Science.gov

Sample records for evaluating tcp modifications

  1. Evaluation of replacement protocols and modifications to TCP to enhance ASC Wide Area Network performance.

    SciTech Connect

    Romero, Randy L. Jr.

    2004-09-01

    Historically, TCP/IP has been the protocol suite used to transfer data throughout the Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) community. However, TCP was developed many years ago for an environment very different from the ASC Wide Area Network (WAN) of today. There have been numerous publications that hint of better performance if modifications were made to the TCP algorithms or a different protocol was used to transfer data across a high bandwidth, high delay WAN. Since Sandia National Laboratories wants to maximize the ASC WAN performance to support the Thor's Hammer supercomputer, there is strong interest in evaluating modifications to the TCP protocol and in evaluating alternatives to TCP, such as SCTP, to determine if they provide improved performance. Therefore, the goal of this project is to test, evaluate, compare, and report protocol technologies that enhance the performance of the ASC WAN.

  2. On the Effective Evaluation of TCP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allman, Mark; Falk, Aaron

    2000-01-01

    Understanding the performance of the Internet's Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is important because it is the dominant protocol used in the Internet today. Various testing methods exist to evaluate TCP performance, however all have pitfalls an that need to be understood prior to obtaining useful results. Simulating TCP is difficult because of the wide range of variables, environments, and implementations available. Testing TCP modifications in the global Internet may not be the answer either: testing new protocols on real networks endangers other people's traffic and, if not done correctly, may also yield inaccurate or misleading results. In order for TCP research to be independently evaluated in the Internet research community there is a set of questions that researchers should try to answer. This paper attempts to list some of those questions and make recommendations as to how TCP testing can be structured to be provide useful answers.

  3. Network protocol changes can improve DisCom WAN performance : evaluating TCP modifications and SCTP in the ASC tri-lab environment.

    SciTech Connect

    Tolendino, Lawrence F.; Hu, Tan Chang

    2005-06-01

    The Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) Distance Computing (DisCom) Wide Area Network (WAN) is a high performance, long distance network environment that is based on the ubiquitous TCP/IP protocol set. However, the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and the algorithms that govern its operation were defined almost two decades ago for a network environment vastly different from the DisCom WAN. In this paper we explore and evaluate possible modifications to TCP that purport to improve TCP performance in environments like the DisCom WAN. We also examine a much newer protocol, SCTP (Stream Control Transmission Protocol) that claims to provide reliable network transport while also implementing multi-streaming, multi-homing capabilities that are appealing in the DisCom high performance network environment. We provide performance comparisons and recommendations for continued development that will lead to network communications protocol implementations capable of supporting the coming ASC Petaflop computing environments.

  4. Performance evaluation of TCP over ABT protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ata, Shingo; Murata, Masayuki; Miyahara, Hideo

    1998-10-01

    ABT is promising for effectively transferring a highly bursty data traffic in ATM networks. Most of past studies focused on the data transfer capability of ABT within the ATM layer. In actual, however, we need to consider the upper layer transport protocol since the transport layer protocol also supports a network congestion control mechanism. One such example is TCP, which is now widely used in the Internet. In this paper, we evaluate the performance of TCP over ABT protocols. Simulation results show that the retransmission mechanism of ABT can effectively overlay the TCP congestion control mechanism so that TCP operates in a stable fashion and works well only as an error recovery mechanism.

  5. Evaluation of TCP congestion control algorithms.

    SciTech Connect

    Long, Robert Michael

    2003-12-01

    Sandia, Los Alamos, and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories currently deploy high speed, Wide Area Network links to permit remote access to their Supercomputer systems. The current TCP congestion algorithm does not take full advantage of high delay, large bandwidth environments. This report involves evaluating alternative TCP congestion algorithms and comparing them with the currently used congestion algorithm. The goal was to find if an alternative algorithm could provide higher throughput with minimal impact on existing network traffic. The alternative congestion algorithms used were Scalable TCP and High-Speed TCP. Network lab experiments were run to record the performance of each algorithm under different network configurations. The network configurations used were back-to-back with no delay, back-to-back with a 30ms delay, and two-to-one with a 30ms delay. The performance of each algorithm was then compared to the existing TCP congestion algorithm to determine if an acceptable alternative had been found. Comparisons were made based on throughput, stability, and fairness.

  6. Improvement of β-TCP/PLLA biodegradable material by surface modification with stearic acid.

    PubMed

    Ma, Fengcang; Chen, Sai; Liu, Ping; Geng, Fang; Li, Wei; Liu, Xinkuan; He, Daihua; Pan, Deng

    2016-05-01

    Poly-l-lactide (PLLA) is a biodegradable polymer and used widely. Incorporation of beta tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) into PLLA can enhance its osteoinductive properties. But the interfacial layer between β-TCP particles with PLLA matrix is easy to be destroyed due to inferior interfacial compatibility of the organic/inorganic material. In this work, a method of β-TCP surface modification with stearic acid was investigated to improve the β-TCP/PLLA biomaterial. The effects of surface modification on the β-TCP were investigated by FTIR, XPS, TGA and CA. It was found that the stearic acid reacted with β-TCP and oxhydryl was formed during the surface modification. Hydrophilicity of untreated or modified β-TCP/PLLA composite was increased by the addition of 10wt.% β-TCP, but it decreased as the addition amount increased from 10wt.% to 20wt.%. Two models were suggested to describe the effect of β-TCP concentration on CA of the composites. Mechanical properties of β-TCP/PLLA composites were tested by bending and tensile tests. Fractures of the composites after mechanical test were observed by SEM. It was found that surface modification with stearic acid improved bending and tensile strengths of the β-TCP/PLLA composites obviously. The SEM results indicated that surface modification decreased the probability of interface debonding between fillers and matrix under load. PMID:26952440

  7. Surface modification of PCL-TCP scaffolds in rabbit calvaria defects: Evaluation of scaffold degradation profile, biomechanical properties and bone healing patterns.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Alvin; Wong, Wah Jie; Teoh, Swee-Hin

    2010-06-15

    Traditionally, polycaprolactone (PCL) based scaffolds tend to degrade at a slow rate. Pretreatment of polycaprolactone-20% tricalcium phosphate (PCL-TCP) scaffolds under alkaline conditions can be utilized to increase the degradation rate and improve mechanical properties. Three groups of PCL-TCP scaffolds with varying pretreatment exposures with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) were studied in a rabbit calvaria defect model and analyzed at 2, 4, 8, 12, and 24 weeks. (Group A: Untreated, Group B: 3 M NaOH/ 48 h and Group C: 3 M NaOH/96 h). Micro-CT analysis demonstrated that scaffolds with increased surface roughness (Groups B and C) showed a greater impact on the overall volume loss during the early healing period between 2 and 8 weeks as compared to the untreated group. In addition, greater bone formation was detected in NaOH treated scaffolds as compared to the untreated group throughout the experiment. Scaffolds with increased surface roughness generally reported higher push out test and compressive strength values from 4 to 8 weeks of early healing. Interestingly, the mechanical properties displayed a decline in values from 12 weeks onwards in the modified groups suggesting a favorable breakdown or weakening of PCL-TCP scaffolds tailored for replacement by new bone formation. PMID:19911382

  8. An Evaluation of TCP with Larger Initial Windows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allman, Mark; Hayes, Christopher; Ostermann, Shawn

    1998-01-01

    Transmission Control Protocol (TCP's) slow start algorithm gradually increases the amount of data a sender injects into the network, which prevents the sender from overwhelming the network with an inappropriately large burst of traffic. However, the slow start algorithm can make poor use of the available band-width for transfers which are small compared to the bandwidth-delay product of the link, such as file transfers up to few thousand characters over satellite links or even transfers of several hundred bytes over local area networks. This paper evaluates a proposed performance enhancement that raises the initial window used by TCP from 1 MSS-sized segment to roughly 4 KB. The paper evaluates the impact of using larger initial windows on TCP transfers over both the shared Internet and dialup modem links.

  9. A TCP-Over-UDP Test Harness

    SciTech Connect

    Dunigan, TH

    2002-10-31

    This report describes an implementation of a TCP-like protocol that runs over UDP. This TCP-like implementation, which does not require kernel modifications, provides a test harness for evaluating variations of the TCP transport protocol over the Internet. The test harness provides a tunable and instrumented version of TCP that supports Reno, NewReno, and SACK/FACK. The test harness can also be used to characterize the TCP-performance of a network path. Several case studies illustrate how one can tune the transport protocol to improve performance.

  10. Measuring and Evaluating TCP Splitting for Cloud Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathak, Abhinav; Wang, Y. Angela; Huang, Cheng; Greenberg, Albert; Hu, Y. Charlie; Kern, Randy; Li, Jin; Ross, Keith W.

    In this paper, we examine the benefits of split-TCP proxies, deployed in an operational world-wide network, for accelerating cloud services. We consider a fraction of a network consisting of a large number of satellite datacenters, which host split-TCP proxies, and a smaller number of mega datacenters, which ultimately perform computation or provide storage. Using web search as an exemplary case study, our detailed measurements reveal that a vanilla TCP splitting solution deployed at the satellite DCs reduces the 95 th percentile of latency by as much as 43% when compared to serving queries directly from the mega DCs. Through careful dissection of the measurement results, we characterize how individual components, including proxy stacks, network protocols, packet losses and network load, can impact the latency. Finally, we shed light on further optimizations that can fully realize the potential of the TCP splitting solution.

  11. Performance evaluation of dynamic assembly period algorithm in TCP over OBS networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Shuping; Li, Zhengbin; He, Yongqi; Xu, Anshi

    2007-11-01

    Dynamic Assembly Period (DAP) is a novel assembly algorithm, which is based on the dynamic TCP window. The assembly algorithm can track the variation of the current TCP window aroused by the burst loss events, and update the assembly period dynamically for the next assembly. The analytical model provides the theoretical foundation for the proposed assembly algorithm. Nowadays, there are several kinds of TCP flavors proposed to enhance the performance of TCP, such as Default, Tahoe, Reno, New Reno, SACK, etc., which are adopted in the current internet. In this paper, we evaluated the performance of DAP under the different TCP flavors. The simulation results show that the performance of DAP under Default TCP flavor is the best. The difference in the performance of DAP under such flavors is correlated with the inside mechanism of the flavors. We also compared the performance of DAP and FAP under the same TCP flavor. It indicates that the performance of DAP is better than that of FAP in a wide range of burst loss rate.

  12. Evaluation of Swift Start TCP in Long-Delay Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawas-Grodek, Frances J.; Tran, Diepchi T.

    2004-01-01

    This report presents the test results of the Swift Start algorithm in single-flow and multiple-flow testbeds under the effects of high propagation delays, various slow bottlenecks, and small queue sizes. Although this algorithm estimates capacity and implements packet pacing, the findings were that in a heavily congested link, the Swift Start algorithm will not be applicable. The reason is that the bottleneck estimation is falsely influenced by timeouts induced by retransmissions and the expiration of delayed acknowledgment (ACK) timers, thus causing the modified Swift Start code to fall back to regular transmission control protocol (TCP).

  13. Evaluation of TCP Congestion Control Algorithms on the Windows Vista Platform

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yee-Ting; /SLAC

    2006-07-07

    CTCP, an innovative TCP congestion control algorithm developed by Microsoft, is evaluated and compared to HSTCP and StandardTCP. Tests were performed on the production Internet from Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) to various geographically located hosts to give a broad overview of the performances. We find that certain issues were apparent during testing (not directly related to the congestion control algorithms) which may skew results. With this in mind, we find that CTCP performed similarly to HSTCP across a multitude of different network environments. However, to improve the fairness and to reduce the impact of CTCP upon existing StandardTCP traffic, two areas of further research were investigated. Algorithmic additions to CTCP for burst control to reduce the aggressiveness of its cwnd increments demonstrated beneficial improvements in both fairness and throughput over the original CTCP algorithm. Similarly, {gamma} auto-tuning algorithms were investigated to dynamically adapt CTCP flows to their network conditions for optimal performance. While the effects of these auto-tuning algorithms when used in addition to burst control showed little to no benefit to fairness nor throughput for the limited number of network paths tested, one of the auto-tuning algorithms performed such that there was negligible impact upon StandardTCP. With these improvements, CTCP was found to perform better than HSTCP in terms of fairness and similarly in terms of throughput under the production environments tested.

  14. Enhanced mechanical performance and biological evaluation of a PLGA coated β-TCP composite scaffold for load-bearing applications

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Yunqing; Scully, Allison; Young, Daniel A; Kim, Sungwoo; Tsao, Helen; Sen, Milan; Yang, Yunzhi

    2011-01-01

    Porous β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) has been used for bone repair and replacement in clinics due to its excellent biocompatibility, osteoconductivity, and biodegradability. However, the application of β-TCP has been limited by its brittleness. Here, we demonstrated that an interconnected porous β-TCP scaffold infiltrated with a thin layer of poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) polymer showed improved mechanical performance compared to an uncoated β-TCP scaffold while retaining its excellent interconnectivity and biocompatibility. The infiltration of PLGA significantly increased the compressive strength of β-TCP scaffolds from 2.90 MPa to 4.19 MPa, bending strength from 1.46 MPa to 2.41 MPa, and toughness from 0.17 MPa to 1.44 MPa, while retaining an interconnected porous structure with a porosity of 80.65%. These remarkable improvements in the mechanical properties of PLGA-coated β-TCP scaffolds are due to the combination of the systematic coating of struts, interpenetrating structural characteristics, and crack bridging. The in vitro biological evaluation demonstrated that rat bone marrow stromal cells (rBMSCs) adhered well, proliferated, and expressed alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity on both the PLGA-coated β-TCP and the β-TCP. These results suggest a new strategy for fabricating interconnected macroporous scaffolds with significantly enhanced mechanical strength for potential load-bearing bone tissue regeneration. PMID:21892228

  15. A Randomized Clinical Trial Evaluating rh-FGF-2/β-TCP in Periodontal Defects.

    PubMed

    Cochran, D L; Oh, T-J; Mills, M P; Clem, D S; McClain, P K; Schallhorn, R A; McGuire, M K; Scheyer, E T; Giannobile, W V; Reddy, M S; Abou-Arraj, R V; Vassilopoulos, P J; Genco, R J; Geurs, N C; Takemura, A

    2016-05-01

    Biological mediators have been used to enhance periodontal regeneration. The aim of this prospective randomized controlled study was to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of 3 doses of fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) when combined with a β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) scaffold carrier placed in vertical infrabony periodontal defects in adult patients. In this double-blinded, dose-verification, externally monitored clinical study, 88 patients who required surgical intervention to treat a qualifying infrabony periodontal defect were randomized to 1 of 4 treatment groups-β-TCP alone (control) and 0.1% recombinant human FGF-2 (rh-FGF-2), 0.3% rh-FGF-2, and 0.4% rh-FGF-2 with β-TCP-following scaling and root planing of the tooth prior to a surgical appointment. Flap surgery was performed with EDTA conditioning of the root prior to device implantation. There were no statistically significant differences in patient demographics and baseline characteristics among the 4 treatment groups. When a composite outcome of gain in clinical attachment of 1.5 mm was used with a linear bone growth of 2.5 mm, a dose response pattern detected a plateau in the 0.3% and 0.4% rh-FGF-2/β-TCP groups with significant improvements over control and 0.1% rh-FGF-2/β-TCP groups. The success rate at 6 mo was 71% in the 2 higher-concentration groups, as compared with 45% in the control and lowest treatment groups. Percentage bone fill in the 2 higher-concentration groups was 75% and 71%, compared with 63% and 61% in the control and lowest treatment group. No increases in specific antibody to rh-FGF-2 were detected, and no serious adverse events related to the products were reported. The results from this multicenter trial demonstrated that the treatment of infrabony vertical periodontal defects can be enhanced with the addition of rh-FGF-2/β-TCP (ClinicalTrials.govNCT01728844). PMID:26908630

  16. TCP flow control using link layer information in mobile networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koga, Hiroyuki; Kawahara, Kenji; Oie, Yuji

    2002-07-01

    Mobile Networks have been expanding and IMT-2000 further increases their available bandwidth over wireless links. However, TCP, which is a reliable end-to-end transport protocol, is tuned to perform well in wired networks where bit error rates are very low and packet loss occurs mostly because of congestion. Although a TCP sender can execute flow control to utilize as much available bandwidth as possible in wired networks, it cannot work well in wireless networks characterized by high bit error rates. In the next generation mobile systems, sophisticated error recovery technologies of FEC and ARQ are indeed employed over wireless links, i.e., over Layer 2, to avoid performance degradation of upper layers. However, multiple retransmissions by Layer 2 ARQ can adversely increase transmission delay of TCP segments, which will further make TCP unnecessarily increase RTO (Retransmission TimeOut). Furthermore, a link bandwidth assigned to TCP flows can change in response to changing air conditions to use wireless links efficiently. TCP thus has to adapt its transmission rate according to the changing available bandwidth. The major goal of this study is to develop a receiver-based effective TCP flow control without any modification on TCP senders, which are probably connected with wired networks. For this end, we propose a TCP flow control employing some Layer 2 information on a wireless link at the mobile station. Our performance evaluation of the proposed TCP shows that the receiver-based TCP flow control can moderate the performance degradation very well even if FER on Layer 2 is high.

  17. Manufacturer evaluations of endograft modifications.

    PubMed

    Waninger, Matthew S; Whirley, Robert G; Smith, Louis J; Wolf, Ben S

    2013-03-01

    The motivation to modify the design of a vascular device can arise from a number of sources. Clinical experience with the unmodified device could suggest new design modifications to improve device performance or clinical outcomes. Similarly, clinical success with a device often suggests modifications that could broaden the applicability of the device to enable treatment of different or more advanced disease states. As a specific example, both of these scenarios have arisen during the last decade in the evolution of endovascular grafts for the treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysms, with modifications enabling the treatment of patients with shorter infrarenal necks, more angulated anatomy, and smaller access vessels. These modifications have been made by manufacturers and additionally by physicians who create branched and fenestrated devices. The experience to date with the use of fenestrated devices and the development of chimney, snorkel, and periscope techniques suggests that modifications to off-the-shelf devices may provide some clinical benefit. This experience provides additional motivation for manufacturers to develop devices to address the clinical needs not met with their current product lines. For manufacturers, the device development process includes an assessment of the new device design to determine the appropriate evaluation strategy to support the safety and effectiveness of the modified device. This report provides a high-level overview of the process generally followed by device manufacturers to evaluate a proposed device modification before market release, in accordance with local country regulations and recognized international standards such as the International Organization of Standardization (ISO) standards for endovascular grafts (ISO 25539 Part 1). PMID:23446123

  18. SCPS-TP, TCP, and Rate-Based Protocol Evaluation. Revised

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tran, Diepchi T.; Lawas-Grodek, Frances J.; Dimond, Robert P.; Ivancic, William D.

    2005-01-01

    Tests were performed at Glenn Research Center to compare the performance of the Space Communications Protocol Standard Transport Protocol (SCPS TP, otherwise known as "TCP Tranquility") relative to other variants of TCP and to determine the implementation maturity level of these protocols, particularly for higher speeds. The testing was performed over reasonably high data rates of up to 100 Mbps with delays that are characteristic of near-planetary environments. The tests were run for a fixed packet size, but for variously errored environments. This report documents the testing performed to date.

  19. Performance of TCP variants over LTE network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nor, Shahrudin Awang; Maulana, Ade Novia

    2016-08-01

    One of the implementation of a wireless network is based on mobile broadband technology Long Term Evolution (LTE). LTE offers a variety of advantages, especially in terms of access speed, capacity, architectural simplicity and ease of implementation, as well as the breadth of choice of the type of user equipment (UE) that can establish the access. The majority of the Internet connections in the world happen using the TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) due to the TCP's reliability in transmitting packets in the network. TCP reliability lies in the ability to control the congestion. TCP was originally designed for wired media, but LTE connected through a wireless medium that is not stable in comparison to wired media. A wide variety of TCP has been made to produce a better performance than its predecessor. In this study, we simulate the performance provided by the TCP NewReno and TCP Vegas based on simulation using network simulator version 2 (ns2). The TCP performance is analyzed in terms of throughput, packet loss and end-to-end delay. In comparing the performance of TCP NewReno and TCP Vegas, the simulation result shows that the throughput of TCP NewReno is slightly higher than TCP Vegas, while TCP Vegas gives significantly better end-to-end delay and packet loss. The analysis of throughput, packet loss and end-to-end delay are made to evaluate the simulation.

  20. SU-E-J-30: Benchmark Image-Based TCP Calculation for Evaluation of PTV Margins for Lung SBRT Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Li, M; Chetty, I; Zhong, H

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Tumor control probability (TCP) calculated with accumulated radiation doses may help design appropriate treatment margins. Image registration errors, however, may compromise the calculated TCP. The purpose of this study is to develop benchmark CT images to quantify registration-induced errors in the accumulated doses and their corresponding TCP. Methods: 4DCT images were registered from end-inhale (EI) to end-exhale (EE) using a “demons” algorithm. The demons DVFs were corrected by an FEM model to get realistic deformation fields. The FEM DVFs were used to warp the EI images to create the FEM-simulated images. The two images combined with the FEM DVF formed a benchmark model. Maximum intensity projection (MIP) images, created from the EI and simulated images, were used to develop IMRT plans. Two plans with 3 and 5 mm margins were developed for each patient. With these plans, radiation doses were recalculated on the simulated images and warped back to the EI images using the FEM DVFs to get the accumulated doses. The Elastix software was used to register the FEM-simulated images to the EI images. TCPs calculated with the Elastix-accumulated doses were compared with those generated by the FEM to get the TCP error of the Elastix registrations. Results: For six lung patients, the mean Elastix registration error ranged from 0.93 to 1.98 mm. Their relative dose errors in PTV were between 0.28% and 6.8% for 3mm margin plans, and between 0.29% and 6.3% for 5mm-margin plans. As the PTV margin reduced from 5 to 3 mm, the mean TCP error of the Elastix-reconstructed doses increased from 2.0% to 2.9%, and the mean NTCP errors decreased from 1.2% to 1.1%. Conclusion: Patient-specific benchmark images can be used to evaluate the impact of registration errors on the computed TCPs, and may help select appropriate PTV margins for lung SBRT patients.

  1. The toxin-coregulated pilus (TCP) of Vibrio cholerae: molecular cloning of genes involved in pilus biosynthesis and evaluation of TCP as a protective antigen in the infant mouse model.

    PubMed

    Sharma, D P; Stroeher, U H; Thomas, C J; Manning, P A; Attridge, S R

    1989-12-01

    A serum containing antibodies to non-lipopolysaccharide (non-LPS) protective antigens of Vibrio cholerae has been used, after extensive absorption, to facilitate the cloning of genes involved in the synthesis of toxin-coregulated pili (TCP). A gene bank was constructed from V. cholerae Z17561 DNA using a mobilizable cosmid vector in Escherichia coli, and subsequently transferred by conjugation into V. cholerae O17. This strain does not produce TCP in vitro and lacks non-LPS protective antigens. Eight positive clones were isolated, and of these, four produced TCP as determined by electron microscopic and immunoblotting analyses. TCP-positive O17 clones were 70-fold more virulent than TCP-negative clones or O17 in the infant mouse cholera model. Only the former could remove protective antibodies from the clone-probing serum by absorption. As a corollary, serum containing antibodies to TCP protected mice from challenge with TCP-positive clones, but not with TCP-negative clones or O17. Our data indicate that TCP can function as both a virulence determinant and a protective antigen in the infant mouse model. PMID:2576091

  2. A phase IIa randomized controlled pilot study evaluating the safety and clinical outcomes following the use of rhGDF-5/β-TCP in regenerative periodontal therapy.

