegetation establishes a stable plant community that maximizes water loss through transpiration and reduces water and wind erosion and ultimately restores the disposal unit to its surrounding Great Basin Desert environment.

  6. Tank evaluation system shielded annular tank application

    SciTech Connect

    Freier, D.A.

    1988-10-04

    TEST (Tank Evaluation SysTem) is a research project utilizing neutron interrogation techniques to analyze the content of nuclear poisons and moderators in tank shielding. TEST experiments were performed on an experimental SAT (Shielded Annular Tank) at the Rocky Flats Plant. The purpose of these experiments was threefold: (1) to assess TEST application to SATs, (2) to determine if Nuclear Safety inspection criteria could be met, and (3) to perform a preliminary calibration of TEST for SATs. Several experiments were performed, including measurements of 11 tank shielding configurations, source-simulated holdup experiments, analysis of three detector modes, resolution studies, and TEST scanner geometry experiments. 1 ref., 21 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. Evaluation of an automatic uranium titration system

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, K.

    1980-01-01

    The titration system utilizes the constant current coulometric titration of Goldbeck and Lerner. U(VI) is reduced to U(IV) by Fe(II). V(V) is generated to titrate the U(IV), and the titration is followed potentiometrically. The evaluation shows that the recovery of uranium is 100% at the 40-mg level. The accuracy is generally +-0.10% or better. The smallest sample weight at which reliable results were obtained was 40 mg of uranium. Time for one analysis is 15 minutes. Advantages and disadvantages of the automated titrator are listed. (DLC)

  8. Disposal Systems Evaluations and Tool Development - Engineered Barrier System Evaluation (Work Package LL1015080425)

    SciTech Connect

    Blink, J A; Buscheck, T A; Halsey, W G; Wolery, T

    2010-03-19

    The Disposal Systems Evaluation Framework (DSEF) will use a logical process for developing one or more disposal system concepts (also referred to as repository system in this report) for any given waste form and geologic setting combination. In the Features, Events, and Processes (FEPs) group of work packages, there are seven categories of waste forms and eight categories of geologic setting being studied. The DSEF will also establish a Used Fuel Disposition Campaign (UFDC) knowledge management system to organize high-level information, data, and assumptions, thereby facilitating consistency in high-level system simulation and economic analyses. This system likely will be housed with the INL-based documentation system. Attention is given to lessons oearned from the systems used at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP). Where reference material from other programs (e.g., international) is used or cited, the knowledge-management system imports the reference material directly or refer to it in bibliography form. Alternative data sets (e.g., from other programs) will also be utilized to evaluate their influence on DSEF analyses for given waste form and disposal-system combinations. The knowledge-management system can also be used to maintain the results of DSEF realizations, enabling the comparison and ranking of various waste-form/disposal-system-environment/disposal-system-design options. Finally, the UFDC knowledge-management system will be able to provide a compendium of 'templates' that can be utilized, in a labor-efficient fashion, to build parallel DSEF analyses (e.g., 'one offs'). The DSEF will not be a stand-alone, push-the-button and wait for the results, item of software. it will use osftware (probably EXCEL, initially), to guide the team members through a logical process of evaluating combinations of waste-form, disposal-syste-environment, and disposal-system design. In later stages, it will utilize software developed

  9. Fusion-fission energy systems evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Teofilo, V.L.; Aase, D.T.; Bickford, W.E.

    1980-01-01

    This report serves as the basis for comparing the fusion-fission (hybrid) energy system concept with other advanced technology fissile fuel breeding concepts evaluated in the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program (NASAP). As such, much of the information and data provided herein is in a form that meets the NASAP data requirements. Since the hybrid concept has not been studied as extensively as many of the other fission concepts being examined in NASAP, the provided data and information are sparse relative to these more developed concepts. Nevertheless, this report is intended to provide a perspective on hybrids and to summarize the findings of the rather limited analyses made to date on this concept.

  10. Dynamic neural networks for real-time water level predictions of sewerage systems-covering gauged and ungauged sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, Yen-Ming; Chang, Li-Chiu; Tsai, Meng-Jung; Wang, Yi-Fung; Chang, Fi-John

    2010-07-01

    In this research, we propose recurrent neural networks (RNNs) to build a relationship between rainfalls and water level patterns of an urban sewerage system based on historical torrential rain/storm events. The RNN allows signals to propagate in both forward and backward directions, which offers the network dynamic memories. Besides, the information at the current time-step with a feedback operation can yield a time-delay unit that provides internal input information at the next time-step to effectively deal with time-varying systems. The RNN is implemented at both gauged and ungauged sites for 5-, 10-, 15-, and 20-min-ahead water level predictions. The results show that the RNN is capable of learning the nonlinear sewerage system and producing satisfactory predictions at the gauged sites. Concerning the ungauged sites, there are no historical data of water level to support prediction. In order to overcome such problem, a set of synthetic data, generated from a storm water management model (SWMM) under cautious verification process of applicability based on the data from nearby gauging stations, are introduced as the learning target to the training procedure of the RNN and moreover evaluating the performance of the RNN at the ungauged sites. The results demonstrate that the potential role of the SWMM coupled with nearby rainfall and water level information can be of great use in enhancing the capability of the RNN at the ungauged sites. Hence we can conclude that the RNN is an effective and suitable model for successfully predicting the water levels at both gauged and ungauged sites in urban sewerage systems.

