Science.gov

Sample records for evaluating microhabitat selection

  1. Female stickleback prefer shallow males: Sexual selection on nest microhabitat.

    PubMed

    Bolnick, Daniel I; Shim, Kum Chuan; Brock, Chad D

    2015-06-01

    Sexual selection is most often thought of as acting on organismal traits, such as size or color. However, individuals' habitat use may also affect mating success. Here, we show that, in threespine stickleback, nest depth can be a target of sexual selection. In postglacial lakes in British Columbia, male threespine stickleback nest in a narrow range of depths. Prior studies revealed heritable variation in males' preferred nest microhabitat. We surveyed four natural populations, finding that male stickleback with shallower nests were more successful at breeding. Indeed, nest depth was a much stronger predictor of male mating success than more commonly studied targets of sexual selection in stickleback (size, condition, shape, color, infection status). This selection on nest depth means that variance in fitness changed predictably across microhabitats, altering the opportunity for sexual selection to act on other traits. Accordingly, we show that sexual selection on other male traits is strongest where variance in nesting success is highest (at intermediate nest depths in some lakes). We conclude that males' choice of nesting microhabitat is an especially important target of sexual selection, resulting in fine-scale spatial variation in sexual selection on other traits. PMID:25958935

  2. Indirect Selection for Antibiotic Resistance in Multiple Stream Microhabitats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, M. S.; Peltier, G. L.; McArthur, J.

    2005-05-01

    One aspect challenging public health efforts to minimize the spread of antibiotic resistance (AR) is the prevalence of resistant bacteria in the environment. Anthropogenic-derived sources of selection are typically implicated as mechanisms for maintaining AR in the environment. Here we report an additional mechanism for maintaining AR in the environment through co- or cross-resistance to heavy metals. Using culture-independent techniques, bacteria isolated from heavy-metal contaminated sites were more tolerant of antibiotics and metals compared to those bacteria from a reference site. This evidence supports our hypothesis that metal contamination directly selects for metal tolerant bacteria while indirectly selecting for antibiotic tolerant bacteria. Additionally, to assess how antibiotic- and metal-tolerance may be transported through a stream network, we studied antibiotic and metal-tolerance patterns over four months in bacteria collected from multiple stream microhabitats including water column, biofilm, sediment, and Corbicula fluminea (Asiatic clam) digestive tracts. Sediment bacteria were the most tolerant to antibiotics and metals, while bacteria from Corbicula were the least tolerant. Differences between these microhabitats may be important for predicting antibiotic resistance transfer and transport in stream environments. Further, temporal dynamics suggest that tolerance patterns within microhabitats are linked to physico-chemical characteristics of the stream.

  3. Microhabitat Selection by Marine Mesoconsumers in a Thermally Heterogeneous Habitat: Behavioral Thermoregulation or Avoiding Predation Risk?

    PubMed Central

    Vaudo, Jeremy J.; Heithaus, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    Habitat selection decisions by consumers has the potential to shape ecosystems. Understanding the factors that influence habitat selection is therefore critical to understanding ecosystem function. This is especially true of mesoconsumers because they provide the link between upper and lower tropic levels. We examined the factors influencing microhabitat selection of marine mesoconsumers – juvenile giant shovelnose rays (Glaucostegus typus), reticulate whiprays (Himantura uarnak), and pink whiprays (H. fai) – in a coastal ecosystem with intact predator and prey populations and marked spatial and temporal thermal heterogeneity. Using a combination of belt transects and data on water temperature, tidal height, prey abundance, predator abundance and ray behavior, we found that giant shovelnose rays and reticulate whiprays were most often found resting in nearshore microhabitats, especially at low tidal heights during the warm season. Microhabitat selection did not match predictions derived from distributions of prey. Although at a course scale, ray distributions appeared to match predictions of behavioral thermoregulation theory, fine-scale examination revealed a mismatch. The selection of the shallow nearshore microhabitat at low tidal heights during periods of high predator abundance (warm season) suggests that this microhabitat may serve as a refuge, although it may come with metabolic costs due to higher temperatures. The results of this study highlight the importance of predators in the habitat selection decisions of mesoconsumers and that within thermal gradients, factors, such as predation risk, must be considered in addition to behavioral thermoregulation to explain habitat selection decisions. Furthermore, increasing water temperatures predicted by climate change may result in complex trade-offs that might have important implications for ecosystem dynamics. PMID:23593501

  4. Microhabitat selection by marine mesoconsumers in a thermally heterogeneous habitat: behavioral thermoregulation or avoiding predation risk?

    PubMed

    Vaudo, Jeremy J; Heithaus, Michael R

    2013-01-01

    Habitat selection decisions by consumers has the potential to shape ecosystems. Understanding the factors that influence habitat selection is therefore critical to understanding ecosystem function. This is especially true of mesoconsumers because they provide the link between upper and lower tropic levels. We examined the factors influencing microhabitat selection of marine mesoconsumers - juvenile giant shovelnose rays (Glaucostegus typus), reticulate whiprays (Himantura uarnak), and pink whiprays (H. fai) - in a coastal ecosystem with intact predator and prey populations and marked spatial and temporal thermal heterogeneity. Using a combination of belt transects and data on water temperature, tidal height, prey abundance, predator abundance and ray behavior, we found that giant shovelnose rays and reticulate whiprays were most often found resting in nearshore microhabitats, especially at low tidal heights during the warm season. Microhabitat selection did not match predictions derived from distributions of prey. Although at a course scale, ray distributions appeared to match predictions of behavioral thermoregulation theory, fine-scale examination revealed a mismatch. The selection of the shallow nearshore microhabitat at low tidal heights during periods of high predator abundance (warm season) suggests that this microhabitat may serve as a refuge, although it may come with metabolic costs due to higher temperatures. The results of this study highlight the importance of predators in the habitat selection decisions of mesoconsumers and that within thermal gradients, factors, such as predation risk, must be considered in addition to behavioral thermoregulation to explain habitat selection decisions. Furthermore, increasing water temperatures predicted by climate change may result in complex trade-offs that might have important implications for ecosystem dynamics. PMID:23593501

  5. Microhabitat Conditions in Wyoming's Sage-Grouse Core Areas: Effects on Nest Site Selection and Success.

    PubMed

    Dinkins, Jonathan B; Smith, Kurt T; Beck, Jeffrey L; Kirol, Christopher P; Pratt, Aaron C; Conover, Michael R

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to identify microhabitat characteristics of greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) nest site selection and survival to determine the quality of sage-grouse habitat in 5 regions of central and southwest Wyoming associated with Wyoming's Core Area Policy. Wyoming's Core Area Policy was enacted in 2008 to reduce human disturbance near the greatest densities of sage-grouse. Our analyses aimed to assess sage-grouse nest selection and success at multiple micro-spatial scales. We obtained microhabitat data from 928 sage-grouse nest locations and 819 random microhabitat locations from 2008-2014. Nest success was estimated from 924 nests with survival data. Sage-grouse selected nests with greater sagebrush cover and height, visual obstruction, and number of small gaps between shrubs (gap size ≥0.5 m and <1.0 m), while selecting for less bare ground and rock. With the exception of more small gaps between shrubs, we did not find any differences in availability of these microhabitat characteristics between locations within and outside of Core Areas. In addition, we found little supporting evidence that sage-grouse were selecting different nest sites in Core Areas relative to areas outside of Core. The Kaplan-Meier nest success estimate for a 27-day incubation period was 42.0% (95% CI: 38.4-45.9%). Risk of nest failure was negatively associated with greater rock and more medium-sized gaps between shrubs (gap size ≥2.0 m and <3.0 m). Within our study areas, Wyoming's Core Areas did not have differing microhabitat quality compared to outside of Core Areas. The close proximity of our locations within and outside of Core Areas likely explained our lack of finding differences in microhabitat quality among locations within these landscapes. However, the Core Area Policy is most likely to conserve high quality habitat at larger spatial scales, which over decades may have cascading effects on microhabitat quality available between areas within

  6. Seasonal meso- and microhabitat selection by the northern snakehead (Channa argus) in the Potomac river system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lapointe, N.W.R.; Thorson, J.T.; Angermeier, P.L.

    2010-01-01

    The northern snakehead (Channa argus) is a large piscivorous fish that is invasive in eastern Europe and has recently been introduced in North America. We examined the seasonal habitat selection at meso- and microhabitat scales using radio-telemetry to increase understanding of the ecology of this species, which will help to inform management decisions. After the spawning season (postspawn season, September-November), northern snakeheads preferred offshore Eurasian water-milfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum) beds with shallow water (115 cm) and soft substrate. In the winter (November-April), these fish moved to deeper water (135 cm) with warmer temperatures, but habitat selection was weak at both scales. Northern snakeheads returned to shallower water (95 cm) in the prespawn season (April-June) and used milfoil and other cover. Habitat selection was the strongest at both meso- and microhabitat scales during the spawning season (June-September), when fish preferred macrophytes and cover in shallow water (88 cm). Our results help to identify habitats at the risk of invasion by northern snakeheads. We suggest that control efforts and future research focus on shallow waters, and take into consideration the seasonal habitat preferences. ?? 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  7. Seasonal meso- and microhabitat selection by the northern snakehead (Channa argus) in the Potomac river system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lapointe, N.W.R.; Thorson, J.T.; Angermeier, P.L.

    2010-01-01

     The northern snakehead (Channa argus) is a large piscivorous fish that is invasive in eastern Europe and has recently been introduced in North America. We examined the seasonal habitat selection at meso- and microhabitat scales using radio-telemetry to increase understanding of the ecology of this species, which will help to inform management decisions. After the spawning season (postspawn season, September–November), northern snakeheads preferred offshore Eurasian water-milfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum) beds with shallow water (∼115 cm) and soft substrate. In the winter (November–April), these fish moved to deeper water (∼135 cm) with warmer temperatures, but habitat selection was weak at both scales. Northern snakeheads returned to shallower water (∼95 cm) in the prespawn season (April–June) and used milfoil and other cover. Habitat selection was the strongest at both meso- and microhabitat scales during the spawning season (June–September), when fish preferred macrophytes and cover in shallow water (∼88 cm). Our results help to identify habitats at the risk of invasion by northern snakeheads. We suggest that control efforts and future research focus on shallow waters, and take into consideration the seasonal habitat preferences.

  8. Seasonal variation in microhabitat of salamanders: environmental variation or shift of habitat selection?

    PubMed

    Lunghi, Enrico; Manenti, Raoul; Ficetola, Gentile Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Relationships between species and their habitats are not always constant. Different processes may determine changes in species-habitat association: individuals may prefer different habitat typologies in different periods, or they may be forced to occupy a different habitat in order to follow the changing environment. The aim of our study was to assess whether cave salamanders change their habitat association pattern through the year, and to test whether such changes are determined by environmental changes or by changes in preferences. We monitored multiple caves in Central Italy through one year, and monthly measured biotic and abiotic features of microhabitat and recorded Italian cave salamanders distribution. We used mixed models and niche similarity tests to assess whether species-habitat relationships remain constant through the year. Microhabitat showed strong seasonal variation, with the highest variability in the superficial sectors. Salamanders were associated to relatively cold and humid sectors in summer, but not during winter. Such apparent shift in habitat preferences mostly occurred because the environmental gradient changed through the year, while individuals generally selected similar conditions. Nevertheless, juveniles were more tolerant to dry sectors during late winter, when food demand was highest. This suggests that tolerance for suboptimal abiotic conditions may change through time, depending on the required resources. Differences in habitat use are jointly determined by environmental variation through time, and by changes in the preferred habitat. The trade-offs between tolerance and resources requirement are major determinant of such variation. PMID:26290788

  9. Color perception influences microhabitat selection of refugia and affects monitoring success for a cryptic anuran species.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Bradley S; MacKenzie, Michelle L; Maerz, John C; Farrell, Christopher B; Castleberry, Steven B

    2016-10-01

    Perceptual-biases are important for understanding an animal's natural history, identifying potential ecological traps, and for developing effective means to monitor individuals and populations. Despite research demonstrating anurans having a positive phototactic response towards blue colors, we do not yet understand if color cues are used functionally beyond sexual selection. The aim of our study was to determine if color cues are used in selecting microhabitat, and if anuran's blue-positive phototactic response could increase selection of artificial PVC refugia used to monitor cryptic camouflaging anuran species. We captured 32 Cope's Gray Treefrogs and placed them in mesh enclosures with three PVC tubes painted blue, brown, and white. Concurrently, we placed blue, brown, or unpainted white PVC tubes in stratified arrays around a treefrog breeding pond, and counted the number of occasions treefrogs occupied different colored PVC tubes. In the confined choice experiment, treefrogs selected blue tubes (48.3%) significantly more often than brown (28.5%) or white (23.2%) tubes. Our field experiment mirrored these findings (52.0% of capture events in blue, 29.0% in brown, and 19.0% in unpainted white tubes). Our results suggest color influences Cope's Gray Treefrog microhabitat selection, and they utilize color vision when choosing refugia. We demonstrate simple, small changes based on perceptual-biases can induce behaviors that may in turn have large impacts on sampling techniques used in monitoring and inventorying. Incorporating non-traditional physiological measures into animal inventorying and monitoring programs can be used in the future to improve conservation efforts. PMID:27235736

  10. Microhabitat selection, demography, and correlates of home range size for the King Rail (Rallus elegans)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pickens, Bradley A.; King, Sammy L.

    2013-01-01

    Animal movements and habitat selection within the home range, or microhabitat selection, can provide insights into habitat requirements, such as foraging and area requirements. The King Rail (Rallus elegans) is a wetland bird of high conservation concern in the United States, but little is known about its movements, habitats, or demography. King Rails (n = 34) were captured during the 2010–2011 breeding seasons in the coastal marshes of southwest Louisiana and southeast Texas. Radio telemetry and direct habitat surveys of King Rail locations were conducted to estimate home ranges and microhabitat selection. Within home ranges, King Rails selected for greater plant species richness and comparatively greater coverage of Phragmites australis, Typha spp., and Schoenoplectus robustus. King Rails were found closer to open water compared to random locations placed 50 m from King Rail locations. Home ranges (n = 22) varied from 0.8–32.8 ha and differed greatly among sites. Home range size did not vary by year or sex; however, increased open water, with a maximum of 29% observed in the study, was correlated with smaller home ranges. Breeding season cumulative survivorship was 89% ± 22% in 2010 and 61% ± 43% in 2011, which coincided with a drought. With an equal search effort, King Rail chicks and juveniles observed in May-June decreased from 110 in 2010 to only 16 in the drier year of 2011. The findings show King Rail used marsh with ≤ 29% open water and had smaller home ranges when open water was more abundant.

  11. Microhabitat selection of Discocotyle sagittata (Monogenea: Polyopisthocotylea) in farmed rainbow trout.

    PubMed

    Rubio-Godoy, Miguel

    2008-12-01

    Microhabitat preference of the monogenean Discocotyle sagittata (Leuckart, 1842) was determined in late spring and late autumn in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), reared in the Isle of Man, U.K. Discocotyle sagittata exhibits a preference for attachment to anterior gill arches: 29% of all worms occurred on gill arch I, 28% on II, 25% on III and 18% on IV. This distribution pattern on the introduced salmonid species is the same as reported for its native European host, the brown trout Salmo trutta (L.). Previous experimental work suggested that invasion is a passive process followed by post-invasion migration to anterior gill arches; the present work provides evidence of equivalent site selection taking place in fishes maintained under conditions promoting continuous reinfection in aquaculture. Migration may be density-dependent, since a significant inverse association was found between the intensity of mature parasites and their proportion on anteriormost gill arch I. PMID:19175205

  12. Microhabitat Conditions in Wyoming’s Sage-Grouse Core Areas: Effects on Nest Site Selection and Success

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Jeffrey L.; Kirol, Christopher P.; Pratt, Aaron C.; Conover, Michael R.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to identify microhabitat characteristics of greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) nest site selection and survival to determine the quality of sage-grouse habitat in 5 regions of central and southwest Wyoming associated with Wyoming’s Core Area Policy. Wyoming’s Core Area Policy was enacted in 2008 to reduce human disturbance near the greatest densities of sage-grouse. Our analyses aimed to assess sage-grouse nest selection and success at multiple micro-spatial scales. We obtained microhabitat data from 928 sage-grouse nest locations and 819 random microhabitat locations from 2008–2014. Nest success was estimated from 924 nests with survival data. Sage-grouse selected nests with greater sagebrush cover and height, visual obstruction, and number of small gaps between shrubs (gap size ≥0.5 m and <1.0 m), while selecting for less bare ground and rock. With the exception of more small gaps between shrubs, we did not find any differences in availability of these microhabitat characteristics between locations within and outside of Core Areas. In addition, we found little supporting evidence that sage-grouse were selecting different nest sites in Core Areas relative to areas outside of Core. The Kaplan-Meier nest success estimate for a 27-day incubation period was 42.0% (95% CI: 38.4–45.9%). Risk of nest failure was negatively associated with greater rock and more medium-sized gaps between shrubs (gap size ≥2.0 m and <3.0 m). Within our study areas, Wyoming’s Core Areas did not have differing microhabitat quality compared to outside of Core Areas. The close proximity of our locations within and outside of Core Areas likely explained our lack of finding differences in microhabitat quality among locations within these landscapes. However, the Core Area Policy is most likely to conserve high quality habitat at larger spatial scales, which over decades may have cascading effects on microhabitat quality available between

  13. Consequences of least tern (Sternula antillarum) microhabitat nest-site selection on natural and mechanically constructed sandbars in the Missouri River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stucker, Jennifer H.; Buhl, Deborah A.; Sherfy, Mark H.

    2013-01-01

    Nest-habitat selection in colonial species has rarely been assessed at multiple spatial scales to evaluate its fitness consequences. Management for the federally endangered U.S. Interior population of Least Terns (Sternula antillarum) has focused on maintenance of breeding habitats, including mechanical construction of sandbars from dredged material. Least Terns are attracted to large areas of unvegetated substrate, yet small-scale habitat features are thought to trigger selection for nesting. We evaluated nest-scale habitat selection to determine (1) whether selection differs between constructed and natural sandbars and (2) the subsequent consequences of habitat selection on nest success. During 2006–2008, we examined 869 Least Tern nest sites on constructed and natural sandbars in the Missouri River for evidence of microhabitat selection at the nest in relation to habitat within the surrounding 3-m area. Least Tern nest sites had coarser and larger substrate materials at the nest, more debris, and less vegetation than the surrounding area. Nests in constructed habitats had a greater percentage of coarse substrates and less vegetation or debris than nests in naturally created habitats. Apparent nest success was 1.8× greater on constructed than on natural sandbars. Nest success was best predicted by models with two spatial scales of predictors, including substrates (nest) and vegetation and debris (nest or surrounding area). Our results indicate that Least Terns select nest microhabitat characteristics that are associated with wind- and water-scoured habitats, and that nest success increases when these habitats are selected.

  14. Microhabitat Selection by Three Common Bird Species of Montane Farmlands in Northern Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsiakiris, Rigas; Stara, Kalliopi; Pantis, John; Sgardelis, Stefanos

    2009-11-01

    Common farmland birds are declining throughout Europe; however, marginal farmlands that escaped intensification or land abandonment remain a haven for farmland species in some Mediterranean mountains. The purpose of this study is to identify the most important anthropogenic microhabitat characteristics for Red-Backed Shrike ( Lanius collurio), Corn Bunting ( Miliaria calandra) and Common Whitethroat ( Sylvia communis) in three such areas within the newly established Northern Pindos National Park. We compare land use structural and physiognomic characteristics of the habitat within 133 plots containing birds paired with randomly selected “non-bird” plots. Using logistic regression and classification-tree models we identify the specific habitat requirements for each of the three birds. The three species show a preference for agricultural mosaics dominated by rangelands with scattered shrub or short trees mixed with arable land. Areas with dikes and dirt roads are preferred by all three species, while the presence of fences and periodically burned bushes and hedges are of particular importance for Red-Backed Shrike. Across the gradient of vegetation density and height, M. calandra is mostly found in grasslands with few dwarf shrubs and short trees, S. communis in places with more dense and tall vegetation of shrub, trees and hedges, and L. collurio, being a typical bird of ecotones, occurs in both habitats and in intermediate situations. In all cases those requirements are associated with habitat features maintained either directly or indirectly by the traditional agricultural activities in the area and particularly by the long established extensive controlled grazing that prevent shrub expansion.

  15. Microhabitat selection by bobcats in the badlands and Black Hills of South Dakota, USA: a comparison of Prairie and forested habitats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mosby, Cory E.; Grovenburg, Troy W.; Klaver, Robert W.; Schroeder, Greg M.; Schmitz, Lowell E.; Jenks, Jonathan A.

    2012-01-01

    An understanding of habitat selection is important for management of wildlife species. Although bobcat (Lynx rufus) resource selection has been addressed in many regions of the United States, little work has been conducted in the Northern Great Plains. From 2006–2008 we captured and radiocollared 20 bobcats in the Badlands (n = 10) and Black Hills (n = 10) regions of South Dakota. During the summers of 2008 and 2009 we collected habitat measurements at 349 (176 Badlands, 176 Black Hills) bobcat locations and 321 (148 Badlands, 173 Black Hills) random sites. Microhabitat characteristics at bobcat use sites varied with region (P < 0.001) and sex of bobcat (P < 0.001). Percent slope, shrub, low cover, medium cover, and total cover were greater (P ≤ 0.017) at bobcat locations in the Black Hills than in the Badlands whereas distance to drainage was greater (P < 0.001) at locations in the Badlands than in the Black Hills. In the Badlands, male bobcat locations were closer (P ≤ 0.002) to prairie dog towns and drainages and had greater (P < 0.05) percent forbs and forb height than random sites, whereas females were closer to badland formations (P < 0.001) than random sites. In the Black Hills, male locations were at greater elevation (P < 0.001) and female locations were characterized by greater (P ≤ 0.02) grass height, shrub height, low cover, and total cover than random sites. Logistic regression indicated that microhabitat selection was similar between study areas; odds ratios indicated that odds of bobcat use increased by 0.998 (95% CI = 0.997–0.999) per 1 m increase in distance to drainage, 0.986 (95% CI = 0.978–0.993) per 1.0% increase in grass cover, by 1.024 (95% CI = 1.011–1.036) per 1 cm increase in grass height, by 1.013 (95% CI = 1.003–1.024) per 1% increase in forb cover, and by 1.028 (95% CI = 1.017–1.039) per 1% increase in medium cover. Our results were similar to other bobcat microhabitat selection studies, where bobcat relocations were

  16. SMALL MAMMAL USE OF MICROHABITAT REVIEWED

    EPA Science Inventory

    Small mammal microhabitat research has greatly influenced vertebrate community ecologists. There exists a "microhabitat paradigm" that states that sympatry among small mammal species is enabled by differential use of microhabitat (i.e., microhabitat partitioning). However, seve...

  17. Weather-dependent microhabitat use by Tetrix tenuicornis (Orthoptera: Tetrigidae).

    PubMed

    Musiolek, David; Kočárek, Petr

    2016-08-01

    For ectothermic animals, selection of a suitable microhabitat is affected by a combination of abiotic and biotic factors. Also important is the trade-off between those microhabitats with optimal microclimatic conditions and food availability vs. those with the lowest level of competition and lowest risk of predation. Central European species of groundhoppers (Orthoptera: Tetrigidae) live in locations with small-scale mosaics of patches formed by bare ground, moss cushions and vascular plants (grasses and forbs). Our research focused on the effects of selected weather components (current temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure and sunlight) on specific microhabitat selection by adults (during the reproductive season) and by the last-instar nymphs (during the non-reproductive season) of the groundhopper Tetrix tenuicornis. Using experimental conditions, we determined that microhabitat use by T. tenuicornis is sex-specific and that microhabitat preference differs between adults and nymphs. We suppose that microhabitats are used according to groundhopper current needs in relation to each habitat's suitability for maintaining body temperature, food intake and reproductive behaviour. Microhabitat preferences were significantly associated with temperature and atmospheric pressure. Changes in atmospheric pressure signal changes in weather, and insects respond to increases or decreases in pressure by adjusting their behaviour in order to enhance survival. We propose that, under low atmospheric pressure, T. tenuicornis actively seeks microhabitats that provide increased protection from adverse weather. PMID:27437707

  18. Description, microhabitat selection and infection patterns of sealworm larvae (Pseudoterranova decipiens species complex, nematoda: ascaridoidea) in fishes from Patagonia, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    . Most of the sealworms were collected encapsulated from the muscles and, to a lesser degree, from the mesenteries and the liver. Conclusions We provided the first molecular identification, morphological description and microhabitat characterization of sealworm larvae from the Argentinean Patagonian coast. We also reported the infection levels of sealworms on 20 fish species in order to elucidate the life cycle of these nematodes in this area. PMID:23988009

  19. Daily Movements and Microhabitat Selection of Hantavirus Reservoirs and Other Sigmodontinae Rodent Species that Inhabit a Protected Natural Area of Argentina.

    PubMed

    Maroli, Malena; Vadell, María Victoria; Iglesias, Ayelén; Padula, Paula Julieta; Gómez Villafañe, Isabel Elisa

    2015-09-01

    Abundance, distribution, movement patterns, and habitat selection of a reservoir species influence the dispersal of zoonotic pathogens, and hence, the risk for humans. Movements and microhabitat use of rodent species, and their potential role in the transmission of hantavirus were studied in Otamendi Natural Reserve, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Movement estimators and qualitative characteristics of rodent paths were determined by means of a spool and line device method. Sampling was conducted during November and December 2011, and March, April, June, October, and December 2012. Forty-six Oxymycterus rufus, 41 Akodon azarae, 10 Scapteromys aquaticus and 5 Oligoryzomys flavescens were captured. Movement patterns and distances varied according to sex, habitat type, reproductive season, and body size among species. O. flavescens, reservoir of the etiologic agent of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in the region, moved short distances, had the most linear paths and did not share paths with other species. A. azarae had an intermediate linearity index, its movements were longer in the highland grassland than in the lowland marsh and the salty grassland, and larger individuals traveled longer distances. O. rufus had the most tortuous paths and the males moved more during the non-breeding season. S. aquaticus movements were associated with habitat type with longer distances traveled in the lowland marsh than in the salty grassland. Hantavirus antibodies were detected in 20% of A. azarae and were not detected in any other species. Seropositive individuals were captured during the breeding season and 85% of them were males. A. azarae moved randomly and shared paths with all the other species, which could promote hantavirus spillover events. PMID:26063039

  20. MICROHABITAT REVIEWED: ANALYSIS OF A PARADIGM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Small mammal microhabitat partitioning research has greatly influenced vertebrate community ecologists. It is not a stretch to assert that there exists a 'microhabitat paradigm' among small mammal specialists; sympatry among small mammal species is enabled by differential use of...

  1. Swine: Selection and Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

    Designed for secondary vocational agriculture students, this text provides an overview of selecting and evaluating swine in Future Farmers of America livestock judging events. The first of four major sections addresses topics such as the main points in evaluating market hogs and breeding swine and provides an example class of swine. Section 2,…

  2. Interactive effects of interspecific competition and microhabitat on early post-settlement survival in a coral reef fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonin, M. C.; Srinivasan, M.; Almany, G. R.; Jones, G. P.

    2009-03-01

    Microhabitat type and the competition for microhabitats can each influence patterns of abundance and mortality in coral reef fish communities; however, the effect of microhabitat on the intensity and outcome of competition is not well understood. In Kimbe Bay, Papua New Guinea, surveys were used to quantify microhabitat use and selectivity in two live-coral specialist damselfishes (Pomacentridae), Chrysiptera parasema, and Dascyllus melanurus. A patch reef experiment was then conducted to test how intra- and interspecific competition interacts with two types of microhabitat to influence survival of recently settled C. parasema. Surveys demonstrated that C. parasema and D. melanurus recruits utilized similar coral microhabitats; 72% of C. parasema and 85% of D. melanurus used corymbose and bottlebrush growth forms of Acropora. One microhabitat type, Pocillopora sp. coral, was commonly used by D. melanurus but rarely by C. parasema. The patch reef experiment revealed that both microhabitat and interspecific competition influence abundance of recently settled C. parasema. Microhabitat had the strongest influence on survival of C. parasema. In the absence of interspecific competitors, ~85% of C. parasema survived for 5 days after transplantation to high-complexity bottlebrush Acropora reefs when compared to only 25% survival of Pocillopora reefs. In both microhabitats, interspecific competition with D. melanurus, but not intraspecific competition, significantly decreased the survival of C. parasema. Taken together, these results suggest that the observed distribution of C. parasema results from specialized microhabitat requirements and competition for space in those microhabitats. This study demonstrates that interspecific competition and microhabitat type can interact to influence early post-settlement survival in coral reef fishes, though, whether and how these factors influence survival will depend on the behavioural attributes and strength of habitat associations

  3. The Importance of Microhabitat for Biodiversity Sampling

    PubMed Central

    Mehrabi, Zia; Slade, Eleanor M.; Solis, Angel; Mann, Darren J.

    2014-01-01

    Responses to microhabitat are often neglected when ecologists sample animal indicator groups. Microhabitats may be particularly influential in non-passive biodiversity sampling methods, such as baited traps or light traps, and for certain taxonomic groups which respond to fine scale environmental variation, such as insects. Here we test the effects of microhabitat on measures of species diversity, guild structure and biomass of dung beetles, a widely used ecological indicator taxon. We demonstrate that choice of trap placement influences dung beetle functional guild structure and species diversity. We found that locally measured environmental variables were unable to fully explain trap-based differences in species diversity metrics or microhabitat specialism of functional guilds. To compare the effects of habitat degradation on biodiversity across multiple sites, sampling protocols must be standardized and scale-relevant. Our work highlights the importance of considering microhabitat scale responses of indicator taxa and designing robust sampling protocols which account for variation in microhabitats during trap placement. We suggest that this can be achieved either through standardization of microhabitat or through better efforts to record relevant environmental variables that can be incorporated into analyses to account for microhabitat effects. This is especially important when rapidly assessing the consequences of human activity on biodiversity loss and associated ecosystem function and services. PMID:25469770

  4. Microhabitat of small mammals at ground and understorey levels in a deciduous, southern Atlantic forest.

    PubMed

    Melo, Geruza L; Miotto, Barbara; Peres, Brisa; Cáceres, Nilton C

    2013-01-01

    Each animal species selects specific microhabitats for protection, foraging, or micro-climate. To understand the distribution patterns of small mammals on the ground and in the understorey, we investigated the use of microhabitats by small mammals in a deciduous forest of southern Brazil. Ten trap stations with seven capture points were used to sample the following microhabitats: liana, fallen log, ground litter, terrestrial ferns, simple-trunk tree, forked tree, and Piper sp. shrubs. Seven field phases were conducted, each for eight consecutive days, from September 2006 through January 2008. Four species of rodents (Akodon montensis, Sooretamys angouya, Oligoryzomys nigripes and Mus musculus) and two species of marsupials (Didelphis albiventris and Gracilinanus microtarsus) were captured. Captured species presented significant differences on their microhabitat use (ANOVA, p = 0.003), particularly between ground and understorey sites. Akodon montensis selected positively terrestrial ferns and trunks, S. angouya selected lianas, D. albiventris selected fallen trunks and Piper sp., and G. microtarsus choose tree trunks and lianas. We demonstrated that the local small-mammal assemblage does select microhabitats, with different types of associations between species and habitats. Besides, there is a strong evidence of habitat selection in order to diminish predation. PMID:23828340

  5. The influence of microhabitat on the population dynamics of four herbaceous species in a semiarid area of northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, K A; Santos, J M F F; Andrade, J R; Lima, E N; Albuquerque, U P; Ferraz, E M N; Araújo, E L

    2016-02-01

    Variation in annual rainfall is considered the most important factor influencing population dynamics in dry environments. However, different factors may control population dynamics in different microhabitats. This study recognizes that microhabitat variation may attenuate the influence of climatic seasonality on the population dynamics of herbaceous species in dry forest (Caatinga) areas of Brazil. We evaluated the influence of three microhabitats (flat, rocky and riparian) on the population dynamics of four herbaceous species (Delilia biflora, Commelina obliqua, Phaseolus peduncularis and Euphorbia heterophylla) in a Caatinga (dry forest) fragment at the Experimental Station of the Agronomic Research Institute of Pernambuco in Brazil, over a period of three years. D. biflora, C. obliqua and P. peduncularis were found in all microhabitats, but they were present at low densities in the riparian microhabitat. There was no record of E. heterophylla in the riparian microhabitat. Population size, mortality rates and natality rates varied over time in each microhabitat. This study indicates that different establishment conditions influenced the population size and occurrence of the four species, and it confirms that microhabitat can attenuate the effect of drought stress on mortality during the dry season, but the strength of this attenuator role may vary with time and species. PMID:26909622

  6. Ontogenetic Microhabitat Shifts in the Bullhead, Cottus gobio L.,in a Fast Flowing Stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legalle, Milène; Mastrorillo, Sylvain; Santoul, Frédéric; Céréghino, Régis

    2005-06-01

    We investigated differences in microhabitat preference curves for bullheads, Cottus gobio L., of different size-classes during low flow periods, and evaluated the influence of such differences on habitat use through Weighted Usable Area (WUA) predictions in relation to river flow in a piedmont stream in Southwest France. Water depth, current velocity, and substratum composition were used to calculate proportional use values for each size-class (SC), and to quantify size-specific microhabitat preferences. Bullhead used non-cohesive and coarse mineral particles (pebbles, cobbles, boulders), but there was a spatial segregation of individuals from different size classes (SC1-SC4). Smaller bullhead (SC1, total length <60 mm) took refuge under cobbles, significantly preferred shallower areas, and were less prone to select high current velocities than larger bullhead (SC 2 to 4, >60 mm), the latter occurring below (or under) the largest particles, where current velocity is weakened and sand accumulates. SC1 bullhead had a more restricted range for each habitat descriptors, and were thus likely to require a more specific habitat type than other bullhead. The maximum WUA values and the related preferred discharges (0.15-0.75 m3 s-1) depended on the considered size-class. Our results suggest that ontogenetic niche shifts may play a role in the structure and dynamics of populations, by adjusting species' requirements to the spatial and temporal dynamics of environmental conditions, including abiotic and biotic conditions.

  7. Daily microhabitat shifting of solitarious-phase Desert locust adults: implications for meaningful population monitoring.

    PubMed

    Maeno, Koutaro Ould; Ould Ely, Sidi; Nakamura, Satoshi; Abdellaoui, Khemais; Cissé, Sory; Jaavar, Mohamed El Hacen; Ould Mohamed, Sid'Ahmed; Atheimine, Mohamed; Ould Babah, Mohamed Abdallahi

    2016-01-01

    The Desert locust Schistocerca gregaria is a major world pest that causes substantial agricultural and economic damage. Effective pest control relies on effective monitoring, which requires knowledge of locust microhabitat selection. Yet little is known about microhabitat selection of solitarious adult locusts in the field. We conducted field surveys to investigate fine-scale diel temporal and spatial distributions of solitarious adults in the Sahara Desert in Mauritania, a major breeding and recession area. We found that solitarious adults moved among different, specific microhabitats throughout the 24-h period in a cyclical manner. At night, they roosted in trees, moved to the ground to feed shortly after dawn, sheltered in low vegetation during the hot midday, and returned to the ground in the late afternoon. Hence, they switched microhabitats and plant species throughout each day. These cyclical daily movements among diverse microhabitats and specific plant species were correlated with time of day, light intensity, temperature, humidity, and specific plant species, and may relate to anti-predator defence, thermoregulation, and feeding. The present study suggests that locust monitoring should be adjusted, based on time of day, locust age, phase state and relative abundance of specific plant species. For example, we recommend surveying ground after morning and trees at night, for solitarious adults, when at low density. PMID:26877905

  8. Selection: Evaluation and methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Procedures to collect and to analyze data for genetic improvement of dairy cattle are described. Methods of identification and milk recording are presented. Selection traits include production (milk, fat, and protein yields and component percentages), conformation (final score and linear type traits...

  9. Beef Cattle: Selection and Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

    Designed for secondary vocational agriculture students, this text provides an overview of selecting and evaluating beef cattle in Future Farmers of America livestock judging events. The first of four major sections addresses topics such as the ideal beef animal, selecting steers, selecting breeding animals, studying the animal systematically, and…

  10. Microhabitat and body size effects on heat tolerance: implications for responses to climate change (army ants: Formicidae, Ecitoninae).

    PubMed

    Baudier, Kaitlin M; Mudd, Abigail E; Erickson, Shayna C; O'Donnell, Sean

    2015-09-01

    1. Models that predict organismal and population responses to climate change may be improved by considering ecological factors that affect species thermal tolerance. Species differences in microhabitat use can expose animals to diverse thermal selective environments at a given site and may cause sympatric species to evolve different thermal tolerances. 2. We tested the hypothesis that species differences in body size and microhabitat use (above- vs. below-ground activity) would correspond to differences in thermal tolerance (maximum critical temperatures: CTmax ). Thermal buffering effects of soil can reduce exposure to extreme high temperatures for below-ground active species. We predicted larger-bodied individuals and species would have higher CTmax and that species mean CTmax would covary positively with degree of above-ground activity. We used Neotropical army ants (Formicidae: Ecitoninae) as models. Army ants vary in microhabitat use from largely subterranean to largely above-ground active species and are highly size polymorphic. 3. We collected data on above- and below-ground temperatures in habitats used by army ants to test for microhabitat temperature differences, and we conducted CTmax assays for army ant species with varying degrees of surface activity and with different body sizes within and between species. We then tested whether microhabitat use was associated with species differences in CTmax and whether microhabitat was a better predictor of CTmax than body size for species that overlapped in size. 4. Microhabitat use was a highly significant predictor of species' upper thermal tolerance limits, both for raw data and after accounting for the effects of phylogeny. Below-ground species were more thermally sensitive, with lower maximum critical temperatures (CTmax ). The smallest workers within each species were the least heat tolerant, but the magnitude of CTmax change with body size was greater in below-ground species. Species-typical microhabitat

  11. Exploring the nature of ecological specialization in a coral reef fish community: morphology, diet and foraging microhabitat use.

    PubMed

    Brandl, Simon J; Robbins, William D; Bellwood, David R

    2015-09-22

    Patterns of ecological specialization offer invaluable information about ecosystems. Yet, specialization is rarely quantified across several ecological niche axes and variables beyond the link between morphological and dietary specialization have received little attention. Here, we provide a quantitative evaluation of ecological specialization in a coral reef fish assemblage (f. Acanthuridae) along one fundamental and two realized niche axes. Specifically, we examined ecological specialization in 10 surgeonfish species with regards to morphology and two realized niche axes associated with diet and foraging microhabitat utilization using a recently developed multidimensional framework. We then investigated the potential relationships between morphological and behavioural specialization. These relationships differed markedly from the traditional ecomorphological paradigm. While morphological specialization showed no relationship with dietary specialization, it exhibited a strong relationship with foraging microhabitat specialization. However, this relationship was inverted: species with specialized morphologies were microhabitat generalists, whereas generalized morphotypes were microhabitat specialists. Interestingly, this mirrors relationships found in plant-pollinator communities and may also be applicable to other ecosystems, highlighting the potential importance of including niche axes beyond dietary specialization into ecomorphological frameworks. On coral reefs, it appears that morphotypes commonly perceived as most generalized may, in fact, be specialized in exploiting flat and easily accessible microhabitats. PMID:26354935

  12. MODELING SNAKE MICROHABITAT FROM RADIOTELEMETRY STUDIES USING POLYTOMOUS LOGISTIC REGRESSION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Multivariate analysis of snake microhabitat has historically used techniques that were derived under assumptions of normality and common covariance structure (e.g., discriminant function analysis, MANOVA). In this study, polytomous logistic regression (PLR which does not require ...

  13. Microhabitat and shrimp abundance within a Norwegian cold-water coral ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purser, A.; Ontrup, J.; Schoening, T.; Thomsen, L.; Tong, R.; Unnithan, V.; Nattkemper, T. W.

    2013-09-01

    Cold-water coral (CWC) reefs are heterogeneous ecosystems comprising numerous microhabitats. A typical European CWC reef provides various biogenic microhabitats (within, on and surrounding colonies of coral species such as Lophelia pertusa, Paragorgia arborea and Primnoa resedaeformis, or formed by their remains after death). These microhabitats may be surrounded and intermixed with non-biogenic microhabitats (soft sediment, hard ground, gravel/pebbles, steep walls). To date, studies of distribution of sessile fauna across CWC reefs have been more numerous than those investigating mobile fauna distribution. In this study we quantified shrimp densities associated with key CWC microhabitat categories at the Røst Reef, Norway, by analysing image data collected by towed video sled in June 2007. We also investigated shrimp distribution patterns on the local scale (<40 cm) and how these may vary with microhabitat. Shrimp abundances at the Røst Reef were on average an order of magnitude greater in biogenic reef microhabitats than in non-biogenic microhabitats. Greatest shrimp densities were observed in association with live Paragorgia arborea microhabitat (43 shrimp m-2, SD = 35.5), live Primnoa resedaeformis microhabitat (41.6 shrimp m-2, SD = 26.1) and live Lophelia pertusa microhabitat (24.4 shrimp m-2, SD = 18.6). In non-biogenic microhabitat, shrimp densities were <2 shrimp m-2. CWC reef microhabitats appear to support greater shrimp densities than the surrounding non-biogenic microhabitats at the Røst Reef, at least at the time of survey.

  14. Turnkey CAD/CAM selection and evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moody, T.

    1980-01-01

    The methodology to be followed in evaluating and selecting a computer system for manufacturing applications is discussed. Main frames and minicomputers are considered. Benchmark evaluations, demonstrations, and contract negotiations are discussed.

  15. Genetics | Selection: Evaluation and Methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The procedures used for collecting and analyzing data for genetic improvement of dairy cattle are described. Methods of identification and milk recording are presented. Selection traits include production (milk, fat, and protein yields and component percentages), conformation (final score and linear...

  16. Characterisation of microhabitat quality of different biochars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnee, Laura; Eickhorst, Thilo; Koehler, Hartmut; Otten, Wilfred

    2015-04-01

    Biochar is considered a promising means both to improve soil fertility and sequester carbon from the atmosphere. The former is being achieved by improving soil physico-chemical properties as microhabitat provision and thereby favorably impacting soil community structure and functions. However, contradicting results have been found regarding biochars' direct impact on soil microbial communities, indicating great specificity of every biochar and great heterogeneity within defined biochar samples in terms of physico-chemical properties influencing microbial colonisation. Habitable pore space, C content and degree of condensation and functionality and charge of surfaces are considered important parameters determining whether a piece of biochar is subject to autochthonous colonisation processes or not. Of these, the systematic investigation of habitable pore space is of crucial importance for the understanding of microbial colonisation potential. For example, larger pores are more prone to dehydration whilst smaller pores exhibit a higher water retention against drainage but may be less colonisable by (micro-)organisms due to size limitations. Biochar reflects plant anatomic structure and macro- and mesopores originate from tracheal and tracheid tissue well connected by perforations for the purpose of symplastic pressure release at high water potentials. These remain unchanged by the pyrolitic process. Nanopores, however, are the result of condensation induced crack formation and can be regarded as locally single and sparsely connected events. Furthermore anatomic structures differ between plant families and are considered to be most evident in the comparison between grass-derived and wood-derived biochars. Biochars derived from wood and Miscanthus are investigated after 3 years of aging under outdoor conditions with respect to microorganisms present on the char surface. Biochar pieces are resin impregnated and subjected to µ-CT scanning. µ-CT is a very promising

  17. Microhabitat heterogeneity across leaves and flower organs promotes bacterial diversity.

    PubMed

    Junker, Robert R; Keller, Alexander

    2015-09-01

    Eukaryote-associated microbiomes interact with their hosts in multiple manners, thereby affecting the hosts' phenotype, physical condition and behaviour. In plants, bacteria have numerous functions, with variable net effects, both in natural and agricultural systems. However, information about the composition and diversity of the bacterial communities associated with different aboveground plant organs, particularly flowers, is lacking. In addition, the relative effects of microhabitat and environmental conditions on community establishment require further attention. Here, using culture-independent methods, we determine that leaves and three floral microhabitats (nectar, stamina and styles) of Metrosideros polymorpha (Myrtaceae), a tree endemic to Hawai'i, host unique indicator communities composed of relatively abundant bacterial taxa. These indicator communities are accompanied by a large number of ubiquitous or rare bacteria with lower abundances. In our study system, the strong effect of microhabitat filtering on plant-associated community composition and bacterial richness and diversity strongly exceeds the influence of environmental effects such as precipitation, altitude, substrate age and geographic distance. Thus, the bacterial richness of aboveground plant organs is strongly underestimated when only one microhabitat, e.g. leaves, is considered. Our study represents a first step towards a comprehensive characterization of the distribution, composition and underlying factors, of plant bacterial communities, with implications for future basic and applied research on plant health, pollination and reproduction. PMID:26253507

  18. Repeated adaptive divergence of microhabitat specialization in avian feather lice

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Repeated adaptive radiations are evident when phenotypic divergence occurs within lineages, but this divergence into different forms is convergent when compared across lineages. Classic examples of such repeated adaptive divergence occur in island (for example, Caribbean Anolis lizards) and lake systems (for example, African cichlids). Host-parasite systems in many respects are analogous to island systems, where host species represent isolated islands for parasites whose life cycle is highly tied to that of their hosts. Thus, host-parasite systems might exhibit interesting cases of repeated adaptive divergence as seen in island and lake systems. The feather lice of birds spend their entire life cycle on the body of the host and occupy distinct microhabitats on the host: head, wing, body and generalist. These microhabitat specialists show pronounced morphological differences corresponding to how they escape from host preening. We tested whether these different microhabitat specialists were a case of repeated adaptive divergence by constructing both morphological and molecular phylogenies for a diversity of avian feather lice, including many examples of head, wing, body and generalist forms. Results Morphological and molecular based phylogenies were highly incongruent, which could be explained by rampant convergence in morphology related to microhabitat specialization on the host. In many cases lice from different microhabitat specializations, but from the same group of birds, were sister taxa. Conclusions This pattern indicates a process of repeated adaptive divergence of these parasites within host group, but convergence when comparing parasites across host groups. These results suggest that host-parasite systems might be another case in which repeated adaptive radiations could be relatively common, but potentially overlooked, because morphological convergence can obscure evolutionary relationships. PMID:22717002

  19. CD-ROM Disk Selection and Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foulds, M. S.; Foulds, L. R.

    1990-01-01

    Reviews the literature dealing with the selection and evaluation of CD-ROM discs. Materials described include printed directories, product directories in journals, and reported methods of disc evaluation. Existing reviews of CD-ROM products are also cited, including reviews of databases, dictionaries and directories, products for library technical…

  20. Short Delay in Timing of Emergence Determines Establishment Success in Pinus sylvestris across Microhabitats

    PubMed Central

    CASTRO, JORGE

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims The date of emergence may have far-reaching implications for seedling performance. Seedlings emerging early in the growing season often have a greater rate of survival or grow better if early emergence provides advantages with respect to an environmental cue. As a result, the benefits of early emergence may be lost if the environmental stress creating the differences among cohorts disappears. The experimental manipulation under field conditions of the factors that constitute the main sources of stress for seedling establishment is thus a straightforward method to evaluate the impact of date of emergence on seedling establishment under realistic conditions. • Methods Two field experiments were performed to analyse the effect of emergence date on survival and first-year growth of Scots pine seedlings in natural mountain forests in south-east Spain. Two main environmental factors that determine seedling success in these mountains were considered: (1) microhabitat type (monitoring the effect of date of emergence in the three most common microhabitats where seedlings recruit); (2) summer drought (monitored by an irrigation treatment with control and watered sampling points). • Key Results Overall, early emergence resulted in a higher probability of survival and better growth in the two experiments and across microhabitats. However, the reduction in summer drought did not diminish the differences observed among cohorts: all cohorts increased their survival and growth, but early cohorts still had a clear advantage. • Conclusions Date of emergence determines establishment success of Pinus sylvestris seedlings, even if cohorts are separated by only a few days, irrespective of the intensity of summer drought. The experimental design, covering a gradient of light intensity and soil moisture that simulates conditions of the regeneration niche of Scots pine across its geographical range, allows the results to be extrapolated to other areas of the

  1. Evaluating, Selecting, and Using Appropriate Assistive Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galvin, Jan C.; Scherer, Marcia J.

    This book addresses all aspects of assistive technology for individuals with disabilities, including policy, legislation, funding, evaluation, selection, and maintenance. Ten of the 15 chapters are written by individuals with disabilities and cover topics related to the use of technology in education, employment, and play. Specific chapters…

  2. Patterns in young-of-year smallmouth bass microhabitat use in multiple stream segments with contrasting land uses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brewer, Shannon K.

    2011-01-01

    Young-of-the-year (YOY) smallmouth bass, Micropterus dolomieu Lacepede, were evaluated in streams from eight catchments with two contrasting land uses to determine their use of microhabitats under a variety of stream conditions. Step-wise discriminant function analyses revealed patterns of habitat use by discriminating used from available microhabitat conditions. Velocity was significant in 88% of streams sampled, whereas depth was significant in only the smallest stream in the forest-dominated catchments and 75% of stream segments located in pasture-dominated catchments. Mean velocities used by YOY bass were lower than available velocities, and mean depths used were greater than mean availability in all cases. Substrata varied significantly with availability in different stream segments. Error rates associated with classification ranged from 5 to 39%. Results indicate that YOY smallmouth bass are somewhat opportunistic, but use low-velocity habitats in most cases and deeper water when streams are impacted by pasture land use and associated physical changes.

  3. Temperature Characterization of Different Urban Microhabitats of Aedes albopictus (Diptera Culicidae) in Central-Northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Vallorani, Roberto; Angelini, Paola; Bellini, Romeo; Carrieri, Marco; Crisci, Alfonso; Mascali Zeo, Silvia; Messeri, Gianni; Venturelli, Claudio

    2015-08-01

    Aedes albopictus (Skuse) is an invasive mosquito species that has spread to many countries in temperate regions bordering the Mediterranean basin, where it is becoming a major public health concern. A good knowledge of the thermal features of the most productive breeding sites for Ae. albopictus is crucial for a better estimation of the mosquitoes' life cycle and developmental rates. In this article, we address the problem of predicting air temperature in three microhabitats common in urban and suburban areas and the air and water temperature inside an ordinary catch basin, which is considered the most productive breeding site for Ae. albopictus in Italy. Temperature differences were statistically proven between the three microhabitats and between the catch basin external and internal temperature. The impacts on the developmental rates for each life stage of Ae. albopictus were tested through a parametric function of the temperature, and the aquatic stages resulted as being the most affected using the specific temperature inside a typical catch basin instead of a generic air temperature. The impact of snow cover on the catch basin internal temperature, and consequently on the mortality of diapausing eggs, was also evaluated. These data can be useful to improve epidemiological models for a better prediction of Ae. albopictus seasonal and population dynamics in central-northern Italian urban areas. PMID:26314064

  4. Microhabitat differences impact phylogeographic concordance of codistributed species: genomic evidence in montane sedges (Carex L.) from the Rocky Mountains.

    PubMed

    Massatti, Rob; Knowles, L Lacey

    2014-10-01

    By selecting codistributed, closely related montane sedges from the Rocky Mountains that are similar in virtually all respects but one-their microhabitat affinities-we test predictions about how patterns of genetic variation are expected to differ between Carex nova, an inhabitant of wetlands, and Carex chalciolepis, an inhabitant of drier meadows, slopes, and ridges. Although contemporary populations of the taxa are similarly isolated, the distribution of glacial moraines suggests that their past population connectedness would have differed. Sampling of codistributed population pairs from different mountain ranges combined with the resolution provided by over 24,000 single nucleotide polymorphism loci supports microhabitat-mediated differences in the sedges' patterns of genetic variation that are consistent with their predicted differences in the degree of isolation of ancestral source populations. Our results highlight how microhabitat preferences may interact with glaciations to produce fundamental differences in the past distributions of presently codistributed species. We discuss the implications of these findings for generalizing the impacts of climate-induced distributional shifts for communities, as well as for the prospects of gaining insights about species-specific deterministic processes, not just deterministic community-level responses, from comparative phylogeographic study. PMID:25041894

  5. Patterns of small mammal microhabitat utilization in cedar glade and deciduous forest habitats

    SciTech Connect

    Seagle, S.W.

    1985-01-01

    Differential microhabitat use by the small mammals inhabiting a cedar glade and a deciduous forest was investigated using discriminant function analysis of 30 structural parameters measured around the capture site of each animal. Ochrotomys nuttalli and Peromyscus leucopus utilize different microhabitats in the cedar glade, as do Blarina brevicauda and P. leucopus in the deciduous forest. P. leucopus was found to be a microhabitat generalist in the deciduous forest and a specialist in the cedar glade, whereas O. nuttalli and B. bravicauda were a microhabitat generalist and specialist, respectively. The sexes of P. leucopus were found to occupy different microhabitats in the deciduous forest but not in the cedar glade. Female P. leucopus occupied microhabitat with better protective cover in the deciduous forest. Comparisons of microhabitats used by the two species captured in each habitat with a random microhabitat sample and trap sites at which no animals were captured indicate that each habitat is a complex matrix of microhabitats, some of which are used by small mammals and some of which are not. 24 references, 5 figures, 5 tables.

  6. Influence of nursery microhabitats on the future abundance of a coral reef fish.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Shaun K; Depczynski, Martial; Fulton, Christopher J; Holmes, Thomas H; Radford, Ben T; Tinkler, Paul

    2016-08-17

    Species habitat associations are often complex, making it difficult to assess their influence on populations. Among coral reef fishes, habitat requirements vary among species and with ontogeny, but the relative importance of nursery and adult-preferred habitats on future abundances remain unclear. Moreover, adult populations may be influenced by recruitment of juveniles and assessments of habitat importance should consider relative effects of juvenile abundance. We conducted surveys across 16 sites and 200 km of reef to identify the microhabitat preferences of juveniles, sub-adults and adults of the damselfish Pomacentrus moluccensis Microhabitat preferences at different life-history stages were then combined with 6 years of juvenile abundance and microhabitat availability data to show that the availability of preferred juvenile microhabitat (corymbose corals) at the time of settlement was a strong predictor of future sub-adult and adult abundance. However, the influence of nursery microhabitats on future population size differed spatially and at some locations abundance of juveniles and adult microhabitat (branching corals) were better predictors of local populations. Our results demonstrate that while juvenile microhabitats are important nurseries, the abundance of coral-dependent fishes is not solely dependent on these microhabitats, especially when microhabitats are readily available or following large influxes of juveniles. PMID:27534954

  7. 13 CFR 108.2006 - Evaluation and selection of SSBICs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Evaluation and selection of SSBICs... Companies and SSBICs § 108.2006 Evaluation and selection of SSBICs. SBA will evaluate and select an SSBIC... as an SSBIC. SBA's evaluation and selection process is intended to ensure that SSBIC requests...

  8. Evaluation of methods for identifying spawning sites and habitat selection for alosines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harris, Julianne E.; Hightower, Joseph E.

    2010-01-01

    Characterization of riverine spawning habitat is important for the management and restoration of anadromous alosines. We examined the relative effectiveness of oblique plankton tows and spawning pads for collecting the eggs of American shad Alosa sapidissima, hickory shad A. mediocris, and “river herring” (a collective term for alewife A. pseudoharengus and blueback herring A. aestivalis) in the Roanoke River, North Carolina. Relatively nonadhesive American shad eggs were only collected by plankton tows, whereas semiadhesive hickory shad and river herring eggs were collected by both methods. Compared with spawning pads, oblique plankton tows had higher probabilities of collecting eggs and led to the identification of longer spawning periods. In assumed spawning areas, twice-weekly plankton sampling for 15 min throughout the spawning season had a 95% or greater probability of collecting at least one egg for all alosines; however, the probabilities were lower in areas with more limited spawning. Comparisons of plankton tows, spawning pads, and two other methods of identifying spawning habitat (direct observation of spawning and examination of female histology) suggested differences in effectiveness and efficiency. Riverwide information on spawning sites and timing for all alosines is most efficiently obtained by plankton sampling. Spawning pads and direct observations of spawning are the best ways to determine microhabitat selectivity for appropriate species, especially when spawning sites have previously been identified. Histological examination can help determine primary spawning sites but is most useful when information on reproductive biology and spawning periodicity is also desired. The target species, riverine habitat conditions, and research goals should be considered when selecting methods with which to evaluate alosine spawning habitat.

  9. Lunar resource evaluation and mine site selection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bence, A. Edward

    1992-01-01

    Two scenarios in this evaluation of lunar mineral resources and the selection of possible mining and processing sites are considered. The first scenario assumes that no new surface or near-surface data will be available before site selection (presumably one of the Apollo sites). The second scenario assumes that additional surface geology data will have been obtained by a lunar orbiter mission, an unmanned sample return mission (or missions), and followup manned missions. Regardless of the scenario, once a potentially favorable mine site has been identified, a minimum amount of fundamental data is needed to assess the resources at that site and to evaluate its suitability for mining and downstream processing. Since much of the required data depends on the target mineral(s), information on the resource, its beneficiation, and the refining, smelting, and fabricating processes must be factored into the evaluation. The annual capacity and producing lifetime of the mine and its associated processing plant must be estimated before the resource reserves can be assessed. The available market for the product largely determines the capacity and lifetime of the mine. The Apollo 17 site is described as a possible mining site. The use of new sites is briefly addressed.

  10. Fission Products Evaluation for the Selected Nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Y.D.; Chang, J.H.

    2005-05-24

    The neutron cross sections of 19 selected high-priority nuclei were evaluated in the fast energy region. The calculation was compared with the CSISRS experimental data and the ENDF files. Evaluation procedures included an optical-model parameter search, followed by complete nuclear reaction model calculations with parameters validated against experimental data. A spherical and deformed optical model, MSC and MSD, pre-equilibrium exiton, and Hauser-Feshbach with a width fluctuation were used in the EMPIRE code. A considerable improvement was achieved for most of the nuclei cases. The results were merged with the resonance parameters (adopted in ENDF/B-VI.8). The final files were submitted to ENDF/B-VII for review.

  11. Microhabitats of benthic foraminifera within deep-sea sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corliss, Bruce H.

    1985-04-01

    Benthic foraminifera are protozoans found throughout the deep-sea environment, secreting a test of calcium carbonate or constructing a test of cemented sediment particles (agglutinated or arenaceous foraminifera). In typical deep-sea sediments, the organic cement of agglutinated taxa degrades upon burial in the sediment and, consequently, few specimens survive in the fossil record. In contrast, calcareous species are well preserved in most oceanic sediments, except at abyssal depths where most carbonate sediment is dissolved because of high levels of carbonate under-saturation of the bottom waters. Although benthic foraminifera have been widely used in studies of Cenozoic palaeoceanography, little is known about the ecology of deep-sea species. I present here an analysis of living (stained) benthic foraminifera within the upper 15 cm of deep-sea sediments, which reveals species-specific microhabitat preferences, with distinct morphological features found with epifaunal and infaunal species. The existence of infaunal habitats suggests that the distribution of certain foraminifera is not directly controlled by overlying bottom-water conditions, but by physicochemical conditions within the sediments. The microhabitat preferences may also explain interspecific carbon isotope differences, as existing data show that infaunal foraminifera generally have lower δ13C isotope values than epifaunal species.

  12. Microhabitats occupied by Myxomycetes in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest: Heliconiaceae inflorescences.

    PubMed

    Cavalcanti, L H; Ferreira, I N; Bezerra, A C C; Costa, A A A

    2015-11-01

    The occurrence of Myxomycetes in Heliconia psittacorum L.f. inflorescences was researched within four conservation units located in Northeast Brazil, aiming at evaluating the occupation of this microhabitat in fragments of Atlantic Forest along an altitude between 30-750 m. Inflorescences attached to the plant were examined; dead flowers and bracts were collected to assemble moist chambers (368). Four families, four genera and 10 species were recorded. A preference was evidenced for a basic pH substrate and a predominance of calcareous species (5:1). The composition of the myxobiota in fragments pertaining to altitudes above 400 m was similar and differed significantly from the one found in fragments of lowland forests (<100 m). Physarum compressum and Arcyria cinerea are the most characteristic species of the studied myxobiota. PMID:26628227

  13. Comparative evaluation of pelvic allograft selection methods.

    PubMed

    Bousleiman, Habib; Paul, Laurent; Nolte, Lutz-Peter; Reyes, Mauricio

    2013-05-01

    This paper presents a firsthand comparative evaluation of three different existing methods for selecting a suitable allograft from a bone storage bank. The three examined methods are manual selection, automatic volume-based registration, and automatic surface-based registration. Although the methods were originally published for different bones, they were adapted to be systematically applied on the same data set of hemi-pelvises. A thorough experiment was designed and applied in order to highlight the advantages and disadvantages of each method. The methods were applied on the whole pelvis and on smaller fragments, thus producing a realistic set of clinical scenarios. Clinically relevant criteria are used for the assessment such as surface distances and the quality of the junctions between the donor and the receptor. The obtained results showed that both automatic methods outperform the manual counterpart. Additional advantages of the surface-based method are in the lower computational time requirements and the greater contact surfaces where the donor meets the recipient. PMID:23299829

  14. Journal club: screen, select, probe & evaluate.

    PubMed

    Kanthraj, G R; Srinivas, C R

    2005-01-01

    Postgraduate dermatology training programs like seminars, panel discussions, and case presentations help residents to acquire knowledge. Journal club (JC) exercises help residents to update themselves with the current literature. What article a resident should choose and how a resident should evaluate and analyze an article or critically appraise a topic are issues that are most relevant for the success of a JC. Little guidance is available in the biomedical literature on how to deal with such issues. The objective of this article is to provide guidance to neophytes on dealing with JC exercises in a way that helps them in learning the critical appraisal skills. A review of the literature and of the author's experience in JC exercises will be presented. Knowing the methodology of rapid screening of articles along with the art of evaluating them, coupled with a sound knowledge of epidemiology and bio-statistics, helps a resident to select appropriate articles and discard poorly conceived or designed topics that may not generate interest in JC attendees. Hence, such an approach helps the resident in acquiring new knowledge in the shortest time. Choosing the right topic and then applying the newly obtained information to clinical practice, participants succeed in making the JC a valuable learning experience. Further, such well-formatted JCs help residents to improve the quality of health care delivered to patients. PMID:16394494

  15. 12 CFR 1807.800 - Evaluation and selection-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Evaluation and selection-general. 1807.800 Section 1807.800 Banks and Banking COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FUND, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CAPITAL MAGNET FUND Evaluation and Selection of Applications § 1807.800 Evaluation and...

  16. 12 CFR 1807.800 - Evaluation and selection-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Evaluation and selection-general. 1807.800 Section 1807.800 Banks and Banking COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FUND, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CAPITAL MAGNET FUND Evaluation and Selection of Applications § 1807.800 Evaluation and...

  17. 12 CFR 1807.800 - Evaluation and selection-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Evaluation and selection-general. 1807.800 Section 1807.800 Banks and Banking COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FUND, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CAPITAL MAGNET FUND Evaluation and Selection of Applications § 1807.800 Evaluation and...

  18. 12 CFR 1807.800 - Evaluation and selection-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Evaluation and selection-general. 1807.800 Section 1807.800 Banks and Banking COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FUND, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CAPITAL MAGNET FUND Evaluation and Selection of Applications § 1807.800 Evaluation and...

  19. 7 CFR 4290.340 - Evaluation and selection-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... distribution of Developmental Venture Capital investments. ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evaluation and selection-general. 4290.340 Section... (âRBICâ) PROGRAM Evaluation and Selection of RBICs § 4290.340 Evaluation and selection—general....

  20. Microhabitat Use by Trichoptera in a Lake Erie Coastal Wetland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, C. M.; Keiper, J.

    2005-05-01

    We examined the differences in microhabitat use by caddisfly (Trichoptera) adults at a Lake Erie coastal wetlands complex in northwestern Ohio. Light traps were employed in three vegetative zones; a Pontedaria stand, a submerged willow/cottonwood forest, and an adjacent open water area. We used concealed UV lights inside of replicate traps (n = 4 per habitat), attracting only caddisflies near the habitat, that were run May, June, and September 2004. Analysis of the data revealed differences in adult abundance between habitats and months for some taxa. Principal components analyses run at the level of genera and species showed that sites cluster by habitat type and by month, suggesting differences occur temporally and spatially but not exclusively of each other. ANOVA reveals statistical differences between habitats and months for the most common taxa. Hydroptilidae, including Agraylea multipunctata, Orthotrichia aegerfasciella, and Oxyethira pallida, were the most abundant taxa contributing approximately 90% of samples depending on vegetative zone. Information on the microscale preferences of adult caddisflies indicates potential habitat specificity. This may aid managers who decide which habitats within wetlands to conserve based on productivity and unique potential contribution of insect taxa.