    PubMed

    Windisch, Péter; Stavropoulos, Andreas; Molnár, Bálint; Szendröi-Kiss, Dóra; Szilágyi, Emese; Rosta, Péter; Horváth, Attila; Capsius, Björn; Wikesjö, Ulf M E; Sculean, Anton

    2012-08-01

    To present the safety profile, the early healing phase and the clinical outcomes at 24 weeks following treatment of human intrabony defects with open flap debridement (OFD) alone or with OFD and rhGDF-5 adsorbed onto a particulate β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) carrier. Twenty chronic periodontitis patients, each with at least one tooth exhibiting a probing depth ≥6 mm and an associated intrabony defect ≥4 mm entered the study. Ten subjects (one defect/patient) were randomized to receive OFD alone (control) and ten subjects OFD combined with rhGDF-5/β-TCP. Blood samples were collected at screening, and at weeks 2 and 24 to evaluate routine hematology and clinical chemistry, rhGDF-5 plasma levels, and antirhGDF-5 antibody formation. Plaque and gingival indices, bleeding on probing, probing depth, clinical attachment level, and radiographs were recorded pre- and 24 weeks postsurgery. Comparable safety profiles were found in the two treatment groups. Neither antirhGDF-5 antibody formation nor relevant rhGDF-5 plasma levels were detected in any patient. At 6 months, treatment with OFD + rhGDF-5/β-TCP resulted in higher but statistically not significant PD reduction (3.7 ± 1.2 vs. 3.1 ± 1.8 mm; p = 0.26) and CAL gain (3.2 ± 1.7 vs. 1.7 ± 2.2 mm; p = 0.14) compared to OFD alone. In the tested concentration, the use of rhGDF-5/β-TCP appeared to be safe and the material possesses a sound biological rationale. Thus, further adequately powered, randomized controlled clinical trials are warranted to confirm the clinical relevance of this new approach in regenerative periodontal therapy. rhGDF-5/β-TCP may represent a promising new techology in regenerative periodontal therapy. PMID:21887500

  3. A Holistic Approach to Evaluating Vocational Education: Traditional Chinese Physicians (TCP) Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Lung-Sheng; Chang, Liang-Te

    Conventional approaches to evaluating vocational education have often been criticized for failing to deal holistically with the institution or program being evaluated. Integrated quantitative and qualitative evaluation methods have documented benefits; therefore, it would be useful to consider possibility of developing a model for evaluating…

  4. In vitro and in vivo evaluations of 3D porous TCP-coated and non-coated alumina scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Hee; Anirban, Jyoti M; Song, Ho-Yeon; Seo, Hyung-Seok; Lee, Byong-Taek

    2011-02-01

    Both tricalcium phosphate (TCP) and alumina have been extensively studied and shown to have high biocompatibility. Tricalcium phosphate has improved biodegradability and a higher solubility than hydroxyapatite. In contrast, alumina (Al(2)O(3)) is almost completely inert at physiological conditions and has been used as a biomaterial due to its wear resistance, high surface finish, and excellent hardness. Thus, the combination of these two implants would result in greater biocompatibility and phenotype maintenance. A polyurethane (PU) foam replica method was employed in this study to coat TCP on an alumina scaffold. The TCP-coated alumina scaffold was then sintered to generate a porous surface morphology. The pore sizes obtained using this approach ranged between 100-600 µm, which is ideal for cellular proliferation. The cytotoxicity, cellular proliferation, differentiation, and ECM deposition on the coated scaffold resulted in longer-term viability of osteogenic markers compared to the non-coated scaffold. Moreover, the osteogenic properties of porous TCP-coated Al(2)O(3) scaffolds were reported in this study using rabbit models. The TCP/Al(2)O( 3) scaffold and control Al(2)O(3) scaffolds were implanted in the rabbit femur. The bone tissue response was analyzed with micro-computed tomography (micro CT) at 12 and 24 weeks after implantation. The porous scaffolds exhibited favorable hard and soft tissue responses at both time points. At 24 weeks, a three-fold increase in bone tissue ingrowth was observed in defects containing TCP-coated Al(2)O(3) scaffolds compared to control Al(2)O(3) scaffolds. PMID:20207781

  5. Histopathological evaluation of potential impact of β-tricalcium phosphate (HA+ β-TCP) granules on healing of segmental femur bone defect.

    PubMed

    Eftekhari, H; Farahpour, M R; Rabiee, S M

    2015-01-01

    Histopathological evaluation of β-tricalcium phosphate (HA+ β-TCP) granules demonstrated that it has properties to heal segmental femur bone defect in rat. In this study, 27 male white rats were examined. Rats were divided into tree groups. Surgical procedures were done after IP administration of ketamine 5 % and xylazine HCL 2 %. Then an approximately 5-mm long, 3-mm deep and 2-mm wide bone defect was created in the femur of one of the hind limbs using a No. 0.14 round bur. After inducing the surgical wound, all rats were colored and randomly divided into three experimental groups of nine animals each: Group 1 received medical pure β-tricalcium phosphate granules, group 2 received hydroxyapatite and third group was a control group with no treatment. Histopathological evaluation was performed on days 15, 30 and 45 after surgery. On day 45 after surgery, the quantity of newly formed lamellar bone in the healing site in β-TCP group was better than onward compared to HA and control groups. In conclusion, β-tri calcium phosphate (β-TCP) granules exhibited a reproducible bone-healing potential (Fig. 10, Ref. 28). PMID:25666959

  6. TCP Pacing Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivancic, William D.

    2002-01-01

    Transmission control protocol (TCP) was conceived and designed to run over a variety of communication links, including wireless and high-bandwidth links. However, with recent technological advances in satellite and fiber-optic networks, researchers are reevaluating the flexibility of TCP. The TCP pacing and packet pair probing implementation may help overcome two of the major obstacles identified for efficient bandwidth utilization over communication links with large delay-bandwidth products.

  7. Modified Kriging: evaluation, modification, and recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, C.A.; Myers, S.C.

    1997-09-01

    This report describes modifications to a technique developed by Sandia National Laboratory (SNL) to predict general corrections (traveltime, etc.) for a geographic grid only sparsely covered by calibration points (Hipp and Young, 1997). SNL has worked to create a modified version of linear prediction (kriging) based on the idea of blending the surface back to zero at some distance from the points or, in other words, by damping the solution through the damping of the input data points. LLNL has been working with SNL to evaluate Modified Kriging. This report documents our evaluation of the technique and our resulting recommendations to SNL.

  8. Functionally graded beta-TCP/PCL nanocomposite scaffolds: in vitro evaluation with human fetal osteoblast cells for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Ozkan, Seher; Kalyon, Dilhan M; Yu, Xiaojun

    2010-03-01

    The engineering of biomimetic tissue relies on the ability to develop biodegradable scaffolds with functionally graded physical and chemical properties. In this study, a twin-screw-extrusion/spiral winding (TSESW) process was developed to enable the radial grading of porous scaffolds (discrete and continuous gradations) that were composed of polycaprolactone (PCL), beta-tricalciumphosphate (beta-TCP) nanoparticles, and salt porogens. Scaffolds with interconnected porosity, exhibiting myriad radial porosity, pore-size distributions, and beta-TCP nanoparticle concentration could be obtained. The results of the characterization of their compressive properties and in vitro cell proliferation studies using human fetal osteoblast cells suggest the promising nature of such scaffolds. The significant degree of freedom offered by the TSESW process should be an additional enabler in the quest toward the mimicry of the complex elegance of the native tissues. PMID:19296543

  9. A simulation-based study of HighSpeed TCP and its deployment

    SciTech Connect

    Souza, Evandro de

    2003-04-29

    The current congestion control mechanism used in TCP has difficulty reaching full utilization on high speed links, particularly on wide-area connections. For example, the packet drop rate needed to fill a Gigabit pipe using the present TCP protocol is below the currently achievable fiber optic error rates. HighSpeed TCP was recently proposed as a modification of TCP's congestion control mechanism to allow it to achieve reasonable performance in high speed wide-area links. In this research, simulation results showing the performance of HighSpeed TCP and the impact of its use on the present implementation of TCP are presented. Network conditions including different degrees of congestion, different levels of loss rate, different degrees of bursty traffic and two distinct router queue management policies were simulated. The performance and fairness of HighSpeed TCP were compared to the existing TCP and solutions for bulk-data transfer using parallel streams.

  10. Radiological evaluation of the effect of biphasic calcium phosphate scaffold (HA+TCP) with 5, 10 and 20 percentage of porosity on healing of segmental bone defect in rabbit radius.

    PubMed

    Farahpour, M R; Sharifi, D; B, A A; Veshkini, A; Soheil, A

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study is to radiologically evaluate the effects of biphasic calcium phosphate scaffold with 5, 10 and 20 percentage of porosity on cortical bone repair in rabbits. In this study, 28 male white rabbits were examined. Rabbits were divided into four groups. After induction of general anesthesia, a segmental bone defect of 10 mm in length was created in the middle of the right radius shaft. In group A, the defect was stabilized with miniplate and 2 screws and left untreated. In groups B, C and D tricalcium phosphate scaffold mixed with hydroxyapatite (TCP+HA) with 5%, 10% and 20% porosity was used to fi ll the bone defect. Bone regeneration and HA+TCP scaffold resorption were assessed by X-ray at 1, 2 and 3 months after the surgery. In group A, 3 months after surgery, periosteal callus was not found but intercortical callus was observed. In groups B and C, 3 months after surgery medullary bridging callus and intercortical callus were found, periosteal callus was not found, TCP+HA scaffold were observed. In group D, 2 months after the surgery, medullary bridging callus and intercortical callus were found, 3 months later, periosteal callus was not found, most of scaffold had disappeared and were unclear and partial bone formation was recognized. Differences observed in radiological findings were significant between group A and groups B, C, D. Differences between groups B and C were not significant, but between group D and groups B and C were significant. The results of this study showed that TCP+HA scaffold is an osteoconductive and osteoinductive biomaterial. Scaffold of TCP+HA can increase the amount of newly formed bone and more rapid regeneration of bone defects. These results suggest TCP+HA scaffold may considerably be used in the treatment of cortical bone defect and other orthopaedic defects PCL (Tab. 2, Fig. 4, Ref. 20). PMID:22979907

  11. 10 Gbps TCP/IP streams from the FPGA for High Energy Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Gerry; Bawej, Tomasz; Behrens, Ulf; Branson, James; Chaze, Olivier; Cittolin, Sergio; Coarasa, Jose Antonio; Darlea, Georgiana-Lavinia; Deldicque, Christian; Dobson, Marc; Dupont, Aymeric; Erhan, Samim; Gigi, Dominique; Glege, Frank; Gomez-Ceballos, Guillelmo; Gomez-Reino, Robert; Hartl, Christian; Hegeman, Jeroen; Holzner, Andre; Masetti, Lorenzo; Meijers, Frans; Meschi, Emilio; Mommsen, Remigius K.; Morovic, Srecko; Nunez-Barranco-Fernandez, Carlos; O'Dell, Vivian; Orsini, Luciano; Ozga, Wojciech; Paus, Christoph; Petrucci, Andrea; Pieri, Marco; Racz, Attila; Raginel, Olivier; Sakulin, Hannes; Sani, Matteo; Schwick, Christoph; Cristian Spataru, Andrei; Stieger, Benjamin; Sumorok, Konstanty; Veverka, Jan; Wakefield, Christopher Colin; Zejdl, Petr

    2014-06-01

    The DAQ system of the CMS experiment at CERN collects data from more than 600 custom detector Front-End Drivers (FEDs). During 2013 and 2014 the CMS DAQ system will undergo a major upgrade to address the obsolescence of current hardware and the requirements posed by the upgrade of the LHC accelerator and various detector components. For a loss-less data collection from the FEDs a new FPGA based card implementing the TCP/IP protocol suite over 10Gbps Ethernet has been developed. To limit the TCP hardware implementation complexity the DAQ group developed a simplified and unidirectional but RFC 793 compliant version of the TCP protocol. This allows to use a PC with the standard Linux TCP/IP stack as a receiver. We present the challenges and protocol modifications made to TCP in order to simplify its FPGA implementation. We also describe the interaction between the simplified TCP and Linux TCP/IP stack including the performance measurements.

  12. 10 Gbps TCP/IP streams from the FPGA for High Energy Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, Gerry; et al.

    2014-01-01

    The DAQ system of the CMS experiment at CERN collects data from more than 600 custom detector Front-End Drivers (FEDs). During 2013 and 2014 the CMS DAQ system will undergo a major upgrade to address the obsolescence of current hardware and the requirements posed by the upgrade of the LHC accelerator and various detector components. For a loss-less data collection from the FEDs a new FPGA based card implementing the TCP/IP protocol suite over 10Gbps Ethernet has been developed. To limit the TCP hardware implementation complexity the DAQ group developed a simplified and unidirectional but RFC 793 compliant version of the TCP protocol. This allows to use a PC with the standard Linux TCP/IP stack as a receiver. We present the challenges and protocol modifications made to TCP in order to simplify its FPGA implementation. We also describe the interaction between the simplified TCP and Linux TCP/IP stack including the performance measurements.

  13. Evaluation of an injectable bone substitute (betaTCP/hydroxyapatite/hydroxy-propyl-methyl-cellulose) in severely osteopenic and aged rats.

    PubMed

    Blouin, S; Moreau, M F; Weiss, P; Daculsi, G; Baslé, M F; Chappard, D

    2006-09-01

    The use of injectable biomaterials is of interest in osteoporotic patients to locally restore bone mass in sites at risk of fracture. An injectable bone substitute (IBS1 made of betaTCP/hydroxyapatite as a calcium phosphate substitute and hydroxy-propyl-methyl-cellulose as a polymer carrier) was used in a severely osteopenic rat model obtained by combining orchidectomy (ORX) and disuse (paralysis induced by botulinum toxin - BTX). Fifty-six aged male rats were randomized into three groups: 18 were SHAM operated; 38 were ORX and BTX injected in the right hindlimb; they constituted the OP (osteoporotic) group. One month after ORX-BTX surgery, 20 of these OP rats received a IBS1 injection in the right femur (OP-IBS1 rats). Animals were studied at the time of IBS1 injection 1 month post ORX-BTX (M1), 1 month (M2) and 2 months (M3) after IBS1 injection. Bone mass (BV/TV) and microarchitectural parameters were measured by microCT. BV/TV was decreased after ORX-BTX; ORX and BTX had cumulative effects on bone loss (differences maximized on the right femur). BV/TV (combining the volume of both bone and material in OP-IBS1 rats) was elevated at M1 but decreased at M2. Marked bone formation was found onto the biomaterial granules but bone had a woven texture. A marked increase in the number of nonosteoclastic TRAcP+ cells was found in the implanted area. IBS1 induced new bone formation shortly after implantation but both IBS1 and woven bone were resorbed without inducing lamellar bone. Biomaterial trials must be conducted with long-term implantation periods, in aged osteoporotic animals. PMID:16739169

  14. TCP-friendly video transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakamiya, Naoki; Murata, Masayuki; Miyahara, Hideo

    2001-02-01

    When both TCP and UDP connections co-exist in the Internet environment, the performance of TCP connections is heavily affected by the behavior of `greedy' UDP connections of real-time multimedia applications. In this paper, we propose a new TCP-friendly rate control protocol for video connections, called MPEG-TFRCP, to fairly share the link with TCP connections. To achieve fairness among TCP and UDP connections while performing high quality video transmission, we argue that (1) the interval of rate control must be appropriately determined, (2) the network condition must be accurately predicted, (3) the TCP throughput must be precisely estimated and (4) the video rate must be effectively adjusted. Although our algorithm is based on the existing proposals which do not satisfy all of those conditions, through careful considerations ont he applicability of TFRCP to the actual video applications ours can achieve the high-quality MPEG-2 video transfer while satisfying the TCP-friendliness. Through simulation experiments, we show that the TCP throughput estimation based on pseudo-TCP feedback collection is acceptable and the rate adjustment base don the quantization control should be performed at the interval of 32 times as long as estimated RTT.

  15. High-Speed TCP Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, David E.; Gassman, Holly; Beering, Dave R.; Welch, Arun; Hoder, Douglas J.; Ivancic, William D.

    1999-01-01

    Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is the underlying protocol used within the Internet for reliable information transfer. As such, there is great interest to have all implementations of TCP efficiently interoperate. This is particularly important for links exhibiting long bandwidth-delay products. The tools exist to perform TCP analysis at low rates and low delays. However, for extremely high-rate and lone-delay links such as 622 Mbps over geosynchronous satellites, new tools and testing techniques are required. This paper describes the tools and techniques used to analyze and debug various TCP implementations over high-speed, long-delay links.

  16. Known TCP Implementation Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paxson, Vern (Editor); Allman, Mark; Dawson, Scott; Fenner, William; Griner, Jim; Heavens, Ian; Lahey, K.; Semke, J.; Volz, B.

    1999-01-01

    This memo catalogs a number of known TCP implementation problems. The goal in doing so is to improve conditions in the existing Internet by enhancing the quality of current TCP/IP implementations. It is hoped that both performance and correctness issues can be resolved by making implementors aware of the problems and their solutions. In the long term, it is hoped that this will provide a reduction in unnecessary traffic on the network, the rate of connection failures due to protocol errors, and load on network servers due to time spent processing both unsuccessful connections and retransmitted data. This will help to ensure the stability of the global Internet. Each problem is defined as follows: Name of Problem The name associated with the problem. In this memo, the name is given as a subsection heading. Classification one or more problem categories for which the problem is classified: "congestion control", "performance", "reliability", "resource management". Description A definition of the problem, succinct but including necessary background material. Significance A brief summary of the sorts of environments for which the problem is significant.

  17. Estimating Bottleneck Bandwidth using TCP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allman, Mark

    1998-01-01

    Various issues associated with estimating bottleneck bandwidth using TCP are presented in viewgraph form. Specific topics include: 1) Why TCP is wanted to estimate the bottleneck bandwidth; 2) Setting ssthresh to an appropriate value to reduce loss; 3) Possible packet-pair solutions; and 4) Preliminary results: ACTS and the Internet.

  18. Analysis of Next Generation TCP

    SciTech Connect

    Halliday, K; Hurst, A; Nelson, J

    2004-12-13

    The Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) has been around for around 30 years, and in that time computer networks have increased in speed and reliability many times over. TCP has done very well to maintain stability and avoid collapse from congestion in the Internet with this incredible increase in speed. But as the speed of networks continues to increase, some assumptions about the underlying network that influenced the design of TCP may no longer hold valid. Additionally, modern networks often span many different types of links. For example, one end-to-end transmission may traverse both an optical link (high-bandwidth, low-loss) and a wireless network (low-bandwidth, high loss). TCP does not perform well in these situations. This survey will examine some of the reasons for this, focusing on high-bandwidth networks, and offer some solutions that have been proposed to fix these problems. This paper assumes basic knowledge of the TCP protocol.

  19. The Putative O-Linked N-Acetylglucosamine Transferase SPINDLY Inhibits Class I TCP Proteolysis to Promote Sensitivity to Cytokinin.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Evyatar; Livne, Sivan; Kobinson-Katz, Tammy; Tal, Lior; Pri-Tal, Oded; Mosquna, Assaf; Tarkowská, Danuše; Mueller, Bruno; Tarkowski, Petr; Weiss, David

    2016-06-01

    Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) SPINDLY (SPY) is a putative serine and threonine O-linked N-acetylglucosamine transferase (OGT). While SPY has been shown to suppress gibberellin signaling and to promote cytokinin (CK) responses, its catalytic OGT activity was never demonstrated and its effect on protein fate is not known. We previously showed that SPY interacts physically and functionally with TCP14 and TCP15 to promote CK responses. Here, we aimed to identify how SPY regulates TCP14/15 activities and how these TCPs promote CK responses. We show that SPY activity is required for TCP14 stability. Mutation in the putative OGT domain of SPY (spy-3) stimulated TCP14 proteolysis by the 26S proteasome, which was reversed by mutation in CULLIN1 (CUL1), suggesting a role for SKP, CUL1, F-box E3 ubiquitin ligase in TCP14 proteolysis. TCP14 proteolysis in spy-3 suppressed all TCP14 misexpression phenotypes, including the enhanced CK responses. The increased CK activity in TCP14/15-overexpressing flowers resulted from increased sensitivity to the hormone and not from higher CK levels. TCP15 overexpression enhanced the response of the CK-induced synthetic promoter pTCS to CK, suggesting that TCP14/15 affect early steps in CK signaling. We propose that posttranslational modification of TCP14/15 by SPY inhibits their proteolysis and that the accumulated proteins promote the activity of the CK phosphorelay cascade in developing Arabidopsis leaves and flowers. PMID:27208284

  20. Improving TCP Network Performance by Detecting and Reacting to Packet Reordering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kruse, Hans; Ostermann, Shawn; Allman, Mark

    2003-01-01

    There are many factors governing the performance of TCP-basec applications traversing satellite channels. The end-to-end performance of TCP is known to be degraded by the reordering, delay, noise and asymmetry inherent in geosynchronous systems. This result has been largely based on experiments that evaluate the performance of TCP in single flow tests. While single flow tests are useful for deriving information on the theoretical behavior of TCP and allow for easy diagnosis of problems they do not represent a broad range of realistic situations and therefore cannot be used to authoritatively comment on performance issues. The experiments discussed in this report test TCP s performance in a more dynamic environment with competing traffic flows from hundreds of TCP connections running simultaneously across the satellite channel. Another aspect we investigate is TCP's reaction to bit errors on satellite channels. TCP interprets loss as a sign of network congestion. This causes TCP to reduce its transmission rate leading to reduced performance when loss is due to corruption. We allowed the bit error rate on our satellite channel to vary widely and tested the performance of TCP as a function of these bit error rates. Our results show that the average performance of TCP on satellite channels is good even under conditions of loss as high as bit error rates of 10(exp -5)

  1. ER-TCP (Exponential Recovery-TCP): High-Performance TCP for Satellite Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Mankyu; Shin, Minsu; Oh, Deockgil; Ahn, Doseob; Kim, Byungchul; Lee, Jaeyong

    A transmission control protocol (TCP) using an additive increase multiplicative decrease (AIMD) algorithm for congestion control plays a leading role in advanced Internet services. However, the AIMD method shows only low link utilization in lossy networks with long delay such as satellite networks. This is because the cwnd dynamics of TCP are reduced by long propagation delay, and TCP uses an inadequate congestion control algorithm, which does not distinguish packet loss from wireless errors from that due to congestion of the wireless networks. To overcome these problems, we propose an exponential recovery (ER) TCP that uses the exponential recovery function for rapidly occupying available bandwidth during a congestion avoidance period, and an adaptive congestion window decrease scheme using timestamp base available bandwidth estimation (TABE) to cope with wireless channel errors. We simulate the proposed ER-TCP under various test scenarios using the ns-2 network simulator to verify its performance enhancement. Simulation results show that the proposal is a more suitable TCP than the several TCP variants under long delay and heavy loss probability environments of satellite networks.

  2. The Evaluation of Litter Behavior Modification in a River Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagstaff, Mark C.; Wilson, Beth E.

    1988-01-01

    Behavior modification techniques were evaluated by observing litter collection behavior of commercial rafting groups. The number of litter pieces retrieved by treatment and control groups was significantly different. Results support the idea that verbal appeal and role modeling can be effective litter control techniques. (Author/CW)

  3. Evaluation of proposed panel closure modifications at WIPP

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, Lawrence E.; Silva, Matthew K.; Channell, James K.; Abel, John F.; Morgan, Dudley R.

    2001-12-31

    A key component in the design of the WIPP repository is the installation of concrete structures as panel seals in the intake and exhaust drifts after a panel has been filled with waste containers. As noted in the EPA final rule, the panel seal closure system is intended to block brine flow between the waste panels at the WIPP. On April 17, 2001, the DOE proposed seven modifications to the EPA concerning the design of the panel closure system. EPA approval of these modifications is necessary since the details of the panel design are specified in EPA’s final rule as a condition for WIPP certification. However, the EPA has not determined whether a rulemaking would be required for these proposed design modifications. On September 4, 2001, the DOE withdrew the request, noting that it would be resubmitted on a future date. The Environmental Evaluation Group (EEG) contracted with two engineers, Dr. John Abel and Dr. Rusty Morgan, to evaluate the proposed modifications. The EEG has accepted the conclusions and recommendations from these two experts: 1) replacement of Salado Mass Concrete with a generic salt-based concrete; 2) replacement of the explosion wall with a construction wall; 3) replacement of freshwater grouting with salt-based grouting; 4) option to allow surface or underground mixing; and 5) option to allow up to one year for completion of closure. The proposed modification to allow local carbonate river rock as aggregate is acceptable pending demonstration that no problems will exist in the resulting concrete. The proposed modification to give the contractor discretion in removal of steel forms is not supported. Instead, several recommendations are made to specifically reduce the number of forms left, thereby reducing potential migration pathways.

  4. OSI and TCP/IP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Randolph, Lynwood P.

    1994-01-01

    The Open Systems Interconnection Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (OSI TCP/IP) and the Government Open Systems Interconnection Profile (GOSIP) are compared and described in terms of Federal internetworking. The organization and functions of the Federal Internetworking Requirements Panel (FIRP) are discussed and the panel's conclusions and recommendations with respect to the standards and implementation of the National Information Infrastructure (NII) are presented.