  11. Evaluation of the PAR corneal topography system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jindal, Prateek; Cheung, Susan; Pirouzian, Amir; Keates, Richard H.; Ren, Qiushi

    1995-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the raster photogrammetry based Corneal Topography System by determining: inter-operator variability, reproducibility of images, effects of defocused and decentered images, and the precision of data at different optical zones. 4 human cadaver eyes were used to study the inter-operator variability. To study the reproducibility of images, 3 human cadaver eyes and a test surface doped with flourescine (provided by PAR Vision Systems Corporation) were focused and their images taken four successive times. Defocused and decentered images were taken of 4 human cadaver eyes and four times of the test surface mentioned above. The precision of defocused/decentered cadaver eyes was evaluated at the following optical zones: 3 mm, 4 mm, 5 mm, and 6 mm. All human cadaver eyes used in the above experiments had their epithelial layer removed before imaging. Average inter-operator variability was 0.06 D. In reproducibility attempts, there was an average deviation of 0.28 D for the human cadaver eyes and 0.04 D for the test surface. The defocused and decentered test surface gave an average deviation of 0.09 D. Defocused and decentered cadaver eyes resulted in an average deviation of 0.52 D, 0.37 D, 0.24 D, and 0.22 D at optical zones of 3 mm, 4 mm, 5 mm, and 6 mm, respectively. The imaging method employed by PAR Vision Systems Corporation virtually eliminates inter-operator variability. The PAR Corneal Topography System's clinical usefulness, however, could be improved by improving the reproducibility of images, decreasing the sensitivity to spatial alignment, and increasing accuracy over smaller optical zones.

  12. An hierarchical approach to performance evaluation of expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (Editor); Kavi, Srinu

    1985-01-01

    The number and size of expert systems is growing rapidly. Formal evaluation of these systems - which is not performed for many systems - increases the acceptability by the user community and hence their success. Hierarchical evaluation that had been conducted for computer systems is applied for expert system performance evaluation. Expert systems are also evaluated by treating them as software systems (or programs). This paper reports many of the basic concepts and ideas in the Performance Evaluation of Expert Systems Study being conducted at the University of Southwestern Louisiana.

  13. Effects of different roller/crimper designs and rolling speed on rye cover crop termination and seedcotton yield in A no-till system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rollers/crimpers have been utilized in no-till systems to mechanically terminate cover crops as a substitute for chemical termination; however, excessive vibration generated by the original straight bar roller adopted from Brazil has delayed its adoption in the U.S. To reduce excessive vibration, pr...

  14. Management of land use land cover through the application of remote sensing, geographic information systems and simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jha, Praveen

    Deforestation and degradation of forest areas, including those in the Protected Areas (PAs), are major concerns in India. There were 2 broad objectives of the study: the technological objective pertained to the development of state-of-art programs that could serve as Decision Support Systems while finalizing plans and policy interventions, while the other objective aimed at generating geo-spatial data in 2 PAs. A part of the Eastern Himalaya biodiversity hotspot, Manas Tiger Reserve (MTR), Assam, India having an area of 2837.12 sq km and an important part of Rajaji-Corbett Tiger Conservation Unit, Rajaji National Park (RNP), Uttarakhand, India, having an area of 820.42 sq km, were taken for the assessment of land use and land cover (LULC) change during 1990--2004. Simulation was undertaken in a smaller area of 1.2 km * 1.2 km right on the fringe of RNP. Three advanced geo-spatial programs---Multi-Algorithm Automation Program (MAAP), Data Automatic Modification Program (DAMP) and Multi-Stage Simulation Program (MUSSIP)---developed by the author were used extensively. Based on the satellite data, MAAP was used for the rapid assessments of LULC of 2004 and 1990; DAMP was used for the spectral modification of the satellite data of the adjacent scenes of 2004 and of 1990; and MUSSIP was used to simulate LULC maps for the future periods (till 2018). These programs produced very high accuracy levels: 91.12% in 2004 and 89.67% in 1990 were obtained for MTR; and 94.87% in 2004 and 94.10% in 1990 were obtained for RNP; 93.40% pixel-to-pixel accuracy and 0.7904 for kappa were achieved for simulation. The annual rate of loss of forests (0.41% in MTR and 1.20% in RNP) and loss of water (1.79% in MTR and 1.69% in RNP) during 1990-2004 is a matter of serious concern. The scenario analysis in the study area for simulation revealed that the deforestation rate of 1.27% per year during 2004--2018 would increase to 2.04% if the human population growth rate is enhanced by 10%. Hence

  15. Evaluation of a glass insulated cable system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1982-04-01

    A cable system for underground power transmission at 230 to 345 kV was developed. This cable has the copper conductor bundles encased in glass tubes. Gas passes through the interior of the glass tubes to cool the conductors. Pressurized water cools the outside of glass tube clusters. The whole assembly is encased in a 10 in. OD coated steel pipe. This evaluation program was undertaken to determine the loss and breakdown characteristics of the borosilicate glass used for the cable tubes, to optimize methods for sealing tubing lengths, and to evaluate methods for fabricating and installing the cable tubing. The testing procedures are described. The results showed that the glass has good high-temperature electrical properties with especially high dc resistivity, but that the tubing seals were unacceptable electrically. It was concluded that the system as presently envisioned is not suitable as an underground cable because of the poor electrical performance of glass seals. The glass may have other applications such as entrance bushings to high-temperature test chambers.