  1. Microhabitat choice in island lizards enhances camouflage against avian predators.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Kate L A; Philpot, Kate E; Stevens, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Camouflage can often be enhanced by genetic adaptation to different local environments. However, it is less clear how individual behaviour improves camouflage effectiveness. We investigated whether individual Aegean wall lizards (Podarcis erhardii) inhabiting different islands rest on backgrounds that improve camouflage against avian predators. In free-ranging lizards, we found that dorsal regions were better matched against chosen backgrounds than against other backgrounds on the same island. This suggests that P. erhardii make background choices that heighten individual-specific concealment. In achromatic camouflage, this effect was more evident in females and was less distinct in an island population with lower predation risk. This suggests that behavioural enhancement of camouflage may be more important in females than in sexually competing males and related to predation risk. However, in an arena experiment, lizards did not choose the background that improved camouflage, most likely due to the artificial conditions. Overall, our results provide evidence that behavioural preferences for substrates can enhance individual camouflage of lizards in natural microhabitats, and that such adaptations may be sexually dimorphic and dependent on local environments. This research emphasizes the importance of considering links between ecology, behaviour, and appearance in studies of intraspecific colour variation and local adaptation. PMID:26804463

  2. Microhabitat choice in island lizards enhances camouflage against avian predators

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Kate L. A.; Philpot, Kate E.; Stevens, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Camouflage can often be enhanced by genetic adaptation to different local environments. However, it is less clear how individual behaviour improves camouflage effectiveness. We investigated whether individual Aegean wall lizards (Podarcis erhardii) inhabiting different islands rest on backgrounds that improve camouflage against avian predators. In free-ranging lizards, we found that dorsal regions were better matched against chosen backgrounds than against other backgrounds on the same island. This suggests that P. erhardii make background choices that heighten individual-specific concealment. In achromatic camouflage, this effect was more evident in females and was less distinct in an island population with lower predation risk. This suggests that behavioural enhancement of camouflage may be more important in females than in sexually competing males and related to predation risk. However, in an arena experiment, lizards did not choose the background that improved camouflage, most likely due to the artificial conditions. Overall, our results provide evidence that behavioural preferences for substrates can enhance individual camouflage of lizards in natural microhabitats, and that such adaptations may be sexually dimorphic and dependent on local environments. This research emphasizes the importance of considering links between ecology, behaviour, and appearance in studies of intraspecific colour variation and local adaptation. PMID:26804463

  3. Disentangling the visual cues used by a jumping spider to locate its microhabitat.

    PubMed

    Tedore, Cynthia; Johnsen, Sönke

    2016-08-01

    Many arthropod species have evolved to thrive only on the leaves of a particular species of plant, which they must be capable of finding in order to survive accidental displacement, developmental transitions or the changing of the seasons. A number of studies have tested whether such species select leaves to land or oviposit on based on their color, shape or size. Unfortunately, many studies did not control for correlates of these characters, such as the brightness of different colors, the areas of different shapes, and the level of ambient illumination in the vicinity of different sizes of leaves. In the present study, we tested for leaf color, shape and size preferences in a leaf-dwelling jumping spider (Lyssomanes viridis) with known summer and winter host plants, while controlling for these correlates. First, color preferences were tested outdoors under the natural illumination of their forest habitat. Lyssomanes viridis did not prefer to perch on a green substrate compared with various shades of gray, but did prefer the second darkest shade of gray we presented them with. Of the green and gray substrates, this shade of gray's integrated photon flux (350-700 nm), viewed from below, i.e. the spider's perspective in the arena, was the most similar to that of real leaves. This relationship also held when we weighted the transmitted photon flux by the jumping spiders' green photopigment spectral sensitivity. Spiders did not prefer the star-like leaf shape of their summer host plant, Liquidambar styraciflua, to a green circle of the same area. When given a choice between a L. styraciflua leaf-shaped stimulus that was half the area of an otherwise identical alternative, spiders preferred the larger stimulus. However, placing a neutral density filter over the side of the experimental arena with the smaller stimulus abolished this preference, with spiders then being more likely to choose the side of the arena with the smaller stimulus. In conclusion, L. viridis

  4. Patterns in young-of-year smallmouth bass microhabitat use in multiple stream segments with contrasting land uses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brewer, S.K.

    2011-01-01

    Young-of-the-year (YOY) smallmouth bass, Micropterus dolomieu Lacep??de, were evaluated in streams from eight catchments with two contrasting land uses to determine their use of microhabitats under a variety of stream conditions. Step-wise discriminant function analyses revealed patterns of habitat use by discriminating used from available microhabitat conditions. Velocity was significant in 88% of streams sampled, whereas depth was significant in only the smallest stream in the forest-dominated catchments and 75% of stream segments located in pasture-dominated catchments. Mean velocities used by YOY bass were lower than available velocities, and mean depths used were greater than mean availability in all cases. Substrata varied significantly with availability in different stream segments. Error rates associated with classification ranged from 5 to 39%. Results indicate that YOY smallmouth bass are somewhat opportunistic, but use low-velocity habitats in most cases and deeper water when streams are impacted by pasture land use and associated physical changes. Published 2011. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  5. University Evaluation-Selection: A Turkish Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamamoto, Gonca Telli

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine the university selection criteria of students for better university management with the use of marketing tools. Design/methodology/approach: This study consists of a survey on students attending a foundation university in Turkey. The questionnaire method has been chosen in order to determine the…

  6. 14 CFR 1274.209 - Evaluation and selection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evaluation and selection. 1274.209 Section 1274.209 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS WITH COMMERCIAL FIRMS Pre-Award Requirements § 1274.209 Evaluation and selection. (a)...

  7. 12 CFR 1805.700 - Evaluation and selection-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evaluation and selection-general. 1805.700 Section 1805.700 Banks and Banking COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FUND, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS PROGRAM Evaluation and Selection of...

  8. 12 CFR 1805.700 - Evaluation and selection-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Evaluation and selection-general. 1805.700 Section 1805.700 Banks and Banking COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FUND, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS PROGRAM Evaluation and Selection of...

  9. Sitting in the sun: Nest microhabitat affects incubation temperatures in seabirds.

    PubMed

    Hart, Lorinda A; Downs, Colleen T; Brown, Mark

    2016-08-01

    During incubation parent birds are committed to a nest site and endure a range of ambient conditions while regulating egg temperatures. Using artificial eggs containing temperature loggers alongside ambient temperature (Ta) controls, incubation profiles were determined for four tropical seabird species at different nest site locations. Camera traps were used for ad-hoc behavioural incubation observations. Eggs experienced a range of temperatures during incubation and varied significantly between species and in some cases between different microhabitats within a species. Such variation has important consequences in the phenotypic expression of both physical and physiological traits of chicks, and ultimately species fitness. Exposed nest sites were more strongly correlated to Tas. Camera traps highlighted different incubation strategies employed by these species that could be related to trade-offs in predator defence, feeding habits, and temperature regulation of eggs. This study provides evidence that species with similar breeding habits could be affected by environmental stressors in similar ways and that the differences shown in nest site selection could negate some of these effects. We propose that habitats providing suitable nest microclimates will become increasingly important for the successful breeding of seabird species, particularly under predicted climate change scenarios. PMID:27503727

  10. Evaluating and Selecting Sport Management Undergraduate Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuneen, Jacquelyn; Sidwell, M. Joy

    1998-01-01

    States that the accelerated growth of sport management undergraduate programs that began in the 1980s has continued into the current decade. There are currently 180 sport management major programs in American colleges and universities. Describes the sports management approval process and suggests useful strategies to evaluate sport management…

  11. Scanning a microhabitat: plant-microbe interactions revealed by confocal laser microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Cardinale, Massimiliano

    2014-01-01

    No plant or cryptogam exists in nature without microorganisms associated with its tissues. Plants as microbial hosts are puzzles of different microhabitats, each of them colonized by specifically adapted microbiomes. The interactions with such microorganisms have drastic effects on the host fitness. Since the last 20 years, the combination of microscopic tools and molecular approaches contributed to new insights into microbe-host interactions. Particularly, confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) facilitated the exploration of microbial habitats and allowed the observation of host-associated microorganisms in situ with an unprecedented accuracy. Here I present an overview of the progresses made in the study of the interactions between microorganisms and plants or plant-like organisms, focusing on the role of CLSM for the understanding of their significance. I critically discuss risks of misinterpretation when procedures of CLSM are not properly optimized. I also review approaches for quantitative and statistical analyses of CLSM images, the combination with other molecular and microscopic methods, and suggest the re-evaluation of natural autofluorescence. In this review, technical aspects were coupled with scientific outcomes, to facilitate the readers in identifying possible CLSM applications in their research or to expand their existing potential. The scope of this review is to highlight the importance of confocal microscopy in the study of plant-microbe interactions and also to be an inspiration for integrating microscopy with molecular techniques in future researches of microbial ecology. PMID:24639675

  12. Early Successional Microhabitats Allow the Persistence of Endangered Plants in Coastal Sand Dunes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Many species are adapted to disturbance and occur within dynamic, mosaic landscapes that contain early and late successional microhabitats. Human modification of disturbance regimes alters the availability of microhabitats and may affect the viability of species in these ecosystems. Because restoring historical disturbance regimes is typically expensive and requires action at large spatial scales, such restoration projects must be justified by linking the persistence of species with successional microhabitats. Coastal sand dune ecosystems worldwide are characterized by their endemic biodiversity and frequent disturbance. Dune-stabilizing invasive plants alter successional dynamics and may threaten species in these ecosystems. We examined the distribution and population dynamics of two federally endangered plant species, the annual Layia carnosa and the perennial Lupinus tidestromii, within a dune ecosystem in northern California, USA. We parameterized a matrix population model for L. tidestromii and examined the magnitude by which the successional stage of the habitat (early or late) influenced population dynamics. Both species had higher frequencies and L. tidestromii had higher frequency of seedlings in early successional habitats. Lupinus tidestromii plants in early successional microhabitats had higher projected rates of population growth than those associated with stabilized, late successional habitats, due primarily to higher rates of recruitment in early successional microhabitats. These results support the idea that restoration of disturbance is critical in historically dynamic landscapes. Our results suggest that large-scale restorations are necessary to allow persistence of the endemic plant species that characterize these ecosystems. PMID:25835390

  13. Early successional microhabitats allow the persistence of endangered plants in coastal sand dunes.

    PubMed

    Pardini, Eleanor A; Vickstrom, Kyle E; Knight, Tiffany M

    2015-01-01

    Many species are adapted to disturbance and occur within dynamic, mosaic landscapes that contain early and late successional microhabitats. Human modification of disturbance regimes alters the availability of microhabitats and may affect the viability of species in these ecosystems. Because restoring historical disturbance regimes is typically expensive and requires action at large spatial scales, such restoration projects must be justified by linking the persistence of species with successional microhabitats. Coastal sand dune ecosystems worldwide are characterized by their endemic biodiversity and frequent disturbance. Dune-stabilizing invasive plants alter successional dynamics and may threaten species in these ecosystems. We examined the distribution and population dynamics of two federally endangered plant species, the annual Layia carnosa and the perennial Lupinus tidestromii, within a dune ecosystem in northern California, USA. We parameterized a matrix population model for L. tidestromii and examined the magnitude by which the successional stage of the habitat (early or late) influenced population dynamics. Both species had higher frequencies and L. tidestromii had higher frequency of seedlings in early successional habitats. Lupinus tidestromii plants in early successional microhabitats had higher projected rates of population growth than those associated with stabilized, late successional habitats, due primarily to higher rates of recruitment in early successional microhabitats. These results support the idea that restoration of disturbance is critical in historically dynamic landscapes. Our results suggest that large-scale restorations are necessary to allow persistence of the endemic plant species that characterize these ecosystems. PMID:25835390

  14. Microhabitats in the tropics buffer temperature in a globally coherent manner.

    PubMed

    Scheffers, Brett R; Evans, Theodore A; Williams, Stephen E; Edwards, David P

    2014-12-01

    Vegetated habitats contain a variety of fine-scale features that can ameliorate temperate extremes. These buffered microhabitats may be used by species to evade extreme weather and novel climates in the future. Yet, the magnitude and extent of this buffering on a global scale remains unknown. Across all tropical continents and using 36 published studies, we assessed temperature buffering from within microhabitats across various habitat strata and structures (e.g. soil, logs, epiphytes and tree holes) and compared them to non-buffered macro-scale ambient temperatures (the thermal control). Microhabitats buffered temperature by 3.9 °C and reduced maximum temperatures by 3.5 °C. Buffering was most pronounced in tropical lowlands where temperatures were most variable. With the expected increase in extreme weather events, microhabitats should provide species with a local layer of protection that is not captured by traditional climate assessments, which are typically derived from macro-scale temperatures (e.g. satellites). Our data illustrate the need for a next generation of predictive models that account for species' ability to move within microhabitats to exploit favourable buffered microclimates. PMID:25540160

  15. An evaluation and selection problems of OSS-LMS packages.

    PubMed

    Abdullateef, Belal Najeh; Elias, Nur Fazidah; Mohamed, Hazura; Zaidan, A A; Zaidan, B B

    2016-01-01

    The evaluation and selection of inappropriate open source software in learning management system (OSS-LMS) packages adversely affect the business processes and functions of an organization. Thus, comprehensive insights into the evaluation and selection of OSS-LMS packages are presented in this paper on the basis of three directions. First, available OSS-LMSs are ascertained from published papers. Second, the criteria for evaluating OSS-LMS packages are specified.according to two aspects: the criteria are identified and established, followed by a crossover between them to highlight the gaps between the evaluation criteria for OSS-LMS packages and the selection problems. Third, the abilities of selection methods that appear fit to solve the problems of OSS-LMS packages based on the multi-criteria evaluation and selection problem are discussed to select the best OSS-LMS packages. Results indicate the following: (1) a list of active OSS-LMS packages; (2) the gaps on the evaluation criteria used for LMS and other problems (consisting of main groups with sub-criteria); (3) use of multi-attribute or multi-criteria decision-making (MADM/MCDM) techniques in the framework of the evaluation and selection of the OSS in education as recommended solutions. PMID:27064567

  16. Evaluation of selected environmental decision support software

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, T.M.; Moskowitz, P.D.; Gitten, M.

    1997-06-01

    Decision Support Software (DSS) continues to be developed to support analysis of decisions pertaining to environmental management. Decision support systems are computer-based systems that facilitate the use of data, models, and structured decision processes in decision making. The optimal DSS should attempt to integrate, analyze, and present environmental information to remediation project managers in order to select cost-effective cleanup strategies. The optimal system should have a balance between the sophistication needed to address the wide range of complicated sites and site conditions present at DOE facilities, and ease of use (e.g., the system should not require data that is typically unknown and should have robust error checking of problem definition through input, etc.). In the first phase of this study, an extensive review of the literature, the Internet, and discussions with sponsors and developers of DSS led to identification of approximately fifty software packages that met the preceding definition.

  17. 13 CFR 108.340 - Evaluation and selection-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Evaluation and Selection of NMVC Companies § 108.340 Evaluation and... Applicants in such a way as to promote Developmental Venture Capital investments nationwide and in both urban... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evaluation and...

  18. An evaluation of the selection process of hospital information systems.

    PubMed

    Thompson, A M

    1990-10-01

    This research study evaluates the selection process of a Hospital Information System (HIS), focusing on the level of compromise required by healthcare professionals during said process and the level of satisfaction achieved with the system selected. How other variables, such as job title, length of experience in the healthcare, data processing, and information systems fields affect these measured levels are also evaluated. Results of this study indicate that a HIS is critical to the viability of a hospital's operation and the level of compromises made during the selection process have an impact upon the how satisfied the healthcare provider is with the HIS they select. PMID:2094751

  19. Evaluation of Selected MR Pulse Sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Yong-Jin

    1990-01-01

    This research addressed four main areas of radiofrequency (rf) pulse programming: (1) correction of instrumentation errors in spin echo sequences by use of phase rolling of the rf pulses; (2) chemical shift imaging of water and lipid; (3) development of special pulse sequences for the measurement of phosphorus metabolites by ^ {31}P spectroscopy and lactate by ^1H spectroscopy; and (4) flow methods to measure and separate diffusion from perfusion. All experiments were performed on a horizontal 2.0T (superconducting magnet) 31-cm small-bore MR system. Computer programming and data analysis were performed on a PDP 11/84 computer system. 1. The effects of rf tips, dc and gain misadjustments in the rf spectrometer were evaluated for a series of MR images. Four different phase cycling schemes (FIXED, ALTERNATE, FORWARD, REVERSED) to suppress unwanted signal components such as mirror and ghost images were evaluated using two signal acquisitions. When the receiver phase factor is cycled counter-clockwise (REVERSED), these artifacts are completely removed. 2. A major problem common to all chemical shift imaging methods is static magnetic field non-uniformity. Four methods (Dixon's, CHESS, SECSI and modified CHESS-SECSI) were quantitatively evaluated for the measurement of water and fat content, which are separated by approximately 3.5 ppm, in in vivo biological tissues. It was demonstrated in phantoms that the modified CHESS+SECSI method gave superior results even without field shimming. 3. The development of new MR rf pulse sequences is essential in order to acquire specialized in vivo information concerning biologic metabolites. The time course of change in concentration of lactate and of phosphorus metabolites in human forearm muscle before and after exercise was determined. Lactate concentration returned to normal in 25 minutes after exercise. The Pi/PCr ratio was 0.25 before exercise, and increased to 0.5 at 4.5 minutes after exercise. 4. The fourth study involved the

  20. Evaluation of selected enzymes for thiamine determination.

    PubMed

    Defibaugh, P W

    1987-01-01

    Seven commercially available enzymes were studied for suitability as substitutes in the AOAC thiamine determination, because the enzyme Takadiastase used in the method has not been available since 1976, and alternative enzymes were likewise unavailable or unsuitable for releasing thiamine from its phosphate esters. Four factors (substrate ester, enzyme level, time/temperature, and pH) at 2 levels were studied in a 2(4) factorial arrangement of treatments. Data were expressed in terms of mean percentage conversion (MPC) and were statistically evaluated by analysis of variance. Significant main effects and any interactions among treatments were calculated. Takadiastase and alpha-amylase (Miles) with MPCs of 101 and 102, respectively, appeared effective in dephosphorylation within method parameters. Potato phosphatase appeared marginally suitable. Wheat germ phosphatase, alpha-amylase (Sigma), Mylase 100, and Clarase 40,000 were judged unacceptable as enzyme substitutes. PMID:3610965

  1. Dependence of juvenile reef fishes on semi-arid hypersaline estuary microhabitats as nurseries.

    PubMed

    Sales, N S; Dias, T L P; Baeta, A; Pessanha, A L M

    2016-07-01

    The differences between fish assemblages in three microhabitat types, in relation to vegetation and sediment characteristics of a hypersaline estuary located in an semi-arid zone in north-eastern Brazil, were investigated. Fishes were collected using a beach seine during the rainy and dry seasons in 2012. A total of 78 species were recorded, with the most common families being Gerreidae, Lutjanidae and Tetraodontidae. The majority of species were represented by juveniles, with Eucinostomus argenteus, Ulaema lefroyi and Sphoeroides greeleyi being the dominant species. The fish assemblage structures differed significantly among microhabitat types, with the narrow intertidal flat adjacent to the mangrove fringe supporting the most diverse fish fauna. In addition, only 27 species were common to all of the microhabitats. The results support the hypothesis that hypersaline estuaries serve as important nursery areas for various reef fish species, due to the structural complexity provided by their macroalgae beds and mangroves. PMID:27237742

  2. Distribution patterns and environmental correlates of water mites (Hydrachnidia, Acari) in peatland microhabitats.

    PubMed

    Więcek, Mariusz; Martin, Peter; Gąbka, Maciej

    2013-10-01

    In Europe peatlands are wetlands of postglacial origin. Because of climatic changes and agricultural activities (i.e. drainage and peat extraction), they are one of the most endangered ecosystems worldwide. Water mites are well known as indicators of changing environments in other ecosystems such as springs and lakes. For our study we selected seven peatlands located in North-Western Poland and focused on water mite distribution and associated habitat and water quality variables. We described water mite fauna in various microhabitats (aquatic and semiaquatic) along the mineral-richness gradient to test whether this gradient is reflected in the composition of water mite assemblages. We selected conductivity, pH and vegetation as variables reflecting the poor-rich gradient. Additionally, we measured water depth, temperature and dissolved oxygen, which are often important parameters for water mites. We also noted presence of prey and host taxa of particular water mite species. Based on physicochemical parameters we identified three types of habitats harbouring three distinctive species groups of water mites. We were able to distinguish species that appear to be typical of spring fens (e.g. Hygrobates norvegicus, Lebertia separata), connected with acidic, nutrient poor pools (e.g. Arrenurus neumani, A. pustulator) and species seemingly typical of temporary habitats dominated by Sphagnum mosses (e.g. Piersigia intermedia, Zschokkea oblonga, A. stecki). The poor-rich gradient is strongly reflected in the composition of water mite assemblages. We also found strong correlations between the water mite fauna and both conductivity and pH gradient. Our results show that water conductivity is the most important of the examined factors, driving mite-species distribution in peatlands. PMID:23564226

  3. 15 CFR 290.6 - Proposal evaluation and selection criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... CENTERS FOR THE TRANSFER OF MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY § 290.6 Proposal evaluation and selection criteria...? (i) Market analysis. Demonstrated understanding of the service region's manufacturing base, including.... Physical size, concentration of industry, and economic significance of the service region's...

  4. 12 CFR 1805.700 - Evaluation and selection-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Applicants that vary by institution type, total asset size, stage of organizational development, markets... Section 1805.700 Banks and Banking COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FUND, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS PROGRAM Evaluation and Selection of...

  5. 12 CFR 1805.700 - Evaluation and selection-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Applicants that vary by institution type, total asset size, stage of organizational development, markets... Section 1805.700 Banks and Banking COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FUND, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS PROGRAM Evaluation and Selection of...

  6. 12 CFR 1805.700 - Evaluation and selection-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Applicants that vary by institution type, total asset size, stage of organizational development, markets... Section 1805.700 Banks and Banking COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FUND, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS PROGRAM Evaluation and Selection of...

  7. Software Selection: A Primer on Source and Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burston, Jack

    2003-01-01

    Provides guidance on making decisions regarding the selection of foreign language instructional software. Identifies sources of foreign language software, indicates sources of foreign language software reviews, and outlines essential procedures of software evaluation. (Author/VWL)

  8. Seasonal shifts in shelter and microhabitat use of drymarchon couperi (eastern indigo snake) in Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hyslop, N.L.; Cooper, R.J.; Meyers, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Drymarchon couperi (Eastern Indigo Snake), a threatened species of the southeastern Coastal Plain of the United States, has experienced population declines because of extensive habitat loss and degradation across its range. In Georgia and northern Florida, the species is associated with longleaf pine habitats that support Gopherus polyphemus (Gopher Tortoise) populations, the burrows of which D. couperi uses for shelter. The extent that D. couperi uses these burrows, in addition to the use of other underground shelters and the microhabitat features associated with these structures is largely unknown. From 2003 through 2004, we conducted a radiotelemetry study of D. couperi (n = 32) to examine use of shelters and microhabitat in Georgia. We used repeated measures regression on a candidate set of models created from a priori hypotheses using principal component scores, derived from analysis of microhabitat data to examine microhabitat use at underground shelters. Proportion of locations recorded underground did not differ seasonally or between sexes. In winter, we recorded >0.90 of underground locations at tortoise burrows. Use of these burrows was less pronounced in spring for males. Females used abandoned tortoise burrows more frequently than males year-round and used them on approximately 0.60 of their underground locations during spring. Microhabitat use at underground shelters was most influenced by season compared to sex, site, or body size. Females in spring and summer used more open microhabitat compared to males, potentially in response to gestation. Our results suggest that the availability of suitable underground shelters, especially G. polyphemus burrows, may be a limiting factor in the northern range of D. couperi, with important implications for its conservation. ?? 2009 by the American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists.

  9. Update on Sensory Evaluation of University of Florida Strawberry Selections

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The University of Florida strawberry breeding program has evaluated eating quality of fruit from advanced selections using sensory taste panels. Selections FL 05-107, FL 06-38 and FL 09-127 were compared with the commercial cultivars ‘Strawberry Festival’ and FLorida Radiance’ during two consecutive...

  10. Evaluating variable selection methods for diagnosis of myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Dreiseitl, S; Ohno-Machado, L; Vinterbo, S

    1999-01-01

    This paper evaluates the variable selection performed by several machine-learning techniques on a myocardial infarction data set. The focus of this work is to determine which of 43 input variables are considered relevant for prediction of myocardial infarction. The algorithms investigated were logistic regression (with stepwise, forward, and backward selection), backpropagation for multilayer perceptrons (input relevance determination), Bayesian neural networks (automatic relevance determination), and rough sets. An independent method (self-organizing maps) was then used to evaluate and visualize the different subsets of predictor variables. Results show good agreement on some predictors, but also variability among different methods; only one variable was selected by all models. PMID:10566358

  11. 10 CFR 470.14 - Evaluation and selection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evaluation and selection. 470.14 Section 470.14 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION APPROPRIATE TECHNOLOGY SMALL GRANTS PROGRAM § 470.14 Evaluation and... technically feasible, including a determination as to whether the proposed energy savings or energy...

  12. 10 CFR 470.14 - Evaluation and selection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Evaluation and selection. 470.14 Section 470.14 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION APPROPRIATE TECHNOLOGY SMALL GRANTS PROGRAM § 470.14 Evaluation and... technically feasible, including a determination as to whether the proposed energy savings or energy...

  13. An Overview of Evaluation Research on Selected Educational Partnerships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Resources Group, Inc.

    This paper reviews selected literature on education/business partnerships (EBPs), highlighting the status of partnership evaluations and current methodologies. Research by S. Otterbourg and D. Adams (1989), which surveyed about 24 EBPs to ascertain planning, implementation, and evaluation priorities, showed that only 25% of the programs used…

  14. 10 CFR 470.14 - Evaluation and selection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... each State reviewer shall include— (1) The potential impact of the proposal on the energy needs and... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Evaluation and selection. 470.14 Section 470.14 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION APPROPRIATE TECHNOLOGY SMALL GRANTS PROGRAM § 470.14 Evaluation...

  15. 10 CFR 470.14 - Evaluation and selection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... each State reviewer shall include— (1) The potential impact of the proposal on the energy needs and... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Evaluation and selection. 470.14 Section 470.14 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION APPROPRIATE TECHNOLOGY SMALL GRANTS PROGRAM § 470.14 Evaluation...

  16. Evaluating Organizational Training Programs: Alternatives and Criteria for Selection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marth, Joseph; And Others

    Managers and program sponsors are often unaware of possible alternatives to costly training evaluation procedures and do not have criteria for selecting alternatives. What is needed is an understanding of the various levels of evaluating training programs, feasible alternatives, and decision criteria for choosing the right system. It is proposed…

  17. Training Select-in Interviewers for Astronaut Selection: A Program Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hysong, S.; Galarza, L.; Holland, A.; Billica, Roger (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Psychological factors critical to the success of short and long-duration missions have been identified in previous research; however, evaluation for such critical factors in astronaut applicants leaves much room for human interpretation. Thus, an evaluator training session was designed to standardize the interpretation of critical factors, as well as the structure of the select-in interview across evaluators. The purpose of this evaluative study was to determine the effectiveness of the evaluator training sessions and their potential impact on evaluator ratings.

  18. Individual differences in migratory behavior shape population genetic structure and microhabitat choice in sympatric blackcaps (Sylvia atricapilla)

    PubMed Central

    Rolshausen, Gregor; Segelbacher, Gernot; Hermes, Claudia; Hobson, Keith A; Schaefer, H Martin

    2013-01-01

    In migratory birds, traits such as orientation and distance are known to have a strong genetic background, and they often exhibit considerable within-population variation. How this variation relates to evolutionary responses to ongoing selection is unknown because the underlying mechanisms that translate environmental changes into population genetic changes are unclear. We show that within-population genetic structure in southern German blackcaps (Sylvia atricapilla) is related to individual differences in migratory behavior. Our 3-year study revealed a positive correlation between individual migratory origins, denoted via isotope (δ2H) values, and genetic distances. Genetic diversity and admixture differed not only across a recently established migratory polymorphism with NW- and SW-migrating birds but also across δ2H clusters within the same migratory route. Our results suggest assortment based on individual migratory origins which would facilitate evolutionary responses. We scrutinized arrival times and microhabitat choice as potential mechanisms mediating between individual variation in migratory behavior and assortment. We found significant support that microhabitat choice, rather than timing of arrival, is associated with individual variation in migratory origins. Moreover, examining genetic diversity across the migratory divide, we found migrants following the NW route to be genetically more distinct from each other compared with migrants following the traditional SW route. Our study suggests that migratory behavior shapes population genetic structure in blackcaps not only across the migratory divide but also on an individual level independent of the divide. Thus, within-population variation in migratory behavior might play an important role in translating environmental change into genetic change. PMID:24324877

  19. Changing Patterns of Microhabitat Utilization by the Threespot Damselfish, Stegastes planifrons, on Caribbean Reefs

    PubMed Central

    Precht, William F.; Aronson, Richard B.; Moody, Ryan M.; Kaufman, Les

    2010-01-01

    Background The threespot damselfish, Stegastes planifrons (Cuvier), is important in mediating interactions among corals, algae, and herbivores on Caribbean coral reefs. The preferred microhabitat of S. planifrons is thickets of the branching staghorn coral Acropora cervicornis. Within the past few decades, mass mortality of A. cervicornis from white-band disease and other factors has rendered this coral a minor ecological component throughout most of its range. Methodology/Principal Findings Survey data from Jamaica (heavily fished), Florida and the Bahamas (moderately fished), the Cayman Islands (lightly to moderately fished), and Belize (lightly fished) indicate that distributional patterns of S. planifrons are positively correlated with live coral cover and topographic complexity. Our results suggest that species-specific microhabitat preferences and the availability of topographically complex microhabitats are more important than the abundance of predatory fish as proximal controls on S. planifrons distribution and abundance. Conclusions/Significance The loss of the primary microhabitat of S. planifrons—A. cervicornis—has forced a shift in the distribution and recruitment of these damselfish onto remaining high-structured corals, especially the Montastraea annularis species complex, affecting coral mortality and algal dynamics throughout the Caribbean. PMID:20520809

  20. Microhabitat locality allows multi-species coexistence in terrestrial plant communities.

    PubMed

    Tubay, Jerrold M; Suzuki, Keisuke; Uehara, Takashi; Kakishima, Satoshi; Ito, Hiromu; Ishida, Atsushi; Yoshida, Katsuhiko; Mori, Shigeta; Rabajante, Jomar F; Morita, Satoru; Yokozawa, Masayuki; Yoshimura, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Most terrestrial plant communities exhibit relatively high species diversity and many competitive species are ubiquitous. Many theoretical studies have been carried out to investigate the coexistence of a few competitive species and in most cases they suggest competitive exclusion. Theoretical studies have revealed that coexistence of even three or four species can be extremely difficult. It has been suggested that the coexistence of many species has been achieved by the fine differences in suitable microhabitats for each species, attributing to niche-separation. So far there is no explicit demonstration of such a coexistence in mathematical and simulation studies. Here we built a simple lattice Lotka-Volterra model of competition by incorporating the minute differences of suitable microhabitats for many species. By applying the site variations in species-specific settlement rates of a seedling, we achieved the coexistence of more than 10 species. This result indicates that competition between many species is avoided by the spatial variations in species-specific microhabitats. Our results demonstrate that coexistence of many species becomes possible by the minute differences in microhabitats. This mechanism should be applicable to many vegetation types, such as temperate forests and grasslands. PMID:26483077

  1. Microhabitat locality allows multi-species coexistence in terrestrial plant communities

    PubMed Central

    Tubay, Jerrold M.; Suzuki, Keisuke; Uehara, Takashi; Kakishima, Satoshi; Ito, Hiromu; Ishida, Atsushi; Yoshida, Katsuhiko; Mori, Shigeta; Rabajante, Jomar F.; Morita, Satoru; Yokozawa, Masayuki; Yoshimura, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Most terrestrial plant communities exhibit relatively high species diversity and many competitive species are ubiquitous. Many theoretical studies have been carried out to investigate the coexistence of a few competitive species and in most cases they suggest competitive exclusion. Theoretical studies have revealed that coexistence of even three or four species can be extremely difficult. It has been suggested that the coexistence of many species has been achieved by the fine differences in suitable microhabitats for each species, attributing to niche-separation. So far there is no explicit demonstration of such a coexistence in mathematical and simulation studies. Here we built a simple lattice Lotka-Volterra model of competition by incorporating the minute differences of suitable microhabitats for many species. By applying the site variations in species-specific settlement rates of a seedling, we achieved the coexistence of more than 10 species. This result indicates that competition between many species is avoided by the spatial variations in species-specific microhabitats. Our results demonstrate that coexistence of many species becomes possible by the minute differences in microhabitats. This mechanism should be applicable to many vegetation types, such as temperate forests and grasslands. PMID:26483077

  2. Do soil characteristics or microhabitat determine field emergence and success of Bromus tectorum?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Newingham, B.A.; Vidiella, P.; Belnap, J.

    2007-01-01

    In southeastern Utah, Bromus tectorum occurs where Hilaria jamesii is dominant and rarely where Stipa hymenoides/S. comata dominate. To determine whether this distribution is due to soil characteristics or microhabitat, we transplanted H. jamesii soil to a Stipa site and vice versa during a severe drought (2001) and a wetter year (2002). Additionally, we planted B. tectorum under H. jamesii and Stipa canopies, with or without H. jamesii litter, and with or without herbivory. Bromus tectorum emergence and biomass in reciprocal transplants were similar at both sites; there were no site differences for all microhabitat treatments. Being under a plant canopy increased emergence in 2001 and decreased survival during 2002. Herbivory decreased emergence in 2001 and decreased survival during 2002. Litter increased emergence only under the canopy in 2001 but did not affect survival in 2002. Survival in 2001 was so low that biomass was unattainable; no microhabitat treatments affected biomass in 2002. We found that soil characteristics and microhabitat affected B. tectorum similarly in H. jamesii and Stipa patches, suggesting that these factors do not explain the association between B. tectorum and H. jamesii. However, these relationships may change during wet years when B. tectorum invasions most often occur. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Understanding lizard's microhabitat use based on a mechanistic model of behavioral thermoregulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fei, Teng; Venus, Valentijn; Toxopeus, Bert; Skidmore, Andrew K.; Schlerf, Martin; Liu, Yaolin; van Overdijk, Sjef; Bian, Meng

    2008-12-01

    Lizards are an "excellent group of organisms" to examine the habitat and microhabitat use mainly because their ecology and physiology is well studied. Due to their behavioral body temperature regulation, the thermal environment is especially linked with their habitat use. In this study, for mapping and understanding lizard's distribution at microhabitat scale, an individual of Timon Lepidus was kept and monitored in a terrarium (245×120×115cm) in which sand, rocks, burrows, hatching chambers, UV-lamps, fog generators and heating devices were placed to simulate its natural habitat. Optical cameras, thermal cameras and other data loggers were fixed and recording the lizard's body temperature, ground surface temperature, air temperature, radiation and other important environmental parameters. By analysis the data collected, we propose a Cellular Automata (CA) model by which the movement of lizards is simulated and translated into their distribution. This paper explores the capabilities of applying GIS techniques to thermoregulatory activity studies in a microhabitat-scale. We conclude that microhabitat use of lizards can be explained in some degree by the rule based CA model.

  4. Evaluation and selection of candidate high-level waste forms

    SciTech Connect

    Bernadzikowski, T. A.; Allender, J. S.; Butler, J. L.; Gordon, D. E.; Gould, Jr., T. H.; Stone, J. A.

    1982-03-01

    Seven candidate waste forms being developed under the direction of the Department of Energy's National High-Level Waste (HLW) Technology Program, were evaluated as potential media for the immobilization and geologic disposal of high-level nuclear wastes. The evaluation combined preliminary waste form evaluations conducted at DOE defense waste-sites and independent laboratories, peer review assessments, a product performance evaluation, and a processability analysis. Based on the combined results of these four inputs, two of the seven forms, borosilicate glass and a titanate based ceramic, SYNROC, were selected as the reference and alternative forms for continued development and evaluation in the National HLW Program. Both the glass and ceramic forms are viable candidates for use at each of the DOE defense waste-sites; they are also potential candidates for immobilization of commercial reprocessing wastes. This report describes the waste form screening process, and discusses each of the four major inputs considered in the selection of the two forms.

  5. Sustainable Supplier Performance Evaluation and Selection with Neofuzzy TOPSIS Method.

    PubMed

    Chaharsooghi, S K; Ashrafi, Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    Supplier selection plays an important role in the supply chain management and traditional criteria such as price, quality, and flexibility are considered for supplier performance evaluation in researches. In recent years sustainability has received more attention in the supply chain management literature with triple bottom line (TBL) describing the sustainability in supply chain management with social, environmental, and economic initiatives. This paper explores sustainability in supply chain management and examines the problem of identifying a new model for supplier selection based on extended model of TBL approach in supply chain by presenting fuzzy multicriteria method. Linguistic values of experts' subjective preferences are expressed with fuzzy numbers and Neofuzzy TOPSIS is proposed for finding the best solution of supplier selection problem. Numerical results show that the proposed model is efficient for integrating sustainability in supplier selection problem. The importance of using complimentary aspects of sustainability and Neofuzzy TOPSIS concept in sustainable supplier selection process is shown with sensitivity analysis. PMID:27379267

  6. Sustainable Supplier Performance Evaluation and Selection with Neofuzzy TOPSIS Method

    PubMed Central

    Chaharsooghi, S. K.; Ashrafi, Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    Supplier selection plays an important role in the supply chain management and traditional criteria such as price, quality, and flexibility are considered for supplier performance evaluation in researches. In recent years sustainability has received more attention in the supply chain management literature with triple bottom line (TBL) describing the sustainability in supply chain management with social, environmental, and economic initiatives. This paper explores sustainability in supply chain management and examines the problem of identifying a new model for supplier selection based on extended model of TBL approach in supply chain by presenting fuzzy multicriteria method. Linguistic values of experts' subjective preferences are expressed with fuzzy numbers and Neofuzzy TOPSIS is proposed for finding the best solution of supplier selection problem. Numerical results show that the proposed model is efficient for integrating sustainability in supplier selection problem. The importance of using complimentary aspects of sustainability and Neofuzzy TOPSIS concept in sustainable supplier selection process is shown with sensitivity analysis. PMID:27379267

  7. Site selection and containment evaluation for LLNL nuclear events

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, C.W.

    1993-06-01

    During approximately the past decade, the site selection process at LLNL has evolved as the Test Program needs and resources have changed, containment practices have been modified, and the DOE and other regulatory agencies have become more restrictive. Throughout this period the Containment Program and the Field Operations Program at LLNL have managed a cooperative effort to improve site selection. The site selection process actually is three inter-related tasks, namely, selection of a stockpile hole for a specific nuclear test, selection of a drill site for a stockpile hole, and selection of a new drill site for a specific test. Each proposed site is carefully reviewed for known or projected geologic structure and medium properties, nearby holes, containment experience in the region, likelihood of drilling problems, programmatic need for a given depth of hole, and scheduling of Test Program events and resources. By using our data bank, our general knowledge of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) geology, and other information sources, as well as our background in drilling large diameter holes at the NTS, we have been able to optimize our use of NTS real estate and programmatic resources. The containment evaluation of a site is facilitated by considering the location before the hole is drilled. Discuss imposed restraints and our criteria and guidelines for site selection and assignment of events to specific holes, along with the factors that influence selection of a Working Point (WP) depth. Since siting and containment evaluation are strongly related, most major factors related to the containment evaluation process will also be reviewed.

  8. [Surgical evaluation of candidates for donation. Selection of the kidney].

    PubMed

    Corral Molina, Juan M; Luque Gálvez, Pilar; Agud Piqué, Anna; Alcover García, Juan B

    2005-01-01

    Living donation for kidney transplantation is being promoted due to the shortage of organs, the improved outcomes of living donor transplants and the evolution of immunosuppression regimens. The process of organ donation from a living donor affects not only medical-surgical features but also emotional, social and economic. Using kidneys from living donors involves a great responsibility in evaluation and selection. Candidates for donation undergo an extensive set of examinations in order to optimize selection and to plan surgery. Radiological evaluation is one of the most important features of the evaluation process and selection of the kidney; it shows precisely the renal vascular anatomy, which is decisive in the choice of the kidney and helps to optimize the process and diminish risks and complications during extraction and/or tronsplantation. The advantages on imaging tests allow to evaluate potential donors in a safely, fast and almost noninvasive matter. The aim of the process is to select the kidney with less likelihood of failure due to technical reasons, and always leave the best kidney for the donor. PMID:16138762

  9. Software Selection, Evaluation and Organization [and] Software Reviews. Article Reprints.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Computing Teacher, 1985

    1985-01-01

    This collection of reprints from The Computing Teacher contains 11 articles on the selection, evaluation, and organization of software published between August 1983 and March 1986, as well as more than 20 reviews of educational software packages published between December 1982 and June 1986. The articles are: (1) "The New Wave of Educational…

  10. Evaluating and Selecting Counterarguments: Studies of Children's Rhetorical Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leitao, Selma

    2003-01-01

    This article investigates children's evaluation/selection of ideas in writing-related tasks. The critical dimension being considered was to what extent the communicative goal that defines argumentation establishes basic criteria with which children decide whether to include counterargument in a text. Data analysis focused on participants'…

  11. 10 CFR 605.10 - Application evaluation and selection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Review System developed as required under DOE Financial Assistance Regulations, 10 CFR part 600. (c) DOE... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Application evaluation and selection. 605.10 Section 605.10 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS THE OFFICE OF ENERGY...

  12. An Evaluation of Some Models for Culture-Fair Selection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersen, Nancy S.; Novick, Melvin R.

    Models proposed by Cleary, Thorndike, Cole, Linn, Einhorn and Bass, Darlington, and Gross and Su for analyzing bias in the use of tests in a selection strategy are surveyed. Several additional models are also introduced. The purpose is to describe, compare, contrast, and evaluate these models while extracting such useful ideas as may be found in…

  13. Evaluation and Selection of Academic Interns: 1967-1968.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creager, John A.

    In 1964 the American Council on Education initiated an internship program for Fellows in Academic Administration. The purpose of the program was to enlarge the number, and to improve the quality of persons available to fill key positions in academic administration. This report presents and compares evaluation and selection information in the third…

  14. 10 CFR 602.9 - Application evaluation and selection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Security Merit Review System developed, as required, under DOE Financial Assistance Regulations, 10 CFR... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Application evaluation and selection. 602.9 Section 602.9 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS EPIDEMIOLOGY AND OTHER HEALTH...

  15. 10 CFR 602.9 - Application evaluation and selection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Security Merit Review System developed, as required, under DOE Financial Assistance Regulations, 10 CFR... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Application evaluation and selection. 602.9 Section 602.9 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS EPIDEMIOLOGY AND OTHER HEALTH...

  16. Criteria for Evaluating and Selecting Multimedia Software for Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Sung Heum; And Others

    Evaluating and selecting the appropriate software is a very important component of success in using multimedia systems in both educational and corporate settings. Computer-mediated multimedia (CMM) is the integration of two or more communication media, controlled or manipulated by the user via a computer, to present information. CMM can be…

  17. Evaluation of Stress Loaded Steel Samples Using Selected Electromagnetic Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Chady, T.

    2004-02-26

    In this paper the magnetic leakage flux and eddy current method were used to evaluate changes of materials' properties caused by stress. Seven samples made of ferromagnetic material with different level of applied stress were prepared. First, the leakage magnetic fields were measured by scanning the surface of the specimens with GMR gradiometer. Next, the same samples were evaluated using an eddy current sensor. A comparison between results obtained from both methods was carried out. Finally, selected parameters of the measured signal were calculated and utilized to evaluate level of the applied stress. A strong coincidence between amount of the applied stress and the maximum amplitude of the derivative was confirmed.

  18. Spatial variability in community composition on a granite breakwater versus natural rocky shores: lack of microhabitats suppresses intertidal biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Aguilera, Moisés A; Broitman, Bernardo R; Thiel, Martin

    2014-10-15

    Strong differences have been observed between the assemblages on artificial reefs and on natural hard-bottom habitats worldwide, but little is known about the mechanisms that cause contrasting biodiversity patterns. We examined the influence of spatial attributes in relation to both biogenic and topographic microhabitats, in the distribution and composition of intertidal species on both artificial and natural reefs. We found higher small-scale spatial heterogeneity on the natural reef compared with the study breakwater. Species richness and diversity were associated with a higher availability of crevices, rock pools and mussels in natural habitats. Spatial distribution of certain grazers corresponded well with the spatial structure of microhabitats. In contrast, the lack of microhabitats on the breakwater resulted in the absence of several grazers reflected in lower species richness. Biogenic and topographic microhabitats can have interactive effects providing niche opportunities for multiple species, explaining differences in species diversity between artificial versus natural reefs. PMID:25103901

  19. Presence of Symbiodinium spp. in macroalgal microhabitats from the southern Great Barrier Reef

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venera-Ponton, D. E.; Diaz-Pulido, G.; Rodriguez-Lanetty, M.; Hoegh-Guldberg, O.

    2010-12-01

    Coral reefs are highly dependent on the mutualistic symbiosis between reef-building corals and dinoflagellates from the genus Symbiodinium. These dinoflagellates spend part of their life cycle outside the coral host and in the majority of the cases have to re-infect corals each generation. While considerable insight has been gained about Symbiodinium in corals, little is known about the ecology and biology of Symbiodinium in other reef microhabitats. This study documents Symbiodinium associating with benthic macroalgae on the southern Great Barrier Reef, including some Symbiodinium that are genetically close to the symbiotic strains from reef-building corals. It is possible that some of these Symbiodinium were in hospite, associated to soritid foraminifera or ciliates; nevertheless, the presence of Symbiodinium C3 and C15 in macroalgal microhabitats may also suggest a potential link between communities of Symbiodinium associating with both coral hosts and macroalgae.

  20. The assemblages of groynes in relation to substratum age, aspect and microhabitat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinn, Eunice H.; Mitchell, Katherine; Corkill, Jon

    2005-01-01

    Despite the long history of urbanisation of the coastal environment, there remains very little understanding of the impact of such construction on the ecology of intertidal habitats. Rock rubble groynes are becoming the favoured approach to reduce beach erosion in Dorset, England. This study investigated the assemblages of 10 rock rubble groynes over a 2-year period, taking four factors into account: age of the groyne (<1 year, 2 years, 6 years and 7 years old), tidal height (high shore versus low shore), groyne aspect (east versus west side) and microhabitat (open rock versus rockpool). The age of the groyne, tidal height and microhabitat were significant factors in the composition of the assemblage. The groyne aspect, however, did not significantly influence community composition. These findings are discussed and related to succession and community development theory.

  1. The selection of female urinals: results of a multicentre evaluation.

    PubMed

    Fader, M; Pettersson, L; Dean, G; Brooks, R; Cottenden, A

    Female urinals are designed to enable women to empty their bladders while not on the toilet and are therefore potentially useful in preventing incontinence. However, there is little published information to guide product selection. Therefore, an evaluation of these products was undertaken by the Continence Products Evaluation Network (funded by the Medical Devices Agency). All 13 reusable female urinals available in the UK in March 1997 were evaluated. Each urinal was evaluated by 28-32 community-based women. Preliminarily, each subject tested all urinals by trying to place them in one or two of their preferred positions, to establish if the urinals were suitable for full testing. Each of the urinals that were selected for full testing were then used for 1 week each. During this week the subjects kept a diary to record leakage or spillage when using the urinal. At the end of the week a product evaluation form was filled in to record product performance. The results from full testing indicate that all urinals were successful for some subjects. However, some urinals were found to be successful for all four main positions (e.g. Petal Female Urinal) while others were successful mainly in one or two positions (e.g. Bridge Saddle Pan and Subaseal). Many urinals were successful in the standing/crouching and sitting on the edge (of chair or bed) positions, while comparatively few urinals were successful in the lying position. It was found that the chances of finding a suitable urinal increased with levels of independence. This means that subjects with higher levels of dependency found fewer urinals to be suitable for their needs when used without assistance. The results of this evaluation provide guidance for product selection. However, it is recommended that continence specialists keep samples of the full range of female urinals to enable women to experiment with urinals in order to find one that best suits their needs. PMID:10711014

  2. Enhanced Evaluation of Selective Androgen Receptor Modulators In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Otto-Duessel, Maya; He, Miaoling; Adamson, Trinka W.; Jones, Jeremy O.

    2014-01-01

    Selective AR modulators (SARMs) are a class of drugs that control the activity of the androgen receptor (AR), which mediates the response to androgens, in a tissue-selective fashion. They are specifically designed to reduce the possible complications that result from the systemic inhibition or activation of AR in patients with diseases that involve androgen signaling. However, there are no ideal in vivo models for evaluating candidate SARMs. Therefore, we created a panel of androgen responsive genes in clinically-relevant AR expressing tissues including prostate, skin, bone, fat, muscle, brain, and kidney. We used select genes from this panel to compare transcriptional changes in response to the full agonist dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and the SARM bolandiol at 16h and 6wks. We identified several genes in each tissue whose expression at each of these time points correlates with the known tissue-specific effects of these compounds. For example, in the prostate we found four genes whose expression was much lower in animals treated with bolandiol compared to animals treated with DHT for 6wks, which correlated well with differences in prostate weight. We demonstrate that adding molecular measurements (androgen regulated gene expression) to the traditional physiological measurements (tissue weights, etc) makes the evaluation of potential SARMs more accurate, thorough, and perhaps more rapid by allowing measurement of selectivity after only 16 hours of drug treatment. PMID:23258627

  3. Enhanced evaluation of selective androgen receptor modulators in vivo.

    PubMed

    Otto-Duessel, M; He, M; Adamson, T W; Jones, J O

    2013-01-01

    Selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) are a class of drugs that control the activity of the androgen receptor (AR), which mediates the response to androgens, in a tissue-selective fashion. They are specifically designed to reduce the possible complications that result from the systemic inhibition or activation of AR in patients with diseases that involve androgen signalling. However, there are no ideal in vivo models for evaluating candidate SARMs. Therefore, we created a panel of androgen-responsive genes in clinically relevant AR expressing tissues including prostate, skin, bone, fat, muscle, brain and kidney. We used select genes from this panel to compare transcriptional changes in response to the full agonist dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and the SARM bolandiol at 16 h and 6 weeks. We identified several genes in each tissue whose expression at each of these time points correlates with the known tissue-specific effects of these compounds. For example, in the prostate we found four genes whose expression was much lower in animals treated with bolandiol compared with animals treated with DHT for 6 weeks, which correlated well with differences in prostate weight. We demonstrate that adding molecular measurements (androgen-regulated gene expression) to the traditional physiological measurements (tissue weights, etc.) makes the evaluation of potential SARMs more accurate, thorough and perhaps more rapid by allowing measurement of selectivity after only 16 h of drug treatment. PMID:23258627

  4. Habitat Type Influences the Microhabitat Preference of Juvenile Tiger Prawns ( Penaeus esculentusHaswell and Penaeus semisulcatusDe Haan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenyon, R. A.; Loneragan, N. R.; Hughes, J. M.; Staples, D. J.

    1997-09-01

    The microhabitat preferences of juvenile tiger prawns (3-10 mm carapace length),Penaeus esculentusandPenaeus semisulcatus, were tested in the field at Groote Eylandt, in the western Gulf of Carpentaria, Australia. A partitioned apparatus containing live seagrass was used. Both species of prawns selected seagrass (Syringodium isoetifolium) over bare substrate. JuvenileP. esculentus, the most abundant species in this region, were also given paired choices of seagrasses with different leaf morphologies (representing a range of structural complexity) and sediments of different particle size. They selected a seagrass with broad, long leaves (Cymodocea serrulata) over one with narrow, long leaves (S. isoetifolium), which in turn was selected over the seagrasses with narrow, short leaves (Halodule uninervisand shortenedS. isoetifolium). Predation experiments have shown that juvenileP. esculentusare detected and eaten less often in broad, long-leaved seagrass than in narrow, short-leaved seagrass or bare substrate, so their preference for the former may shelter them from predators. No habitat preference was evident forP. esculentuswhen offered a choice between sediments consisting mainly of sand (71% sand particles) and silt (60% of silt and clay). The selection by both species of tiger prawn of seagrass over bare substrate, andP. esculentus's selection of seagrass with long, broad leaves, provides an explanation for the distribution of juvenile tiger prawns in the field. Thus, in the seagrass beds around Groote Eylandt,P. esculentusis more abundant in seagrass with broad, long leaves than in seagrass with short, thin leaves. In addition, its distribution in this region is relatively independent of sediment type. Leaf surface area (or habitat structural complexity) appears to be the main determinant of distribution for juvenileP. esculentus.

  5. Contrasting support for alternative models of genomic variation based on microhabitat preference: species-specific effects of climate change in alpine sedges.

    PubMed

    Massatti, Rob; Knowles, L Lacey

    2016-08-01

    Deterministic processes may uniquely affect codistributed species' phylogeographic patterns such that discordant genetic variation among taxa is predicted. Yet, explicitly testing expectations of genomic discordance in a statistical framework remains challenging. Here, we construct spatially and temporally dynamic models to investigate the hypothesized effect of microhabitat preferences on the permeability of glaciated regions to gene flow in two closely related montane species. Utilizing environmental niche models from the Last Glacial Maximum and the present to inform demographic models of changes in habitat suitability over time, we evaluate the relative probabilities of two alternative models using approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) in which glaciated regions are either (i) permeable or (ii) a barrier to gene flow. Results based on the fit of the empirical data to data sets simulated using a spatially explicit coalescent under alternative models indicate that genomic data are consistent with predictions about the hypothesized role of microhabitat in generating discordant patterns of genetic variation among the taxa. Specifically, a model in which glaciated areas acted as a barrier was much more probable based on patterns of genomic variation in Carex nova, a wet-adapted species. However, in the dry-adapted Carex chalciolepis, the permeable model was more probable, although the difference in the support of the models was small. This work highlights how statistical inferences can be used to distinguish deterministic processes that are expected to result in discordant genomic patterns among species, including species-specific responses to climate change. PMID:27317885

  6. Evaluating and selecting an information system, Part 1.

    PubMed

    Neal, T

    1993-01-01

    Initial steps in the process of evaluating and selecting a computerized information system for the pharmacy department are described. The first step in the selection process is to establish a steering committee and a project committee. The steering committee oversees the project, providing policy guidance, making major decisions, and allocating budgeted expenditures. The project committee conducts the departmental needs assessment, identifies system requirements, performs day-to-day functions, evaluates vendor proposals, trains personnel, and implements the system chosen. The second step is the assessment of needs in terms of personnel, workload, physical layout, and operating requirements. The needs assessment should be based on the department's mission statement and strategic plan. The third step is the development of a request for information (RFI) and a request for proposal (RFP). The RFI is a document designed for gathering preliminary information from a wide range of vendors; this general information is used in deciding whether to send the RFP to a given vendor. The RFP requests more detailed information and gives the purchaser's exact specifications for a system; the RFP also includes contractual information. To help ensure project success, many institutions turn to computer consultants for guidance. The initial steps in selecting a computerized pharmacy information system are establishing computerization committees, conducting a needs assessment, and writing an RFI and an RFP. A crucial early decision is whether to seek a consultant's expertise. PMID:8427267

  7. The effects of food presentation and microhabitat upon resource monopoly in a ground-foraging ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) community.

    PubMed

    McGlynn, T P; Kirksey, S E

    2000-01-01

    In Neotropical wet forests several species of omnivorous, resource-defending ants, live and forage in close proximity to one another. Although the forest floor is heterogeneous in microhabitat and food quantity, little is known about the impact of microhabitat and food variation upon resource monopoly among ants. We investigated how food type and microhabitat influence food monopoly in resource-defending ants in old-growth tropical wet forest in the Caribbean lowlands of Costa Rica. We measured several microhabitat characteristics at 66 points in a 0.5 hectare plot, and baited each point with two categories of tuna bait. These baits were presented in "split" and "clumped" arrangements. We measured the frequency of bait monopoly by a single species, as well as the number of recruited ant foragers at a bait. Out of five common species, two (Wasmannia auropunctata and Pheidole simonsi) more frequently monopolized one bait type over the other, and one (P. simonsi) recruited more ants to the split baits. We then considered the recruitment response by all ant species in the community. We found that the frequency of monopoly, sharing, and the absence of ants at a given point in the rainforest differed with bait type. The frequency of monopoly was associated with microhabitat type in two out of eight microhabitat variables (leaf litter depth and palms); variation in two other types (canopy tree distance and leafcutter ant trails) was associated with changes in forager number. In at least two ant species, food presentation affected monopoly at baits; among all resource-defending ants, the microhabitats where ants foraged for food and the type of food located determined in part the frequency of monopoly and the number of foragers at the food item. These results suggest that the location and presentation of food items determines in part which ant species will utilize the resource. PMID:11354970

  8. Methodology development for evaluation of selective-fidelity rotorcraft simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, William D.; Schrage, D. P.; Prasad, J. V. R.; Wolfe, Daniel

    1992-01-01

    This paper addressed the initial step toward the goal of establishing performance and handling qualities acceptance criteria for realtime rotorcraft simulators through a planned research effort to quantify the system capabilities of 'selective fidelity' simulators. Within this framework the simulator is then classified based on the required task. The simulator is evaluated by separating the various subsystems (visual, motion, etc.) and applying corresponding fidelity constants based on the specific task. This methodology not only provides an assessment technique, but also provides a technique to determine the required levels of subsystem fidelity for a specific task.

  9. Evaluation of hydroxyimine as cytochrome P450-selective prodrug structure.

    PubMed

    Kumpulainen, Hanna; Mähönen, Niina; Laitinen, Marja-Leena; Jaurakkajärvi, Marja; Raunio, Hannu; Juvonen, Risto O; Vepsäläinen, Jouko; Järvinen, Tomi; Rautio, Jarkko

    2006-02-01

    Hydroxyimine derivatives of ketoprofen (1) and nabumetone (2) were synthesized and evaluated in vitro and in vivo as cytochrome P450-selective intermediate prodrug structures of ketones. 2 released nabumetone in vitro in the presence of isolated rat and human liver microsomes and in different recombinant human CYP isoforms. Bioconversion of 2 to both nabumetone and its active metabolite, 6-methoxy-2-naphthylacetic acid (6-MNA), was further confirmed in rats in vivo. Results indicate that hydroxyimine is a useful intermediate prodrug structure for ketone drugs. PMID:16451086

  10. Evaluating and selecting options for oil refit programs

    SciTech Connect

    Hoppe, R.; Graves, W.; Salzano, F.J.

    1980-02-01

    Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) Oil Refit Program provides technical support for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Fuel Oil Conservation Marketing Demonstration Program implemented in several states (designed to accelerate the use of fuel saving devices and systems by homeowners). BNL assisted with the planning and implementation of the marketing and grants option phases for the New York State Pilot Marketing Demonstration Program and is monitoring the results. Additionally BNL planned, and is implementing, the Oil Refit Option Qualification Program involving procedures for evaluating refit options for selection, field testing, and quantifying fuel savings for the purpose of qualifying additional options for use in the DOE state and other marketing programs. The BNL approach for the evaluation of options on a comparative basis is shown and the potential for optimizing fuel savings by combining available single-choice refit options is examined. Also shown are the estimated fuel savings for each option installed.

  11. Evaluation of frequency-selective reflector antenna systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, T. K.; Lee, S. W.; Zimmerman, M. L.

    1993-01-01

    The performance of a four-frequency (S/X/Ku/Ku bands) frequency-selective surface (FSS) with double-ring elements (the type of geometry particularly well suited for the circular polarization requirement of the NASA's Cassini project) is evaluated for a planar and a curved FSS subreflector in a dual reflector antenna system. Good agreement is obtained between the calculated and measured data for the planar FSS model. The FSS effects in a four-frequency Cassegrain reflector antenna were accurately evaluated by taking into account the surface curvature and the FSS subreflector's transmitted/reflected field variation as functions of the polarization and the incident angles with respect to the local coordinates.

  12. Dispersal-mediated effect of microhabitat availability and density dependence determine population dynamics of a forest floor web spider.

    PubMed

    Takada, Mayura B; Miyashita, Tadashi

    2014-09-01

    Landscapes in nature can be viewed as a continuum of small total habitable area with high fragmentation to widely spreading habitats. The dispersal-mediated rescue effect predominates in the former landscapes, while classical density-dependent processes generally prevail in widely spread habitats. A similar principle should be applied to populations of organisms utilizing microhabitats in limited supply. To test this hypothesis, we examined the population dynamics of a web spider, Neriene brongersmai, in 16 populations with varying degrees of microhabitat availability, and we explored whether: (i) high microhabitat availability improves survival rate during density-independent movement, while the resultant high density reduces survival rate in a density-dependent manner; and (ii) temporal population stability increases with microhabitat availability at the population level. Furthermore, we conducted two types of field experiments to verify whether high microhabitat availability actually reduces mortality associated with web-site movement. Field observations revealed that demographic change in N. brongersmai populations was affected by three factors at different stages, namely the microhabitat limitation from the early to late juvenile stages, the density dependence from the late juvenile to adult stages and the food limitation from the adult to the next early juvenile stages. In addition, there was a tendency for a positive association between population stability and microhabitat availability at the population level. A small-scale experiment, where the frequency of spider web relocation was equalized artificially, revealed that high microhabitat availability elevated the survival rate during a movement event between web-sites. The larger spatiotemporal scale experiment also revealed an improved spider survival rate following treatment with high microhabitat availability, even though spider density was kept at a relatively low level. The population dynamics of N

  13. Evaluation of Strontium Selectivity by Sandia Octahedral Molecular Sieves (SOMS).

    SciTech Connect

    Rigali, Mark J.; Stewart, Thomas Austin

    2016-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has collaborated with Pleasanton Ridge Research Company (PRRC) to determine whether Sandia Octahedral Molecular Sieves (SOMS) and modified SOMs materials can be synthesized in large batches and produced in granular form. Sandia National Laboratories tested these SOMS and its variants based in aqueous chemical environments for an application-based evaluation of material performance as a sorbent. Testing focused primarily on determining the distribution coefficients (K d ) and chemical selectivity SOMs for alkali earth (Sr) ions in aqueous and dilute seawater solutions. In general the well-crystallized SOMS materials tested exhibited very high K d values (>10 6 ) in distilled water but K d values dropped substantially (%7E10 2 -10 3 ) in the dilute seawater (3%). However, one set of SOMS samples (1.4.2 and 1.4.6) provided by PRRC yielded relatively high K d (approaching 10 4 ) in dilute seawater. Further examination of these samples by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed the presence of at least two phases at least one of which may be accounting for the improved K d values in dilute seawater. Evaluation of Strontium Selectivity by Sandia Octahedral Molecular Sieves (SOMS) January 20, 2016

  14. Spatio-Temporal Canopy Complexity and Leaf Acclimation to Variable Canopy Microhabitats.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fotis, A. T.

    2014-12-01

    The theory that forests become carbon (C) neutral with maturity has recently been challenged. While a growing body of evidence shows that net C accumulation continues in forests that are centuries old, the reasons remain poorly known. Increasing canopy structural complexity, quantified by high variability in leaf distribution, has been proposed as a mechanism for sustained rates of C assimilation in mature forests. The goal of our research was to expand on these findings and explore a new idea of spatio-temporal canopy structural complexity as a mechanism linking canopy structure to function (C assimilation).Our work takes place at the UMBS AmeriFlux core facility (US-UMB) in northern Michigan, USA. Canopy structure was quantified over 6 seasons with portable canopy LiDAR (PCL) and canopy spatial microhabitat variability was studied using hemispherical photographs from different heights within the canopy. We found a more even distribution of irradiance in more structurally complex canopies within a single year, and furthermore, that between-year variability of spatial leaf arrangement decreased with increasing canopy complexity. We suggest that in complex canopies less redistribution of leaf material over time may lead to more similar light microhabitats within and among years. Conversely, in less complex canopies this relationship can lead to a year-to-year time lag in morphological leaf acclimation since the effects of the previous-year's light environment are reflected in the morphological characteristics of current-year leaves.Our study harnesses unique spatio-temporal resolution measurements of canopy structure and microhabitat that can inform better management strategies seeking to maximize forest C uptake. Future research quantifying the relationship between canopy structure and light distribution will improve performance of ecosystem models that currently lack spatially explicit canopy structure information.