  5. Oxyresveratrol: Structural Modification and Evaluation of Biological Activities.

    PubMed

    Chatsumpun, Nutputsorn; Chuanasa, Taksina; Sritularak, Boonchoo; Lipipun, Vimolmas; Jongbunprasert, Vichien; Ruchirawat, Somsak; Ploypradith, Poonsakdi; Likhitwitayawuid, Kittisak

    2016-01-01

    Oxyresveratrol (2,4,3',5'-tetrahydroxystilbene, 1), a phytoalexin present in large amounts in the heartwood of Artocarpus lacucha Buch.-Ham., has been reported to possess a wide variety of biological activities. As part of our continuing studies on the structural modification of oxyresveratrol, a library of twenty-six compounds was prepared via O-alkylation, aromatic halogenation, and electrophilic aromatic substitution. The two aromatic rings of the stilbene system of 1 can be chemically modulated by exploiting different protecting groups. Such a strategy allows for selective and exclusive modifications on either ring A or ring B. All compounds were evaluated in vitro for a panel of biological activities, including free radical scavenging activity, DNA protective properties, antiherpetic activity, inhibition of α-glucosidase and neuraminidase, and cytotoxicity against some cancer cell lines. Several derivatives were comparably active or even more potent than the parent oxyresveratrol and/or the appropriate positive controls. The partially etherified analogs 5'-hydroxy-2,3',4-trimethoxystilbene and 3',5'-dihydroxy-2,4-dimethoxystilbene demonstrated promising anti-herpetic and DNA protective activities, offering new leads for neuropreventive agent research, whereas 5'-hydroxy-2,3',4,-triisopropoxystilbene displayed anti-α-glucosidase effects, providing a new lead molecule for anti-diabetic drug development. 3',5'-Diacetoxy-2,4-diisopropoxystilbene showed potent and selective cytotoxicity against HeLa cancer cells, but the compound still needs further in vivo investigation to verify its anticancer potential. PMID:27104505

  6. Evaluation of materials and design modifications for aircraft brakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ho, T. L.; Kennedy, F. E.; Peterson, M. B.

    1975-01-01

    A test program is described which was carried out to evaluate several proposed design modifications and several high-temperature friction materials for use in aircraft disk brakes. The evaluation program was carried out on a specially built test apparatus utilizing a disk brake and wheel half from a small het aircraft. The apparatus enabled control of brake pressure, velocity, and braking time. Tests were run under both constant and variable velocity conditions and covered a kinetic energy range similar to that encountered in aircraft brake service. The results of the design evaluation program showed that some improvement in brake performance can be realized by making design changes in the components of the brake containing friction material. The materials evaluation showed that two friction materials show potential for use in aircraft disk brakes. One of the materials is a nickel-based sintered composite, while the other is a molybdenum-based material. Both materials show much lower wear rates than conventional copper-based materials and are better able to withstand the high temperatures encountered during braking. Additional materials improvement is necessary since both materials show a significant negative slope of the friction-velocity curve at low velocities.

  7. Potential performance bottleneck in Linux TCP

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Wenji; Crawford, Matt; /Fermilab

    2006-12-01

    TCP is the most widely used transport protocol on the Internet today. Over the years, especially recently, due to requirements of high bandwidth transmission, various approaches have been proposed to improve TCP performance. The Linux 2.6 kernel is now preemptible. It can be interrupted mid-task, making the system more responsive and interactive. However, we have noticed that Linux kernel preemption can interact badly with the performance of the networking subsystem. In this paper we investigate the performance bottleneck in Linux TCP. We systematically describe the trip of a TCP packet from its ingress into a Linux network end system to its final delivery to the application; we study the performance bottleneck in Linux TCP through mathematical modeling and practical experiments; finally we propose and test one possible solution to resolve this performance bottleneck in Linux TCP.

  8. A Simulation Study of Paced TCP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulik, Joanna; Coulter, Robert; Rockwell, Dennis; Partridge, Craig

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, we study the performance of paced TCP, a modified version of TCP designed especially for high delay- bandwidth networks. In typical networks, TCP optimizes its send-rate by transmitting increasingly large bursts, or windows, of packets, one burst per round-trip time, until it reaches a maximum window-size, which corresponds to the full capacity of the network. In a network with a high delay-bandwidth product, however, Transmission Control Protocol's (TCPs) maximum window-size may be larger than the queue size of the intermediate routers, and routers will begin to drop packets as soon as the windows become too large for the router queues. The TCP sender then concludes that the bottleneck capacity of the network has been reached, and it limits its send-rate accordingly. Partridge proposed paced TCP as a means of solving the problem of queueing bottlenecks. A sender using paced TCP would release packets in multiple, small bursts during a round-trip time in which ordinary TCP would release a single, large burst of packets. This approach allows the sender to increase its send-rate to the maximum window size without encountering queueing bottlenecks. This paper describes the performance of paced TCP in a simulated network and discusses implementation details that can affect the performance of paced TCP.

  9. Hierarchical structures of β-TCP/45S5 bioglass hybrid scaffolds prepared by gelcasting.

    PubMed

    Lopes, João Henrique; Magalhães, Jéssica Aparecida; Gouveia, Rubia Figueredo; Bertran, Celso Aparecido; Motisuke, Mariana; Camargo, Samira E A; Trichês, Eliandra de Sousa

    2016-09-01

    This paper investigates the microstructure and the mechanical properties of β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) three-dimensional (3D) porous materials reinforced with 45S5 bioactive glass (BG). β-TCP and β-TCP/x%-BG scaffolds with interconnected pores networks, suitable for bone regeneration, were fabricated by gel-casting method. Mechanical properties, porosity, and morphological characteristics were evaluated by compressive strength test, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray microtomography analysis, whereas the structures were fully explored by XRD, and Raman spectroscopy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time where the mechanism for understanding the effect of bioglass on the mechanical properties and microstruture of β-TCP/45S5-BG scaffolds has been systematically studied. The findings showed that ionic product lixiviated from 45S5 bioactive glass, rich in silicon species and sodium ion, catalyzes a phase transition from β-TCP to Si-TCP by replacement of phosphorus for silicon and contributes to the improvement of scaffolds mechanical properties. The compressive strength of β-TCP/5%-BG and β-TCP/7.5%-BG was improved around 200% in comparison to pure β-TCP. Osteoblast-like cells (MG 63) were exposed to the materials for 24h through the use of medium conditioned by β-tricalcium phosphate/bioactive glass. Cell viability was measured by MTT assay in the cells and the data obtained were submitted to ANOVA, Tukey׳s multiple comparison (p<0.05). The β-TCP/7.5-BG promoted an increase of cell proliferation. The results suggest that compositions and processing method studied may provide appropriate materials for tissue engineering. PMID:27161958

  10. TCP Performance Enhancement Over Iridium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torgerson, Leigh; Hutcherson, Joseph; McKelvey, James

    2007-01-01

    In support of iNET maturation, NASA-JPL has collaborated with NASA-Dryden to develop, test and demonstrate an over-the-horizon vehicle-to-ground networking capability, using Iridium as the vehicle-to-ground communications link for relaying critical vehicle telemetry. To ensure reliability concerns are met, the Space Communications Protocol Standards (SCPS) transport protocol was investigated for its performance characteristics in this environment. In particular, the SCPS-TP software performance was compared to that of the standard Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) over the Internet Protocol (IP). This paper will report on the results of this work.

  11. On the Generation and Use of TCP Acknowledgments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allman, Mark

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents a simulation study of various TCP acknowledgment generation and utilization techniques. We investigate the standard version of TCP and the two standard acknowledgment strategies employed by receivers: those that acknowledge each incoming segment and those that implement delayed acknowledgments. We show the delayed acknowledgment mechanism hurts TCP performance, especially during slow start. Next we examine three alternate mechanisms for generating and using acknowledgments designed to mitigate the negative impact of delayed acknowledgments. The first method is to generate delayed ACKs only when the sender is not using the slow start algorithm. The second mechanism, called byte counting, allows TCP senders to increase the amount of data being injected into the network based on the amount of data acknowledged rather than on the number of acknowledgments received. The last mechanism is a limited form of byte counting. Each of these mechanisms is evaluated in a simulated network with no competing traffic, as well as a dynamic environment with a varying amount of competing traffic. We study the costs and benefits of the alternate mechanisms when compared to the standard algorithm with delayed ACKs.

  12. Efficacy of Honeycomb TCP-induced Microenvironment on Bone Tissue Regeneration in Craniofacial Area

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Satoko; Takabatake, Kiyofumi; Tsujigiwa, Hidetsugu; Watanabe, Toshiyuki; Tokuyama, Eijiro; Ito, Satoshi; Nagatsuka, Hitoshi; Kimata, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    Artificial bone materials that exhibit high biocompatibility have been developed and are being widely used for bone tissue regeneration. However, there are no biomaterials that are minimally invasive and safe. In a previous study, we succeeded in developing honeycomb β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) which has through-and-through holes and is able to mimic the bone microenvironment for bone tissue regeneration. In the present study, we investigated how the difference in hole-diameter of honeycomb β-TCP (hole-diameter: 75, 300, 500, and 1600 μm) influences bone tissue regeneration histologically. Its osteoconductivity was also evaluated by implantation into zygomatic bone defects in rats. The results showed that the maximum bone formation was observed on the β-TCP with hole-diameter 300μm, included bone marrow-like tissue and the pattern of bone tissue formation similar to host bone. Therefore, the results indicated that we could control bone tissue formation by creating a bone microenvironment provided by β-TCP. Also, in zygomatic bone defect model with honeycomb β-TCP, the result showed there was osseous union and the continuity was reproduced between the both edges of resected bone and β-TCP, which indicated the zygomatic bone reproduction fully succeeded. It is thus thought that honeycomb β-TCP may serve as an excellent biomaterial for bone tissue regeneration in the head, neck and face regions, expected in clinical applications. PMID:27279797

  13. Efficacy of Honeycomb TCP-induced Microenvironment on Bone Tissue Regeneration in Craniofacial Area.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Satoko; Takabatake, Kiyofumi; Tsujigiwa, Hidetsugu; Watanabe, Toshiyuki; Tokuyama, Eijiro; Ito, Satoshi; Nagatsuka, Hitoshi; Kimata, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    Artificial bone materials that exhibit high biocompatibility have been developed and are being widely used for bone tissue regeneration. However, there are no biomaterials that are minimally invasive and safe. In a previous study, we succeeded in developing honeycomb β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) which has through-and-through holes and is able to mimic the bone microenvironment for bone tissue regeneration. In the present study, we investigated how the difference in hole-diameter of honeycomb β-TCP (hole-diameter: 75, 300, 500, and 1600 μm) influences bone tissue regeneration histologically. Its osteoconductivity was also evaluated by implantation into zygomatic bone defects in rats. The results showed that the maximum bone formation was observed on the β-TCP with hole-diameter 300μm, included bone marrow-like tissue and the pattern of bone tissue formation similar to host bone. Therefore, the results indicated that we could control bone tissue formation by creating a bone microenvironment provided by β-TCP. Also, in zygomatic bone defect model with honeycomb β-TCP, the result showed there was osseous union and the continuity was reproduced between the both edges of resected bone and β-TCP, which indicated the zygomatic bone reproduction fully succeeded. It is thus thought that honeycomb β-TCP may serve as an excellent biomaterial for bone tissue regeneration in the head, neck and face regions, expected in clinical applications. PMID:27279797

  14. TCP is hardly resorbed and not osteoconductive in a non-loading calvarial model.

    PubMed

    Handschel, Jörg; Wiesmann, Hans Peter; Stratmann, Udo; Kleinheinz, Johannes; Meyer, Ulrich; Joos, Ulrich

    2002-04-01

    Tricalciumphosphate (TCP) has been used as a ceramic bone substitute material in the orthopedic field as well as in craniofacial surgery. Some controversies exist concerning the osteoconductive potential of this material in different implantation sites. This study was designed to evaluate the biological response of calvarial bone towards TCP granules under non-loading conditions to assess the potential of TCP as a biodegredable and osteoconductive bone substitue material for the cranial vault. Full-thickness non-critical size defects were made bilaterally in the calvaria of 21 adult Wistar rats. One side was filled by TCP granules, the contralateral side was left empty and used as a control. Animals were sacrified in defined time intervals up to 6 months. Bone regeneration was analyzed with special respect toward the micromorphological and microanalytical features of the material-bone interaction by electron microscopy and electron diffraction analysis. Histologic examination revealed no TCP degradation even after 6 months of implantation. In contrast, a nearly complete bone regeneration of control defects was found after 6 months. At all times TCP was surrounded by a thin fibrous layer without presence of osteoblasts and features of regular mineralization. As far as degradation and substitution are concerned, TCP is a less favourable material tinder conditions of non-loading. PMID:11922472

  15. Bone engineering by phosphorylated-pullulan and β-TCP composite.

    PubMed

    Takahata, Tomohiro; Okihara, Takumi; Yoshida, Yasuhiro; Yoshihara, Kumiko; Shiozaki, Yasuyuki; Yoshida, Aki; Yamane, Kentaro; Watanabe, Noriyuki; Yoshimura, Masahide; Nakamura, Mariko; Irie, Masao; Van Meerbeek, Bart; Tanaka, Masato; Ozaki, Toshifumi; Matsukawa, Akihiro

    2015-12-01

    A multifunctional biomaterial with the capacity bond to hard tissues, such as bones and teeth, is a real need for medical and dental applications in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Recently, we created phosphorylated-pullulan (PPL), capable of binding to hydroxyapatite in bones and teeth. In the present study, we employed PPL as a novel biocompatible material for bone engineering. First, an in vitro evaluation of the mechanical properties of PPL demonstrated both PPL and PPL/β-TCP composites have higher shear bond strength than materials in current clinical use, including polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) cement and α-tricalcium phosphate (TCP) cement, Biopex-R. Further, the compressive strength of PPL/β-TCP composite was significantly higher than Biopex-R. Next, in vivo osteoconductivity of PPL/β-TCP composite was investigated in a murine intramedular injection model. Bone formation was observed 5 weeks after injection of PPL/β-TCP composite, which was even more evident at 8 weeks; whereas, no bone formation was detected after injection of PPL alone. We then applied PPL/β-TCP composite to a rabbit ulnar bone defect model and observed bone formation comparable to that induced by Biopex-R. Implantation of PPL/β-TCP composite induced new bone formation at 4 weeks, which was remarkably evident at 8 weeks. In contrast, Biopex-R remained isolated from the surrounding bone at 8 weeks. In a pig vertebral bone defect model, defects treated with PPL/β-TCP composite were almost completely replaced by new bone; whereas, PPL alone failed to induce bone formation. Collectively, our results suggest PPL/β-TCP composite may be useful for bone engineering. PMID:26586655

  16. Biofabrication of a PLGA-TCP-based porous bioactive bone substitute with sustained release of icaritin.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xin-Hui; Wang, Xin-Luan; Zhang, Ge; He, Yi-Xin; Leng, Yang; Tang, Ting-Ting; Pan, Xiaohua; Qin, Ling

    2015-08-01

    A phytomolecule, icaritin, has been identified and shown to be osteopromotive for the prevention of osteoporosis and osteonecrosis. This study aimed to produce a bioactive poly (l-lactide-co-glycolide)-tricalcium phosphate (PLGA-TCP)-based porous scaffold incorporating the osteopromotive phytomolecule icaritin, using a fine spinning technology. Both the structure and the composition of icaritin-releasing PLGA-TCP-based scaffolds were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The porosity was quantified by both water absorption and micro-computed tomography (micro-CT). The mechanical properties were evaluated using a compression test. In vitro release of icaritin from the PLGA-TCP scaffold was quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The attachment, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) on the composite scaffold were evaluated. Both an in vitro cytotoxicity test and an in vivo test via muscular implantation were conducted to confirm the scaffold's biocompatibility. The results showed that the PLGA-TCP-icaritin composite scaffold was porous, with interconnected macro- (about 480 µm) and micropores (2-15 µm). The mechanical properties of the PLGA-TCP-icaritin scaffold were comparable with those of the pure PLGA-TCP scaffold, yet was spinning direction-dependent. Icaritin content was detected in the medium and increased with time. The PLGA-TCP-icaritin scaffold facilitated the attachment, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs. In vitro cytotoxicity test and in vivo intramuscular implantation showed that the composite scaffold had no toxicity with good biocompatibility. In conclusion, an osteopromotive phytomolecule, icaritin, was successfully incorporated into PLGA-TCP to form an innovative porous composite scaffold with sustained release of osteopromotive icaritin, and this scaffold had good biocompatibility and osteopromotion, suggesting its potential for orthopaedic

  17. 10 Gbps TCP/IP streams from the FPGA for the CMS DAQ eventbuilder network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, G.; Bawej, T.; Behrens, U.; Branson, J.; Chaze, O.; Cittolin, S.; Coarasa, J. A.; Darlea, G.-L.; Deldicque, C.; Dobson, M.; Dupont, A.; Erhan, S.; Gigi, D.; Glege, F.; Gomez-Ceballos, G.; Gomez-Reino, R.; Hartl, C.; Hegeman, J.; Holzner, A.; Masetti, L.; Meijers, F.; Meschi, E.; Mommsen, R. K.; Morovic, S.; Nunez-Barranco-Fernandez, C.; O'Dell, V.; Orsini, L.; Ozga, W.; Paus, C.; Petrucci, A.; Pieri, M.; Racz, A.; Raginel, O.; Sakulin, H.; Sani, M.; Schwick, C.; Spataru, A. C.; Stieger, B.; Sumorok, K.; Veverka, J.; Wakefield, C. C.; Zejdl, P.

    2013-12-01

    For the upgrade of the DAQ of the CMS experiment in 2013/2014 an interface between the custom detector Front End Drivers (FEDs) and the new DAQ eventbuilder network has to be designed. For a loss-less data collection from more then 600 FEDs a new FPGA based card implementing the TCP/IP protocol suite over 10Gbps Ethernet has been developed. We present the hardware challenges and protocol modifications made to TCP in order to simplify its FPGA implementation together with a set of performance measurements which were carried out with the current prototype.

  18. Influence of oxide-based sintering additives on densification and mechanical behavior of tricalcium phosphate (TCP).

    PubMed

    Bhatt, Himesh A; Kalita, Samar J

    2007-05-01

    In this research, we studied and analyzed the effects of four different oxide-based sintering additives on densification, mechanical behavior, biodegradation and biocompatibility of tricalcium phosphate (TCP) bioceramics. Selective sintering additives were introduced into pure TCP ceramics, in small quantities, through homogeneous mixing, using a mortar and pestle. The consequent powders of different compositions were pressed into cylindrical compacts, uniaxially and sintered at elevated temperatures, 1150 degrees C and 1250 degrees C, separately in a muffle furnace. X-ray powder diffraction technique was used to analyze the phase-purity of TCP after sintering. Hardness of these sintered specimens was evaluated using a Vickers hardness tester. Sintered cylindrical samples were tested under uniaxial compressive loading, as a function of composition to determine their failure strength. Biodegradation studies conducted using simulated body fluid under dynamic environment, revealed that these additives could control the rate of resorption and hardness degradation of TCP ceramics. PMID:17211718

  19. Fluoride Plus Functionalized β-TCP

    PubMed Central

    Karlinsey, R.L.; Pfarrer, A.M.

    2012-01-01

    With more than 50 years of clinical success, fluoride serves as the gold standard agent for preventing tooth decay. In particular, the action of fluoride facilitates saliva-driven remineralization of demineralized enamel and alters solubility beneficially. Still, tooth decay remains problematic, and one way to address it may be through the development of new mineralizing agents. Laboratory and clinical studies have demonstrated that the combination of fluoride and functionalized β-tricalcium phosphate (fTCP) produces stronger, more acid-resistant mineral relative to fluoride, native β-TCP, or fTCP alone. In contrast to other calcium-based approaches that seem to rely on high levels of calcium and phosphate to drive remineralization, fTCP is a low-dose system designed to fit within existing topical fluoride preparations. The functionalization of β-TCP with organic and/or inorganic molecules provides a barrier that prevents premature fluoride-calcium interactions and aids in mineralization when applied via common preparations and procedures. While additional clinical studies are warranted, supplementing with fTCP to enhance fluoride-based nucleation activity, with subsequent remineralization driven by dietary and salivary calcium and phosphate, appears to be a promising approach. PMID:22899679

  20. Evaluation of optimum profile modification curves of profile shifted spur gears based on vibration responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Hui; Pang, Xu; Feng, Ranjiao; Wen, Bangchun

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, a mesh stiffness model is developed for profile shifted gears with addendum modifications and tooth profile modifications (TPMs). The time-varying mesh stiffness (TVMS), load sharing factor (LSF), loaded static transmission error (LSTE) and non-loaded static transmission error (NLSTE) of a profile shifted spur gear pair with TPMs are obtained by the analytical model. The optimum profile modification curve under different amounts of TPM is determined by analyzing the LSTE first. Then, considering the effect of NLSTE, finite element (FE) model of a geared rotor system is established. The system vibration responses under different TPM curves are analyzed and the optimum modification curve is further evaluated by amplitude frequency responses. The results show that the optimum modification curve is related to the amount of TPM and modification coefficients. The comparison of the optimum profile modification curves is evaluated by LSTE and vibration responses, which shows that the optimum modification curve should be determined by evaluating the vibration response of the geared rotor system in the low mesh frequency range.

  1. Experiences with TCP/IP over an ATM OC12 WAN

    SciTech Connect

    Nitzan, Rebecca L.; Tierney, Brian L.

    1999-12-23

    This paper discusses the performance testing experiences of a 622.08 Mbps OC12 link. The link will be used for large bulk data transfer, and as such, of interest are both the ATM level throughput rates and end-to-end TCP/IP throughput rates. Tests were done to evaluate the ATM switches, the IP routers, the end hosts, as well as the underlying ATM service provided by the carrier. A low level of cell loss, (resulting in <.01 % packet loss), decreased the TCP throughput rate considerably when one TCP flow was trying to use the entire OC12 bandwidth. Identifying and correcting cell loss in the network proved to be extremely difficult. TCP Selective Acknowledgement (SACK) improved performance dramatically, and the maximum throughput rate increased from 300 Mbps to 400 Mbps. The effects of TCP slow start on performance at OC12 rates are also examined, and found to be insignificant for very large file transfers (e.g., for a 10 GB file). Finally, a history of TCP performance over high-speed networks is presented.

  2. ATM QoS Experiments Using TCP Applications: Performance of TCP/IP Over ATM in a Variety of Errored Links

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frantz, Brian D.; Ivancic, William D.

    2001-01-01

    Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) Quality of Service (QoS) experiments using the Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) were performed for various link delays. The link delay was set to emulate a Wide Area Network (WAN) and a Satellite Link. The purpose of these experiments was to evaluate the ATM QoS requirements for applications that utilize advance TCP/IP protocols implemented with large windows and Selective ACKnowledgements (SACK). The effects of cell error, cell loss, and random bit errors on throughput were reported. The detailed test plan and test results are presented herein.

  3. Dynamics of TCP traffic over ATM networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanow, Allyn; Floyd, Sally

    1995-05-01

    We investigate the performance of TCP connections over ATM networks without ATM-level congestion control and compare it to the performance of TCP over packet-based networks. For simulations of congested networks, the effective throughput of TCP over ATM can be quite low when cells are dropped at the congested ATM switch. The low throughput is due to wasted bandwidth as the congested link transmits cells from 'corrupted' packets, i.e., packets in which at least one cell is dropped by the switch. We investigate two packet-discard strategies that alleviate the effects of fragmentation. Partial packet discard, in which remaining cells are discarded after one cell has been dropped from a packet, somewhat improves throughput. We introduce early packet discard, a strategy in which the switch drops whole packets prior to buffer overflow. This mechanism prevents fragmentation and restores throughput to maximal levels.