  16. Effects of terminating cover crops with rolling/crimping and herbicides in a cotton no-till system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In fall of 2008, a field experiment was initiated in central Alabama to study the effects of rolling/crimping and different herbicides with different application rates on cover crops termination rates, cotton population and yield. Results from 2009 and 2010 growing seasons are presented. A roller/cr...

  17. Evaluation of three commercial microclimate cooling systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cadarette, Bruce S.; Decristofano, Barry S.; Speckman, Karen N.; Sawka, Michael N.

    1988-11-01

    Three commercially available microclimate cooling systems were evaluated for their ability to reduce heat stress in men exercising in a hot environment while wearing high insulative, low permeability clothing. The cooling systems were: (1) ILC Dover Model 19 Coolvest (ILC) (2) LSSI Coolhead(LSSI), and (3) Thermacor Cooling vest (THERM). Endurance Time (ET), Heart Rate (HR), rectal temperature (Tre), mean skin temperature (TSK), Sweating Rate (SR), Rated Perceived Exertion (RPE) and Thermal Sensation (TS) were measured. The subjects self-terminated on all LSSI tests because of headaches. Statistical analyses were performed on data collected at 60 minutes to have values on all subjects. There were no differences in HR, Tre, SR or TS values among the cooling vests. The subjects' TSK was lower (P less than 0.05) for the LSSI than THERM: and RPE values were higher (P less than 0.05) for LSSI than the other two vests. These data suggest an improved physiological response to exercise heat stress with all three commercial systems with the greatest benefit in performance time provided by the ILC cooling system.

  18. Using SWAT model to evaluate the sediment load in Feitsui Reservoir watershed under severe rainfall and land-cover change conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, C.; Huang, Y.; Liu, C.

    2010-12-01

    detection system. The model result indicated that if there has no increased landslide in the reservoir watershed during the simulated torrential rainfall event (3000 mm in three days), a total of 0.4 million tons of sediment would be induced and transported to the reservoir, which is 3.8 and 2.2 times to the annual observed and designed sediment load, respectively. If a 6% newly increased landslides were considered to be occurred during the simulated torrential rainfall event in areas with slopes more than 30%, 50% and 70%, the induced sediment load would be 1.17, 1.22 and 1.24 times higher, respectively. Sediment disaster, e.g., landslides and mudflows, are often occurred in Taiwan, by the nature of unsettled geology and frequent typhoons. This study suggest that a sediment disaster module that describe the relationships between precipitation and potential land-cover changes should be included in watershed management models, such as the Hydrological Simulation Program - FORTRAN (HSPF) and SWAT, to accurately simulate the sediment load caused by torrential rainfall events and hence the actual impacts to reservoir operation is able to be evaluated.

  19. Disposal systems evaluations and tool development : Engineered Barrier System (EBS) evaluation.

    SciTech Connect

    Rutqvist, Jonny; Liu, Hui-Hai; Steefel, Carl I.; Serrano de Caro, M. A.; Caporuscio, Florie Andre; Birkholzer, Jens T.; Blink, James A.; Sutton, Mark A.; Xu, Hongwu; Buscheck, Thomas A.; Levy, Schon S.; Tsang, Chin-Fu; Sonnenthal, Eric; Halsey, William G.; Jove-Colon, Carlos F.; Wolery, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    Key components of the nuclear fuel cycle are short-term storage and long-term disposal of nuclear waste. The latter encompasses the immobilization of used nuclear fuel (UNF) and radioactive waste streams generated by various phases of the nuclear fuel cycle, and the safe and permanent disposition of these waste forms in geological repository environments. The engineered barrier system (EBS) plays a very important role in the long-term isolation of nuclear waste in geological repository environments. EBS concepts and their interactions with the natural barrier are inherently important to the long-term performance assessment of the safety case where nuclear waste disposition needs to be evaluated for time periods of up to one million years. Making the safety case needed in the decision-making process for the recommendation and the eventual embracement of a disposal system concept requires a multi-faceted integration of knowledge and evidence-gathering to demonstrate the required confidence level in a deep geological disposal site and to evaluate long-term repository performance. The focus of this report is the following: (1) Evaluation of EBS in long-term disposal systems in deep geologic environments with emphasis on the multi-barrier concept; (2) Evaluation of key parameters in the characterization of EBS performance; (3) Identification of key knowledge gaps and uncertainties; and (4) Evaluation of tools and modeling approaches for EBS processes and performance. The above topics will be evaluated through the analysis of the following: (1) Overview of EBS concepts for various NW disposal systems; (2) Natural and man-made analogs, room chemistry, hydrochemistry of deep subsurface environments, and EBS material stability in near-field environments; (3) Reactive Transport and Coupled Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical-Chemical (THMC) processes in EBS; and (4) Thermal analysis toolkit, metallic barrier degradation mode survey, and development of a Disposal Systems

  20. Distributed Impact Detector System (DIDS) Health Monitoring System Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prosser, William H.; Madaras, Eric I.