  15. Evaluation of historical scour at selected stream crossings in Indian

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mueller, David S.; Miller, Robert L.

    1993-01-01

    Geophysical data were collected by means of ground-penetrating radar and tuned transducer systems to estimate the historical scour at ten bridges in Indiana. These geophysical data were used to compare and evaluate the results of 13 published pier-scour equations. In order to make this comparison, it was assumed that the measured historical scour was associated with the peak historical discharge. Because the geophysical data were not sufficient to map the lateral extent of the refilled scour hole, local scour could not be isolated from concentration scour. For the evaluation, computed contraction scour and pier scour were used in combination with the existing channel geometry to determine a computed bed elevation. This computed bed elevation was compared to be minimum historic bed elevation estimated from the geophysical data. None of the selected pier-scour equations, when combined with the contraction-scour equation, accurately represented the historical scour at all of the study sites. On the basis of the limited data presented, the equations currently recommended by the Federal Highway Administration provided a combination of accuracy and safety, required by design equations, equal to or better than the other equations evaluated.

  16. Selection And Evaluation Of An Alloy For Nozzle Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pandey, A. B.; Shah, S.; Shadoan, M.; Lyles, Garry (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    The present work includes results on material characterization conducted under COBRA Hydrogen Cooled Nozzle Program and was funded by NASA MSFC. The nozzle requires a material that has high strength at ambient and high (up to l200 F) temperatures in air and hydrogen. Presently, a precipitation hardened steel; A-286 is used in nozzles for Space Shuttle Engines. The A-286 alloy has limited hydrogen compatibility and weldability. The present work focused on selection and characterization of JBK-75 alloy that has significantly higher capability in hydrogen and weldability in addition to other attributes. The alloy was evaluated at different temperatures and environments. Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG) and Electron Beam welding techniques were used to evaluate the weldability of material. Brazing was also conducted on the alloy and evaluated. The characterization of base JBK-75 alloy, welded and brazed alloy included tensile properties, low cycle fatigue and crack growth resistance at different temperatures in air and hydrogen environments. The results indicated that JBK-75 has excellent tensile and fatigue properties in air and hydrogen. The welded and brazed alloy also showed very good properties.

  17. SELECTION AND PRELIMINARY EVALUATION OF ALTERNATIVE REDUCTANTS FOR SRAT PROCESSING

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, M.; Pickenheim, B.; Peeler, D.

    2009-06-30

    Defense Waste Processing Facility - Engineering (DWPF-E) has requested the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to perform scoping evaluations of alternative flowsheets with the primary focus on alternatives to formic acid during Chemical Process Cell (CPC) processing. The reductants shown below were selected for testing during the evaluation of alternative reductants for Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) processing. The reductants fall into two general categories: reducing acids and non-acidic reducing agents. Reducing acids were selected as direct replacements for formic acid to reduce mercury in the SRAT, to acidify the sludge, and to balance the melter REDuction/OXidation potential (REDOX). Non-acidic reductants were selected as melter reductants and would not be able to reduce mercury in the SRAT. Sugar was not tested during this scoping evaluation as previous work has already been conducted on the use of sugar with DWPF feeds. Based on the testing performed, the only viable short-term path to mitigating hydrogen generation in the CPC is replacement of formic acid with a mixture of glycolic and formic acids. An experiment using glycolic acid blended with formic on an 80:20 molar basis was able to reduce mercury, while also targeting a predicted REDuction/OXidation (REDOX) of 0.2 expressed as Fe{sup 2+}/{Sigma}Fe. Based on this result, SRNL recommends performing a complete CPC demonstration of the glycolic/formic acid flowsheet followed by a design basis development and documentation. Of the options tested recently and in the past, nitric/glycolic/formic blended acids has the potential for near term implementation in the existing CPC equipment providing rapid throughput improvement. Use of a non-acidic reductant is recommended only if the processing constraints to remove mercury and acidify the sludge acidification are eliminated. The non-acidic reductants (e.g. sugar) will not reduce mercury during CPC processing and sludge acidification would

  18. Item Selection, Evaluation, and Simple Structure in Personality Data

    PubMed Central

    Pettersson, Erik; Turkheimer, Eric

    2010-01-01

    We report an investigation of the genesis and interpretation of simple structure in personality data using two very different self-reported data sets. The first consists of a set of relatively unselected lexical descriptors, whereas the second is based on responses to a carefully constructed instrument. In both data sets, we explore the degree of simple structure by comparing factor solutions to solutions from simulated data constructed to have either strong or weak simple structure. The analysis demonstrates that there is little evidence of simple structure in the unselected items, and a moderate degree among the selected items. In both instruments, however, much of the simple structure that could be observed originated in a strong dimension of positive vs. negative evaluation. PMID:20694168

  19. Shape-based feature selection for microcalcification evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marti, Joan; Cufi, Xavier; Regincos, Jordi; Espanol, Josep; Pont, Josep; Barcelo, Carles

    1998-06-01

    This work focuses on the selection of a set of shape-based features in order to assist radiologists in differentiating between malignant and benignant clustered microcalcifications in mammograms. The results obtained allow the creation of a model for the evaluation of the benignant or malignant character of the microcalcifications in a mammogram, based exclusively on the following parameters: number of clusters, number of holes, area, Feret elongation, roughness and elongation. The performance of the classification scheme is close to the mean performance of three expert radiologists, which allows to consider the proposed method for assisting the diagnosis and encourages to continue the investigation in this field. Additionally, the work is based on an unpublished database formed by patients of the Regional Health Area of Girona, which in the future may contribute to increase the digital mammogram databases.

  20. Evaluating habitat selection with radio-telemetry triangulation error

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Samuel, M.D.; Kenow, K.P.

    1992-01-01

    Radio-telemetry triangulation errors result in the mislocation of animals and misclassification of habitat use. We present analytical methods that provide improved estimates of habitat use when misclassification probabilities can be determined. When misclassification probabilities cannot be determined, we use random subsamples from the error distribution of an estimated animal location to improve habitat use estimates. We conducted Monte Carlo simulations to evaluate the effects of this subsampling method, triangulation error, number of animal locations, habitat availability, and habitat complexity on bias and variation in habitat use estimates. Results for the subsampling method are illustrated using habitat selection by redhead ducks (Aythya americana ). We recommend the subsampling method with a minimum of 50 random points to reduce problems associated with habitat misclassification.

  1. Evaluating habitat selection with radio-telemetry triangulation error

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Samuel, M.D.; Kenow, K.P.

    1992-01-01

    Radio-telemetry triangulation errors result in the mislocation of animals and misclassification of habitat use. We present analytical methods that provide improved estimates of habitat use when misclassification probabilities can be determined. When misclassification probabilities cannot be determined, we use random subsamples from the error distribution of an estimated animal location to improve habitat use estimates. We conducted Monte Carlo simulations to evaluate the effects of this subsampling method, triangulation error, number of animal locations, habitat availability, and habitat complexity on bias and variation in habitat use estimates. Results for the subsampling method are illustrated using habitat selection by redhead ducks (Aythya americana). We recommend the subsampling method with a minimum of 50 random points to reduce problems associated with habitat misclassification.

  2. Evaluation of Selected Features for CAR Detection in Aerial Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuermer, S.; Leitloff, J.; Reinartz, P.; Stilla, U.

    2011-09-01

    The extraction of vehicles from aerial images provides a wide area traffic situation within a short time. Applications for the gathered data are various and reach from smart routing in the case of congestions to usability validation of roads in the case of disasters. The challenge of the vehicle detection task is finding adequate features which are capable to separate cars from other objects; especially those that look similar. We present an experiment where selected features show their ability of car detection. Precisely, Haar-like and HoG features are utilized and passed to the AdaBoost algorithm for calculating the final detector. Afterwards the classifying power of the features is accurately analyzed and evaluated. The tests a carried out on aerial data from the inner city of Munich, Germany and include small inner city roads with rooftops close by which raise the complexity factor.

  3. Microbiological investigation and nutritional evaluation of selected fast food meat.

    PubMed

    Hemeda, H M

    1995-01-01

    The study was designed into two parts: the first part was to determine individual attitudes and beliefs toward fast food in general. One hundred individuals (15-45 yrs old) were involved in this study (50 males and 50 females). The second part of the study was carried out to evaluate microbiological contamination and nutritive value of the selected fast food meat (Hardee's fried burger, Saudi-American burger, kentucky fried chicken, Al-Baik broast chicken and shawerma beef). The results indicated that individuals 25-45 yrs. old were the most fast food consumers. The main reason behind increasing individual's preferences toward fast food was found to be for fun and inspiration. Among individuals under study 46% of males and 20% of females purchased fast food more than 4 times per week. Prevalence of overweight and obesity respectively were 38% and 22% among males and 34% and 14% among females. Bacillus cereus and E. coli were detected in a number of less than 10/g in all the selected fast food meat. The number of coliforms detected in Hardee's burger and Saudi-American burger were 10/g, while less than 10/g were detected in the remaining fast food meat. However, the number of Staph. aureus detected in Hardee's burger and Saudi-American burger was 20/g and 10/g respectively. On a per 100 g basis, energy (Kcal), protein (g), fat (g) and sodium (mg) content were found in the range of 179.62-295.29, 13.05-26.06, 8.9-21.13 and 640-920 respectively. Sodium content of all the selected fast food meat exceeded the recommended daily adequate intake for adults (males and females). The observations of the present study indicated the need for a nutrition education program to correct consumers' attitudes and beliefs towards fast food and to provide information on how a given menu item contributes to their dietary goal. PMID:17214203

  4. Density and microhabitat use of Bengal slow loris in primary forest and non-native plantation forest.

    PubMed

    Pliosungnoen, Manoon; Gale, George; Savini, Tommaso

    2010-12-01

    The extent of planted forests has greatly increased in the tropics, but their conservation value while assumed to be low, is largely unknown. We compared the density and microhabitat selection of a nocturnal arboreal primate, the Bengal slow loris (Nycticebus bengalensis), in mostly undisturbed, evergreen tropical forest to those in 15-18 year old Acacia/Leucaena plantations with significant secondary regrowth, and <15 year old plantations with little regrowth. Based on estimates derived from distance sampling, loris densities in older plantations were nearly identical to primary forest (4.26 vs. 4.00 lorises per square kilometer), although encounter rates were three times higher in the older plantations probably owing to the lower detection probability in the more complex vegetation of the primary forest. The mean density estimate for the younger plantation was one-third of the above habitats (1.27 lorises per square kilometer), although not statistically different. Lorises tended to use larger diameter and taller trees, with a greater crown depth than randomly sampled trees, and tended to avoid habitats with sparsely crowned trees. The older plantations had trees with lower basal area and shorter stems than the primary forest; however, the older plantations contained higher densities of Bauhinia lianas, a commonly eaten food source and did not contain the red giant flying squirrel (Petaurista petaurista), a potential competitor. Although it is unknown whether the Bengal slow loris would persist without the presence of primary forest in the landscape, we suggest that older plantations have conservation value for at least selected species and as such, could be better managed to increase this value. PMID:20938966

  5. Pilot-scale evaluation of select nitrate removal technologies.

    PubMed

    Darbi, A; Viraraghavan, T; Butler, R; Corkal, D

    2003-09-01

    Due to the extensive application of artificial nitrogen-based fertilizers and animal manure on land, many water agencies face problems of increasing concentrations of nitrate in groundwater. The contamination of groundwater by nitrate may pose a significant public health problem. The threat of methemoglobinemia is well documented and reflected in the US drinking water standard of 10 mg/L as nitrate-nitrogen. Approximately 45% of Saskatchewan's population use groundwater for drinking purposes, out of which, approximately 23% (230,000) are rural residents. The water used is made available from over 48,000 privately owned wells in regions where there is an extensive application of chemical fertilizers. Biological denitrification, ion exchange, and reverse osmosis (RO) processes were selected for a field study. Field studies were conducted on these processes. The sulfur/limestone autotrophic denitrification (SLAD) process was selected to achieve biological removal of nitrate from groundwater. The feasibility of the system was evaluated under anaerobic conditions. An ion exchange study was conducted using Ionac A554 which is a strong anion exchange resin. In the case of groundwater containing low sulfate concentrations, A554 offered high nitrate removal. However, the disposal of regenerant brine can be a problem. A reverse osmosis unit with Filmtec membrane elements (FT30-Element Family) was used in the study on nitrate removal. The unit effluent average nitrate concentration was less than the maximum allowable concentration. PMID:12940476

  6. Seasonal Distribution and Diversity of Ground Arthropods in Microhabitats Following a Shrub Plantation Age Sequence in Desertified Steppe

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Rentao; Zhu, Fan; Song, Naiping; Yang, Xinguo; Chai, Yongqing

    2013-01-01

    In desertified regions, shrub-dominated patches are important microhabitats for ground arthropod assemblages. As shrub age increases, soil, vegetation and microbiological properties can change remarkably and spontaneously across seasons. However, relatively few studies have analyzed how ground arthropods respond to the microhabitats created by shrubs of different plantation ages across seasons. Using 6, 15, 24 and 36 year-old plantations of re-vegetated shrubs (Caragana koushinskii) in the desert steppe of northwestern China as a model system, we sampled ground arthropod communities using a pitfall trapping method in the microhabitats under shrubs and in the open areas between shrubs, during the spring, summer and autumn. The total ground arthropod assemblage was dominated by Carabidae, Melolonthidae, Curculionidae, Tenebrionidae and Formicidae that were affected by plantation age, seasonal changes, or the interaction between these factors, with the later two groups also influenced by microhabitat. Overall, a facilitative effect was observed, with more arthropods and a greater diversity found under shrubs as compared to open areas, but this was markedly affected by seasonal changes. There was a high degree of similarity in arthropod assemblages and diversity between microhabitats in summer and autumn. Shrub plantation age significantly influenced the distribution of the most abundant groups, and also the diversity indices of the ground arthropods. However, there was not an overall positive relationship between shrub age and arthropod abundance, richness or diversity index. The influence of plantation age on arthropod communities was also affected by seasonal changes. From spring through summer to autumn, community indices of ground arthropods tended to decline, and a high degree of similarity in these indices (with fluctuation) was observed among different ages of shrub plantation in autumn. Altogether the recovery of arthropod communities was markedly affected by

  7. Soil bacterial and fungal community responses to nitrogen addition across soil depth and microhabitat in an arid shrubland

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Mueller, Rebecca C.; Belnap, Jayne; Kuske, Cheryl R.

    2015-09-04

    Arid shrublands are stressful environments, typified by alkaline soils low in organic matter, with biologically-limiting extremes in water availability, temperature, and UV radiation. The widely-spaced plants and interspace biological soil crusts in these regions provide soil nutrients in a localized fashion, creating a mosaic pattern of plant- or crust-associated microhabitats with distinct nutrient composition. With sporadic and limited rainfall, nutrients are primarily retained in the shallow surface soil, patterning biological activity. We examined soil bacterial and fungal community responses to simulated nitrogen (N) deposition in an arid Larrea tridentata-Ambrosia dumosa field experiment in southern Nevada, USA, using high-throughput sequencing ofmore » ribosomal RNA genes. To examine potential interactions among the N application, microhabitat and soil depth, we sampled soils associated with shrub canopies and interspace biological crusts at two soil depths (0–0.5 or 0–10 cm) across the N-amendment gradient (0, 7, and 15 kg ha–1 yr–1). We hypothesized that localized compositional differences in soil microbiota would constrain the impacts of N addition to a microhabitat distribution that would reflect highly localized geochemical conditions and microbial community composition. The richness and community composition of both bacterial and fungal communities differed significantly by microhabitat and with soil depth in each microhabitat. Only bacterial communities exhibited significant responses to the N addition. Community composition correlated with microhabitat and depth differences in soil geochemical features. Provided the distinct roles of soil bacteria and fungi in major nutrient cycles, the resilience of fungi and sensitivity of bacteria to N amendments suggests that increased N input predicted for many arid ecosystems could shift nutrient cycling toward pathways driven primarily by fungal communities.« less

  8. Soil bacterial and fungal community responses to nitrogen addition across soil depth and microhabitat in an arid shrubland

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, Rebecca C.; Belnap, Jayne; Kuske, Cheryl R.

    2015-09-04

    Arid shrublands are stressful environments, typified by alkaline soils low in organic matter, with biologically-limiting extremes in water availability, temperature, and UV radiation. The widely-spaced plants and interspace biological soil crusts in these regions provide soil nutrients in a localized fashion, creating a mosaic pattern of plant- or crust-associated microhabitats with distinct nutrient composition. With sporadic and limited rainfall, nutrients are primarily retained in the shallow surface soil, patterning biological activity. We examined soil bacterial and fungal community responses to simulated nitrogen (N) deposition in an arid Larrea tridentata-Ambrosia dumosa field experiment in southern Nevada, USA, using high-throughput sequencing of ribosomal RNA genes. To examine potential interactions among the N application, microhabitat and soil depth, we sampled soils associated with shrub canopies and interspace biological crusts at two soil depths (0–0.5 or 0–10 cm) across the N-amendment gradient (0, 7, and 15 kg ha–1 yr–1). We hypothesized that localized compositional differences in soil microbiota would constrain the impacts of N addition to a microhabitat distribution that would reflect highly localized geochemical conditions and microbial community composition. The richness and community composition of both bacterial and fungal communities differed significantly by microhabitat and with soil depth in each microhabitat. Only bacterial communities exhibited significant responses to the N addition. Community composition correlated with microhabitat and depth differences in soil geochemical features. Provided the distinct roles of soil bacteria and fungi in major nutrient cycles, the resilience of fungi and sensitivity of bacteria to N amendments suggests that increased N input predicted for many arid ecosystems could shift nutrient cycling toward pathways driven primarily by fungal communities.

  9. Significance of microhabitat heterogeneity in the spatial pattern and size-class structure of Anastatica hierochuntica L.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hegazy, Ahmad K.; Kabiel, Hanan F.

    2007-05-01

    Anastatica hierochuntica L. (Brassicaceae) is a desert monocarpic annual species characterized by a topochory/ombrohydrochory type of seed dispersal. The hygrochastic nature of the dry skeletons (dead individuals) permits controlling seed dispersal by rain events. The amount of dispersed seeds is proportional to the intensity of rainfall. When light showers occur, seeds are released and remain in the site. Seeds dispersed in the vicinity of the mother or source plant (primary type of seed dispersal) resulted in clumped pattern and complicated interrelationships among size-classes of the population. Following heavy rainfall, most seeds are released and transported into small patches and shallow depressions which collect runoff water. The dead A. hierochuntica skeletons demonstrate site-dependent size-class structure, spatial pattern and spatial interrelationships in different microhabitats. Four microhabitat types have been sampled: runnels, patches and simple and compound depressions in two sites (gravel and sand). Ripley's K-function was used to analyze the spatial pattern in populations of A. hierochuntica skeletons in the study microhabitats. Clumped patterns were observed in nearly all of the study microhabitats. Populations of A. hierochuntica in the sand site were more productive than in the gravel site and usually had more individuals in the larger size-classes. In the compound-depression microhabitat, the degree of clumping decreased from the core zone to the intermediate zone then shifted into overdispersed pattern in the outer zone. At the within size-class level, the clumped pattern dominated in small size classes but shifted into random and overdispersed patterns in the larger size classes. Aggregation between small and large size-classes was not well-defined but large individuals were found closer to the smaller individuals than to those of their own class. In relation to the phytomass and the size-class structure, the outer zone of the simple

  10. Soil bacterial and fungal community responses to nitrogen addition across soil depth and microhabitat in an arid shrubland

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Rebecca C.; Belnap, Jayne; Kuske, Cheryl R.

    2015-01-01

    Arid shrublands are stressful environments, typified by alkaline soils low in organic matter, with biologically-limiting extremes in water availability, temperature, and UV radiation. The widely-spaced plants and interspace biological soil crusts in these regions provide soil nutrients in a localized fashion, creating a mosaic pattern of plant- or crust-associated microhabitats with distinct nutrient composition. With sporadic and limited rainfall, nutrients are primarily retained in the shallow surface soil, patterning biological activity. We examined soil bacterial and fungal community responses to simulated nitrogen (N) deposition in an arid Larrea tridentata-Ambrosia dumosa field experiment in southern Nevada, USA, using high-throughput sequencing of ribosomal RNA genes. To examine potential interactions among the N application, microhabitat and soil depth, we sampled soils associated with shrub canopies and interspace biological crusts at two soil depths (0–0.5 or 0–10 cm) across the N-amendment gradient (0, 7, and 15 kg ha−1 yr−1). We hypothesized that localized compositional differences in soil microbiota would constrain the impacts of N addition to a microhabitat distribution that would reflect highly localized geochemical conditions and microbial community composition. The richness and community composition of both bacterial and fungal communities differed significantly by microhabitat and with soil depth in each microhabitat. Only bacterial communities exhibited significant responses to the N addition. Community composition correlated with microhabitat and depth differences in soil geochemical features. Given the distinct roles of soil bacteria and fungi in major nutrient cycles, the resilience of fungi and sensitivity of bacteria to N amendments suggests that increased N input predicted for many arid ecosystems could shift nutrient cycling toward pathways driven primarily by fungal communities. PMID:26388845

  11. Soil bacterial and fungal community responses to nitrogen addition across soil depth and microhabitat in an arid shrubland.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Rebecca C; Belnap, Jayne; Kuske, Cheryl R

    2015-01-01

    Arid shrublands are stressful environments, typified by alkaline soils low in organic matter, with biologically-limiting extremes in water availability, temperature, and UV radiation. The widely-spaced plants and interspace biological soil crusts in these regions provide soil nutrients in a localized fashion, creating a mosaic pattern of plant- or crust-associated microhabitats with distinct nutrient composition. With sporadic and limited rainfall, nutrients are primarily retained in the shallow surface soil, patterning biological activity. We examined soil bacterial and fungal community responses to simulated nitrogen (N) deposition in an arid Larrea tridentata-Ambrosia dumosa field experiment in southern Nevada, USA, using high-throughput sequencing of ribosomal RNA genes. To examine potential interactions among the N application, microhabitat and soil depth, we sampled soils associated with shrub canopies and interspace biological crusts at two soil depths (0-0.5 or 0-10 cm) across the N-amendment gradient (0, 7, and 15 kg ha(-1) yr(-1)). We hypothesized that localized compositional differences in soil microbiota would constrain the impacts of N addition to a microhabitat distribution that would reflect highly localized geochemical conditions and microbial community composition. The richness and community composition of both bacterial and fungal communities differed significantly by microhabitat and with soil depth in each microhabitat. Only bacterial communities exhibited significant responses to the N addition. Community composition correlated with microhabitat and depth differences in soil geochemical features. Given the distinct roles of soil bacteria and fungi in major nutrient cycles, the resilience of fungi and sensitivity of bacteria to N amendments suggests that increased N input predicted for many arid ecosystems could shift nutrient cycling toward pathways driven primarily by fungal communities. PMID:26388845

  12. Microhabitat use, home range, and movements of the alligator snapping turtle, Macrochelys temminckii, in Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Riedle, J.D.; Shipman, P.A.; Fox, S. F.; Leslie, David M., Jr.

    2006-01-01

    Little is known about the ecology of the alligator snapping turtle, Macrochelys temminckii, particularly dentography and behavior. To learn more about the species in Oklahoma, we conducted a telemetry project on 2 small streams at Sequoyah National Wildlife Refuge, an 8,417.5-ha refuge located in east-central Oklahoma. Between June 1999 and August 2000, we fitted 19 M. temminckii with ultrasonic telemetry tags and studied turtle movements and microhahitat use. Turtles were checked 2 to 3 times weekly in summer and sporadically in winter. Several microhabitat variables were measured at each turtle location and a random location to help quantify microhabitat use vs. availability. We recorded 147 turtle locations. Turtles were always associated with submerged cover with a high percentage of overhead canopy cover. Turtles used deeper depths in late summer (but not deeper depths than random locations) and deeper depths in mid-winter (and deeper depths than random locations) than in early summer. They used shallower depths than random locations in early summer. This seasonal shift in depth use might be thermoregulatory, although evidence for this is indirect. The mean linear home range for all turtles was 777.8 m. Females had larger home ranges than males, and juveniles had larger home ranges than adults, although the latter was not statistically significant. Macrochelys temminckii used submerged structures as a core site, and stayed at each core site for an average of 12.3 d.

  13. Larval microhabitats of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) in an endemic focus of visceral leishmaniasis in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Ferro, C; Pardo, R; Torres, M; Morrison, A C

    1997-11-01

    An intensive search for the larval habitats of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva) was conducted from November 1992 to October 1993 at a small rural community in Colombia where American visceral leishmaniasis is endemic. Emergence traps constructed from polyvinyl chloride pipes were used to sample a variety of soil microhabitats that included edge areas of covered pigpens, cattle corrals, the base of trees, and leaf litter at sites within 40 m of a house, rocks in fields located between 50 and 500 m from houses, and sites within a patch of secondary forest (rocks, base of palm trees, and leaf litter). The teneral status of the sand flies captured in the emergence traps was confirmed by laboratory studies that determined the rate of terminalia rotation in male L. longipalpis and the rate of cuticular growth layer formation of the thoracic phragma in both sexes of this species. A total of 58 teneral sand flies was captured during the study period (49 wk). Fifteen specimens were L. longipalpis; of these 11 (5 sand flies per square meter) were captured near pigpens, 3 (1.4 sand flies per square meter) were captured near rock resting sites, and 1 (1.6 sand flies per square meter) was collected at the base of a tree. The remainder of the sand flies were either L. trinidadensis (Newstead) or L. cayennensis (Flock & Abonnenc). Our results indicate that L. longipalpis larvae were dispersed widely in sites near houses, rather than concentrated in a few optimal microhabitats. PMID:9439128

  14. Use of Reproductive Microhabitat by Melanophryniscus montevidensis (Anura: Bufonidae) from Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Gisela; Maneyro, Raúl

    2016-08-01

    This study describes the reproductive microhabitat of Melanophryniscus montevidensis and its use in two water bodies (WBs) in Barra de la Laguna de Rocha, Uruguay. Monthly field trips were performed between March 2012 and February 2013. Variables related to the WBs and vegetation, as well as parameters linked to the usage the amphibians make of the site (e.g: distance to the border of the pond, water depth and the vegetation use) were recorded. The behavior shown by the individuals during the breeding activity was recorded. This activity occurs in shallow temporary WBs with abundant hydrophilic vegetation. The individuals were found more frequently in areas near the edge of the pond, which has denser vegetation. The calling males were found closer to the border of the pond, and they showed better body condition than the non-calling males. In addition to calling activities, males used alternative tactics to find couples, such as active search of females, and aggressive behaviors, such as male displacing and physical combat. Such behaviors are common in anurans with explosive reproductive dynamics. The characterization of the reproductive microhabitats permits the proposal of strategies for the conservation of the species in Uruguay, given that the loss and fragmentation of habitats is one of the main causes considered for the decrease in their populations. PMID:27498792

  15. Microhabitat and shrimp abundance within a Norwegian cold-water coral ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purser, A.; Ontrup, J.; Schoening, T.; Thomsen, L.; Tong, R.; Unnithan, V.; Nattkemper, T. W.

    2013-02-01

    Cold-water coral reefs are highly heterogeneous ecosystems comprising of a range of diverse microhabitats. In a typical European cold-water coral reef various biogenic habitats (live colonies of locally common coral species such as Lophelia pertusa, Paragorgia arborea and Primnoa resedaeformis, dead coral structure, coral rubble) may be surrounded and intermixed with non-biogenic habitats (soft sediment, hardground, gravel/pebbles, steep walls). To date, studies of distribution of sessile fauna across these microhabitats have been more numerous than those investigating mobile fauna distribution. In this study we quantified shrimp densities associated with key CWC habitat categories at the Røst reef, Norway, by analysing image data collected by towed video sled. We also investigated shrimp distribution patterns on the local scale (<40 cm) and how these may vary with habitat. We found shrimp abundances at the Røst reef to be on average an order of magnitude greater in biogenic reef habitats than in non-biogenic habitats. Greatest shrimp densities were observed in association with live Paragorgia arborea habitats (43 shrimp m-2, SD = 35.5), live Primnoa resedaeformis habitats (41.6 shrimp m-2, SD = 26.1) and live Lophelia pertusa habitats (24.4 shrimp m-2, SD = 18.6). In non-biogenic habitats shrimp densities were <2 shrimp m-2. We conclude that CWC reef habitats clearly support greater shrimp densities than the surrounding non-biogenic habitats on the Norwegian margin.

  16. Plant community structure of the Upper Pennsylvanian Duquesne coal: Distinguishing microhabitats from the peat

    SciTech Connect

    Pryor, J.S. )

    1991-01-01

    Autochthonous and allochthonous coal balls occur within the single outcrop of the Upper Pennsylvanian (Stephanian B equivalent) Duquesne coal located near Steubenville, Ohio. The autochthonous coal balls, which occur in a single layer within the thin coal, were sampled by treating the outcrop as a linear transect through an in situ deltaic peat-accumulating swamp. Coal balls manually excavated from zones (defined laterally along the coal seam) were examined and quantified in terms of whole-plant species, and content of pyrite and fusain. Species-area curves show that species diversity varies among zones. The amount of material needed to form an adequate sample varies from 1,500 cm{sup 2} to 7,000 cm{sup 2} of bulk surface area, depending on the zone. These lateral floristic differences are interpreted to represent differences in microhabitats within the swamp. Specific changes between layers within an autochthonous zone are interpreted as changes in the flora through ecological time. Qualitative analysis of successional trends within the autochthonous zones indicates a consistent pattern of species turnover. Multivariate statistical analysis of floristic and mineralogical differences among autochthonous zones, along with comparison of autochthonous with allochthonous zones suggest that microhabitats can be detected within the swamp.

  17. Materials Development and Evaluation of Selective Laser Sintering Manufacturing Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Peter F.; Mitchell, Russell R.

    1997-01-15

    This report summarizes the FY96 accomplishments for CRADA No. LA95C10254, "Materials Development and Evaluation of Laser Sintering Manufacturing Applications". To research the potential for processing additional materials using DTM Corporations Selective Laser Sintering rapid prototyping technology and evaluate the capability for rapid manufacturing applications, the following materials were processed experimentally using the Sinterstation 2000 platform; Linear Low Density Polyethylene thermoplastic; Polypropylene thermoplastic; Polysulfone thermoplastic; Polymethylpentene (TPX) thermoplastic; Carbon microsphere filled nylon 11; "APO-BMI" Apocure bismaleimide thermoset polyimide glass m.icrosphere filled and carbon microsphere filled formulations; and 900-24 physical properties mock for plastic bonded TATB high explosive These materials have been successfully processed to a "proof of concept" level or better (with the exception of No. 7). While none of these materials have been introduced as a standard product as of this date, the potential to do so is viable. Present status of materials processing efforts is presented in Section A 2.0. Some recent efforts in manufacturing applications is discussed in Section A 4.0.

  18. Helium mining on the Moon: Site selection and evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cameron, Eugene N.

    1992-01-01

    The feasibility of recovering helium (He) from the Moon as a source of fusion energy on Earth is currently being studied at the University of Wisconsin. Part of this study is selection and evaluation of potential sites for lunar He mining. Selection and evaluation of potential mining sites are based on four salient findings by various investigators of lunar samples: (1) Regoliths from areas underlain by highland materials contain less than 20 wppm He; (2) Certain maria regoliths contain less than 20 wppm He, but other contain 25 to 49 wppm; (3) The He content of a mare regolith is a function of its composition; regoliths rich in Ti are relatively rich in He; and (4) He is concentrated in the less than 100-micron size fractions of regoliths. The first three findings suggest that maria are the most promising mining sites, specifically, those that have high-Ti regoliths. Information on the regional distribution and extent of high-Ti regoliths comes mainly from two sources: direct sampling by various Apollo and Luna missions, and remote sensing by gamma-ray spectroscopy and Earth-based measurements of lunar spectral reflectance. Sampling provides essential control on calibration and interpretation of data from remote sensing. These data indicate that Mare Tranquillitatis is the principal area of high-Ti regolith of the eastern nearside, but large areas of high-Ti regolith are indicated in the Imbrium and Procellarum regions. Recovery of significant amounts of He-3 will require mining billions of tonnes of regolith. Large individual areas suitable for mining must therefore be delineated. The concentration of He in the finer size fractions and considerations of ease of mining mean that mining areas must be as free as possible of sizable craters and blocks of rock. Pending additional lunar missions, information regarding these features must be obtained from lunar photographs, photogeologic maps, and radar surveys. The present study is decidedly preliminary; available

  19. Geomorphic Segmentation, Hydraulic Geometry, and Hydraulic Microhabitats of the Niobrara River, Nebraska - Methods and Initial Results

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alexander, Jason S.; Zelt, Ronald B.; Schaepe, Nathaniel J.

    2009-01-01

    The Niobrara River of Nebraska is a geologically, ecologically, and economically significant resource. The State of Nebraska has recognized the need to better manage the surface- and ground-water resources of the Niobrara River so they are sustainable in the long term. In cooperation with the Nebraska Game and Parks Commission, the U.S. Geological Survey is investigating the hydrogeomorphic settings and hydraulic geometry of the Niobrara River to assist in characterizing the types of broad-scale physical habitat attributes that may be of importance to the ecological resources of the river system. This report includes an inventory of surface-water and ground-water hydrology data, surface water-quality data, a longitudinal geomorphic segmentation and characterization of the main channel and its valley, and hydraulic geometry relations for the 330-mile section of the Niobrara River from Dunlap Diversion Dam in western Nebraska to the Missouri River confluence. Hydraulic microhabitats also were analyzed using available data from discharge measurements to demonstrate the potential application of these data and analysis methods. The main channel of the Niobrara was partitioned into three distinct fluvial geomorphic provinces: an upper province characterized by open valleys and a sinuous, equiwidth channel; a central province characterized by mixed valley and channel settings, including several entrenched canyon reaches; and a lower province where the valley is wide, yet restricted, but the river also is wide and persistently braided. Within the three fluvial geomorphic provinces, 36 geomorphic segments were identified using a customized, process-orientated classification scheme, which described the basic physical characteristics of the Niobrara River and its valley. Analysis of the longitudinal slope characteristics indicated that the Niobrara River longitudinal profile may be largely bedrock-controlled, with slope inflections co-located at changes in bedrock type at

  20. Microhabitat Effects on N2O Emissions from Floodplain Soils under Controlled Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ley, Martin; Lehmann, Moritz; Niklaus, Pascal; Frey, Beat; Kuhn, Thomas; Luster, Jörg

    2015-04-01

    Semi-terrestrial soils such as floodplain soils are considered to be potential hotspots of nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions. The quantitative assessment of N2O release from these hot spots under field conditions, and of the microbial pathways that underlie net N2O production (ammonium oxidation, nitrifier-denitrification, and denitrification) is challenging in the environment because of the high spatial and temporal variability. The production and consumption of N2O appears to be linked to the presence or absence of micro-niches, providing specific conditions that may be favorable to either of the microbial pathways that produce or consume N2O. The availability of oxygen, reactive organic carbon, and dissolved nitrogen substrates likely play key roles with regards to the net production of N2O. Previous field studies demonstrated, for example, that flooding can trigger "hot moments" of enhanced N2O emission through a close coupling of niches with high and low oxygen availabilities. Such microhabitat effects likely depend on soil aggregate formation, plant soil interactions in the rhizosphere and the degradation of organic matter accumulations. In order to assess how these factors can modulate N2O production and consumption under simulated flooding/drying conditions, we have set up a mesocosm experiment with model soils comprising various mixtures of N-rich floodplain soil aggregates (4000 - 250 µm representing large aggregates, or <250 µm representing small aggregates) and inert matrix material (glass beads of 150 - 250 µm size, or quartz sand of 2000 - 3200 µm size, respectively). Soils containing the different aggregate size groups were either planted with willow (Salix viminalis L.), mixed with leaf litter or left untreated. At several time points before, during and after a simulated flood event, we measure the net efflux rate of N2O. In addition, soil water content, redox potential as well as carbon and nitrogen substrate availability are monitored. In order to

  1. Antimicrobial evaluation of selected naturally occurring oxyprenylated secondary metabolites.

    PubMed

    Di Giulio, Mara; Genovese, Salvatore; Fiorito, Serena; Epifano, Francesco; Nostro, Antonia; Cellini, Luigina

    2016-08-01

    This study tested the antimicrobial activity of eight selected naturally occurring oxyprenylated secondary metabolites against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, S. epidermidis ATCC 35984, Escherichia coli ATCC 8739, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027 and Candida albicans ATCC 10231. Results showed a moderate antimicrobial activity. The most active compounds were 3-(4-geranyloxyphenyl)-1-ethanol (4) and 3-(4-isopentenyloxyphenyl)-1-propanol (5) that were tested on mature and in-formation biofilms of all micro-organisms, moreover the cytotoxic activity was evaluated. Except for S. epidermidis, both compounds reduced significantly (p < 0.05) the microbial biofilm formation at 1/2 MIC and 1/4 MIC, in particular, compounds 4 and 5 at each concentration, inhibited E. coli biofilm formation to a greater extent, the biofilm formation was never more than 44% in respect to the control, moreover both compounds showed a low cytotoxic effect. Oxyprenylated derivatives may be of great interest for the development of novel antimicrobial therapeutic strategies and the synthesis of semi-synthetic analogues with anti-biofilm efficacy. PMID:27498831

  2. Hot piston ring/cylinder liner materials: Selection and evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sliney, Harold E.

    1988-01-01

    In current designs of the automotive (kinematic) Stirling engine, the piston rings are made of a reinforced polymer and are located below the pistons because they cannot withstand the high temperatures in the upper cylinder area. Theoretically, efficiency could be improved if hot piston rings were located near the top of the pistons. Described is a program to select piston ring and cylinder coating materials to test this theory. Candidate materials were screened, then subjected to a pin or disk friction and wear test machine. Tests were performed in hydrogen at specimen temperatures up to 760 C to simulate environmental conditions in the region of the hot piston ring reversal. Based on the results of these tests, a cobalt based alloy, Stellite 6B, was chosen for the piston rings and PS200, which consists of a metal-bonded chromium carbide matrix with dispersed solid lubricants, was chosen as the cylinder coating. Tests of a modified engine and a baseline engine showed that the hot ring reduced specific fuel consumption by up to 7 percent for some operating conditions and averaged about 3 percent for all conditions evaluated. Related applications of high-temperature coatings for shaft seals and as back-up lubricants are also described.

  3. Evaluating Professional Development Resources: Selection and Development Criteria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Renee; Dlott, Mike; Bamford, Heather; McGivern, Jennifer; Cohn, Marisa

    Program and professional development staff in adult education currently employ a variety of strategies to select professional development materials, but generally lack a systematic selection approach. Selections are often based on familiarity rather than quality or how well-suited the materials are to the learning goals of instructors and the…

  4. Summer microhabitat use by adult and young-of-year snail darters (Percina tanasi) in two rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ashton, M.J.; Layzer, J.B.

    2010-01-01

    We characterised microhabitat availability and use by adult and young-of-year (YOY) snail darters (Percina tanasiEtnier 1976) while snorkelling in the French Broad and Hiwassee rivers, TN, USA. Both age groups of snail darters disproportionately used most microhabitat variables compared to their availability. Snail darters primarily occupied moderately deep, swift water over gravel substrates with little macrophyte coverage and no silt. Univariate comparisons indicated that adult and YOY darters occupied different habitat, but there was no marked differences between principal components analysis plots of multivariate microhabitat use within a river. Although the availability of microhabitat variables differed between the French Broad and Hiwassee rivers, univariate means and multivariate plots illustrated that the habitats used were generally similar by age groups of snail darters between rivers. Because our observations of habitat availability and use were constrained to low flow periods and depths <1 m, the transferability of our results to higher flow periods may be limited. However, the similarity in habitat use between rivers suggests that our results can be applied to low-normal flow conditions in other streams. ?? Published 2010. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  5. Summer microhabitat use by adult and young-of-year snail darters (Percina tanasi) in two rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ashton, M.J.; Layzer, James B.

    2010-01-01

    We characterised microhabitat availability and use by adult and young-of-year (YOY) snail darters (Percina tanasi Etnier 1976) while snorkelling in the French Broad and Hiwassee rivers, TN, USA. Both age groups of snail darters disproportionately used most microhabitat variables compared to their availability. Snail darters primarily occupied moderately deep, swift water over gravel substrates with little macrophyte coverage and no silt. Univariate comparisons indicated that adult and YOY darters occupied different habitat, but there was no marked differences between principal components analysis plots of multivariate microhabitat use within a river. Although the availability of microhabitat variables differed between the French Broad and Hiwassee rivers, univariate means and multivariate plots illustrated that the habitats used were generally similar by age groups of snail darters between rivers. Because our observations of habitat availability and use were constrained to low flow periods and depths <1 m, the transferability of our results to higher flow periods may be limited. However, the similarity in habitat use between rivers suggests that our results can be applied to low-normal flow conditions in other streams.

  6. Study of the selection of indicator parameters in marine water quality evaluation and the evaluation methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ying; Pan, Delu; Wang, Difeng; Fu, Dongyang

    2014-10-01

    In order to obtain the indicator types which must be introduced in marine water quality evaluation as well as the suitable evaluation methodology, GB3097-1997 National Marine Water Quality Standards is, in the first place, analyzed to establish a hypothetical sample which is consisting of 2000 stances, each stance containing the information of 21 indicators. And then a stepwise discriminant method is utilized to filter the 21 indicators in accordance with their water quality classification discriminant abilities. And finally, 6 indicators with significant discriminant ability, biochemical oxygen demand(BOD5), oil type(Oil), total phosphorus(P), cadmium(Cd), cyanide(HH) and chemical oxygen demand(COD), are selected and the water quality evaluation chart of the corresponding six indicators is also established. Theoretically, the water quality indicator types and the suitable evaluation methodology, which must be introduced when the water quality evaluation is done in all the waters under the jurisdiction of China, are discussed in this paper, providing theoretical basis for the subsequent marine water quality evaluation based on field observation.

  7. 36 CFR 51.16 - How will the Director evaluate proposals and select the best one?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... evaluate proposals and select the best one? 51.16 Section 51.16 Parks, Forests, and Public Property... Procedures § 51.16 How will the Director evaluate proposals and select the best one? (a) The Director will apply the selection factors set forth in § 51.17 by assessing each timely proposal under each of...

  8. 36 CFR 51.16 - How will the Director evaluate proposals and select the best one?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... evaluate proposals and select the best one? 51.16 Section 51.16 Parks, Forests, and Public Property... Procedures § 51.16 How will the Director evaluate proposals and select the best one? (a) The Director will apply the selection factors set forth in § 51.17 by assessing each timely proposal under each of...

  9. Diaspore bank of bryophytes in tropical rain forests: the importance of breeding system, phylum and microhabitat.

    PubMed

    Maciel-Silva, Adaíses S; Válio, Ivany Ferraz Marques; Rydin, Håkan

    2012-02-01

    Diaspore banks are crucial for the maintenance and resilience of plant communities, but diaspore banks of bryophytes remain poorly known, especially from tropical ecosystems. This is the first study to focus on the role of diaspore banks of bryophytes in tropical rain forests. Our aim was to test whether microhabitat (substrate type) and species traits (breeding system, phylum) are important in explaining the diaspore bank composition. Using samples cultivated in the laboratory, we assessed the number of species and shoots emerging from bark, decaying wood and soil from two sites of the Atlantic rain forest (montane and sea level) in Brazil by comparing the contribution of species by phylum (mosses, liverworts) and breeding system (monoicous, dioicous). More species emerged from bark (68) and decaying wood (55) than from soil (22). Similar numbers of species were found at both sites. Mosses were more numerous in terms of number of species and shoots, and monoicous species dominated over dioicous species. Substrate pH had only weak effects on shoot emergence. Species commonly producing sporophytes and gemmae had a high contribution to the diaspore banks. These superficial diaspore banks represented the extant vegetation rather well, but held more monoicous species (probably short-lived species) compared to dioicous ones. We propose that diaspore bank dynamics are driven by species traits and microhabitat characteristics, and that short-term diaspore banks of bryophytes in tropical rain forests contribute to fast (re)establishment of species after disturbances and during succession, particularly dioicous mosses investing in asexual reproduction and monoicous mosses investing in sexual reproduction. PMID:21842162

  10. Inflorescences of Neotropical herbs as a newly discovered microhabitat for myxomycetes.

    PubMed

    Schnittler, Martin; Stephenson, Steven L

    2002-01-01

    An assemblage of myxomycetes associated with inflorescences of large Neotropical herbs, a microhabitat not previously known to support these organisms, is described and characterized ecologically from a number of study sites in Costa Rica, Ecuador, and Puerto Rico. Thirty-one different taxa were found among 652 specimens of myxomycetes recorded in the field or obtained from 358 moist chamber cultures prepared with decaying floral parts. A comparison with the results of 696 moist chamber cultures prepared with various other litter substrates showed that thirteen myxomycete taxa occurred more often on inflorescences. Six taxa had a strong preference for this microhabitat, and three of those seem to be new for the Neotropics. Correspondence analysis of the data set compiled for inflorescences indicated that the assemblage of myxomycetes was relatively consistent across all of the various study sites. The actual myxomycete substrates were the rapidly decaying floral parts enclosed by the massive, still living bracts. Richest in myxomycetes were species of Heliconia and Costus. Here, nectar residuals probably promoted a rapidly developing community of yeasts and bacteria. A high density of these organisms was indicated by the frequent occurrence of myxobacteria in the moist chamber cultures prepared with floral parts. Results from canonical correspondence analysis suggested that a substrate pH between 8 and 9 and the presence of massive, compact inflorescences on plants occurring at lower elevations in localities with moderate annual rainfall provide optimal conditions for inflorescence-inhabiting myxomycetes. An incidental dispersal of myxomycete spores by birds that pollinate the flowers or feed upon the fruits seems possible and may have accounted for the high degree of preference exhibited by some of the inflorescence-inhabiting myxomycetes, for which the term "floricolous" is proposed. PMID:21156473

  11. Thermal characteristics of amphibian microhabitats in a fire-disturbed landscape

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hossack, B.R.; Eby, L.A.; Guscio, C.G.; Corn, P.S.

    2009-01-01

    Disturbance has long been a central issue in amphibian conservation, often regarding negative effects of logging or other forest management activities, but some amphibians seem to prefer disturbed habitats. After documenting increased use of recently burned forests by boreal toads (Bufo boreas), we hypothesized that burned habitats provided improved thermal opportunities in terrestrial habitats. We tested this hypothesis by conducting a radio telemetry study of habitat use (reported previously) and by using physical models that simulated the temperature of adult toads. We deployed 108 physical models in and adjacent to a 1-year old burn using a fully-replicated design with three burn severities (unburned, partial, high severity) and four microhabitats (open surface, under vegetation, under log, in burrow). Model temperatures were compared to a range of preferred temperatures in published studies. We found 70% more observations within the preferred temperature range of B. boreas in forests burned with high severity than in unburned areas. Burned forest was warmer than unburned forest across all microhabitats, but the largest relative difference was in burrows, which averaged 3 ??C warmer in high-severity burn areas and remained warmer though the night. More than twice as many observations were within the preferred temperature range in high-severity burrows than in unburned burrows. Areas burned with high severity were still warmer than unburned forest 3 years after the fire. Habitat use of toads during the concurrent radio telemetry study matched that predicted by the physical models. These results suggest there are fitness-linked benefits to toads using burned habitats, such as increased growth, fertility, and possibly disease resistance. However, increased soil temperatures that result from wildfire may be detrimental to other amphibian species that prefer cooler temperatures and stable environments. More broadly, our data illustrate the use of physical models to

  12. Development and Evaluation of the Conceptual Inventory of Natural Selection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Dianne L.; Fisher, Kathleen M.; Norman, Gregory J.

    2002-01-01

    Presents a diagnostic test to assess students' understanding of natural selection. Field-tests the Conceptual Inventory of Natural Selection (CINS) with nonmajors and biology majors at community colleges. Compares test scores of nonmajors with performances in interviews and discusses the correlation between the test scores and the interview…

  13. Evaluation Concepts and Practices in Selected Distance Education Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuemer, Rudolf, Ed.

    This report contains, in addition to the introduction and preface, 13 papers written by individuals working in the field of evaluation who present the concepts and practices of evaluation at their own particular distance education institutions. The introduction (Schuemer) gives a short outline of the evaluation nomenclature and an overview of the…

  14. Evaluation of cesium selective media at the Callaway Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, B.

    1996-10-01

    Based on the desire to lower costs, public dose and in-plant exposure, Callaway Nuclear Plant evaluated the prospect of changing their liquid waste processing from evaporation to demineralization. Approximately 95% of Callaway`s annual dose to the total body can be attributed to cesium. During normal plant operations, Callaway`s influent Cs-137 level averages 3E{minus}5 {mu}Ci/ml. During episodes of failed fuel, Cs-137 rises to approximately 3E{minus}3 {mu}Ci/ml. Plant criteria specify that the Cs-137 effluent remain below 5E{minus}7 (average Minimum Detectable Activity) to maintain the required 1% dose to the public (exclusive of tritium). From February, 1995 through February, 1996, extensive testing of the capacities and associated Decontamination Factors (DF) for cesium specific media were conducted. Two media were selected for testing based on their capacity for cesium in high conductivity water. During bench scale testing, one media, CsTreat, performed well below the 1% dose parameter (0.2%) during the equivalent of processing 28,300 gallon/cu ft media. The test was ended based on time constraints rather than loss of ion exchange capacity. At the end of processing this 28,300 gallon/cu ft equivalent, the effluent Cs-137 level remained below MDA. The same test bed was then subjected to simulated waste water that would be seen during a cycle with significant fuel failures. Callaway chemists injected Cs-137 into their Floor Drain Tank (FDT) water increasing the influent level to 1.6E{minus}2 {mu}Ci/ml. The effluent Cs-137 level was measured at 3.5E{minus}6 {mu}Ci/ml giving an associated DF of 3949. Anticipated DF for full scale application is 5000 to 10000, which would maintain Callaway below the 1% dose goal for effluent during a cycle with failed fuel. Based on these results and the associated cost benefit, Callaway Plant will switch their radwaste processing from evaporation to filtration and ion exchange including CsTreat media.

  15. Ecohydrological model parameter selection for stream health evaluation.

    PubMed

    Woznicki, Sean A; Nejadhashemi, A Pouyan; Ross, Dennis M; Zhang, Zhen; Wang, Lizhu; Esfahanian, Abdol-Hossein

    2015-04-01

    Variable selection is a critical step in development of empirical stream health prediction models. This study develops a framework for selecting important in-stream variables to predict four measures of biological integrity: total number of Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera (EPT) taxa, family index of biotic integrity (FIBI), Hilsenhoff biotic integrity (HBI), and fish index of biotic integrity (IBI). Over 200 flow regime and water quality variables were calculated using the Hydrologic Index Tool (HIT) and Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). Streams of the River Raisin watershed in Michigan were grouped using the Strahler stream classification system (orders 1-3 and orders 4-6), k-means clustering technique (two clusters: C1 and C2), and all streams (one grouping). For each grouping, variable selection was performed using Bayesian variable selection, principal component analysis, and Spearman's rank correlation. Following selection of best variable sets, models were developed to predict the measures of biological integrity using adaptive-neuro fuzzy inference systems (ANFIS), a technique well-suited to complex, nonlinear ecological problems. Multiple unique variable sets were identified, all which differed by selection method and stream grouping. Final best models were mostly built using the Bayesian variable selection method. The most effective stream grouping method varied by health measure, although k-means clustering and grouping by stream order were always superior to models built without grouping. Commonly selected variables were related to streamflow magnitude, rate of change, and seasonal nitrate concentration. Each best model was effective in simulating stream health observations, with EPT taxa validation R2 ranging from 0.67 to 0.92, FIBI ranging from 0.49 to 0.85, HBI from 0.56 to 0.75, and fish IBI at 0.99 for all best models. The comprehensive variable selection and modeling process proposed here is a robust method that extends our

  16. Evaluation of Selectable Markers for Rice Transformation 1

    PubMed Central

    Dekeyser, Rudy; Claes, Bart; Marichal, Malvine; Van Montagu, Marc; Caplan, Allan

    1989-01-01

    A variety of expression systems and selection régimes have been developed to transform plants such as tobacco, petunia, and tomato. We investigated several of these to determine whether the promoters and selectable markers used in dicotyledonous plants are suitable for selecting transformed rice callus. We compared transient expression driven by constitutive and regulated promoters in rice (Oryza sativa) protoplasts and found that the 2′ promoter of the octopine T-DNA is approximately 3 to 4 times more efficient than the CAMV 35S promoter, 10 times more efficient than the nos promoter and the 1′ promoter, and more than 100 times better than two other regulated plant promoters. Similar results were obtained in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) protoplasts with the exception that the nos promoter was expressed nearly 10 times better in rice. Further studies demonstrated that rice callus growth is sensitive to low concentrations of methotrexate, phosphinothricin, and bleomycin, and to moderate concentrations of G418 and hygromycin, but is only partially inhibited by relatively high concentrations of kanamycin. Finally, we tested the ability of stably introduced resistance genes to protect callus against some of the selective agents. Genes that inactivated phosphinothricin or G418 permitted transformed calli to grow almost unimpeded on toxic concentrations of these selective agents. However, a gene conferring resistance to methotrexate could not be used to select for activily growing transformants. Southern analysis of the transformed cell lines demonstrated that 50% of the transformants contained a single plasmid copy and that nearly all integrated copies showed rearrangements. These results on the use of selectable markers in rice should facilitate efforts to obtain transformants of this important grain. Images Figure 2 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:16666739

  17. Computer software evaluation methodology and data base management system selection

    SciTech Connect

    Huntley, A.F.

    1986-04-01

    This document presents a Data Base Management System (DBMS) evaluation methodology that has been developed under the sponsorship of the Department of the Navy, Naval Management Systems Support Office (NAVMASSO), Norfolk, Virginia. NAVMASSO has recognized the need for a DBMS to support the Shipboard Nontactical Automated Data Processing Program (SNAP) and has tasked Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) with evaluating DBMSs that are available for the SNAP-I computer system - a Honeywell DPS-6 minicomputer - and the SNAP-II computer system - a Harris 300 minicomputer. In preparation for the SNAP-I/SNAP-II DBMS evaluation, ORNL has developed the DBMS evaluation methodology presented in this document. First, a discussion of the traditional computer software evaluation methodology is provided, with identification of aspects of the methodology that may cause the resulting evaluation to be deficient. A DBMS evaluation methodology that stresses the layered functionality of the software is then presented. The methodology requires a large amount of hands-on testing and allows evaluation team members to evaluate the software from the perspective of application developers and end-users who will use the system on a day-to-day basis. The document contains a discussion of several general considerations that must be evaluated. These are items that form a supportive environment and enhance the usability of the software, even though they may not affect the intrinsic functionality of the software. The technical facilities that define the limits of functionality of the software are then presented for evaluation. Areas where these facilities may not meet the desired functionality are identified. 14 refs.

  18. Microhabitat Effects on N2O Emissions from Floodplain Soils under Controlled Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ley, Martin; Lehmann, Moritz F.; Niklaus, Pascal A.; Kuhn, Thomas; Luster, Jörg

    2016-04-01

    Semi-terrestrial soils such as floodplain soils are considered to be potential hotspots of nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions. The quantitative assessment of N2O release from these hotspots under field conditions, and of the microbial pathways that underlie net N2O production (ammonium oxidation, nitrifier-denitrification, and denitrification) is challenging because of their high spatial and temporal variability. The production and consumption of N2O appears to be linked to the presence or absence of micro-niches, providing specific conditions that may be favorable to either of the relevant microbial pathways. Flood events have been shown to trigger moments of enhanced N2O emission through a close coupling of niches with high and low oxygen availabilities. This coupling might be modulated by microhabitat effects related to soil aggregate formation, root soil interactions and the degradation of organic matter accumulations. In order to assess how these factors can modulate N2O production and consumption under simulated flooding/drying conditions, we have set up a mesocosm experiment with N-rich floodplain soils comprising different combinations of soil aggregate size classes and inert matrix material. These model soils were either planted with basket willow (Salix viminalis L.), mixed with leaf litter, or left untreated. Throughout a simulated flood event, we repeatedly measured the net N2O production rate. In addition, soil water content, redox potential, as well as C and N substrate availability were monitored. In order to gain insight into the sources of, and biogeochemical controls on N2O production, we also measured the bulk δ15N signature of the produced N2O, as well as its intramolecular 15N site preference (SP). In this presentation we focus on a period of enhanced N2O emission during the drying phase after 48 hrs of flooding. We will discuss the observed emission patterns in the context of possible treatment effects. Soils with large aggregates showed a

  19. Effects of Handicap and Job Characteristics on Selection Evaluations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Gerald L.; Brief, Arthur P.

    1979-01-01

    Business administration students evaluated a hypothetical job applicant who was either an amputee, an epileptic, or "normal." The hypothetical job openings varied as to levels of supervisory responsibility and public contact. With some noted exceptions, the handicapped applicants were evaluated no differently than the normal applicants.…

  20. Performance evaluation for selectivity of the flocculant on hematite in selective flocculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panda, Lopamudra; Banerjee, Pradip K.; Biswal, Surendra Kumar; Venugopal, R.; Mandre, N. R.

    2013-12-01

    Increased demand for iron ore necessitates the utilization of low-grade iron ore fines, slimes, and existing tailings. Selective flocculation can be an alternative physico-chemical process for utilizing these low-grade fines, slimes, and tailings. In selective flocculation, the most critical objective is the selection of proper reagents that will make floc of desired minerals. In present study, selective flocculation was applied to ultra-fine synthetic mixtures of hematite and kaolinite, and the Fe value was upgraded up to 65.78% with the reduction of Al2O3 and SiO2 values to 2.65% and 3.66%, respectively. Here, degraded wheat starch was used as a flocculant.In this process, separation occurs on the basis of the selectivity of the flocculant. The selectivity of the flocculant can be quantified in terms of separation efficiency. Here, an attempt was also made to develop a correlation between separation efficiency and major operating parameters such as flocculent dose, pH value, and solid concentration to predict the separation performance.

  1. 13 CFR 315.5 - TAAC scope, selection, evaluation and awards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false TAAC scope, selection, evaluation..., evaluation and awards. (a) TAAC purpose and scope. (1) TAACs are available to assist Firms in obtaining... application does not ensure funding by EDA. (c) TAAC evaluation. (1) EDA generally evaluates currently...

  2. Physicochemical characterization of the microhabitat of the epibionts associated with Alvinella pompejana, a hydrothermal vent annelid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Meo-Savoie, Carol A.; Luther, George W.; Cary, S. Craig

    2004-05-01

    Alvinella pompejana is a polychaetous annelid that inhabits narrow tubes along the walls of high-temperature hydrothermal vent chimneys. The worm hosts a rich community of epibiotic bacteria that coats its dorsal surface. Although the worm tube microhabitat is a challenging environment to sample, characterizing the thermal and geochemical regime is important for understanding the ecology of the worm and its bacteria, as the worm spends most of its time inside the tube. We characterized the physicochemical conditions of diffuse hydrothermal flow inside inhabited worm tubes using in situ analysis and wet chemical analysis of discrete water samples. Thermistor probes deployed inside worm tubes measured temperatures ranging from 28.6°C to 84.0°C, while temperatures at tube orifices ranged from 7.5°C to 40.0°C. In situ electrochemical analysis of tube fluids revealed undetectable oxygen (<5 μM) and surprisingly low levels of free H 2S (<0.2 μM), with most of the sulfide existing as aqueous FeS molecular clusters. Acid-volatile sulfide measured on discrete samples of tube fluids ranged from 62.9 to 359.3 μM, while free sulfide (H 2S) ranged from undetectable (<0.2 μM) to 46.5 μM. The pH ranged from 5.33 to 6.40, and sulfate ranged from 22.5 mM to 27.5 mM. Nitrate ranged from 13.9 to 20.0 μM, whereas ammonium ranged from 2.5 to 9.7 μM. Total Fe ranged from 72.1 to 730.2 μM. Mn, Zn, Ni, V, P, and Cu were present in micromolar amounts; Pb, Cd, Co, and Ag were present in nanomolar levels. The worm tube fluids contained between 72% to 91% of Mg concentrations typically found in deep seawater. Plots of Mg concentrations vs. other fluid components showed that the tube fluid is geochemically altered from theoretical mixing values. Values of SO 42- were enriched inside the worm tube fluids, whereas NO 3-, Sr, Mn, Fe, Zn, and acid-volatile sulfide were depleted. The geochemistry of the tube microhabitat likely influences the structure of resident microbial communities.

  3. Red-cockaded Woodpecker Picoides borealis Microhabitat Characteristics and Reproductive Success in a Loblolly-Shortleaf Pine Forest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, Douglas R.; Burger, L. Wesley, Jr.; Vilella, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) reproductive success and microhabitat characteristics in a southeastern loblolly (Pinus taeda) and shortleaf (P. echinata) pine forest. From 1997 to 1999, we recorded reproductive success parameters of 41 red-cockaded woodpecker groups at the Bienville National Forest, Mississippi. Microhabitat characteristics were measured for each group during the nesting season. Logistic regression identified understory vegetation height and small nesting season home range size as predictors of red-cockaded woodpecker nest attempts. Linear regression models identified several variables as predictors of red-cockaded woodpecker reproductive success including group density, reduced hardwood component, small nesting season home range size, and shorter foraging distances. Red-cockaded woodpecker reproductive success was correlated with habitat and behavioral characteristics that emphasize high quality habitat. By providing high quality foraging habitat during the nesting season, red-cockaded woodpeckers can successfully reproduce within small home ranges.

  4. Resource evaluation and site selection for microalgae production systems

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, E.L.; Folger, A.G.; Hogg, S.E.

    1985-05-01

    Climate, land, and water resource requirements of microalgae production systems (MPS) were examined relative to construction costs, operating costs, and biomass productivity. The objective was the stratification of the southwestern United States into zones of relative suitability for MPS. Maps of climate (insolation, freeze-free period, precipitation, evaporation, thunderstorm days), land (use/cover, ownership, slope), and water (saline groundwater) resource parameters were obtained. These maps were transformed into digital overlays permitting the cell-by-cell compositing of selected resource parameters to form maps representing relative productivity, make-up water, climate suitability, land suitability, water suitability, and overall suitability. The Southwest was selected for this study because of its high levels of insolation, saline water resources, and large areas of relatively low valued land. The stratification maps cannot be used for the selection of specific sites because of their low resolution (12,455-acre cells). They can be used to guide future resource studies and site selection efforts, however, by limiting these efforts to the most suitable regions. Future efforts should concentrate on saline water resources, for which only limited data are currently available. 13 refs., 44 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. Competency-Based Evaluation for Selecting a Counselor Educator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weitz, Lawrence J.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Describes an approach to faculty selection in a competency-based human development counseling program, the development of which enabled candidates to demonstrate their actual level of mastery for a wide range of skills associated with professional effectiveness. Successes and setbacks of this model are presented. (Author)

  6. Evaluation of larviposition site selection of Glossina brevipalpis.

    PubMed

    Renda, S; De Beer, C J; Venter, G J; Thekisoe, O M M

    2016-01-15

    Tsetse species (Diptera: Glossinidae) are vectors of trypanosome parasites which cause disease in both humans and livestock. In South Africa Glossina austeni Newstead, 1912 and G. brevipalpis Newstead, 1911 are responsible for the cyclical transmission of animal trypanosomes causing African animal trypanosomiasis also referred to as nagana. Gravid tsetse females deposit a single larva in specific sites but little information is available on biotic and abiotic factors that govern site selection. This study therefore aimed to characterize some of the substrate conditions that may influence selection of larviposition sites. Colonised, gravid female G. brevipalpis were presented with a choice of four larviposition sites. Sites differed in qualities of pH (5, 7, 9), salinity (0, 1.3, 4g/L) and the presence of other tsetse pupae (G. brevipalpis or G. austeni). These trials indicated no significant selection by gravid females with regard to pH and salinity. Females selected significantly more often for sites with pupae (P<0.05), but also favored sites containing conspecific over heterospecific pupae (P<0.05). These results present the first indication of an aggregation effect of tsetse pupae in G. brevipalpis. This may imply that G. brevipalpis larvae produce a pheromone during pupation as seen in G. morsitans morsitans. Isolation of such semio-chemicals would allow the development of larviposition traps to attract gravid females. PMID:26790743

  7. Teacher Criteria for Evaluating and Selecting Developmentally Appropriate Computer Software

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ntuli, Esther; Kyei-Blankson, Lydia

    2011-01-01

    Although many teacher training programs and school districts offer courses and workshops on technology integration in instruction, research shows that teachers still face major challenges especially as it relates to selecting and using developmentally appropriate technology to meet the needs of diverse learners. The current study examines the…

  8. Estimates of External Validity Bias When Impact Evaluations Select Sites Nonrandomly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Stephen H.; Olsen, Robert B.; Orr, Larry L.; Stuart, Elizabeth A.