  4. Soft Tissue Augmentation with Autologous Platelet Gel and β-TCP: A Histologic and Histometric Study in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ceccarelli, Maurizio; Marchetti, Massimiliano; Piattelli, Adriano; Mortellaro, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Background. Facial aging is a dynamic process involving both soft tissue and bony structures. Skin atrophy, with loss of tone, elasticity, and distribution of facial fat, coupled with gravity and muscle activity, leads to wrinkling and folds. Purpose. The aim of the study was to evaluate microporous tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) and autologous platelet gel (APG) mix in mice for oral and maxillofacial soft tissue augmentation. The hypothesis was that β-TCP added with APG was able to increase the biostimulating effect on fibroblasts and quicken resorption. Materials and Methods. Ten female, 6–8-week-old black-haired mice were selected. β-TCP/APG gel was injected into one cheek; the other was used as control. The animals were sacrificed at 8 weeks and histologically evaluated. Results. The new fibroblast was intensively stained with acid fuchsin and presented in contact with β-TCP. At higher magnification, actively secreting fibroblasts were observed at the periphery of β-TCP with a well differentiated fibroblast cell line and blood vessels. Acid fuchsin stained cutaneous structures in pink: no epidermal/dermal alterations or pathological inflammatory infiltrates were detected. The margins of β-TCP granules were clear and not diffused near tissues. Conclusion. APG with β-TCP preserves skin morphology, without immune response, with an excellent tolerability and is a promising scaffold for cells and biomaterial for soft tissue augmentation. PMID:27478828

  5. Soft Tissue Augmentation with Autologous Platelet Gel and β-TCP: A Histologic and Histometric Study in Mice.

    PubMed

    Scarano, Antonio; Ceccarelli, Maurizio; Marchetti, Massimiliano; Piattelli, Adriano; Mortellaro, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Background. Facial aging is a dynamic process involving both soft tissue and bony structures. Skin atrophy, with loss of tone, elasticity, and distribution of facial fat, coupled with gravity and muscle activity, leads to wrinkling and folds. Purpose. The aim of the study was to evaluate microporous tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) and autologous platelet gel (APG) mix in mice for oral and maxillofacial soft tissue augmentation. The hypothesis was that β-TCP added with APG was able to increase the biostimulating effect on fibroblasts and quicken resorption. Materials and Methods. Ten female, 6-8-week-old black-haired mice were selected. β-TCP/APG gel was injected into one cheek; the other was used as control. The animals were sacrificed at 8 weeks and histologically evaluated. Results. The new fibroblast was intensively stained with acid fuchsin and presented in contact with β-TCP. At higher magnification, actively secreting fibroblasts were observed at the periphery of β-TCP with a well differentiated fibroblast cell line and blood vessels. Acid fuchsin stained cutaneous structures in pink: no epidermal/dermal alterations or pathological inflammatory infiltrates were detected. The margins of β-TCP granules were clear and not diffused near tissues. Conclusion. APG with β-TCP preserves skin morphology, without immune response, with an excellent tolerability and is a promising scaffold for cells and biomaterial for soft tissue augmentation. PMID:27478828

  6. TCP14 and TCP15 affect internode length and leaf shape in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Kieffer, Martin; Master, Vera; Waites, Richard; Davies, Brendan

    2011-01-01

    TCP transcription factors constitute a small family of plant-specific bHLH-containing, DNA-binding proteins that have been implicated in the control of cell proliferation in plants. Despite the significant role that is likely to be played by genes that control cell division in the elaboration of plant architecture, functional analysis of this family by forward and reverse genetics has been hampered by genetic redundancy. Here we show that mutants in two related class I TCP genes display a range of growth-related phenotypes, consistent with their dynamic expression patterns; these phenotypes are enhanced in the double mutant. Together, the two genes influence plant stature by promoting cell division in young internodes. Reporter gene analysis and use of SRDX fusions suggested that TCP14 and TCP15 modulate cell proliferation in the developing leaf blade and specific floral tissues; a role that was not apparent in our phenotypic analysis of single or double mutants. However, when the relevant mutants were subjected to computer-aided morphological analysis of the leaves, the consequences of loss of either or both genes became obvious. The effects on cell proliferation of perturbing the function of TCP14 and TCP15 vary with tissue, as has been suggested for other TCP factors. These findings indicate that the precise elaboration of plant form is dependent on the cumulative influence of many TCP factors acting in a context-dependent fashion. The study highlights the need for advanced methods of phenotypic analysis in order to characterize phenotypes and to construct a dynamic model for TCP gene function. PMID:21668538

  7. Enhanced TCP for maritime communications over satellite network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zong, Liang; Du, Wencai; Bai, Yong

    2014-10-01

    For maritime communications over satellite network, TCP performance is essential for data transmissions. TCP ADaLR is congestion control algorithm that the sender judgments the relevant window change and measures roundtrip time to control congestion window. It can adapt to the characteristics of the satellite link and improve the performance of TCP than conventional TCP. However, it does not take into account distinction of random packet loss and congestion loss like TCP Veno. In this paper, we propose further enhancement of TCP ADaLR, called TCP ADaLR+, that can distinguish between random packet loss and congestion loss. The improved performance of proposed TCP ADaLR+ is demonstrated by simulations.

  8. THE FAILURE OF TCP IN HIGH-PERFORMANCE COMPUTATIONAL GRIDS

    SciTech Connect

    W. FENG; ET AL

    2000-08-01

    Distributed computational grids depend on TCP to ensure reliable end-to-end communication between nodes across the wide-area network (WAN). Unfortunately, TCP performance can be abysmal even when buffers on the end hosts are manually optimized. Recent studies blame the self-similar nature of aggregate network traffic for TCP's poor performance because such traffic is not readily amenable to statistical multiplexing in the Internet, and hence computational grids. In this paper we identify a source of self-similarity previously ignored, a source that is readily controllable--TCP. Via an experimental study, we examine the effects of the TCP stack on network traffic using different implementations of TCP. We show that even when aggregate application traffic ought to smooth out as more applications' traffic are multiplexed, TCP induces burstiness into the aggregate traffic loud, thus adversely impacting network performance. Furthermore, our results indicate that TCP performance will worsen as WAN speeds continue to increase.

  9. Immunizing adult female mice with a TcpA-A2-CTB chimera provides a high level of protection for their pups in the infant mouse model of cholera.

    PubMed

    Price, Gregory A; Holmes, Randall K

    2014-12-01

    Vibrio cholerae expresses two primary virulence factors, cholera toxin (CT) and the toxin-coregulated pilus (TCP). CT causes profuse watery diarrhea, and TCP (composed of repeating copies of the major pilin TcpA) is required for intestinal colonization by V. cholerae. Antibodies to CT or TcpA can protect against cholera in animal models. We developed a TcpA holotoxin-like chimera (TcpA-A2-CTB) to elicit both anti-TcpA and anti-CTB antibodies and evaluated its immunogenicity and protective efficacy in the infant mouse model of cholera. Adult female CD-1 mice were immunized intraperitoneally three times with the TcpA-A2-CTB chimera and compared with similar groups immunized with a TcpA+CTB mixture, TcpA alone, TcpA with Salmonella typhimurium flagellin subunit FliC as adjuvant, or CTB alone. Blood and fecal samples were analyzed for antigen-specific IgG or IgA, respectively, using quantitative ELISA. Immunized females were mated; their reared offspring were challenged orogastrically with 10 or 20 LD50 of V. cholerae El Tor N16961; and vaccine efficacy was assessed by survival of the challenged pups at 48 hrs. All pups from dams immunized with the TcpA-A2-CTB chimera or the TcpA+CTB mixture survived at both challenge doses. In contrast, no pups from dams immunized with TcpA+FliC or CTB alone survived at the 20 LD50 challenge dose, although the anti-TcpA or anti-CTB antibody level elicited by these immunizations was comparable to the corresponding antibody level achieved by immunization with TcpA-A2-CTB or TcpA+CTB. Taken together, these findings comprise strong preliminary evidence for synergistic action between anti-TcpA and anti-CTB antibodies in protecting mice against cholera. Weight loss analysis showed that only immunization of dams with TcpA-A2-CTB chimera or TcpA+CTB mixture protected their pups against excess weight loss from severe diarrhea. These data support the concept of including both TcpA and CTB as immunogens in development of an effective multivalent

  10. Hospital-Based Behavior Modification Program for Adolescents: Evaluation and Predictors of Outcome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Ansari, Ahmed; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Evaluates a short-term residential program utilizing a behavior modification program in an outpatient unit for adolescents with mostly conduct problems. Evaluation indicated predictors of outcome, including: age, gender, diagnosis, length of stay, father's presence, other treatments received, and presence of learning problems. Factors such as…

  11. Rendezvous radar modification and evaluation. [for space shuttles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The purpose of this effort was to continue the implementation and evaluation of the changes necessary to add the non-cooperative mode capability with frequency diversity and a doppler filter bank to the Apollo Rendezvous Radar while retaining the cooperative mode capability.

  12. Running TCP/IP over ATM Networks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witt, Michael

    1995-01-01

    Discusses Internet protocol (IP) and subnets and describes how IP may operate over asynchronous transfer mode (ATM). Topics include TCP (transmission control protocol), ATM cells and adaptation layers, a basic architectural model for IP over ATM, address resolution, mapping IP to a subnet technology, and connection management strategy. (LRW)

  13. Detecting Intermediary Hosts by TCP Latency Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Gurvinder; Eian, Martin; Willassen, Svein Y.; Mjølsnes, Stig Fr.

    Use of intermediary hosts as stepping stones to conceal tracks is common in Internet misuse. It is therefore desirable to find a method to detect whether the originating party is using an intermediary host. Such a detection technique would allow the activation of a number of countermeasures that would neutralize the effects of misuse, and make it easier to trace a perpetrator. This work explores a new approach in determining if a host communicating via TCP is the data originator or if it is acting as a mere TCP proxy. The approach is based on measuring the inter packet arrival time at the receiving end of the connection only, and correlating the observed results with the network latency between the receiver and the proxy. The results presented here indicate that determining the use of a proxy host is possible, if the network latency between the originator and proxy is larger than the network latency between the proxy and the receiver. We show that this technique has potential to be used to detect connections were data is sent through a TCP proxy, such as remote login through TCP proxies, or rejecting spam sent through a bot network.

  14. Security labeling in TCP/IP networks

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, C.D.

    1989-01-30

    TCP/IP is the name commonly used to refer to a suite of networking protocols that was originally developed under the auspices of the Department of Defense for use on the Arpanet. These protocols are in wide use today on a large number of networks and have become accepted as a de facto industry standard. The Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) occupies the transport layer in the protocol suite, and the Internet Protocol (IP) occupies the network layer. In addition, there are a wide variety of other protocols in the DDN protocol suite. For example, the Unreliable Datagram Protocol (UDP) is alternative transport layer protocol that provides a simple unreliable datagram (packet) delivery service and uses the services of IP. The File Transport Protocol (FTP) and TELNET are application layer protocols that provide for file transfers and interactive logins, respectively, across a network using the services of TCP and IP. In this paper, we will discuss security labeling in a TCP/IP network with emphasis on the attempts to standardize labels at the IP layer; however, we will also discuss some of the issues relating to application protocols and privileged server processes in host computer systems. 4 refs., 1 fig.

  15. Evaluation of Proteomic Search Engines for the Analysis of Histone Modifications

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Identification of histone post-translational modifications (PTMs) is challenging for proteomics search engines. Including many histone PTMs in one search increases the number of candidate peptides dramatically, leading to low search speed and fewer identified spectra. To evaluate database search engines on identifying histone PTMs, we present a method in which one kind of modification is searched each time, for example, unmodified, individually modified, and multimodified, each search result is filtered with false discovery rate less than 1%, and the identifications of multiple search engines are combined to obtain confident results. We apply this method for eight search engines on histone data sets. We find that two search engines, pFind and Mascot, identify most of the confident results at a reasonable speed, so we recommend using them to identify histone modifications. During the evaluation, we also find some important aspects for the analysis of histone modifications. Our evaluation of different search engines on identifying histone modifications will hopefully help those who are hoping to enter the histone proteomics field. The mass spectrometry proteomics data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange Consortium with the data set identifier PXD001118. PMID:25167464

  16. Evaluation of proteomic search engines for the analysis of histone modifications.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Zuo-Fei; Lin, Shu; Molden, Rosalynn C; Garcia, Benjamin A

    2014-10-01

    Identification of histone post-translational modifications (PTMs) is challenging for proteomics search engines. Including many histone PTMs in one search increases the number of candidate peptides dramatically, leading to low search speed and fewer identified spectra. To evaluate database search engines on identifying histone PTMs, we present a method in which one kind of modification is searched each time, for example, unmodified, individually modified, and multimodified, each search result is filtered with false discovery rate less than 1%, and the identifications of multiple search engines are combined to obtain confident results. We apply this method for eight search engines on histone data sets. We find that two search engines, pFind and Mascot, identify most of the confident results at a reasonable speed, so we recommend using them to identify histone modifications. During the evaluation, we also find some important aspects for the analysis of histone modifications. Our evaluation of different search engines on identifying histone modifications will hopefully help those who are hoping to enter the histone proteomics field. The mass spectrometry proteomics data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange Consortium with the data set identifier PXD001118. PMID:25167464

  17. Nano SiO2 and MgO Improve the Properties of Porous β-TCP Scaffolds via Advanced Manufacturing Technology

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Chengde; Wei, Pingpin; Feng, Pei; Xiao, Tao; Shuai, Cijun; Peng, Shuping

    2015-01-01

    Nano SiO2 and MgO particles were incorporated into β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) scaffolds to improve the mechanical and biological properties. The porous cylindrical β-TCP scaffolds doped with 0.5 wt % SiO2, 1.0 wt % MgO, 0.5 wt % SiO2 + 1.0 wt % MgO were fabricated via selective laser sintering respectively and undoped β-TCP scaffold was also prepared as control. The phase composition and mechanical strength of the scaffolds were evaluated. X-ray diffraction analysis indicated that the phase transformation from β-TCP to α-TCP was inhibited after the addition of MgO. The compressive strength of scaffold was improved from 3.12 ± 0.36 MPa (β-TCP) to 5.74 ± 0.62 MPa (β-TCP/SiO2), 9.02 ± 0.55 MPa (β-TCP/MgO) and 10.43 ± 0.28 MPa (β-TCP/SiO2/MgO), respectively. The weight loss and apatite-forming ability of the scaffolds were evaluated by soaking them in simulated body fluid. The results demonstrated that both SiO2 and MgO dopings slowed down the degradation rate and improved the bioactivity of β-TCP scaffolds. In vitro cell culture studies indicated that SiO2 and MgO dopings facilitated cell attachment and proliferation. Combined addition of SiO2 and MgO were found optimal in enhancing both the mechanical and biological properties of β-TCP scaffold. PMID:25815597

  18. Modification and performance evaluation of a mono-valve engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behrens, Justin W.

    A four-stroke engine utilizing one tappet valve for both the intake and exhaust gas exchange processes has been built and evaluated. The engine operates under its own power, but has a reduced power capacity than the conventional 2-valve engine. The reduction in power is traced to higher than expected amounts of exhaust gases flowing back into the intake system. Design changes to the cylinder head will fix the back flow problems, but the future capacity of mono-valve engine technology cannot be estimated. The back flow of exhaust gases increases the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) rate and deteriorates combustion. Intake pressure data shows the mono-valve engine requires an advanced intake valve closing (IVC) time to prevent back flow of charge air. A single actuation camshaft with advanced IVC was tested in the mono-valve engine, and was found to improve exhaust scavenging at TDC and nearly eliminated all charge air back flow at IVC. The optimum IVC timing is shown to be approximately 30 crank angle degrees after BDC. The mono-valve cylinder head utilizes a rotary valve positioned above the tappet valve. The open spaces inside the rotary valveand between the rotary valve and tappet valve represent a common volume that needs to be reduced in order to reduce the base EGR rate. Multiple rotary valve configurations were tested, and the size of the common volume was found to have no effect on back flow but a direct effect on the EGR rate and engine performance. The position of the rotary valve with respect to crank angle has a direct effect on the scavenging process. Optimum scavenging occurs when the intake port is opened just after TDC.

  19. Beneficial effects of TCP on soman intoxication in guinea pigs: seizures, brain damage and learning behaviour.

    PubMed

    de Groot, D M; Bierman, E P; Bruijnzeel, P L; Carpentier, P; Kulig, B M; Lallement, G; Melchers, B P; Philippens, I H; van Huygevoort, A H

    2001-12-01

    Poisoning with the potent nerve agent soman produces a cascade of central nervous system (CNS) effects characterized by severe convulsions and eventually death. In animals that survive a soman intoxication, lesions in the amygdala, piriform cortex, hippocampus and thalamus can be observed. In order to examine the mechanisms involved in the effects of soman and to evaluate possible curative interventions, a series of behavioural, electrophysiological and neuropathological experiments were carried out in the guinea pig using the NMDA antagonist N-[1-(2-thienyl)cyclohexyl] piperidine (TCP) in conjunction with atropine and pyridostigmine. The NMDA antagonist TCP appeared to be very effective in the treatment of casualties who suffered from soman-induced seizures for 30 min: (i)Seizures were arrested within minutes after the TCP injection, confirmed by quantitative electroencephalogram (EEG), after fast Fourier analysis. Three hours after TCP the quantitative EEGs were completely normal in all frequency bands and remained normal during the entire 3-week intoxication period. The power shift to the lower (delta) frequency bands, indicative for neuropathology and found in control animals intoxicated only by soman, was not observed in the soman-TCP group. (ii)The gross neuropathology found in soman control animals within 48 h after soman was prevented in soman-TCP animals and was still absent in 3-week survivors. Instead, ultrastructural changes were observed, indicative of defense mechanisms of the cell against toxic circumstances. (iii)Twenty-four hours after soman, soman-TCP animals were able to perform in the shuttle box and Morris water maze. The beneficial effects of TCP on the performance in these tests during the 3-week intoxication period were very impressive, notwithstanding (minor) deficits in memory and learning. (iv)The increase in excitability after TCP was confirmed by an increase in the acoustic startle response. Taken together, these results confirmed the

  20. EVALUATION OF COMBUSTION MODIFICATION EFFECTS ON EMISSIONS AND EFFICIENCY OF WOOD-FIRED INDUSTRIAL BOILERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of full-scale tests to evaluate combustion modifications (lower excess air and variations in the overfire air system operation) for emission control and efficiency enhancement on two wood-fired industrial boilers. Polycyclic organic matter (POM) was sampl...

  1. Variation of mechanical behavior of β-TCP/collagen two phase composite scaffold with mesenchymal stem cell in vitro.

    PubMed

    Arahira, Takaaki; Todo, Mitsugu

    2016-08-01

    The primary aim of this study is to characterize the variational behavior of the compressive mechanical property of bioceramic-based scaffolds using stem cells during the cell culture period. β-Tricalcium phosphate (TCP)/collagen two phase composites and β-TCP scaffolds were fabricated using the polyurethane template technique and a subsequent freeze-drying method. Rat bone-marrow mesenchymal stem cells (rMSCs) were then cultured in these scaffolds for up to 28 days. Compression tests of the scaffolds with rMSCs were periodically conducted. Biological properties, such as the cell number, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and gene expressions of osteogenesis, were evaluated. The microstructural change due to cell growth and the formation of extracellular matrices was examined using a field-emission scanning electron microscope. The compressive property was then correlated with the biological properties and microstructures to understand the mechanism of the variational behavior of the macroscopic mechanical property. The porous collagen structure in the β-TCP scaffold effectively improved the structural stability of the composite scaffold, whereas the β-TCP scaffold exhibited structural instability with the collapse of the porous structure when immersed in a culture medium. The β-TCP/collagen composite scaffold exhibited higher ALP activity and more active generation of osteoblastic markers than the β-TCP scaffold. PMID:27124803

  2. Understanding In Vivo Response and Mechanical Property Variation in MgO, SrO and SiO2 doped β-TCP

    PubMed Central

    Bose, Susmita; Tarafder, Solaiman; Banerjee, Shashwat S.; Davies, Neal M.; Bandyopadhyay, Amit

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work is to evaluate the influence of MgO, SrO and SiO2 doping on mechanical and biological properties of β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) to achieve controlled resorption kinetics of β-TCP system for maxillofacial and spinal fusion application. We prepared dense TCP compacts of four different compositions, i) pure β-TCP, ii) β-TCP with 1.0 wt. % MgO + 1.0 wt. % SrO, iii) β-TCP with 1.0 wt. % SrO + 0.5 wt. % SiO2, and iv) β-TCP with 1.0 wt. % MgO + 1.0 wt. % SrO + 0.5 wt. % SiO2, by uniaxial pressing and sintering at 1250 °C. β phase stability is observed at 1250 °C sintering temperature due to MgO doping in β-TCP. In vitro mineralization in simulated body fluid (SBF) for 16 weeks shows excellent apatite growth on undoped and doped samples. Strength degradation of TCP samples in SBF is significantly influenced by both dopant chemistry and amount of dopant. Compressive strengths for all samples show degradation in SBF over the 16 week time period with varying degradation kinetics. MgO/SrO/SiO2 doped sample shows no strength loss, while undoped TCP shows the maximum strength loss from 419 ±28 MPa to 158 ±28 MPa over the 16 week study. In case of MgO/SrO doped TCP, strength loss is slow and gradual. TCP doped with 1.0 wt. % MgO and 1.0 wt. % SrO shows excellent in vivo biocompatibility when tested in male Sprague-Dawley rats for 16 weeks. Histomorphology analysis reveals that MgO/SrO doped TCP promoted osteogenesis by excellent early stage bone remodeling as compared to undoped TCP. PMID:21419884

  3. Performance analysis of TCP traffic and its influence on ONU's energy saving in energy efficient TDM-PON

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alaelddin, Fuad Yousif Mohammed; Newaz, S. H. Shah; Lee, Joohyung; Uddin, Mohammad Rakib; Lee, Gyu Myoung; Choi, Jun Kyun

    2015-12-01

    The majority of the traffic over the Internet is TCP based, which is very sensitive to packet loss and delay. Existing research efforts in TDM-Passive Optical Networks (TDM-PONs) mostly evaluate energy saving and traffic delay performances under different energy saving solutions. However, to the best of our knowledge, how energy saving mechanisms could affect TCP traffic performance in TDM-PONs has hardly been studied. In this paper, by means of our state-of-art OPNET Modular based TDM-PON simulator, we evaluate TCP traffic delay, throughput, and Optical Network Unit (ONU) energy consumption performances in a TDM-PON where energy saving mechanisms are employed in ONUs. Here, we study the performances under commonly used energy saving mechanisms defined in standards for TDM-PONs: cyclic sleep and doze mode. In cyclic sleep mode, we evaluate the performances under two well-known sleep interval length deciding algorithms (i.e. fixed sleep interval (FSI) and exponential sleep interval deciding (ESID)) that an OLT uses to decide sleep interval lengths for an ONU. Findings in this paper put forward the strong relationship among TCP traffic delay, throughput and ONU energy consumption under different sleep interval lengths. Moreover, we reveal that under high TCP traffic, both FSI and ESID will end up showing similar delay, energy and throughput performance. Our findings also show that doze mode can offer better TCP throughput and delay performance at the price of consuming more energy than cyclic sleep mode. In addition, our results provide a glimpse on understanding at what point doze mode becomes futile in improving energy saving of an ONU under TCP traffic. Furthermore, in this paper, we highlight important research issues that should be studied in future research to maximize energy saving in TDM-PONs while meeting traffic Quality of Service requirements.

  4. Evaluation of Gene Modification Strategies for the Development of Low-Alcohol-Wine Yeasts

    PubMed Central

    Kutyna, D. R.; Solomon, M. R.; Black, C. A.; Borneman, A.; Henschke, P. A.; Pretorius, I. S.; Chambers, P. J.