    2010-01-01

    Damage due to impacts from micrometeoroids and orbital debris is one of the most significant on-orbit hazards for spacecraft. Impacts to thermal protection systems must be detected and the damage evaluated to determine if repairs are needed to allow safe re-entry. To address this issue for the International Space Station Program, Langley Research Center and Johnson Space Center technologists have been working to develop and implement advanced methods for detecting impacts and resultant leaks. LaRC funded a Small Business Innovative Research contract to Invocon, Inc. to develop special wireless sensor systems that are compact, light weight, and have long battery lifetimes to enable applications to long duration space structures. These sensor systems are known as distributed impact detection systems (DIDS). In an assessment, the NASA Engineering and Safety Center procured two prototype DIDS sensor units to evaluate their capabilities in laboratory testing and field testing in an ISS Node 1 structural test article. This document contains the findings of the assessment.

  1. Directionally solidified composite systems under evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashbrook, R. L.

    1974-01-01

    The directionally solidified eutectic in-situ composites being evaluated for use as turbine materials range from ductile-ductile systems, where both matrix and reinforcement are ductile, to brittle-brittle systems, where both phases are brittle. The alloys most likely to be used in gas turbine engines in the near term are the lamellar ductile-semi ductile alloys gamma prime-delta, Ni3Al-Ni3Nb and gamma/gamma prime-delta Ni,Cr,Cb,Al/Ni3Al-Ni3Nb and the fibrous ductile-brittle alloys M-MC CoTaC or NiTaC and M-M7C3(Co,Cr,Al)-(Cr,Co)7C3. The results of tests are given which indicate that gamma prime strengthened NiTaC alloys and a (Co,Cr,Al)7C3 have greater tensile strength than the strongest superalloys at temperatures up to about 600 C. The gamma prime-delta and gamma/gamma prime-delta alloys in the Ni,Al,Nb(Cr) systems have greater tensile strength than the superalloys at temperatures greater than 800 C. At low stresses fibrous carbide reinforced eutectic alloys have longer lives at high temperatures than the strongest superalloys. Lamellar delta, Ni3Nb reinforced eutectic alloys have longer lives at high temperatures than the strongest superalloys at all stresses. The experience currently being gained in designing with the brittle ceramics SiC and Si3N4 may eventually be applied to ceramic matrix eutectic in-situ composites. However, the refractory metal fiber reinforced brittle-ductile systems may find acceptance as turbine materials before the ceramic-ceramic brittle-brittle systems.

  2. Evaluation of the Effects of Temporary Covered Nitinol Stent Placement in the Prostatic Urethra: Short-Term Study in the Canine Model

    SciTech Connect

    Crisostomo, Veronica; Uson-Gargallo, Jesus

    2007-07-15

    Purpose. To evaluate the effect of temporary stent placement on the canine prostatic urethra. Methods. Retrievable PTFE-covered nitinol stents were placed in the prostatic urethras of 8 beagle dogs under fluoroscopic guidance. Retrograde urethrography was obtained before and after stenting. Retrograde urethrography and endoscopy were performed 1 and 2 months after deployment. The endoscopic degree of hyperplasia was rated on a scale of 0 to 4 (0 absence, 4 = occlusion). On day 60, stents were removed and urethrography was performed immediately before euthanasia. Pathologic analysis was performed to determine the degree of glandular atrophy, periurethral fibrosis, and urethral dilation. Results. Stent deployment was technically successful in 7 animals, and failed in 1 dog due to a narrow urethral lumen. Complete migration was seen in 2 animals at 1 month, and an additional stent was deployed. On day 30, endoscopy showed slight hyperplasia (grade 1) in 3 animals. On day 60, moderate hyperplasia (grade 2) was evidenced in 4 cases. No impairment of urinary flow was seen during follow-up. Retrieval was technically easy to perform, and was successful in all dogs. The major histologic findings were chronic inflammatory cell infiltrates; prostate glandular atrophy, with a mean value of 1.86 (SD 0.90); periurethral fibrosis, with a mean ratio of 29.37 (SD 10.41); and dilatation of the prostatic urethra, with a mean ratio of 6.75 (SD 3.22). Conclusion. Temporary prostatic stent placement in dogs is safe and feasible, causing marked enlargement of the prostatic urethral lumen. Retrievable covered stents may therefore be an option for bladder outlet obstruction management in men.

  3. Land Cover Change on the Seward Peninsula: The Use of Remote Sensing to Evaluate the Potential Influences of Climate Warming on Historical Vegetation Dynamics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Silapaswan, C.S.; Verbyla, D.L.; McGuire, A.D.