    2016-01-01

    Evaluations of educational programs or interventions are typically conducted in nonrandomly selected samples of schools or districts. Recent research has shown that nonrandom site selection can yield biased impact estimates. To estimate the external validity bias from nonrandom site selection, we combine lists of school districts that were…

  9. Evaluation and comparison of selected household hazardous waste collection facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, M; Brogan, J.A.; Sepanski, L.M.

    1990-05-01

    In 1988 the City of Seattle's Office for Long-range Planning and the Solid Waste Utility implemented a permanent household hazardous waste collection program in an effort to decrease hazardous waste disposal in municipal solid and liquid waste streams. A detailed description of this program may be found in Household Hazardous Waste: Implementation of a Permanent Collection Facility,'' published by the Urban Consortium Energy Task Force. An integral part of Seattle's Household Hazardous Waste collection effort is a three part evaluation strategy that includes: an assessment of the effectiveness of the permanent facility; a comparison of the city's facility with other HHW collection programs; and a user survey to evaluate customer satisfaction and compare the Seattle and King County collection approaches. This evaluation strategy was conducted during Year 10 of the Urban Consortium Energy Task Force, and its results are document in this report. Several different collection programs were compared during the evaluation. 22 refs., 23 figs., 25 tabs.

  10. Comparison of microhabitats and foraging strategies between the captive-born Zhangxiang and wild giant pandas: implications for future reintroduction.

    PubMed

    Lei, Miaowen; Yuan, Shibin; Yang, Zisong; Hong, Mingsheng; Yang, Xuyu; Gu, Xiaodong; Huang, Feng; Zhang, Zejun

    2015-10-01

    The female giant panda Zhangxiang (pedigree number 826) was born on August 20, 2011 in Wolong Nature Reserve, China. On November 6, 2013, Zhangxiang was transported into the acclimatization enclosure in the Liziping Nature Reserve. Before Zhangxiang left the enclosure into the wild, we conducted the first study to compare microhabitats and foraging strategies between Zhangxiang in the enclosure and giant pandas in the wild. Compared with the latter, microhabitats of Zhangxiang in the enclosure are characteristic of gentler slope, more trees, higher canopy, smaller tree DBH, and lower density of living bamboos. Diet composition and foraging behaviors significantly differed between Zhangxiang and wild giant pandas, perhaps reflecting the combined consequence of environmental conditions (e.g., bamboo species) and individual status (e.g., age, mastication ability, etc.). The difference in microhabitats and foraging strategies between Zhangxiang and wild giant pandas implied that after being released into the natural habitat in the reserve, Zhangxiang will have to adapt to the environmental conditions once again. For future reintroduction, the enclosure can be extended to the Bashania spanostachya forest in the reserve, and captive giant pandas for release can thus normally transit into the wild without human intervention during acclimatization period. For other acclimatization enclosures to be constructed in the future, ecological environment inside, including topography, forests, and bamboos as well, should as possible as can match the habitat that the giant panda to-be-reinforced populations inhabit. PMID:26003090

  11. Banana leaf and glucose mineralization and soil organic matter in microhabitats of banana plantations under long-term pesticide use.

    PubMed

    Blume, Elena; Reichert, José Miguel

    2015-06-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) and microbial activity are key components of soil quality and sustainability. In the humid tropics of Costa Rica 3 pesticide regimes were studied-fungicide (low input); fungicide and herbicide (medium input); and fungicide, herbicide, and nematicide (high input)-under continuous banana cultivation for 5 yr (young) or 20 yr (old) in 3 microhabitats-nematicide ring around plants, litter pile of harvested banana, and bare area between litter pile and nematicide ring. Soil samples were incubated sequentially in the laboratory: unamended, amended with glucose, and amended with ground banana leaves. Soil organic matter varied with microhabitat, being greatest in the litter pile, where microbes had the greatest basal respiration with ground banana leaf, whereas microbes in the nematicide ring had the greatest respiration with glucose. These results suggest that soil microbes adapt to specific microhabitats. Young banana plantations had similar SOM compared with old plantations, but the former had greater basal microbial respiration in unamended and in glucose-amended soil and greater first-order mineralization rates in glucose-amended soil, thus indicating soil biological quality decline over time. High pesticide input did not decrease microbial activity or mineralization rate in surface soil. In conclusion, microbial activity in tropical volcanic soil is highly adaptable to organic and inorganic inputs. PMID:25703385

  12. Macro- and microhabitat use of Telfair's skink ( Leiolopisma telfairii) on Round Island, Mauritius: implications for their translocation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pernetta, Angelo P.; Bell, Diana J.; Jones, Carl G.

    2005-11-01

    The successful eradication of introduced rodents from islets off the coast of Mauritius has led to local conservation bodies investigating the possibility of translocation as a measure of safeguarding endemic reptile populations. The present study was the first to determine the habitat and microhabitat requirements of Telfair's skinks ( Leiolopisma telfairii) on Round Island, Mauritius, with a view to aiding future translocation projects to islands within their historic range. Contrasting preferences found for Telfair's skink at macro- and micro- habitat levels underline the importance of sampling at multiple ecological scales in such investigations. Significantly fewer sightings of L. telfairii were recorded in bare rock habitats compared to more vegetated habitats. Conversely, at a microhabitat scale principal component analysis indicated structural characteristics were the primary determinant of microhabitat choice. The first dietary analysis of Telfair's skinks confirmed their status as omnivores. Cockroaches ( Blattodea spp.) appeared to be a primary food source. Four exotic plant species were also present in faecal samples and the potential for L. telfairii to aid their dispersal is discussed. Implications for the long-term management and proposed translocation of Telfair's skinks are discussed.

  13. Evaluation of genomic selection for replacement strategies using selection index theory.

    PubMed

    Calus, M P L; Bijma, P; Veerkamp, R F

    2015-09-01

    Our objective was to investigate the economic effect of prioritizing heifers for replacement at the herd level based on genomic estimated breeding values, and to compute break-even genotyping costs across a wide range of scenarios. Specifically, we aimed to determine the optimal proportion of preselection based on parent average information for all scenarios considered. Considered replacement strategies include a range of different selection intensities by considering different numbers of heifers available for replacement (15-45 in a herd with 100 dairy cows) as well as different replacement rates (15-40%). Use of conventional versus sexed semen was considered, where the latter resulted in having twice as many heifers available for replacement. The baseline scenario relies on prioritization of replacement heifers based on parent average. The first alternative scenario involved genomic selection of heifers, considering that all heifers were genotyped. The benefits of genomic selection in this scenario were computed using a simple formula that only requires the number of lactating animals, the difference in accuracy between parent average and genomic selection (GS), and the selection intensity as input. When all heifers were genotyped, using GS for replacement of heifers was beneficial in most scenarios for current genotyping prices, provided some room exists for selection, in the sense that at least 2 more heifers are available than needed for replacement. In those scenarios, minimum break-even genotyping costs were equal to half the economic value of a standard deviation of the breeding goal. The second alternative scenario involved a preselection based on parent average, followed by GS among all the preselected heifers. It was in almost all cases beneficial to genotype all heifers when conventional semen was used (i.e., to do no preselection). The optimal proportion of preselection based on parent average was at least 0.63 when sexed semen was used. Use of sexed

  14. Evaluation of selection index: application to the choice of an indirect multitrait selection index for soybean breeding.

    PubMed

    Bouchez, A; Goffinet, B

    1990-02-01

    Selection indices can be used to predict one trait from information available on several traits in order to improve the prediction accuracy. Plant or animal breeders are interested in selecting only the best individuals, and need to compare the efficiency of different trait combinations in order to choose the index ensuring the best prediction quality for individual values. As the usual tools for index evaluation do not remain unbiased in all cases, we propose a robust way of evaluation by means of an estimator of the mean-square error of prediction (EMSEP). This estimator remains valid even when parameters are not known, as usually assumed, but are estimated. EMSEP is applied to the choice of an indirect multitrait selection index at the F5 generation of a classical breeding scheme for soybeans. Best predictions for precocity are obtained by means of indices using only part of the available information. PMID:24226228

  15. Gradients of microhabitat and crappie (Pomoxis spp.) distributions in reservoir coves

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kaczka, Levi J.; Miranda, Leandro E.

    2013-01-01

    Embayments are among the most widespread littoral habitats found in Mississippi flood-control reservoirs. These macrohabitats represent commonly used nursery zones for age-0 crappies, Pomoxis spp., despite barren and eroded shorelines formed over 60–70 years of annual water level fluctuations. We tested if embayments displayed microhabitat gradients linked to the effect of water level fluctuations on riparian vegetation and if these gradients were paralleled by gradients in age-0 crappie distribution. Habitat composition changed longitudinally along the embayments with the most pronounced gradient representing a shift from nonvegetated mudflats near the mouth of embayments to herbaceous material upstream. The degree of habitat change depended on the water level. Similarly, catch rates of crappies increased upstream toward the rear of embayments, differing among water levels and reservoirs, but the longitudinal pattern persisted. Our results indicate that habitat composition gradients occur in embayments of northwest Mississippi flood-control reservoirs and that these gradients may influence a similar gradient in age-0 crappie distribution. While the biotic interactions behind the gradients may be less clear, we speculate that water level is the main factor influencing the observed gradients in habitat composition and fish. Management to benefit age-0 crappies may involve habitat improvement along embayment shorelines and water level regimes that foster growth of herbaceous plants.

  16. Patchiness in a microhabitat chip affects evolutionary dynamics of bacterial cooperation.

    PubMed

    Tekwa, Edward W; Nguyen, Dao; Juncker, David; Loreau, Michel; Gonzalez, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Localized interactions are predicted to favour the evolution of cooperation amongst individuals within a population. One important factor that can localize interactions is habitat patchiness. We hypothesize that habitats with greater patchiness (greater edge-to-area ratio) can facilitate the maintenance of cooperation. This outcome is believed to be particularly relevant in pathogenic microbes that can inhabit patchy habitats such as the human respiratory tract. To test this hypothesis in a simple but spatially controlled setting, we designed a transparent microhabitat chip (MHC) with multiple patchiness treatments at the 100 micron scale. The MHC is a closed system that sustains bacterial replication and survival for up to 18 hours, and allows spatial patterns and eco-evolutionary dynamics to be observed undisturbed. Using the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa, we tracked the growth of wild-type cooperators, which produce the public good pyoverdin, in competition with mutant defectors or cheaters that use, but do not produce, pyoverdin. We found that while defectors on average outperformed cooperators in all habitats, habitat patchiness significantly alleviated the ecological pressure against cooperation due to defection, leading to coexistence. Our results confirmed that habitat-level spatial heterogeneity can be important for cooperation. The MHC enables novel experiments, allows multiple parameters to be precisely varied and studied simultaneously, and will help uncover dynamical features of spatial ecology and the evolution of pathogens. PMID:26224163

  17. Breeding biology and microhabitat utilization of the intertidal isopod Idotea granulosa Rathke, in the Irish Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salemaa, Heikki

    1986-03-01

    The life history and distribution of the intertidal isopod Idotea granulosa were investigated at five rocky shore biotopes in the Isle of Man. I. granulosa breeds throughout the year in the Irish Sea. The breeding activity is highest in the early summer after the sexual maturation of the overwintered animals. At that period about 4% of the females were infested by Clypeoniscus sp. (Isopoda) which destroys the brood. A small proportion of the juveniles released in the early summer mature and breed in the autumn. In the winter Idotea populations consisted of juveniles, immature adults and old individuals which produce another brood. These large sized animals die off before the summer. Consequently, the age and size of the breeding I. granulosa fluctuates seasonally. The number of eggs is linearly related to the female length. The fecundity is highest in the spring and lowest in the autumn in all female size classes. I. granulosa inhabits an array of structurally different intertidal algae including the filamentous Cladophora rupestris, understory turfs Gigartina stellata, Laurencia pinnatifida and Corallina officinalis and the fucoids Fucus serratus and Ascophyllum nodosum. The distribution pattern of I. granulosa in examined intertidal communities is modified by the physiognomy of the algal microhabitats, by seasonal and spatial variation in wave agitation and by the breeding cycle of the population itself. Both the life history characteristics and distribution patterns are explained as adaptations to the spatially and temporally heterogeneous intertidal shores.

  18. Piracy in the high trees: ectomycorrhizal fungi from an aerial 'canopy soil' microhabitat.

    PubMed

    Orlovich, David A; Draffin, Suzy J; Daly, Robert A; Stephenson, Steven L

    2013-01-01

    The mantle of dead organic material ("canopy soil") associated with the mats of vascular and nonvascular epiphytes found on the branches of trees in the temperate rainforests along the southwestern coast of the South Island of New Zealand were examined for evidence of ectomycorrhizal fungi. DNA sequencing and cluster analysis were used to identify the taxa of fungi present in 74 root tips collected from the canopy soil microhabitat of three old growth Nothofagus menziesii trees in the South West New Zealand World Heritage Area. A diverse assemblage of ectomycorrhizal fungi was found to infect an extensive network of adventitious canopy roots of Nothofagus menziesii in this forest, including 14 phylotypes from nine genera of putative ectomycorrhizal fungi. Seven of the genera identified previously were known to form ectomycorrhizas with terrestrial roots of Nothofagus: Cortinarius, Russula, Cenococcum, Thelephora/Tomentella, Lactarius and Laccaria; two, Clavulina and Leotia, previously have not been reported forming ectomycorrhizas with Nothofagus. Canopy ectomycorrhizas provide an unexpected means for increased host nutrition that may have functional significance in some forest ecosystems. Presumably, canopy ectomycorrhizas on host adventitious roots circumvent the tree-ground-soil nutrient cycle by accessing a wider range of nutrients directly in the canopy than would be possible for non-mycorrhizal or arbuscular mycorrhizal canopy roots. In this system, both host and epiphytes would seem to be in competition for the same pool of nutrients in canopy soil. PMID:22778170

  19. Microhabitat use, population densities, and size distributions of sulfur cave-dwelling Poecilia mexicana

    PubMed Central

    Bierbach, David; Riesch, Rüdiger; Schießl, Angela; Wigh, Adriana; Arias-Rodriguez, Lenin; Indy, Jeane Rimber; Klaus, Sebastian; Zimmer, Claudia; Plath, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The Cueva del Azufre in Tabasco, Mexico, is a nutrient-rich cave and its inhabitants need to cope with high levels of dissolved hydrogen sulfide and extreme hypoxia. One of the successful colonizers of this cave is the poeciliid fish Poecilia mexicana, which has received considerable attention as a model organism to examine evolutionary adaptations to extreme environmental conditions. Nonetheless, basic ecological data on the endemic cave molly population are still missing; here we aim to provide data on population densities, size class compositions and use of different microhabitats. We found high overall densities in the cave and highest densities at the middle part of the cave with more than 200 individuals per square meter. These sites have lower H2S concentrations compared to the inner parts where most large sulfide sources are located, but they are annually exposed to a religious harvesting ceremony of local Zoque people called La Pesca. We found a marked shift in size/age compositions towards an overabundance of smaller, juvenile fish at those sites. We discuss these findings in relation to several environmental gradients within the cave (i.e., differences in toxicity and lighting conditions), but we also tentatively argue that the annual fish harvest during a religious ceremony (La Pesca) locally diminishes competition (and possibly, cannibalism by large adults), which is followed by a phase of overcompensation of fish densities. PMID:25083351

  20. selectSNP – An R package for selecting SNPs optimal for genetic evaluation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There has been a huge increase in the number of SNPs in the public repositories. This has made it a challenge to design low and medium density SNP panels, which requires careful selection of available SNPs considering many criteria, such as map position, allelic frequency, possible biological functi...

  1. Selecting Evaluation Comparison Groups: A Cluster Analytic Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Todd Mclin; McLean, James E.

    A persistent problem in the evaluation of field-based projects is the lack of no-treatment comparison groups. Frequently, potential comparison groups are confounded by socioeconomic, racial, or other factors. Among the possible methods for dealing with this problem are various matching procedures, but they are cumbersome to use with multiple…

  2. Sensory and quality evaluation of selected citrus hybrids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasingly consumers are becoming more sophisticated in their demand for diversity of products, greater health potential and good eating quality. The evaluation of a population of mandarin citrus (Citrus reticulata) and mandarin hybrids, was initiated in 2006-2007 with the goal of establishing bas...

  3. 15 CFR 290.6 - Proposal evaluation and selection criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... NIST research results and expertise in the technical areas noted in these procedures? (3) Technology delivery mechanisms. Does the proposal clearly and sharply define an effective methodology for delivering.... Effectiveness of the planned methodology of program management. (iii) Internal evaluation. Effectiveness of...

  4. Resource Evaluation and Site Selection for Microalgae Production in India

    SciTech Connect

    Milbrandt, A.; Jarvis, E.

    2010-09-01

    The study evaluates climate conditions, availability of CO2 and other nutrients, water resources, and land characteristics to identify areas in India suitable for algae production. The purpose is to provide an understanding of the resource potential in India for algae biofuels production and to assist policymakers, investors, and industry developers in their future strategic decisions.

  5. 15 CFR 290.6 - Proposal evaluation and selection criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NIST EXTRAMURAL PROGRAMS REGIONAL.... (a) In making a decision whether to provide financial support, NIST shall review and evaluate all... NIST research results and expertise in the technical areas noted in these procedures? (3)...

  6. 15 CFR 290.6 - Proposal evaluation and selection criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NIST EXTRAMURAL PROGRAMS REGIONAL.... (a) In making a decision whether to provide financial support, NIST shall review and evaluate all... NIST research results and expertise in the technical areas noted in these procedures? (3)...

  7. 15 CFR 290.6 - Proposal evaluation and selection criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NIST EXTRAMURAL PROGRAMS REGIONAL.... (a) In making a decision whether to provide financial support, NIST shall review and evaluate all... NIST research results and expertise in the technical areas noted in these procedures? (3)...

  8. Evaluation of Selected Recycling Curricula: Educating the Green Citizen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boerschig, Sally; De Young, Raymond

    1993-01-01

    Solid waste curricula from various programs around the country were reviewed using eight variables identified as predictors of conservation behavior. Scores demonstrated that solid waste curricula focus mainly on knowledge and include, to a lesser extent, attitude change and action strategies. Lists the 14 programs evaluated in the study. (MDH)

  9. An Evaluation of Select Approaches For Biased Item Identification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudner, Lawrence M.; Convey, John J.

    Transformed item difficulties, chi-square, item characteristic curve (icc) theory and factor score techniques were evaluated as approaches for the identification of biased test items. The study was implemented to determine whether the approaches would provide identical classifications of items as to degree of aberrance for culturally different…

  10. Selection of Course Evaluation Items by High and Low Rated Faculty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ory, John C.; Brandenburg, Dale C.

    CAFETERIA-type rating systems, modeled after the one developed at Purdue University, allow the instructors being evaluated to select those items which their students will use in evaluating the instructors. Such computer-assisted systems allow the instructor to tailor the evaluation to the particular instructional strategies used. This study…

  11. 15 CFR 990.54 - Restoration selection-evaluation of alternatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Restoration selection-evaluation of... ACT REGULATIONS NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Restoration Planning Phase § 990.54 Restoration selection—evaluation of alternatives. (a) Evaluation standards. Once trustees have developed a...

  12. 15 CFR 990.54 - Restoration selection-evaluation of alternatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Restoration selection-evaluation of... ACT REGULATIONS NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Restoration Planning Phase § 990.54 Restoration selection—evaluation of alternatives. (a) Evaluation standards. Once trustees have developed a...

  13. 15 CFR 990.54 - Restoration selection-evaluation of alternatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Restoration selection-evaluation of... ACT REGULATIONS NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Restoration Planning Phase § 990.54 Restoration selection—evaluation of alternatives. (a) Evaluation standards. Once trustees have developed a...

  14. 15 CFR 990.54 - Restoration selection-evaluation of alternatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Restoration selection-evaluation of... ACT REGULATIONS NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Restoration Planning Phase § 990.54 Restoration selection—evaluation of alternatives. (a) Evaluation standards. Once trustees have developed a...

  15. 15 CFR 990.54 - Restoration selection-evaluation of alternatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Restoration selection-evaluation of... ACT REGULATIONS NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Restoration Planning Phase § 990.54 Restoration selection—evaluation of alternatives. (a) Evaluation standards. Once trustees have developed a...

  16. Non-targeted evaluation of selectivity of water-compatible class selective adsorbents for the analysis of steroids in wastewater.

    PubMed

    Kopperi, Matias; Riekkola, Marja-Liisa

    2016-05-12

    Selective adsorbents for solid-phase extraction are needed to meet the low concentration requirements of new environmental quality standard directives, especially for the analysis of estrogens in wastewater. In this work, bulk polymerization procedures were first optimized for the synthesis of non-imprinted polymers (NIP) with low non-specific adsorption of nonpolar compounds in aqueous environments. Water-compatible molecularly imprinted polymers (MIP) were then synthetized by increasing the selectivity of the polymer towards steroids with a testosterone template (average imprinting factor > 10). In addition, the affinity of synthetized entrapped β-cyclodextrin-epichlorohydrin polymers (ECD) towards steroids was clarified. The polymers were applied to the extraction of spiked wastewater effluent samples and their performance compared to commercially available adsorbents. The selectivity of the studied adsorbents was evaluated utilizing liquid chromatography ‒ mass spectrometry as well as comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography ‒ time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Affinity between adsorbents and steroids as well as matrix removal potential were measured with targeted methodologies, and two novel non-targeted methodologies were proposed to quantitatively measure adsorbent selectivity by utilizing chemometrics. Semi-quantitative selectivity was measured from the ratio of peak areas between steroidal and other compounds. Semi-qualitative selectivity was calculated from the ratio between the number of tentatively identified steroidal and other compounds. The synthetized polymers provided good matrix removal potential (ion suppression 15-30%) and semi-qualitative selectivity (∼4 units) compared to the commercial adsorbents (ion suppression 45-80%, selectivity < 3 units). Simple non-targeted approaches provided a novel method of quantifying the selectivity of extraction. PMID:27114222

  17. Path selection system simulation and evaluation for a Martian roving vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boheim, S. L.; Prudon, W. C.

    1972-01-01

    The simulation and evaluation of proposed path selection systems for an autonomous Martian roving vehicle was developed. The package incorporates a number of realistic features, such as the simulation of random effects due to vehicle bounce and sensor-reading uncertainty, to increase the reliability of the results. Qualitative and quantitative evaluation criteria were established. The performance of three different path selection systems was evaluated to determine the effectiveness of the simulation package, and to form some preliminary conclusions regarding the tradeoffs involved in a path selection system design.

  18. Physiological regulation of Syntrichia caninervis Mitt. in different microhabitats during periods of snow in the Gurbantünggüt Desert, northwestern China.

    PubMed

    Yin, Ben-Feng; Zhang, Yuan-Ming

    2016-05-01

    Moss crusts, the most advanced stage of biological soil crust (BSC) development, play important roles in BSC biomass and soil surface stabilization. They usually survive freeze-thaw cycles and remain active during periods of extremely low temperatures. We selected Syntrichia caninervis Mitt., the dominant moss crust species, to study physiological characteristics in winter in three different microhabitats (under the canopy of living shrubs, under dead shrubs, and in exposed areas) in the Gurbantünggüt Desert of northwestern China. The results show that soluble sugar content and antioxidant enzyme activity were significantly higher when heavy snow covered the ground in midwinter, than in early winter and late winter. Soluble protein content was highest in mosses in BSCs under shrub canopies. In contrast, antioxidant enzyme activity was at its maximum in BSCs of exposed areas. Our results indicate that moss crusts have the potential to effectively survive rapid environmental change during winter by an increase in osmoregulatory substances and by increased antioxidant enzymes activity. Mosses in BSCs in exposed areas showed the highest antioxidant enzyme activity, in direct contrast to that of mosses in BSCs growing under canopies of both dead and living shrubs. This may indicate that plants of S. caninervis growing in exposed conditions are better adapted to harsh environmental conditions than plants growing in more sheltered habitats. PMID:26948275

  19. Extraction characterization and evaluation of selected mucilage as pharmaceutical excipient.

    PubMed

    Malviya, Rishabha

    2011-01-01

    Natural polymers have been used in different pharmaceutical formulations. They are easily available, non-toxic, biodegradable and cost effective to be used as pharmaceutical excipient. In present investigation mucilage was extracted from fruit of Hibiscus esculentus and further characterized to be used as pharmaceutical excipient. Tablets were prepared using four different concentrations (6.6%, 13.3%, 20%, 26.66%) of Hibiscus esculentus mucilage and potato starch to evaluate binding properties of mucilage. Results obtained from the micromeritic characterization and flow behavior showed that Hibiscus esculentus mucilage is a good candidate to be used as pharmaceutical excipient. Tablets prepared using mucilage showed relatively lesser friability than prepared with starch. It was found that release of drug from tablets prepared with mucilage was less as compared to prepared with starch. Findings of the different results easily predict the fact that mucilage obtained from Hibiscus esculentus has characteristics to be used as pharmaceutical excipient. PMID:22046826

  20. Hot piston ring/cylinder liner materials - Selection and evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sliney, Harold E.

    1988-01-01

    A materials testing program to determine whether automotive Stirling engine efficiency can be improved by locating 'hot piston rings' near the top of the pistons is described. Candidate materials were screened theoretically and experimentally by friction and wear tests. Based on the test results, a cobalt-based alloy, Stellite 6B, was chosen for the piston rings and PS200, which consists of a metal-bonded chromium carbide matrix with dispersed solid lubricants, was chosen as the cylinder coating. Tests of a modified engine and a baseline engine showed that the hot ring did reduce specific fuel consumption by up to 7 percent for some operating conditions and averaged about three percent for all conditions evaluated. Related applications of high-temperature coatings for shaft seals and as backup lubricants for gas bearings are also described.

  1. Evaluation of radioisotope electric propulsion for selected interplanetary science missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oh, David; Bonfiglio, Eugene; Cupples, Mike; Belcher, Jeremy; Witzberger, Kevin; Fiehler, Douglas; Robinson Artis, Gwen

    2005-01-01

    This study assessed the benefits and applicability of REP to missions relevant to the In-Space Propulsion Program (ISPP) using first and second generation RPS with specific powers of 4 We/kg and 8 We/kg, respectively. Three missions representing small body targets, medium outer planet class, and main belt asteroids and comets were evaluated. Those missions were a Trojan Asteroid Orbiter, Comet Surface Sample Return (CSSR), and Jupiter Polar Orbiter with Probes (JPOP). For each mission, REP cost and performance was compared with solar electric propulsion system (SEPS) and SOA chemical propulsion system (SCPS) cost and performance. The outcome of the analysis would be a determinant for potential inclusion in the ISPP investment portfolio.

  2. Evaluation of selected energy-recovery systems. Working paper

    SciTech Connect

    Desai, T.M.; Salama, S.Y.; Kothari, V.S.

    1983-02-28

    The purpose of the paper is to document key inputs and results of work performed in the area of Energy Recovery Systems (ERS) in support of the Industrial Utilization (IU) staff. This support consisted of the following four main activities: Integration and validation of technology performance and cost data generated by technology developers under contract with GRI; Developing characteristics of the industrial test markets and refining the representation of these markets when needed, e.g., segmentation of certain markets into more-detailed unit size categories or further characterization of competing process; Evaluation and analysis of future market potentials for each ERS in all applicable markets; and Projecting the total impacts of these ERS on energy and gas demand.

  3. Comparative microhabitat characteristics at oviposition sites of the California red-legged frog (Rana draytonii)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alvarez, Jeff A.; Cook, David G.; Yee, Julie L.; van Hattem, Michael G.; Fong, Darren R.; Fisher, Robert N.

    2013-01-01

    We studied the microhabitat characteristics of 747 egg masses of the federally-threatened Rana draytonii (California red-legged frog) at eight sites in California. our study showed that a broad range of aquatic habitats are utilized by ovipositing R. draytonii, including sites with perennial and ephemeral water sources, natural and constructed wetlands, lentic and lotic hydrology, and sites surrounded by protected lands and nested within modified urban areas. We recorded 45 different egg mass attachment types, although the use of only a few types was common at each site. These attachment types ranged from branches and roots of riparian trees, emergent and submergent wetland vegetation, flooded upland grassland/ruderal vegetation, and debris. eggs were deposited in relatively shallow water (mean 39.7 cm) when compared to maximum site depths. We found that most frogs in artificial pond, natural creek, and artificial channel habitats deposited egg masses within one meter of the shore, while egg masses in a seasonal marsh averaged 27.3 m from the shore due to extensive emergent vegetation. Rana draytonii appeared to delay breeding in lotic habitats and in more inland sites compared to lentic habitats and coastal sites. eggs occurred as early as mid-december at a coastal artificial pond and as late as mid-April in an inland natural creek. We speculate that this delay in breeding may represent a method of avoiding high-flow events and/or freezing temperatures. Understanding the factors related to the reproductive needs of this species can contribute to creating, managing, or preserving appropriate habitat, and promoting species recovery.

  4. Host tissues as microhabitats for Wolbachia and quantitative insights into the bacterial community in terrestrial isopods.

    PubMed

    Dittmer, J; Beltran-Bech, S; Lesobre, J; Raimond, M; Johnson, M; Bouchon, D

    2014-05-01

    Animal-bacterial symbioses are highly dynamic in terms of multipartite interactions, both between the host and its symbionts as well as between the different bacteria constituting the symbiotic community. These interactions will be reflected by the titres of the individual bacterial taxa, for example via host regulation of bacterial loads or competition for resources between symbionts. Moreover, different host tissues represent heterogeneous microhabitats for bacteria, meaning that host-associated bacteria might establish tissue-specific bacterial communities. Wolbachia are widespread endosymbiotic bacteria, infecting a large number of arthropods and filarial nematodes. However, relatively little is known regarding direct interactions between Wolbachia and other bacteria. This study represents the first quantitative investigation of tissue-specific Wolbachia-microbiota interactions in the terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare. To this end, we obtained a more complete picture of the Wolbachia distribution patterns across all major host tissues, integrating all three feminizing Wolbachia strains (wVulM, wVulC, wVulP) identified to date in this host. Interestingly, the different Wolbachia strains exhibited strain-specific tissue distribution patterns, with wVulM reaching lower titres in most tissues. These patterns were consistent across different host genetic backgrounds and might reflect different co-evolutionary histories between the Wolbachia strains and A. vulgare. Moreover, Wolbachia-infected females carried higher total bacterial loads in several, but not all, tissues, irrespective of the Wolbachia strain. Taken together, this quantitative approach indicates that Wolbachia is part of a potentially more diverse bacterial community, as exemplified by the presence of highly abundant bacterial taxa in the midgut caeca of several A. vulgare populations. PMID:24750488

  5. Saproxylic Beetle Assemblage Selection as Determining Factor of Species Distributional Patterns: Implications for Conservation

    PubMed Central

    Galante, E.; Micó, E.

    2016-01-01

    The knowledge of the distributional patterns of saproxylic beetles is essential for conservation biology due to the relevance of this fauna in the maintenance of ecological processes and the endangerment of species. The complex community of saproxylic beetles is shaped by different assemblages that are composed of species linked by the microhabitats they use. We evaluate how different the species distribution patterns that are obtained can be, depending on the analyzed assemblage and to what extent these can affect conservation decisions. Beetles were sampled using hollow emergence and window traps in three protected areas of the Iberian Peninsula. Species richness, composition, and diversity turnover were analyzed for each sampling method and showed high variation depending on the analyzed assemblage. Beta diversity was clearly higher among forests for the assemblage captured using window traps. This method collects flying insects from different tree microhabitats and its captures are influenced by the forest structuring. Within forests, the assemblages captured by hollow emergence traps, which collect the fauna linked to tree hollows, showed the largest turnover of species, as they are influenced by the characteristics of each cavity. Moreover, the selection of the forest showing the highest species richness strongly depended on the studied assemblage. This study demonstrates that differences in the studied assemblages (group of species co-occurring in the same habitat) can also lead to significant differences in the identified patterns of species distribution and diversity turnover. This fact will be necessary to take into consideration when making decisions about conservation and management. PMID:27252483

  6. Saproxylic Beetle Assemblage Selection as Determining Factor of Species Distributional Patterns: Implications for Conservation.

    PubMed

    García-López, A; Galante, E; Micó, E

    2016-01-01

    The knowledge of the distributional patterns of saproxylic beetles is essential for conservation biology due to the relevance of this fauna in the maintenance of ecological processes and the endangerment of species. The complex community of saproxylic beetles is shaped by different assemblages that are composed of species linked by the microhabitats they use. We evaluate how different the species distribution patterns that are obtained can be, depending on the analyzed assemblage and to what extent these can affect conservation decisions. Beetles were sampled using hollow emergence and window traps in three protected areas of the Iberian Peninsula. Species richness, composition, and diversity turnover were analyzed for each sampling method and showed high variation depending on the analyzed assemblage. Beta diversity was clearly higher among forests for the assemblage captured using window traps. This method collects flying insects from different tree microhabitats and its captures are influenced by the forest structuring. Within forests, the assemblages captured by hollow emergence traps, which collect the fauna linked to tree hollows, showed the largest turnover of species, as they are influenced by the characteristics of each cavity. Moreover, the selection of the forest showing the highest species richness strongly depended on the studied assemblage. This study demonstrates that differences in the studied assemblages (group of species co-occurring in the same habitat) can also lead to significant differences in the identified patterns of species distribution and diversity turnover. This fact will be necessary to take into consideration when making decisions about conservation and management. PMID:27252483

  7. Evaluation of blackberry cultivars and breeding selections for fruit quality traits and flowering and fruiting dates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A collection of 122 Rubus (L.) cultivars and breeding selections, primarily semi-erect Eastern blackberry, were evaluated for fruit antioxidant capacity (ORAC), total phenolics, total anthocyanins, percentage soluble solids, titratable acids, flowering dates and fruiting dates. The highly correlated...

  8. Evaluation of toxicity of selected insecticides against thrips on cotton in laboratory bioassays

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adult vial technique (AVT) and spray table bioassays were conducted to evaluate toxicity of selected insecticides against immature and adult Western flower thrips (WFT), Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). In AVT, technical insecticides comprising of organophosphates (d...

  9. Efficacy evaluation of selected herbicides on weed control and productivity evaluation of Bt cotton in Punjab.

    PubMed

    Singh, Kulvir; Rathore, Pankaj

    2015-07-01

    Field experiments were conducted during Kharif 2012 and 2013 to evaluate the efficacy of different herbicides for weed management in cotton. Highest seed cotton yield (3537.3 kg ha(-1)) was recorded in weed free plots followed by pendimethalin @1.0 kg a.i ha(-1) as Pre.em.+quizalofopethyl @50 g a.i ha(-1) post-em at 2-4 weed leaf stage + one hoeing (3318.9 kg ha") owing to improved number of bolls per plant and boll weight. Statistically least yield was recorded underweedy check (1435.4 kg ha(-1)). Application of pyrithiobac sodium could not express any visible toxic effect on crop indicating its selectivity for cotton, although none of the tested new chemicals i.e., pyrithiobac sodium@ 62.5g a.i ha(-1) and quizalofopethyl @50g a.i ha(-1) when applied alone could not outperform the existing recommended chemicals for weed management. Yield losses to the extent of 6.2-59.4% were recorded due to weed competition. Weed control efficiency (WCE) was highest under weed free check (86.8%) followed by pendimethalin @1.0 kg a.i ha(-1) as Pre. em.+quizalofopethyl @50g a.i ha(-1), at 2-4 weed leaf stage + one hoeing (73.7%), whereas minimum values were for weedy check (24.7%). Though net returns (r94660 ha(-1)) were highest for weed free check but higher B:C ratio (2:11) was observed for pendimethalin @1.0 kg a.i ha(-1) as Pre em.+quizalofopethyl @50 g a.i ha(-1) post-em at 2-4 weed leaf stage+one hoeing. Therefore, for reasons such as labor shortage besides their timely availability, using these herbicides in combination with cultural practices could be the practical solution foreconomically efficient and effective weed management. PMID:26364480

  10. Evaluating the toxicity of selected types of nanochemicals.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vineet; Kumari, Avnesh; Guleria, Praveen; Yadav, Sudesh Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Nanotechnology is a fast growing field that provides for the development of materials that have new dimensions, novel properties, and a broader array of applications. Various scientific groups are keen about this technology and are devoting themselves to the development of more, new, and better nanomaterials. In the near future, expectations are that no field will be left untouched by the magical benefits available through application of nanotechnology. Presently, there is only limited knowledge concerning the toxicological effects of NPs. However, it is now known that the toxic behavior of NPs differ from their bulk counterparts. Even NPs that have the same chemical composition differ in their toxicological properties; the differences in toxicity depend upon size, shape, and surface covering. Hence, before NPs are commercially used it is most important that they be subjected to appropriate toxicity evaluation. Among the parameters of NPs that must be evaluated for their effect on toxicity are surface charges, types of coating material, and reactivity of NPs. In this article, we have reviewed the literature pertinent to the toxicity of metal oxide NPs, metallic NPs, quantum dots (QDs), silica (SiO2) NPs, carbon nanotubes (CNTs), and certain other carbon nanomaterials (NMs). These NPs have already found a wide range of applications around the world. In vitro and in vivo studies on NPs have revealed that most are toxic to animals. However, their toxic behavior varies with their size, shape, surface charge, type of coating material and reactivity. Dose, route of administration, and exposure are critical factors that affect the degree of toxicity produced by any particular type of NP. It is for this reason that we believe a careful and rigorous toxicity testing is necessary before any NP is declared to be safe for broad use. We also believe that an agreed upon testing system is needed that can be used to suitably, accurately, and economically assess the toxicity of NPs

  11. Selection and Evaluation of Chemical Indicators for Waste Stream Identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeVita, W. M.; Hall, J.

    2015-12-01

    Human and animal wastes pose a threat to the quality of groundwater, surface water and drinking water. This is especially of concern for private and public water supplies in agricultural areas of Wisconsin where land spreading of livestock waste occurs on thin soils overlaying fractured bedrock. Current microbial source tracking (MST) methods for source identification requires the use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques. Due to cost, these tests are often not an option for homeowners, municipalities or state agencies with limited resources. The Water and Environmental Analysis Laboratory sought to develop chemical methods to provide lower cost processes to determine sources of fecal waste using fecal sterols, pharmaceuticals (human and veterinary) and human care/use products in ground and surface waters using solid phase extraction combined with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. The two separate techniques allow for the detection of fecal sterol and other chemical markers in the sub part per billion-range. Fecal sterol ratios from published sources were used to evaluate drinking water samples and wastewater from onsite waste treatment systems and municipal wastewater treatment plants. Pharmaceuticals and personal care products indicative of human waste included: acetaminophen, caffeine, carbamazepine, cotinine, paraxanthine, sulfamethoxazole, and the artificial sweeteners; acesulfame, saccharin, and sucralose. The bovine antibiotic sulfamethazine was also targeted. Well water samples with suspected fecal contamination were analyzed for fecal sterols and PPCPs. Results were compared to traditional MST results from the Wisconsin State Laboratory of Hygiene. Chemical indicators were found in 6 of 11 drinking water samples, and 5 of 11 were in support of MST results. Lack of detection of chemical indicators in samples contaminated with fecal waste supports the need for confirmatory methods and advancement of chemical indicator detection technologies.

  12. Collecting Poetry for the Academic Library: An Evaluation of Poetry Prizes as Selection Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golomb, Liorah

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the usefulness of poetry book prizes as a selection tool by evaluating their fairness, meaningfulness, and reliability as an indication of quality. The results of two surveys, one collecting data on poetry book prizes and the other asking librarians about their collecting practices, suggest that selecting on the basis of prizes…

  13. THE SELECTION OF A NATIONAL RANDOM SAMPLE OF TEACHERS FOR EXPERIMENTAL CURRICULUM EVALUATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WELCH, WAYNE W.; AND OTHERS

    MEMBERS OF THE EVALUATION SECTION OF HARVARD PROJECT PHYSICS, DESCRIBING WHAT IS SAID TO BE THE FIRST ATTEMPT TO SELECT A NATIONAL RANDOM SAMPLE OF (HIGH SCHOOL PHYSICS) TEACHERS, LIST THE STEPS AS (1) PURCHASE OF A LIST OF PHYSICS TEACHERS FROM THE NATIONAL SCIENCE TEACHERS ASSOCIATION (MOST COMPLETE AVAILABLE), (2) SELECTION OF 136 NAMES BY A…

  14. 23 CFR 636.301 - How should proposal evaluation factors be selected?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How should proposal evaluation factors be selected? 636.301 Section 636.301 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING...) Represent the key areas of importance and emphasis to be considered in the source selection decision; and...

  15. Microhabitat types promote the genetic structure of a micro-endemic and critically endangered mole salamander (Ambystoma leorae) of Central Mexico.

    PubMed

    Sunny, Armando; Monroy-Vilchis, Octavio; Reyna-Valencia, Carlos; Zarco-González, Martha M

    2014-01-01

    The reduced immigration and emigration rates resulting from the lack of landscape connectivity of patches and the hospitality of the intervening matrix could favor the loss of alleles through genetic drift and an increased chance of inbreeding. In order for isolated populations to maintain sufficient levels of genetic diversity and adapt to environmental changes, one important conservation goal must be to preserve or reestablish connectivity among patches in a fragmented landscape. We studied the last known population of Ambystoma leorae, an endemic and critically threatened species. The aims of this study were: (1) to assess the demographic parameters of A. leorae and to distinguish and characterize the microhabitats in the river, (2) to determine the number of existing genetic groups or demes of A. leorae and to describe possible relationships between microhabitats types and demes, (3) to determine gene flow between demes, and (4) to search for geographic locations of genetic discontinuities that limit gene flow between demes. We found three types of microhabitats and three genetically differentiated subpopulations with a significant level of genetic structure. In addition, we found slight genetic barriers. Our results suggest that mole salamander's species are very sensitive to microhabitat features and relatively narrow obstacles in their path. The estimates of bidirectional gene flow are consistent with the pattern of a stepping stone model between demes, where migration occurs between adjacent demes, but there is low gene flow between distant demes. We can also conclude that there is a positive correlation between microhabitats and genetic structure in this population. PMID:25076052

  16. Spatial heterogeneity of temperature across alpine boulder fields in New South Wales, Australia: multilevel modelling of drivers of microhabitat climate.

    PubMed

    Shi, Haijing; Paull, David; Rayburg, Scott

    2016-07-01

    Understanding the spatial heterogeneity of temperatures across a region is significant for identification and protection of potential microhabitats for species conservation. However, this task is proving difficult because multiple factors drive the temperatures of microhabitats and their effect differs at different scales. In the Australian alpine region, boulder field habitats have been identified as important refugia for a range of small mammals. Vegetation cover and elevation have been found to drive thermal buffering at the level of single sampling sites within boulder fields, whereas the aspect and inclination of slopes have been found to affect thermal buffering at the level of clusters of boulder fields. But how the rock structure (number of rock layers, rock size and cavity of boulders) influences microclimate of boulder fields remains an open question. We used a multilevel modelling approach to detect the factors driving microhabitat temperatures in different seasons at different spatial scales in an Australian alpine region. We found that significant temperature differences existed within and between clusters of boulder fields in different seasons. Besides elevation and vegetation cover, the number of rock layers and rock cavity size also exerts important influences on extreme temperatures at the site (i.e. single boulder field) scale. Topographical variables such as slope gradient and elevation influenced minimum temperatures at the boulder field cluster scale. Variations in boulder field temperatures were significant at fine scales, with variations in minimum temperatures exceeding those of maximum temperatures. We suggest that variations in slope gradient and elevation, interacting with vegetation cover, the number of rock layers and rock cavity size can lead to fine-grained thermal variability, which potentially provides refugia for species at microsites, even when regional climatic conditions become less suitable for their survival. PMID:26511483

  17. Spatial heterogeneity of temperature across alpine boulder fields in New South Wales, Australia: multilevel modelling of drivers of microhabitat climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Haijing; Paull, David; Rayburg, Scott

    2015-10-01

    Understanding the spatial heterogeneity of temperatures across a region is significant for identification and protection of potential microhabitats for species conservation. However, this task is proving difficult because multiple factors drive the temperatures of microhabitats and their effect differs at different scales. In the Australian alpine region, boulder field habitats have been identified as important refugia for a range of small mammals. Vegetation cover and elevation have been found to drive thermal buffering at the level of single sampling sites within boulder fields, whereas the aspect and inclination of slopes have been found to affect thermal buffering at the level of clusters of boulder fields. But how the rock structure (number of rock layers, rock size and cavity of boulders) influences microclimate of boulder fields remains an open question. We used a multilevel modelling approach to detect the factors driving microhabitat temperatures in different seasons at different spatial scales in an Australian alpine region. We found that significant temperature differences existed within and between clusters of boulder fields in different seasons. Besides elevation and vegetation cover, the number of rock layers and rock cavity size also exerts important influences on extreme temperatures at the site (i.e. single boulder field) scale. Topographical variables such as slope gradient and elevation influenced minimum temperatures at the boulder field cluster scale. Variations in boulder field temperatures were significant at fine scales, with variations in minimum temperatures exceeding those of maximum temperatures. We suggest that variations in slope gradient and elevation, interacting with vegetation cover, the number of rock layers and rock cavity size can lead to fine-grained thermal variability, which potentially provides refugia for species at microsites, even when regional climatic conditions become less suitable for their survival.

  18. Spatial heterogeneity of temperature across alpine boulder fields in New South Wales, Australia: multilevel modelling of drivers of microhabitat climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Haijing; Paull, David; Rayburg, Scott

    2016-07-01

    Understanding the spatial heterogeneity of temperatures across a region is significant for identification and protection of potential microhabitats for species conservation. However, this task is proving difficult because multiple factors drive the temperatures of microhabitats and their effect differs at different scales. In the Australian alpine region, boulder field habitats have been identified as important refugia for a range of small mammals. Vegetation cover and elevation have been found to drive thermal buffering at the level of single sampling sites within boulder fields, whereas the aspect and inclination of slopes have been found to affect thermal buffering at the level of clusters of boulder fields. But how the rock structure (number of rock layers, rock size and cavity of boulders) influences microclimate of boulder fields remains an open question. We used a multilevel modelling approach to detect the factors driving microhabitat temperatures in different seasons at different spatial scales in an Australian alpine region. We found that significant temperature differences existed within and between clusters of boulder fields in different seasons. Besides elevation and vegetation cover, the number of rock layers and rock cavity size also exerts important influences on extreme temperatures at the site (i.e. single boulder field) scale. Topographical variables such as slope gradient and elevation influenced minimum temperatures at the boulder field cluster scale. Variations in boulder field temperatures were significant at fine scales, with variations in minimum temperatures exceeding those of maximum temperatures. We suggest that variations in slope gradient and elevation, interacting with vegetation cover, the number of rock layers and rock cavity size can lead to fine-grained thermal variability, which potentially provides refugia for species at microsites, even when regional climatic conditions become less suitable for their survival.

  19. Gender Differences in Students' and Parents' Evaluative Criteria when Selecting a College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mansfield, Phylis M.; Warwick, Jacquelyn

    2005-01-01

    Evaluation of gender differences between students and between parents based on the perceived financial, social, psychological, physical, and functional risks associated with college selection. Nineteen criteria associated with these risks were evaluated for significant gender differences as well as for their level of importance by gender in the…

  20. Correlatin between the Officer Selection Battery and the ROTC Basic Camp Student Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Clessen J.; Hanser, Lawrence M.

    The correlation was examined between the Officer Selection Battery (OSB) and the five areas of evaluation comprising the Army Reserve Officers Training Corps (ROTC) Basic Camp Student Evaluation Report: physical fitness, graded military skills, job performance, peer rating, and academic potential and grades. The moderating effect of the…

  1. Adjustment of selection index coefficients and polygenic variance to improve regressions and reliability of genomic evaluations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In multi-step genomic evaluations, direct genomic values (DGV) are computed using either marker effects or genomic relationships among the genotyped animals, and information from non-genotyped ancestors is included later by selection index. The DGV, the traditional evaluation (EBV), and a subset bre...

  2. Evaluation and selection of open-source EMR software packages based on integrated AHP and TOPSIS.

    PubMed

    Zaidan, A A; Zaidan, B B; Al-Haiqi, Ahmed; Kiah, M L M; Hussain, Muzammil; Abdulnabi, Mohamed

    2015-02-01

    Evaluating and selecting software packages that meet the requirements of an organization are difficult aspects of software engineering process. Selecting the wrong open-source EMR software package can be costly and may adversely affect business processes and functioning of the organization. This study aims to evaluate and select open-source EMR software packages based on multi-criteria decision-making. A hands-on study was performed and a set of open-source EMR software packages were implemented locally on separate virtual machines to examine the systems more closely. Several measures as evaluation basis were specified, and the systems were selected based a set of metric outcomes using Integrated Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and TOPSIS. The experimental results showed that GNUmed and OpenEMR software can provide better basis on ranking score records than other open-source EMR software packages. PMID:25483886

  3. Evaluation, or Just Data Collection? An Exploration of the Evaluation Practice of Selected UK Environmental Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Sarah Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the evaluation practices of environmental educators. Questionnaires and discussion groups with a convenience sample of UK-based practitioners were used to uncover their evaluation methods. Although many report that they are evaluating regularly, this is mainly monitoring numbers of participants or an assessment of enjoyment.…

  4. Path selection system development and evaluation for a Martian roving vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, R. S.; Simonds, R. R.

    1974-01-01

    A path selection system evaluation test procedure has been developed to enhance the analysis capability of an existing digital computer simulation package. The procedure investigates the obstacle avoidance ability of a path selection system on a sequence of test terrains with and without random effects. Using the standard test procedure a proposed mid-range sensor system has been evaluated and recommendations directed at improving the performance of the system have been made. In addition, the initial development and evaluation of a short range sensor system has been undertaken.

  5. Heterometric sediment and benthic micro-habitat: In situ and experimental approaches.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navon, Maxime; Dauvin, Jean-Claude; Lesourd, Sandric

    2016-04-01

    The eastern Bay of Seine and its estuary are characterized by complex sediment structures with high temporal, spatial and vertical heterogeneities. As the result of different hydrodynamics forcing, estuary is a particular area with fine sediment accumulation since the last decades. This complex system involves particular relationships between benthic species and the environment. Dominant species show particular traits of life: bentho-pelagic reproductive cycle, burrowing, tubicoulous, surface and subsurface species. Moreover, species behaviours are different according to the sediment properties: grain size, stratification, texture, silt and clay contents… Although benthic macrofauna and sediment relationship is often describe as the major factor structuring benthic communities, no spatial and temporal relationships has been highlighted in this area. So, our study is focused on the relationship between species and sediment at the individual scale and on micro-habitats. The aim of the study is to define the macrofauna vertical distribution to understand how the sediment structure acts on organisms and the organism behaviour in a heterometric sediment context, i.e. how organisms act in return on the sediment structure. An in situ approach is used to answer these questions with four campaigns on board on the Oceanographic Vessel 'Le Côtes de la Manche'. A total of 43 cores (16 cm diameter, 35 cm high) in three typical sediment facies are sampled. Cores are analysed with Computer-Aided Tomography scan (Cyceron Laboratory, Caen) to 3D visualize organisms and to determine volumetric space occupation by biogenic structures. The same cores are transversally cut to check the species out and to analyse sediment parameters (grain size, organic matter and other chemical components on XRF device). Results show that most of the organism are closed to the surface sediment but also that some species, even small size individuals, are found deeper in the sediment-column until 9 cm

  6. Controls on ostracod valve geochemistry, Part 1: Variations of environmental parameters in ostracod (micro-)habitats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Decrouy, Laurent; Vennemann, Torsten Walter; Ariztegui, Daniel

    2011-11-01

    The variations of environmental conditions ( T°, pH, δ 13C DIC, [DIC], δ 18O, Mg/Ca, and Sr/Ca) of ostracod habitats were examined to determine the controls of environmental parameters on the chemical and isotopic composition of ostracod valves. Results of a one-year monitoring of environmental parameters at five sites, with depths of between 2 and 70 m, in Lake Geneva indicate that in littoral to sub-littoral zones (2, 5, and 13 m), the chemical composition of bottom water varies seasonally in concert with changes in temperature and photosynthetic activity. An increase of temperature and photosynthetic activity leads to an increase in δ 13C values of DIC and to precipitation of authigenic calcite, which results in a concomitant increase of Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca ratios of water. In deeper sites (33 and 70 m), the composition of bottom water remains constant throughout the year and isotopic values and trace element contents are similar to those of deep water within the lake. The chemical composition of interstitial pore water also does not reflect seasonal variations but is controlled by calcite dissolution, aerobic respiration, anaerobic respiration with reduction of sulphate and/or nitrate, and methanogenesis that may occur in the sediment pores. Relative influence of each of these factors on the pore water geochemistry depends on sediment thickness and texture, oxygen content in bottom as well as pore water. Variations of chemical compositions of the ostracod valves of this study vary according to the specific ecology of the ostracod species analysed, that is its life-cycle and its (micro-)habitat. Littoral species have compositions that are related to the seasonal variations of temperature, δ 13C values of DIC, and of Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca ratios of water. In contrast, the compositions of profundal species are largely controlled by variations of pore fluids along sediment depth profiles according to the specific depth preference of the species. The control on the

  7. Microbial diversity inside pumpkins: microhabitat-specific communities display a high antagonistic potential against phytopathogens.

    PubMed

    Fürnkranz, Michael; Lukesch, Birgit; Müller, Henry; Huss, Herbert; Grube, Martin; Berg, Gabriele

    2012-02-01

    Recent and substantial yield losses of Styrian oil pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L. subsp. pepo var. styriaca Greb.) are primarily caused by the ascomycetous fungus Didymella bryoniae but bacterial pathogens are frequently involved as well. The diversity of endophytic microbial communities from seeds (spermosphere), roots (endorhiza), flowers (anthosphere), and fruits (carposphere) of three different pumpkin cultivars was studied to develop a biocontrol strategy. A multiphasic approach combining molecular, microscopic, and cultivation techniques was applied to select a consortium of endophytes for biocontrol. Specific community structures for Pseudomonas and Bacillus, two important plant-associated genera, were found for each microenvironment by fingerprinting of 16S ribosomal RNA genes. All microenvironments were dominated by bacteria; fungi were less abundant. Of the 2,320 microbial isolates analyzed in dual culture assays, 165 (7%) were tested positively for in vitro antagonism against D. bryoniae. Out of these, 43 isolates inhibited the growth of bacterial pumpkin pathogens (Pectobacterium carotovorum, Pseudomonas viridiflava, Xanthomonas cucurbitae); here only bacteria were selected. Microenvironment-specific antagonists were found, and the spermosphere and anthosphere were revealed as underexplored reservoirs for antagonists. In the latter, a potential role of pollen grains as bacterial vectors between flowers was recognized. Six broad spectrum antagonists selected according to their activity, genotypic diversity, and occurrence were evaluated under greenhouse conditions. Disease severity on pumpkins of D. bryoniae was significantly reduced by Pseudomonas chlororaphis treatment and by a combined treatment of strains (Lysobacter gummosus, P. chlororaphis, Paenibacillus polymyxa, and Serratia plymuthica). This result provides a promising prospect to biologically control pumpkin diseases. PMID:21947430

  8. Evaluation of Midwater Trawl Selectivity and its Influence on Acoustic-Based Fish Population Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Kresimir

    Trawls are used extensively during fisheries abundance surveys to derive estimates of fish density and, in the case of acoustic-based surveys, to identify acoustically sampled fish populations. However, trawls are selective in what fish they retain, resulting in biased estimates of density, species, and size compositions. Selectivity of the midwater trawl used in acoustic-based surveys of walleye pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) was evaluated using multiple methods. The effects of trawl selectivity on the acoustic-based survey abundance estimates and the stock assessment were evaluated for the Gulf of Alaska walleye pollock population. Selectivity was quantified using recapture, or pocket, nets attached to the outside of the trawl. Pocket net catches were modeled using a hierarchical Bayesian model to provide uncertainty in selectivity parameter estimates. Significant under-sampling of juvenile pollock by the midwater trawl was found, with lengths at 50% retention ranging from 14--26 cm over three experiments. Escapement was found to be light dependent, with more fish escaping in dark conditions. Highest escapement rates were observed in the aft of the trawl near to the codend though the bottom panel of the trawl. The behavioral mechanisms involved in the process of herding and escapement were evaluated using stereo-cameras, a DIDSON high frequency imaging sonar, and pocket nets. Fish maintained greater distances from the trawl panel during daylight, suggesting trawl modifications such as increased visibility of netting materials may evoke stronger herding responses and increased retention of fish. Selectivity and catchability of pollock by the midwater trawl was also investigated using acoustic density as an independent estimate of fish abundance to compare with trawl catches. A modeling framework was developed to evaluate potential explanatory factors for selectivity and catchability. Selectivity estimates were dependent on which vessel was used for the survey

  9. Indian Economic Development: An Evaluation of EDA's Selected Indian Reservation Program. Volume II: Individual Reservation Reports, Appendices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boise Cascade Center for Community Development, ID.

    As the appendices to an evaluation of the Economic Development Administration's (EDA) Selected Indian Reservation Program, this portion of the evaluation report presents individualized evaluations of each of the 16 reservations originally selected for the program in 1967. Each reservation evaluation is presented in terms of the following format:…

  10. Qualitative evaluation of the supporting system for diagnosis procedure combination code selection.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Kazuya; Uchiyama, Toshio; Takemura, Tadamasa; Kume, Naoto; Adachi, Takayuki; Kuroda, Tomohiro; Uchiyama, Tadasu; Yoshihara, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    In Japan, medical staff must select a diagnosis procedure combination (DPC) code for each inpatient upon admission. We report on the development and evaluation of a supporting system for DPC code selection. This system, based on a machine learning method developed by Okamoto et al., makes DPC code suggestions that are derived from medical practice information pertaining to inpatients. The use of the suggestions helps medical staff select an appropriate DPC code for each inpatient. We asked health information management professionals to evaluate the system and to compare the suggested DPC codes with those selected by doctors. They reported that the system was generally useful and that using this system they could find some cases of hospitalized patients whose DPC codes needed correction. However, they also determined the precision of the system needs improvement. PMID:23920805

  11. Selective skepticism: American and Chinese children's reasoning about evaluative academic feedback.

    PubMed

    Heyman, Gail D; Fu, Genyue; Lee, Kang

    2013-03-01

    Children's reasoning about the credibility of positive and negative evaluations of academic performance was examined. Across 2 studies, 7- and 10-year-olds from the United States and China (N = 334) judged the credibility of academic evaluations that were directed toward an unfamiliar peer. In Study 1, participants from China responded that criticism should be accepted to a greater extent than did participants from the United States, and children from both countries demonstrated a selective skepticism effect by treating negative feedback more skeptically than positive feedback. Study 2 replicated the selective skepticism effect among children from both countries and ruled out the possibility that it can be explained as a rational analysis of perceived base rates. The results suggest that children are selective in their trust of evaluative feedback and that their credibility judgments may be influenced by the desirability of the information that is being conveyed or its anticipated consequences. PMID:23276127

  12. Decision Support for Personalized Cloud Service Selection through Multi-Attribute Trustworthiness Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Shuai; Xia, Chen-Yi; Zhou, Kai-Le; Yang, Shan-Lin; Shang, Jennifer S.

    2014-01-01

    Facing a customer market with rising demands for cloud service dependability and security, trustworthiness evaluation techniques are becoming essential to cloud service selection. But these methods are out of the reach to most customers as they require considerable expertise. Additionally, since the cloud service evaluation is often a costly and time-consuming process, it is not practical to measure trustworthy attributes of all candidates for each customer. Many existing models cannot easily deal with cloud services which have very few historical records. In this paper, we propose a novel service selection approach in which the missing value prediction and the multi-attribute trustworthiness evaluation are commonly taken into account. By simply collecting limited historical records, the current approach is able to support the personalized trustworthy service selection. The experimental results also show that our approach performs much better than other competing ones with respect to the customer preference and expectation in trustworthiness assessment. PMID:24972237

  13. Decision support for personalized cloud service selection through multi-attribute trustworthiness evaluation.

    PubMed

    Ding, Shuai; Xia, Cheng-Yi; Xia, Chen-Yi; Zhou, Kai-Le; Yang, Shan-Lin; Shang, Jennifer S

    2014-01-01

    Facing a customer market with rising demands for cloud service dependability and security, trustworthiness evaluation techniques are becoming essential to cloud service selection. But these methods are out of the reach to most customers as they require considerable expertise. Additionally, since the cloud service evaluation is often a costly and time-consuming process, it is not practical to measure trustworthy attributes of all candidates for each customer. Many existing models cannot easily deal with cloud services which have very few historical records. In this paper, we propose a novel service selection approach in which the missing value prediction and the multi-attribute trustworthiness evaluation are commonly taken into account. By simply collecting limited historical records, the current approach is able to support the personalized trustworthy service selection. The experimental results also show that our approach performs much better than other competing ones with respect to the customer preference and expectation in trustworthiness assessment. PMID:24972237

  14. Engineering development of selective agglomeration: Task 7, Evaluation of bench-scale and component tests

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-11-01

    This report presents the Task 7 findings of the project entitled Engineering Development of Selective Agglomeration'' to develop selective agglomeration technology to a commercially acceptable level by 1992. The objectives of this report are to summarize the work completed as a part of Task 7, which includes engineering analysis of process deficiencies, analysis of all project test results, and evaluation and selection of an agglomeration process for further development in Phase II. Other objectives of this task included evaluation of the selective agglomeration technology and analysis of all the major deficiencies remaining at the conclusion of Phase I of the project. An overview of the agglomeration processes that were under consideration is presented, along with a discussion of the various test parameters that were found to be important during project testing. This report includes a comprehensive evaluation of all test data and a summary of the major findings; it also provides characterization data for all the project coals and presents the agglomeration process selected for Phase II along with a discussion of the criteria and rationale for the selection.

  15. A quantitative method evaluating the selective adsorption of molecularly imprinted polymer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Z B; Hu, J Y

    2012-01-01

    Adsorption isotherms of 4 estrogenic compounds, estrone, 17β-estradiol, 17α-ethinylestradiol and Bisphenol A, using molecularly imprinted polymer were studied. The isotherms can be simulated by Langmuir model. According to the adsorption isotherms and the template's mass balance, an experimental concept, selective adsorption ratio, SAR, was proposed to assess how many template molecules extracted out of MIP could create selective binding sites. The SAR of the molecularly imprinted polymer was 74.3% for E2. This concept could be used to evaluate quantitatively the selective adsorption. PMID:22423989

  16. Evaluation of All-Day-Efficiency for selected flat plate and evacuated tube collectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    An evaluation of all day efficiency for selected flat plate and evacuated tube collectors is presented. Computations are based on a modified version of the NBSIR 78-1305A procedure for all day efficiency. The ASHMET and NOAA data bases for solar insolation are discussed. Details of the algorithm used to convert total (global) horizontal radiation to the collector tilt plane of the selected sites are given along with tables and graphs which show the results of the tests performed during this evaluation.

  17. Application of GRA for Sustainable Material Selection and Evaluation Using LCA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayakrishna, Kandasamy; Vinodh, Sekar; Sakthi Sanghvi, Vijayaselvan; Deepika, Chinadurai

    2016-07-01

    Material selection is identified as a successful key parameter in establishing any product to be sustainable, considering its end of life (EoL) characteristics. An accurate understanding of expected service conditions and environmental considerations are crucial in the selection of material plays a vital role with overwhelming customer expectations and stringent laws. Therefore, this article presents an integrated approach for sustainable material selection using grey relational analysis (GRA) considering the EoL disposal strategies with respect to an automotive product. GRA, an impact evaluation model measures the degree of similarity between the comparability (choice of material) sequence and reference (EoL strategies) sequence based on the relational grade. The ranking result shows that the outranking relationships in the order, ABS-REC > PP-INC > AL-REM > PP-LND > ABS-LND > ABS-INC > PU-LND > AL-REC > AL-LND > PU-INC > AL-INC. The best sustainable material selected was ABS and recycling was selected as the best EoL strategy with the grey relational value of 2.43856. The best material selected by this approach, ABS was evaluated for its viability using life cycle assessment and the estimated impacts also proved the practicability of the selected material highlighting the focus on dehumidification step in the manufacturing of the case product using this developed multi-criteria approach.