    2012-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae has evolved a highly efficient strategy for energy generation which maximizes ATP energy production from sugar. This adaptation enables efficient energy generation under anaerobic conditions and limits competition from other microorganisms by producing toxic metabolites, such as ethanol and CO2. Yeast fermentative and flavor capacity forms the biotechnological basis of a wide range of alcohol-containing beverages. Largely as a result of consumer demand for improved flavor, the alcohol content of some beverages like wine has increased. However, a global trend has recently emerged toward lowering the ethanol content of alcoholic beverages. One option for decreasing ethanol concentration is to use yeast strains able to divert some carbon away from ethanol production. In the case of wine, we have generated and evaluated a large number of gene modifications that were predicted, or known, to impact ethanol formation. Using the same yeast genetic background, 41 modifications were assessed. Enhancing glycerol production by increasing expression of the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene, GPD1, was the most efficient strategy to lower ethanol concentration. However, additional modifications were needed to avoid negatively affecting wine quality. Two strains carrying several stable, chromosomally integrated modifications showed significantly lower ethanol production in fermenting grape juice. Strain AWRI2531 was able to decrease ethanol concentrations from 15.6% (vol/vol) to 13.2% (vol/vol), whereas AWRI2532 lowered ethanol content from 15.6% (vol/vol) to 12% (vol/vol) in both Chardonnay and Cabernet Sauvignon juices. Both strains, however, produced high concentrations of acetaldehyde and acetoin, which negatively affect wine flavor. Further modifications of these strains allowed reduction of these metabolites. PMID:22729542

  5. Genome-wide analysis of TCP family in tobacco.

    PubMed

    Chen, L; Chen, Y Q; Ding, A M; Chen, H; Xia, F; Wang, W F; Sun, Y H

    2016-01-01

    The TCP family is a transcription factor family, members of which are extensively involved in plant growth and development as well as in signal transduction in the response against many physiological and biochemical stimuli. In the present study, 61 TCP genes were identified in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) genome. Bioinformatic methods were employed for predicting and analyzing the gene structure, gene expression, phylogenetic analysis, and conserved domains of TCP proteins in tobacco. The 61 NtTCP genes were divided into three diverse groups, based on the division of TCP genes in tomato and Arabidopsis, and the results of the conserved domain and sequence analyses further confirmed the classification of the NtTCP genes. The expression pattern of NtTCP also demonstrated that majority of these genes play important roles in all the tissues, while some special genes exercise their functions only in specific tissues. In brief, the comprehensive and thorough study of the TCP family in other plants provides sufficient resources for studying the structure and functions of TCPs in tobacco. PMID:27323069

  6. Development and Characterization of Biphasic Hydroxyapatite/β-TCP Cements

    PubMed Central

    Gallinetti, Sara; Canal, Cristina; Ginebra, Maria-Pau; Ferreira, J

    2014-01-01

    Biphasic calcium phosphate bioceramics composed of hydroxyapatite (HA) and β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) have relevant properties as synthetic bone grafts, such as tunable resorption, bioactivity, and intrinsic osteoinduction. However, they have some limitations associated to their condition of high-temperature ceramics. In this work self-setting Biphasic Calcium Phosphate Cements (BCPCs) with different HA/β-TCP ratios were obtained from self-setting α-TCP/β-TCP pastes. The strategy used allowed synthesizing BCPCs with modulated composition, compressive strength, and specific surface area. Due to its higher solubility, α-TCP was fully hydrolyzed to a calcium-deficient HA (CDHA), whereas β-TCP remained unreacted and completely embedded in the CDHA matrix. Increasing amounts of the non-reacting β-TCP phase resulted in a linear decrease of the compressive strength, in association to the decreasing amount of precipitated HA crystals, which are responsible for the mechanical consolidation of apatitic cements. Ca2+ release and degradation in acidic medium was similar in all the BCPCs within the timeframe studied, although differences might be expected in longer term studies once β-TCP, the more soluble phase was exposed to the surrounding media. PMID:25866411

  7. RATE-ADJUSTMENT ALGORITHM FOR AGGREGATE TCP CONGESTION CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    P. TINNAKORNSRISUPHAP, ET AL

    2000-09-01

    The TCP congestion-control mechanism is an algorithm designed to probe the available bandwidth of the network path that TCP packets traverse. However, it is well-known that the TCP congestion-control mechanism does not perform well on networks with a large bandwidth-delay product due to the slow dynamics in adapting its congestion window, especially for short-lived flows. One promising solution to the problem is to aggregate and share the path information among TCP connections that traverse the same bottleneck path, i.e., Aggregate TCP. However, this paper shows via a queueing analysis of a generalized processor-sharing (GPS) queue with regularly-varying service time that a simple aggregation of local TCP connections together into a single aggregate TCP connection can result in a severe performance degradation. To prevent such a degradation, we introduce a rate-adjustment algorithm. Our simulation confirms that by utilizing our rate-adjustment algorithm on aggregate TCP, connections which would normally receive poor service achieve significant performance improvements without penalizing connections which already receive good service.

  8. Flight evaluation of modifications to a digital electronic engine control system in an F-15 airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burcham, F. W., Jr.; Myers, L. P.; Zeller, J. R.

    1983-01-01

    The third phase of a flight evaluation of a digital electronic engine control system in an F-15 has recently been completed. It was found that digital electronic engine control software logic changes and augmentor hardware improvements resulted in significant improvements in engine operation. For intermediate to maximum power throttle transients, an increase in altitude capability of up to 8000 ft was found, and for idle to maximum transients, an increase of up to 4000 ft was found. A nozzle instability noted in earlier flight testing was investigated on a test engine at NASA Lewis Research Center, a digital electronic engine control software logic change was developed and evaluated, and no instability occurred in the Phase 3 flight evaluation. The backup control airstart modification was evaluated, and gave an improvement of airstart capability by reducing the minimum airspeed for successful airstarts by 50 to 75 knots.

  9. Chitosan Fibers Modified with HAp/β–TCP Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Wawro, Dariusz; Pighinelli, Luciano

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a method for preparing chitosan fibers modified with hydroxyapatite (HAp), tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP), and HAp/β-TCP nanoparticles. Fiber-grade chitosan derived from the northern shrimp (Pandalus borealis) and nanoparticles of tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) and hydroxyapatite (HAp) suspended in a diluted chitosan solution were used in the investigation. Diluted chitosan solution containing nanoparticles of Hap/β-TCP was introduced to a 5.16 wt% solution of chitosan in 3.0 wt% acetic acid. The properties of the spinning solutions were examined. Chitosan fibers modified with nanoparticles of HAp/β-TCP were characterized by a level of tenacity and calcium content one hundred times higher than that of regular chitosan fibers. PMID:22174598

  10. Acrylic bone cements modified with beta-TCP particles encapsulated with poly(ethylene glycol).

    PubMed

    Vázquez, Blanca; Ginebra, María Pau; Gil, Xavier; Planell, Josep Antón; San Román, Julio

    2005-07-01

    Beta-tricalcium phosphate (beta-TCP) has been encapsulated with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) to improve the filler/cement interface, and it was later incorporated to a poly(methyl methacrylate) bone cement in order to obtain cements with improved stability in the long term. Size and size distribution of the agglomerates forming the initial powder was drastically changed after its dispersion in a PEG aqueous solution. Whereas the initial beta-TCP particles had a 584 microm average diameter, the treated particles (TCP-PEG) presented more than 60% of the particles in a range of 2-6 microm. The effect of adding the treated particles to an acrylic cement was evaluated in terms of curing parameters, in vitro behaviour and mechanical performance. The presence of the TCP-PEG particles did not affect either peak temperature or setting time, indicating a good homogeneity of polymerising mass in contrast to the effect observed with the plain beta-TCP particles, which gave rise to higher setting times. In vitro behaviour studies revealed hydration degree values of the modified cements comparable to that of PMMA cements. Early stages of water uptake was Fickian in nature for all the experimental formulations indicating that the water absorption followed a diffusion controlled mechanism. After 3 months of storage in SBF the experimental formulations presented values of compressive strength in the range 76-78 MPa, higher than the minimum required by ISO 5833 (70 MPa) and those of tensile strength in the range 42-48 MPa, higher than the minimum reported for commercial formulations (30 MPa), but no significant differences in the strengths and elastic modulus were observed with the treatment of the filler particles. This observation was confirmed by ESEM analysis of the tensile fracture surfaces, which revealed a rather good cohesion between the bioceramic particles with some gaps around them, independently of the type of particles. The themogravimetric analysis of dry and wet

  11. Human Urine Derived Stem Cells in Combination with β-TCP Can Be Applied for Bone Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Junjie; Zhang, Jieyuan; Li, Haiyan; Zhu, Zhenzhong; Guo, Shangchun; Niu, Xin

    2015-01-01

    Bone tissue engineering requires highly proliferative stem cells that are easy to isolate. Human urine stem cells (USCs) are abundant and can be easily harvested without using an invasive procedure. In addition, in our previous studies, USCs have been proved to be able to differentiate into osteoblasts, chondrocytes, and adipocytes. Therefore, USCs may have great potential and advantages to be applied as a cell source for tissue engineering. However, there are no published studies that describe the interactions between USCs and biomaterials and applications of USCs for bone tissue engineering. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the interactions between USCs with a typical bone tissue engineering scaffold, beta-Tricalcium Phosphate (β-TCP), and to determine whether the USCs seeded onto β-TCP scaffold can promote bone regeneration in a segmental femoral defect of rats. Primary USCs were isolated from urine and seeded on β-TCP scaffolds. Results showed that USCs remained viable and proliferated within β-TCP. The osteogenic differentiation of USCs within the scaffolds was demonstrated by increased alkaline phosphatase activity and calcium content. Furthermore, β-TCP with adherent USCs (USCs/β-TCP) were implanted in a 6-mm critical size femoral defect of rats for 12 weeks. Bone regeneration was determined using X-ray, micro-CT, and histologic analyses. Results further demonstrated that USCs in the scaffolds could enhance new bone formation, which spanned bone defects in 5 out of 11 rats while β-TCP scaffold alone induced modest bone formation. The current study indicated that the USCs can be used as a cell source for bone tissue engineering as they are compatible with bone tissue engineering scaffolds and can stimulate the regeneration of bone in a critical size bone defect. PMID:25970295

  12. Technical evaluation of the CG-47201 6V-92 detroit diesel electronic control (DDEC) propulsion modification. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Latas, R.M.

    1995-03-01

    This report describes the testing and evaluation (TE) of the CG-47201 6V-92 DDEC Propulsion Modification that was conducted at Coast Guard Station Cape May, New Jersey, during the period 8-12 November 1994.

  13. Evaluation of Lower Umatilla River Channel Modifications Below Three Mile Dam, 1984 Annual Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Nigro, Anthony A.; Ward, David L.

    1985-05-01

    This report summarizes results of the first year of a study initiated in September 1984 to evaluate the adequacy of channel modifications made in the lower Umatilla River to improve adult anadromous salmonid passage to Three Mile Dam (RKm 5.6), determine if fish passage or delay problems exist at Three Mile Dam and recommend site specific corrective measures if needed. Movements of steelhead (Salmo gairdneri) were monitored using mark and recapture and radio telemetry techniques. Thirty-four steelhead were marked with T-anchor tags and released in the lower river. Fifteen of those marked were also fitted with radio transmitters. Three radiotagged steelhead migrated through channel modifications to Three Mile Dam. Two of these fish migrated to the dam in less than 26 hours, but held just below the dam for 7 and 10 days before entering the ladders. The third steelhead delayed for 30 days and entered the west ladder within 24 hours of arrival at the dam. Two other radiotagged steelhead moved upstream through some of the channel modifications but did not migrate to the dam. Only one of 19 marked steelhead not fitted with transmitters was recovered at Three Mile Dam. 14 refs., 18 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. TCP with source traffic shaping (TCP-STS): an approach for network congestion reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elaywe, Ali H.; Kamal, Ahmed E.

    2002-07-01

    The Transmission Control Protocol (TCP), provides flow control functions which are based on the window mechanism. Packet losses are detected by various mechanisms, such as timeouts and duplicate acknowledgements, and are then recovered from using different techniques. A problem that arises with the use of window based mechanisms is that the availability of a large number of credits at the source may cause a source to flood the network with back-to-back packets, which may drive the network into congestion, especially if multiple sources become active at the same time. In this paper we propose a new approach for congestion reduction. The approach works by shaping the traffic at the TCP source, such that the basic TCP flow control mechanism is still preserved, but the packet transmissions are spaced in time in order to prevent a sudden surge of traffic from overflowing the routers' buffers. Simulation results show that this technique can result in an improved network performance, in terms of reduced mean delay, delay variance, and packet dropping ratio.

  15. Histochemical examination of adipose derived stem cells combined with β-TCP for bone defects restoration under systemic administration of 1α,25(OH)2D3.

    PubMed

    Feng, Wei; Lv, Shengyu; Cui, Jian; Han, Xiuchun; Du, Juan; Sun, Jing; Wang, Kefeng; Wang, Zhenming; Lu, Xiong; Guo, Jie; Oda, Kimimitsu; Amizuka, Norio; Xu, Xin; Li, Minqi

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of osteogenic differentiated adipose-derived stem cell (ADSC) loaded beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) in the restoration of bone defects under intraperitoneal administration of 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3(1α,25(OH)2D3). ADSCs were isolated from the fat tissue of 8 week old Wister rats and co-cultured with β-TCP for 21 days under osteogenic induction. Then the ADSC-β-TCP complexes were implanted into bone defects in the femora of rats. 1α,25(OH)2D3 (VD) or normal saline (NS) was administrated intraperitoneally every other day after the surgery. Femora were harvested at day 7, day 14 and day 28 post-surgery. There were 4 groups for all specimens: β-TCP-NS group; β-TCP-ADSC-NS group; β-TCP-VD group and β-TCP-ADSC-VD group. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) was up-regulated obviously in ADSC groups compared with non-ADSC groups at day 7, day 14 and day 28, although high expression of runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) was only seen at day 7. Furthermore, the number of TRAP-positive osteoclasts and the expression of cathepsin K (CK) were significantly decreased in VD groups compared with non-VD groups at day 7 and day 14. As a most significant finding, the β-TCP-ADSC-VD group showed the highest BV/TV ratio compared with the other three groups at day 28. Taken together, ADSC-loaded β-TCP under the administration of 1α,25(OH)2D3 made a promising therapy for bone defects restoration. PMID:26046276

  16. Structure, mechanical property and corrosion behaviors of (HA+β-TCP)/Mg-5Sn composite with interpenetrating networks.

    PubMed

    Wang, X; Li, J T; Xie, M Y; Qu, L J; Zhang, P; Li, X L

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, a novel (Hydroxyapatite+β-tricalcium phosphate)/Mg-5Sn ((HA+β-TCP)/Mg-5Sn) composite with interpenetrating networks was fabricated by infiltrating Mg-5Sn alloy into porous HA+β-TCP using suction casting technique. The structure, mechanical property and corrosion behaviors of the composite have been evaluated by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), mechanical testing, electrochemical and immersion test. It is shown that the molten Mg-5Sn alloy has infiltrated not only into the pores but also into the struts of the HA+β-TCP scaffold to forming a compact composite. The microstructure observation also shows that the Mg alloy contacts to the HA+β-TCP closely, and no reaction layer can be found between Mg-5Sn alloy and scaffold. The ultimate compressive strength of the composite is as high as 176MPa, which is about four fifths of the strength of the Mg-5Sn bulk alloy. The electrochemical and immersion tests indicate that the corrosion resistance of the composite is better than that of the Mg-5Sn bulk alloy. The corrosion products on the composite surface are mainly Mg(OH)2, Ca3(PO4)2 and HA. Appropriate mechanical and corrosion properties of the (HA+β-TCP)/Mg-5Sn composite indicate its possibility for new bone tissue implant materials. PMID:26249605

  17. Analysis of Malicious Traffic in Modbus/TCP Communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Tiago H.; Batista, Aguinaldo B.; Medeiros, João Paulo S.; Filho, José Macedo F.; Brito, Agostinho M.; Pires, Paulo S. Motta

    This paper presents the results of our analysis about the influence of Information Technology (IT) malicious traffic on an IP-based automation environment. We utilized a traffic generator, called MACE (Malicious trAffic Composition Environment), to inject malicious traffic in a Modbus/TCP communication system and a sniffer to capture and analyze network traffic. The realized tests show that malicious traffic represents a serious risk to critical information infrastructures. We show that this kind of traffic can increase latency of Modbus/TCP communication and that, in some cases, can put Modbus/TCP devices out of communication.

  18. Optimization of TCP/IP over 802.11 Wireless Networks in Home Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janevski, Toni; Petrov, Ivan

    Internet connectivity today is based mainly on TCP/IP protocol suite. Performance of the Internet transport protocols may significantly degrade when end to end connection includes wireless links where packets delays and losses are caused by mobility handoffs and transmission errors. In this paper we perform analysis of the achievable throughput for different TCP versions, such as TCP Tahoe, TCP Reno, TCP New Reno, TCP Vegas and TCP SACK, in IEEE 802.11 wireless networks. The analysis showed the strong impact of Medium Access Control parameters, such as number of retransmissions and interface queue length in 802.11 networks on the obtained throughput.

  19. Fabrication of 3D porous SF/β-TCP hybrid scaffolds for bone tissue reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyun Jung; Min, Kyung Dan; Lee, Min Chae; Kim, Soo Hyeon; Lee, Ok Joo; Ju, Hyung Woo; Moon, Bo Mi; Lee, Jung Min; Park, Ye Ri; Kim, Dong Wook; Jeong, Ju Yeon; Park, Chan Hum

    2016-07-01

    Bio-ceramic is a biomaterial actively studied in the field of bone tissue engineering. But, only certain ceramic materials can resolve the corrosion problem and possess the biological affinity of conventional metal biomaterials. Therefore, the recent development of composites of hybrid composites and polymers has been widely studied. In this study, we aimed to select the best scaffold of silk fibroin and β-TCP hybrid for bone tissue engineering. We fabricated three groups of scaffold such as SF (silk fibroin scaffold), GS (silk fibroin/small granule size of β-TCP scaffold) and GM (silk fibroin/medium granule size of β-TCP scaffold), and we compared the characteristics of each group. During characterization of the scaffold, we used scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and a Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) for structural analysis. We compared the physiological properties of the scaffold regarding the swelling ratio, water uptake and porosity. To evaluate the mechanical properties, we examined the compressive strength of the scaffold. During in vitro testing, we evaluated cell attachment and cell proliferation (CCK-8). Finally, we confirmed in vivo new bone regeneration from the implanted scaffolds using histological staining and micro-CT. From these evaluations, the fabricated scaffold demonstrated high porosity with good inter-pore connectivity, showed good biocompatibility and high compressive strength and modulus. In particular, the present study indicates that the GM scaffold using β-TCP accelerates new bone regeneration of implanted scaffolds. Accordingly, our scaffold is expected to act a useful application in the field of bone tissue engineering. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 104A: 1779-1787, 2016. PMID:26999521

  20. The Therapeutic Effect on Bone Mineral Formation from Biomimetic Zinc Containing Tricalcium Phosphate (ZnTCP) in Zinc-Deficient Osteoporotic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Joshua; Hao, Jia; Hatoyama, Hirokazu; Ben-Nissan, Besim; Milthorpe, Bruce; Otsuka, Makoto

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of biomimetic zinc-containing tricalcium phosphate (ZnTCP) produced by hydrothermally converting calcium carbonate exoskeletons from foraminifera, in the treatment of osteoporotic mice. X-Ray powder diffraction showed crystallographic structures matching JCPDS profile for tricalcium phosphate. Mass spectroscopy used to calculate total composition amount showed similar amount of calcium (5×104 µg/g) and phosphate (4×104 ppm) after conversion and the presence of zinc (5.18×103 µg/g). In vitro zinc release showed no release in PBS buffer and <1% zinc release in 7 days. In vivo evaluation was done in ovariectomized mice by implanting the ZnTCP samples in the soft tissues near the right femur bone for four weeks. Thirty ddY mice (5 weeks old, average weight of 21 g) were divided into six experimental groups (normal, sham, OVX, β-TCP, ZnTCP and direct injection of zinc). CT images were taken every two weeks where the bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) were calculated by software based on CT images. The ZnTCP group exhibits cortical and cancellous bone growth of 45% and 20% respectively. While sham, OVX and β-TCP suffered from bone loss. A correlation was made between the significant body weight increase in ZnTCP with the significant increase in plasma zinc level compared with OVX. The presented results indicate that biomimetic ZnTCP were effective in preventing and treating bone loss in osteoporotic mice model. PMID:23967249

  1. 23 CFR Appendix D to Subpart A of... - Guidance Criteria for Evaluating Requests for Modifications to the National Highway System

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Guidance Criteria for Evaluating Requests for Modifications to the National Highway System D Appendix D to Subpart A of Part 470 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY.... 470, Subpt. A, App. D Appendix D to Subpart A of Part 470—Guidance Criteria for Evaluating...

  2. 23 CFR Appendix D to Subpart A of... - Guidance Criteria for Evaluating Requests for Modifications to the National Highway System

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Guidance Criteria for Evaluating Requests for Modifications to the National Highway System D Appendix D to Subpart A of Part 470 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY.... 470, Subpt. A, App. D Appendix D to Subpart A of Part 470—Guidance Criteria for Evaluating...

  3. 15 CFR 400.26 - Criteria for evaluation of applications for expansions, subzones or other modifications of zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Criteria for evaluation of applications for expansions, subzones or other modifications of zones. 400.26 Section 400.26 Commerce and... Authority § 400.26 Criteria for evaluation of applications for expansions, subzones or other...

  4. 15 CFR 400.26 - Criteria for evaluation of applications for expansions, subzones or other modifications of zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Criteria for evaluation of applications for expansions, subzones or other modifications of zones. 400.26 Section 400.26 Commerce and... Authority § 400.26 Criteria for evaluation of applications for expansions, subzones or other...

  5. ACTS 118x: High Speed TCP Interoperability Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, David E.; Buffinton, Craig; Beering, Dave R.; Welch, Arun; Ivancic, William D.; Zernic, Mike; Hoder, Douglas J.

    1999-01-01

    With the recent explosion of the Internet and the enormous business opportunities available to communication system providers, great interest has developed in improving the efficiency of data transfer over satellite links using the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) of the Internet Protocol (IP) suite. The NASA's ACTS experiments program initiated a series of TCP experiments to demonstrate scalability of TCP/IP and determine to what extent the protocol can be optimized over a 622 Mbps satellite link. Through partnerships with the government technology oriented labs, computer, telecommunication, and satellite industries NASA Glenn was able to: (1) promote the development of interoperable, high-performance TCP/IP implementations across multiple computing / operating platforms; (2) work with the satellite industry to answer outstanding questions regarding the use of standard protocols (TCP/IP and ATM) for the delivery of advanced data services, and for use in spacecraft architectures; and (3) conduct a series of TCP/IP interoperability tests over OC12 ATM over a satellite network in a multi-vendor environment using ACTS. The experiments' various network configurations and the results are presented.

  6. TCP Packet Trace Analysis. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepard, Timothy J.

    1991-01-01

    Examination of a trace of packets collected from the network is often the only method available for diagnosing protocol performance problems in computer networks. This thesis explores the use of packet traces to diagnose performance problems of the transport protocol TCP. Unfortunately, manual examination of these traces can be so tedious that effective analysis is not possible. The primary contribution of this thesis is a graphical method of displaying the packet trace which greatly reduce, the tediousness of examining a packet trace. The graphical method is demonstrated by the examination of some packet traces of typical TCP connections. The performance of two different implementations of TCP sending data across a particular network path is compared. Traces many thousands of packets long are used to demonstrate how effectively the graphical method simplifies examination of long complicated traces. In the comparison of the two TCP implementations, the burstiness of the TCP transmitter appeared to be related to the achieved throughput. A method of quantifying this burstiness is presented and its possible relevance to understanding the performance of TCP is discussed.

  7. Global Connections for Lasting Impressions: Experiential Learning about TCP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allison, Colin; Miller, Alan; Oliver, Iain; Sturgeon, Thomas

    “Tell me and I forget, Show me and I remember, Involve me and I understand”. This paper discusses the motivation for, and design of, a learning resource which allows students to explore the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP). TCP is responsible for transporting over 80% of the traffic on the Internet - all web and e-mail for example - and in addition is the primary means of achieving Internet congestion control. TCP is therefore core to modern life. It is a protocol under constant study with a view to evolution, and it is incumbent on all ICT curricula to provide education at appropriate levels about its dynamics, strengths and weaknesses. There are no shortages of good textbooks which provide information on TCP, but these are no substitute for experiential learning in order to provide a lasting understanding. The TCP Live learning resource allows students to explore the behavior of TCP on the global Internet, and see the wide variety of conditions that the protocol has to cope with, thereby extending their viewpoint outwith the limited scope of their own institutional firewalls.

  8. Performance Analysis of TCP Enhancements in Satellite Data Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broyles, Ren H.

    1999-01-01

    This research examines two proposed enhancements to the well-known Transport Control Protocol (TCP) in the presence of noisy communication links. The Multiple Pipes protocol is an application-level adaptation of the standard TCP protocol, where several TCP links cooperate to transfer data. The Space Communication Protocol Standard - Transport Protocol (SCPS-TP) modifies TCP to optimize performance in a satellite environment. While SCPS-TP has inherent advantages that allow it to deliver data more rapidly than Multiple Pipes, the protocol, when optimized for operation in a high-error environment, is not compatible with legacy TCP systems, and requires changes to the TCP specification. This investigation determines the level of improvement offered by SCPS-TP's Corruption Mode, which will help determine if migration to the protocol is appropriate in different environments. As the percentage of corrupted packets approaches 5 %, Multiple Pipes can take over five times longer than SCPS-TP to deliver data. At high error rates, SCPS-TP's advantage is primarily caused by Multiple Pipes' use of congestion control algorithms. The lack of congestion control, however, limits the systems in which SCPS-TP can be effectively used.