    2001-01-01

    Vegetation on the Seward Peninsula. Alaska, which is characterized by transitions from tundra to boreal forest, may be sensitive to the influences of climate change on disturbance and species composition. To determine the ability to detect decadal-scale structural changes in vegetation, Change Vector Analysis (CVA) techniques were evaluated for Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery of the Seward Peninsula from 1986 to 1999. Scenes were geographically corrected to sub-pixel accuracy and then radiometrically rectified. Between the 1986 and 1992 satellite scenes, the CVA detected changes in direction and magnitude of the two indices (TM Band 4/TM Band 3, TM Band 5). For Row 14, change was detected for 135,518 ha and for Row 15, change was detected for 111,831 ha. Between the 1992 and 1999 scenes, change was detected by CVA for 93,278 ha. CVA results and photo interpretation together show that shrub advance is approximately 100 metres in valleys north of the Bendeleben Mountains and that shrubs have increased along riverbed bottoms. Across Path 78 Row 14 and 15, the unsupervised classification detected that 55% of the pixels changed between 1986 and 1992. Overall, approximately 759,610 ha changed to a class with a more developed canopy and only 268,132 ha changed to a class with a less developed canopy. Thus, the change detection analysis based on the unsupervised classification indicates that land-cover change on the Seward Peninsula was predominantly in the direction of increased shrubbiness. Taken together, our comparison of CVA results, unsupervised classification results, and visual interpretation of aerial photographs suggests that shrub cover may be increasing on the Seward Peninsula, which is consistent with results from experimental warming in tundra. The use of both CVA and unsupervised classification together provided a more powerful interpretation of change than either method alone in transitional regions between tundra and boreal forest.

  4. Evaluating the effect of land use land cover change in a rapidly urbanizing semi-arid watershed on estuarine freshwater inflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahoo, D.; Smith, P.; Popescu, S.

    2006-12-01

    Estuarine freshwater inflows along with their associated nutrient and metal delivery are influenced by the land use/land cover (LULC) and water management practices in the contributing watershed. This study evaluates the effect of rapid urbanization in the San Antonio River Watershed on the amount of freshwater inflow reaching the San Antonio-Guadalupe estuary on the Gulf Coast of Texas. Remotely sensed data from satellite imagery provided a source of reliable data for land use classification and land cover change analysis; while long time series of the geophysical signals of stream flow and precipitation provided the data needed to assess change in flow in the watershed. LULC was determined using LANDSAT (5 TM and 7 ETM) satellite images over 20 years (1985-2003). The LANDSAT images were classified using an ENVI. ISODATA classification scheme. Changes were quantified in terms of the urban expansion that had occurred in past 20 years using an urban index. Streamflow was analyzed using 20 years (1985-2004) of average daily discharge obtained from the USGS gauging station (08188500) closest to the headwaters of the estuary. Baseflow and storm flow were partitioned from total flow using a universally used baseflow separation technique. Precipitation data was obtained from an NCDC station in the watershed. Preliminary results indicate that the most significant change in land use over the 20 year period was an increase in the total amount of impervious area in the watershed. This increase in impervious area was accompanied by an increase in both total streamflow and in baseflow over the same period. The investigation did not show a significant change in total annual precipitation from 1990 to 2004. This suggests that the increase in streamflow was more influenced by LULC than climate change. One explanation for the increase in baseflow may be an increase in return flows resulting from an increase in the total number of wastewater treatment plants in the watershed.

  5. PROOF OF CONCEPT TEST OF A UNIQUE GASEOUS PERFLUROCARBON TRACER SYSTEM FOR VERIFICATION AND LONG TERM MONITORING OF CAPS AND COVER SYSTEMS CONDUCTED AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE BENTONITE MAT TEST FACILITY.

    SciTech Connect

    HEISER,J.; SULLIVAN,T.; SERRATO,M.

    2002-02-24

    Engineered covers have been placed on top of buried/subsurface wastes to minimize water infiltration and therefore, release of hazardous contaminants. In order for the cover to protect the environment it must remain free of holes and breaches throughout its service life. Covers are subject to subsidence, erosion, animal intrusion, plant root infiltration, etc., all of which will affect the overall performance of the cover. The U.S. Department of Energy Environmental Management (DOE-EM) Program 2006 Accelerated Cleanup Plan is pushing for rapid closure of many of the DOE facilities. This will require a great number of new cover systems. Some of these new covers are expected to maintain their performance for periods of up to 1000 years. Long-term stewardship will require monitoring/verification of cover performance over the course of the designed lifetime. In addition, many existing covers are approaching the end of their design life and will need validation of current performance (if continued use is desired) or replacement (if degraded). The need for a reliable method of verification and long-term monitoring is readily apparent. Currently, failure is detected through monitoring wells downstream of the waste site. This is too late as the contaminants have already left the disposal area. The proposed approach is the use of gaseous Perfluorocarbon tracers (PFT) to verify and monitor cover performance. It is believed that PFTs will provide a technology that can verify a cover meets all performance objectives upon installation, be capable of predicting changes in cover performance and failure (defined as contaminants leaving the site) before it happens, and be cost-effective in supporting stewardship needs. The PFTs are injected beneath the cover and air samples taken above (either air samples or soil gas samples) at the top of the cover. The location, concentrations, and time of arrival of the tracer(s) provide a direct measure of cover performance. PFT technology can

  6. Evaluating Detection and Diagnostic Decision Support Systems for Bioterrorism Response

    PubMed Central

    Sundaram, Vandana; McDonald, Kathryn M.; Smith, Wendy M.; Szeto, Herbert; Schleinitz, Mark D.; Owens, Douglas K.