  18. Project evaluation and selection using fuzzy Delphi method and zero - one goal programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alias, Suriana; Adna, Nofarziah; Arsad, Roslah; Soid, Siti Khuzaimah; Ali, Zaileha Md

    2014-12-01

    Project evaluation and selection is a factor affecting the impotence of board director in which is trying to maximize all the possible goals. Assessment of the problem occurred in organization plan is the first phase for decision making process. The company needs a group of expert to evaluate the problems. The Fuzzy Delphi Method (FDM) is a systematic procedure to evoke the group's opinion in order to get the best result to evaluate the project performance. This paper proposes an evaluation and selection of the best alternative project based on combination of FDM and Zero - One Goal Programming (ZOGP) formulation. ZOGP is used to solve the multi-criteria decision making for final decision part by using optimization software LINDO 6.1. An empirical example on an ongoing decision making project in Johor, Malaysia is implemented for case study.

  19. Multi-environment evaluation of sugarcane early in our selection and variety evaluation program

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the USDA and the LSU AgCenter breeding programs combined, fewer than 100 candidates out of about 150,000 annually-planted seedlings will receive permanent numbers and be evaluated in multiple environments for their potential as commercial varieties. This means that over 99.9% of seedlings planted...

  20. Influence of sex and breeding condition on microhabitat selection and diet in the pig frog Rana grylio

    SciTech Connect

    Lamb, T.

    1984-04-01

    A 14-month study was conducted on the pig frog (Rana grylio) in SW Georgia. This species has a prolonged breeding season as males call from late March to September. Mature spermatozoa were present in the testes year-round, though seasonal testicular changes were detectable with spermatogenesis reaching a peak in June. Females contained mature ova from April through July and development of the following year's ova began in August. Stomachs of 122 postlarval specimens contained mainly anthropods. Coleoptera, Decopoda (Procambarus) and Odonata accounted for the majority of individual prey items, constituting 24.3, l9.8 and 11.9%, respectively. Intersexual dietary differences were apparent among adult frogs during the breeding season; variation in diet was strongly influenced by behavioral and habitat differences at this time.

  1. Evaluating and Communicating College Transfer Students' Perceptions of Selected Institutional Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, Emily B.

    The Transfer Programs Outcomes (TPO) system developed by Oakton Community College (Illinois) focuses on the evaluation and communication of community college transfer students' perceptions of selected senior institutional characteristics. The objectives of the program are (1) to develop an effective, rapid feedback method for follow-up of…

  2. Evaluation of Select Sensors for Real-Time Monitoring of Escherichia coli in Water Distribution Systems▿

    PubMed Central

    Miles, Syreeta L.; Sinclair, Ryan G.; Riley, Mark R.; Pepper, Ian L.

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated real-time sensing of Escherichia coli as a microbial contaminant in water distribution systems. Most sensors responded to increased E. coli concentrations, showing that select sensors can detect microbial water quality changes and be utilized as part of a contaminant warning system. PMID:21357435

  3. Formative and Summative Evaluation at Ground Zero: Some Comments on the Selective Admissions College Application Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Ray

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the paucity of useful evaluation measures that administrators making decisions about selective college admissions have to work with. Argues that the implementation of national testing would allow for more formative assessment of college applicants and would encourage increased classroom instruction with a formative focus at the secondary…

  4. Discovery of a Potent and Selective ROMK Inhibitor with Pharmacokinetic Properties Suitable for Preclinical Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A new subseries of ROMK inhibitors exemplified by 28 has been developed from the initial screening hit 1. The excellent selectivity for ROMK inhibition over related ion channels and pharmacokinetic properties across preclinical species support further preclinical evaluation of 28 as a new mechanism diuretic. Robust pharmacodynamic effects in both SD rats and dogs have been demonstrated. PMID:26191360

  5. Building Library Media Collections: Policies and Procedures for Evaluation and Selection of Instructional Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland State Dept. of Education, Baltimore.

    This compilation of legal documents and guidelines is intended for use when designing new policies or revising existing policies for the evaluation and selection of print and nonprint instructional materials for elementary and secondary schools and their media centers. These materials focus on the following: (1) textbooks, materials of…

  6. SELECTING AND EVALUATING NATIVE PLANTS FOR REGION-SPECIFIC PHYTOTOXICITY TESTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this study, we evaluated methodology to determine risks to terrestrial native plant species from potential herbicide drift, focusing on 1) selection of native species for testing, 2) growth of these species, and 3) variability in herbicide response among native species and com...

  7. The state agency experience (evaluation/selection of hardware for automated, geo-based information systems)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, L. F., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose and format of a panel session that addressed the procedures by which the hardware components of geographic information systems are evaluated and selected are described. State agencies from Alaska, Colorado, Montana, and Washington were represented and the topic was discussed within the general context of information requirements in land management decision making.

  8. 24 CFR 570.209 - Guidelines for evaluating and selecting economic development projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Guidelines for evaluating and selecting economic development projects. 570.209 Section 570.209 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR COMMUNITY...

  9. 24 CFR 570.209 - Guidelines for evaluating and selecting economic development projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Guidelines for evaluating and selecting economic development projects. 570.209 Section 570.209 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR COMMUNITY...

  10. 24 CFR 570.209 - Guidelines for evaluating and selecting economic development projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Guidelines for evaluating and selecting economic development projects. 570.209 Section 570.209 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR COMMUNITY...

  11. 24 CFR 570.209 - Guidelines for evaluating and selecting economic development projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Guidelines for evaluating and selecting economic development projects. 570.209 Section 570.209 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR COMMUNITY...

  12. 24 CFR 570.209 - Guidelines for evaluating and selecting economic development projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Guidelines for evaluating and selecting economic development projects. 570.209 Section 570.209 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR COMMUNITY...

  13. Analyzing Electronic Question/Answer Services: Framework and Evaluations of Selected Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Marilyn Domas, Ed.

    This report develops an analytical framework based on systems analysis for evaluating electronic question/answer or AskA services operated by a wide range of types of organizations, including libraries. Version 1.0 of this framework was applied in June 1999 to a selective sample of 11 electronic question/answer services, which cover a range of…

  14. Evaluation of select sensors for real-time monitoring of Escherichia coli in water distribution systems.

    PubMed

    Miles, Syreeta L; Sinclair, Ryan G; Riley, Mark R; Pepper, Ian L

    2011-04-01

    This study evaluated real-time sensing of Escherichia coli as a microbial contaminant in water distribution systems. Most sensors responded to increased E. coli concentrations, showing that select sensors can detect microbial water quality changes and be utilized as part of a contaminant warning system. PMID:21357435

  15. Evaluation of Select USDA Watermelon Plant Introductions (PI) for Tolerance to Watermelon Vine Decline, 2006

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Watermelon vine decline (WVD) caused by squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV) is a new and emerging disease in southwest and west central Florida. Watermelon plant introductions (PI) selected on the basis of a greenhouse screening against SqVYV were evaluated for tolerance to watermelon vine decline ...

  16. Indian Economic Development: An Evaluation of EDA's Selected Indian Reservation Program. Volume I: Narrative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boise Cascade Center for Community Development, ID.

    The Selected Indian Reservation Program established under the Economic Development Administration in 1967 was evaluated in terms of actual or potential job creation via detailed assessment of EDA activities on 16 reservations, discussions at the regional and national levels of EDA program tools (public work grants/loans, business development…

  17. An Evaluation of Selected NASA Scientific and Technical Information Products: Results of a Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Glassman, Myron

    A pilot study was conducted to evaluate selected NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) scientific and technical information (STI) products. The study, which utilized survey research in the form of a self-administered mail questionnaire, had a two-fold purpose--to gather baseline data on the use and perceived usefulness of selected…

  18. Perceived Risk in College Selection: Differences in Evaluative Criteria Used by Students and Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warwick, Jacquelyn; Mansfield, Phylis M.

    2003-01-01

    Students and parents base college selection on how well the college will overcome the perceived financial, social, psychological, physical, and functional risks associated with the college experience. Nineteen criteria associated with these risks were evaluated for significant differences between students and parents as well as for their level of…

  19. Leading the Way to Appropriate Selection, Implementation, and Evaluation of the Read-Aloud Accommodation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurlow, Martha L.; Lazarus, Sheryl S.; Hodgson, Jennifer R.

    2012-01-01

    The read-aloud accommodation is one of the most frequently used accommodations. Many educators need training to more confidently select, implement, and evaluate the use of the read-aloud accommodation. Planning by special education leaders can help ensure that test day goes smoothly for students who need the read-aloud accommodation.

  20. Guide for the Establishment and Evaluation of Services for Selective Dissemination of Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poncelet, J.

    This guide describes the components of a selective dissemination of information (SDI) service which is designed to give developing countries access to international sources of bibliographic information and provides guidelines for the establishment and evaluation of this type of service. It defines the main features of a computerized documentation…

  1. Technical Guidelines for Digital Learning Content: Development, Evaluation, Selection, Acquisition and Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2005

    2005-01-01

    The Educational Technology Cooperative of the Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) established the Digital Learning Content initiative to identify guidelines and develop recommendations to assist those who develop, evaluate, select, acquire and use digital learning content to create products that are easy to access and use in order to ensure…

  2. Could Caldecott Have Won the Caldecott? Victorian Views on Selection and Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundin, Anne

    1998-01-01

    Provides a close description of the ways that Randolph Caldecott's work continues to compel admiration to show how classic texts that are selected and evaluated in the marketplace are the product of historical contingencies. Suggests that the choice of Caldecott as the name for the big prize in children's book illustration was and is fitting. (RS)

  3. Selecting and Recruiting Health Programs for the School Health Education Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, Sandra L.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    The School Health Education Evaluation (SHEE) was used to review the School Health Curriculum Project and three other curricula: Project Prevention, 3 Rs and High Blood Pressure, and Health Education Curriculum Guide. The four curricula are described and the process that led to their selection for SHEE is highlighted. (Author/MT)

  4. The Evaluation and Selection of Instructional Software for Use with the Learning Disabled. CREATE Monograph Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisgerber, Robert A.; Blake, Patricia L.

    Fourth in a series of six monographs on the use of new technologies in the instruction of learning disabled (LD) students, this paper explores issues related to the evaluation and selection of instructional software for LD students. Topics discussed include the following: (1) criteria for instructionally useful software (e.g., flexibility and…

  5. 34 CFR 646.21 - What selection criteria does the Secretary use to evaluate an application?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What selection criteria does the Secretary use to evaluate an application? 646.21 Section 646.21 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STUDENT SUPPORT SERVICES PROGRAM How Does the Secretary Make a...

  6. An Approach for Selecting a Theoretical Framework for the Evaluation of Training Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tasca, Jorge Eduardo; Ensslin, Leonardo; Ensslin, Sandra Rolim; Alves, Maria Bernardete Martins

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This research paper proposes a method for selecting references related to a research topic, and seeks to exemplify it for the case of a study evaluating training programs. The method is designed to identify references with high academic relevance in databases accessed via the internet, using a bibliometric analysis to sift the selected…

  7. Selecting a Learning Management System (LMS) in Developing Countries: Instructors' Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavus, Nadire

    2013-01-01

    Learning management systems (LMSs) contain hidden costs, unclear user environments, bulky developer and administration manuals, and limitations with regard to interoperability, integration, localization, and bandwidth requirements. Careful evaluation is required in selecting the most appropriate LMS for use, and this is a general problem in…

  8. Selection, Placement and Instatement of School Managers in Turkey: Evaluation of the Current Situation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Memisoglu, Salih Pasa

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the new regulations and current practices in terms of how they apply--to the selection, training and instatement of school administrators in Turkey. The successful implementation of Turkish National Development Plans is closely related to the knowledge and skills of managers working at various levels in every…

  9. Evaluation of the Selective Dissemination of Information (SDI) Program for the Aerospace Materials Information Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheffler, F. L.; March, J. F.

    The Aerospace Materials Information Center (AMIC) Selective Dissemination of Information (SDI) program was evaluated by an interview technique after one year of operation. The data base for the SDI consists of the periodic document index records input to the AMIC system. The users are 63 engineers, scientists, and technical administrators at the…

  10. Economic evaluation of genomic selection in small ruminants: a sheep meat breeding program.

    PubMed

    Shumbusho, F; Raoul, J; Astruc, J M; Palhiere, I; Lemarié, S; Fugeray-Scarbel, A; Elsen, J M

    2016-06-01

    Recent genomic evaluation studies using real data and predicting genetic gain by modeling breeding programs have reported moderate expected benefits from the replacement of classic selection schemes by genomic selection (GS) in small ruminants. The objectives of this study were to compare the cost, monetary genetic gain and economic efficiency of classic selection and GS schemes in the meat sheep industry. Deterministic methods were used to model selection based on multi-trait indices from a sheep meat breeding program. Decisional variables related to male selection candidates and progeny testing were optimized to maximize the annual monetary genetic gain (AMGG), that is, a weighted sum of meat and maternal traits annual genetic gains. For GS, a reference population of 2000 individuals was assumed and genomic information was available for evaluation of male candidates only. In the classic selection scheme, males breeding values were estimated from own and offspring phenotypes. In GS, different scenarios were considered, differing by the information used to select males (genomic only, genomic+own performance, genomic+offspring phenotypes). The results showed that all GS scenarios were associated with higher total variable costs than classic selection (if the cost of genotyping was 123 euros/animal). In terms of AMGG and economic returns, GS scenarios were found to be superior to classic selection only if genomic information was combined with their own meat phenotypes (GS-Pheno) or with their progeny test information. The predicted economic efficiency, defined as returns (proportional to number of expressions of AMGG in the nucleus and commercial flocks) minus total variable costs, showed that the best GS scenario (GS-Pheno) was up to 15% more efficient than classic selection. For all selection scenarios, optimization increased the overall AMGG, returns and economic efficiency. As a conclusion, our study shows that some forms of GS strategies are more advantageous

  11. Case study for the evaluation and selection of man-machine interface (MMI) software

    SciTech Connect

    Nekimken, H.; Pope, N.; Macdonald, J.; Bibeau, R.; Gomez, B.; Sellon, D.

    1996-06-01

    The authors evaluated three of the top man-machine interface (MMI) software systems. The main categories upon which they based their evaluation on were the following: operator interface; network and data distribution; input/output (I/O) interface; application development; alarms; real-time and historical trending; support, documentation, and training; processing tools (batch, recipe, logic); reports; custom interfacing; start-up/recovery; external database; and multimedia. They also present their MMI requirements and guidelines for the selection and evaluation of these MMI systems.

  12. Planning and Selecting Evaluation Designs for Leadership Training: A Toolkit for Nurse Managers and Educators.

    PubMed

    Dunne, Simon; Lunn, Cora; Kirwan, Marcia; Matthews, Anne; Condell, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Leadership development training and education for nurses is a priority in modern health care systems. Consequently, effective evaluation of nurse leadership development programs is essential for managers and educators in health care organizations to determine the impact of such programs on staff behaviors and patient outcomes. Our team has identified a framework for the evaluation of the design and implementation of such programs. Following this, we provide practical tools for the selection of evaluation methodologies for leadership development programs for use by health care educators and program commissioners. PMID:26653041

  13. Sensory evaluation based fuzzy AHP approach for material selection in customized garment design and development process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Y.; Curteza, A.; Zeng, X.; Bruniaux, P.; Chen, Y.

    2016-06-01

    Material selection is the most difficult section in the customized garment product design and development process. This study aims to create a hierarchical framework for material selection. The analytic hierarchy process and fuzzy sets theories have been applied to mindshare the diverse requirements from the customer and inherent interaction/interdependencies among these requirements. Sensory evaluation ensures a quick and effective selection without complex laboratory test such as KES and FAST, using the professional knowledge of the designers. A real empirical application for the physically disabled people is carried out to demonstrate the proposed method. Both the theoretical and practical background of this paper have indicated the fuzzy analytical network process can capture expert's knowledge existing in the form of incomplete, ambiguous and vague information for the mutual influence on attribute and criteria of the material selection.

  14. Development, evaluation, and selection of candidate high-level waste forms

    SciTech Connect

    Bernadzikowski, T A; Allender, J S; Gordon, D E; Gould, Jr, T H

    1982-01-01

    The seven candidate waste forms, evaluated as potential media for the immobilization and gelogic disposal of high-level nuclear wastes were borosilicate glass, SYNROC, tailored ceramic, high-silica glass, FUETAP concrete, coated sol-gel particles, and glass marbles in a lead matrix. The evaluation, completed on August 1, 1981, combined preliminary waste form evaluations conducted at Department of Energy (DOE) defense waste-sites and at independent laboratories, peer review assessments, a product performance evaluation, and a processability analysis. Based on the combined results of these four inputs, two of the seven forms, borosilicate glass and a titanate-based ceramic, SYNROC, were selected as the reference and alternative forms, respectively, for continued development and evaluation in the National HLW Program. The borosilicate glass and ceramic forms were further compared during FY-1982 on the basis of risk assessments, cost comparisons, properties comparisons, and conformance with proposed regulatory and repository criteria. Both the glass and ceramic forms are viable candidates for use at DOE defense HLW sites; they are also candidates for immobilization of commercial reprocessing wastes. This paper describes the waste form screening process, discusses each of the four major inputs considered in the selection of the two forms in 1981, and presents a brief summary of the comparisons of the two forms during 1982 and the selection process to determine the final form for SRP defense HLW.

  15. Cleaner wrasse influence habitat selection of young damselfish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, D.; Cheney, K. L.; Werminghausen, J.; McClure, E. C.; Meekan, M. G.; McCormick, M. I.; Cribb, T. H.; Grutter, A. S.

    2016-06-01

    The presence of bluestreak cleaner wrasse, Labroides dimidiatus, on coral reefs increases total abundance and biodiversity of reef fishes. The mechanism(s) that cause such shifts in population structure are unclear, but it is possible that young fish preferentially settle into microhabitats where cleaner wrasse are present. As a first step to investigate this possibility, we conducted aquarium experiments to examine whether settlement-stage and young juveniles of ambon damselfish, Pomacentrus amboinensis, selected a microhabitat near a cleaner wrasse (adult or juvenile). Both settlement-stage (0 d post-settlement) and juvenile (~5 weeks post-settlement) fish spent a greater proportion of time in a microhabitat adjacent to L. dimidiatus than in one next to a control fish (a non-cleaner wrasse, Halichoeres melanurus) or one where no fish was present. This suggests that cleaner wrasse may serve as a positive cue during microhabitat selection. We also conducted focal observations of cleaner wrasse and counts of nearby damselfishes (1 m radius) to examine whether newly settled fish obtained direct benefits, in the form of cleaning services, from being near a cleaner wrasse. Although abundant, newly settled recruits (<20 mm total length) were rarely (2 %) observed being cleaned in 20 min observations compared with larger damselfishes (58 %). Individual damselfish that were cleaned were significantly larger than the median size of the surrounding nearby non-cleaned conspecifics; this was consistent across four species. The selection by settlement-stage fish of a microhabitat adjacent to cleaner wrasse in the laboratory, despite only being rarely cleaned in the natural environment, suggests that even rare cleaning events and/or indirect benefits may drive their settlement choices. This behaviour may also explain the decreased abundance of young fishes on reefs from which cleaner wrasse had been experimentally removed. This study reinforces the potentially important role of

  16. DIAGNOSTIC EVALUATION OF AIR QUALITY MODELS USING ADVANCED METHODS WITH SPECIALIZED OBSERVATIONS OF SELECTED AMBIENT SPECIES -PART II

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is Part 2 of "Diagnostic Evaluation of Air Quality Models Using Advanced Methods with Specialized Observations of Selected Ambient Species". A limited field campaign to make specialized observations of selected ambient species using advanced and innovative instrumentation f...

  17. Contamination control in hybrid microelectronic modules. Part 2: Selection and evaluation of coating materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Himmel, R. P.

    1975-01-01

    The selection, test, and evaluation of organic coating materials for contamination control in hybrid circuits is reported. The coatings were evaluated to determine their suitability for use as a conformal coating over the hybrid microcircuit (including chips and wire bonds) inside a hermetically sealed package. Evaluations included ease of coating application and repair and effect on thin film and thick film resistors, beam leads, wire bonds, transistor chips, and capacitor chips. The coatings were also tested for such properties as insulation resistance, voltage breakdown strength, and capability of immobilizing loose particles inside the packages. The selected coatings were found to be electrically, mechanically, and chemically compatible with all components and materials normally used in hybrid microcircuits.

  18. Lichensphere: a protected natural microhabitat of the non-lichenised fungal communities living in extreme environments of Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Santiago, Iara F; Soares, Marco Aurélio; Rosa, Carlos A; Rosa, Luiz H

    2015-11-01

    We surveyed the diversity, distribution and ecology of non-lichenised fungal communities associated with the Antarctic lichens Usnea antarctica and Usnea aurantiaco-atra across Antarctica. The phylogenetic study of the 438 fungi isolates identified 74 taxa from 21 genera of Ascomycota, Basidiomycota and Zygomycota. The most abundant taxa were Pseudogymnoascus sp., Thelebolus sp., Antarctomyces psychrotrophicus and Cryptococcus victoriae, which are considered endemic and/or highly adapted to Antarctica. Thirty-five fungi may represent new and/or endemic species. The fungal communities displayed high diversity, richness and dominance indices; however, the similarity among the communities was variable. After discovering rich and diverse fungal communities composed of symbionts, decomposers, parasites and endemic and cold-adapted cosmopolitan taxa, we introduced the term "lichensphere". We hypothesised that the lichensphere may represent a protected natural microhabitat with favourable conditions able to help non-lichenised fungi and other Antarctic life forms survive and disperse in the extreme environments of Antarctica. PMID:26400492

  19. Evaluating purifying selection in the mitochondrial DNA of various mammalian species.

    PubMed

    Soares, Pedro; Abrantes, Diogo; Rito, Teresa; Thomson, Noel; Radivojac, Predrag; Li, Biao; Macaulay, Vincent; Samuels, David C; Pereira, Luísa

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), the circular DNA molecule inside the mitochondria of all eukaryotic cells, has been shown to be under the effect of purifying selection in several species. Traditional testing of purifying selection has been based simply on ratios of nonsynonymous to synonymous mutations, without considering the relative age of each mutation, which can be determined by phylogenetic analysis of this non-recombining molecule. The incorporation of a mutation time-ordering from phylogeny and of predicted pathogenicity scores for nonsynonymous mutations allow a quantitative evaluation of the effects of purifying selection in human mtDNA. Here, by using this additional information, we show that purifying selection undoubtedly acts upon the mtDNA of other mammalian species/genera, namely Bos sp., Canis lupus, Mus musculus, Orcinus orca, Pan sp. and Sus scrofa. The effects of purifying selection were comparable in all species, leading to a significant major proportion of nonsynonymous variants with higher pathogenicity scores in the younger branches of the tree. We also derive recalibrated mutation rates for age estimates of ancestors of these various species and proposed a correction curve in order to take into account the effects of selection. Understanding this selection is fundamental to evolutionary studies and to the identification of deleterious mutations. PMID:23533597

  20. Microhabitat Types Promote the Genetic Structure of a Micro-Endemic and Critically Endangered Mole Salamander (Ambystoma leorae) of Central Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Sunny, Armando; Monroy-Vilchis, Octavio; Reyna-Valencia, Carlos; Zarco-González, Martha M.

    2014-01-01

    The reduced immigration and emigration rates resulting from the lack of landscape connectivity of patches and the hospitality of the intervening matrix could favor the loss of alleles through genetic drift and an increased chance of inbreeding. In order for isolated populations to maintain sufficient levels of genetic diversity and adapt to environmental changes, one important conservation goal must be to preserve or reestablish connectivity among patches in a fragmented landscape. We studied the last known population of Ambystoma leorae, an endemic and critically threatened species. The aims of this study were: (1) to assess the demographic parameters of A. leorae and to distinguish and characterize the microhabitats in the river, (2) to determine the number of existing genetic groups or demes of A. leorae and to describe possible relationships between microhabitats types and demes, (3) to determine gene flow between demes, and (4) to search for geographic locations of genetic discontinuities that limit gene flow between demes. We found three types of microhabitats and three genetically differentiated subpopulations with a significant level of genetic structure. In addition, we found slight genetic barriers. Our results suggest that mole salamander’s species are very sensitive to microhabitat features and relatively narrow obstacles in their path. The estimates of bidirectional gene flow are consistent with the pattern of a stepping stone model between demes, where migration occurs between adjacent demes, but there is low gene flow between distant demes. We can also conclude that there is a positive correlation between microhabitats and genetic structure in this population. PMID:25076052

  1. Analysis of Microhabitat Use for Two Trout Species Using a Combination of Remote Sensing and Passive Integrated transponder Tags

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lokteff, R.; Wheaton, J. M.; Roper, B.; DeMeurichy, K.; Randall, J.

    2011-12-01

    The Logan River and its tributaries in northern Utah sustain a significant population of the imperiled Bonneville cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki Utah) as well as invasive brown trout (Salmo trutta). In general, the upper reaches of the system are populated by cutthroat trout and the lower reaches by brown trout. Spawn Creek is a unique tributary in that it supports both of these species throughout the year. The purpose of this study is to identify differences in fine-scale microhabitat that explain utilization patterns of each species of fish. Passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags have been placed in trout over the last 3 years throughout Spawn Creek. Repeat GPS observations of these fish in their habitat during both spawning and non-spawning periods have been acquired over the last 4 years. Non-spawning activity has been captured using mobile PIT tag antennae. GPS observations of cutthroat trout spawning locations have also been recorded. From these observations both spawning and non-spawning "hotspots" have emerged, which appear to be highly correlated with specific microhabitat characteristics. The entire 2.5 km study reach on lower Spawn Creek has been scanned using ground-based light detection and ranging (LiDAR) which covers all observed "hotspots." LiDAR data provides sub-centimeter resolution point clouds from which detailed geometric measurements and topographic analyses can be used to reveal specific aspects of trout habitat. Where bathymetric data is needed, total station bathymetric surveys have been completed at sub-meter resolution. The combination of these data types at known "hotspot" locations provides an opportunity to quantify aspects of the physical environment at a uniquely fine scale relevant to individual fish. New metrics, as well as old metrics resolved at finer scales, will be presented to explain species and life-stage specific habitat "hotspots" in mountain streams.

  2. Morpho morphometrics: Shared ancestry and selection drive the evolution of wing size and shape in Morpho butterflies.

    PubMed

    Chazot, Nicolas; Panara, Stephen; Zilbermann, Nicolas; Blandin, Patrick; Le Poul, Yann; Cornette, Raphaël; Elias, Marianne; Debat, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Butterfly wings harbor highly diverse phenotypes and are involved in many functions. Wing size and shape result from interactions between adaptive processes, phylogenetic history, and developmental constraints, which are complex to disentangle. Here, we focus on the genus Morpho (Nymphalidae: Satyrinae, 30 species), which presents a high diversity of sizes, shapes, and color patterns. First, we generate a comprehensive molecular phylogeny of these 30 species. Next, using 911 collection specimens, we quantify the variation of wing size and shape across species, to assess the importance of shared ancestry, microhabitat use, and sexual selection in the evolution of the wings. While accounting for phylogenetic and allometric effects, we detect a significant difference in wing shape but not size among microhabitats. Fore and hindwings covary at the individual and species levels, and the covariation differs among microhabitats. However, the microhabitat structure in covariation disappears when phylogenetic relationships are taken into account. Our results demonstrate that microhabitat has driven wing shape evolution, although it has not strongly affected forewing and hindwing integration. We also found that sexual dimorphism of forewing shape and color pattern are coupled, suggesting a common selective force. PMID:26688277

  3. Aptamer selection by direct microfluidic recovery and surface plasmon resonance evaluation.

    PubMed

    Dausse, Eric; Barré, Aurélien; Aimé, Ahissan; Groppi, Alexis; Rico, Alain; Ainali, Chrysanthi; Salgado, Gilmar; Palau, William; Daguerre, Emilie; Nikolski, Macha; Toulmé, Jean-Jacques; Di Primo, Carmelo

    2016-06-15

    A surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-based SELEX approach has been used to raise RNA aptamers against a structured RNA, derived from XBP1 pre-mRNA, that folds as two contiguous hairpins. Thanks to the design of the internal microfluidic cartridge of the instrument, the selection was performed during the dissociation phase of the SPR analysis by recovering the aptamer candidates directly from the target immobilized onto the sensor chip surface. The evaluation of the pools was performed by SPR, simultaneously, during the association phase, each time the amplified and transcribed candidates were injected over the immobilized target. SPR coupled with SELEX from the first to the last round allowed identifying RNA aptamers that formed highly stable loop-loop complexes (KD equal to 8nM) with the hairpin located on the 5' side of the target. High throughput sequencing of two key rounds confirmed the evolution observed by SPR and also revealed the selection of hairpins displaying a loop not fully complementary to the loop of its target. These candidates were selected mainly because they bound 79 times faster to the target than those having a complementary loop. SELEX coupled with SPR is expected to speed up the selection process because selection and evaluation are performed simultaneously. PMID:26874109

  4. Evaluation of RPE-Select: A Web-Based Respiratory Protective Equipment Selector Tool

    PubMed Central

    Vaughan, Nick; Rajan-Sithamparanadarajah, Bob; Atkinson, Robert

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the evaluation of an open-access web-based respiratory protective equipment selector tool (RPE-Select, accessible at http://www.healthyworkinglives.com/rpe-selector). This tool is based on the principles of the COSHH-Essentials (C-E) control banding (CB) tool, which was developed for the exposure risk management of hazardous chemicals in the workplace by small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) and general practice H&S professionals. RPE-Select can be used for identifying adequate and suitable RPE for dusts, fibres, mist (solvent, water, and oil based), sprays, volatile solids, fumes, gases, vapours, and actual or potential oxygen deficiency. It can be applied for substances and products with safety data sheets as well as for a large number of commonly encountered process-generated substances (PGS), such as poultry house dusts or welding fume. Potential international usability has been built-in by using the Hazard Statements developed for the Globally Harmonised System (GHS) and providing recommended RPE in picture form as well as with a written specification. Illustration helps to compensate for the variabilities in assigned protection factors across the world. RPE-Select uses easily understandable descriptions/explanations and an interactive stepwise flow for providing input/answers at each step. The output of the selection process is a report summarising the user input data and a selection of RPE, including types of filters where applicable, from which the user can select the appropriate one for each wearer. In addition, each report includes ‘Dos’ and ‘Don’ts’ for the recommended RPE. RPE-Select outcomes, based on up to 20 hypothetical use scenarios, were evaluated in comparison with other available RPE selection processes and tools, and by 32 independent users with a broad range of familiarities with industrial use scenarios in general and respiratory protection in particular. For scenarios involving substances having safety

  5. Evaluation of RPE-Select: A Web-Based Respiratory Protective Equipment Selector Tool.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, Nick; Rajan-Sithamparanadarajah, Bob; Atkinson, Robert

    2016-08-01

    This article describes the evaluation of an open-access web-based respiratory protective equipment selector tool (RPE-Select, accessible at http://www.healthyworkinglives.com/rpe-selector). This tool is based on the principles of the COSHH-Essentials (C-E) control banding (CB) tool, which was developed for the exposure risk management of hazardous chemicals in the workplace by small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) and general practice H&S professionals. RPE-Select can be used for identifying adequate and suitable RPE for dusts, fibres, mist (solvent, water, and oil based), sprays, volatile solids, fumes, gases, vapours, and actual or potential oxygen deficiency. It can be applied for substances and products with safety data sheets as well as for a large number of commonly encountered process-generated substances (PGS), such as poultry house dusts or welding fume. Potential international usability has been built-in by using the Hazard Statements developed for the Globally Harmonised System (GHS) and providing recommended RPE in picture form as well as with a written specification. Illustration helps to compensate for the variabilities in assigned protection factors across the world. RPE-Select uses easily understandable descriptions/explanations and an interactive stepwise flow for providing input/answers at each step. The output of the selection process is a report summarising the user input data and a selection of RPE, including types of filters where applicable, from which the user can select the appropriate one for each wearer. In addition, each report includes 'Dos' and 'Don'ts' for the recommended RPE. RPE-Select outcomes, based on up to 20 hypothetical use scenarios, were evaluated in comparison with other available RPE selection processes and tools, and by 32 independent users with a broad range of familiarities with industrial use scenarios in general and respiratory protection in particular. For scenarios involving substances having safety data sheets

  6. Discovery and Preclinical Evaluation of BMS-711939, an Oxybenzylglycine Based PPARα Selective Agonist.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yan; Li, Jun; Kennedy, Lawrence J; Tao, Shiwei; Hernández, Andrés S; Lai, Zhi; Chen, Sean; Wong, Henry; Zhu, Juliang; Trehan, Ashok; Lim, Ngiap-Kie; Zhang, Huiping; Chen, Bang-Chi; Locke, Kenneth T; O'Malley, Kevin M; Zhang, Litao; Srivastava, Rai Ajit; Miao, Bowman; Meyers, Daniel S; Monshizadegan, Hossain; Search, Debra; Grimm, Denise; Zhang, Rongan; Harrity, Thomas; Kunselman, Lori K; Cap, Michael; Muckelbauer, Jodi; Chang, Chiehying; Krystek, Stanley R; Li, Yi-Xin; Hosagrahara, Vinayak; Zhang, Lisa; Kadiyala, Pathanjali; Xu, Carrie; Blanar, Michael A; Zahler, Robert; Mukherjee, Ranjan; Cheng, Peter T W; Tino, Joseph A

    2016-06-01

    BMS-711939 (3) is a potent and selective peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) α agonist, with an EC50 of 4 nM for human PPARα and >1000-fold selectivity vs human PPARγ (EC50 = 4.5 μM) and PPARδ (EC50 > 100 μM) in PPAR-GAL4 transactivation assays. Compound 3 also demonstrated excellent in vivo efficacy and safety profiles in preclinical studies and thus was chosen for further preclinical evaluation. The synthesis, structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies, and in vivo pharmacology of 3 in preclinical animal models as well as its ADME profile are described. PMID:27326332

  7. Population Differentiation as an Indicator of Recent Positive Selection in Humans: An Empirical Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Yali; Zhang, Xuelong; Huang, Ni; Daly, Allan; Gillson, Christopher J.; MacArthur, Daniel G.; Yngvadottir, Bryndis; Nica, Alexandra C.; Woodwark, Cara; Chen, Yuan; Conrad, Donald F.; Ayub, Qasim; Mehdi, S. Qasim; Li, Pu; Tyler-Smith, Chris

    2009-01-01

    We have evaluated the extent to which SNPs identified by genomewide surveys as showing unusually high levels of population differentiation in humans have experienced recent positive selection, starting from a set of 32 nonsynonymous SNPs in 27 genes highlighted by the HapMap1 project. These SNPs were genotyped again in the HapMap samples and in the Human Genome Diversity Project–Centre d'Etude du Polymorphisme Humain (HGDP–CEPH) panel of 52 populations representing worldwide diversity; extended haplotype homozygosity was investigated around all of them, and full resequence data were examined for 9 genes (5 from public sources and 4 from new data sets). For 7 of the genes, genotyping errors were responsible for an artifactual signal of high population differentiation and for 2, the population differentiation did not exceed our significance threshold. For the 18 genes with confirmed high population differentiation, 3 showed evidence of positive selection as measured by unusually extended haplotypes within a population, and 7 more did in between-population analyses. The 9 genes with resequence data included 7 with high population differentiation, and 5 showed evidence of positive selection on the haplotype carrying the nonsynonymous SNP from skewed allele frequency spectra; in addition, 2 showed evidence of positive selection on unrelated haplotypes. Thus, in humans, high population differentiation is (apart from technical artifacts) an effective way of enriching for recently selected genes, but is not an infallible pointer to recent positive selection supported by other lines of evidence. PMID:19737746

  8. Independent seismic evaluation of the Diablo Canyon Unit 1 containment annulus structure and selected piping systems

    SciTech Connect

    Philippacopoulos, A.J.; Reich, M.; Bezler, P.; Miller, C.; Wang, Y.K.; Subudhi, M.; Shteyngart, S.; Brown, P.

    1982-08-01

    An independent review and development of the vertical floor spectra for the Unit 1 containment annulus structure of the Diablo Canyon Power Plant was carried out using a detailed three-dimensional model. The developed floor spectra were then utilized for confirmatory evaluations of two selected piping systems. The latter were evaluated by the envelope response spectrum method, and by the independent support motion response spectrum method. ASME class 2 evaluations of the two systems were also performed. Finally, a confirmatory evaluation was carried out for the model utilized by URS/Blume for the development of the vertical floor response spectra. Sections 1.1 and 1.2 of the report summarize the work scope and the results of the study. Details pertaining to the specific areas of the work are given in sections 2 to 8.

  9. Privacy-Preserving Evaluation of Generalization Error and Its Application to Model and Attribute Selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakuma, Jun; Wright, Rebecca N.

    Privacy-preserving classification is the task of learning or training a classifier on the union of privately distributed datasets without sharing the datasets. The emphasis of existing studies in privacy-preserving classification has primarily been put on the design of privacy-preserving versions of particular data mining algorithms, However, in classification problems, preprocessing and postprocessing— such as model selection or attribute selection—play a prominent role in achieving higher classification accuracy. In this paper, we show generalization error of classifiers in privacy-preserving classification can be securely evaluated without sharing prediction results. Our main technical contribution is a new generalized Hamming distance protocol that is universally applicable to preprocessing and postprocessing of various privacy-preserving classification problems, such as model selection in support vector machine and attribute selection in naive Bayes classification.

  10. Biochemical And Structural Evaluation of Highly Selective 2-Arylbenzoxazole-Based Transthyretin Amyloidogenesis Inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, S.M.; Connelly, S.; Wilson, I.A.; Kelly, J.W.

    2009-05-18

    To develop potent transthyretin (TTR) amyloidogenesis inhibitors that also display high binding selectivity in blood, it proves useful to systematically optimize each of the three substructural elements that comprise a typical inhibitor: the two aryl rings and the linker joining them. In the first study, described herein, structural modifications to one aryl ring were evaluated by screening a library of 2-arylbenzoxazoles bearing thyroid hormone-like aryl substituents on the 2-aryl ring. Several potent and highly selective amyloidogenesis inhibitors were identified that exhibit minimal thyroid hormone nuclear receptor and COX-1 binding. High resolution crystal structures (1.3-1.5 A) of three inhibitors (2f, 4f, and 4d) in complex with TTR were obtained to characterize their binding orientation. Collectively, the results demonstrate that thyroid hormone-like substitution patterns on one aryl ring lead to potent and highly selective TTR amyloidogenesis inhibitors that lack undesirable thyroid hormone receptor or COX-1 binding.

  11. Evaluation of selective vs. point-source perforating for hydraulic fracturing

    SciTech Connect

    Underwood, P.J.; Kerley, L.

    1996-12-31

    This paper is a case history comparing and evaluating the effects of fracturing the Reef Ridge Diatomite formation in the Midway-Sunset Field, Kern County, California, using {open_quotes}select-fire{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}point-source{close_quotes} perforating completions. A description of the reservoir, production history, and fracturing techniques used leading up to this study is presented. Fracturing treatment analysis and production history matching were used to evaluate the reservoir and fracturing parameters for both completion types. The work showed that single fractures were created with the point-source (PS) completions, and multiple fractures resulted from many of the select-fire (SF) completions. A good correlation was developed between productivity and the product of formation permeability, net fracture height, bottomhole pressure, and propped fracture length. Results supported the continued development of 10 wells using the PS concept with a more efficient treatment design, resulting in substantial cost savings.

  12. Path selection system simulation and evaluation for a Martian roving vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frederick, D. K.

    1975-01-01

    A comprehensive digital computer simulation program has been developed for evaluating the path-selection system performance of an autonomous roving vehicle being designed for the exploration of Mars. Vehicle performance over realistic three-dimensional terrains in the presence of random motion disturbances and sensor measurement noise is simulated and plotted on a terrain contour map. In addition, a numerical figure-of-merit is computed automatically for each run.

  13. Characterization of novel selective H1-antihistamines for clinical evaluation in the treatment of insomnia.

    PubMed

    Moree, Wilna J; Li, Bin-Feng; Jovic, Florence; Coon, Timothy; Yu, Jinghua; Gross, Raymond S; Tucci, Fabio; Marinkovic, Dragan; Zamani-Kord, Said; Malany, Siobhan; Bradbury, Margaret J; Hernandez, Lisa M; O'Brien, Zhihong; Wen, Jianyun; Wang, Hua; Hoare, Samuel R J; Petroski, Robert E; Sacaan, Aida; Madan, Ajay; Crowe, Paul D; Beaton, Graham

    2009-09-10

    Analogues of the known H(1)-antihistamine R-dimethindene were profiled as potential agents for the treatment of insomnia. Several highly selective compounds were efficacious in rodent sleep models. On the basis of overall profile, indene 1d and benzothiophene 2a had pharmacokinetic properties suitable for evaluation in night time dosing. Compound 2a did not show an in vivo cardiovascular effect from weak hERG channel inhibition. PMID:19663387

  14. Narcissism dimensions differentially moderate selective attention to evaluative stimuli in incarcerated offenders

    PubMed Central

    Krusemark, Elizabeth A.; Lee, Christopher; Newman, Joseph P.

    2014-01-01

    Narcissistic personality disorder is associated with distinguishing traits including self-enhancement, arrogance and intense reactivity to ego threat. Theoretical accounts of narcissism suggest these heterogeneous behaviors reflect a defensive motivational style that functions to both uphold and protect the self-concept. However, the notion that narcissism can be characterized by grandiose and vulnerable dimensions raises the possibility that these diverse behaviors represent distinct expressions of narcissistic defensiveness. The present study examined whether both dimensions exhibit a general defensive style marked by selective attention to evaluative stimuli or are differentially associated with selective attention to positive and negative information, respectively. Using a dot probe task consisting of valenced and neutral trait adjectives, we evaluated these hypotheses in a group of male offenders. Results indicated that vulnerable narcissism was associated with attention biases for both positive and negative stimuli, though the dimension was further distinguished by disengagement difficulties and a greater recognition memory bias in response to negative words. Conversely, grandiose narcissism was associated with increased accuracy when attending to positive stimuli and directing attention away from negative stimuli. Overall, these findings suggest narcissistic individuals share motivated selective attention in response to evaluative stimuli, while simultaneously highlighting important phenotypic differences between grandiose and vulnerable dimensions. PMID:25330183

  15. Evaluation of a metal shear web selectively reinforced with filamentary composites for space shuttle application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laakso, J. H.; Straayer, J. W.

    1974-01-01

    A final program summary is reported for test and evaluation activities that were conducted for space shuttle web selection. Large scale advanced composite shear web components were tested and analyzed to evaluate application of advanced composite shear web construction to a space shuttle orbiter thrust structure. The shear web design concept consisted of a titanium-clad + or - 45 deg boron/epoxy web laminate stiffened with vertical boron-epoxy reinforced aluminum stiffeners and logitudinal aluminum stiffening. The design concept was evaluated to be efficient and practical for the application that was studied. Because of the effects of buckling deflections, a requirement is identified for shear buckling resistant design to maximize the efficiency of highly-loaded advanced composite shear webs.

  16. Selection of a numerical unsaturated flow code for tilted capillary barrier performance evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, S.W.

    1996-09-01

    Capillary barriers consisting of tilted fine-over-coarse layers have been suggested as landfill covers as a means to divert water infiltration away from sensitive underground regions under unsaturated flow conditions, especially for arid and semi-arid regions. Typically, the HELP code is used to evaluate landfill cover performance and design. Unfortunately, due to its simplified treatment of unsaturated flow and its essentially one-dimensional nature, HELP is not adequate to treat the complex multidimensional unsaturated flow processes occurring in a tilted capillary barrier. In order to develop the necessary mechanistic code for the performance evaluation of tilted capillary barriers, an efficient and comprehensive unsaturated flow code needs to be selected for further use and modification. The present study evaluates a number of candidate mechanistic unsaturated flow codes for application to tilted capillary barriers. Factors considered included unsaturated flow modeling, inclusion of evapotranspiration, nodalization flexibility, ease of modification, and numerical efficiency. A number of unsaturated flow codes are available for use with different features and assumptions. The codes chosen for this evaluation are TOUGH2, FEHM, and SWMS{_}2D. All three codes chosen for this evaluation successfully simulated the capillary barrier problem chosen for the code comparison, although FEHM used a reduced grid. The numerical results are a strong function of the numerical weighting scheme. For the same weighting scheme, similar results were obtained from the various codes. Based on the CPU time of the various codes and the code capabilities, the TOUGH2 code has been selected as the appropriate code for tilted capillary barrier performance evaluation, possibly in conjunction with the infiltration, runoff, and evapotranspiration models of HELP. 44 refs.

  17. The influence of litter quality and micro-habitat on litter decomposition and soil properties in a silvopasture system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathi, G.; Deora, R.; Singh, G.

    2013-07-01

    Studies to understand litter processes and soil properties are useful for maintaining pastureland productivity as animal husbandry is the dominant occupation in the hot arid region. We aimed to quantify how micro-habitats and combinations of litters of the introduced leguminous tree Colophospermum mopane with the grasses Cenchrus ciliaris or Lasiurus sindicus influence decomposition rate and soil nutrient changes in a hot desert silvopasture system. Litter bags with tree litter alone (T), tree + C. ciliaris in 1:1 ratio (TCC) and tree + L. sindicus 1:1 ratio (TLS) litter were placed inside and outside of the C. mopane canopy and at the surface, 3-7 cm and 8-12 cm soil depths. We examined litter loss, soil fauna abundance, organic carbon (SOC), total (TN), ammonium (NH4-N) and nitrate (NO3-N) nitrogen, phosphorus (PO4-P), soil respiration (SR) and dehydrogenase activity (DHA) in soil adjacent to each litter bag. After 12 months exposure, the mean residual litter was 40.2% of the initial value and annual decomposition rate constant (k) was 0.98 (0.49-1.80). Highest (p < 0.01) litter loss was in the first four months, when faunal abundance, SR, DHA and humidity were highest but it decreased with time. These variables and k were highest under the tree canopies. The litter loss and k were highest (p < 0.01) in TLS under the tree canopy, but the reverse trend was found for litter outside the canopy. Faunal abundance, litter loss, k, nutrient release and biochemical activities were highest (p < 0.01) in the 3-7 cm soil layer. Positive correlations of litter loss and soil fauna abundance with soil nutrients, SR and DHA demonstrated the interactions of litter quality and micro-habitats together with soil fauna on increased soil fertility. These results suggest that a Colophospermum mopane and L. sindicus silvopasture system best promotes faunal abundance, litter decomposition and soil fertility. The properties of these species and the associated faunal resources may be

  18. Habitat manipulation of Exposed Riverine Sediments (ERS) how does microhabitat, microclimate and food availability influence beetle distributions?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henshall, S. E.; Sadler, J. P.; Hannah, D. M.

    2009-04-01

    Exposed riverine sediments (ERS) are frequently inundated areas of relatively un-vegetated, fluvially deposited sediment (sand, silt, gravel and pebble). These habitats provide an important interface allowing the interaction of aquatic and terrestrial habitats and species. ERS are highly valuable for many rare and specialist invertebrates particularly beetles. Within an area of ERS, beetle species richness tends to be highest along the water's edge. This higher species richness may be linked to: (1) the availability of food items in the form of emerging and stranded aquatic invertebrates and (2) favourable physical microhabitat conditions in terms of temperature and moisture. This paper explores the role of microclimate and food availability by creating areas of ‘water's edge' habitat in the centre of a gravel bar. Typically these areas are drier, reach higher temperatures and devoid of emerging aquatic invertebrate prey. Four 2m x 2m experimental plots were created: one wet plot, one wet- fed plot, one dry-fed plot and one dry plot (control). These plots were each replicated on three separate areas of ERS. Sixty colour marked ERS specialist ground beetles (Bembidion atrocaeruleum) were released into each plot to monitor beetle persistence and movement on and between plots. The plots were maintained wet using a capillary pump system, and fed with dried blood worms for 30 days. Sediment temperature (0.05 m depth) was measured at 15 minute intervals and spot measurements of surface temperature were taken daily. A hand search was carried out on 25% of each plot after 7, 14, 21 and 30 days. Significant temperature differences were observed between the wet and dry sediment and air temperature. The wet plots on average were 1.8oC cooler than the dry plots and had a reduced temperature range. Both wet and dry sediments remained significantly warmer than air temperature. The wet and wet-fed plots yielded significantly greater numbers of beetles and marked beetles than

  19. Design and pilot evaluation of the RAH-66 Comanche selectable control modes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gold, Phillip J.; Dryfoos, James B.

    1993-01-01

    The RAH-66 Comanche helicopter has been designed to possess superior handling qualities over a wide range of flight conditions. The control laws have been tailored to satisfy the requirements of ADS-33C and the Weapon System Specification (WSS). This paper addresses the design of the Comanche Selectable Mode control laws (Velocity Stabilization/Hover Hold and Altitude Hold), which provide the additional stabilization and control augmentation needed when flying in a Degraded Visual Environment (DVE). An overview of the RAH-66 control laws is presented, including a detailed description of the Selectable Modes design. The primary focus of this paper is the results of piloted evaluation of these control laws in the Boeing motionbase simulator. These tests substantiate the detailed design of the Comanche Selectable Mode control laws. All tested DVE tasks (ADS-33C, sections 4.4 and 4.5) were rated Level 1. Other evaluation tasks confirmed the mission suitability of the control system. These control laws are ready for formal ADS-33C compliance testing in the Sikorsky Full Mission Simulator (FMS).

  20. A prototype decision aid for evaluating and selecting R&D proposals

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Ayat, R.A.; Lamont, A.; Sicherman, A.

    1992-05-01

    This report describes a prototype decision aid which has been developed to assist the Institutional Research and Development (IR&D) Committee in selecting proposals for funding. This tool was requested to help address the following concerns about the IR&D proposal selection process: Some good proposals might be overlooked simply because no one on the Committee advocates them forcefully. The process takes a lot of time. The final portfolio of proposals selected may not maximize the long-run benefits to the Laboratory. These concerns stem from the observation that there is no formal framework for making distinctions between proposals, or weighing and comparing those distinctions. It was felt that the process could be improved by a framework that: Provides explicit descriptors that Committee members can use to evaluate and compare different features of proposals. Encourages the Committee to use a uniform, systematic scheme for evaluating the proposals. Helps the Committee focus more quickly on the issues that are truly relevant for distinguishing between proposals.

  1. A model for selecting assessment methods for evaluating medical students in African medical schools.

    PubMed

    Walubo, Andrew; Burch, Vanessa; Parmar, Paresh; Raidoo, Deshandra; Cassimjee, Mariam; Onia, Rudy; Ofei, Francis

    2003-09-01

    Introduction of more effective and standardized assessment methods for testing students' performance in Africa's medical institutions has been hampered by severe financial and personnel shortages. Nevertheless, some African institutions have recognized the problem and are now revising their medical curricula, and, therefore, their assessment methods. These institutions, and those yet to come, need guidance on selecting assessment methods so as to adopt models that can be sustained locally. The authors provide a model for selecting assessment methods for testing medical students' performance in African medical institutions. The model systematically evaluates factors that influence implementation of an assessment method. Six commonly used methods (the essay examinations, short-answer questions, multiple-choice questions, patient-based clinical examination, problem-based oral examination [POE], and objective structured clinical examination) are evaluated by scoring and weighting against performance, cost, suitability, and safety factors. In the model, the highest score identifies the most appropriate method. Selection of an assessment method is illustrated using two institutional models, one depicting an ideal situation in which the objective structured clinical examination was preferred, and a second depicting the typical African scenario in which the essay and short-answer-question examinations were best. The POE method received the highest score and could be recommended as the most appropriate for Africa's medical institutions, but POE assessments require changing the medical curricula to a problem-based learning approach. The authors' model is easy to understand and promotes change in the medical curriculum and method of student assessment. PMID:14507620

  2. Evaluating the binding selectivity of transthyretin amyloid fibril inhibitors in blood plasma

    PubMed Central

    Purkey, Hans E.; Dorrell, Michael I.; Kelly, Jeffery W.

    2001-01-01

    Transthyretin (TTR) tetramer dissociation and misfolding facilitate assembly into amyloid fibrils that putatively cause senile systemic amyloidosis and familial amyloid polyneuropathy. We have previously discovered more than 50 small molecules that bind to and stabilize tetrameric TTR, inhibiting amyloid fibril formation in vitro. A method is presented here to evaluate the binding selectivity of these inhibitors to TTR in human plasma, a complex biological fluid composed of more than 60 proteins and numerous small molecules. Our immunoprecipitation approach isolates TTR and bound small molecules from a biological fluid such as plasma, and quantifies the amount of small molecules bound to the protein by HPLC analysis. This approach demonstrates that only a small subset of the inhibitors that saturate the TTR binding sites in vitro do so in plasma. These selective inhibitors can now be tested in animal models of TTR amyloid disease to probe the validity of the amyloid hypothesis. This method could be easily extended to evaluate small molecule binding selectivity to any protein in a given biological fluid without the necessity of determining or guessing which other protein components may be competitors. This is a central issue to understanding the distribution, metabolism, activity, and toxicity of potential drugs. PMID:11344299

  3. Scale-dependent habitat selection in migratory frugivorous passerines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sapir, Nir; Abramsky, Zvika; Shochat, Eyal; Izhaki, Ido

    2004-11-01

    Frugivorous migrants may select fruit-rich habitats en route to attain high food rewards, yet their stopover behavior may also be shaped by other considerations, such as predation risk. During 1996 2001 we investigated autumn stopover habitat use of three Sylvia warblers (sylviids; S. hortensis, S. atricapilla and S. curruca) and three Turdidae chats (turdids; Cercotrichas galactotes, Oenanthe hispanica and Phoenicurus phoenicurus) in planted groves of the fruiting tree Pistacia atlantica in Lahav Forest, Israel, which is located at the edge of a desert. We used fecal analysis, a constant-effort trapping scheme and field observations to estimate the extent of frugivory, and bird habitat and microhabitat selection with regard to natural fruit and foliage densities. We also measured bird microhabitat selection in a set of fruit-manipulated trees. We trapped a total of 2,357 birds during the course of the study. Although sylviids exhibited higher frugivory level than turdids, both species groups exhibited a similar significantly positive correlation between bird and fruit densities at the habitat scale. However, at the microhabitat scale, sylviids selected densely foliated trees, whilst turdids were randomly distributed among trees. Our findings suggest that both species groups selected fruit-rich stopover habitats to take advantage of the high food availability before the demanding migration journey. No other mechanism except predation avoidance can explain the sylviids’ microhabitat selection; the migrants used foliage cover to reduce bird detectability by raptors. We conclude that en route passerines may use staging habitats in a sophisticated manner, by adopting scale-related behavior with regard to the availability of food and refuge cover.

  4. A Database Selection Expert System Based on Reference Librarian's Database Selection Strategy: A Usability and Empirical Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Wei

    2002-01-01

    Describes the development of a prototype Web-based database selection expert system at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign that is based on reference librarians' database selection strategy which allows users to simultaneously search all available databases to identify those most relevant to their search using free-text keywords or…

  5. An evaluation of selected NASA scientific and technical information products: Results of a pilot study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Glassman, Myron

    1989-01-01

    A pilot study was conducted to evaluate selected NASA scientific and technical information (STI) products. The study, which utilized survey research in the form of a self-administered mail questionnaire, had a two-fold purpose -- to gather baseline data regarding the use and perceived usefulness of selected NASA STI products and to develop/validate questions that could be used in a future study concerned with the role of the U.S. government technical report in aeronautics. The sample frame consisted of 25,000 members of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics in the U.S. with academic, government or industrial affiliation. Simple random sampling was used to select 2000 individuals to participate in the study. Three hundred fifty-three usable questionnaires (17 percent response rate) were received by the established cutoff date. The findings indicate that: (1) NASA STI is used and is generally perceived as being important; (2) the use rate for NASA-authored conference/meeting papers, journal articles, and technical reports is fairly uniform; (3) a considerable number of respondents are unfamiliar with STAR (Scientific and Technical Aerospace Reports), IAA (International Aerospace Abstracts), SCAN (Selected Current Aerospace Notices), and the RECON on-line retrieval system; (4) a considerable number of respondents who are familiar with these media do not use them; and (5) the perceived quality of NASA-authored journal articles and technical reports is very good.

  6. Evolutionary potential in the Alpine: trait heritabilities and performance variation of the dwarf willow Salix herbacea from different elevations and microhabitats.

    PubMed

    Sedlacek, Janosch; Cortés, Andrés J; Wheeler, Julia; Bossdorf, Oliver; Hoch, Guenter; Klápště, Jaroslav; Lexer, Christian; Rixen, Christian; Wipf, Sonja; Karrenberg, Sophie; van Kleunen, Mark

    2016-06-01

    Alpine ecosystems are seriously threatened by climate change. One of the key mechanisms by which plants can adapt to changing environmental conditions is through evolutionary change. However, we still know little about the evolutionary potential in wild populations of long-lived alpine plants. Here, we investigated heritabilities of phenological traits, leaf size, and performance traits in natural populations of the long-lived alpine dwarf shrub Salix herbacea using relatedness estimates inferred from SSR (Simple Sequence Repeat) markers. Salix herbacea occurs in early- and late-snowmelt microhabitats (ridges and snowbeds), and we assessed how performance consequences of phenological traits and leaf size differ between these microhabitats in order to infer potential for evolutionary responses. Salix herbacea showed low, but significant, heritabilities of leaf size, clonal and sexual reproduction, and moderate heritabilities of phenological traits. In both microhabitats, we found that larger leaves, longer intervals between snowmelt and leaf expansion, and longer GDD (growing-degree days) until leaf expansion resulted in a stronger increase in the number of stems (clonal reproduction). In snowbeds, clonal reproduction increased with a shorter GDD until flowering, while the opposite was found on ridges. Furthermore, the proportion of flowering stems increased with GDD until flowering in both microhabitats. Our results suggest that the presence of significant heritable variation in morphology and phenology might help S. herbacea to adapt to changing environmental conditions. However, it remains to be seen if the rate of such an evolutionary response can keep pace with the rapid rate of climate change. PMID:27516856

  7. Software development for the evaluation of the ergonomic compatibility on the selection of advanced manufacturing technology.

    PubMed

    Maldonado-Macías, A; Reyes, R; Guillen, L; García, J

    2012-01-01

    Advanced Manufacturing Technology (AMT) is one of the most relevant resources that companies have to achieve competitiveness and best performance. The selection of AMT is a complex problem which involves significant amount of information and uncertainty when multiple aspects must be taken into consideration. Actual models for the selection of AMT are found scarce of the Human Factors and Ergonomics perspective which can lead to a more complete and reliable decision. This paper presents the development of software that enhances the application of an Ergonomic Compatibility Evaluation Model that supports decision making processes taking into consideration ergonomic attributes of designs. Ergonomic Compatibility is a construct used in this model and it is mainly based in the concept of human-artifact compatibility on human compatible systems. Also, an Axiomatic Design approach by the use of the Information Axiom was evolved under a fuzzy environment to obtain the Ergonomic Incompatibility Content. The extension of this axiom for the evaluation of ergonomic compatibility requirements was the theoretical framework of this research. An incremental methodology of four stages was used to design and develop the software that enables to compare AMT alternatives by the evaluation of Ergonomic Compatibility Attributes. PMID:22316972

  8. Synthesis and biological evaluation of novel selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs). Part I.

    PubMed

    Aikawa, Katsuji; Miyawaki, Toshio; Hitaka, Takenori; Imai, Yumi N; Hara, Takahito; Miyazaki, Junichi; Yamaoka, Masuo; Kusaka, Masami; Kanzaki, Naoyuki; Tasaka, Akihiro; Shiraishi, Mitsuru; Yamamoto, Satoshi

    2015-05-15

    To develop effective drugs for hypogonadism, sarcopenia, and cachexia, we designed, synthesized, and evaluated selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) that exhibit not only anabolic effects on organs such as muscles and the central nervous system (CNS) but also neutral or antagonistic effects on the prostate. Based on the information obtained from a docking model with androgen receptor (AR), we modified a hit compound A identified through high-throughput screening. Among the prepared compounds, 1-(4-cyano-1-naphthyl)-2,3-disubstituted pyrrolidine derivatives 17h, 17m, and 17j had highly potent AR agonistic activities in vitro and good tissue selectivity in vivo. These derivatives increased the weight of the levator ani muscle without influencing the prostate and seminal vesicle. In addition, these compounds induced sexual behavior in castrated rats, indicating that the compounds could also act as agonists on the CNS. PMID:25862209

  9. Evaluation of food, nutrition and functional substances, in the selected food materials for space agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomita-Yokotani, Kaori; Kimura, Yasuko; Yamashita, Masamichi; Kimura, Shunta; Sato, Seigo; Katoh, Hiroshi

    2016-07-01

    We have been studying the evaluation of food, nutrition and functional substances, in the selected organic materials for useful life-support systems in closed bio-ecosystems for space agriculture on Mars in the future. We have already proposed several species as food materials; cyanobacterium, Nostoc sp. HK-01 and the Japanese cherry tree. Nostoc sp. HK-01 is a terrestrial cyanobacterium which has high tolerances to several space environments. In addition to its high tolerances to serious environments, HK-01 has a high protein content. Total protein per 100 g of the dried colony of Nostoc sp. HK-01 was approximately 50 g. Woody plant materials also have several properties which can be utilized in our habitation environment and as food. We have already found abilities to produce important functional substances for humans in the selected trees. Here, we show the extended results of our experiments.

  10. The evaluation of alternative thermochemical cycles-Part II the down selection process.

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, M. A.; Masin, J. G.; Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division

    2009-01-01

    The Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative (NHI) of the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Nuclear Energy Science and Technology is supporting an effort to reevaluate thermochemical cycles reported in the literature as having both promising efficiencies and proof-of-concept results. Nine cycles were identified. A group of universities was tasked with the evaluation of these cycles using the NHI consistent methodology for calculating efficiency and for recommending and conducting critical research needed to help in the down-selection process. Argonne National Laboratory coordinated these activities. This paper provides an overview of the program and summarizes the results of the down-selection process. Individual papers that contain the details of the research are provided by the universities.

  11. Evaluation of Maryland abutment scour equation through selected threshold velocity methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benedict, S.T.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Maryland State Highway Administration, used field measurements of scour to evaluate the sensitivity of the Maryland abutment scour equation to the critical (or threshold) velocity variable. Four selected methods for estimating threshold velocity were applied to the Maryland abutment scour equation, and the predicted scour to the field measurements were compared. Results indicated that performance of the Maryland abutment scour equation was sensitive to the threshold velocity with some threshold velocity methods producing better estimates of predicted scour than did others. In addition, results indicated that regional stream characteristics can affect the performance of the Maryland abutment scour equation with moderate-gradient streams performing differently from low-gradient streams. On the basis of the findings of the investigation, guidance for selecting threshold velocity methods for application to the Maryland abutment scour equation are provided, and limitations are noted.

  12. Evaluation and selection of aqueous-based technology for partitioning radionuclides from ICPP calcine

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, A.L.; Schulz, W.W.; Burchfield, L.A.; Carlson, C.D.; Swanson, J.L.; Thompson, M.C.

    1993-02-01

    Early in 1993 Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company (WINCO) chartered a Panel of Nuclear Separations Experts. The purpose of this Panel was to assist WINCO scientists and engineers in selecting, evaluating, and ranking candidate aqueous-based processes and technologies for potential use in partitioning selected radionuclides from nitric acid solutions of retrieved Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) calcine. Radionuclides of interest are all transuranium elements, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 99}Tc, {sup 129}I, and {sup 137}Cs. The six man Panel met for 4 days (February 16--19, 1993) on the campus of the Idaho State University in Pocatello, Idaho. Principal topics addressed included: Available radionuclide removal technology; applicability of separations technology and processes to ICPP calcine; and potential integrated radionuclide partitioning schemes. This report, prepared from contributions from all Panel members, presents a comprehensive account of the proceedings and significant findings of the February, 1993 meeting in Pocatello.