  9. Evaluation of an interprofessional team-based learning nutrition and lifestyle modification course.

    PubMed

    Pogge, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    An interprofessional, team-based learning elective was developed, implemented, and evaluated to determine the knowledge gained, attitude changes towards interprofessional education, and overall satisfaction with the course. Thirty participants, 14 osteopathic medicine students and 16 pharmacy students, completed the course. The majority of students (88-96%) responded favourably to the team-based learning aspects of the course. Knowledge about nutrition and lifestyle modification was significantly improved by taking the course. Overall, students' readiness for and perception of interprofessional learning improved by taking the course, although not all improvements were statistically significant. In conclusion, the benefits of team-based learning, such as enhancing communication and teamwork skills, can enhance interprofessional education. PMID:26934200

  10. Modification and evaluation of a Barnes-type objective analysis scheme for surface meteorological data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, D. R.

    1982-01-01

    The Purdue Regional Objective Analysis of the Mesoscale (PROAM) is a Barness-type scheme for the analysis of surface meteorological data. Modifications are introduced to the original version in order to increase its flexibility and to permit greater ease of usage. The code was rewritten for an interactive computer environment. Furthermore, a multiple iteration technique suggested by Barnes was implemented for greater accuracy. PROAM was subjected to a series of experiments in order to evaluate its performance under a variety of analysis conditions. The tests include use of a known analytic temperature distribution in order to quantify error bounds for the scheme. Similar experiments were conducted using actual atmospheric data. Results indicate that the multiple iteration technique increases the accuracy of the analysis. Furthermore, the tests verify appropriate values for the analysis parameters in resolving meso-beta scale phenomena.

  11. Evaluation of Grid Modification Methods for On- and Off-Track Sonic Boom Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nayani, Sudheer N.; Campbell, Richard L.

    2013-01-01

    Grid modification methods have been under development at NASA to enable better predictions of low boom pressure signatures from supersonic aircraft. As part of this effort, two new codes, Stretched and Sheared Grid - Modified (SSG) and Boom Grid (BG), have been developed in the past year. The CFD results from these codes have been compared with ones from the earlier grid modification codes Stretched and Sheared Grid (SSGRID) and Mach Cone Aligned Prism (MCAP) and also with the available experimental results. NASA's unstructured grid suite of software TetrUSS and the automatic sourcing code AUTOSRC were used for base grid generation and flow solutions. The BG method has been evaluated on three wind tunnel models. Pressure signatures have been obtained up to two body lengths below a Gulfstream aircraft wind tunnel model. Good agreement with the wind tunnel results have been obtained for both on-track and off-track (up to 53 degrees) cases. On-track pressure signatures up to ten body lengths below a Straight Line Segmented Leading Edge (SLSLE) wind tunnel model have been extracted. Good agreement with the wind tunnel results have been obtained. Pressure signatures have been obtained at 1.5 body lengths below a Lockheed Martin aircraft wind tunnel model. Good agreement with the wind tunnel results have been obtained for both on-track and off-track (up to 40 degrees) cases. Grid sensitivity studies have been carried out to investigate any grid size related issues. Methods have been evaluated for fully turbulent, mixed laminar/turbulent and fully laminar flow conditions.

  12. Effect of biomimetic zinc-containing tricalcium phosphate (Zn-TCP) on the growth and osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Chou, Joshua; Hao, Jia; Hatoyama, Hirokazu; Ben-Nissan, Besim; Milthorpe, Bruce; Otsuka, Makoto

    2015-07-01

    Several studies have shown the effectiveness of zinc-tricalcium phosphate (Zn-TCP) for bone tissue engineering. In this study, marine calcareous foraminifera possessing uniform pore size distribution were hydrothermally converted to Zn-TCP. The ability of a scaffold to combine effectively with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is a key tissue-engineering aim. In order to demonstrate the osteogenic ability of MSCs with Zn-TCP, the scaffolds were cultured in an osteogenic induction medium to elicit an osteoblastic response. The physicochemical properties of Zn-TCP were characterized by XRD, FT-IR and ICP-MS. MSCs were aspirated from rat femurs and cultured for 3 days before indirectly placing four samples into each respective well. After culture for 7, 10 and 14 days, osteoblastic differentiation was evaluated using alizarin red S stain, measurement of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels, cell numbers and cell viability. XRD and FT-IR patterns both showed the replacement of CO(3)(2-) with PO(4)(3-). Chemical analysis showed zinc incorporation of 5 mol%. Significant increases in cell numbers were observed at 10 and 14 days in the Zn-TCP group, while maintaining high levels of cell viability (> 90%). ALP activity in the Zn-TCP group was statistically higher at 10 days. Alizarin red S staining also showed significantly higher levels of calcium mineralization in Zn-TCP compared with the control groups. This study showed that MSCs in the presence of biomimetically derived Zn-TCP can accelerate their differentiation to osteoblasts and could potentially be useful as a scaffold for bone tissue engineering. PMID:24737707

  13. Effects of concomitant use of fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2 with beta-tricalcium phosphate ({beta}-TCP) on the beagle dog 1-wall periodontal defect model

    SciTech Connect

    Anzai, Jun; Kitamura, Masahiro; Nozaki, Takenori; Nagayasu, Toshie; Terashima, Akio; Asano, Taiji; Murakami, Shinya

    2010-12-17

    Research highlights: {yields} Concomitant use of FGF-2 and {beta}-TCP (an osteo-conductive scaffold) significantly promotes periodontal regeneration in the severe periodontitis model (1-wall defect model) of beagle dog. {yields} FGF-2 enhanced new bone formation via {beta}-TCP at the defects. {yields} In particular, FGF-2 dramatically regenerated new periodontal ligament and cementum formations at the defects, that is one of the most important healing outcomes during the process of periodontal regeneration. {yields} Epithelial downgrowth (undesirable wound healing) was decreased by administration of FGF-2. {yields} This manuscript indicates for the first time that concomitant use of FGF-2 and {beta}-TCP is efficacious in regenerating periodontal tissue following severe destruction of the tissue by progression of periodontitis. -- Abstract: The effects of concomitant use of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) and beta-tricalcium phosphate ({beta}-TCP) on periodontal regeneration were investigated in the beagle dog 1-wall periodontal defect model. One-wall periodontal defects were created in the mesial portion of both sides of the mandibular first molars, and 0.3% FGF-2 plus {beta}-TCP or {beta}-TCP alone was administered. Radiographic evaluation was performed at 0, 3, and 6 weeks. At 6 weeks, the periodontium with the defect site was removed and histologically analyzed. Radiographic findings showed that co-administration of FGF-2 significantly increased bone mineral contents of the defect sites compared with {beta}-TCP alone. Histologic analysis revealed that the length of the regenerated periodontal ligament, the cementum, distance to the junctional epithelium, new bone height, and area of newly formed bone were significantly increased in the FGF-2 group. No abnormal inflammatory response or ankylosis was observed in either group. These findings indicate the efficacy of concomitant use of FGF-2 and {beta}-TCP as an osteoconductive material for periodontal

  14. Tri-calcium phosphate (ß-TCP) can be artificially synthesized by recycling dihydrate gypsum hardened.

    PubMed

    Han-Cheol, Cho; Hori, Masaharu; Yoshida, Takakazu; Yamada, Naoko; Komada, Yuko; Tamaki, Yukimichi; Miyazaki, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    Calcium phosphate is known as a major component of biological hard tissues. This study aimed to produce calcium phosphate by recycling kneaded surplus gypsum. β-dihydrate gypsum was derived from commercial dental β-hemihydrate gypsum, which was mechanically powdered and mixed with the liquid component of a commercial zinc phosphate cement. This mixture was fired at 1,200°C and evaluated by XRD analysis, thermal analysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). An acceptable ratio of mixing was 4 g of β-dihydrate gypsum powder to 1.5 mL of phosphoric acid liquid. XRD peaks were monotonic below 800°C, but new ß-TCP was formed by firing at 900°C or more, although TG-DTA analysis of synthetic ß-TCP suggested that some residual dihydrate gypsum remained in the sample. SEM images indicated a fused-block bone-like structure covered with phosphorus and calcium. These results suggest that production of synthetic β-TCP is possible through ecological techniques using recycled materials. PMID:25483384

  15. The Tissue Implant Response Surrounding Subcutaneous TCP, HA, And ALCAP Bioceramics.

    PubMed

    Butler, K R; Benghuzzi, Hamed; Tucci, Michelle; Puckett, A D

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to quantify and further elucidate the tissue-implant response in the fibrous tissue surrounding tricalcium phosphate (TCP), hydroxyapatite (HA), and aluminum calcium phosphate (ALCAP) implants when implanted subcutaneously. Sixteen animals in four experimental groups (n = 4/group) were implanted with one implant each: Group I (control, TCP), Group II (HA), and Group III (ALCAP). At 90 days post-implantation, the fibrous tissue surrounding the implants was harvested. Sections of stained fibrous tissue were evaluated for the presence of macrophages, fibrocytes, neutrophils, vascularity and thickness for all three groups using semi-automated quantitative methods. The analysis indicated Group III demonstrated a significantly higher number of neutrophils but fewer macrophages and blood vessels per high power field and had a substantially thinner fibrous tissue capsule thickness compared to Groups I and II (alpha=0.05). Group II elicited a greater response of fibroblasts compared to Groups I and III suggesting HA may provide a slightly higher degree of stability to the implant. In total, these findings suggest both TCP and HA behave similarly in vivo when compared to ALCAP and may be better choices for subcutaneous soft-tissue application compared to ALCAP. PMID:25996746

  16. Development of PLGA-coated β-TCP scaffolds containing VEGF for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Khojasteh, Arash; Fahimipour, Farahnaz; Eslaminejad, Mohamadreza Baghaban; Jafarian, Mohammad; Jahangir, Shahrbanoo; Bastami, Farshid; Tahriri, Mohammadreza; Karkhaneh, Akbar; Tayebi, Lobat

    2016-12-01

    Bone tissue engineering is sought to apply strategies for bone defects healing without limitations and short-comings of using either bone autografts or allografts and xenografts. The aim of this study was to fabricate a thin layer poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) coated beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) scaffold with sustained release of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). PLGA coating increased compressive strength of the β-TCP scaffolds significantly. For in vitro evaluations, canine mesenchymal stem cells (cMSCs) and canine endothelial progenitor cells (cEPCs) were isolated and characterized. Cell proliferation and attachment were demonstrated and the rate of cells proliferation on the VEGF released scaffold was significantly more than compared to the scaffolds with no VEGF loading. A significant increase in expression of COL1 and RUNX2 was indicated in the scaffolds loaded with VEGF and MSCs compared to the other groups. Consequently, PLGA coated β-TCP scaffold with sustained and localized release of VEGF showed favourable results for bone regeneration in vitro, and this scaffold has the potential to use as a drug delivery device in the future. PMID:27612772

  17. Evaluation of Outlier Detection and Modification Methods Used in Flood Frequency Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senarath, S. U. S.

    2014-12-01

    Accurate and reliable information on flood frequency and magnitude is vital for the design of hydraulic structures and for floodplain mapping. The time-series data used for flood frequency analysis are obtained from both gauged systematic records and also historical floods. These time-series data sets, however, may include outliers. Outliers are defined as values that are much larger or smaller than most of the values in a given data set. Therefore, by definition, outliers include both very high and very low values. However, the main focus of this study is only on high outliers (hereafter referred to as simply outliers). The availability of a wide-array of tests and techniques makes the outlier detection and modification procedure anything but straightforward. The set of tests and techniques that is selected to detect and modify these outliers can have a direct impact on flood frequency and magnitude estimates. Many different approaches, based on the principles of hypothesis testing, are available for the detection of outliers. Several such methods are examined in detail in this study by using data from Southeast Europe. Outliers detected using these approaches can be eliminated, modified or disregarded (i.e., by treating them as non-outliers) prior to being used in flood frequency analyses. Eliminating or disregarding the outliers typically requires additional gauge- or event-specific information in order to be fully implemented. In the absence of such information, the practice of using modified outliers in flood frequency analysis provides the best compromise. Nevertheless, the effects of all three options on flood frequency and magnitude estimates are investigated to provide a more meaningful comparison. Flood magnitude-frequency estimates based on the log Pearson type 3 distribution are used in this study to evaluate the effect of outlier modification. The study findings have important implications for estimation of flood frequency and magnitude with time

  18. Quantitative Evaluation of Peptide-Material Interactions by a Force Mapping Method: Guidelines for Surface Modification.

    PubMed

    Mochizuki, Masahito; Oguchi, Masahiro; Kim, Seong-Oh; Jackman, Joshua A; Ogawa, Tetsu; Lkhamsuren, Ganchimeg; Cho, Nam-Joon; Hayashi, Tomohiro

    2015-07-28

    Peptide coatings on material surfaces have demonstrated wide application across materials science and biotechnology, facilitating the development of nanobio interfaces through surface modification. A guiding motivation in the field is to engineer peptides with a high and selective binding affinity to target materials. Herein, we introduce a quantitative force mapping method in order to evaluate the binding affinity of peptides to various hydrophilic oxide materials by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Statistical analysis of adhesion forces and probabilities obtained on substrates with a materials contrast enabled us to simultaneously compare the peptide binding affinity to different materials. On the basis of the experimental results and corresponding theoretical analysis, we discuss the role of various interfacial forces in modulating the strength of peptide attachment to hydrophilic oxide solid supports as well as to gold. The results emphasize the precision and robustness of our approach to evaluating the adhesion strength of peptides to solid supports, thereby offering guidelines to improve the design and fabrication of peptide-coated materials. PMID:26125092

  19. Study and Simulation of Enhancements for TCP Performance Over Noisy High Latency Links

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Partridge, Craig

    1999-01-01

    The goal of this study is to better understand how TCP behaves over noisy, high-latency links such as satellite links and propose improvements to TCP implementations such that TCP might better handle such links. This report is comprised of a series of smaller reports, presentations and recommendations. Included in these documents are a summary of the TCP enhancement techniques for large windows, protect against wrap around (PAWS), use of selective acknowledgements (SACK), increasing TCP's initial window and recommendations to implement TCP pacing.

  20. Redox-Dependent Modulation of Anthocyanin Biosynthesis by the TCP Transcription Factor TCP15 during Exposure to High Light Intensity Conditions in Arabidopsis1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Viola, Ivana L.; Gonzalez, Daniel H.

    2016-01-01

    TCP proteins integrate a family of transcription factors involved in the regulation of developmental processes and hormone responses. It has been shown that most members of class I, one of the two classes in which the TCP family is divided, contain a conserved Cys that leads to inhibition of DNA binding when oxidized. In this work, we describe that the class-I TCP protein TCP15 inhibits anthocyanin accumulation during exposure of plants to high light intensity by modulating the expression of transcription factors involved in the induction of anthocyanin biosynthesis genes, as suggested by the study of plants that express TCP15 from the 35SCaMV promoter and mutants in TCP15 and the related gene TCP14. In addition, the effect of TCP15 on anthocyanin accumulation is lost after prolonged incubation under high light intensity conditions. We provide evidence that this is due to inactivation of TCP15 by oxidation of Cys-20 of the TCP domain. Thus, redox modulation of TCP15 activity in vivo by high light intensity may serve to adjust anthocyanin accumulation to the duration of exposure to high irradiation conditions. PMID:26574599

  1. Redox-Dependent Modulation of Anthocyanin Biosynthesis by the TCP Transcription Factor TCP15 during Exposure to High Light Intensity Conditions in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Viola, Ivana L; Camoirano, Alejandra; Gonzalez, Daniel H

    2016-01-01

    TCP proteins integrate a family of transcription factors involved in the regulation of developmental processes and hormone responses. It has been shown that most members of class I, one of the two classes in which the TCP family is divided, contain a conserved Cys that leads to inhibition of DNA binding when oxidized. In this work, we describe that the class-I TCP protein TCP15 inhibits anthocyanin accumulation during exposure of plants to high light intensity by modulating the expression of transcription factors involved in the induction of anthocyanin biosynthesis genes, as suggested by the study of plants that express TCP15 from the 35SCaMV promoter and mutants in TCP15 and the related gene TCP14. In addition, the effect of TCP15 on anthocyanin accumulation is lost after prolonged incubation under high light intensity conditions. We provide evidence that this is due to inactivation of TCP15 by oxidation of Cys-20 of the TCP domain. Thus, redox modulation of TCP15 activity in vivo by high light intensity may serve to adjust anthocyanin accumulation to the duration of exposure to high irradiation conditions. PMID:26574599

  2. Revisiting multifractality of TCP traffic using multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Youji; Feng, Huifang

    2014-02-01

    Understanding the characteristics of network traffic is critical to many network design and engineering problems, such as router buffer dimensioning and delay-sensitive service provisioning in the Internet backbone. We re-analyze the multifractal features of TCP traffic collections spanning 19 years by means of multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis. Through multifractal analysis, the generalized Hurst exponents and scaling exponents are derived. These results indicate that the TCP traffic is multifractal. The widths of the singularity spectrum show that the multifractal features of TCP traffic are weakened with increasing bandwidth and statistical multiplexing, but cannot be eliminated. In particular, comparing the generalized Hurst exponent of the original TCP traffic series with the shuffled and surrogate series, we conclude that the multifractal nature of TCP traffic is due to both long-range correlation and fat-tailed probability distributions. Moreover, the results show that the multifractality due to the correlation has a greater contribution than that from a fat-tailed probability distribution.

  3. 23 CFR Appendix D to Subpart A of... - Guidance Criteria for Evaluating Requests for Modifications to the National Highway System

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Modifications to the National Highway System D Appendix D to Subpart A of Part 470 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY.... 470, Subpt. A, App. D Appendix D to Subpart A of Part 470—Guidance Criteria for Evaluating Requests.... Proposed additions should connect at each end with other routes on the NHS or serve a major...

  4. 23 CFR Appendix D to Subpart A of... - Guidance Criteria for Evaluating Requests for Modifications to the National Highway System

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Guidance Criteria for Evaluating Requests for Modifications to the National Highway System D Appendix D to Subpart A of Part 470 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PLANNING AND RESEARCH HIGHWAY SYSTEMS Federal-aid Highway Systems Pt. 470, Subpt. A, App. D Appendix D...

  5. Evaluation of exercise-respiratory system modifications and preliminary respiratory-circulatory system integration scheme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallagher, R. R.

    1974-01-01

    The respiratory control system, functioning as an independent system, is presented with modifications of the exercise subroutine. These modifications illustrate an improved control of ventilation rates and arterial and compartmental gas tensions. A very elementary approach to describing the interactions of the respiratory and circulatory system is presented.

  6. Enzymatic modification of palmarosa essential oil: chemical analysis and olfactory evaluation of acylated products.

    PubMed

    Ramilijaona, Jade; Raynaud, Elsa; Bouhlel, Charfeddine; Sarrazin, Elise; Fernandez, Xavier; Antoniotti, Sylvain

    2013-12-01

    We have developed an enzymatic protocol to modify the composition of palmarosa essential oil by acylation of its alcohol components by three different acyl donors at various rates. The resulting modified products were characterized by qualitative and quantitative analyses by gas chromatography, and their olfactory properties were evaluated by professional perfumers. We showed that our protocol resulted in two types of modifications of the olfactory properties. The first and most obvious effect observed was the decrease of the alcohol content, with the concomitant increase of the corresponding esters, along with their fruity notes (pear, most notably). The second and less obvious effect was the expression of notes from minor components ((E)-β-ocimene, linalool, β-caryophyllene, and farnesene), originally masked by the sweet-floral-rose odor of geraniol, present in 70% in the palmarosa essential oil used, and emergence of citrus, green, spicy and clove characters in the modified products. This methodology might be considered in the future as a sustainable route to new natural ingredients for the perfumer. PMID:24327448

  7. Parameter optimization in AQM controller design to support TCP traffic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wei; Yang, Oliver W.

    2004-09-01

    TCP congestion control mechanism has been widely investigated and deployed on Internet in preventing congestion collapse. We would like to employ modern control theory to specify quantitatively the control performance of the TCP communication system. In this paper, we make use of a commonly used performance index called the Integral of the Square of the Error (ISE), which is a quantitative measure to gauge the performance of a control system. By applying the ISE performance index into the Proportional-plus-Integral controller based on Pole Placement (PI_PP controller) for active queue management (AQM) in IP routers, we can further tune the parameters for the controller to achieve an optimum control minimizing control errors. We have analyzed the dynamic model of the TCP congestion control under this ISE, and used OPNET simulation tool to verify the derived optimized parameters of the controllers.

  8. A simulation study of TCP performance in ATM networks

    SciTech Connect

    Chien Fang; Chen, Helen; Hutchins, J.

    1994-08-01

    This paper presents a simulation study of TCP performance over congested ATM local area networks. We simulated a variety of schemes for congestion control for ATM LANs, including a simple cell-drop, a credit-based flow control scheme that back-pressures individual VC`s, and two selective cell-drop schemes. Our simulation results for congested ATM LANs show the following: (1) TCP performance is poor under simple cell-drop, (2) the selective cell-drop schemes increase effective link utilization and result in higher TCP throughputs than the simple cell-drop scheme, and (3) the credit-based flow control scheme eliminates cell loss and achieves maximum performance and effective link utilization.

  9. Guidelines for optimizing multilevel ECN using fluid-flow-based TCP model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quet, Pierre-Francois; Chellappan, Sriram; Durresi, Arjan; Sridharan, Mukundan; Ozbay, Hitay; Jain, Raj

    2002-07-01

    Congestion avoidance on today's Internet is mainly provided by the combination of the TCP protocol and Active Queue Management (AQM) schemes such as the de facto standard RED (Random Early Detection). When used with ECN (Explicit Congestion Notification), these algorithms can be modeled as a feedback control system in which the feedback information is carried on a single bit. A modification of this scheme called MECN was proposed, where the marking information is carried using 2 bits. MECN conveys more accurate feedback about the network congestion to the source than the current 1-bit ECN. The TCP source reaction was modified so that it takes advantage of the extra information about congestion and adapts faster to the changing congestion scenario leading to a smoother decrease in the sending rates of the sources upon congestion detection and consequently resulting in an increase in the router's throughput. A linearized fluid flow model already developed for ECN is extended to our case. Using control theoretic tools we justify the performance obtained in using the MECN scheme and give guidelines for optimizing its parameters. We use ns simulations to illustrate the performance improvement from the point of better throughput and low level of oscillations in the queue.

  10. Improving TCP throughput performance on high-speed networks with a receiver-side adaptive acknowledgment algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeung, Wing-Keung; Chang, Rocky K. C.

    1998-12-01

    A drastic TCP performance degradation was reported when TCP is operated on the ATM networks. This deadlock problem is 'caused' by the high speed provided by the ATM networks. Therefore this deadlock problem is shared by any high-speed networking technologies when TCP is run on them. The problems are caused by the interaction of the sender-side and receiver-side Silly Window Syndrome (SWS) avoidance algorithms because the network's Maximum Segment Size (MSS) is no longer small when compared with the sender and receiver socket buffer sizes. Here we propose a new receiver-side adaptive acknowledgment algorithm (RSA3) to eliminate the deadlock problems while maintaining the SWS avoidance mechanisms. Unlike the current delayed acknowledgment strategy, the RSA3 does not rely on the exact value of MSS an the receiver's buffer size to determine the acknowledgement threshold.Instead the RSA3 periodically probes the sender to estimate the maximum amount of data that can be sent without receiving acknowledgement from the receiver. The acknowledgment threshold is computed as 35 percent of the estimate. In this way, deadlock-free TCP transmission is guaranteed. Simulation studies have shown that the RSA3 even improves the throughput performance in some non-deadlock regions. This is due to a quicker response taken by the RSA3 receiver. We have also evaluated different acknowledgment thresholds. It is found that the case of 35 percent gives the best performance when the sender and receiver buffer sizes are large.

  11. 10 CFR 501.102 - OFE evaluation of the record, decision and order for modification or rescission of a rule or order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false OFE evaluation of the record, decision and order for modification or rescission of a rule or order. 501.102 Section 501.102 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ALTERNATE FUELS ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES AND SANCTIONS Requests for Modification or Rescission of a Rule or Order § 501.102 OFE evaluation...