    2004-01-01

    We evaluated the usefulness of detection systems and diagnostic decision support systems for bioterrorism response. We performed a systematic review by searching relevant databases (e.g., MEDLINE) and Web sites for reports of detection systems and diagnostic decision support systems that could be used during bioterrorism responses. We reviewed over 24,000 citations and identified 55 detection systems and 23 diagnostic decision support systems. Only 35 systems have been evaluated: 4 reported both sensitivity and specificity, 13 were compared to a reference standard, and 31 were evaluated for their timeliness. Most evaluations of detection systems and some evaluations of diagnostic systems for bioterrorism responses are critically deficient. Because false-positive and false-negative rates are unknown for most systems, decision making on the basis of these systems is seriously compromised. We describe a framework for the design of future evaluations of such systems. PMID:15078604

  7. Thermionic system evaluated test (TSET) facility description

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fairchild, Jerry F.; Koonmen, James P.; Thome, Frank V.

    1992-01-01

    A consortium of US agencies are involved in the Thermionic System Evaluation Test (TSET) which is being supported by the Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO). The project is a ground test of an unfueled Soviet TOPAZ-II in-core thermionic space reactor powered by electrical heat. It is part of the United States' national thermionic space nuclear power program. It will be tested in Albuquerque, New Mexico at the New Mexico Engineering Research Institute complex by the Phillips Laboratoty, Sandia National Laboratories, Los Alamos National Laboratory, and the University of New Mexico. One of TSET's many objectives is to demonstrate that the US can operate and test a complete space nuclear power system, in the electrical heater configuration, at a low cost. Great efforts have been made to help reduce facility costs during the first phase of this project. These costs include structural, mechanical, and electrical modifications to the existing facility as well as the installation of additional emergency systems to mitigate the effects of utility power losses and alkali metal fires.

  8. Evaluation of an automatic markup system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taghva, Kazem; Condit, Allen; Borsack, Julie

    1995-03-01

    One predominant application of OCR is the recognition of full text documents for information retrieval. Modern retrieval systems exploit both the textual content of the document as well as its structure. The relationship between textual content and character accuracy have been the focus of recent studies. It has been shown that due to the redundancies in text, average precision and recall is not heavily affected by OCR character errors. What is not fully known is to what extent OCR devices can provide reliable information that can be used to capture the structure of the document. In this paper, we present a preliminary report on the design and evaluation of a system to automatically markup technical documents, based on information provided by an OCR device. The device we use differs from traditional OCR devices in that it not only performs optical character recognition, but also provides detailed information about page layout, word geometry, and font usage. Our automatic markup program, which we call Autotag, uses this information, combined with dictionary lookup and content analysis, to identify structural components of the text. These include the document title, author information, abstract, sections, section titles, paragraphs, sentences, and de-hyphenated words. A visual examination of the hardcopy is compared to the output of our markup system to determine its correctness.

  9. An evaluation of an automatic markup system

    SciTech Connect

    Taghva, K.; Condit, A.; Borsack, J.

    1995-04-01

    One predominant application of OCR is the recognition of full text documents for information retrieval. Modern retrieval systems exploit both the textual content of the document as well as its structure. The relationship between textual content and character accuracy have been the focus of recent studies. It has been shown that due to the redundancies in text, average precision and recall is not heavily affected by OCR character errors. What is not fully known is to what extent OCR devices can provide reliable information that can be used to capture the structure of the document. In this paper, the authors present a preliminary report on the design and evaluation of a system to automatically markup technical documents, based on information provided by an OCR device. The device the authors use differs from traditional OCR devices in that it not only performs optical character recognition, but also provides detailed information about page layout, word geometry, and font usage. Their automatic markup program, which they call Autotag, uses this information, combined with dictionary, lookup and content analysis, to identify structural components of the text. These include the document title, author information, abstract, sections, section titles, paragraphs, sentences, and de-hyphenated words. A visual examination of the hardcopy will be compared to the output of their markup system to determine its correctness.

  10. Multidetector-Row Computed Tomography in the Evaluation of Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt Performed with Expanded-Polytetrafluoroethylene-Covered Stent-Graft

    SciTech Connect

    Fanelli, Fabrizio Bezzi, Mario; Bruni, Antonio; Corona, Mario; Boatta, Emanuele; Lucatelli, Pierleone; Passariello, Roberto

    2011-02-15

    We assessed, in a prospective study, the efficacy of multidetector spiral computed tomography (MDCT) in the evaluation of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) patency in patients treated with the Viatorr (Gore, Flagstaff, AZ) expanded-polytetrafluoroethylene (e-PTFE)-covered stent-graft. Eighty patients who underwent TIPS procedure using the Viatorr self-expanding e-PTFE stent-graft were evaluated at follow-up of 1, 3, 6, and 12 months with clinical and laboratory tests as well as ultrasound-color Doppler (USCD) imaging. In case of varices, upper gastrointestinal endoscopy was also performed. In addition, the shunt was evaluated using MDCT at 6 and 12 months. In all cases of abnormal findings and discrepancy between MDCT and USCD, invasive control venography was performed. MDCT images were acquired before and after injection of intravenous contrast media on the axial plane and after three-dimensional reconstruction using different algorithms. MDCT was successfully performed in all patients. No artefacts correlated to the Viatorr stent-graft were observed. A missing correlation between UCSD and MDCT was noticed in 20 of 80 (25%) patients. Invasive control venography confirmed shunt patency in 16 (80%) cases and shunt malfunction in 4 (20%) cases. According to these data, MDCT sensitivity was 95.2%; specificity was 96.6%; and positive (PPV) and negative predictive values (NPV) were 90.9 and 98.2%, respectively. USCD sensitivity was 90%; specificity was 75%; and PPV and NPV were 54.5 and 95.7%, respectively. A high correlation (K value = 0.85) between MDCT and invasive control venography was observed. On the basis of these results, MDCT shows superior sensitivity and specificity compared with USCD in those patients in whom TIPS was performed with the Viatorr stent-graft. MDCT can be considered a valid tool in the follow-up of these patients.