  13. Quantifying Anuran Microhabitat Use to Infer the Potential for Parasite Transmission between Invasive Cane Toads and Two Species of Australian Native Frogs

    PubMed Central

    Pizzatto, Lígia; Both, Camila; Shine, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Parasites that are carried by invasive species can infect native taxa, with devastating consequences. In Australia, invading cane toads (Rhinella marina) carry lungworm parasites (Rhabdias pseudosphaerocephala) that (based on previous laboratory studies) can infect native treefrogs (Litoria caerulea and L. splendida). To assess the potential of parasite transmission from the invader to the native species (and from one infected native frog to another), we used surveys and radiotelemetry to quantify anuran microhabitat use, and proximity to other anurans, in two sites in tropical Australia. Unsurprisingly, treefrogs spent much of their time off the ground (especially by day, and in undisturbed forests) but terrestrial activity was common at night (especially in anthropogenically modified habitats). Microhabitat overlap between cane toads and frogs was generally low, except at night in disturbed areas, whereas overlap between the two frog species was high. The situations of highest overlap, and hence with the greatest danger of parasite transmission, involve aggregations of frogs within crevices by day, and use of open ground by all three anuran species at night. Overall, microhabitat divergence between toads and frogs should reduce, but not eliminate, the transmission of lungworms from invasive toads to vulnerable native frogs. PMID:25188421

  14. Evaluation and selection of refrigeration systems for lunar surface and space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Copeland, R. J.; Blount, T. D.; Williams, J. L.

    1971-01-01

    Evaluated are the various refrigeration machines which could be used to provide heat rejection in environmental control systems for lunar surface and spacecraft applications, in order to select the best refrigeration machine for satisfying each individual application and the best refrigeration machine for satisfying all of the applications. The refrigeration machine considered include: (1) vapor comparison cycle (work-driven); (2) vapor adsorption cycle (heat-driven); (3) vapor absorption cycle (heat-driven); (4) thermoelectric (electrically-driven); (5) gas cycle (work driven); (6) steam-jet (heat-driven).

  15. Spatio-temporal microhabitat use by two co-occurring species of scorpions in Atlantic rainforest in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lira, André F A; Souza, Adriano M; Silva Filho, Arthur A C; Albuquerque, Cleide M R

    2013-06-01

    With the increasing devastation of the tropical rain forest, there is a critical need to understand how animal forest communities are structured and how habitat degradation will affect these communities. We conducted a field survey to investigate the microhabitat preferences of two co-occurring species of scorpions (Tityus pusillus and Ananteris mauryi) in a fragment of Atlantic rainforest, as well as their abundance and their ecological niche, during both the dry and rainy seasons. Behavioural aspects related to the use of the environment and the proportions of juveniles and adults are also described. The occurrence of intra- and interspecific coexistence was assessed by active search. In addition, pitfall catches were used to assess the structure of the population in the dry and rainy seasons. The differential patterns of spatial distribution in the litter layers provided evidence of partial niche partitioning between the two coexisting scorpion species depending on age and climatic conditions. Abundance, foraging behaviour and age structure (juveniles and adults) were seasonally influenced. We conclude that the diverse and subtle behaviours involved in interaction and habitat use may facilitate species coexistence. Resource partitioning and refuge sharing on a temporal and/or spatial scale, as well as predation pressure, may drive the dynamics and spatial distribution of scorpion species in the rain forest environment. PMID:23664851

  16. An ionic liquid tolerant cellulase derived from chemically polluted microhabitats and its application in in situ saccharification of rice straw.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jiaxing; He, Bingfang; Wu, Bin; Wang, Bin; Wang, Chenghua; Hu, Lei

    2014-04-01

    A cellulase-producing fungus was isolated from chemically polluted microhabitats by [Amim][Cl] enrichment and identified as Aspergillus fumigatus. The maximum activity of the cellulase in 30% (v/v) ionic liquids (ILs) was detected in [Emim][DMP], [Amim][Cl] and [Emim][MA] as 127%, 111% and 109%, respectively, of its activity in buffer, suggesting its superior performance in high concentration ILs. Strikingly, although its initial activity varied in each IL, its half-life was longer in most ILs than in buffer, evidence of a high conformational stability of the enzyme that is essential for maintaining the remaining activity in relevant media. It noteworthy that 1-3M NaCl can activate the cellulase somewhat. More gratifyingly, a compatible IL-cellulase system based on the cellulase was developed, and its use significantly improved the saccharification rate of rice straw from 53% to 88% versus the control, demonstrating its potential for efficient transformation of lignocellulose to glucose in a single-step process. PMID:24549238

  17. Evaluation of 2D spatially selective MR spectroscopy using parallel excitation at 7 T

    PubMed Central

    Haas, Martin; Darji, Niravkumar; Speck, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Background In this work, two-dimensional (2D) spatially selective magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) was evaluated in both phantom and human brain using 8-channel parallel excitation (pTX) at 7 T and compared to standard STEAM. Materials and methods A 2D spiral excitation k-space trajectory was segmented into multiple individual segments to increase the bandwidth. pTX was used to decrease the number of segments by accelerating the trajectory. Different radio frequency (RF) shim settings were used for refocusing, water suppression and fat saturation pulses. Results Phantom experiments demonstrate that, although segmented 2D excitation provided excellent spatial selectivity and spectral quality, STEAM outperformed it in terms of outer volume suppression with 0.6% RMSD compared to 1.7%, 2.5%, 3.9% and 5.5% RMSDs for acceleration factors of R=1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively. Seven major metabolites [choline (Cho), creatine (Cr), phosphocreatine (PCr), glutamate (Glu), glutamine (Gln), glutathione (GSH) and N-acetylaspartate (NAA)] were detected with sufficient accuracy [Cramér-Rao lower bounds (CRLBs) <20%] from the in vivo spectra of both methods. Conservative RF power limits resulted in reduced SNR for 2D selective MR spectra (SNR 131 and 82 for R=1 and 2, respectively) compared to the reference STEAM spectrum (SNR 199). Conclusions Single voxel spectra acquired using 2D selective MRS with and without pTX showed very good agreement with the reference STEAM spectrum. Efficient SAR management of the 2D selective MRS sequence would potentially improve the SNR of spectra. PMID:26029637

  18. Fear of negative evaluation moderates effects of social exclusion on selective attention to social signs.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Hiroaki; Ikegami, Tomoko

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that fear of negative evaluation (FNE) moderates responses to exclusion in late-stage social outcomes (e.g., social judgements and behaviours). People with low levels of FNE show affiliative responses, feeling compelled to recover their sense of belonging, whereas people with high levels of FNE do not. This study examined whether FNE also moderates responses to exclusion in early-stage interpersonal perception, manifested in selective attention. The experiment using a dot-probe task revealed that exclusion led participants with low levels of FNE to increase attention to signs of social acceptance (i.e., smiling faces). It also revealed that exclusion led those with high levels of FNE to pay more attention to signs of social threat (i.e., angry faces) relative to those of social acceptance. Thus, exclusion makes the motivation to protect oneself from social threats dominant over the motivation to reestablish social bonds among those who fear negative evaluation. PMID:25397922

  19. Design, Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Novel Benzothiazole Derivatives as Selective PI3Kβ Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Cao, Shuang; Cao, Ruiyuan; Liu, Xialing; Luo, Xiang; Zhong, Wu

    2016-01-01

    A novel series of PI3Kβ (Phosphatidylinositol-3-kinases beta subunit) inhibitors with the structure of benzothiazole scaffold have been designed and synthesized. All the compounds have been evaluated for inhibitory activities against PI3Kα, β, γ, δ and mTOR (Mammalian target of rapamycin). Two superior compounds have been further evaluated for the IC50 values against PI3Ks/mTOR. The most promising compound 11 displays excellent anti-proliferative activity and selectivity in multiple cancer cell lines, especially in the prostate cancer cell line. Docking studies indicate the morpholine group in 2-position of benzothiazole is necessary for the potent antitumor activity, which confirms our design is reasonable. PMID:27384552

  20. Selective pattern enhancement processing for digital mammography, algorithms, and the visual evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Masahiko; Shimura, Kazuo; Nagata, Takefumi

    2003-05-01

    In order to enhance the micro calcifications selectively without enhancing noises, PEM (Pattern Enhancement Processing for Mammography) has been developed by utilizing not only the frequency information but also the structural information of the specified objects. PEM processing uses two structural characteristics i.e. steep edge structure and low-density isolated-point structure. The visual evaluation of PEM processing was done using two different resolution CR mammography images. The enhanced image by PEM processing was compared with the image without enhancement, and the conventional usharp-mask processed image. In the PEM processed image, an increase of noises due to enhancement was suppressed as compared with that in the conventional unsharp-mask processed image. The evaluation using CDMAM phantom showed that PEM processing improved the detection performance of a minute circular pattern. By combining PEM processing with the low and medium frequency enhancement processing, both mammary glands and micro calcifications are clearly enhanced.

  1. Prospective performance evaluation of selected common virtual screening tools. Case study: Cyclooxygenase (COX) 1 and 2

    PubMed Central

    Kaserer, Teresa; Temml, Veronika; Kutil, Zsofia; Vanek, Tomas; Landa, Premysl; Schuster, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Computational methods can be applied in drug development for the identification of novel lead candidates, but also for the prediction of pharmacokinetic properties and potential adverse effects, thereby aiding to prioritize and identify the most promising compounds. In principle, several techniques are available for this purpose, however, which one is the most suitable for a specific research objective still requires further investigation. Within this study, the performance of several programs, representing common virtual screening methods, was compared in a prospective manner. First, we selected top-ranked virtual screening hits from the three methods pharmacophore modeling, shape-based modeling, and docking. For comparison, these hits were then additionally predicted by external pharmacophore- and 2D similarity-based bioactivity profiling tools. Subsequently, the biological activities of the selected hits were assessed in vitro, which allowed for evaluating and comparing the prospective performance of the applied tools. Although all methods performed well, considerable differences were observed concerning hit rates, true positive and true negative hits, and hitlist composition. Our results suggest that a rational selection of the applied method represents a powerful strategy to maximize the success of a research project, tightly linked to its aims. We employed cyclooxygenase as application example, however, the focus of this study lied on highlighting the differences in the virtual screening tool performances and not in the identification of novel COX-inhibitors. PMID:25916906

  2. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of selected medicinal plants of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Khuda, Fazli; Iqbal, Zafar; Khan, Ayub; Zakiullah; Shah, Yasar; Ahmad, Lateef; Nasir, Fazli; Hassan, Muhammad; Ismail; Shah, Waheed Ali

    2014-03-01

    In present study, the anti-inflammatory potential of three medicinal plants, Xanthium strumarium, Achyranthes aspera and Duchesnea indica were evaluated, using both in vitro and in vivo assays. Carrageenan induced hind paw edema model was used to carry out the in vivo anti-inflammatory activity, while for in vitro screening lipoxygenase inhibition assay was used. Crude extract of all the selected plants depicted significant (plt;0.001) anti-inflammatory activity, at late phase of inflammation. Achyranthes aspera also showed considerable anti-inflammatory activity (47%) at relatively lower concentration (200 mg/ml), at the initial phase of inflammation. Similarly the ethyl acetate fraction of all the selected plants showed significant lipoxygenase inhibition activity when compared with the standard drug (Baicalein). The results obtained from both in vitro and in vivo anti-inflammatory activity suggest that the ethyl acetate fraction of the crude extract of all the selected plants can be used for the isolation of new lead compounds with better anti-inflammatory activity. PMID:24577927

  3. Evaluation of the 2b-RAD method for genomic selection in scallop breeding.

    PubMed

    Dou, Jinzhuang; Li, Xue; Fu, Qiang; Jiao, Wenqian; Li, Yangping; Li, Tianqi; Wang, Yangfan; Hu, Xiaoli; Wang, Shi; Bao, Zhenmin

    2016-01-01

    The recently developed 2b-restriction site-associated DNA (2b-RAD) sequencing method provides a cost-effective and flexible genotyping platform for aquaculture species lacking sufficient genomic resources. Here, we evaluated the performance of this method in the genomic selection (GS) of Yesso scallop (Patinopecten yessoensis) through simulation and real data analyses using six statistical models. Our simulation analysis revealed that the prediction accuracies obtained using the 2b-RAD markers were slightly lower than those obtained using all polymorphic loci in the genome. Furthermore, a small subset of markers obtained from a reduced tag representation (RTR) library presented comparable performance to that obtained using all markers, making RTR be an attractive approach for GS purpose. Six GS models exhibited variable performance in prediction accuracy depending on the scenarios (e.g., heritability, sample size, population structure), but Bayes-alphabet and BLUP-based models generally outperformed other models. Finally, we performed the evaluation using an empirical dataset composed of 349 Yesso scallops that were derived from five families. The prediction accuracy for this empirical dataset could reach 0.4 based on optimal GS models. In summary, the genotyping flexibility and cost-effectiveness make 2b-RAD be an ideal genotyping platform for genomic selection in aquaculture breeding programs. PMID:26754638

  4. Clinical evaluation of sodium ion selective field effect transistors for whole blood assay.

    PubMed

    Thompson, J M; Smith, S C; Cramb, R; Hutton, P

    1994-01-01

    Sodium ion selective field effect transistors (ISFETs) were evaluated for their performance in measurement of sodium ions in whole blood for 'near patient' analysis in operating theatres and intensive care units. Performance was evaluated in comparison with a standard clinical laboratory sodium/potassium ion analyser (Radiometer KNA1) and with sodium and potassium assays using flame photometry on the plasma from each whole blood specimen. The imprecisions (coefficients of variation) of three ISFETs for sodium ion assay were 1.08, 1.56 and 1.10%, respectively. Robust bivariate linear regression (reweighted least squares preceded by least median of squares) of the ISFET versus KNA1 sodium ion activity yielded a regression coefficient of 1.08 and an intercept of -18.2 mM. The influence of potassium, protein and lipid on the measurement of sodium ions by both ISFETs and the KNA1 was assessed using robust multiple regression (also based on reweighted least squares preceded by least median of squares). In the regression versus flame photometry, protein was found to be more influential for the KNA1 (glass sodium ion selective electrode) than for the ISFET. Potassium had no influence on assays using the ISFET, but had a weak negative influence on assays using the KNA1. Two ISFETs lasted for more than 200 assays each demonstrating their robustness in the assay of whole blood. PMID:8154847

  5. Evaluation and Selection of Renewable Energy Technologies for Highway Maintenance Facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, Taylor

    The interest in renewable energy has been increasing in recent years as attempts to reduce energy costs as well the consumption of fossil fuels are becoming more common. Companies and organizations are recognizing the increasing reliance on limited fossil fuels' resources, and as competition and costs for these resources grow, alternative solutions are becoming more appealing. Many federally run buildings and associations also have the added pressure of meeting the mandates of federal energy policies that dictate specific savings or reductions. Federal highway maintenance facilities run by the Department of Transportation fall into this category. To help meet energy saving goals, an investigation into potential renewable energy technologies was completed for the Ohio Department of Transportation. This research examined several types of renewable energy technologies and the major factors that affect their performance and evaluated their potential for implementation at highway maintenance facilities. Facilities energy usage data were provided, and a facility survey and site visits were completed to enhance the evaluation of technologies and the suitability for specific projects. Findings and technology recommendations were presented in the form of selection matrices, which were designed to help make selections in future projects. The benefits of utilization of other tools such as analysis software and life cycle assessments were also highlighted. These selection tools were designed to be helpful guides when beginning the pursuit of a renewable energy technology for highway maintenance facilities, and can be applied to other similar building types and projects. This document further discusses the research strategies and findings as well as the recommendations that were made to the personnel overseeing Ohio's highway maintenance facilities.

  6. Evaluation of the pharmacological activities of RAD1901, a selective estrogen receptor degrader.

    PubMed

    Wardell, Suzanne E; Nelson, Erik R; Chao, Christina A; Alley, Holly M; McDonnell, Donald P

    2015-10-01

    Endocrine therapy, using tamoxifen or an aromatase inhibitor, remains a first-line treatment for estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1) positive breast cancer. However, tumor resistance limits the duration of response. The clinical efficacy of fulvestrant, a selective ER degrader (SERD) that triggers receptor degradation, has confirmed that ESR1 often remains engaged in endocrine therapy resistant cancers. Recently developed, selective ER modulators (SERMs)/SERD hybrids (SSHs) that facilitate ESR1 degradation in breast cancer cells and reproductive tissues have been advanced as an alternative treatment for advanced breast cancer, particularly in the metastatic setting. RAD1901 is one SSH currently being evaluated clinically that is unique among ESR1 modulators in that it readily enters the brain, a common site of breast cancer metastasis. In this study, RAD1901 inhibited estrogen activation of ESR1 in vitro and in vivo, inhibited estrogen-dependent breast cancer cell proliferation and xenograft tumor growth, and mediated dose-dependent downregulation of ESR1 protein. However, doses of RAD1901 insufficient to induce ESR1 degradation were shown to result in the activation of ESR1 target genes and in the stimulation of xenograft tumor growth. RAD1901 is an SSH that exhibits complex pharmacology in breast cancer models, having dose-dependent agonist/antagonist activity displayed in a tissue-selective manner. It remains unclear how this unique pharmacology will impact the utility of RAD1901 for breast cancer treatment. However, being the only SERD currently known to access the brain, RAD1901 merits evaluation as a targeted therapy for the treatment of breast cancer brain metastases. PMID:26162914

  7. Behavioral and pharmacological evaluation of a selectively bred mouse model of home cage hyperactivity

    PubMed Central

    Majdak, Petra; Bucko, Paula J.; Holloway, Ashley L.; Bhattacharya, Tushar K.; DeYoung, Erin K.; Kilby, Chessa N.; Zombeck, Jonathan A.; Rhodes, Justin S.

    2014-01-01

    Daily levels of physical activity vary greatly across individuals and are strongly influenced by genetic background. While moderate levels of physical activity are associated with improved physical and mental health, extremely high levels of physical activity are associated with behavioral disorders such as Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). However, the genetic and neurobiological mechanisms relating hyperactivity to ADHD or other behavioral disorders remain unclear. Therefore, we conducted a selective breeding experiment for increased home cage activity starting with a highly genetically variable population of house mice and evaluated the line for correlated responses in other relevant phenotypes. Here we report results through Generation 10. Relative to the Control line, the High-Active line traveled approximately 4 times as far in the home cage (on days 5 and 6 of a 6-day test), displayed reduced body mass at maturity, reduced reproductive success, increased wheel running and open field behavior, decreased performance on the rotarod, decreased performance on the Morris water maze that was not rescued by acute administration of d-amphetamine, reduced hyperactivity from chronically administered low clinical doses of d-amphetamine, and increased numbers of new cells and neuronal activation of the dentate gyrus. Standardized phenotypic differences between the lines were compared to estimates expected from genetic drift to evaluate whether the line differences could have resulted from random effects as opposed to correlated responses to selection. Results indicated line differences in body mass and locomotor responses to low doses of amphetamine were more likely due to selection than drift. The efficacy of low doses of d-amphetamine in ameliorating hyperactivity support the High-Active line as a useful model for exploring the etiology of hyperactivity-associated comorbid behavioral disorders. PMID:25108455

  8. Model selection on solid ground: Rigorous comparison of nine ways to evaluate Bayesian model evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schöniger, Anneli; Wöhling, Thomas; Samaniego, Luis; Nowak, Wolfgang

    2014-12-01

    Bayesian model selection or averaging objectively ranks a number of plausible, competing conceptual models based on Bayes' theorem. It implicitly performs an optimal trade-off between performance in fitting available data and minimum model complexity. The procedure requires determining Bayesian model evidence (BME), which is the likelihood of the observed data integrated over each model's parameter space. The computation of this integral is highly challenging because it is as high-dimensional as the number of model parameters. Three classes of techniques to compute BME are available, each with its own challenges and limitations: (1) Exact and fast analytical solutions are limited by strong assumptions. (2) Numerical evaluation quickly becomes unfeasible for expensive models. (3) Approximations known as information criteria (ICs) such as the AIC, BIC, or KIC (Akaike, Bayesian, or Kashyap information criterion, respectively) yield contradicting results with regard to model ranking. Our study features a theory-based intercomparison of these techniques. We further assess their accuracy in a simplistic synthetic example where for some scenarios an exact analytical solution exists. In more challenging scenarios, we use a brute-force Monte Carlo integration method as reference. We continue this analysis with a real-world application of hydrological model selection. This is a first-time benchmarking of the various methods for BME evaluation against true solutions. Results show that BME values from ICs are often heavily biased and that the choice of approximation method substantially influences the accuracy of model ranking. For reliable model selection, bias-free numerical methods should be preferred over ICs whenever computationally feasible.

  9. Model selection on solid ground: Rigorous comparison of nine ways to evaluate Bayesian model evidence

    PubMed Central

    Schöniger, Anneli; Wöhling, Thomas; Samaniego, Luis; Nowak, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Bayesian model selection or averaging objectively ranks a number of plausible, competing conceptual models based on Bayes' theorem. It implicitly performs an optimal trade-off between performance in fitting available data and minimum model complexity. The procedure requires determining Bayesian model evidence (BME), which is the likelihood of the observed data integrated over each model's parameter space. The computation of this integral is highly challenging because it is as high-dimensional as the number of model parameters. Three classes of techniques to compute BME are available, each with its own challenges and limitations: (1) Exact and fast analytical solutions are limited by strong assumptions. (2) Numerical evaluation quickly becomes unfeasible for expensive models. (3) Approximations known as information criteria (ICs) such as the AIC, BIC, or KIC (Akaike, Bayesian, or Kashyap information criterion, respectively) yield contradicting results with regard to model ranking. Our study features a theory-based intercomparison of these techniques. We further assess their accuracy in a simplistic synthetic example where for some scenarios an exact analytical solution exists. In more challenging scenarios, we use a brute-force Monte Carlo integration method as reference. We continue this analysis with a real-world application of hydrological model selection. This is a first-time benchmarking of the various methods for BME evaluation against true solutions. Results show that BME values from ICs are often heavily biased and that the choice of approximation method substantially influences the accuracy of model ranking. For reliable model selection, bias-free numerical methods should be preferred over ICs whenever computationally feasible. PMID:25745272

  10. Design, Syntheses, and Biological Evaluation of 14-Heteroaromatic Substituted Naltrexone Derivatives: Pharmacological Profile Switch from Mu Opioid Receptor Selectivity to Mu/Kappa Opioid Receptor Dual Selectivity

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Yunyun; Zaidi, Saheem A.; Elbegdorj, Orgil; Aschenbach, Lindsey C. K.; Li, Guo; Stevens, David L.; Scoggins, Krista L.; Dewey, William L.; Selley, Dana E.; Zhang, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Based on a mu opioid receptor (MOR) homology model and the “isosterism” concept, three generations of 14-heteroaromatically substituted naltrexone derivatives were designed, synthesized, and evaluated as potential MOR selective ligands. The first generation ligands appeared to be MOR selective, whereas the second and the third generation ones showed MOR/kappa opioid receptor (KOR) dual selectivity. Docking of ligands 2 (MOR selective) and 10 (MOR/KOR dual selective) to the three opioid receptor crystal structures revealed a non-conserved residue facilitated “hydrogen bonding network” that could be responsible for their distinctive selectivity profiles. The MOR/KOR dual selective ligand 10 showed no agonism and acted as a potent antagonist in the tail flick assay. It also produced less severe opioid withdrawal symptoms than naloxone in morphine dependent mice. In conclusion, ligand 10 may serve as a novel lead compound to develop MOR/KOR dual selective ligands, which might possess unique therapeutic value for opioid addiction treatment. PMID:24144240

  11. Evaluation of Selection Bias in an Internet-based Study of Pregnancy Planners

    PubMed Central

    Hatch, Elizabeth E.; Hahn, Kristen A.; Wise, Lauren A.; Mikkelsen, Ellen M.; Kumar, Ramya; Fox, Matthew P.; Brooks, Daniel R.; Riis, Anders H.; Sorensen, Henrik Toft; Rothman, Kenneth J.

    2016-01-01

    Selection bias is a potential concern in all epidemiologic studies, but it is usually difficult to assess. Recently, concerns have been raised that internet-based prospective cohort studies may be particularly prone to selection bias. Although use of the internet is efficient and facilitates recruitment of subjects that are otherwise difficult to enroll, any compromise in internal validity would be of great concern. Few studies have evaluated selection bias in internet-based prospective cohort studies. Using data from the Danish Medical Birth Registry from 2008 to 2012, we compared six well-known perinatal associations (e.g., smoking and birth weight) in an inter-net-based preconception cohort (Snart Gravid n = 4,801) with the total population of singleton live births in the registry (n = 239,791). We used log-binomial models to estimate risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for each association. We found that most results in both populations were very similar. For example, maternal obesity was associated with an increased risk of delivering a macrosomic infant in Snart Gravid (RR = 1.5; 95% CI: 1.2, 1.7) and the total population (RR = 1.5; 95% CI: 1.45, 1.53), and maternal smoking of >10 cigarettes per day was associated with a higher risk of low birth weight (RR = 2.7; 95% CI: 1.2, 5.9 vs. RR = 2.9; 95% CI: 2.6, 3.1) in Snart Gravid and the total population, respectively. We cannot be certain that our results would apply to other associations or different populations. Nevertheless, our results suggest that recruitment of reproductive aged women via the internet may be no more prone to selection bias than traditional methods of recruitment. PMID:26484423

  12. Evaluation of Interactive Visualization on Mobile Computing Platforms for Selection of Deep Brain Stimulation Parameters.

    PubMed

    Butson, Christopher R; Tamm, Georg; Jain, Sanket; Fogal, Thomas; Krüger, Jens

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, there has been significant growth in the use of patient-specific models to predict the effects of neuromodulation therapies such as deep brain stimulation (DBS). However, translating these models from a research environment to the everyday clinical workflow has been a challenge, primarily due to the complexity of the models and the expertise required in specialized visualization software. In this paper, we deploy the interactive visualization system ImageVis3D Mobile, which has been designed for mobile computing devices such as the iPhone or iPad, in an evaluation environment to visualize models of Parkinson's disease patients who received DBS therapy. Selection of DBS settings is a significant clinical challenge that requires repeated revisions to achieve optimal therapeutic response, and is often performed without any visual representation of the stimulation system in the patient. We used ImageVis3D Mobile to provide models to movement disorders clinicians and asked them to use the software to determine: 1) which of the four DBS electrode contacts they would select for therapy; and 2) what stimulation settings they would choose. We compared the stimulation protocol chosen from the software versus the stimulation protocol that was chosen via clinical practice (independent of the study). Lastly, we compared the amount of time required to reach these settings using the software versus the time required through standard practice. We found that the stimulation settings chosen using ImageVis3D Mobile were similar to those used in standard of care, but were selected in drastically less time. We show how our visualization system, available directly at the point of care on a device familiar to the clinician, can be used to guide clinical decision making for selection of DBS settings. In our view, the positive impact of the system could also translate to areas other than DBS. PMID:22450824

  13. Selecting and evaluating native plants for region-specific phytotoxicity testing.

    PubMed

    Olszyk, David; Pfleeger, Thomas; Lee, E Henry; Burdick, Connie; King, George; Plocher, Milton; Kern, Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated methodology to determine risks to terrestrial native plant species from potential herbecide drift, focusing on 1) selection of native species for testing, 2) growth of these species, and 3) variability in herbicide response among native species and compared with crop plants. Native plant species were selected for initial testing on the basis of spatial analysis, which indicated that species from Illinois, USA, were at potential risk for off-target effects of herbicide drift. On the basis of preliminary seed germination tests, 5 native plant species (Andropogon gerardi, Polygonum lapathifolium, Solidago canadensis, Symphyotrichum lateriflorum, and Tridens flavus) were selected for comparison with crops grown in Illinois, normally used in the US Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA's) Vegetative Vigor Test (Avena sativa, Daucus carota, Glycine max, Solanum lycopersicon, and Zea mays), or both. When treated with low concentrations of a test herbicide, sulfometuron methyl, 2 native species, P. lapathifolium and S. canadensis, were as sensitive as the 5 crop species. The effective herbicide concentrations producing a 25% reduction in shoot dry weight (EC25) for these species, ranged from 0.00015 to 0.0014 times a field application concentration of 52 g/ha active ingredient of sulfometuron methyl. S. lateriflorum and T. flavus were less sensitive than the other native species, whereas A. gerardi was tolerant to sulfometuron methyl with no growth reduction at any herbicide concentration tested. This study indicated that native species can be successfully selected and grown, used in the suite of species used in the USEPA's phytotoxicity test to assess risks of chemical herbicides to nontarget plants. It also showed (with a limited number of species) that native species varied more in sensitivity to simulated herbicide drift than crop species often used in phytotoxicity testing and that a Weibull function was useful to calculate EC25 values

  14. Solar Selective Coatings Prepared From Thin-Film Molecular Mixtures and Evaluated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaworske, Don A.

    2003-01-01

    Thin films composed of molecular mixtures of metal and dielectric are being considered for use as solar selective coatings for a variety of space power applications. By controlling molecular mixing during ion-beam sputter deposition, researchers can tailor the solar selective coatings to have the combined properties of high solar absorptance and low infrared emittance. On orbit, these combined properties simultaneously maximize the amount of solar energy captured by the coating and minimize the amount of thermal energy radiated. The solar selective coatings are envisioned for use on minisatellites, for applications where solar energy is used to power heat engines or to heat remote regions in the interior of the spacecraft. Such systems may be useful for various missions, particularly those to middle Earth orbit. Sunlight must be concentrated by a factor of 100 or more to achieve the desired heat inlet operating temperature. At lower concentration factors, the temperature of the heat inlet surface of the heat engine is too low for efficient operation, and at high concentration factors, cavity type heat receivers become attractive. The an artist's concept of a heat engine, with the annular heat absorbing surface near the focus of the concentrator coated with a solar selective coating is shown. In this artist's concept, the heat absorbing surface powers a small Stirling convertor. The astronaut's gloved hand is provided for scale. Several thin-film molecular mixtures have been prepared and evaluated to date, including mixtures of aluminum and aluminum oxide, nickel and aluminum oxide, titanium and aluminum oxide, and platinum and aluminum oxide. For example, a 2400- Angstrom thick mixture of titanium and aluminum oxide was found to have a solar absorptance of 0.93 and an infrared emittance of 0.06. On the basis of tests performed under flowing nitrogen at temperatures as high as 680 C, the coating appeared to be durable at elevated temperatures. Additional durability

  15. Bioweathering Potential of Cultivable Fungi Associated with Semi-Arid Surface Microhabitats of Mayan Buildings.

    PubMed

    Ortega-Morales, Benjamín O; Narváez-Zapata, José; Reyes-Estebanez, Manuela; Quintana, Patricia; De la Rosa-García, Susana Del C; Bullen, Heather; Gómez-Cornelio, Sergio; Chan-Bacab, Manuel J

    2016-01-01

    Soil and rock surfaces support microbial communities involved in mineral weathering processes. Using selective isolation, fungi were obtained from limestone surfaces of Mayan monuments in the semi-arid climate at Yucatan, Mexico. A total of 101 isolates representing 53 different taxa were studied. Common fungi such as Fusarium, Pestalotiopsis, Trichoderma, and Penicillium were associated with surfaces and were, probably derived from airborne spores. In contrast, unusual fungi such as Rosellinia, Annulohypoxylon, and Xylaria were predominantly identified from mycelium particles of biofilm biomass. Simulating oligotrophic conditions, agar amended with CaCO3 was inoculated with fungi to test for carbonate activity. A substantial proportion of fungi, in particular those isolated from mycelium (59%), were capable of solubilizing calcium by means of organic acid release, notably oxalic acid as evidenced by ion chromatography. Contrary to our hypothesis, nutrient level was not a variable influencing the CaCO3 solubilization ability among isolates. Particularly active fungi (Annulohypoxylon stygium, Penicillium oxalicum, and Rosellinia sp.) were selected as models for bioweathering experiments with limestone-containing mesocosms to identify if other mineral phases, in addition to oxalates, were linked to bioweathering processes. Fungal biofilms were seen heavily covering the stone surface, while a biomineralized front was also observed at the stone-biofilm interface, where network of hyphae and mycogenic crystals was observed. X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) identified calcite as the main phase, along with whewellite and wedellite. In addition, lower levels of citrate were detected by Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR). Overall, our results suggest that a diverse fungal community is associated with limestone surfaces insemi-arid climates. A subset of this community is geochemically active, excreting organic acids under quasi

  16. Bioweathering Potential of Cultivable Fungi Associated with Semi-Arid Surface Microhabitats of Mayan Buildings

    PubMed Central

    Ortega-Morales, Benjamín O.; Narváez-Zapata, José; Reyes-Estebanez, Manuela; Quintana, Patricia; De la Rosa-García, Susana del C.; Bullen, Heather; Gómez-Cornelio, Sergio; Chan-Bacab, Manuel J.

    2016-01-01

    Soil and rock surfaces support microbial communities involved in mineral weathering processes. Using selective isolation, fungi were obtained from limestone surfaces of Mayan monuments in the semi-arid climate at Yucatan, Mexico. A total of 101 isolates representing 53 different taxa were studied. Common fungi such as Fusarium, Pestalotiopsis, Trichoderma, and Penicillium were associated with surfaces and were, probably derived from airborne spores. In contrast, unusual fungi such as Rosellinia, Annulohypoxylon, and Xylaria were predominantly identified from mycelium particles of biofilm biomass. Simulating oligotrophic conditions, agar amended with CaCO3 was inoculated with fungi to test for carbonate activity. A substantial proportion of fungi, in particular those isolated from mycelium (59%), were capable of solubilizing calcium by means of organic acid release, notably oxalic acid as evidenced by ion chromatography. Contrary to our hypothesis, nutrient level was not a variable influencing the CaCO3 solubilization ability among isolates. Particularly active fungi (Annulohypoxylon stygium, Penicillium oxalicum, and Rosellinia sp.) were selected as models for bioweathering experiments with limestone-containing mesocosms to identify if other mineral phases, in addition to oxalates, were linked to bioweathering processes. Fungal biofilms were seen heavily covering the stone surface, while a biomineralized front was also observed at the stone-biofilm interface, where network of hyphae and mycogenic crystals was observed. X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) identified calcite as the main phase, along with whewellite and wedellite. In addition, lower levels of citrate were detected by Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR). Overall, our results suggest that a diverse fungal community is associated with limestone surfaces insemi-arid climates. A subset of this community is geochemically active, excreting organic acids under quasi

  17. Evaluation of Open Access Versus Selected Admission to the Nursing Program in a Community College. AIR 1983 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capoor, Madan

    A procedure used to select students for a nursing program in a community college was evaluated, and attention was directed to the cost effectiveness of the program and the implications for the community of an open-door policy. The selection criteria were based on high school grades in chemistry and biology; scores on the Aptitude Test for Allied…

  18. Selection Bias in Students' Evaluation of Teaching: Causes of Student Absenteeism and Its Consequences for Course Ratings and Rankings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolbring, Tobias; Treischl, Edgar

    2016-01-01

    Systematic sampling error due to self-selection is a common topic in methodological research and a key challenge for every empirical study. Since selection bias is often not sufficiently considered as a potential flaw in research on and evaluations in higher education, the aim of this paper is to raise awareness for the topic using the case of…

  19. Laboratory study of the response of select insecticides to toxicity identification evaluation procedures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuivila, Kathryn M.; Crepeau, Kathryn L.

    1999-01-01

    A laboratory study was used to evaluate the response of select insecticides to toxicity identification evaluation procedures. Fourteen insecticides, one degradation product, and one synergist were spiked into organic-grade water and carried through toxicity identification evaluation procedures. Concentrations of each compound were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. During Phase I, the water sample was pumped through a C-8 solid-phase extraction cartridge and then eluted with methanol. Dimethoate was not removed by the extraction, but remained in the rinsate. In contrast, permethrin was removed by the extraction, but was not recovered by the methanol elution, and 80 percent of the permethrin remained on the cartridge, teflon tubing, and glassware. Chlorpyrifos also was not recovered completely with the methanol elution (only 62 percent was recovered). The other insecticides were extracted by C-8 solid-phase extraction cartridge and recovered by elution with methanol (80 percent or greater). During Phase II, a new spiked water sample was extracted by C-8 solid-phase extraction cartridge and then eluted with varying concentrations of methanol and water into different fractions. Each methanol:water fraction was analyzed for the added compounds. Most of the insecticides eluted in two fractions, with concentrations of 10 percent or greater. The largest number of insecticides eluted in the 75 percent methanol:water fraction.

  20. Evaluation of the Selective Glucocorticoid Receptor Agonist Compound A for Ototoxic Effects

    PubMed Central

    Honeder, Clemens; Engleder, Elisabeth; Schöpper, Hanna; Krause, Markus; Landegger, Lukas David; Plasenzotti, Roberto; Gabor, Franz; Gstoettner, Wolfgang; Arnoldner, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the selective glucocorticoid receptor agonist (SEGRA) compound A, a potential novel therapeutic for inner ear disorders, for ototoxic effects. Study Design Laboratory animal study Methods Experimental guinea pigs were grouped as follows: 1 & 2) systemic application of compound A (1.5 mg/kg and 4.5 mg/kg; n=6/group); 3 & 4) intratympanic application of compound A (1 mM and 10 mM; n=6/group). Contralateral ears in topically treated animals served as controls. Hearing thresholds were determined by ABR before and directly after the application of compound A, as well as on days three, seven, 14, 21 and 28. At the end of the experiments temporal bones were harvested for histological evaluation. Results Systemic administration of compound A (1.5 mg/kg & 4.5 mg/kg) did not cause hearing threshold shifts, whereas the intratympanic injection (1 mM & 10 mM) resulted in a hearing loss. Histological analysis of the middle and inner ears after topical compound A application showed alterations in the tympanic membranes, the auditory ossicles and the round window membranes, whilst spiral ganglion cells and hair cells were not affected. Conclusion SEGRAs like compound A could provide novel therapeutic options with reduced metabolic side-effects for the treatment of inner ear disorders. Whereas intratympanic application of compound A resulted in hearing loss, the systemic application of compound A merits evaluation for otoprotective effects in trauma models. PMID:25382757

  1. Soil microbial respiration from various microhabitats in Arctic landscape: impact of soil type, environmental conditions and soil age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biasi, Christina; Jokinen, Simo; Marushchak, Maija; Trubnikova, Tatiana; Hämäläinen, Kai; Oinonen, Markku; Martikainen, Pertti

    2014-05-01

    Soil respiration is the second largest C flux between atmosphere and terrestrial ecosystems after gross primary production. Carbon dioxide released from soils is thus a major contributor to the atmospheric CO2 concentration. Despite the global importance, soil respiration and its components (heterotrophic and autotrophic respiration) remain poorly understood and not well constrained fluxes of the terrestrial C cycle. This is particularly true for the Arctic, where huge amounts of the Earth's soil carbon is stored. Here, we report on heterotrophic soil respiration rates from various Arctic tundra microhabitats measured in situ. The study site was Seida (67°07'N, 62°57'E, 100 m a.s.l.) which is characterized by typical sub-arctic permafrost landscape which comprises raised, vegetated permafrost peat plateaus, interspersed with spots of bare peat surfaces (peat circles), and upland mineral soils. We used isotope partitioning approach based on differences in natural abundance of 14C between soil and plants to separate sources of soil-respired CO2. In addition, the tradition trenching approach was employed. Complementary laboratory incubations with homogenized soil were conducted to assess primary decomposability of the soils and to identify age of the CO2 released and thus get more information on the nature of the sources of respiration. The major aim was to link SMR rates with of soil type, land cover class, soil physic-chemical properties (e.g. water content), soil C stocks and age of soil. Results show that, despite profound differences in soil characteristics and primary decomposability of organic matter, surface CO2 fluxes derived from soil microbial respiration rates were rather similar between microhabitats. The only factor which influenced, at least to some extent, the respiration rates was total soil C (and N) stocks in surface soils. There was some evidence for reduced soil-related CO2 emissions from peatlands, though results were not consistent between the

  2. Water relations and gas exchange of fan bryophytes and their adaptations to microhabitats in an Asian subtropical montane cloud forest.

    PubMed

    Song, Liang; Zhang, Yong-Jiang; Chen, Xi; Li, Su; Lu, Hua-Zheng; Wu, Chuan-Sheng; Tan, Zheng-Hong; Liu, Wen-Yao; Shi, Xian-Meng

    2015-07-01

    Fan life forms are bryophytes with shoots rising from vertical substratum that branch repeatedly in the horizontal plane to form flattened photosynthetic surfaces, which are well suited for intercepting water from moving air. However, detailed water relations, gas exchange characteristics of fan bryophytes and their adaptations to particular microhabitats remain poorly understood. In this study, we measured and analyzed microclimatic data, as well as water release curves, pressure-volume relationships and photosynthetic water and light response curves for three common fan bryophytes in an Asian subtropical montane cloud forest (SMCF). Results demonstrate high relative humidity but low light levels and temperatures in the understory, and a strong effect of fog on water availability for bryophytes in the SMCF. The facts that fan bryophytes in dry air lose most of their free water within 1 h, and a strong dependence of net photosynthesis rates on water content, imply that the transition from a hydrated, photosynthetically active state to a dry, inactive state is rapid. In addition, fan bryophytes developed relatively high cell wall elasticity and the osmoregulatory capacity to tolerate desiccation. These fan bryophytes had low light saturation and compensation point of photosynthesis, indicating shade tolerance. It is likely that fan bryophytes can flourish on tree trunks in the SMCF because of substantial annual precipitation, average relative humidity, and frequent and persistent fog, which can provide continual water sources for them to intercept. Nevertheless, the low water retention capacity and strong dependence of net photosynthesis on water content of fan bryophytes indicate a high risk of unbalanced carbon budget if the frequency and severity of drought increase in the future as predicted. PMID:25813755

  3. Bacterial Motility Patterns Reveal Importance of Exploitation over Exploration in Marine Microhabitats. Part I: Theory

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Li; Wu, Xiao-Lun

    2014-01-01

    Bacteria use different motility patterns to navigate and explore natural habitats. However, how these motility patterns are selected, and what their benefits may be, are not understood. In this article, we analyze the effect of motility patterns on a cell’s ability to migrate in a chemical gradient and to localize at the top of the gradient, the two most important characteristics of bacterial chemotaxis. We will focus on two motility patterns, run-tumble and run-reverse-flick, that are observed and characterized in enteric bacterium Escherichia coli and marine bacterium Vibrio alginolyticus, respectively. To make an objective comparison, master equations are developed on the basis of microscopic motions of the bacteria. An unexpected yet significant result is that by adopting the run-reverse-flick motility pattern, a bacterium can reduce its diffusivity without compromising its drift in the chemical gradient. This finding is biologically important as it suggests that the motility pattern can improve a microorganism’s ability to sequester nutrients in a competitive environment. PMID:25296325

  4. Bacterial motility patterns reveal importance of exploitation over exploration in marine microhabitats. Part I: theory.

    PubMed

    Xie, Li; Wu, Xiao-Lun

    2014-10-01

    Bacteria use different motility patterns to navigate and explore natural habitats. However, how these motility patterns are selected, and what their benefits may be, are not understood. In this article, we analyze the effect of motility patterns on a cell's ability to migrate in a chemical gradient and to localize at the top of the gradient, the two most important characteristics of bacterial chemotaxis. We will focus on two motility patterns, run-tumble and run-reverse-flick, that are observed and characterized in enteric bacterium Escherichia coli and marine bacterium Vibrio alginolyticus, respectively. To make an objective comparison, master equations are developed on the basis of microscopic motions of the bacteria. An unexpected yet significant result is that by adopting the run-reverse-flick motility pattern, a bacterium can reduce its diffusivity without compromising its drift in the chemical gradient. This finding is biologically important as it suggests that the motility pattern can improve a microorganism's ability to sequester nutrients in a competitive environment. PMID:25296325

  5. Evaluation of selected methods for determining streamflow during periods of ice effect

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Melcher, Norwood B.; Walker, J.F.

    1992-01-01

    Seventeen methods for estimating ice-affected streamflow are evaluated for potential use with the U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging station network. The methods evaluated were identified by written responses from U.S. Geological Survey field offices and by a comprehensive literature search. The methods selected and techniques used for applying the methods are described in this report. The methods are evaluated by comparing estimated results with data collected at three streamflow-gaging stations in Iowa during the winter of 1987-88. Discharge measurements were obtained at 1- to 5-day intervals during the ice-affected periods at the three stations to define an accurate baseline record. Discharge records were compiled for each method based on data available, assuming a 6-week field schedule. The methods are classified into two general categories-subjective and analytical--depending on whether individual judgment is necessary for method application. On the basis of results of the evaluation for the three Iowa stations, two of the subjective methods (discharge ratio and hydrographic-and-climatic comparison) were more accurate than the other subjective methods and approximately as accurate as the best analytical method. Three of the analytical methods (index velocity, adjusted rating curve, and uniform flow) could potentially be used at streamflow-gaging stations, where the need for accurate ice-affected discharge estimates justifies the expense of collecting additional field data. One analytical method (ice-adjustment factor) may be appropriate for use at stations with extremely stable stage-discharge ratings and measuring sections. Further research is needed to refine the analytical methods. The discharge-ratio and multiple-regression methods produce estimates of streamflow for varying ice conditions using information obtained from the existing U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging network.

  6. Evaluation of selected detector systems for products formed in the atmospheric hydrolysis of uranium hexafluoride

    SciTech Connect

    Bostick, W.D.; Bostick, D.T.

    1987-03-01

    Sensitive detection of UF/sub 6/ hydrolysis products, either by discontinuous sampling or by continuous or near real-time monitoring, is an important safety consideration for DOE contractors handling large quantities of UF/sub 6/. Automated continuous or rapid intermittent remote sensing of these reaction products can provide an alarm signal when a preselected threshold value has been exceeded (absolute response) or when a significant emission excursion has occurred (rate of change of response). This report evaluates the performance of selected devices for the detection of airborne materials formed in the release of liquid UF/sub 6/ (approx. =1.3 g) into an enclosed volume of 6 m/sup 3/; these experiments were initiated on October 23, 1986. The detection principles investigated are: photometric, gas detector tubes, and electrochemical sensor.

  7. Evaluation of functional substances in the selected food materials for space agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomita-Yokotani, Kaori; Kimura, Yasuko; Yamashita, Masamichi; Kimura, Shunta; Sato, Seigo; Katoh, Hiroshi; Abe, Yusuke; Ajioka, Reiko

    We have been studying the useful life-support system in closed bio-ecosystem for space agriculture. We have already proposed the several species as food material, such as Nostoc sp. HK-01 and Prunnus sp., cyanobacterium and Japanese cherry tree, respectively. The cyanobacterium, Nostoc sp Hk-01, has high tolerances to several space environment. Furthermore, the woody plant materials have useful utilization elements in our habitation environment. The studies of woody plants under a space-environment in the vegetable kingdom have a high contribution to the study of various and exotic environmental responses, too. We have already found that they can produce the important functional substances for human. Here, we will show the evaluation of functional substances in the selected food materials under the possible conditions for space agriculture after cooking.

  8. Development of Selection Criteria and Their Application in Evaluation of CELSS Candidate Species

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoff, J. E.; Howe, J. M.; Mitchell, C. A.

    1982-01-01

    A total of 21 criteria were considered; nine of them fall into the realm of human nutrition and convenience (the "use' criteria), and the remaining 12 are predominantly cultural considerations. Five criteria were considered to be of great importance in the selection of plant species and were given double eight relative to the remaining criteria. "Use' criteria include the following: energy concentration, nutritional composition, palatability, serving size and frequency, processing requirements, use flexibility, toxicity, and human experience. "Cultural' criteria include the following: proportion of edible biomass, yield of edible plant biomass, continuous vs. determinate harvestability, growth habit and morphology, environmental tolerance, photoperiodic and temperature requirements, symbiotic requirements and restrictions, carbon dioxide-light intensity response, suitability for soilless culture, disease resistance, familarity with species, and pollination and propagation. A total of 115 species were evaluated and scored according to suitability for a CELSS.

  9. Project Management Consultancy (PMC) procurement approach: Supplier's evaluation and selection dilemma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nawi, Mohd Nasrun Mohd; Azimi, Mohd Azrulfitri; Pozin, Mohd Affendi Ahmad; Osman, Wan Nadri; Anuar, Herman Shah

    2016-08-01

    Project Management Consultancy (PMC) is part of the management oriented procurement method in which a sole consultant is hired by the client to deal with the contactors in place of the client. Appointing contractors in this method or approach looks to be interesting as client could play a pivotal role in evaluating and selecting the supplier/contractor for the work package. In some cases, client gives the authority for the PMC to hire the supplier/contractor of their choice while in some cases the client is the one who made the decision. This research paper seeks to investigate the dilemma arises from this situation and for the purpose of this research, a real case study was studied to assess the impacts of such dilemma to the performance of the project. Recommendations on how to tackle the dilemma will also be addressed in the later part of this research paper.

  10. Evaluation of tocolytic efficacy of selective beta2 adrenoceptor agonists on buffalo uterus.

    PubMed

    Garg, Satish K; Garg, K M; Sabir, M

    2004-09-01

    Present study was conducted on prostaglandin F2alpha (PGF2alpha), oxytocin, (OT), potassium chloride (KCI) and barium chloride (BaCl2) pre-contracted perimetrial uterine strips of dioestrus and pregnant buffaloes to evaluate the tocolytic efficacy of selective beta2 adrenoceptor agonists-albuterol (salbutamol) and terbutaline. Cumulative concentration-response curves of both the beta2 adrenoceptor agonists were constructed and the mean effective concentration (EC50) values determined and compared statistically. Based on the comparative EC50 values in relaxing the pre-contracted uterine strips with different spasmogens, the rank order potency of albuterol was found to be--PGF2alpha > BaCl2 > OT > KCl on uterine strips from dioestrus animals, while OT> BaCl2> PGF2alpha >KCl on the uterine strips of pregnant buffaloes. The rank order potency of terbutaline on uterine strips from dioestrus stage animals was- BaCl2 > OT > KCl > PGF2alpha, while BaCl2 > PGF2alpha > KCl > OT on uterine tissues of pregnant animals. Thus, irrespective of the state of uterus, whether gravid or non-gravid, KCl-depolarized uterine tissues required comparatively higher concentrations of albuterol or terbutaline to produce tocolytic effect. High concentrations of K+ in biophase may have interfered with the beta2 adrenoceptor agonists-induced outward K+ current and hyperpolarization. From the results of present study, it was evident that selective beta2 adrenergic agonists had good tocolytic efficacy on the uterus of buffaloes. Further, indirectly the possibility of existence and activation of K(Ca) channels by selective beta2 adrenoceptor agonists in mediating tocolysis of buffalo myometrium can not be ruled out, however, detailed studies using specific K(Ca) channel blockers are required for characterizing the nature of such channels in buffalo uterus. PMID:15462186

  11. Evaluation of selectivity in homologous multimodal chromatographic systems using in silico designed antibody fragment libraries.

    PubMed

    Karkov, Hanne Sophie; Woo, James; Krogh, Berit Olsen; Ahmadian, Haleh; Cramer, Steven M

    2015-12-24

    This study describes the in silico design, surface property analyses, production and chromatographic evaluations of a diverse set of antibody Fab fragment variants. Based on previous findings, we hypothesized that the complementarity-determining regions (CDRs) constitute important binding sites for multimodal chromatographic ligands. Given that antibodies are highly diversified molecules and in particular the CDRs, we set out to examine the generality of this result. For this purpose, four different Fab fragments with different CDRs and/or framework regions of the variable domains were identified and related variants were designed in silico. The four Fab variant libraries were subsequently generated by site-directed mutagenesis and produced by recombinant expression and affinity purification to enable examination of their chromatographic retention behavior. The effects of geometric re-arrangement of the functional moieties on the multimodal resin ligands were also investigated with respect to Fab variant retention profiles by comparing two commercially available multimodal cation-exchange ligands, Capto MMC and Nuvia cPrime, and two novel multimodal ligand prototypes. Interestingly, the chromatographic data demonstrated distinct selectivity trends between the four Fab variant libraries. For three of the Fab libraries, the CDR regions appeared as major binding sites for all multimodal ligands. In contrast, the fourth Fab library displayed a distinctly different chromatographic behavior, where Nuvia cPrime and related multimodal ligand prototypes provided markedly improved selectivity over Capto MMC. Clearly, the results illustrate that the discriminating power of multimodal ligands differs between different Fab fragments. The results are promising indications that multimodal chromatography using the appropriate multimodal ligands can be employed in downstream bioprocessing for challenging selective separation of product related variants. PMID:26654254

  12. Evaluating the use of different positional strategies for sentence selection in biomedical literature summarization

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The position of a sentence in a document has been traditionally considered an indicator of the relevance of the sentence, and therefore it is frequently used by automatic summarization systems as an attribute for sentence selection. Sentences close to the beginning of the document are supposed to deal with the main topic and thus are selected for the summary. This criterion has shown to be very effective when summarizing some types of documents, such as news items. However, this property is not likely to be found in other types of documents, such as scientific articles, where other positional criteria may be preferred. The purpose of the present work is to study the utility of different positional strategies for biomedical literature summarization. Results We have evaluated three different positional strategies: (1) awarding the sentences at the beginning of the document, (2) preferring those at the beginning and end of the document, and (3) weighting the sentences according to the section in which they appear. To this end, we have implemented two summarizers, one based on semantic graphs and the other based on concept frequencies, and evaluated the summaries they produce when combined with each of the positional strategies above using ROUGE metrics. Our results indicate that it is possible to improve the quality of the summaries by weighting the sentences according to the section in which they appear (≈17% improvement in ROUGE-2 for the graph-based summarizer and ≈20% for the frequency-based summarizer), and that the sections containing the more salient information are the Methods and Material and the Discussion and Results ones. Conclusions It has been found that the use of traditional positional criteria that award sentences at the beginning and/or the end of the document are not helpful when summarizing scientific literature. In contrast, a more appropriate strategy is that which weights sentences according to the section in which they appear

  13. Evaluation of selected thrombotic factors among pregnant women with preeclampsia and normal pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    Saghafi, Nafiseh; Mohammadzadeh Vatanchi, Atieh; Tara, Fatemeh; Pourali, Leila; Dadgar, Salmeh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Preeclampsia is one of the common complications during pregnancy with considerable maternal and fetal mortality and morbidity. Hypercoagulability due to thrombophilic factors is discussed as the etiology involved in this disease. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate selected thrombotic factors among pregnant women with preeclampsia and normal pregnant women. Materials and Methods: This case-control study was performed on 200 pregnant women at third trimester of pregnancy between 2012 and 2013. 100 pregnant women admitted to Qaem and Imam Reza hospitals of Mashhad, due to preeclampsia, were selected as case group and 100 pregnant women without preeclampsia referred to OB/GYN clinic of these hospitals as control group. Blood samples were taken from two groups for evaluation of the coagulation factors including factor V Leiden, protein C, protein S, antithrombin III, anti-cardiolipin antibodies, and lupus anticoagulant antibodies. Results: Two groups were not significantly different in terms of maternal age and parity (p>0.05). Levels of factor V Leiden, protein C, protein S, antithrombin III, anti-cardiolipin antibodies and lupus anticoagulant antibodies were compared between two groups. The number of patients with abnormal factor V Leiden and protein C was significantly higher in case group than in the control group (p<0.01 respectively), but other factors were not significant different between two groups. Thrombophilia disorders were significantly more in case group compared to control (p<0.001). Conclusion: The risk of thrombophilia disorders is higher in preeclamptic patients than normal pregnant women. PMID:25709635

  14. Signal of Interest Selection Standard for Ultrasonic Backscatter in Cancellous Bone Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chengcheng; Tang, Tao; Xu, Feng; Ta, Dean; Matsukawa, Mami; Hu, Bo; Wang, Weiqi

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of the backscattered signal of interest (SOI) on ultrasonic cancellous bone evaluation. In vitro backscatter measurements were performed using 16 bovine cancellous bone specimens and six different transducers with central frequencies of 0.5, 1, 2.25, 3.5, 5 and 10 MHz. The SOI for signal analysis was selected by a rectangular window. The delay (T1) and duration (T2) of the time window were varied, and the apparent integrated backscatter (AIB) and its correlation to bone volume fraction (BV/TV) were calculated. The results indicate that in addition to affecting the measured value of AIB, the SOI influences the observed correlation between AIB and BV/TV. Strong positive correlations were observed for short T1 (0.5 MHz: ≤6 μs, 1 MHz: ≤3 μs, 2.25 and 3.5 MHz: ≤2 μs, 5 and 10 MHz: ≤1 μs). However, strong negative correlations were observed when T1 was long (0.5 MHz: >9 μs, 1 MHz: >7 μs, 2.25 and 3.5 MHz: >3 μs, 5 and 10 MHz: >2 μs). The T2 value, especially low values (≤3 μs), also influenced the correlation coefficients. Positive correlations were more commonly observed at lower frequencies (i.e., 0.5-1 MHz), whereas negative correlations were more common at higher frequencies (i.e., 2.25-10 MHz). An explicit standard for in vitro SOI selection and cancellous bone assessment was proposed for a broad frequency range (0.5-10 MHz). Current conflicting findings are explained, and constructive suggestions for ultrasonic backscatter cancellous bone evaluation are provided. PMID:26210784

  15. Evaluation of candidate gene effects for beef backfat via Bayesian model selection.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiao-Lin; Macneil, Michael D; De, Sachinadan; Xiao, Qian-Jun; Michal, Jennifer J; Gaskins, Charles T; Reeves, Jerry J; Busboom, Jan R; Wright, Raymond W; Jiang, Zhihua

    2005-09-01

    Candidate gene approaches provide tools for exploring and localizing causative genes affecting quantitative traits and the underlying variation may be better understood by determining the relative magnitudes of effects of their polymorphisms. Diacyglycerol O-acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1), fatty acid binding protein (heart) 3 (FABP3), growth hormone 1 (GH1), leptin (LEP) and thyroglobulin (TG) have been previously identified as genes contributing to genetic control of subcutaneous fat thickness (SFT) in beef cattle. In the present research, Bayesian model selection was used to evaluate effects of these five candidate genes by comparing competing non-nested models and treating candidate gene effects as either random or fixed. The analyses were implemented in SAS to simplify the programming and computation. Phenotypic data were gathered from a F(2) population of Wagyu x Limousin cattle. The five candidate genes had significant but varied effects on SFT in this population. Bayesian model selection identified the DGAT1 model as the one with the greatest model probability, whether candidate gene effects were considered random or fixed, and DGAT1 had the greatest additive effect on SFT. The SAS codes developed in the study are freely available and can be downloaded at: http://www.ansci.wsu.edu/programs/. PMID:16175458

  16. Selection of MSW landfill site for Konya, Turkey using GIS and multi-criteria evaluation.

    PubMed

    Nas, Bilgehan; Cay, Tayfun; Iscan, Fatih; Berktay, Ali

    2010-01-01

    Landfill is a common solution for the final disposal of municipal solid waste (MSW) in Turkey. Landfill siting is an extremely difficult task to accomplish because the site selection process depends on different factors and regulations. To ensure that an appropriate site is chosen, a systematic process should be developed and followed. Unsuccessful landfill siting is typically the result of strong public opposition. In this study, candidate sites for an appropriate landfill area in Cumra County of Konya City are determined by using the integration of geographic information systems (GIS) and multi-criteria evaluation (MCE). ArcGIS 9.0 software and its extensions were used as the GIS tool since it is able to perform suitability analysis using MCE analysis. To identify appropriate landfill areas in the Cumra district, eight input map layers including proximity to municipal and local wells and irrigational canals, distance from transportation routes and rails, distance from archaeological sites, distance from urban areas, land use/land cover, and land slope are used in constraint mapping. A final map was generated which identifies regions showing suitability for the location of the landfill site. According to the map, 6.8% of the study area is most suitable, 15.7% is suitable, 10.4% is moderately suitable, 25.8% is poorly suitable, and 41.3% is unsuitable. At the end of the analyses, three candidate sites are determined. The selection of the final MSW landfill site, however, requires further field research. PMID:19169836

  17. Selection and evaluation of blood- and tribologically compatible journal bearing materials.

    PubMed

    Murray, S F; Calabrese, S J; Malanoski, S B; Golding, L R; Smith, W A; Hamby, M

    1997-01-01

    A critical issue in the Cleveland Clinic Foundation (CCF) Innovative Ventricular Assist System (IVAS) blood pump is the selection of materials for the blood-lubricated journal bearing. Under normal operating conditions, the journal bearing geometry creates a thick blood film that separates the rotating and stationary surfaces. However, since start-up and certain transients could cause temporary contact, the material pair selected for these surfaces must be both tribologically and blood compatible. Combinations of two biocompatible alloys were tested: a titanium-zirconium-niobium alloy (Ti-13Zr-13Nb) and a zirconium-niobium alloy (Zr-2.5Nb). A standard pin-on-disk tester was used, with the contact surfaces lubricated by glycerol/saline mixtures simulating the viscosity range of blood. One test series evaluated start-up conditions; the other modeled a high-speed rub that might occur if the fluid film broke down. Results showed that the preoxidized Zr-2.5Nb pin/Ti-13Zr-13Nb disk combination was superior at all sliding velocities; a self-mated Zr-2.5Nb pair also showed promise. The oxide film on a self-mated Ti-13Zr-13Nb pair, and a Ti-13Zr-13Nb pin and Zr-2.5Nb disk combination did not show adequate wear life. More work remains to explain distinct performance differences of certain combinations, with more data needed on mechanical properties of thin, hard coatings on softer metal substrates. PMID:9360116

  18. New selective carbonic anhydrase IX inhibitors: synthesis and pharmacological evaluation of diarylpyrazole-benzenesulfonamides.

    PubMed

    Rogez-Florent, Tiphaine; Meignan, Samuel; Foulon, Catherine; Six, Perrine; Gros, Abigaëlle; Bal-Mahieu, Christine; Supuran, Claudiu T; Scozzafava, Andrea; Frédérick, Raphaël; Masereel, Bernard; Depreux, Patrick; Lansiaux, Amélie; Goossens, Jean-François; Gluszok, Sébastien; Goossens, Laurence

    2013-03-15

    Carbonic anhydrase (CA) IX expression is increased upon hypoxia and has been proposed as a therapeutic target since it has been associated with poor prognosis, tumor progression and pH regulation. We report the synthesis and the pharmacological evaluation of a new class of human carbonic anhydrase (hCA) inhibitors, 4-(5-aryl-2-hydroxymethyl-pyrazol-1-yl)-benzenesulfonamides. A molecular modeling study was conducted in order to simulate the binding mode of this new family of enzyme inhibitors within the active site of hCA IX. Pharmacological studies revealed high hCA IX inhibitory potency in the parameters nanomolar range. This study showed that the position of sulfonamide group in meta of the 1-phenylpyrazole increase a selectivity hCA IX versus hCA II of our compounds. An in vitro antiproliferative screening has been performed on the breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cell using doxorubicin as cytotoxic agent and in presence of selected CA IX inhibitor. The results shown that the cytotoxic efficiency of doxorubicin in an hypoxic environment, expressed in IC50 value, is restored at 20% level with 1μM CA IX inhibitor. PMID:23168081

  19. Selection and evaluation of inner material candidates for Spanish high level radioactive waste canisters

    SciTech Connect

    Puig, Francesc; Dies, Javier; Sevilla, Manuel; Pablo, Joan de; Pueyo, Juan Jose; Miralles, Lourdes; Martinez-Esparza, Aurora

    2007-07-01

    This paper summarizes the work carried out to analyse different alternatives related to the inner material selection of the Spanish high level waste canister for long term storage. The preliminary repository design considers granitic or clay formations, compacted bentonite sealing, corrosion allowing steel canisters and glass bead filling between the fuel assemblies and canister walls. This filling material will have the primary role of avoiding the possibility of a criticality event, which becomes an issue of major importance once the container is finally breached by corrosion and flooded by groundwater. In the first place, a complete set of requirements have been devised as evaluation criteria for candidate materials examination and selection; resulting in a compilation of demands significantly deeper and more exhaustive than any other similar work found in literature, including over 20 requirements and some other general aspects that could involve improvements in repository performance. Secondly, eight materials or material families (cast iron or steel, borosilicate glass, spinel, depleted uranium, dehydrated zeolites, hematite, phosphates and olivine) have been chosen and examined in detail, extracting some relevant conclusions. Either cast iron, borosilicate glass, spinel or depleted uranium are considered to look quite promising for the mentioned purpose. (authors)

  20. Evaluation of selected binding domains for the analysis of ubiquitinated proteomes

    SciTech Connect

    Nakayasu, Ernesto S.; Ansong, Charles; Brown, Joseph N.; Yang, Feng; Lopez-Ferrer, Dani; Qian, Weijun; Smith, Richard D.; Adkins, Joshua N.