  12. Effects of SiO2 and ZnO doping on mechanical and biological properties of 3D printed TCP scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    Fielding, Gary A.; Bandyopadhyay, Amit; Bose, Susmita

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the effects of SiO2 (0.5 wt %) and ZnO (0.25 wt %) dopants on the mechanical and biological properties of tricalcium phosphate (TCP) scaffolds with three dimensionally (3D) interconnected pores. Methods Scaffolds were created with a commercial 3D printer. Post sintering phase analysis was determined by x-ray diffraction. Surface morphology of the scaffolds was examined by field emission electron microscopy. Mechanical strength was evaluated with a screw driven universal testing machine. MTT assay was used for cellular proliferation characteristics and cellular morphology was examined by field emission electron microscopy. Results Addition of dopants into TCP increased the average density of pure TCP from 90.8 ± 0.8% to 94.1 ± 1.6% and retarded the β to α phase transformation at high sintering temperatures, which resulted in up to 2.5 fold increase in compressive strength. In vitro cell-materials interaction studies, carried out using hFOB cells, confirmed that the addition of SiO2 and ZnO to the scaffolds facilitates faster cell proliferation when compared to pure TCP scaffolds. Significance Addition of SiO2 and ZnO dopants to the TCP scaffolds showed increased mechanical strength as well as increased cellular proliferation. PMID:22047943

  13. Displaying digital video over ethernet TCP-IP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, John; Jackson, Paul

    1994-04-01

    Transmission and playback of digital audio and video via TCP/IP has been successfully completed with the use of typical low-end UNIX workstations. In addition, attempts have been made to increase the frame rate by sending only sections of a frame that varied the most.

  14. Ohio Medical Office Management. Technical Competency Profile (TCP).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Gayl M.; Wilson, Nick; Mangini, Rick

    This document provides a framework for a broad-based secondary and postsecondary curriculum to prepare students for employment in medical office management. The first part of the technical competency profile (TCP) contains the following items: an explanation of the purpose and scope of Ohio's TCPs; college tech prep program standards; an overview…

  15. Ohio Marketing Management and Research. Technical Competency Profile (TCP).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Gayl M.; Wilson, Nick; Mangini, Rick

    This document provides a framework for a broad-based secondary and postsecondary curriculum to prepare students for employment in marketing management and research (MMR). The first part of the technical competency profile (TCP) contains the following items: an explanation of the purpose and scope of Ohio's TCPs; college tech prep program…

  16. The Behavior of TCP and Its Extensions in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Ruhai; Horan, Stephen

    2001-01-01

    The performance of Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) in space has been examined from the observations of simulation and experimental tests for several years at National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Department of Defense (DoD) and universities. At New Mexico State University (NMSU), we have been concentrating on studying the performance of two protocol suites: the file transfer protocol (ftp) running over Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) stack and the file protocol (fp) running over the Space Communications Protocol Standards (SCPS)-Transport Protocol (TP) developed under the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) standards process. SCPS-TP is considered to be TCP's extensions for space communications. This dissertation experimentally studies the behavior of TCP and SCPS-TP by running the protocol suites over both the Space-to-Ground Link Simulator (SGLS) test-bed and realistic satellite link. The study concentrates on comparing protocol behavior by plotting the averaged file transfer times for different experimental configurations and analyzing them using Statistical Analysis System (SAS) based procedures. The effects of different link delays and various Bit-Error-Rates (BERS) on each protocol performance are also studied and linear regression models are built for experiments over SGLS test-bed to reflect the relationships between the file transfer time and various transmission conditions.

  17. NBQX and TCP prevent soman-induced hippocampal damage

    SciTech Connect

    Lallement, G.; Carpentier, P.; Pernot-Marino, I.; Baubichon, D.; Blanchet, G.

    1993-05-13

    In a previous investigation we demonstrated that the measurement of w3 (peripheral-type benzodiazepine) binding site densities could be of widespread applicability in the localization and quantification of soman-induced damage in the central nervous system. We thus used this marker to assess, in mouse hippocampus, the neuroprotective activity against soman-induced brain damage of NBQX and TCP which are respective antagonists of non-NMDA and NMDA glutamatergic receptors. Injection of NBQX at 20 or 40 mg/kg 5 min prior to soman totally prevented the neuronal damage. Comparatively, TCP had neuroprotective efficacy when administered at l mg/kg 5 min prior to soman followed by a reinjection 1 hour after. These results demonstrate that both NBQX and TCP afford a satisfactory neuroprotection against soman-induced brain damage. Since it is known that the neuropathology due to soman is closely seizure-related, it is likely that the neuroprotective activities of NBQX and TCP are related to the respective roles of non-NMDA and NMDA receptors in the onset and maintenance of soman-induced seizures.

  18. Synthesis and biological evaluation of peptide-conjugated phthalocyanine photosensitizers with highly hydrophilic modifications.

    PubMed

    Li, Fu; Liu, Qian; Liang, Zhenzhen; Wang, Jin; Pang, Mingpei; Huang, Weiqiang; Wu, Wenjie; Hong, Zhangyong

    2016-04-01

    The selectivity of targeted photosensitizer delivery is a constant challenge for photodynamic therapy (PDT). Herein, with the aim of optimizing the affinity, selectivity and activity of peptide-conjugated photosensitizers for PDT therapy and fluorescence imaging, we designed a solid-phase strategy for the efficient synthesis of peptide-phthalocyanine (Pc) conjugates with two types of highly hydrophilic modifications to the Pc rings. The peptide conjugation clearly increased the photodynamic efficacy and selectivity of Pcs against cancer cells with different receptor expression levels. A highly hydrophilic modification to the Pc rings can block non-specific interactions between the Pcs and biological molecules while minimally influencing peptide ligand affinity with target receptors. Compared with the triethyleneglycol monomethyl ether group modification, the glycerol group modification exhibited a stronger capability to decrease the Pc aggregation tendency in aqueous medium, reduce non-specific binding and non-specific, light-induced cytotoxicity towards cells with low receptor expression in vitro; increased targeting selectivity was observed in the in vivo distribution experiments via the obvious reduction of background signals. Highly hydrophilic modifications to the Pc rings may be very useful for improving targeting selectivity for PDT with the construction of peptide-conjugated photosensitizers. PMID:26956169

  19. The effect of loading icariin on biocompatibility and bioactivity of porous β-TCP ceramic.

    PubMed

    Zhang, X; Guo, Y; Li, D X; Wang, R; Fan, H S; Xiao, Y M; Zhang, L; Zhang, X D

    2011-02-01

    In order to enhance the ability of calcium phosphate-based biomaterials for bone defect repair, icariin (Ica), one natural product with ability of promoting osteoblasts differentiation in vitro and enhancing bone formation in vivo, was loaded into porous β-tricalcium phosphate ceramic (β-TCP) disks. The obtained Ica-loaded porous β-TCP ceramic (Ica/β-TCP) disks were characterized by SEM. The SEM photos indicated that the disks had porous structure and the surface morphology of the porous β-TCP ceramic (β-PTCP) disks had no obvious difference from the Ica/β-TCP disks. The Ica release curve of Ica/β-TCP disks showed a burst release during the first 1 day and the concentration of released Ica during the first 3 days had low cytotoxicity. The loading Ica in Ica/β-TCP disks hardly affected the attachment and morphology of Ros17/28 cells, however, the Ica/β-TCP disks were favorable to supporting the proliferation and differentiation of Ros17/28 cells better compared with the β-PTCP disks. There was plenty of bone-like apatite formed on the surface of Ica/β-TCP disks soaked in SBF solution for three days. After back intramuscular implantation of rats for three months, no obvious osteogenic evidence was detected in β-PTCP disks, but new bone formation was observed in Ica/β-TCP disks. Fibrous tissues and slight inflammatory reaction was also found in the Ica/β-TCP disks and β-TCP disks. Therefore, the loading Ica did not change the biocompatibility of β-TCP ceramic, but enhanced the bioactivity of β-TCP ceramic in vivo. The Ica/β-TCP ceramic had potential to be used for bone defect repair. PMID:21140197

  20. UV photolysis for enhanced phenol biodegradation in the presence of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (TCP).

    PubMed

    Song, Jiaxiu; Wang, Wenbing; Li, Rongjie; Zhu, Jun; Zhang, Yongming; Liu, Rui; Rittmann, Bruce E

    2016-02-01

    A bacterial strain isolated from activated sludge and identified as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens could biodegrade phenol, but 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (TCP) inhibited phenol biodegradation and biomass growth. UV photolysis converted TCP into dichlorocatechol, monochlorophenol, and dichlorophenol, and this relieved inhibition by TCP. Phenol-removal and biomass-growth rates were significantly accelerated after UV photolysis: the monod maximum specific growth rate (μ(max)) increased by 9% after TCP photolysis, and the half-maximum-rate concentration (K(S)) decreased by 36%. Thus, the major benefit of UV photolysis in this case was to transform TCP into a set of much-less-inhibitory products. PMID:26747251

  1. TCP10L acts as a tumor suppressor by inhibiting cell proliferation in hepatocellular carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Zuo, Jie; Cai, Hao; Wu, Yanhua; Ma, Haijie; Jiang, Wei; Liu, Chao; Han, Dingding; Ji, Guoqing; Yu, Long

    2014-03-28

    Highlights: • TCP10L was down-regulated in clinical hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). • Expression of TCP10L correlated significantly with tumor size and Milan criteria. • Overexpression of TCP10L attenuated growth of HCC cells both in vitro and in vivo. • Knocking down TCP10L promoted cell proliferation and tumorigenesis of HCC cells. - Abstract: TCP10L (T-complex 10 (mouse)-like) has been identified as a liver and testis-specific gene. Although a potential transcriptional suppression function of TCP10L has been reported previously, biological function of this gene still remains largely elusive. In this study, we reported for the first time that TCP10L was significantly down-regulated in clinical hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) samples when compared to the corresponding non-tumorous liver tissues. Furthermore, TCP10L expression was highly correlated with advanced cases exceeding the Milan criteria. Overexpression of TCP10L in HCC cells suppressed colony formation, inhibited cell cycle progression through G0/G1 phase, and attenuated cell growth in vivo. Consistently, silencing of TCP10L promoted cell cycle progression and cell growth. Therefore, our study has revealed a novel suppressor role of TCP10L in HCC, by inhibiting proliferation of HCC cells, which may facilitate the diagnosis and molecular therapy in HCC.

  2. Evaluation of heterogeneous metal-organic framework organocatalysts prepared by postsynthetic modification.

    PubMed

    Garibay, Sergio J; Wang, Zhenqiang; Cohen, Seth M

    2010-09-01

    A metal-organic framework (MOF) containing 2-amino-1,4-benzenedicarboxylate (NH(2)-BDC) as a building block is shown to undergo chemical modification with a set of cyclic anhydrides. The modification of the aluminum-based MOF known as MIL-53(Al)-NH(2) (MIL = Material Institut Lavoisier) by these reagents is demonstrated by using a variety of methods, including NMR and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), and the structural integrity of the modified MOFs has been confirmed by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD). Reaction with these cyclic anhydrides produces MOFs that display carboxylic acid functional groups within their pores. Furthermore, it is shown that maleic acid functionalized MIL-53(Al)-AMMal can act as a Brønsted acid catalyst and facilitate the methanolysis of several small epoxides. Experiments show that MIL-53(Al)-AMMal acts in a heterogeneous manner and is recyclable with consistent activity over at least three catalytic cycles. The findings presented here demonstrate several important features of covalent postsynthetic modification (PSM) on MOFs, including (1) facile introduction of catalytic functionality using simple organic reagents (e.g., anhydrides); (2) the ability to utilize and recycle organocatalytic MOFs; (3) control of catalytic activity through choice of functional group. The findings clearly illustrate that covalent postsynthetic modification represents a powerful means to access new MOF compounds that serve as organocatalytic materials. PMID:20698561

  3. Formative Evaluation of Project "TEAM" (Teens Making Environment and Activity Modifications)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, Jessica M.; Roemer, Kristin; Liljenquist, Kendra; Shin, Julia; Hart, Stacy

    2014-01-01

    Research documents the negative impact of physical and social environmental barriers on engagement in school, work, and the community for youth with intellectual and /or developmental disabilities (IDD). Project "TEAM" (Teens making Environment and Activity Modifications) was designed to teach youth to systematically identify…

  4. Evaluation of Heterogeneous Metal-Organic Framework Organocatalysts Prepared by Postsynthetic Modification

    PubMed Central

    Garibay, Sergio J.; Wang, Zhenqiang; Cohen, Seth M.

    2010-01-01

    A metal-organic framework (MOF) containing 2-amino-1,4-benzenedicarboxylate (NH2-BDC) as a building block is shown to undergo chemical modification with a set of cyclic anhydrides. The modification of the aluminum-based MOF known as MIL-53(Al)-NH2 (MIL = Matérial Institut Lavoisier) by these reagents is demonstrated by using a variety of methods, including NMR and ESI-MS, and the structural integrity of the modified MOFs has been confirmed by TGA, PXRD, and gas sorption analysis. Reaction with these cyclic anhydrides produces MOFs that display carboxylic acid functional groups within their pores. Furthermore, it is shown that maleic acid functionalized MIL-53(Al)-AMMal can act as a Brønsted acid catalyst and facilitate the methanolysis of several small epoxides. Experiments show that MIL-53(Al)-AMMal acts in a heterogeneous manner and is recyclable with consistent activity over at least three catalytic cycles. The findings presented here demonstrate several important features of covalent postsynthetic modification (PSM) on MOFs, including: 1) facile introduction of catalytic functionality using simple organic reagents (e.g. anhydrides); 2) the ability to utilize and recycle organocatalytic MOFs; 3) control of catalytic activity through choice of functional group. The findings clearly illustrate that covalent postsynthetic modification represents a powerful means to access new MOF compounds that serve as organocatalytic materials. PMID:20698561

  5. Evaluation of a Cooperative Extension Curriculum in Florida: Food Modification for Special Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahl, Wendy J.; Ford, Amanda L.; Radford, Allyson; Gal, Nancy J.

    2016-01-01

    State and national surveys of adult family care homes identified a strong need for education on texture-modified food preparation and the nutritional needs of older adults. An Extension curriculum, Food Modification for Special Needs, was developed to provide an overview of chewing and swallowing problems, food texture, pureed food preparation,…

  6. EVALUATION OF SENSORY SYSTEM FUNCTION USING REFLEX MODIFICATION OF THE STARTLE RESPONSE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Methods to measure damage to sensory systems following toxicant exposure vary from rapid and subjective tests (e.g., pinna reflex) to time-consuming and objective tests (e.g., psychophysical tests). eflex modification of the startle response represents an alternative technique in...

  7. Evaluation of the Cask Transportation Facility Modifications (CTFM) compliance to DOE order 6430.1A Project A.5 and A.6

    SciTech Connect

    ARD, K.E.

    2000-04-24

    This report was prepared to evaluate the compliance of CTFM to DOE Order 6430.1A. This document presents the results of an evaluation that was performed to assess compliance of the K West (KW) Cask Transportation Facility Modifications (CTFM) designs against applicable requirements of Department of Energy (DOE) Order 6430.1 A, General Design Criteria. This evaluation was grouped under two categories described as Cask Loadout System (CLS) and Cranes/Other Modifications.

  8. Production and characterization of chitosan/gelatin/β-TCP scaffolds for improved bone tissue regeneration.

    PubMed

    Serra, I R; Fradique, R; Vallejo, M C S; Correia, T R; Miguel, S P; Correia, I J

    2015-10-01

    Recently, bone tissue engineering emerged as a viable therapeutic alternative, comprising bone implants and new personalized scaffolds to be used in bone replacement and regeneration. In this study, biocompatible scaffolds were produced by freeze-drying, using different formulations (chitosan, chitosan/gelatin, chitosan/β-TCP and chitosan/gelatin/β-TCP) to be used as temporary templates during bone tissue regeneration. Sample characterization was performed through attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and energy dispersive spectroscopy analysis. Mechanical characterization and porosity analysis were performed through uniaxial compression test and liquid displacement method, respectively. In vitro studies were also done to evaluate the biomineralization activity and the cytotoxic profile of the scaffolds. Scanning electron and confocal microscopy analysis were used to study cell adhesion and proliferation at the scaffold surface and within their structure. Moreover, the antibacterial activity of the scaffolds was also evaluated through the agar diffusion method. Overall, the results obtained revealed that the produced scaffolds are bioactive and biocompatible, allow cell internalization and show antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus. Such, make these 3D structures as potential candidates for being used on the bone tissue regeneration, since they promote cell adhesion and proliferation and also prevent biofilm development at their surfaces, which is usually the main cause of implant failure. PMID:26117793

  9. Model determines if falling, live TCP gun will detonate

    SciTech Connect

    Inayat-Hussain, A.A.; Owen, P.J. ); Nuttall, D.E. )

    1992-11-09

    BHP Research has developed a mathematical model to determine if a falling, live tubing-conveyed perforating (TCP) gun assembly will detonate upon impacting the bottom of a well. If the model finds that the falling fun exceeds the critical velocity, the gun assembly dimensions, fluid properties, or casing dimensions should be changed. BHP has successfully used the model to design downhole completions for the Challis oil field in the Timor Sea.

  10. TCP J17154683-3128303 = Nova Scorpius 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jelinek, M.; Cunniffe, R.; Castro-Tirado, A. J.; Rabaza, O.; Hudec, R.

    2014-03-01

    Following the discovery on Mar 26 of a 10th mag new source in Scorpius dubbed TCP J17154683-3128303 by Nishiyama & Kabashima (CBAT Transient Object Follow-up Reports), also detected by Swift on Mar 27 (ATEL#6015), we report an optical spectrum obtained with the COLORES spectrograph at the TELMA 0.6m robotic telescope (equipped by COLORES) at the BOOTES-2 astronomical station in EELM-CSIC (Malaga, Spain). ...

  11. Predicting the elastic properties of selective laser sintered PCL/β-TCP bone scaffold materials using computational modelling.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Heather; Lohfeld, Stefan; McHugh, Peter

    2014-03-01

    This study assesses the ability of finite element (FE) models to capture the mechanical behaviour of sintered orthopaedic scaffold materials. Individual scaffold struts were fabricated from a 50:50 wt% poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL)/β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) blend, using selective laser sintering. The tensile elastic modulus of single struts was determined experimentally. High resolution FE models of single struts were generated from micro-CT scans (28.8 μm resolution) and an effective strut elastic modulus was calculated from tensile loading simulations. Three material assignment methods were employed: (1) homogeneous PCL elastic constants, (2) composite PCL/β-TCP elastic constants based on rule of mixtures, and (3) heterogeneous distribution of micromechanically-determined elastic constants. In comparison with experimental results, the use of homogeneous PCL properties gave a good estimate of strut modulus; however it is not sufficiently representative of the real material as it neglects the β-TCP phase. The rule of mixtures method significantly overestimated strut modulus, while there was no significant difference between strut modulus evaluated using the micromechanically-determined elastic constants and experimentally evaluated strut modulus. These results indicate that the multi-scale approach of linking micromechanical modelling of the sintered scaffold material with macroscale modelling gives an accurate prediction of the mechanical behaviour of the sintered structure. PMID:24057867

  12. Modification and Adaptation of the Program Evaluation Standards in Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alyami, Mohammed

    2013-01-01

    The Joint Committee on Standards for Educational Evaluation's Program Evaluation Standards is probably the most recognized and applied set of evaluation standards globally. The most recent edition of The Program Evaluation Standards includes five categories and 30 standards. The five categories are Utility, Feasibility, Propriety, Accuracy,…

  13. Numerical performance evaluation of design modifications on a centrifugal pump impeller running in reverse mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kassanos, Ioannis; Chrysovergis, Marios; Anagnostopoulos, John; Papantonis, Dimitris; Charalampopoulos, George

    2016-06-01

    In this paper the effect of impeller design variations on the performance of a centrifugal pump running as turbine is presented. Numerical simulations were performed after introducing various modifications in the design for various operating conditions. Specifically, the effects of the inlet edge shape, the meridional channel width, the number of blades and the addition of splitter blades on impeller performance was investigated. The results showed that, an increase in efficiency can be achieved by increasing the number of blades and by introducing splitter blades.

  14. Viscosity-Modification to Improve Remediation Efficiencies within Heterogeneous Contaminated Groundwater Aquifers: Laboratory and Field-Scale Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, J. A.; Crimi, M.

    2013-12-01

    A key challenge in in situ groundwater remediation practice is achieving efficient contact between the injected remedial fluid and the target contamination in the presence of subsurface permeability heterogeneities. Even apparently small permeability contrasts can affect the delivery and subsurface distribution of injected remedial fluids, as a result of preferential flows, and reduce treatment effectiveness as a result of bypassing of contaminated media of lower permeability. Viscosity-modification is a technique that can be used to mitigate the effects of permeability heterogeneity and improve the delivery and distribution of remediation fluids during subsurface injection. Viscosity-modification involves increasing the viscosity of the injected fluid, and modifying the fluids rheological character in some cases. The increased viscosity provides a reduced fluid mobility condition within higher permeability media that, in turn, enhances the penetration of fluids into adjacent lower permeability media, improving the overall sweep efficiency within heterogeneous geomedia. Herein, we present the results of laboratory (two-dimensional flow tank) and numerical experiments that were designed to critically evaluate the utility of viscosity-modification for groundwater remediation application. Specifically, we will address the benefits and limitations of the approach and highlight the effect of system variables on the degree sweep efficiency improvement achievable. We also present the results of a recently completed Environmental Security Technology Certification Program (ESTCP) technology validation project in which viscosity-modification was applied to permanganate in situ chemical oxidation. Site selection criteria, implementation design considerations, and the long-term effects of viscosity-modified fluid treatments will be discussed.

  15. Design requirements for SRB production control system. Volume 3: Package evaluation, modification and hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The software package evaluation was designed to analyze commercially available, field-proven, production control or manufacturing resource planning management technology and software package. The analysis was conducted by comparing SRB production control software requirements and conceptual system design to software package capabilities. The methodology of evaluation and the findings at each stage of evaluation are described. Topics covered include: vendor listing; request for information (RFI) document; RFI response rate and quality; RFI evaluation process; and capabilities versus requirements.

  16. A new Grid Product of Tropical Cyclone Precipitation (TCP) for North America from 1930 to 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, L.

    2015-12-01

    We first developed a new method that collects daily TCP by using historical storm tracks and precipitation observation based on daily rain gauges in both U.S. and Mexico and calibrated it with satellite precipitation observation. We used a parametrized wind field to correct the possible under-estimations of precipitation in rain gauges. Grid interpolation parameters were optimized by testing different historical rain gauge densities and comparing our grid estimation of TCP and the observation from TRMM Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (3B42) by for the data available period from 1998 to 2013. The calibrated method was then used for the whole 94 years of TCP estimation. The preliminary result shows that the frequency of TCP events does not have significant change but the TCP intensity has significant increasing trends, especially in certain locations in North Carolina and Yucatan Peninsula in Mexico. This new long term TCP climatology can potentially assist model calibration and disaster prevention/mitigation.

  17. Immunological consequences of stress-related proteins--cytosolic tryparedoxin peroxidase and chaperonin TCP20--identified in splenic amastigotes of Leishmania donovani as Th1 stimulatory, in experimental visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Jaiswal, Anil Kumar; Khare, Prashant; Joshi, Sumit; Rawat, Keerti; Yadav, Narendra; Sundar, Shyam; Dube, Anuradha

    2015-04-01

    In earlier studies, proteomic characterization of splenic amastigote fractions from clinical isolates of Leishmania donovani, exhibiting significant cellular responses in cured Leishmania subjects, led to the identification of cytosolic tryparedoxin peroxidase (LdcTryP) and chaperonin-TCP20 (LdTCP20) as Th1-stimulatory proteins. Both the proteins, particularly LdTCP20 for the first time, were successfully cloned, overexpressed, purified and were found to be localized in the cytosol of purified splenic amastigotes. When evaluated against lymphocytes of cured Leishmania-infected hamsters, the purified recombinant proteins (rLdcTryP and rLdTCP20) induced their proliferations as well as nitric oxide production. Similarly, these proteins also generated Th1-type cytokines (IFN-γ/IL-12) from stimulated PBMCs of cured/endemic Leishmania patients. Further, vaccination with rLdcTryP elicited noticeable delayed-type hypersensitivity response and offered considerably good prophylactic efficacy (~78% inhibition) against L. donovani challenge in hamsters, which was well supported by the increased mRNA expression of Th1 and Th2 cytokines. However, animals vaccinated with rLdTCP20 exhibited comparatively lesser prophylactic efficacy (~55%) with inferior immunological response. The results indicate the potentiality of rLdcTryP protein, between the two, as a suitable anti-leishmanial vaccine. Since, rLdTCP20 is also an important target, for optimization, further attempts towards determination of immunodominant regions for designing fusion peptides may be taken up. PMID:25498563

  18. Development of SiTCP based DAQ system of double-sided silicon strip super-module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takubo, Y.; Clark, A.; Endo, M.; Ferrere, D.; Gonzalez-Sevilla, S.; Hanagaki, K.; Ikegami, Y.; La Marra, D.; Terada, S.; Unno, Y.; Weber, M.