  11. Evaluation of Peanut Cultivars for Suitability in Biodiesel Production Systems.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nineteen currently and previously available peanut cultivars were field tested for oil production capability in a low-input production system designed for biodiesel use. This low input system was characterized by strip tillage into a rolled rye cover crop, no use of either insecticides or fungicid...

  12. EVALUATION OF CONTAINMENT SYSTEMS USING HYDRAULIC HEAD DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Subsurface vertical barriers have been used as components of containment systems to prevent or reduce the impact of containment sources on ground-water resources. Many containment systems also include a low permeability cover to prevent the infiltration-/recharge of precipitatio...

  13. Performance evaluation of conventional chiller systems

    SciTech Connect

    Beyene, A.

    1995-06-01

    This article describes an optimization technique to reduce chiller energy usage by evaluating energy saving strategies. In most commercial buildings and industrial plants, HVAC systems are the largest energy consumers and offer the owners significant potential for savings. Chiller machines are also of interest to utility companies because they operate during cooling times that overlap peak hours of warmer climate zones, thereby contributing to peak energy demands. The key performance parameter in chiller analysis is the kW/ton of refrigeration, which is the ratio of the amount of electrical energy consumed relative to the amount of cooling energy delivers. To obtain the kW/ton refrigeration for a chiller, the electric power consumption (kW) of the compressor should be measured, or calculated if the instantaneous current and voltage are known.

  14. THE BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY PERFLUOROCARBON TRACER TECHNOLOGY: A PROVEN AND COST EFFECTIVE METHOD TO VERIFY INTEGRITY AND MONITOR LONG TERM PERFORMANCE OF WALLS, FLOORS, CAPS, AND COVER SYSTEMS.

    SciTech Connect

    HEISER, J.; SULLIVAN, T.

    2002-03-11

    Currently, containment system failures are detected by monitoring wells downstream of the waste site. Clearly this approach is inefficient, as the contaminants will have migrated from the disposal area before they are detected. Methods that indicate early cover failure (prior to contaminant release) or predict impending cover failure are needed. The Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) Perfluorocarbon Tracer (PFT) technology can measure performance changes and integrity losses as the cover ages. This allows early detection of cover failure or pending failure so that repair or replacement can be made before contaminants leave the disposal cell. The PFT technology has been successfully applied to four subsurface barrier problems, one leak detection problem from underground ducts, and one surface cover problem. Testing has demonstrated that the PFTs are capable of accurately detecting and locating leaks down to fractions of an inch. The PFT technology has several advantages over competing approaches. The ability to simultaneously use multiple PFTs separates it from other gas tracer technologies. Using multiple tracers provides independent confirmation of flaw location, helps to clearly define transport pathways, and can be used for confirmatory testing (e.g., repeat the test using a new tracer). The PFT tests provide a direct measure of flaws in a barrier, whereas other measurements (pressure, moisture content, temperature, subsidence) provide indirect measures that need interpretation. The focus of the six PFT demonstrations has been on engineering aspects of the technology with the intent of finding if a flaw existed in the barrier. Work remains to be done on the scientific basis for this technology. This includes determining PFT diffusion rates through various materials (soils and barrier) as a function of moisture content, determining the effects of barometric pumping on PFT flow for cover systems, and determining wind effects on side slopes of cover systems and

  15. Earth orbit navigation study. Volume 2: System evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    An overall systems evaluation was made of five candidate navigation systems in support of earth orbit missions. The five systems were horizon sensor system, unkown landmark tracking system, ground transponder system, manned space flight network, and tracking and data relay satellite system. Two reference missions were chosen: a low earth orbit mission and a transfer trajectory mission from low earth orbit to geosynchronous orbit. The specific areas addressed in the evaluation were performance, multifunction utilization, system mechanization, and cost.

  16. Large-scale evaluation of a medical cross-language information retrieval system.

    PubMed

    Markó, Kornél; Daumke, Philipp; Schulz, Stefan; Klar, Rüdiger; Hahn, Udo

    2007-01-01

    We propose an approach to multilingual medical document retrieval in which complex word forms are segmented according to medically relevant morpho-semantic criteria. At its core lies a multilingual dictionary, in which entries are equivalence classes of subwords, i.e. semantically minimal units. Using two different standard test collections for the medical domain, we evaluate our approach for six languages covered by our system. PMID:17911746

  17. Hyperspectral range imaging for transportation systems evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bridgelall, Raj; Rafert, J. B.; Atwood, Don; Tolliver, Denver D.