    2013-08-07

    Ubiquitination is an abundant post-translational modification that consists of covalent attachment of a 76 amino acid residue polypeptide, ubiquitin, to lysine residues or the N-terminus of proteins. Mono and polyubiquitination have been shown to be involved in many critical eukaryotic cellular functions. Affinity enrichment of ubiquitinated proteins has enabled the global analysis of this key modification. In this context, the use of ubiquitin-binding domains (UBDs) is a promising, but poorly explored alternative to more broadly used immune-affinity or tagged affinity enrichment methods. Herein we evaluate the application of eight selected UBDs with differing and contrasting affinities for ubiquitination states. We performed a micro-scale proteomic comparison, leading to the identification of ~200 ubiquitinated protein candidates per UBD to facilitate comparisons. Western blot analysis using anti-ubiquitin or monoclonal antibodies against polyubiquitination at lysine 48 and 63 suggests that UBDs from Dsk2 and ubiquilin-1 have the broadest specificity capturing most types of ubiquitination, whereas the one from NBR1 seems to be more selective to polyubiquitination. Our data demonstrate that with optimized purification conditions UBDs can be a useful tool for proteomic applications.

  1. Seasonal shifts in body temperature and use of microhabitats by Galapagos land iguanas (Conolophus pallidus)

    SciTech Connect

    Christian, K.; Tracy, C.R.; Porter, W.P.

    1983-06-01

    Seasonal differences in the body temperatures (T/sub b/) of free-ranging Galapagos land iguanas (Conolophus pallidus) were detected by temperature sensitive telemetry transmitters. Midday T/sub b/'s of iguanas average 4.4/sup 0/C lower in the Garua (cool) season than in the Hot season. Measured T/sub b/'s and those predicted from biophysical models permitted the following conclusions: (1) lower T/sub b/'s during the Garua season represent an active shift in thermoregulation by the iguanas rather than a passive result of a cooler season; (2) the average midday T/sub b/ selected by the iguanas in either season is the T/sub b/ that allows maintenance of a constant T/sub b/ for the longest possible portion of the day; (3) by exploiting the warmer microclimate created by a cliff face, the iguanas are able to maintain a constant T/sub b/ for a full hour longer than they could elsewhere in their home range. Census data demonstrated that the iguanas exploited the warmer microclimate created by the cliff extensively during the Garua season, and the cliff face was visited by the iguanas relatively infrequently during the Hot season. Thus, the exploitation of the microclimate created by the cliff results in seasonal differences in the pattern of space utilization within the home ranges of the iguanas. Within the Garua season the iguanas moved away from the cliff more often on sunny days than during cloudy days. It is concluded that the physical environment is an important determinant of patterns of space utilization both within and between seasons.

  2. Evaluation of the hydrologic system and selected water-management alternatives in the Owens Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Danskin, Wesley R.

    1998-01-01

    The Owens Valley, a long, narrow valley along the east side of the Sierra Nevada in eastcentral California, is the main source of water for the city of Los Angeles. The city diverts most of the surface water in the valley into the Owens River?Los Angeles Aqueduct system, which transports the water more than 200 miles south to areas of distribution and use. Additionally, ground water is pumped or flows from wells to supplement the surface-water diversions to the river? aqueduct system. Pumpage from wells needed to supplement water export has increased since 1970, when a second aqueduct was put into service, and local residents have expressed concerns that the increased pumping may have a detrimental effect on the environment and the native vegetation (indigenous alkaline scrub and meadow plant communities) in the valley. Native vegetation on the valley floor depends on soil moisture derived from precipitation and from the unconfined part of a multilayered ground-water system. This report, which describes the evaluation of the hydrologic system and selected water-management alternatives, is one in a series designed to identify the effects that ground-water pumping has on native vegetation and evaluate alternative strategies to mitigate any adverse effects caused by pumping. The hydrologic system of the Owens Valley can be conceptualized as having three parts: (1) an unsaturated zone affected by precipitation and evapotranspiration; (2) a surface-water system composed of the Owens River, the Los Angeles Aqueduct, tributary streams, canals, ditches, and ponds; and (3) a saturated ground-water system contained in the valley fill. Analysis of the hydrologic system was aided by development of a ground-water flow model of the ?aquifer system,? which is defined as the most active part of the ground-water system and which includes nearly all of the Owens Valley except for the area surrounding the Owens Lake. The model was calibrated and verified for water years 1963?88 and

  3. Selecting Software with Caution: An Empirical Evaluation of Popular Beginning Reading Software for Children with Early Literacy Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santoro, Lana Edwards; Bishop, M. J.

    2010-01-01

    It seems appropriate, if not necessary, to use empirically supported criteria to evaluate reading software applications. This study's purpose was to develop a research-based evaluation framework and review selected beginning reading software that might be used with struggling beginning readers. Thirty-one products were reviewed according to…

  4. The choice of bromeliads as a microhabitat by Scinax argyreornatus (Anura, Hylidae).

    PubMed

    Pederassi, J; Lima, M S C S; Peixoto, O L; Souza, C A S

    2012-05-01

    The association of anurans to bromeliads presents different degrees of interaction such as: eventual, obligatory and bromeligen. The frog species Scinax argyreornatus shows a regular association with these plants. The goal of this study is to characterise the degree of association between the frog S. argyreornatus to different species of bromeliads. We identified which species of bromeliad is regularly associated with S. argyreornatus and recognised which factors interfere with this association preference. We analysed the Concentration of Relative Dominance of frogs per bromeliad species. As possible criteria for frog association preference to different bromeliads species we established the analysis of leaves number, length and width, number of leaf axils, stored water in the axils, pH and relative humidity, among other organographic components. Our observations were analyzed by ANOVA followed by the Tukey test. We also evaluated the preference for association by the constancy of Bodenheimer. The correlation matrix indicated that the relative humidity is the factor responsible for the frog-bromeliads association, except for Aechmea sp.. However Aechmea sp. was the species with greater constancy of occupation followed by Quesnelia arvensis and Neoregelia johannis. According to our statistical results, Aechmea sp. and Q. arvensis are not different regarding organographic parameters, but differ from N. johannis. Our observations suggest that the bromeliads organographic structure and the relative humidity are key conditions which influence the preferences of S. argyreornatus to bromeliad species, while the other features showed no correlation. PMID:22735128

  5. Evaluation of GRACE daily gravity solutions for hydrological extremes in selected river basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouweleeuw, Ben; Güntner, Andreas; Gain, Animesh; Gruber, Christian; Flechtner, Frank; Kvas, Andreas; Mayer-Gürr, Torsten

    2016-04-01

    Water storage anomalies from the Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission (2002-present) have been shown to be a unique descriptor of large-scale hydrological extreme events. However, possibly due to its coarse temporal (monthly to weekly) and spatial (> 150.000 km2) resolution, the comprehensive information from GRACE on total water storage variations has rarely been evaluated for flood or drought monitoring or forecasting so far. In the context of the Horizon 2020 funded European Gravity Service for Improved Emergency Management (EGSIEM) project, we evaluate two approaches to solve the spatio-temporal variations of the Earth's gravity field as daily solutions through comparison to selected historical extreme events in medium-large river basins (Ganges-Brahmaputra, Lower Mekong, Danube, Elbe). These comparisons show that highs and lows of GRACE-derived total water storage are closely related to the occurrence of hydrological extremes and serve as an early indicator of these events. The degree to which the daily GRACE solutions contain high-frequent temporal hydrological information, e.g. individual flood peaks, is related to the size of the extreme event.

  6. Quantitative Evaluation of Iranian Radiology Papers and Its Comparison with Selected Countries

    PubMed Central

    Ghafoori, Mahyar; Emami, Hasan; Sedaghat, Abdolrasoul; Ghiasi, Mohammad; Shakiba, Madjid; Alavi, Manijeh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Recent technological developments in medicine, including modern radiology have promoted the impact of scientific researches on social life. The scientific outputs such as article and patents are products that show the scientists’ attempt to access these achievements. Objectives: In the current study, we evaluate the current situation of Iranian scientists in the field of radiology and compare it with the selected countries in terms of scientific papers. For this purpose, we used scientometric tools to quantitatively assess the scientific papers in the field of radiology. Materials and Methods: Radiology papers were evaluated in the context of medical field audit using retrospective model. We used the related databases of biomedical sciences for extraction of articles related to radiology. In the next step, the situation of radiology scientific products of the country were determined with respect to the under study regional countries. Results: Results of the current study showed a ratio of 0.19% for Iranian papers in PubMed database published in 2009. In addition, in 2009, Iranian papers constituted 0.29% of the Scopus scientific database. The proportion of Iranian papers in the understudy region was 7.6%. Conclusion: To diminish the gap between Iranian scientific radiology papers and other competitor countries in the region and achievement of document 2025 goals, multifold effort of the society of radiology is necessary. PMID:24693301

  7. In vitro biological evaluation of 100 selected methanol extracts from the traditional medicinal plants of Asia

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chunmei

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES In Asia, various medicinal plants have been used as the primary sources in the health care regimen for thousands of years. In recent decades, various studies have investigated the biological activity and potential medicinal value of the medicinal plants. In this study, 100 methanol extracts from 98 plant species were evaluated for their biological activities. MATERIALS/METHODS The research properties, including 1,1-diphenyl-2-pic-rylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, α-glucosidase and α-tyrosinase inhibitory effects, anti-inflammatory activity, and anticancer activity were evaluated for the selected extracts. RESULTS Fifteen of the extracts scavenged more than 90% of the DPPH radical. Among the extracts, approximately 20 extracts showed a strong inhibitory effect on α-glucosidase, while most had no effect on α-tyrosinase. In addition, 52% of the extracts showed low toxicity to normal cells, and parts of the extracts exhibited high anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities on the murine macrophage cell (RAW 264.7) and human colon cancer cell (HT-29) lines, respectively. CONCLUSIONS Our findings may contribute to further nutrition and pharmacological studies. Detailed investigations of the outstanding samples are currently underway. PMID:24741398

  8. Evaluation of transition metal oxide as carrier-selective contacts for silicon heterojunction solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, L.; Boccard, Matthieu; Holman, Zachary; Bertoni, M.

    2015-04-06

    passivation. In complement, we construct full device structures incorporating in some cases surface passivation schemes, with measured initial conversion efficiency over 15% and evaluate the carrier transport properties using temperature-dependent current-voltage and capacitance-voltage measurements. With this detailed characterization study, we aim at providing the framework to assess the potential of a material as a carrier selective contact and the understanding of how each of the aforementioned parameters on the metal oxide films influence the full solar cell operating performances.

  9. Evaluation of Cavity Collapse and Surface Crater Formation for Selected Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Tests - 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Pawloski, G A

    2011-02-28

    This report evaluates collapse evolution for selected Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) underground nuclear tests at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS, formerly called the Nevada Test Site). The work is being done at the request of National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec) and supports the Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration for the Nevada Site Office Borehole Management Program (BMP). The primary objective of this program is to close (plug) weapons program legacy boreholes that are deemed no longer useful. Safety decisions must be made before a crater area, or potential crater area, can be reentered for any work. Our statements on cavity collapse and crater formation are input into their safety decisions. The BMP is an on-going program to address hundreds of boreholes at the NTS. Each year NSTec establishes a list of holes to be addressed. They request the assistance of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Los Alamos National Laboratory Containment Programs to provide information related to the evolution of collapse history and make statements on completeness of collapse as relates to surface crater stability. These statements do not include the effects of erosion that may modify the collapse craters over time. They also do not address possible radiation dangers that may be present. Subject matter experts from the LLNL Containment Program who had been active in weapons testing activities performed these evaluations. Information used included drilling and hole construction, emplacement and stemming, timing and sequence of the selected test and nearby tests, geology, yield, depth of burial, collapse times, surface crater sizes, cavity and crater volume estimations, ground motion, and radiological release information. Both classified and unclassified data were reviewed. Various amounts of information are available for these tests, depending on their age and other associated activities. Lack of data can hamper

  10. Comprehensive evaluations of the adverse effects of drugs: importance of appropriate study selection and data sources

    PubMed Central

    Golder, Su P.; Vandenbroucke, Jan P.

    2011-01-01

    While systematic reviews and meta-analyses are at the top of the evidence hierarchy, most of the methodology has focused on assessing treatment benefit. Hence, we propose a structured framework for the initial steps of searching and identifying relevant data sources so that adverse effects can be evaluated in a comprehensive, unbiased manner. The unique methodological challenges stem from the difficulties of addressing diverse outcomes encompassing common, mild symptoms to rare, fatal events. Retrieval of the most appropriate studies should be specifically tailored to fit the nature of the adverse effects, according to the primary objective and study question. In our framework, the structure of the review takes different forms depending on whether the main aim is on scoping/hypothesis generation, or evaluating statistically the magnitude of risk (hypothesis testing), or clarifying characteristics and risk factors of the adverse effect. The wide range of data sources covering adverse effects all have distinct strengths and limitations, and selection of appropriate sources depends on characteristics of the adverse effect (e.g. background incidence and effect size of the drug, clinical presentation, time of onset after drug exposure). Reviewers need to retrieve particular study designs that are most likely to yield robust data on the adverse effects of interest, rather than rely on studies that cannot reliably detect adverse effects, and may yield ‘false negatives’. Type II errors (a particular problem when evaluating rare adverse effects) can lull us into a false sense of security (e.g. wrongly concluding that there was no significant difference in harm between drug and control, with the drug erroneously judged as safe). Given the rapid rate at which methodological improvements occur, this proposed framework is by no means definitive, but aims to stimulate further debate and discussion amongst the pharmacoepidemiological and systematic review communities to reach

  11. Anthropogenic disturbance as a driver of microspatial and microhabitat segregation of cytotypes of Centaurea stoebe and cytotype interactions in secondary contact zones

    PubMed Central

    Mráz, Patrik; Španiel, Stanislav; Keller, Andreas; Bowmann, Gillianne; Farkas, Alexandre; Šingliarová, Barbora; Rohr, Rudolf P.; Broennimann, Olivier; Müller-Schärer, Heinz

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims In a mixed-ploidy population, strong frequency-dependent mating will lead to the elimination of the less common cytotype, unless prezygotic barriers enhance assortative mating. However, such barriers favouring cytotype coexistence have only rarely been explored. Here, an assessment is made of the mechanisms involved in formation of mixed-ploidy populations and coexistence of diploid plants and their closely related allotetraploid derivates from the Centaurea stoebe complex (Asteraceae). Methods An investigation was made of microspatial and microhabitat distribution, life-history and fitness traits, flowering phenology, genetic relatedness of cytotypes and intercytotype gene flow (cpDNA and microsatellites) in six mixed-ploidy populations in Central Europe. Key Results Diploids and tetraploids were genetically differentiated, thus corroborating the secondary origin of contact zones. The cytotypes were spatially segregated at all sites studied, with tetraploids colonizing preferentially drier and open microhabitats created by human-induced disturbances. Conversely, they were rare in more natural microsites and microsites with denser vegetation despite their superior persistence ability (polycarpic life cycle). The seed set of tetraploid plants was strongly influenced by their frequency in mixed-ploidy populations. Triploid hybrids originated from bidirectional hybridizations were extremely rare and almost completely sterile, indicating a strong postzygotic barrier between cytotypes. Conclusions The findings suggest that tetraploids are later immigrants into already established diploid populations and that anthropogenic activities creating open niches favouring propagule introductions were the major factor shaping the non-random distribution and habitat segregation of cytotypes at fine spatial scale. Establishment and spread of tetraploids was further facilitated by their superior persistence through the perennial life cycle. The results highlight

  12. Site selection and technology evaluation for pilot demonstrations in the Arsenic Water Technology Partnership program.

    SciTech Connect

    Everett, Randy L.; Siegel, Malcolm Dean; Aragon, Alicia R.; Dwyer, Brian P.

    2004-10-01

    levels of fluoride unchanged. Candidate technologies for the pilot tests are being reviewed by technical evaluation teams. The initial reviews will consider as many potential technologies and screen out unsuitable ones by considering data from past performance testing, expected costs, complexity of operation and maturity of the technology. The pilot test configurations will depend on the site-specific conditions such as access, power availability, waste disposal options and availability of permanent structures to house the test. Most of the treatment technologies that will be evaluated can be separated into two broad categories: (1) sorption processes that use fixed bed adsorbents and (2) membrane processes. The latter include processes that involve formation of a floc or precipitate that contains the arsenic in a reactor followed by separation of the solids from the water by filtration. Several innovations that could lead to lower treatment costs have been proposed for adsorptive media systems. These include: (1) higher capacity and selectivity using mixed oxides composed of iron and other transition metals, titanium and zirconium based oxides, or mixed resin-metal oxides composite media, (2) improved durability of virgin media and greater chemical stability of the spent media, and (3) use of inexpensive natural or recycled materials with a coating that has a high affinity for arsenic. Improvements to filtration-based treatment systems include: (1) enhanced coagulation with iron compounds or polyelectrolytes and (2) improved filtration with nanocomposite materials. In the pilot tests, the innovative technologies will be evaluated in terms of: (1) their ability to reduce arsenic to levels below the EPA Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) of 10 ppb, (2) site-specific adsorptive capacity, robustness of performance with respect to likely changes in water quality parameters including pH, TDS, foulants such as Fe, Mn, silica, and organics, effect of competing ions such as other

  13. Evaluation of pump pulsation in respirable size-selective sampling: part II. Changes in sampling efficiency.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun Gyung; Lee, Taekhee; Kim, Seung Won; Lee, Larry; Flemmer, Michael M; Harper, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This second, and concluding, part of this study evaluated changes in sampling efficiency of respirable size-selective samplers due to air pulsations generated by the selected personal sampling pumps characterized in Part I (Lee E, Lee L, Möhlmann C et al. Evaluation of pump pulsation in respirable size-selective sampling: Part I. Pulsation measurements. Ann Occup Hyg 2013). Nine particle sizes of monodisperse ammonium fluorescein (from 1 to 9 μm mass median aerodynamic diameter) were generated individually by a vibrating orifice aerosol generator from dilute solutions of fluorescein in aqueous ammonia and then injected into an environmental chamber. To collect these particles, 10-mm nylon cyclones, also known as Dorr-Oliver (DO) cyclones, were used with five medium volumetric flow rate pumps. Those were the Apex IS, HFS513, GilAir5, Elite5, and Basic5 pumps, which were found in Part I to generate pulsations of 5% (the lowest), 25%, 30%, 56%, and 70% (the highest), respectively. GK2.69 cyclones were used with the Legacy [pump pulsation (PP) = 15%] and Elite12 (PP = 41%) pumps for collection at high flows. The DO cyclone was also used to evaluate changes in sampling efficiency due to pulse shape. The HFS513 pump, which generates a more complex pulse shape, was compared to a single sine wave fluctuation generated by a piston. The luminescent intensity of the fluorescein extracted from each sample was measured with a luminescence spectrometer. Sampling efficiencies were obtained by dividing the intensity of the fluorescein extracted from the filter placed in a cyclone with the intensity obtained from the filter used with a sharp-edged reference sampler. Then, sampling efficiency curves were generated using a sigmoid function with three parameters and each sampling efficiency curve was compared to that of the reference cyclone by constructing bias maps. In general, no change in sampling efficiency (bias under ±10%) was observed until pulsations exceeded 25% for the

  14. Evaluation of CP Chromo Select Agar for the enumeration of Clostridium perfringens from water.

    PubMed

    Manafi, Mammad; Waldherr, Kerstin; Kundi, Michael

    2013-10-01

    The European Directive on drinking water quality has included mCP agar as the reference method for recovering Clostridium perfringens from drinking waters. In the present study, three media (mCP, TSCF and CP Chromo Select Agar) were evaluated for recovery of C. perfringens in different surface water samples. Out of 139 water samples, using a membrane filtration technique, 131 samples (94.2%) were found to be presumptively positive for C. perfringens in at least one of the culture media. Green colored colonies on CP Chromo Select Agar (CCP agar) were counted as presumptive C. perfringens isolates. Out of 483 green colonies on CCP agar, 96.3% (465 strains, indole negative) were identified as C. perfringens, and 15 strains (3.1%) were indole positive and were identified as Clostridium sordellii, Clostridium bifermentans or Clostridium tetani. Only 3 strains (0.6%) gave false positive results and were identified as Clostridium fallax, Clostridium botulinum, and Clostridium tertium. Variance analysis of the data obtained shows statistically no significant differences in the counts obtained between media employed in this work. The mCP method is very onerous for routine screening and bacterial colonies could not be used for further biochemical testing. The colonies on CCP and TSCF were easy to count and subculture for confirmation tests. TSCF detects sulfite-reducing clostridia, including species other than C. perfringens, and in some cases excessive blackening of the agar frustrated counting of the colonies. If the contamination was too high, TSCF did not consistently produce black colonies and as a consequence, the colonies were white and gave false negative results. On the other hand, the identification of typical and atypical colonies isolated from all media demonstrated that CCP agar was the most useful medium for C. perfringens recovery in water samples. PMID:23816139

  15. Veterinary practitioners’ selection of diagnostic tests for the primary evaluation of colic in the horse

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, L.; Trewin, I.; England, G. C. W.; Burford, J. H.; Freeman, S. L.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to survey veterinary practitioners’ selection of diagnostic tests for horses with clinical signs of abdominal pain. A questionnaire was distributed to veterinary surgeons involved in the primary evaluation of horses with abdominal pain, including the respondent's demographics, selection of diagnostic tests and factors affecting decision-making. Data analysis included descriptive analysis, categorisation of free text and simple univariable correlations to explore the relationships between independent variables and the relative self-estimated frequency that diagnostic tests were performed. A total of 228 responses were analysed. Participants worked in mixed practice (55.7 per cent), first opinion equine (22.8 per cent), first and second opinion equine (17.9 per cent) and referral practice (3.1 per cent). The majority (48.2 per cent, 105/218) were very confident managing a colic case (confidence level 4/5). The most frequently used diagnostic tests were ‘response to analgesia’ (87.2±24.0 per cent cases), rectal examination (75.9±21.2 per cent) and nasogastric intubation (43.8±27.6 per cent). Approach varied between practitioners, and for all diagnostic tests with frequency of use ranging from 0 to 100 per cent of cases. ‘Risk to personal safety’ was the most common reason for not using rectal examination. Practitioner's opinion of their confidence level in managing a colic case was associated with how frequently they used different diagnostic tests. There was marked variation in practitioners’ approaches, highlighting the need for further evidence to support decision-making. PMID:26457192

  16. Evaluating State Dependence and Subtype Selectivity of Calcium Channel Modulators in Automated Electrophysiology Assays

    PubMed Central

    Kuryshev, Yuri A.; Brown, Arthur M.; Duzic, Emir

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Voltage-gated Ca2+ channels play essential roles in control of neurosecretion and muscle contraction. The pharmacological significance of Cav channels stem from their identification as the molecular targets of calcium blockers used in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases, such as hypertension, angina, and arrhythmia, and neurologic diseases, such as pain and seizure. It has been proposed that state-dependent Cav inhibitors, that is, those that preferentially bind to channels in open or inactivated states, may improve the therapeutic window over relatively state-independent Cav inhibitors. High-throughput fluorescent-based functional assays have been useful in screening chemical libraries to identify Cav inhibitors. However, hit confirmation, mechanism of action, and subtype selectivity are better suited to automated patch clamp assays that have sufficient capacity to handle the volume of compounds identified during screening, even of modest sized libraries (≤500,000 compounds), and the flexible voltage control that allows evaluation of state-dependent drug blocks. IonWorks™ Barracuda (IWB), the newest generation of IonWorks instruments, provides the opportunity to accelerate the Cav drug discovery studies in an automated patch clamp platform in 384-well format capable of medium throughput screening and profiling studies. We have validated hCav1.2, hCav2.1, hCav2.2, and hCav3.2 channels assays on the IWB platform (population patch clamp mode) and demonstrated that the biophysical characteristics of the channels (activation, inactivation, and steady-state inactivation) obtained with the IWB system are consistent with known subtype-specific characteristics. Using standard reference compounds (nifedipine, BAY K8644, verapamil, mibefradil, and pimozide), we demonstrated subtype-selective and state- and use-dependent characteristics of drug–channel interactions. Here we describe the design and validation of novel robust high-throughput Cav channel

  17. Evaluating professionalism in medical undergraduates using selected response questions: findings from an item response modelling study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Professionalism is a difficult construct to define in medical students but aspects of this concept may be important in predicting the risk of postgraduate misconduct. For this reason attempts are being made to evaluate medical students' professionalism. This study investigated the psychometric properties of Selected Response Questions (SRQs) relating to the theme of professional conduct and ethics comparing them with two sets of control items: those testing pure knowledge of anatomy, and; items evaluating the ability to integrate and apply knowledge ("skills"). The performance of students on the SRQs was also compared with two external measures estimating aspects of professionalism in students; peer ratings of professionalism and their Conscientiousness Index, an objective measure of behaviours at medical school. Methods Item Response Theory (IRT) was used to analyse both question and student performance for SRQs relating to knowledge of professionalism, pure anatomy and skills. The relative difficulties, discrimination and 'guessabilities' of each theme of question were compared with each other using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). Student performance on each topic was compared with the measures of conscientiousness and professionalism using parametric and non-parametric tests as appropriate. A post-hoc analysis of power for the IRT modelling was conducted using a Monte Carlo simulation. Results Professionalism items were less difficult compared to the anatomy and skills SRQs, poorer at discriminating between candidates and more erratically answered when compared to anatomy questions. Moreover professionalism item performance was uncorrelated with the standardised Conscientiousness Index scores (rho = 0.009, p = 0.90). In contrast there were modest but significant correlations between standardised Conscientiousness Index scores and performance at anatomy items (rho = 0.20, p = 0.006) though not skills (rho = .11, p = .1). Likewise, students with high peer

  18. Evaluation of the 29-km Eta Model. Part 1; Objective Verification at Three Selected Stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nutter, Paul A.; Manobianco, John; Merceret, Francis J. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes an objective verification of the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) 29-km eta model from May 1996 through January 1998. The evaluation was designed to assess the model's surface and upper-air point forecast accuracy at three selected locations during separate warm (May - August) and cool (October - January) season periods. In order to enhance sample sizes available for statistical calculations, the objective verification includes two consecutive warm and cool season periods. Systematic model deficiencies comprise the larger portion of the total error in most of the surface forecast variables that were evaluated. The error characteristics for both surface and upper-air forecasts vary widely by parameter, season, and station location. At upper levels, a few characteristic biases are identified. Overall however, the upper-level errors are more nonsystematic in nature and could be explained partly by observational measurement uncertainty. With a few exceptions, the upper-air results also indicate that 24-h model error growth is not statistically significant. In February and August 1997, NCEP implemented upgrades to the eta model's physical parameterizations that were designed to change some of the model's error characteristics near the surface. The results shown in this paper indicate that these upgrades led to identifiable and statistically significant changes in forecast accuracy for selected surface parameters. While some of the changes were expected, others were not consistent with the intent of the model updates and further emphasize the need for ongoing sensitivity studies and localized statistical verification efforts. Objective verification of point forecasts is a stringent measure of model performance, but when used alone, is not enough to quantify the overall value that model guidance may add to the forecast process. Therefore, results from a subjective verification of the meso-eta model over the Florida peninsula are

  19. Microhabitat variation in the hydrothermal vent mussel, Bathymodiolus thermophilus, at the Rose Garden vent on the Galapagos Rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, C. R.; Childress, J. J.; Arp, A. J.; Brooks, J. M.; Distel, D.; Favuzzi, J. A.; Felbeck, H.; Hessler, R.; Johnson, K. S.; Kennicutt, M. C.; Macko, S. A.; Newton, A.; Powell, M. A.; Somero, G. N.; Soto, T.

    1988-10-01

    Clumps of Bathymodiolus thermophilus were collected from three discrete areas at the 'Rose Garden' site on the Galapagos Rift using the deep submersible Alvin. Two mussel collections were made from the central Riftia mass, an area associated with very active venting, and three other collections were of two different peripheral mussel clumps. Before collection the clumps were extensively photographed and the water at two of the 'microhabitats' was analysed in situ for oxygen silica, sulfide and temperature. Sulfide levels of up to 300 μM were recorded at the central collection site, while the highest sulfide level recorded at the peripheral site assayed was 35 μM. Levels of RuBP carboxylase activity in the gills were significantly higher in mussels collected from the central ' Riftia site' than in either peripheral site. ATP sulfurylase was significantly higher in the gills of mussels from the central clump than in one of the peripheral clump collections. The chemical composition (% water, protein, carbohydrate, lipid and ash) and stable carbon isotope ratios ( δ13C) of the mussels showed the same trends, with highest lipid and carbohydrate and the lowest water content and δ13C in the central site mussels. Similarly, the mussels from the central site were significantly depleted in stable nitrogen ( δ15N) when compared with the peripheral site mussels. Variations between sites and tissues of the same animal may be indicative of differential utilization of inorganic or dissolved molecular nitrogen sources. The condition index (CI = soft tissue dry mass / internal shell volume) was similar for all animals collected at Rose Garden. The presence of a commensal polychaete, Branchipolynoe symmytilida, in the mantle cavity of the mussels was also correlated with the collection site, with the highest incidence of occurrence in the central clump. Levels of the enzyme RuBP carboxylase are quite variable in B. thermophilus and are on the average much lower (0

  20. Evaluation of selected wells in Pennsylvania's observation-well program as of 1993

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conger, R.W.

    1997-01-01

    In 1993, the U.S. Geological Survey operated 62 observation wells in 60 of Pennsylvania's 67 counties in cooperation with the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Resources. These wells attempt to monitor an aerial extent of 45,000 square miles and penetrate 39 geologic formations or water-bearing units of 14 physiographic provinces. Some wells were drilled specifically for the observation-well program, some were drilled for other U.S. Geological Survey projects, and some were drilled for other purposes and were no longer used. Approximately 3 percent of the network wells have less than 5 years of record, 5 percent have 5 to 15 years of record, and 92 percent have greater than 15 years of record. The older the observation well, the greater the possibility of water levels being affected by physical deterioration of the borehole. Therefore, it is necessary to periodically conduct a series of physical, chemical, and hydraulic tests to determine changes in the physical condition of the well and local land-use practices that may affect water-level response. Nineteen wells were selected for evaluation on the basis of past questionable water-level responses. These wells were evaluated for functionality by analyzing historical water-level fluctuations, geophysical logs, single-well aquifer tests, and water-quality analyses. These parameters indicated that well Je-23 (Jefferson County) is affected by coal-mine pumpage, well Bt-311 (Butler County) is periodically affected by strip mine activities, well Gr-118 (Greene County) and Mc-110 (McKean County exhibit unexplained fluctuations not desirable for an observation well, and 15 wells show no obvious problems or degradation that would affect their functionality to monitor natural water-level fluctuations.

  1. Evaluation of mycobactericidal activity of selected chemical disinfectants and antiseptics according to European standards

    PubMed Central

    Bocian, Ewa; Grzybowska, Wanda; Tyski, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Background The history of the investigation of standardized mycobactericidal activity of disinfectants and antiseptics is not very long. There is growing interest among the manufacturers of disinfectants in carrying out research on the antimicrobial activities in accordance with European standards (EN). This research could facilitate the introduction of high-quality disinfectants to the market. The aim of this study was to evaluate the mycobactericidal activity of selected chemical disinfectants and antiseptics used in the medical and veterinary fields. Material/Methods This study included 19 products submitted to the National Medicines Institute in Poland for evaluation of mycobactericidal activity. These products contain in their composition active substances belonging to different chemical groups, including aldehydes, alcohols, amines, quaternary ammonium compounds, phenols, guanidine, and oxidizing compounds. This study, conducted according to the manufacturers’ description of the preparations, was carried out in accordance with European standards, which also met the Polish standards: PN-EN 14204: 2013, PN-EN 14348: 2006, and PN-EN 14563: 2012. Results Tested products for disinfection and antiseptics containing active substances from different chemical groups showed high mycobactericidal activity and met the requirements of the appropriate European standards in most cases. In the case of products containing guanidine and amine compounds, the concentration of active ingredients used in the test and the test conditions specified by the manufacturer did not provide the mycobactericidal activity required by the standards. Conclusions Prior to the launch of a new product on the market, it is important to establish the appropriate usage and testing conditions of the preparation, such as its practical concentration, contact time, and environment condition (clean or dirty). PMID:24755666

  2. Some problems of selection and evaluation of the Martian suit enclosure concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramov, Isaak; Moiseyev, Nikolay; Stoklitsky, Anatoly

    2005-12-01

    One of the most important tasks for preparation of a future manned mission to Mars is to create a space suit, which ensures efficient and safe operation of the man on the planet surface. The concept of space suit (SS) utilisation on the Mars surface will be determined mainly by the Mars mission scenario. Currently the preference is given to utilisation of robotics with the crew driving a Mars rover vehicle, whereby the suit will be used solely as an additional safety means. However, one cannot exclude the necessity of a durable self-contained stay of the man outside a pressurised compartment, to pick up, for instance, soil samples or do certain repair work in case of an emergency. The requirements to the Mars suit and especially to the personal self-contained life support system (LSS) will depend in many respects on the Mars environmental conditions, the space vehicle system concept and performance characteristics, the airlock and its interface design, the availability of expendable elements for the LSS, etc. The paper reviews principal problems, which have to be solved during development of the Martian suit. A special attention is paid to the issue of suited man mobility during traversing on the planet surface. The paper also reviews the arguments for application of a suit semi-rigid design concept and evaluates potentialities of using certain elements of the existing "Orlan" type suit. The paper presents results of a number of studies on selection of the planetary SS enclosure concept and on experimental evaluation of mobility of the lower torso and leg enclosures in conjunction with a specially designed prototype model (tentative model) of the SS enclosure.

  3. Using Impact-Relevant Sensitivities to Efficiently Evaluate and Select Climate Change Scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vano, J. A.; Kim, J. B.; Rupp, D. E.; Mote, P.

    2014-12-01

    We outline an efficient approach to help researchers and natural resource managers more effectively use global climate model information in their long-term planning. The approach provides an estimate of the magnitude of change of a particular impact (e.g., summertime streamflow) from a large ensemble of climate change projections prior to detailed analysis. These estimates provide both qualitative information as an end unto itself (e.g., the distribution of future changes between emissions scenarios for the specific impact) and a judicious, defensible evaluation structure that can be used to qualitatively select a sub-set of climate models for further analysis. More specifically, the evaluation identifies global climate model scenarios that both (1) span the range of possible futures for the variable/s most important to the impact under investigation, and (2) come from global climate models that adequately simulate historical climate, providing plausible results for the future climate in the region of interest. To identify how an ecosystem process responds to projected future changes, we methodically sample, using a simple sensitivity analysis, how an impact variable (e.g., streamflow magnitude, vegetation carbon) responds locally to projected regional temperature and precipitation changes. We demonstrate our technique over the Pacific Northwest, focusing on two types of impacts each in three distinct geographic settings: (a) changes in streamflow magnitudes in critical seasons for water management in the Willamette, Yakima, and Upper Columbia River basins; and (b) changes in annual vegetation carbon in the Oregon and Washington Coast Ranges, Western Cascades, and Columbia Basin ecoregions.

  4. Synthesis and biochemical evaluation of benzoylbenzophenone thiosemicarbazone analogues as potent and selective inhibitors of cathepsin L.

    PubMed

    Parker, Erica N; Song, Jiangli; Kishore Kumar, G D; Odutola, Samuel O; Chavarria, Gustavo E; Charlton-Sevcik, Amanda K; Strecker, Tracy E; Barnes, Ashleigh L; Sudhan, Dhivya R; Wittenborn, Thomas R; Siemann, Dietmar W; Horsman, Michael R; Chaplin, David J; Trawick, Mary Lynn; Pinney, Kevin G

    2015-11-01

    Upregulation of cathepsin L in a variety of tumors and its ability to promote cancer cell invasion and migration through degradation of the extracellular matrix suggest that cathepsin L is a promising biological target for the development of anti-metastatic agents. Based on encouraging results from studies on benzophenone thiosemicarbazone cathepsin inhibitors, a series of fourteen benzoylbenzophenone thiosemicarbazone analogues were designed, synthesized, and evaluated for their inhibitory activity against cathepsins L and B. Thiosemicarbazone inhibitors 3-benzoylbenzophenone thiosemicarbazone 1, 1,3-bis(4-fluorobenzoyl)benzene thiosemicarbazone 8, and 1,3-bis(2-fluorobenzoyl)-5-bromobenzene thiosemicarbazone 32 displayed the greatest potency against cathepsin L with low IC50 values of 9.9 nM, 14.4 nM, and 8.1 nM, respectively. The benzoylbenzophenone thiosemicarbazone analogues evaluated were selective in their inhibition of cathepsin L compared to cathepsin B. Thiosemicarbazone analogue 32 inhibited invasion through Matrigel of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells by 70% at 10 μM. Thiosemicarbazone analogue 8 significantly inhibited the invasive potential of PC-3ML prostate cancer cells by 92% at 5 μM. The most active cathepsin L inhibitors from this benzoylbenzophenone thiosemicarbazone series (1, 8, and 32) displayed low cytotoxicity toward normal primary cells [in this case human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs)]. In an initial in vivo study, 3-benzoylbenzophenone thiosemicarbazone (1) was well-tolerated in a CDF1 mouse model bearing an implanted C3H mammary carcinoma, and showed efficacy in tumor growth delay. Low cytotoxicity, inhibition of cell invasion, and in vivo tolerability are desirable characteristics for anti-metastatic agents functioning through an inhibition of cathepsin L. Active members of this structurally diverse group of benzoylbenzophenone thiosemicarbazone cathepsin L inhibitors show promise as potential anti-metastatic, pre

  5. Evaluation of Selected Binding Domains for the Analysis of Ubiquitinated Proteomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakayasu, Ernesto S.; Ansong, Charles; Brown, Joseph N.; Yang, Feng; Lopez-Ferrer, Daniel; Qian, Wei-Jun; Smith, Richard D.; Adkins, Joshua N.

    2013-08-01

    Ubiquitination is an abundant post-translational modification that consists of covalent attachment of ubiquitin to lysine residues or the N-terminus of proteins. Mono- and polyubiquitination have been shown to be involved in many critical eukaryotic cellular functions and are often disrupted by intracellular bacterial pathogens. Affinity enrichment of ubiquitinated proteins enables global analysis of this key modification. In this context, the use of ubiquitin-binding domains is a promising but relatively unexplored alternative to more broadly used immunoaffinity or tagged affinity enrichment methods. In this study, we evaluated the application of eight ubiquitin-binding domains that have differing affinities for ubiquitination states. Small-scale proteomics analysis identified ~200 ubiquitinated protein candidates per ubiquitin-binding domain pull-down experiment. Results from subsequent Western blot analyses that employed anti-ubiquitin or monoclonal antibodies against polyubiquitination at lysine 48 and 63 suggest that ubiquitin-binding domains from Dsk2 and ubiquilin-1 have the broadest specificity in that they captured most types of ubiquitination, whereas the binding domain from NBR1 was more selective to polyubiquitination. These data demonstrate that with optimized purification conditions, ubiquitin-binding domains can be an alternative tool for proteomic applications. This approach is especially promising for the analysis of tissues or cells resistant to transfection, of which the overexpression of tagged ubiquitin is a major hurdle.

  6. Evaluation of Select Surface Processing Techniques for In Situ Application During the Additive Manufacturing Build Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Book, Todd A.; Sangid, Michael D.

    2016-07-01

    Although additive manufacturing offers numerous performance advantages for different applications, it is not being used for critical applications due to uncertainties in structural integrity as a result of innate process variability and defects. To minimize uncertainty, the current approach relies on the concurrent utilization of process monitoring, post-processing, and non-destructive inspection in addition to an extensive material qualification process. This paper examines an alternative approach by evaluating the application of select surface process techniques, to include sliding severe plastic deformation (SPD) and fine particle shot peening, on direct metal laser sintering-produced AlSi10Mg materials. Each surface processing technique is compared to baseline as-built and post-processed samples as a proof of concept for surface enhancement. Initial results pairing sliding SPD with the manufacture's recommended thermal stress relief cycle demonstrated uniform recrystallization of the microstructure, resulting in a more homogeneous distribution of strain among the microstructure than as-built or post-processed conditions. This result demonstrates the potential for the in situ application of various surface processing techniques during the layerwise direct metal laser sintering build process.

  7. Catchment Classification via Hydrologic Modeling: Evaluating the Relative Importance of Model Selection, Parameterization and Classification Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, L. A.; Smith, T. J.; To, L.

    2015-12-01

    Classification has emerged as an important tool for evaluating the runoff generating mechanisms in catchments and for providing a basis on which to group catchments having similar characteristics. These methods are particularly important for transferring models from one catchment to another in the case of data scarce regions or paired catchment studies .In many cases, the goal of catchment classification is to be able to identify models or parameter sets that could be applied to similar catchments for predictive purposes. A potential impediment to this goal is the impact of error in both the classification technique and the hydrologic model. In this study, we examine the relationship between catchment classification, hydrologic models, and model parameterizations for the purpose of transferring models between similar catchments. Building on previous work using a data set of over 100 catchments from south-east Australia, we identify several hydrologic model structures and calibrate each model for each catchment. We use clustering to identify groups of catchments with similar hydrologic response (as characterized through the calibrated model parameters). We examine the dependency of the clustered catchment groups on the pre-selected model, the uncertainty in the calibrated model parameters, and the clustering or classification algorithm. Further, we investigate the relationship between the catchment clusters and certain catchment physical characteristics or signatures, which are more typically used for catchment classification. Overall, our work is aimed at elucidating the potential sources of uncertainty in catchment classification, and the utility of classification for improving hydrologic predictions.

  8. A knowledge-based shell for selecting a nondestructive evaluation technique

    SciTech Connect

    Roberge, P.R.

    1995-02-01

    The complexity of planning a nondestructive evaluation (NDE) program or an inspection schedule for specific problems and available NDE techniques can be drastically reduced by the creation of a knowledge based system that would balance the advantages and limitations of each technique for specific problems. Such a system could incorporate the fundamental knowledge derived from failure analysis and cover topics such as materials vs. defect size and type, probability of failure, and basic reliability information. In order to efficiently organize knowledge of materials degradation, the parameters that control various forms of failure must first be rationalized in a general framework. This framework and their factors would then constitute a quantitative and easily programmable description of the independent variables controlling the intensity of a failure. This article describes such a framework, which could guide the general selection of NDE for materials failure with a particular emphasis on corrosion related failures. The framework architecture itself was constructed using an object-oriented methodology for maximum flexibility because it was anticipated that the materials parameters could easily be described as multidimensional objects.

  9. Derivation of a Levelized Cost of Coating (LCOC) metric for evaluation of solar selective absorber materials

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Ho, C. K.; Pacheco, J. E.

    2015-06-05

    A new metric, the Levelized Cost of Coating (LCOC), is derived in this paper to evaluate and compare alternative solar selective absorber coatings against a baseline coating (Pyromark 2500). In contrast to previous metrics that focused only on the optical performance of the coating, the LCOC includes costs, durability, and optical performance for more comprehensive comparisons among candidate materials. The LCOC is defined as the annualized marginal cost of the coating to produce a baseline annual thermal energy production. Costs include the cost of materials and labor for initial application and reapplication of the coating, as well as the costmore » of additional or fewer heliostats to yield the same annual thermal energy production as the baseline coating. Results show that important factors impacting the LCOC include the initial solar absorptance, thermal emittance, reapplication interval, degradation rate, reapplication cost, and downtime during reapplication. The LCOC can also be used to determine the optimal reapplication interval to minimize the levelized cost of energy production. As a result, similar methods can be applied more generally to determine the levelized cost of component for other applications and systems.« less

  10. Evaluation of cephamycins as supplements to selective agar for detecting Campylobacter spp. in chicken carcass rinses.

    PubMed

    Chon, Jung-Whan; Kim, Young-Ji; Kim, Hong-Seok; Kim, Dong-Hyeon; Kim, Hyunsook; Song, Kwang-Young; Sung, Kidon; Seo, Kun-Ho

    2016-04-16

    Although cefoperazone is the most commonly used antibiotic in Campylobacter-selective media, the distribution of cefoperazone-resistant bacteria such as extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli is increasing. Here we evaluated the potential of cephamycins for use as supplements to improve modified charcoal-cefoperazone-deoxycholate agar (mCCDA) by replacing cefoperazone with the same concentrations (32 mg/L) of cefotetan (modified charcoal-cefotetan-deoxycholate agar, mCCtDA) and cefoxitin (modified charcoal-cefoxitin-deoxycholate agar, mCCxDA). In chicken carcass rinse samples, the number of mCCDA plates detecting for Campylobacter (18/70, 26%) was significantly lower than that of mCCtDA (42/70, 60%) or mCCxDA plates (40/70, 57%). The number of mCCDA plates (70/70, 100%) that were contaminated with non-Campylobacter species was significantly higher than that of mCCtDA (20/70, 29%) or mCCxDA plates (21/70, 30%). The most common competing species identified using mCCDA was ESBL-producing E. coli, while Pseudomonas species frequently appeared on mCCtDA and mCCxDA. PMID:26915052

  11. Derivation of a Levelized Cost of Coating (LCOC) metric for evaluation of solar selective absorber materials

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, C. K.; Pacheco, J. E.

    2015-06-05

    A new metric, the Levelized Cost of Coating (LCOC), is derived in this paper to evaluate and compare alternative solar selective absorber coatings against a baseline coating (Pyromark 2500). In contrast to previous metrics that focused only on the optical performance of the coating, the LCOC includes costs, durability, and optical performance for more comprehensive comparisons among candidate materials. The LCOC is defined as the annualized marginal cost of the coating to produce a baseline annual thermal energy production. Costs include the cost of materials and labor for initial application and reapplication of the coating, as well as the cost of additional or fewer heliostats to yield the same annual thermal energy production as the baseline coating. Results show that important factors impacting the LCOC include the initial solar absorptance, thermal emittance, reapplication interval, degradation rate, reapplication cost, and downtime during reapplication. The LCOC can also be used to determine the optimal reapplication interval to minimize the levelized cost of energy production. As a result, similar methods can be applied more generally to determine the levelized cost of component for other applications and systems.

  12. Rheological characterization and sensory evaluation of a typical soft ice cream made with selected food hydrocolloids.

    PubMed

    BahramParvar, M; Razavi, S M A; Khodaparast, M H H

    2010-02-01

    The effect of two novel hydrocolloids known as Balangu seed gum (BSG) and palmate-tuber salep (PTS) with carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) on the rheological characteristics of a typical soft ice cream was studied. The power law model well described the flow behavior of mixes with a high correlation coefficient (r). The flow behavior index was in the range of 0.450-1.154, while the consistency coefficient varied from 0.051 to 6.822 Pa s(n). All mixes showed a pseudoplastic behavior except the mix containing 0.3% PTS, which was found to have a slightly dilatant characteristic. An increase in the concentration was accompanied by an increase in the pseudoplasticity and consistency coefficient. The effect of selected gums on some sensory properties of a soft ice cream such as viscosity, coldness, firmness, degree of smoothness (coarseness), liquefying rate, body and texture and total acceptance has also been investigated in this work. The correlation between the apparent viscosity and sensory attributes has been determined because of the importance of viscosity in the quality evaluation of an ice cream. Taking into account the commercial ice cream properties, a 0.4% BSG gum concentration may be recommended. PMID:21339124

  13. Hot piston ring/cylinder liner materials: Selection and evaluation: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sliney, H.E.

    1988-01-01

    In current designs of the automotive (kinematic) Stirling engine, the piston rings are made of a reinforced polymer and are located near the bottom of the pistons because they cannot withstand the high temperatures in the upper cylinder region. Theoretically, efficiency could be improved if ''hot piston rings'' were located near the top of the pistons. This paper describes a program to select piston ring and cylinder coating materials to test this theory. Candidate materials were screened theoretically and in a pin on disk friction and wear test machine. Tests were performed in hydrogen at specimen temperatures up to 760/sup 0/C to simulate environmental conditions in the region of ''hot piston ring'' reversal. Based upon the results of these tests, a cobalt based alloy, Stellite 6B, was chosen for the piston rings and PS200, which consists of a metal-bonded chromium carbide matrix with dispersed solid lubricants, was chosen as the cylinder coating. Tests of a modified engine and a baseline engine showed that the hot ring did reduce specific fuel consumption by up to 7% for some operating conditions and averaged about 3% for all conditions evaluated. Related applications of high-temperature coatings for shaft seals and as back-up lubricants for gas bearings are also described. 16 refs., 16 figs.

  14. Dissolved Concentrations, Sources, and Risk Evaluation of Selected Metals in Surface Water from Mangla Lake, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Saleem, Muhammad; Iqbal, Javed; Shah, Munir H.

    2014-01-01

    The present study is carried out for the assessment of water quality parameters and selected metals levels in surface water from Mangla Lake, Pakistan. The metal levels (Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Sr, and Zn) were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Average levels of Cd, Co, Cr, Ni, and Pb were higher than the allowable concentrations set by national and international agencies. Principal component analysis indicated significant anthropogenic contributions of Cd, Co, Cr, Ni, and Pb in the water reservoir. Noncarcinogenic risk assessment was then evaluated using Hazard Quotient (HQing/derm) and Hazard Index (HIing/derm) following USEPA methodology. For adults and children, Cd, Co, Cr, and Pb (HQing > 1) emerged as the most important pollutants leading to noncarcinogenic concerns via ingestion route, whereas there was no risk via dermal contact of surface water. This study helps in establishing pollutant loading reduction goal and the total maximum daily loads, and consequently contributes to preserve public health and develop water conservation strategy. PMID:24744690

  15. Evaluation of Selected Culinary-Medicinal Mushrooms for Antioxidant and ACE Inhibitory Activities

    PubMed Central

    Abdullah, Noorlidah; Ismail, Siti Marjiana; Aminudin, Norhaniza; Shuib, Adawiyah Suriza; Lau, Beng Fye

    2012-01-01

    Considering the importance of diet in prevention of oxidative stress-related diseases including hypertension, this study was undertaken to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant and ACE inhibitory activities of selected culinary-medicinal mushrooms extracted by boiling in water for 30 min. Antioxidant capacity was measured using the following assays: DPPH free radical scavenging activity, β-carotene bleaching, inhibition of lipid peroxidation, reducing power ability, and cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC). Antioxidant potential of each mushroom species was calculated based on the average percentages relative to quercetin and summarized as Antioxidant Index (AI). Ganoderma lucidum (30.1%), Schizophyllum commune (27.6%), and Hericium erinaceus (17.7%) showed relatively high AI. Total phenolics in these mushrooms varied between 6.19 to 63.51 mg GAE/g extract. In the ACE inhibitory assay, G. lucidum was shown to be the most potent species (IC50 = 50 μg/mL). Based on our findings, culinary-medicinal mushrooms can be considered as potential source of dietary antioxidant and ACE inhibitory agents. PMID:21716693

  16. Evaluation of Select Surface Processing Techniques for In Situ Application During the Additive Manufacturing Build Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Book, Todd A.; Sangid, Michael D.

    2016-03-01

    Although additive manufacturing offers numerous performance advantages for different applications, it is not being used for critical applications due to uncertainties in structural integrity as a result of innate process variability and defects. To minimize uncertainty, the current approach relies on the concurrent utilization of process monitoring, post-processing, and non-destructive inspection in addition to an extensive material qualification process. This paper examines an alternative approach by evaluating the application of select surface process techniques, to include sliding severe plastic deformation (SPD) and fine particle shot peening, on direct metal laser sintering-produced AlSi10Mg materials. Each surface processing technique is compared to baseline as-built and post-processed samples as a proof of concept for surface enhancement. Initial results pairing sliding SPD with the manufacture's recommended thermal stress relief cycle demonstrated uniform recrystallization of the microstructure, resulting in a more homogeneous distribution of strain among the microstructure than as-built or post-processed conditions. This result demonstrates the potential for the in situ application of various surface processing techniques during the layerwise direct metal laser sintering build process.

  17. Evaluation of lactate detection using selective multiple quantum coherence in phantoms and brain tumours

    PubMed Central

    Harris, L M; Tunariu, N; Messiou, C; Hughes, J; Wallace, T; DeSouza, N M; Leach, M O; Payne, G S

    2015-01-01

    Lactate is a product of glucose metabolism. In tumour tissues, which exhibit enhanced glycolytic metabolism, lactate signals may be elevated, making lactate a potential useful tumour biomarker. Methods of lactate quantitation are complicated because of overlap between the lactate methyl doublet CH3 resonance and a lipid resonance at 1.3 ppm. This study presents the use of a selective homonuclear multiple quantum coherence transfer sequence (SelMQC-CSI), at 1.5 T, to better quantify lactate in the presence of lipids. Work performed on phantoms showed good lactate detection (49%) and lipid suppression (98%) efficiencies. To evaluate the method in the brain, the sequence was tested on a group of 23 patients with treated brain tumours, either glioma (N = 20) or secondary metastases in the brain (N = 3). Here it was proved to be of use in determining lactate concentrations in vivo. Lactate was clearly seen in SelMQC spectra of glioma, even in the presence of lipids, with high grade glioma (7.3 ± 1.9 mM, mean ± standard deviation) having higher concentrations than low grade glioma (1.9 ± 1.5 mM, p = 0.048). Lactate was not seen in secondary metastases in the brain. SelMQC-CSI is shown to be a useful technique for measuring lactate in tumours whose signals are otherwise contaminated by lipid. © 2015 The Authors NMR in Biomedicine Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:25586623

  18. Engineering development of selective agglomeration: Task 7, Evaluation of bench-scale and component tests. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-11-01

    This report presents the Task 7 findings of the project entitled ``Engineering Development of Selective Agglomeration`` to develop selective agglomeration technology to a commercially acceptable level by 1992. The objectives of this report are to summarize the work completed as a part of Task 7, which includes engineering analysis of process deficiencies, analysis of all project test results, and evaluation and selection of an agglomeration process for further development in Phase II. Other objectives of this task included evaluation of the selective agglomeration technology and analysis of all the major deficiencies remaining at the conclusion of Phase I of the project. An overview of the agglomeration processes that were under consideration is presented, along with a discussion of the various test parameters that were found to be important during project testing. This report includes a comprehensive evaluation of all test data and a summary of the major findings; it also provides characterization data for all the project coals and presents the agglomeration process selected for Phase II along with a discussion of the criteria and rationale for the selection.

  19. [Forage habitat selection of white-naped crane during its incubation period in Zhalong wetland].

    PubMed

    Wu, Qing-Ming; Zou, Hong-Fei

    2009-07-01

    By using the methods of fixed-spot observation, GPS positioning, sampling plot investigation, and factor analysis, the forage habitat selection of white-naped crane (Grus vipio) during its incubation period in Zhalong Wetland was studied from April to May 2002-2008. In the study area, the crane during its incubation period chose a variety of habitat types as its forage habitat, among which, wetland (reed swamp) was the main one, occupying 74. 36% of the total, followed by farmland. The forage habitat included four elements, i. e., habitat identification, food, water, and cover, and the main selection criteria were the identification factor and energy factor, followed by eating feasibility factor, security distance factor, and concealment factor. The forage habitat selection of the crane during its incubation period had two levels (macro- and microhabitat) and three courses (forage habitat type choice, forage area choice, and forage microhabitat choice). PMID:19899476

  20. Selecting Software.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pereus, Steven C.

    2002-01-01

    Describes a comprehensive computer software selection and evaluation process, including documenting district needs, evaluating software packages, weighing the alternatives, and making the purchase. (PKP)

  1. Laboratory Evaluation of Ion-Selective Electrodes for Simultaneous Analysis of Macronutrients in Hydroponic Solution

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Automated sensing of macronutrients in hydroponic solution would allow more efficient management of nutrients for crop growth in closed hydroponic systems. Ion-selective microelectrode technology requires an ion-selective membrane or a solid metal material that responds selectively to one analyte in...

  2. Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of 5-benzylidene-2-iminothiazolidin-4-ones as selective GSK-3β inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Arfeen, Minhajul; Bhagat, Shweta; Patel, Rahul; Prasad, Shivcharan; Roy, Ipsita; Chakraborti, Asit K; Bharatam, Prasad V

    2016-10-01

    In this work, iminothiazolidin-4-one derivatives were explored as selective GSK-3β inhibitors. Molecular docking analysis was carried to design a series of compounds, which were synthesized using substituted thiourea, 2-bromoacetophenones and benzaldehydes. Out of the twenty five compounds synthesized during this work, the in vitro evaluation against GSK-3 led to the identification of nine compounds with activity in lower nano-molar range (2-85 nM). Further, in vitro evaluation against CDK-2 showed five compounds to be selective towards GSK-3. PMID:27423119

  3. Diel changes in adult mosquito microhabitat temperatures and their relationship to the extrinsic incubation of arboviruses in mosquitoes in Kern County, California.

    PubMed

    Meyer, R P; Hardy, J L; Reisen, W K

    1990-07-01

    Microhabitat temperatures experienced by nocturnally active Culex tarsalis Coquillett mosquitoes were measured in the southern San Joaquin Valley of California. Temperatures of the diurnal resting shelter and nocturnal activity air space were measured by digital recorder at three Cx. tarsalis habitats in Kern County. Temperatures measured by digital recorders agreed well with temperatures recorded concurrently at nearby California Irrigation Management and Inspection System weather stations. Monthly temperatures among habitats were combined to depict the diel temperature regimen experienced by female Cx. tarsalis as a consequence of daily movement between the diurnal resting shelter and nocturnal air space. Transitions between the two microhabitats corresponded to the times of mosquito ingress and egress (i.e., sunrise and sunset). The composite daily temperature mean ranged from 7.4 degrees C in December to 21.5 degrees C in July, and temperature extremes seldom exceeded a daily maximum of 25.0 degrees C during the summer or dropped below a daily minimum of 5.0 degrees C during the winter. Overall, mosquitoes occupied a composite thermal environment where the extrinsic incubation of an arbovirus would have occurred at ambient temperatures that were cooler than either the diurnal resting shelter or activity air space. PMID:2167374

  4. Niche Partitioning in Three Sympatric Congeneric Species of Dragonfly, Orthetrum chrysostigma, O. coerulescens anceps, and O. nitidinerve: The Importance of Microhabitat

    PubMed Central

    Khelifa, Rassim; Zebsa, Rabah; Moussaoui, Abdelkrim; Kahalerras, Amin; Bensouilah, Soufyane; Mahdjoub, Hayat

    2013-01-01

    Habitat heterogeneity has been shown to promote co-existence of closely related species. Based on this concept, a field study was conducted on the niche partitioning of three territorial congeneric species of skimmers (Anisoptera: Libellulidae) in Northeast Algeria during the breeding season of 2011. According to their size, there is a descending hierarchy between Orthetrum nitidinerve Sélys, O. chrysostigma (Burmeister), and O. coerulescens anceps (Schneider). After being marked and surveyed, the two latter species had the same breeding behavior sequence. Knowing that they had almost the same size, such species could not co-occur in the same habitat according to the competitive exclusion principle. The spatial distribution of the three species was investigated at two different microhabitats, and it was found that these two species were actually isolated at this scale. O. chrysostigma and O. nitidinerve preferred open areas, while O. c. anceps occurred in highly vegetated waters. This study highlights the role of microhabitat in community structure as an important niche axis that maintains closely related species in the same habitat. PMID:24219357

  5. Quantitative evaluation of ozone and selected climate parameters in a set of EMAC simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Righi, M.; Eyring, V.; Gottschaldt, K.-D.; Klinger, C.; Frank, F.; Jöckel, P.; Cionni, I.

    2015-03-01

    Four simulations with the ECHAM/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry (EMAC) model have been evaluated with the Earth System Model Validation Tool (ESMValTool) to identify differences in simulated ozone and selected climate parameters that resulted from (i) different setups of the EMAC model (nudged vs. free-running) and (ii) different boundary conditions (emissions, sea surface temperatures (SSTs) and sea ice concentrations (SICs)). To assess the relative performance of the simulations, quantitative performance metrics are calculated consistently for the climate parameters and ozone. This is important for the interpretation of the evaluation results since biases in climate can impact on biases in chemistry and vice versa. The observational data sets used for the evaluation include ozonesonde and aircraft data, meteorological reanalyses and satellite measurements. The results from a previous EMAC evaluation of a model simulation with nudging towards realistic meteorology in the troposphere have been compared to new simulations with different model setups and updated emission data sets in free-running time slice and nudged quasi chemistry-transport model (QCTM) mode. The latter two configurations are particularly important for chemistry-climate projections and for the quantification of individual sources (e.g., the transport sector) that lead to small chemical perturbations of the climate system, respectively. With the exception of some specific features which are detailed in this study, no large differences that could be related to the different setups (nudged vs. free-running) of the EMAC simulations were found, which offers the possibility to evaluate and improve the overall model with the help of shorter nudged simulations. The main differences between the two setups is a better representation of the tropospheric and stratospheric temperature in the nudged simulations, which also better reproduce stratospheric water vapor concentrations, due to the improved simulation of

  6. Quantitative evaluation of ozone and selected climate parameters in a set of EMAC simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Righi, M.; Eyring, V.; Gottschaldt, K.-D.; Klinger, C.; Frank, F.; Jöckel, P.; Cionni, I.

    2014-10-01

    Four simulations with the ECHAM/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry (EMAC) model have been evaluated with the Earth System Model Validation Tool (ESMValTool) to identify differences in simulated ozone and selected climate parameters that resulted from (i) different setups of the EMAC model (nudged vs. free-running) and (ii) different boundary conditions (emissions, sea surface temperatures (SSTs) and sea-ice concentrations (SICs)). To assess the relative performance of the simulations, quantitative performance metrics are calculated consistently for the climate parameters and ozone. This is important for the interpretation of the evaluation results since biases in climate can impact on biases in chemistry and vice versa. The observational datasets used for the evaluation include ozonesonde and aircraft data, meteorological reanalyses and satellite measurements. The results from a previous EMAC evaluation of a model simulation with weak nudging towards realistic meteorology in the troposphere have been compared to new simulations with different model setups and updated emission datasets in free-running timeslice and nudged Quasi Chemistry-Transport Model (QCTM) mode. The latter two configurations are particularly important for chemistry-climate projections and for the quantification of individual sources (e.g. transport sector) that lead to small chemical perturbations of the climate system, respectively. With the exception of some specific features which are detailed in this study, no large differences that could be related to the different setups of the EMAC simulations (nudged vs. free-running) were found, which offers the possibility to evaluate and improve the overall model with the help of shorter nudged simulations. The main differences between the two setups is a better representation of the tropospheric and stratospheric temperature in the nudged simulations, which also better reproduce stratospheric water vapour concentrations, due to the improved simulation of

  7. Evaluation of factors affecting ice forces at selected bridges in South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Niehus, Colin A.