    2016-04-01

    Transportation agencies expend significant resources to inspect critical infrastructure such as roadways, railways, and pipelines. Regular inspections identify important defects and generate data to forecast maintenance needs. However, cost and practical limitations prevent the scaling of current inspection methods beyond relatively small portions of the network. Consequently, existing approaches fail to discover many high-risk defect formations. Remote sensing techniques offer the potential for more rapid and extensive non-destructive evaluations of the multimodal transportation infrastructure. However, optical occlusions and limitations in the spatial resolution of typical airborne and space-borne platforms limit their applicability. This research proposes hyperspectral image classification to isolate transportation infrastructure targets for high-resolution photogrammetric analysis. A plenoptic swarm of unmanned aircraft systems will capture images with centimeter-scale spatial resolution, large swaths, and polarization diversity. The light field solution will incorporate structure-from-motion techniques to reconstruct three-dimensional details of the isolated targets from sequences of two-dimensional images. A comparative analysis of existing low-power wireless communications standards suggests an application dependent tradeoff in selecting the best-suited link to coordinate swarming operations. This study further produced a taxonomy of specific roadway and railway defects, distress symptoms, and other anomalies that the proposed plenoptic swarm sensing system would identify and characterize to estimate risk levels.

  18. Pollen-inferred quantitative reconstructions of Holocene land-cover in NW Europe for the evaluation of past climate-vegetation feedbacks -Evaluation of the REVEALS-based reconstruction using the Czech Republic database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazier, Florence; Kuneš, Petr; Sugita, Shinya; Trondman, Anna-Kari; Broström, Anna; Gaillard, Marie-José

    2010-05-01

    Quantitative estimates of land-cover changes during the Holocene have become increasingly important for a better understanding of the earth surface-atmosphere feedbacks, and refining climate models. The LANDCLIM project and research network (sponsored by the Swedish [VR] and Nordic [NordForsk] Research Councils) aim to quantify human-induced changes in regional vegetation and land-cover in NW Europe during the Holocene in order to evaluate the effects of these changes on the regional climate through altered feedbacks (see Gaillard et al. CL 1.22). We use the REVEALS model (Sugita 2007) to estimate the percentage cover of groups of taxa (Plant Functional Types - PFTs) from fossil pollen data at the 1o x 1o scale for selected time windows of the Holocene with contrasting human-induced land-cover (0-100 cal BP, 100-350 cal BP, 350-700 cal BP, 2700-3200 cal BP and 5700-6200 cal BP). The past cover of PFTs will be compared with the outputs of the LPJ-GUESS, a widely-used dynamic vegetation model, and applied as an alternative to the simulated LPG-GUESS vegetation to run the regional climate model RCA3 for the past. Parameters required for REVEALS applications are: raw pollen counts from well-dated pollen sites, pollen productivity estimates (PPEs), fall speed of pollen (FSP), and site size. PPEs and FSP are currently available for 34 taxa in NW Europe (Broström et al, 2008). Large sites (> 100-500 ha) are preferable for estimating regional vegetation composition using REVEALS. However, pollen data from large sites are limited, and bogs and mires have been often used, particularly in mountainous areas. In this study, we use pollen data (Kuneš et al, 2009) from variously-sized sites in each 1°x1° grid cells in the Czech and Slovak Republics. Different methodological alternatives are tested in order to evaluate their impact on the REVEALS-based estimates of the regional vegetation: 1) basin type (lakes or bogs), 2) number of taxa (with or without entomophilous taxa), 3

  19. An Evaluation Framework for EU Research and Development e-Health Projects' Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mavridis, Androklis; Katriou, Stamatia-Ann; Koumpis, Adamantios

    Over the past years it has become evident that an evaluation system was necessary for the European Research and Competitive funded projects which are large and complex structures needing constant monitoring. This is especially so for e-Health projects. The race to complete assignments means that this area is usually neglected. A proposed framework for the evaluation of R & D project systems using ATAM, ISO 14598 and ISO 9126 standards is presented. The evaluation framework covers a series of steps which ensures that the offered system satisfies quality, attributes such as operability, usability and maintainability imposed by the end users. The main advantage of this step by step procedure is that faults in the architecture, software or prototype can be recognised early in the development phase and corrected more rapidly. The system has a common set of attributes against which the various project’s deliverables are assessed.

  20. Radioactivity measurement of primordial radionuclides in and dose evaluation from marble and glazed tiles used as covering building materials in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Turhan, Ş; Varinlioğlu, A

    2012-09-01

    Measurements of the natural radioactivity arising from primordial radionuclides ((226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K) in marble and glazed tile samples used covering building materials in Turkey were carried out by gamma-ray spectrometer with a high purity germanium detector. The mean activity concentrations of the (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in marble and glazed tile samples were found as 8.2, 5.5 and 58.1 Bq kg(-1) and 81.2, 65.4 and 450.1 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The radiation doses received by occupants of buildings in which the sample marble and glazed tiles might be used are estimated using measured activity concentrations of constituent primordial radionuclides and dose conversion factors evaluated by the European Commission from models of tile use. Results obtained are presented for each radionuclide, analysed and compared with relevant national and international legislation, guidance and report, and with the results obtained from other studies. Results show that the use of such decorative building materials in the construction of domestic homes or workplaces in Turkey is unlikely to lead to any significant radiation exposure to the occupants. PMID:22492819