    2002-01-01

    During 1998-2002, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the South Dakota Department of Transportation (SDDOT), conducted a study to evaluate factors affecting ice forces at selected bridges in South Dakota. The focus of this ice-force evaluation was on maximum ice thickness and ice-crushing strength, which are the most important variables in the SDDOT bridge-design equations for ice forces in South Dakota. Six sites, the James River at Huron, the James River near Scotland, the White River near Oacoma/Presho, the Grand River at Little Eagle, the Oahe Reservoir near Mobridge, and the Lake Francis Case at the Platte-Winner Bridge, were selected for collection of ice-thickness and ice-crushing-strength data. Ice thickness was measured at the six sites from February 1999 until April 2001. This period is representative of the climate extremes of record in South Dakota because it included both one of the warmest and one of the coldest winters on record. The 2000 and 2001 winters were the 8th warmest and 11th coldest winters, respectively, on record at Sioux Falls, South Dakota, which was used to represent the climate at all bridges in South Dakota. Ice thickness measured at the James River sites at Huron and Scotland during 1999-2001 ranged from 0.7 to 2.3 feet and 0 to 1.7 feet, respectively, and ice thickness measured at the White River near Oacoma/Presho site during 2000-01 ranged from 0.1 to 1.5 feet. At the Grand River at Little Eagle site, ice thickness was measured at 1.2 feet in 1999, ranged from 0.5 to 1.2 feet in 2000, and ranged from 0.2 to 1.4 feet in 2001. Ice thickness measured at the Oahe Reservoir near Mobridge site ranged from 1.7 to 1.8 feet in 1999, 0.9 to 1.2 feet in 2000, and 0 to 2.2 feet in 2001. At the Lake Francis Case at the Platte-Winner Bridge site, ice thickness ranged from 1.2 to 1.8 feet in 2001. Historical ice-thickness data measured by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) at eight selected streamflow-gaging stations in South Dakota

  8. Genomic selection strategies in a small dairy cattle population evaluated for genetic gain and profit.

    PubMed

    Thomasen, J R; Egger-Danner, C; Willam, A; Guldbrandtsen, B; Lund, M S; Sørensen, A C

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate a genomic breeding scheme in a small dairy cattle population that was intermediate in terms of using both young bulls (YB) and progeny-tested bulls (PB). This scheme was compared with a conventional progeny testing program without use of genomic information and, as the extreme case, a juvenile scheme with genomic information, where all bulls were used before progeny information was available. The population structure, cost, and breeding plan parameters were chosen to reflect the Danish Jersey cattle population, being representative for a small dairy cattle population. The population consisted of 68,000 registered cows. Annually, 1,500 bull dams were screened to produce the 500 genotyped bull calves from which 60 YB were selected to be progeny tested. Two unfavorably correlated traits were included in the breeding goal, a production trait (h(2)=0.30) and a functional trait (h(2)=0.04). An increase in reliability of 5 percentage points for each trait was used in the default genomic scenario. A deterministic approach was used to model the different breeding programs, where the primary evaluation criterion was annual monetary genetic gain (AMGG). Discounted profit was used as an indicator of the economic outcome. We investigated the effect of varying the following parameters: (1) increase in reliability due to genomic information, (2) number of genotyped bull calves, (3) proportion of bull dam sires that are young bulls, and (4) proportion of cow sires that are young bulls. The genomic breeding scheme was both genetically and economically superior to the conventional breeding scheme, even in a small dairy cattle population where genomic information causes a relatively low increase in reliability of breeding values. Assuming low reliabilities of genomic predictions, the optimal breeding scheme according to AMGG was characterized by mixed use of YB and PB as bull sires. Exclusive use of YB for production cows increased AMGG up

  9. Antioxidant, antiglycation and cytotoxicity evaluation of selected medicinal plants of the Mascarene Islands

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Many indigenous plants of Mascarene Islands have been used in folkloric medicine to manage diabetes but few species have received scientific attention. Selected traditional medicinal plants (Antidesma madagascariense Lam. -Euphorbiaceae (AM), Erythroxylum macrocarpum O.E.Schulz -Erythroxylaceae (EM), Pittosporum senacia Putterl -Pittosporaceae (PS), Faujasiopsis flexuosa Lam. C.Jeffrey -Asteraceae (FF), Momordica charantia Linn -Cucurbitaceae (MC) and Ocimum tenuiflorum L -Lamiaceae (OT) were evaluated for their antioxidant, antiglycation and cytotoxic potential in vitro. Methods Graded concentrations (1.25-100 μg/mL) of the crude methanolic and water extracts and fractions (dichloromethane, ethyl-acetate, n-butanol and water) were evaluated for abilities to scavenge 2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl hydrate (DPPH), nitric oxide (NO), superoxide (SO) radicals and to inhibit lipoxygenase and formation of advanced glycation endproduct (AGE) in vitro. The MTT (3-(4, 5-dimethylthazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazonium bromide) cytotoxicity test was performed on 3T3 cell line. Results Only IC50 for DPPH, SO, NO and lipoxygenase for AM, FF and OT crude extracts and fractions were comparable to ascorbic acid and quercetin activity. Crude aqueous extracts of AM and FF showed IC50 of 4.08 and 3.89 μg/mL respectively for lipoxygenase which was significantly lower (p < 0.05) than quercetin (10.86 ± 0.68 μg/mL). The three crude aqueous extracts of these plants and their n-butanol fractions also showed antiglycation activities (p < 0.05) comparable to aminoguanidine. Increasing concentrations (250-2000 μg/mL) of the six crude extracts (Methanol and water) and their fractions did not inhibit mitochondrial respiration as measured by MTT cytotoxicity assay. Conclusion AM, FF and OT crude extracts and fractions have potent antioxidant and antiglycation properties with no apparent cytotoxicity and might have prophylactic and therapeutic potentials in the management of

  10. Materials selection and evaluation of Copper-Tungsten particulate composites for extreme electrical contacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watkins, Bobby Gene, II

    2011-12-01

    Materials for extreme electrical contacts need to have high electrical conductivity coupled with good structural properties. Potential applications include motor contacts, high power switches, and the components of electromagnetic launch (EML) systems. The lack of durability experienced with these contact materials limits service life. Due to extreme current densities coupled with the local sliding, electrical contact surfaces can degrade due to a one or more wear mechanisms, including adhesive wear and thermally-assisted wear associated with extreme local Joule heating. A systematic materials selection procedure was developed to identify and compare candidate materials that would be more durable for these types of applications. The most promising materials identified on the Pareto frontier are tungsten alloys. Moreover, several possible candidate monolithic materials as well as hybrid materials that could potentially be even better, filling the "white spaces" on the material property charts, were identified. A couple of these potential candidate materials were obtained and evaluated. These included copper-tungsten W-Cu, "self-lubricating" graphite-impregnated Cu, and Gr-W-Cu composites with different volume fractions of the constituents. The structure-property relations were determined through mechanical and electrical resistivity testing. A unique test protocol for exposing mechanical test specimens to extreme current densities up to 1.2 GA/m2 was developed and used to evaluate these candidate materials. The design of materials including optimizing the microstructure attributes for these applications can potentially be accelerated by using micromechanics modeling and other materials design tools coupled with systematic mechanical and tribological experiments. In this study, physics- and micromechanics-based models were used to correlate properties to the volume fraction of the tungsten. These properties included elastic modulus, hardness, tensile strength, and

  11. NEAMS Nuclear Waste Management IPSC : evaluation and selection of tools for the quality environment.

    SciTech Connect

    Bouchard, Julie F.; Stubblefield, William Anthony; Vigil, Dena M.; Edwards, Harold Carter

    2011-05-01

    The objective of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation Nuclear Waste Management Integrated Performance and Safety Codes (NEAMS Nuclear Waste Management IPSC) is to provide an integrated suite of computational modeling and simulation (M&S) capabilities to quantitatively assess the long-term performance of waste forms in the engineered and geologic environments of a radioactive-waste storage facility or disposal repository. These M&S capabilities are to be managed, verified, and validated within the NEAMS Nuclear Waste Management IPSC quality environment. M&S capabilities and the supporting analysis workflow and simulation data management tools will be distributed to end-users from this same quality environment. The same analysis workflow and simulation data management tools that are to be distributed to end-users will be used for verification and validation (V&V) activities within the quality environment. This strategic decision reduces the number of tools to be supported, and increases the quality of tools distributed to end users due to rigorous use by V&V activities. This report documents an evaluation of the needs, options, and tools selected for the NEAMS Nuclear Waste Management IPSC quality environment. The objective of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation Nuclear Waste Management Integrated Performance and Safety Codes (NEAMS Nuclear Waste Management IPSC) program element is to provide an integrated suite of computational modeling and simulation (M&S) capabilities to assess quantitatively the long-term performance of waste forms in the engineered and geologic environments of a radioactive-waste storage facility or disposal repository. This objective will be fulfilled by acquiring and developing M&S capabilities, and establishing a defensible level of confidence in these M&S capabilities. The foundation for assessing the level of confidence is based upon

  12. Selecting statistical or machine learning techniques for regional landslide susceptibility modelling by evaluating spatial prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goetz, Jason; Brenning, Alexander; Petschko, Helene; Leopold, Philip

    2015-04-01

    With so many techniques now available for landslide susceptibility modelling, it can be challenging to decide on which technique to apply. Generally speaking, the criteria for model selection should be tied closely to end users' purpose, which could be spatial prediction, spatial analysis or both. In our research, we focus on comparing the spatial predictive abilities of landslide susceptibility models. We illustrate how spatial cross-validation, a statistical approach for assessing spatial prediction performance, can be applied with the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) as a prediction measure for model comparison. Several machine learning and statistical techniques are evaluated for prediction in Lower Austria: support vector machine, random forest, bundling with penalized linear discriminant analysis, logistic regression, weights of evidence, and the generalized additive model. In addition to predictive performance, the importance of predictor variables in each model was estimated using spatial cross-validation by calculating the change in AUROC performance when variables are randomly permuted. The susceptibility modelling techniques were tested in three areas of interest in Lower Austria, which have unique geologic conditions associated with landslide occurrence. Overall, we found for the majority of comparisons that there were little practical or even statistically significant differences in AUROCs. That is the models' prediction performances were very similar. Therefore, in addition to prediction, the ability to interpret models for spatial analysis and the qualitative qualities of the prediction surface (map) are considered and discussed. The measure of variable importance provided some insight into the model behaviour for prediction, in particular for "black-box" models. However, there were no clear patterns in all areas of interest to why certain variables were given more importance over others.

  13. Evaluation of Selected Nutrients and Contaminants in Distillers Grains from Ethanol Production in Texas.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyung-Min; Herrman, Timothy J

    2015-10-01

    This study evaluated distillers grain (DG) by-products produced in different ethanol plants and supplemented in animal diets in Texas, based on samples analyzed from 2008 to 2014. The samples were assessed for concentration, occurrence, and prevalence of selected nutrients and contaminants. Protein and sulfur contents of DG were largely different between corn and sorghum by-products as well as wet distillers grain with solubles and dry distillers grain with solubles (DDGS), indicating a significant effect of grain feedstock and dry-grind process stream on DG composition and quality. Salmonella was isolated in 4 DDGS samples out of a total of 157 DG samples, a percentage (2.5%) that is much lower than the percentage of Salmonella-positive samples found in other feed samples analyzed during the same period. A small amount of virginiamycin residue was found in 24 corn DDGS, 1 corn wet distillers grain with solubles, and 2 sorghum DDGS samples out of 242 samples in total. One sorghum DDGS sample out of 168 DG samples was contaminated with bovine spongiform encephalopathy, but the transmission route of the bovine spongiform encephalopathy agent could not be clearly defined. The concentrations of aflatoxin and fumonisin DG by-products averaged 3.4 μg/kg and 0.7 mg/kg, respectively. Among contaminated corn DG samples, five DDGS samples for aflatoxin contained a higher concentration than the U.S. Food and Drug Administration action level for use in animal feed, whereas no sample for fumonisin was found above the action level. The study results raised some important issues associated with the quality and use of DG by-products, suggesting several approaches and strategies for their effective and safe use as a feed ingredient to promote animal and human health and welfare. PMID:26408135

  14. Selecting Tasks for Evaluating Human Performance as a Function of Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norcross, J. R.; Gernhardt, M. L.

    2010-01-01

    A challenge in understanding human performance as a function of gravity is determining which tasks to research. Initial studies began with treadmill walking, which was easy to quantify and control. However, with the development of pressurized rovers, it is less important to optimize human performance for ambulation as rovers will likely perform gross translation for them. Future crews are likely to spend much of their extravehicular activity (EVA) performing geology, construction and maintenance type tasks, for which it is difficult to measure steady-state-workloads. To evaluate human performance in reduced gravity, we have collected metabolic, biomechanical and subjective data for different tasks at varied gravity levels. Methods: Ten subjects completed 5 different tasks including weight transfer, shoveling, treadmill walking, treadmill running and treadmill incline walking. All tasks were performed shirt-sleeved at 1-g, 3/8-g and 1/6-g. Off-loaded conditions were achieved via the Active Response Gravity Offload System. Treadmill tasks were performed for 3 minutes with reported oxygen consumption (VO2) averaged over the last 2 minutes. Shoveling was performed for 3 minutes with metabolic cost reported as ml O2 consumed per kg material shoveled. Weight transfer reports metabolic cost as liters O2 consumed to complete the task. Statistical analysis was performed via repeated measures ANOVA. Results: Statistically significant metabolic differences were noted between all 3 gravity levels for treadmill running and incline walking. For the other 3 tasks, there were significant differences between 1-g and each reduced gravity, but not between 1/6-g and 3/8-g. For weight transfer, significant differences were seen between gravities in both trial-average VO2 and time-to-completion with noted differences in strategy for task completion. Conclusion: To determine if gravity has a metabolic effect on human performance, this research may indicate that tasks should be selected

  15. Evaluating paint-sludge chars for adsorption of selected paint solvents

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, B.R.; Kalis, E.M.; Salmeen, I.T.; Kruse, C.W.; Demir, I.; Rostam-Abadi, M.; Carlson, S.L.

    1996-06-01

    At Ford, a study had been carried out to investigate the technical feasibility of converting paint sludge to activated char and reusing the char in paint spray-booth water to capture paint solvents from spray-booth air. As part of the study, several chars were made from a paint sludge and six dried paints to evaluate their effectiveness as adsorbents by conducting a series of liquid-phase adsorption experiments. Three commonly-used paint solvents and p-nitrophenol were selected as adsorbates. The three paint solvents were toluene, 2-methyl-1-propanol (iso-butanol), and 2-butoxyethanol (butylcellosolve). In this paper, the results of the pyrolysis and adsorption experiments are presented along with practical implications. The primary findings include the following: (1) Black-paint chars showed substantially larger surface area and higher adsorption capacity (based on total weight) than white-paint chars which had high ash contents due to the white pigment, titanium dioxide; (2) the adsorption capacity of the paint-sludge char was between those of black-paint and white-paint chars, and was 5--20% that of a commercial activated carbon; (3) titanium dioxide in white-paint chars did not improve the chars` affinity for hydrophilic compounds such as 2-methyl-1-propanol and 2-butoxyethanol; (4) coal could be added to paint sludge to improve the quality of the resulting char and to reduce ash content; and (5) the pyrolysis of paint sludge could present an attractive opportunity for reusing and recycling a waste product for pollution abatement and as a vehicle component.

  16. Evaluation of Antileishmanial Activity of Selected Brazilian Plants and Identification of the Active Principles

    PubMed Central

    Filho, Valdir Cechinel; Meyre-Silva, Christiane; Niero, Rivaldo; Bolda Mariano, Luisa Nathália; Gomes do Nascimento, Fabiana; Vicente Farias, Ingrid; Gazoni, Vanessa Fátima; dos Santos Silva, Bruna; Giménez, Alberto; Gutierrez-Yapu, David; Salamanca, Efrain; Malheiros, Angela

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated extracts, fractions, and isolated compounds from some selected Brazilian medicinal plants against strains of promastigotes of Leishmania amazonensis and L. brasiliensis in vitro. The cell viability was determined, comparing the results with reference standards. The dichloromethane fractions of the roots, stems, and leaves of Allamanda schottii showed IC50 values between 14.0 and 2.0 μg/mL. Plumericin was the main active compound, with IC50 of 0.3 and 0.04 μg/mL against the two species of Leishmania analyzed. The hexane extract of Eugenia umbelliflora fruits showed IC50 of 14.3 and 5.7 μg/mL against L. amazonensis and L. brasiliensis, respectively. The methanolic extracts of the seeds of Garcinia achachairu and guttiferone A presented IC50 values of 35.9 and 10.4 μg/mL, against L. amazonensis, respectively. The ethanolic extracts of the stem barks of Rapanea ferruginea and the isolated compound, myrsinoic acid B, presented activity against L. brasiliensis with IC50 of 24.1 and 6.1 μg/mL. Chloroform fraction of Solanum sisymbriifolium exhibited IC50 of 33.8 and 20.5 μg/mL, and cilistol A was the main active principle, with IC50 of 6.6 and 3.1 μg/mL against L. amazonensis and L. brasiliensis, respectively. It is concluded that the analyzed plants are promising as new and effective antiparasitic agents. PMID:23840252

  17. Evaluation of antileishmanial activity of selected brazilian plants and identification of the active principles.

    PubMed

    Filho, Valdir Cechinel; Meyre-Silva, Christiane; Niero, Rivaldo; Bolda Mariano, Luisa Nathália; Gomes do Nascimento, Fabiana; Vicente Farias, Ingrid; Gazoni, Vanessa Fátima; Dos Santos Silva, Bruna; Giménez, Alberto; Gutierrez-Yapu, David; Salamanca, Efrain; Malheiros, Angela

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated extracts, fractions, and isolated compounds from some selected Brazilian medicinal plants against strains of promastigotes of Leishmania amazonensis and L. brasiliensis in vitro. The cell viability was determined, comparing the results with reference standards. The dichloromethane fractions of the roots, stems, and leaves of Allamanda schottii showed IC50 values between 14.0 and 2.0  μ g/mL. Plumericin was the main active compound, with IC50 of 0.3 and 0.04  μ g/mL against the two species of Leishmania analyzed. The hexane extract of Eugenia umbelliflora fruits showed IC50 of 14.3 and 5.7  μ g/mL against L. amazonensis and L. brasiliensis, respectively. The methanolic extracts of the seeds of Garcinia achachairu and guttiferone A presented IC50 values of 35.9 and 10.4  μ g/mL, against L. amazonensis, respectively. The ethanolic extracts of the stem barks of Rapanea ferruginea and the isolated compound, myrsinoic acid B, presented activity against L. brasiliensis with IC50 of 24.1 and 6.1  μ g/mL. Chloroform fraction of Solanum sisymbriifolium exhibited IC50 of 33.8 and 20.5  μ g/mL, and cilistol A was the main active principle, with IC50 of 6.6 and 3.1  μ g/mL against L. amazonensis and L. brasiliensis, respectively. It is concluded that the analyzed plants are promising as new and effective antiparasitic agents. PMID:23840252

  18. Bromeliad Selection by Two Salamander Species in a Harsh Environment

    PubMed Central

    Ruano-Fajardo, Gustavo; Rovito, Sean M.; Ladle, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Bromeliad phytotelmata are frequently used by several Neotropical amphibian taxa, possibly due to their high humidity, microclimatic stability, and role as a refuge from predators. Indeed, the ability of phytotelmata to buffer against adverse environmental conditions may be instrumental in allowing some amphibian species to survive during periods of environmental change or to colonize sub-optimal habitats. Association between bromeliad traits and salamanders has not been studied at a fine scale, despite the intimate association of many salamander species with bromeliads. Here, we identify microhabitat characteristics of epiphytic bromeliads used by two species of the Bolitoglossa morio group (B. morio and B. pacaya) in forest disturbed by volcanic activity in Guatemala. Specifically, we measured multiple variables for bromeliads (height and position in tree, phytotelma water temperature and pH, canopy cover, phytotelma size, leaf size, and tree diameter at breast height), as well as salamander size. We employed a DNA barcoding approach to identify salamanders. We found that B. morio and B. pacaya occurred in microsympatry in bromeliads and that phytotelmata size and temperature of bromeliad microhabitat were the most important factors associated with the presence of salamanders. Moreover, phytotelmata with higher pH contained larger salamanders, suggesting that larger salamanders or aggregated individuals might modify pH. These results show that bromeliad selection is nonrandom with respect to microhabitat characteristics, and provide insight into the relationship between salamanders and this unique arboreal environment. PMID:24892414

  19. Bromeliad selection by two salamander species in a harsh environment.

    PubMed

    Ruano-Fajardo, Gustavo; Rovito, Sean M; Ladle, Richard J

    2014-01-01

    Bromeliad phytotelmata are frequently used by several Neotropical amphibian taxa, possibly due to their high humidity, microclimatic stability, and role as a refuge from predators. Indeed, the ability of phytotelmata to buffer against adverse environmental conditions may be instrumental in allowing some amphibian species to survive during periods of environmental change or to colonize sub-optimal habitats. Association between bromeliad traits and salamanders has not been studied at a fine scale, despite the intimate association of many salamander species with bromeliads. Here, we identify microhabitat characteristics of epiphytic bromeliads used by two species of the Bolitoglossa morio group (B. morio and B. pacaya) in forest disturbed by volcanic activity in Guatemala. Specifically, we measured multiple variables for bromeliads (height and position in tree, phytotelma water temperature and pH, canopy cover, phytotelma size, leaf size, and tree diameter at breast height), as well as salamander size. We employed a DNA barcoding approach to identify salamanders. We found that B. morio and B. pacaya occurred in microsympatry in bromeliads and that phytotelmata size and temperature of bromeliad microhabitat were the most important factors associated with the presence of salamanders. Moreover, phytotelmata with higher pH contained larger salamanders, suggesting that larger salamanders or aggregated individuals might modify pH. These results show that bromeliad selection is nonrandom with respect to microhabitat characteristics, and provide insight into the relationship between salamanders and this unique arboreal environment. PMID:24892414

  20. A review and evaluation of the Langley Research Center's Scientific and Technical Information Program. Results of phase 5. Design and evaluation of STI systems: A selected, annotated bibliography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, T. E.; Hinnebusch, P. A.; Jaffe, J. M.

    1981-01-01

    A selected, annotated bibliography of literature citations related to the design and evaluation of STI systems is presented. The use of manual and machine-readable literature searches; the review of numerous books, periodicals reports, and papers; and the selection and annotation of literature citations were required. The bibliography was produced because the information was needed to develop the methodology for the review and evaluation project, and a survey of the literature did not reveal the existence of a single published source of information pertinent to the subject. Approximately 200 citations are classified in four subject areas. The areas include information - general; information systems - design and evaluation, including information products and services; information - use and need; and information - economics.

  1. AN EVALUATION OF SELECTED TEACHING METHODS IN GETTING A NEW FARM PRACTICE ADOPTED IN ST. LANDRY PARISH, 1960.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ROBERT, JAMES J.

    TO EVALUATE THE COMPARATIVE EFFECTIVENESS OF THE CIRCULAR LETTER, NEIGHBORHOOD MEETING, AND FARM VISIT IN GETTING A NEW FARM PRACTICE ADOPTED ON RICE FARMS IN ST. LANDRY PARISH, LOUISIANA, THREE SAMPLE GROUPS WERE SELECTED AT RANDOM FROM THE AGRICULTURAL STABILIZATION AND CONSERVATION SERVICE RICE GROWERS LIST AND EXPOSED TO ONE OF THE TEACHING…

  2. 23 CFR 636.302 - Are there any limitations on the selection and use of proposal evaluation factors?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... project funded with Federal-aid highway funds shall be based on at least one of the following methods: (A... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Are there any limitations on the selection and use of proposal evaluation factors? 636.302 Section 636.302 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...

  3. 23 CFR 636.302 - Are there any limitations on the selection and use of proposal evaluation factors?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... project funded with Federal-aid highway funds shall be based on at least one of the following methods: (A... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Are there any limitations on the selection and use of proposal evaluation factors? 636.302 Section 636.302 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...

  4. 23 CFR 636.302 - Are there any limitations on the selection and use of proposal evaluation factors?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... project funded with Federal-aid highway funds shall be based on at least one of the following methods: (A... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Are there any limitations on the selection and use of proposal evaluation factors? 636.302 Section 636.302 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...

  5. Subjective Evaluations of Intelligence and Academic Self-Concept Predict Academic Achievement: Evidence from a Selective Student Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kornilova, Tatiana V.; Kornilov, Sergey A.; Chumakova, Maria A.

    2009-01-01

    The study examined the relationship between implicit theories, goal orientations, subjective and test estimates of intelligence, academic self-concept, and achievement in a selective student population (N=300). There was no direct impact of implicit theories of intelligence and goal orientations on achievement. However, subjective evaluations of…

  6. Site Selection in Experiments: A Follow-Up Evaluation of Site Recruitment in Two Scale-Up Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tipton, Elizabeth; Fellers, Lauren; Caverly, Sarah; Vaden-Kiernan, Michael; Borman, Geoffrey; Sullivan, Kate; Ruiz de Castillo, Veronica

    2015-01-01

    Randomized experiments are commonly used to evaluate if particular interventions improve student achievement. While these experiments can establish that a treatment actually "causes" changes, typically the participants are not randomly selected from a well-defined population and therefore the results do not readily generalize. Three…

  7. 34 CFR 413.21 - What selection criteria does the Secretary use to evaluate an application proposing research and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... evaluate an application proposing research and development activities? 413.21 Section 413.21 Education..., DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION NATIONAL CENTER OR CENTERS FOR RESEARCH IN VOCATIONAL EDUCATION How Does the... proposing research and development activities? The Secretary uses the following selection criteria...

  8. 34 CFR 413.21 - What selection criteria does the Secretary use to evaluate an application proposing research and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... evaluate an application proposing research and development activities? 413.21 Section 413.21 Education..., DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION NATIONAL CENTER OR CENTERS FOR RESEARCH IN VOCATIONAL EDUCATION How Does the... proposing research and development activities? The Secretary uses the following selection criteria...

  9. Selecting and Evaluating Software for Use in a Preschool Classroom: From the Young Child's and Researcher's Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vartuli, Sue; And Others

    A 16-item evaluation form is presented to aid in selection of appropriate computerized game materials for preschool children. The form was derived from a 32-week-long study involving 66 children 3, 4, and 5 years of age who were allowed to play computer games during free play or work time while attending a modified Montessori preschool program. In…

  10. 34 CFR 413.21 - What selection criteria does the Secretary use to evaluate an application proposing research and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What selection criteria does the Secretary use to evaluate an application proposing research and development activities? 413.21 Section 413.21 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF VOCATIONAL AND ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION NATIONAL...

  11. Training Teachers to Select Educational Computer Software: Results of a Formative Evaluation of an Open University Pack.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preece, Jenny; Jones, Ann

    1985-01-01

    Describes how the Educational Software short course produced by the Open University Micros in Schools project trains inservice teachers to select suitable educational software for classroom use. Findings of a formative evaluation of an activity in the course in which teachers examined three commercially produced educational software packages are…

  12. 34 CFR 226.12 - What selection criteria does the Secretary use in evaluating an application for a State Charter...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... evaluating an application for a State Charter School Facilities Incentive program grant? 226.12 Section 226... SECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STATE CHARTER SCHOOL FACILITIES INCENTIVE PROGRAM How Does the... application for a State Charter School Facilities Incentive program grant? The selection criteria for...

  13. 34 CFR 226.12 - What selection criteria does the Secretary use in evaluating an application for a State Charter...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... evaluating an application for a State Charter School Facilities Incentive program grant? 226.12 Section 226... SECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STATE CHARTER SCHOOL FACILITIES INCENTIVE PROGRAM How Does the... application for a State Charter School Facilities Incentive program grant? The selection criteria for...

  14. 34 CFR 226.12 - What selection criteria does the Secretary use in evaluating an application for a State Charter...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... evaluating an application for a State Charter School Facilities Incentive program grant? 226.12 Section 226... SECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STATE CHARTER SCHOOL FACILITIES INCENTIVE PROGRAM How Does the... application for a State Charter School Facilities Incentive program grant? The selection criteria for...

  15. 34 CFR 226.12 - What selection criteria does the Secretary use in evaluating an application for a State Charter...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... evaluating an application for a State Charter School Facilities Incentive program grant? 226.12 Section 226... SECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STATE CHARTER SCHOOL FACILITIES INCENTIVE PROGRAM How Does the... application for a State Charter School Facilities Incentive program grant? The selection criteria for...

  16. 34 CFR 226.12 - What selection criteria does the Secretary use in evaluating an application for a State Charter...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... evaluating an application for a State Charter School Facilities Incentive program grant? 226.12 Section 226... SECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STATE CHARTER SCHOOL FACILITIES INCENTIVE PROGRAM How Does the... application for a State Charter School Facilities Incentive program grant? The selection criteria for...

  17. 34 CFR 225.11 - What selection criteria does the Secretary use in evaluating an application for a Credit...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What selection criteria does the Secretary use in evaluating an application for a Credit Enhancement for Charter School Facilities grant? 225.11 Section 225.11 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE OF ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION...

  18. Evaluation of pointing techniques for ray casting selection in virtual environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, SangYoon; Seo, Jinseok; Kim, Gerard J.; Park, Chan-Mo

    2003-04-01

    Various techniques for object selection in virtual environments have been proposed over the years. Among them, the virtual pointer or ray-casting is one of the most popular method for object selection because it is easy and intuitive to use and allows the user to select objects that are far away. Variants of the virtual pointer metaphor include the Aperture, Flashlight, and Image plane method as categorized as such. In a monoscopic environment, these methods are essentially 2D interaction techniques, as the selection is made effectively on the image plane. Such a 2D based selection (or more generally, interaction) method has an added advantage in that it can find many good uses in 3D environments ranging from a simple 2D oriented subtask (object selection on a constrained surface, menu selection) to a situation where a whole 2D application (e.g. sketching tool, desktop manager) is embedded in the 3D environment. In this paper, we experimentally compare the performance of four different virtual pointer implementations, namely, the direct image plane selection, head-directed pointer, hand directed pointer and head-hand directed pointer. The experimental results revealed that the direct image plane selection produced the best performance among the four in terms of both task completion time and the pixel-level pointing error.

  19. Evaluating Gaze-Based Interface Tools to Facilitate Point-and-Select Tasks with Small Targets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skovsgaard, Henrik; Mateo, Julio C.; Hansen, John Paulin

    2011-01-01

    Gaze interaction affords hands-free control of computers. Pointing to and selecting small targets using gaze alone is difficult because of the limited accuracy of gaze pointing. This is the first experimental comparison of gaze-based interface tools for small-target (e.g. less than 12 x 12 pixels) point-and-select tasks. We conducted two…

  20. Evaluation of stress-induced cortisol response for use in a Morone selective breeding program

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Harry K. Dupree Stuttgart National Aquaculture Research Center (HKDSNARC) has initiated a selective breeding program aimed at improving production traits for sunshine bass, Morone chrysops X M. saxatilis, via multi-trait selection in the two parental species, white bass, Morone chrysops (Rafinesque)...

  1. An Evaluation of a Gateway System for Automated Online Database Selection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Chengren

    This paper describes a study that was undertaken at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign to compare the databases selected by 75 inexperienced student online searchers aided by an existing gateway system--INFOMASTER, a version of EASYNET--with databases selected manually by four experienced searchers who were reference librarians from…

  2. TASTE PANELS TO EVALUATE QUALITY OF FIVE STRAWBERRY SELECTIONS FOR FLORIDA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Five promising selections from the GCREC strawberry breeding program were compared with the industry standard 'Strawberry Festival' in consumer panels on February 2nd and March 9th. Several of the selections were rated equal to, but not higher than, 'Strawberry Festival' for appearance and/or flavo...

  3. TASTE PANELS EVALUATE QUALITY OF FIVE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA STRAWBERRY SELECTIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Five promising selections from the University of Florida’s strawberry breeding program were compared with the industry standard ‘Festival’ in consumer panels on February 2nd and March 9th, 2006. Several of the selections were rated equal to, but not higher than, ‘Festival’ for appearance and/or fla...

  4. Evaluation of Verticillium Wilt Resistance in Russet Norkotah and Six Strain Selections

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Strain selections of Russet Norkotah have been selected for enhanced vigor and high yield. In addition, they exhibit less severe expression of disease symptoms on the presence of Verticillium dahliae, a soil-borne fungal pathogen that causes Verticillium wilt. However, this apparent resistance may b...

  5. Will genomic selection change the way sires are chosen, evaluated, sampled and marketed?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genomic selection is a new tool available to help breeders improve populations. Genetic programs in dairy cattle have steadily improved the productivity of dairy cows over the last 50 years. Traditional approaches using selective breeding have been successful, even though we do not know the exact ge...

  6. Selective Thrombolysis in Acute Deep Vein Thrombosis: Evaluation of Adjuvant Therapy In Vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, Sumit; Brosstad, Frank; Sakariassen, Kjell S.

    1999-09-15

    Purpose: To evaluate in a porcine model of acute deep vein thrombosis (DVT) the efficacy of dalteparin and antithrombin with respect to heparin for local adjuvant therapy during selective thrombolysis, and the utility of nitroglycerin and iloprost as heparin supplements. Methods: DVT was induced in both hind limbs using a previously described technique (n = 20). Thirty minutes later, the animal was heparinized (2500 IU IV), and bilateral sequestrated thrombolysis was performed using 8 mg alteplase: both external iliac veins were endoluminally occluded with Swan-Ganz catheters, and a multi-sideport infusion wire coaxially introduced through each catheter and advanced into the ipsilateral popliteal vein. In the control limbs, tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) 8 mg was injected as 0.8-ml boluses at 3-min intervals for 2 hr as a 0.25-mg/ml solution containing heparin 50 IU/ml (n 20). On the contralateral side, heparin was substituted with either dalteparin 50 IU/ml (n = 5) or antithrombin 12.5 IU/ml (n = 5), or supplemented with either nitroglycerin 0.075 mg/ml (n = 5) or iloprost (150 ng/ml) (n = 5). Blood samples were taken at predetermined intervals to measure the activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), prothrombin time (PT), and fibrinogen concentration. At autopsy, the thrombus mass in the iliofemoral veins was measured, and the extent of residual thrombosis in the venous tributaries graded at four sites. Results: Bilateral thrombolysis was successfully completed in all animals. The median thrombus mass in the iliofemoral veins after thrombolysis was 0.48 g (range 0.06-1.58 g), 0.95 g (0.59-1.29 g), 0.74 g (0.52-0.96 g), and 0.29 g (0.0-0.77 g) for dalteparin, antithrombin, iloprost, and nitroglycerin respectively, as compared with 0.53 g (0.18-0.88 g) (p = 0.69), 0.97 g (0.46-1.15 g) (p = 0.69), 0.53 g (0.48-1.10 g) (p = 0.69), and 0.18 g (0.13-1.04 g) (p = 0.5) for the respective controls. Likewise, the severity of residual thrombosis in the venous

  7. Comparison between rapid and slow palatal expansion: evaluation of selected periodontal indices

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the periodontal effects during rapid palatal expansion (RPE) or slow palatal expansion (SPE) and to compare them by means of some clinical indices, in order to establish the possible differences and advantages of one of these treatments in periodontal terms. Methods 10 patients (aged 6 to 7 years; average age 6.3 years) were submitted to RPE treatment and other 10 patients (aged 6 to 8 years, average age 6.3 years) to SPE treatment. They were treated with the Haas expander. The selected clinical indices (plaque index, PI; papillary bleeding index, PBI; probing pocket depth, PPD) were collected three times during the treatment (t0, detected 7 days after the periodontal prophylaxis, at the beginning of the active orthodontic therapy; t1, detected during the active therapy; t2, detected after retention). All measurements were performed by the same examiner. The protocol was approved by the ethics committee. Results The effects of the prophylaxis were excellent to control inflammation and dental plaque before the beginning of the orthodontic-orthopaedic treatment, as in both the two groups, the PI and the PBI values were equal to 0. In the group receiving slow expansion, the PPD remained unchanged from t0 to t1, while it significantly increased from t0 to t1 in the group of rapid expansion. At t2 the values of the two groups returned to be overlapping. Conclusions Both rapid and slow expansion treatments present potential irritation effect (increase of PI index and PBI index) on the periodontium, suggested by the significant increase of PI and PBI from t0 to t1 in both the two groups; therefore prophylaxis and periodic controls are very important. There are no long-term benefits that might be referred unequivocally to one of the two treatments in terms of periodontal consequences, as demonstrated by the lack of significant differences between the two groups at t2. PMID:25128278

  8. Experimental designs for evaluation of genetic variability and selection of ancient grapevine varieties: a simulation study.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, E; St Aubyn, A; Martins, A

    2010-06-01

    Classical methodologies for grapevine selection used in the vine-growing world are generally based on comparisons among a small number of clones. This does not take advantage of the entire genetic variability within ancient varieties, and therefore limits selection challenges. Using the general principles of plant breeding and of quantitative genetics, we propose new breeding strategies, focussed on conservation and quantification of genetic variability by performing a cycle of mass genotypic selection prior to clonal selection. To exploit a sufficiently large amount of genetic variability, initial selection trials must be generally very large. The use of experimental designs adequate for those field trials has been intensively recommended for numerous species. However, their use in initial trials of grapevines has not been studied. With the aim of identifying the most suitable experimental designs for quantification of genetic variability and selection of ancient varieties, a study was carried out to assess through simulation the comparative efficiency of various experimental designs (randomized complete block design, alpha design and row-column (RC) design). The results indicated a greater efficiency for alpha and RC designs, enabling more precise estimates of genotypic variance, greater precision in the prediction of genetic gain and consequently greater efficiency in genotypic mass selection. PMID:19904297

  9. A CLIPS-based expert system for the evaluation and selection of robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nour, Mohamed A.; Offodile, Felix O.; Madey, Gregory R.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a prototype expert system for intelligent selection of robots for manufacturing operations. The paper first develops a comprehensive, three-stage process to model the robot selection problem. The decisions involved in this model easily lend themselves to an expert system application. A rule-based system, based on the selection model, is developed using the CLIPS expert system shell. Data about actual robots is used to test the performance of the prototype system. Further extensions to the rule-based system for data handling and interfacing capabilities are suggested.

  10. Initial basalt target site selection evaluation for the Mars penetrator drop test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bunch, T. E.; Quaide, W. L.; Polkowski, G.

    1976-01-01

    Potential basalt target sites for an air drop penetrator test were described and the criteria involved in site selection were discussed. A summary of the background field geology and recommendations for optimum sites are also presented.

  11. A Decision Support System for Evaluating and Selecting Information Systems Projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Hepu; Wibowo, Santoso

    2009-01-01

    This chapter presents a decision support system (DSS) for effectively solving the information systems (IS) project selection problem. The proposed DSS recognizes the multidimensional nature of the IS project selection problem, the availability of multicriteria analysis (MA) methods, and the preferences of the decision-maker (DM) on the use of specific MA methods in a given situation. A knowledge base consisting of IF-THEN production rules is developed for assisting the DM with a systematic adoption of the most appropriate method with the efficient use of the powerful reasoning and explanation capabilities of intelligent DSS. The idea of letting the problem to be solved determines the method to be used is incorporated into the proposed DSS. As a result, effective decisions can be made for solving the IS project selection problem. An example is presented to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed DSS for solving the problem of selecting IS projects in real world situations.

  12. 36 CFR 51.16 - How will the Director evaluate proposals and select the best one?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... selection factors on the basis of a narrative explanation, discussing any subfactors when applicable. For... proposal that the Director determines on the basis of a narrative explanation will, on an overall...

  13. Evaluation of Anticancer, Antioxidant, and Possible Anti-inflammatory Properties of Selected Medicinal Plants Used in Indian Traditional Medication

    PubMed Central

    Shaikh, Rafik; Pund, Mahesh; Dawane, Ashwini; Iliyas, Sayyed

    2014-01-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the anticancer, antioxidant, and possible anti-inflammatory properties of diverse medicinal plants frequently used in Indian traditional medication. The selected botanicals such as Soymida fembrifuga (Roxb.) A. Juss. (Miliaceae), Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers. (Menispermaceae), Lavandula bipinnata (L.) O. Ktze. (Lamiaceae), and Helicteres isora L. (Sterculiaceae) extracted in different solvents were evaluated for their in vitro anticancer and antioxidant activities. The results obtained indicate that H. isora has potent cytotoxic activity toward the selected cancer cells such as HeLa-B75 (34.21 ± 0.24%), HL-60 (30.25 ± 1.36%), HEP-3B (25.36 ± 1.78%), and PN-15 (29.21 ± 0.52%). Interestingly, the selected botanicals selectively inhibited cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) more than (COX-1), which are the key enzymes implicated in inflammation. COX-2 inhibition was observed to be in the range of 19.66-49.52% as compared to COX-1 inhibition (3.93-19.61%). The results of the antioxidant study revealed that the selected plants were found to be effective 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), hydroxyl (OH), and superoxide radical (SOR) scavenging agents. High-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) fingerprint of flavonoids was used as a measure of quality control of the selected plant samples. The results of the present findings strengthen the potential of the selected plants as a resource for the discovery of novel anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant agents. PMID:25379467

  14. Evaluation of Anticancer, Antioxidant, and Possible Anti-inflammatory Properties of Selected Medicinal Plants Used in Indian Traditional Medication.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Rafik; Pund, Mahesh; Dawane, Ashwini; Iliyas, Sayyed

    2014-10-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the anticancer, antioxidant, and possible anti-inflammatory properties of diverse medicinal plants frequently used in Indian traditional medication. The selected botanicals such as Soymida fembrifuga (Roxb.) A. Juss. (Miliaceae), Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers. (Menispermaceae), Lavandula bipinnata (L.) O. Ktze. (Lamiaceae), and Helicteres isora L. (Sterculiaceae) extracted in different solvents were evaluated for their in vitro anticancer and antioxidant activities. The results obtained indicate that H. isora has potent cytotoxic activity toward the selected cancer cells such as HeLa-B75 (34.21 ± 0.24%), HL-60 (30.25 ± 1.36%), HEP-3B (25.36 ± 1.78%), and PN-15 (29.21 ± 0.52%). Interestingly, the selected botanicals selectively inhibited cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) more than (COX-1), which are the key enzymes implicated in inflammation. COX-2 inhibition was observed to be in the range of 19.66-49.52% as compared to COX-1 inhibition (3.93-19.61%). The results of the antioxidant study revealed that the selected plants were found to be effective 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), hydroxyl (OH), and superoxide radical (SOR) scavenging agents. High-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) fingerprint of flavonoids was used as a measure of quality control of the selected plant samples. The results of the present findings strengthen the potential of the selected plants as a resource for the discovery of novel anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant agents. PMID:25379467

  15. The Relationship of Teacher Evaluation Scores Generated by a Process-Product Evaluation Instrument to Selected Variables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tadlock, James; Nesbit, Lamar

    The Jackson Municipal Separate School District, Mississippi, has instituted a mixed-criteria reduction-in-force procedure emphasizing classroom performance to a greater degree than seniority, certification, and staff development participation. The district evaluation process--measuring classroom teaching performance--generated data for the present…

  16. Evaluation of culture media for selective enrichment and isolation of Salmonella in seafood.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rakesh; Surendran, Poothuvallil K; Thampuran, Nirmala

    2010-01-01

    Seafood, including fish, shrimp, clam, crab, mussel, oyster, lobster, squid, octopus, and cuttlefish samples, was used to compare the recovery of Salmonella serovars by different selective enrichment and isolation media. The samples were selectively enriched in Rappaport-Vassiliadis (RV) broth and tetrathionate broth (TT), followed by selective isolation on Hektoen enteric (HE) agar, xylose lysine desoxycholate (XLD) agar, bismuth sulfite (BS) agar, and Brilliant Green (BG) agar media. Of 443 seafood samples analyzed, 108 were found to be contaminated with Salmonella. The role of selective enrichment in Salmonella spp. recovery with RV medium was distinctly high (70%) compared to TT broth (30%). The selective enrichment in RV broth followed by selective isolation on XLD, HE, BS, and BG agar recovered Salmonella at levels of 56, 41, 28, and 16%, respectively. Similarly, after enrichment in TT broth, XLD and HE agars recovered 27 and 23% respectively. The recovery of Salmonella with enrichment in TT followed by isolation on BS and BG was abysmally low at 4.6 and 5%, respectively. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in the recovery of Salmonella using the combinations of XLD and HE media with selective enrichment in RV broth. However, performance difference (P < 0.05) was observed in the recovery when BS and BG with RV, and XLD, HE, BS, and BG agars with TT broth were used. The present study showed that the combination of RV with XLD was the most efficient media for isolation of Salmonella from seafood when compared to other isolation media combinations. PMID:21140659

  17. Selectivity evaluation for two experimental gill-net configurations used to sample Lake Erie walleyes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vandergoot, Christopher S.; Kocovsky, Patrick M.; Brenden, Travis O.; Liu, Weihai

    2011-01-01

    We used length frequencies of captured walleyes Sander vitreus to indirectly estimate and compare selectivity between two experimental gill-net configurations used to sample fish in Lake Erie: (1) a multifilament configuration currently used by the Ohio Department of Natural Resources (ODNR) with stretched-measure mesh sizes ranging from 51 to 127 mm and a constant filament diameter (0.37 mm); and (2) a monofilament configuration with mesh sizes ranging from 38 to 178 mm and varying filament diameter (range = 0.20–0.33 mm). Paired sampling with the two configurations revealed that the catch of walleyes smaller than 250 mm and larger than 600 mm was greater in the monofilament configuration than in the multifilament configuration, but the catch of 250–600-mm fish was greater in the multifilament configuration. Binormal selectivity functions yielded the best fit to observed walleye catches for both gill-net configurations based on model deviances. Incorporation of deviation terms in the binormal selectivity functions (i.e., to relax the assumption of geometric similarity) further improved the fit to observed catches. The final fitted selectivity functions produced results similar to those from the length-based catch comparisons: the monofilament configuration had greater selectivity for small and large walleyes and the multifilament configuration had greater selectivity for mid-sized walleyes. Computer simulations that incorporated the fitted binormal selectivity functions indicated that both nets were likely to result in some bias in age composition estimates and that the degree of bias would ultimately be determined by the underlying condition, mortality rate, and growth rate of the Lake Erie walleye population. Before the ODNR switches its survey gear, additional comparisons of the different gill-net configurations, such as fishing the net pairs across a greater range of depths and at more locations in the lake, should be conducted to maintain congruence in

  18. Four challenges in selecting and implementing methods to monitor and evaluate participatory processes: Example from the Rwenzori region, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Hassenforder, Emeline; Ducrot, Raphaëlle; Ferrand, Nils; Barreteau, Olivier; Anne Daniell, Katherine; Pittock, Jamie

    2016-09-15

    Participatory approaches are now increasingly recognized and used as an essential element of policies and programs, especially in regards to natural resource management (NRM). Most practitioners, decision-makers and researchers having adopted participatory approaches also acknowledge the need to monitor and evaluate such approaches in order to audit their effectiveness, support decision-making or improve learning. Many manuals and frameworks exist on how to carry out monitoring and evaluation (M&E) for participatory processes. However, few provide guidelines on the selection and implementation of M&E methods, an aspect which is also often obscure in published studies, at the expense of the transparency, reliability and validity of the study. In this paper, we argue that the selection and implementation of M&E methods are particularly strategic when monitoring and evaluating a participatory process. We demonstrate that evaluators of participatory processes have to tackle a quadruple challenge when selecting and implementing methods: using mixed-methods, both qualitative and quantitative; assessing the participatory process, its outcomes, and its context; taking into account both the theory and participants' views; and being both rigorous and adaptive. The M&E of a participatory planning process in the Rwenzori Region, Uganda, is used as an example to show how these challenges unfold on the ground and how they can be tackled. Based on this example, we conclude by providing tools and strategies that can be used by evaluators to ensure that they make utile, feasible, coherent, transparent and adaptive methodological choices when monitoring and evaluating participatory processes for NRM. PMID:27288554

  19. Design, synthesis, and evaluation of a new class of noncyclic 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds as PPARalpha selective activators.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhibin; Liao, Chenzhong; Ko, Ben C B; Shan, Song; Tong, Edith H Y; Yin, Zihui; Pan, Desi; Wong, Vincent K W; Shi, Leming; Ning, Zhi-Qiang; Hu, Weiming; Zhou, Jiaju; Chung, Stephen S M; Lu, Xian-Ping

    2004-07-01

    Lipid accumulation in nonadipose tissues is increasingly linked to the development of type 2 diabetes in obese individuals. We report here the design, synthesis, and evaluation of a series of novel PPARalpha selective activators containing 1,3-dicarbonyl moieties. Structure-activity relationship studies led to the identification of PPARalpha selective activators (compounds 10, 14, 17, 18, and 21) with stronger potency and efficacy to activate PPARalpha over PPARgamma and PPARdelta. Experiments in vivo showed that compounds 10, 14, and 17 had blood glucose lowering effect in diabetic db/db mouse model after two weeks oral dosing. The data strongly support further testing of these lead compounds in other relevant disease animal models to evaluate their potential therapeutic benefits. PMID:15177462

  20. Conceptual design and evaluation of selected Space Station concepts, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Space Station configuration concepts are defined to meet the NASA Headquarters Concept Development Group (CDG) requirements. Engineering and programmatic data are produced on these concepts suitable for NASA and industry dissemination. A data base is developed for input to the CDG's evaluation of generic Space Station configurations and for use in the critique of the CDG's generic configuration evaluation process.

  1. Intelligent Preference Selection Model Based on NRE for Evaluating Student Learning Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Yao-Hsien; Cheng, Ching-Hsue; Liu, Jing-Wei

    2010-01-01

    In order to evaluate student learning achievement, several aspects should be considered, such as exercises, examinations, and observations. Traditionally, such an evaluation calculates a final score using a weighted average method after awarding numerical scores, and then determines a grade according to a set of established crisp criteria.…

  2. Selective Skepticism: American and Chinese Children's Reasoning about Evaluative Academic Feedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heyman, Gail D.; Fu, Genyue; Lee, Kang

    2013-01-01

    Children's reasoning about the credibility of positive and negative evaluations of academic performance was examined. Across 2 studies, 7- and 10-year-olds from the United States and China (N = 334) judged the credibility of academic evaluations that were directed toward an unfamiliar peer. In Study 1, participants from China responded that…

  3. Selected Findings from Phase III-B. BTES. Beginning Teacher Evaluation Study. Supplement. Preliminary Version.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Charles W.; And Others

    This series of six papers concerning the Beginning Teacher Evaluation Study (BTES) starts with Teaching Behaviors, Academic Learning Time and Student Achievement: An Overview of Phase III-B of the Beginning Teacher Evaluation Study by the project director, Charles Fisher. As an introduction, it describes a model of classroom instruction based on…

  4. Evaluation of Intradural Stimulation Efficiency and Selectivity in a Computational Model of Spinal Cord Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Howell, Bryan; Lad, Shivanand P.; Grill, Warren M.

    2014-01-01

    Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) is an alternative or adjunct therapy to treat chronic pain, a prevalent and clinically challenging condition. Although SCS has substantial clinical success, the therapy is still prone to failures, including lead breakage, lead migration, and poor pain relief. The goal of this study was to develop a computational model of SCS and use the model to compare activation of neural elements during intradural and extradural electrode placement. We constructed five patient-specific models of SCS. Stimulation thresholds predicted by the model were compared to stimulation thresholds measured intraoperatively, and we used these models to quantify the efficiency and selectivity of intradural and extradural SCS. Intradural placement dramatically increased stimulation efficiency and reduced the power required to stimulate the dorsal columns by more than 90%. Intradural placement also increased selectivity, allowing activation of a greater proportion of dorsal column fibers before spread of activation to dorsal root fibers, as well as more selective activation of individual dermatomes at different lateral deviations from the midline. Further, the results suggest that current electrode designs used for extradural SCS are not optimal for intradural SCS, and a novel azimuthal tripolar design increased stimulation selectivity, even beyond that achieved with an intradural paddle array. Increased stimulation efficiency is expected to increase the battery life of implantable pulse generators, increase the recharge interval of rechargeable implantable pulse generators, and potentially reduce stimulator volume. The greater selectivity of intradural stimulation may improve the success rate of SCS by mitigating the sensitivity of pain relief to malpositioning of the electrode. The outcome of this effort is a better quantitative understanding of how intradural electrode placement can potentially increase the selectivity and efficiency of SCS, which, in turn

  5. Demographically-Based Evaluation of Genomic Regions under Selection in Domestic Dogs.

    PubMed

    Freedman, Adam H; Schweizer, Rena M; Ortega-Del Vecchyo, Diego; Han, Eunjung; Davis, Brian W; Gronau, Ilan; Silva, Pedro M; Galaverni, Marco; Fan, Zhenxin; Marx, Peter; Lorente-Galdos, Belen; Ramirez, Oscar; Hormozdiari, Farhad; Alkan, Can; Vilà, Carles; Squire, Kevin; Geffen, Eli; Kusak, Josip; Boyko, Adam R; Parker, Heidi G; Lee, Clarence; Tadigotla, Vasisht; Siepel, Adam; Bustamante, Carlos D; Harkins, Timothy T; Nelson, Stanley F; Marques-Bonet, Tomas; Ostrander, Elaine A; Wayne, Robert K; Novembre, John

    2016-03-01

    Controlling for background demographic effects is important for accurately identifying loci that have recently undergone positive selection. To date, the effects of demography have not yet been explicitly considered when identifying loci under selection during dog domestication. To investigate positive selection on the dog lineage early in the domestication, we examined patterns of polymorphism in six canid genomes that were previously used to infer a demographic model of dog domestication. Using an inferred demographic model, we computed false discovery rates (FDR) and identified 349 outlier regions consistent with positive selection at a low FDR. The signals in the top 100 regions were frequently centered on candidate genes related to brain function and behavior, including LHFPL3, CADM2, GRIK3, SH3GL2, MBP, PDE7B, NTAN1, and GLRA1. These regions contained significant enrichments in behavioral ontology categories. The 3rd top hit, CCRN4L, plays a major role in lipid metabolism, that is supported by additional metabolism related candidates revealed in our scan, including SCP2D1 and PDXC1. Comparing our method to an empirical outlier approach that does not directly account for demography, we found only modest overlaps between the two methods, with 60% of empirical outliers having no overlap with our demography-based outlier detection approach. Demography-aware approaches have lower-rates of false discovery. Our top candidates for selection, in addition to expanding the set of neurobehavioral candidate genes, include genes related to lipid metabolism, suggesting a dietary target of selection that was important during the period when proto-dogs hunted and fed alongside hunter-gatherers. PMID:26943675

  6. Demographically-Based Evaluation of Genomic Regions under Selection in Domestic Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Freedman, Adam H.; Schweizer, Rena M.; Ortega-Del Vecchyo, Diego; Han, Eunjung; Davis, Brian W.; Gronau, Ilan; Silva, Pedro M.; Galaverni, Marco; Fan, Zhenxin; Marx, Peter; Lorente-Galdos, Belen; Ramirez, Oscar; Hormozdiari, Farhad; Alkan, Can; Vilà, Carles; Squire, Kevin; Geffen, Eli; Kusak, Josip; Boyko, Adam R.; Parker, Heidi G.; Lee, Clarence; Tadigotla, Vasisht; Siepel, Adam; Bustamante, Carlos D.; Harkins, Timothy T.; Nelson, Stanley F.; Marques-Bonet, Tomas; Ostrander, Elaine A.; Wayne, Robert K.; Novembre, John

    2016-01-01

    Controlling for background demographic effects is important for accurately identifying loci that have recently undergone positive selection. To date, the effects of demography have not yet been explicitly considered when identifying loci under selection during dog domestication. To investigate positive selection on the dog lineage early in the domestication, we examined patterns of polymorphism in six canid genomes that were previously used to infer a demographic model of dog domestication. Using an inferred demographic model, we computed false discovery rates (FDR) and identified 349 outlier regions consistent with positive selection at a low FDR. The signals in the top 100 regions were frequently centered on candidate genes related to brain function and behavior, including LHFPL3, CADM2, GRIK3, SH3GL2, MBP, PDE7B, NTAN1, and GLRA1. These regions contained significant enrichments in behavioral ontology categories. The 3rd top hit, CCRN4L, plays a major role in lipid metabolism, that is supported by additional metabolism related candidates revealed in our scan, including SCP2D1 and PDXC1. Comparing our method to an empirical outlier approach that does not directly account for demography, we found only modest overlaps between the two methods, with 60% of empirical outliers having no overlap with our demography-based outlier detection approach. Demography-aware approaches have lower-rates of false discovery. Our top candidates for selection, in addition to expanding the set of neurobehavioral candidate genes, include genes related to lipid metabolism, suggesting a dietary target of selection that was important during the period when proto-dogs hunted and fed alongside hunter-gatherers. PMID:26943675

  7. Habitat Selection in a Rocky Landscape: Experimentally Decoupling the Influence of Retreat Site Attributes from That of Landscape Features

    PubMed Central

    Croak, Benjamin M.; Pike, David A.; Webb, Jonathan K.; Shine, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Organisms selecting retreat sites may evaluate not only the quality of the specific shelter, but also the proximity of that site to resources in the surrounding area. Distinguishing between habitat selection at these two spatial scales is complicated by co-variation among microhabitat factors (i.e., the attributes of individual retreat sites often correlate with their proximity to landscape features). Disentangling this co-variation may facilitate the restoration or conservation of threatened systems. To experimentally examine the role of landscape attributes in determining retreat-site quality for saxicolous ectotherms, we deployed 198 identical artificial rocks in open (sun-exposed) sites on sandstone outcrops in southeastern Australia, and recorded faunal usage of those retreat sites over the next 29 months. Several landscape-scale attributes were associated with occupancy of experimental rocks, but different features were important for different species. For example, endangered broad-headed snakes (Hoplocephalus bungaroides) preferred retreat sites close to cliff edges, flat rock spiders (Hemicloea major) preferred small outcrops, and velvet geckos (Oedura lesueurii) preferred rocks close to the cliff edge with higher-than-average sun exposure. Standardized retreat sites can provide robust experimental data on the effects of landscape-scale attributes on retreat site selection, revealing interspecific divergences among sympatric taxa that use similar habitats. PMID:22701592

  8. EVALUATION OF PHOSPHATE ION-SELECTIVE MEMBRANES AND COBALT-BASED ELECTRODES FOR SOIL NUTRIENT SENSING

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A real-time soil nutrient sensor would allow efficient collection of data with a fine spatial resolution to accurately characterize within-field variability for site-specific nutrient application. Ion-selective electrodes are a promising approach because they have rapid response, directly measure th...

  9. An Evaluation of Information Criteria Use for Correct Cross-Classified Random Effects Model Selection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beretvas, S. Natasha; Murphy, Daniel L.

    2013-01-01

    The authors assessed correct model identification rates of Akaike's information criterion (AIC), corrected criterion (AICC), consistent AIC (CAIC), Hannon and Quinn's information criterion (HQIC), and Bayesian information criterion (BIC) for selecting among cross-classified random effects models. Performance of default values for the 5…

  10. Preliminary field evaluation of rainbow trout selectively bred for increased resistance to bacterial cold water disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacterial cold water disease (BCWD) is one of the most frequent causes of elevated mortality in juvenile salmonids, and the development of effective control strategies is a priority. We previously reported results of a selective breeding program designed to increase rainbow trout survival following ...

  11. Field evaluation of rainbow trout selectively bred for resistance to bacterial cold water disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacterial cold water disease (BCWD) is a frequent cause of elevated mortality in rainbow trout and the development of effective control strategies is a priority within the U.S. Since 2005, the NCCCWA has implemented a selective breeding program designed to increase survival following BCWD exposure....

  12. Evaluation of Secondary Aerosol Formation from Primary Amines and Implications to Selective Catalytic Reduction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With the mandated reduction of NOx, advanced emission control technologies are being implemented. One strategy is the adaptation of selective catalytic reduction units with urea as a focus. However, urea suffers from issues such as stability at elevated temperatures and the tendency to form deposits...

  13. Field evaluation of rainbow trout selectively bred for resistance to bacterial cold water disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacterial cold water disease (BCWD) is a frequent cause of elevated mortality in rainbow trout and the development of effective control strategies is a priority within the U.S. Since 2005, the NCCCWA has implemented a selective breeding program and has created three genetic lines of outbred rainbow...

  14. An Evaluation of Text Mining Tools as Applied to Selected Scientific and Engineering Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trybula, Walter J.; Wyllys, Ronald E.

    2000-01-01

    Addresses an approach to the discovery of scientific knowledge through an examination of data mining and text mining techniques. Presents the results of experiments that investigated knowledge acquisition from a selected set of technical documents by domain experts. (Contains 15 references.) (Author/LRW)

  15. Evaluation of Children with Selective Mutism and Social Phobia: A Comparison of Psychological and Psychophysiological Arousal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Brennan J.; Bunnell, Brian E.; Beidel, Deborah C.

    2012-01-01

    Although children with social phobia (SP) and selective mutism (SM) present similarly in a clinical setting, it remains unclear whether children with SM are unable to speak due to overwhelming anxiety, or whether withholding speech functions as an avoidance mechanism. A total of 35 children (ages 5-12 years) with either SM (n = 10), SP (n = 11),…

  16. [Quantitative evaluation of growth-promoting properties of selected culture media used for isolation of Salmonella and Shigella strains].

    PubMed

    Kałuzewski, S; Sienicka, J

    1990-01-01

    Growth promoting properties and selectivity of 11 commercially produced media recommended for Salmonella and Shigella isolation were evaluated. The following media were tested: EMB (Eosin methylene blue agar), Endo, Płoskiriew, MacConkey, DC (Deoxycholate citrate agar), SS (Salmonella-Shigella agar), BS (Bismuth sulfite agar) and Mueller-Hinton as a medium with no selective properties. The media were produced in Czechoslovakia, East Germany, West Germany, Poland, and Soviet Union. Quantitative studies were performed on 71 strains representing 8 genera of Enterobacteriaceae family; both reference and wild newly + isolated from clinical material strains were included. It was found that none of DC and BS media provided suitable growth conditions for Shigella strains and in particular for S. dysenteriae, S. boydii, and S. flexneri. It was also found that the same medium (name and content) but derived from different producer can vary significantly in respect to growth promotion and selectivity especially for Shigella strains. All media with selective, differentiating properties for Salmonella and Shigella isolation should not be used without previous quantitative control test for their selective and growth promoting properties checked by user. The need for such a control performed both on reference and freshly isolated strains was shown in this study. In the set of control strains all species of Shigella should be represented. PMID:2087133

  17. Design and in vivo evaluation of more efficient and selective deep brain stimulation electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howell, Bryan; Huynh, Brian; Grill, Warren M.

    2015-08-01

    Objective. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an effective treatment for movement disorders and a promising therapy for treating epilepsy and psychiatric disorders. Despite its clinical success, the efficiency and selectivity of DBS can be improved. Our objective was to design electrode geometries that increased the efficiency and selectivity of DBS. Approach. We coupled computational models of electrodes in brain tissue with cable models of axons of passage (AOPs), terminating axons (TAs), and local neurons (LNs); we used engineering optimization to design electrodes for stimulating these neural elements; and the model predictions were tested in vivo. Main results. Compared with the standard electrode used in the Medtronic Model 3387 and 3389 arrays, model-optimized electrodes consumed 45-84% less power. Similar gains in selectivity were evident with the optimized electrodes: 50% of parallel AOPs could be activated while reducing activation of perpendicular AOPs from 44 to 48% with the standard electrode to 0-14% with bipolar designs; 50% of perpendicular AOPs could be activated while reducing activation of parallel AOPs from 53 to 55% with the standard electrode to 1-5% with an array of cathodes; and, 50% of TAs could be activated while reducing activation of AOPs from 43 to 100% with the standard electrode to 2-15% with a distal anode. In vivo, both the geometry and polarity of the electrode had a profound impact on the efficiency and selectivity of stimulation. Significance. Model-based design is a powerful tool that can be used to improve the efficiency and selectivity of DBS electrodes.

  18. How Many Fish Need to Be Measured to Effectively Evaluate Trawl Selectivity?

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Juan; Sala, Antonello

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to provide practitioners working with trawl selectivity with general and easily understandable guidelines regarding the fish sampling effort necessary during sea trials. In particular, we focused on how many fish would need to be caught and length measured in a trawl haul in order to assess the selectivity parameters of the trawl at a designated uncertainty level. We also investigated the dependency of this uncertainty level on the experimental method used to collect data and on the potential effects of factors such as the size structure in the catch relative to the size selection of the gear. We based this study on simulated data created from two different fisheries: the Barents Sea cod (Gadus morhua) trawl fishery and the Mediterranean Sea multispecies trawl fishery represented by red mullet (Mullus barbatus). We used these two completely different fisheries to obtain results that can be used as general guidelines for other fisheries. We found that the uncertainty in the selection parameters decreased with increasing number of fish measured and that this relationship could be described by a power model. The sampling effort needed to achieve a specific uncertainty level for the selection parameters was always lower for the covered codend method compared to the paired-gear method. In many cases, the number of fish that would need to be measured to maintain a specific uncertainty level was around 10 times higher for the paired-gear method than for the covered codend method. The trends observed for the effect of sampling effort in the two fishery cases investigated were similar; therefore the guidelines presented herein should be applicable to other fisheries. PMID:27560696

  19. Evaluation of an in vitro cell assay to select attenuated bacterial mutants of Aeromonas hydrophila and Edwardsiella tarda to channel catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To evaluate the feasibility of using an in vitro cell assay to select attenuated bacterial mutants. Using catfish gill cells G1B, the feasibility of using an in vitro assay instead of in vivo virulence assay using live fish to select attenuated bacterial mutants was evaluated in this study. Pearson ...

  20. Accommodations Manual: How to Select, Administer, and Evaluate Use of Accommodations for Instruction and Assessment of Students with Disabilities. Third Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, L.; Carver, W.; VanDeZande, J.; Lazarus, S.

    2011-01-01

    The Council of Chief State School Officers' "Accommodations Manual: How to Select, Administer, and Evaluate the Use of Accommodations for Instruction and Assessment of Students with Disabilities" was first developed to establish guidelines for states to use for the selection, administration, and evaluation of accommodations for…