    2013-01-01

    The super-module integration concept based on double-sided silicon strip modules has been developed for the future upgrade of the ATLAS detector. A super-module consists of 12 double-sided modules with 122 880 readout strips in total. Since the number of readout strips becomes very large to keep the hit occupancy at an acceptable level, the data readout is one of the key issues. A SiTCP based DAQ system has been developed by using the Soi EvAluation BoArd with Sitcp (SEABAS). The SEABAS processes the data by means of an FPGA (User-FPGA) and transfers data to a computer via Ether-net with the SiTCP protocol, which is a hardware implementation of TCP/IP on a FPGA device, enabling it to achieve high speed data transfers. The firmware and software have been developed for the SEABAS together with the readout hardware chain, and the basic functionality for reading out the super-module has been established.

  19. Comparative temporal analysis of multiwalled carbon nanotube oxidation reactions: Evaluating chemical modifications on true nanotube surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacheco, Flávia G.; Cotta, Alexandre A. C.; Gorgulho, Honória F.; Santos, Adelina P.; Macedo, Waldemar A. A.; Furtado, Clascídia A.

    2015-12-01

    The influence of extensive purification on oxidized multiwalled carbon nanotube surface composition was studied through the characterization and differentiation of the actual surface submitted to three oxidation methods: microwave-assisted acid oxidation, hydrogen peroxide reflux, and Fenton reaction. The oxidized samples were purified by a multi-step procedure including the sequential use of basic reflux and dispersion in dimethylformamide (DMF). The results showed a significant increase in the amount of oxidation debris with hydrogen peroxide and Fenton reaction times longer than 8 h and strong surface characteristic modification. With regard to sample purification, basic reflux led to a reduction in oxygenated group concentration of only 10% in the samples treated by acid oxidation. On the other hand, the subsequent use of DMF led to a further decrease in concentration of 39%, proving to be a more efficient method for the removal of oxidation debris.

  20. Modifications to CTVS TV cameras for space shuttle compatibility and evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoagland, K.

    1981-01-01

    Five all solid state cockpit television system (CTVS) cameras, built to USAF requirements for high performance type F-16 aircraft, were modified and tested for possible use in the closed circuit television system on the space shuttle orbiter. The 400 HZ power supply in the electronics unit assembly was replaced with two DC/DC converters to enable operation from 28VDC spacecraft-type power sources. Nonessential circuit functions were deleted to minimize input power requirements. The normal 31 mm focal length lense assemblies were replaced with wider field-of-view 19 mm focal length lenses. Base plates for and housings were redesigned to facilitate mounting and heat-sinking of the camera in the space environment and short length (14") adapter cables were designed, fabricated, and tested to meet requirements for cameras configured to mount on the astronauts helmet/visor assembly. Technical requirements, design implementation, environmental tests, Modifications prodedures, and reliability/quality efforts are discussed. Schematics are included.

  1. Evaluation of exercise-respiratory system modifications and integration schemes for physiological systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallagher, R. R.

    1974-01-01

    Exercise subroutine modifications are implemented in an exercise-respiratory system model yielding improvement of system response to exercise forcings. A more physiologically desirable respiratory ventilation rate in addition to an improved regulation of arterial gas tensions and cerebral blood flow is observed. A respiratory frequency expression is proposed which would be appropriate as an interfacing element of the respiratory-pulsatile cardiovascular system. Presentation of a circulatory-respiratory system integration scheme along with its computer program listing is given. The integrated system responds to exercise stimulation for both nonstressed and stressed physiological states. Other integration possibilities are discussed with respect to the respiratory, pulsatile cardiovascular, thermoregulatory, and the long-term circulatory systems.

  2. Fabrication of Porous α-TCP/Gellan Gum Scaffold for Bone Tissue Engineering.

    PubMed

    Wen, Jian; Kim, Ill Yong; Kikuta, Koichi; Ohtsuki, Chikara

    2016-03-01

    α-tricalcium phosphate (α-TCP, α-Ca3(PO4)2) receives great attention for bone repairing due to its biodegradability and capability of transformation to human bone's main inorganic components, hydroxyapatite (HAp). α-TCP porous scaffold is easily procurable by sintering of the low-temperature polymorph of TCP, β-TCR Still, porous body of α-TCP is too brittle to being handled and shaped, limiting its clinical application as implant materials. To improve mechanical properties of α-TCP porous scaffold, the present study focused on coating of a type of polysaccharides on α-TCP scaffolds. Gellan gum was chosen as the polysaccharide for coating because of its biodegradability as well as the potential acting as substrate for HAp deposition during hydration of α-TCP after exposure to body fluid. After coating of gellan gum on α-TCP scaffolds with porosity of 75 vol%, the compressive strength increased from 0.45 MPa to around 2.00 MPa. Among the coated scaffold, the maximum compressive strength, 3.97 MPa, was obtained on the scaffold with porosity of 63 vol%. Improvement of mechanical properties of α-TCP/gellan gum composites was achieved to show easy handling performance for a bone substitute for tissue repairing. The dissolving rate of the coated scaffolds was also controlled by adjusting the concentration of GG solutions. PMID:27455764

  3. TcpM: a novel relaxase that mediates transfer of large conjugative plasmids from Clostridium perfringens.

    PubMed

    Wisniewski, Jessica A; Traore, Daouda A; Bannam, Trudi L; Lyras, Dena; Whisstock, James C; Rood, Julian I

    2016-03-01

    Conjugative transfer of toxin and antibiotic resistance plasmids in Clostridium perfringens is mediated by the tcp conjugation locus. Surprisingly, neither a relaxase gene nor an origin of transfer (oriT) has been identified on these plasmids, which are typified by the 47 kb tetracycline resistance plasmid pCW3. The tcpM gene (previously called intP) encodes a potential tyrosine recombinase that was postulated to be an atypical relaxase. Mutagenesis and complementation studies showed that TcpM was required for wild-type transfer of pCW3 and that a tyrosine residue, Y259, was essential for TcpM activity, which was consistent with the need for a relaxase-mediated hydrophilic attack at the oriT site. Other catalytic residues conserved in tyrosine recombinases were not required for TcpM activity, suggesting that TcpM was not a site-specific recombinase. Mobilization studies led to the identification of the oriT site, which was located in the 391 bp intergenic region upstream of tcpM. The oriT site was localized to a 150 bp region, and gel mobility shift studies showed that TcpM could bind to this region. Based on these studies we postulate that conjugative transfer of pCW3 involves the atypical relaxase TcpM binding to and processing the oriT site to initiate plasmid transfer. PMID:26560080

  4. Analysis of functional redundancies within the Arabidopsis TCP transcription factor family

    PubMed Central

    Danisman, Selahattin; de Folter, Stefan; Immink, Richard G. H.

    2013-01-01

    Analyses of the functions of TEOSINTE-LIKE1, CYCLOIDEA, and PROLIFERATING CELL FACTOR1 (TCP) transcription factors have been hampered by functional redundancy between its individual members. In general, putative functionally redundant genes are predicted based on sequence similarity and confirmed by genetic analysis. In the TCP family, however, identification is impeded by relatively low overall sequence similarity. In a search for functionally redundant TCP pairs that control Arabidopsis leaf development, this work performed an integrative bioinformatics analysis, combining protein sequence similarities, gene expression data, and results of pair-wise protein–protein interaction studies for the 24 members of the Arabidopsis TCP transcription factor family. For this, the work completed any lacking gene expression and protein–protein interaction data experimentally and then performed a comprehensive prediction of potential functional redundant TCP pairs. Subsequently, redundant functions could be confirmed for selected predicted TCP pairs by genetic and molecular analyses. It is demonstrated that the previously uncharacterized class I TCP19 gene plays a role in the control of leaf senescence in a redundant fashion with TCP20. Altogether, this work shows the power of combining classical genetic and molecular approaches with bioinformatics predictions to unravel functional redundancies in the TCP transcription factor family. PMID:24129704

  5. The effect of PCL-TCP scaffold loaded with mesenchymal stem cells on vertical bone augmentation in dog mandible: a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Khojasteh, Arash; Behnia, Hossein; Hosseini, Fatemeh Sadat; Dehghan, Mohammad Mehdi; Abbasnia, Pegah; Abbas, Fatemeh Mashhadi

    2013-07-01

    Polycaprolactone-tricalcium phosphate (PCL-TCP), a new composite scaffold, has been shown to facilitate early revascularization and speed up bone regeneration process. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of PCL-TCP seeded with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) on healing of the vertical bone critical sized defect in dog's mandible. Bone marrow aspirate from dog humerous was cultured and the stemness of the cells was examined by differentiation staining methods and flow cytometric analysis. Third passage subculture cells (5 × 10⁵ cells) were loaded on 20 × 10 × 10 mm³ and incubated for 48 h. The presence of MSCs in the pores was evaluated by scanning electron microscope. Bilateral mandibular premolar teeth were extracted in four dogs and the buccal and lingual bone plates were reduced to make a vertical defect. Cell-loaded scaffolds were fixed in right side and left side received pure PCL-TCP scaffolds as a control side defects. Histomorphometric analysis after 8 weeks of the scaffold implantation showed higher amount of lamellar bone in the test side (48.63%) than control side (17.27%) (p < 0.05).The results suggest that PCL-TCP may be an appropriate scaffold for loading MSCs in bone regeneration. PMID:23359464

  6. Evaluation of AUSDRISK as a screening tool for lifestyle modification programs: international implications for policy and cost-effectiveness

    PubMed Central

    Malo, Jonathan A; Versace, Vincent L; Janus, Edward D; Laatikainen, Tiina; Peltonen, Markku; Vartiainen, Erkki; Coates, Michael J; Dunbar, James A

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the current use of Australian Type 2 Diabetes Risk Assessment Tool (AUSDRISK) as a screening tool to identify individuals at high risk of developing type 2 diabetes for entry into lifestyle modification programs. Research Design and Methods AUSDRISK scores were calculated from participants aged 40–74 years in the Greater Green Triangle Risk Factor Study, a cross-sectional population survey in 3 regions of Southwest Victoria, Australia, 2004–2006. Biomedical profiles of AUSDRISK risk categories were determined along with estimates of the Victorian population included at various cut-off scores. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value, and receiver operating characteristics were calculated for AUSDRISK in determining fasting plasma glucose (FPG) ≥6.1 mmol/L. Results Increasing AUSDRISK scores were associated with an increase in weight, body mass index, FPG, and metabolic syndrome. Increasing the minimum cut-off score also increased the proportion of individuals who were obese and centrally obese, had impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and metabolic syndrome. An AUSDRISK score of ≥12 was estimated to include 39.5% of the Victorian population aged 40–74 (916 000), while a score of ≥20 would include only 5.2% of the same population (120 000). At AUSDRISK≥20, the PPV for detecting FPG≥6.1 mmol/L was 28.4%. Conclusions AUSDRISK is powered to predict those with IFG and undiagnosed type 2 diabetes, but its effectiveness as the sole determinant for entry into a lifestyle modification program is questionable given the large proportion of the population screened-in using the current minimum cut-off of ≥12. AUSDRISK should be used in conjunction with oral glucose tolerance testing, fasting glucose, or glycated hemoglobin to identify those individuals at highest risk of progression to type 2 diabetes, who should be the primary targets for lifestyle modification. PMID:26468399

  7. A pilot study evaluating a one-session attention modification training to decrease overeating in obese children

    PubMed Central

    Boutelle, Kerri N.; Kuckertz, Jennie M.; Carlson, Jordan; Amir, Nader

    2014-01-01

    There are a number of neurocognitive and behavioral mechanisms that contribute to overeating and obesity, including an attentional bias to food cues. Attention modification programs, which implicitly train attention away from specific cues, have been used in anxiety and substance abuse, and could logically be applied to food cues. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the initial efficacy of a single session attention modification training for food cues (AMP) on overeating in overweight and obese children. Twenty–four obese children who eat in the absence of hunger participated in two visits and were assigned to an attention modification program (AMP) or attentional control program (ACC). The AMP program trained attention away 100% of the time from food words to neutral words. The ACC program trained attention 50% of the time to neutral and 50% of the time to food. Outcome measures included the eating in the absence of hunger free access session, and measures of craving, liking and salivation. Results revealed significant treatment effects for EAH percent and EAH kcal (group by time interactions p < .05). Children in the ACC condition showed a significant increase over time in the number of calories consumed in the free access session (within group t=3.09, p=.009) as well as the percent of daily caloric needs consumed in free access (within group t=3.37, p=.006), whereas children in the AMP group demonstrated slight decreases in these variables (within group t=−0.75 and −0.63). There was a trend suggesting a beneficial effect of AMP as compared to ACC for attentional bias (group by time interaction p=.073). Changes in craving, liking and saliva were not significantly different between groups (ps=.178 to .527). This is the first study to demonstrate that an AMP program can influence eating in obese children. Larger studies are needed to replicate and extend these results. PMID:24512975

  8. Evaluation of electrode surface modification techniques for the development of chemical sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Galiatsatos, C.

    1988-01-01

    This thesis covers several aspects of electrode surface modification techniques. The successful application of gamma-radiation to create polymer-coated electrodes, where the polymers can be ion exchangers and consequently of great analytical interest by themselves (such as the polymer poly(diallyl) dimethyl ammonium chloride) or where some other neutral polymers can function as convenient matrices for the introduction of biomolecules and/or other electrochemically interesting species is reported. This is demonstrated by using the neutral polymer poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVAL) as a matrix for immobilization of the enzyme glucose oxidase and the mediator methyl viologen. The effect of {gamma}-radiation on PVAL is discussed, as well as swelling properties of the irradiated polymers and specific characteristics of the created chemical sensors. Results of an experiment where the various kinds of interactions between the ion-exchange polymer Nafion and some positively charged species are explored are reported, and a model system for competition (methyl viologen vs. ruthenium hexaamine) which increases significantly our understanding of the interaction is mentioned. The effect of {gamma}-radiation on Nafion and its ion-exchange compabilities is discussed also. A system of conduction polymers primarily polypyrrole, used as a detector of electroinactive anions due to their doping-undergoing in the film is discussed. Preliminary results on a new method that involves chemical cross-linking of a triisocyane molecule with -OH containing polymers in the presence of enzymes are reported.

  9. Application Filters for TCP/IP Industrial Automation Protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batista, Aguinaldo B.; Kobayashi, Tiago H.; Medeiros, João Paulo S.; Brito, Agostinho M.; Motta Pires, Paulo S.

    The use of firewalls is a common approach usually meant to secure Automation Technology (AT) from Information Technology (TI) networks. This work proposes a filtering system for TCP/IP-based automation networks in which only certain kind of industrial traffic is permitted. All network traffic which does not conform with a proper industrial protocol pattern or with specific rules for its actions is supposed to be abnormal and must be blocked. As a case study, we developed a seventh layer firewall application with the ability of blocking spurious traffic, using an IP packet queueing engine and a regular expression library.

  10. Controlled release of NELL-1 protein from chitosan/hydroxyapatite-modified TCP particles.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yulong; Dong, Rui; Park, Yujin; Bohner, Marc; Zhang, Xinli; Ting, Kang; Soo, Chia; Wu, Benjamin M

    2016-09-10

    NEL-like molecule-1 (NELL-1) is a novel osteogenic protein that showing high specificity to osteochondral cells. It was widely used in bone regeneration research by loading onto carriers such as tricalcium phosphate (TCP) particles. However, there has been little research on protein controlled release from this material and its potential application. In this study, TCP was first modified with a hydroxyapatite coating followed by a chitosan coating to prepare chitosan/hydroxyapatite-coated TCP particles (Chi/HA-TCP). The preparation was characterized by SEM, EDX, FTIR, XRD, FM and Zeta potential measurements. The NELL-1 loaded Chi/HA-TCP particles and the release kinetics were investigated in vitro. It was observed that the Chi/HA-TCP particles prepared with the 0.3% (wt/wt) chitosan solution were able to successfully control the release of NELL-1 and maintain a slow, steady release for up to 28 days. Furthermore, more than 78% of the loaded protein's bioactivity was preserved in Chi/HA-TCP particles over the period of the investigation, which was significantly higher than that of the protein released from hydroxyapatite coated TCP (HA-TCP) particles. Collectively, this study suggests that the osteogenic protein NELL-1 showed a sustained release pattern after being encapsulated into the modified Chi/HA-TCP particles, and the NELL-1 integrated composite of Chi/HA-TCP showed a potential to function as a protein delivery carrier and as an improved bone matrix for use in bone regeneration research. PMID:27349789

  11. SDS-PAGE and IR spectroscopy to evaluate modifications in the viral protein profile induced by a cationic porphyrinic photosensitizer.

    PubMed

    Costa, Liliana; Esteves, Ana Cristina; Correia, António; Moreirinha, Catarina; Delgadillo, Ivonne; Cunha, Ângela; Neves, Maria G P S; Faustino, Maria A F; Almeida, Adelaide

    2014-12-01

    Reactive oxygen species can be responsible for microbial photodynamic inactivation due to its toxic effects, which include severe damage to proteins, lipids and nucleic acids. In this study, the photo-oxidative modifications of the proteins of a non-enveloped T4-like bacteriophage, induced by the cationic porphyrin 5,10,15-tris(1-methylpyridinium-4-yl)-20-(pentafluorophenyl)porphyrin tri-iodide were evaluated. Two methods were used: sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and infrared spectroscopy. SDS-PAGE analysis showed that the phage protein profile was considerably altered after photodynamic treatment. Seven protein bands putatively corresponding to capsid and tail tube proteins were attenuated and two other were enhanced. Infrared spectroscopy confirmed the time-dependent alteration on the phage protein profile detected by SDS-PAGE, indicative of a response to oxidative damage. Infrared analysis showed to be a promising and rapid screening approach for the analysis of the modifications induced on viral proteins by photosensitization. In fact, one single infrared spectrum can highlight the changes induced to all viral molecular structures, overcoming the delays and complex protocols of the conventional methods, in a much simple and cost effective way. PMID:25241141

  12. The role of glycyrrhetinic acid modification on preparation and evaluation of quercetin-loaded chitosan-based self-aggregates.

    PubMed

    Du, Hongliang; Liu, Mengrui; Yang, Xiaoye; Zhai, Guangxi

    2015-12-15

    Quercetin (QC), a type of plant-based chemical, has been reported to own anticancer activity in vivo. However, the poor water solubility limits its pharmaceutical application. In this study, two kinds of QC-loaded self-aggregates based on O-carboxymethyl chitosan-cholic acid conjugates (CMCA) were developed to improve the drug bioavailability in which glycyrrhetinic acid (GA) modification was utilized in the nanocarrier fabrication (QC-GA-CMCA) or not (QC-CMCA). These self-aggregates were prepared by a modified ultrasound-dialysis method and the role of GA modification on the evaluation of QC-loaded self-aggregates was investigated. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) images revealed the formation of spherical particles of both self-aggregates. Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) analysis and UV-VIS spectroscopy showed that the QC-GA-CMCA had smaller size, narrower size distribution, higher drug loading and entrapment efficiency than corresponding QC-CMCA aggregates. QC-GA-CMCA showed more obvious sensitivity to acidic pH condition based on the zeta potential measurements at various pHs, and fastest drug release was observed at pH 5.7 for QC-CMCA while at pH 6.5 for QC-GA-CMCA. In addition, QC-GA-CMCA demonstrated enhanced cell cytotoxicity and higher cell apoptosis rate in vitro, and also higher AUC value and a prolonged residence time of drug in vivo. PMID:26319324

  13. Evaluation of enamel surface modification using PS-OCT after laser treatment to increase resistance to demineralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jin Wan; Chan, Kenneth H.; Fried, Daniel

    2016-02-01

    At laser intensities below ablation, carbonated hydroxyapatite in enamel is converted into a purer phase hydroxyapatite with increased acid resistance. Previous studies suggested the possibility of achieving the conversion without surface modification. This study attempts to evaluate the thresholds for the modification without additional changes in physical and optical properties of the enamel. Bovine specimens were irradiated using an RF-excited CO2 laser operating at 9.4-μm with a pulse duration of 26- μs, pulse repetition rates of 100-1000 Hz, with a Gaussian spatial beam profile - 1.4 mm in diameter. After laser treatment, the samples were subjected to acid demineralization for 48 hours to simulate acidic intraoral conditions of a caries attack. The resulting demineralization and erosion were assessed using polarization sensitive OCT (PS-OCT) and 3D digital microscopy. The images from digital microscopy demonstrated a clear delineation between laser protected zones without visual changes and zones with higher levels of demineralization and erosion. Distinct changes in the surface morphology were found within the laser treated area in accordance with the Gaussian spatial beam profile. There was significant protection from the laser in areas that were not visually altered.

  14. Evaluation of enamel surface modification using PS-OCT after laser treatment to increase resistance to demineralization

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin Wan; Chan, Kenneth H.; Fried, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    At laser intensities below ablation, carbonated hydroxyapatite in enamel is converted into a purer phase hydroxyapatite with increased acid resistance. Previous studies suggested the possibility of achieving the conversion without surface modification. This study attempts to evaluate the thresholds for the modification without additional changes in physical and optical properties of the enamel. Bovine specimens were irradiated using an RF-excited CO2 laser operating at 9.4-µm with a pulse duration of 26-µs, pulse repetition rates of 100–1000 Hz, with a Gaussian spatial beam profile - 1.4 mm in diameter. After laser treatment, the samples were subjected to acid demineralization for 48 hours to simulate acidic intraoral conditions of a caries attack. The resulting demineralization and erosion were assessed using polarization sensitive OCT (PS-OCT) and 3D digital microscopy. The images from digital microscopy demonstrated a clear delineation between laser protected zones without visual changes and zones with higher levels of demineralization and erosion. Distinct changes in the surface morphology were found within the laser treated area in accordance with the Gaussian spatial beam profile. There was significant protection from the laser in areas that were not visually altered. PMID:27006523

  15. Evaluation of vegetation effects on the generation and modification of mesoscale circulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Segal, M.; Avissar, R.; Pielke, R. A.; Mccumber, M. C.

    1988-01-01

    The effects of the presence of vegetation cover on modifying sea breeze and thermally induced upslope flows during daytime were investigated, and the possibility of the generation of mesoscale circulations due to nonuniform vegetation cover was evaluated. Scale analysis and numerical model simulations were used to provide quantitative evaluations of the circulations involved in the two vagetation effects, using several illustrative cases. The cases considered demonstrate that the impact of vegetated surfaces is highly dependent on the environmental conditions as well as vegetation characteristics.

  16. Behavior Modification for Obesity: The Evaluation of Exercise, Contingency Management, and Program Adherence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    And Others; Stalonas, Peter M., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Investigated behavioral programs for obesity. Exercise and self-managed contingency components were compared using obese subjects who were evaluated after treatment and follow-up. Significant weight loss was observed at termination. The influence of exercise at follow-up was noticeable. Subjects engaged in behaviors, yet behaviors were not related…

  17. Fertility Modification Thesaurus with Focus on Evaluation of Family Planning Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speert, Kathryn H.; Wishik, Samuel M.

    The Division of Social and Administrative Sciences of the International Institute for the Study of Human Reproduction at Columbia University has compiled this list of terms used in indexing the literature for family planning program evaluation. This thesaurus should prove of direct use to the indexer of documents describing family planning program…

  18. Simple shearing flow of dry soap foams with TCP structure[Tetrahedrally Close-Packed

    SciTech Connect

    REINELT,DOUGLAS A.; KRAYNIK,ANDREW M.

    2000-02-16

    The microrheology of dry soap foams subjected to large, quasistatic, simple shearing deformations is analyzed. Two different monodisperse foams with tetrahedrally close-packed (TCP) structure are examined: Weaire-Phelan (A15) and Friauf-Laves (C15). The elastic-plastic response is evaluated by calculating foam structures that minimize total surface area at each value of strain. The minimal surfaces are computed with the Surface Evolver program developed by Brakke. The foam geometry and macroscopic stress are piecewise continuous functions of strain. The stress scales as T/V{sup 1/3} where T is surface tension and V is cell volume. Each discontinuity corresponds to large changes in foam geometry and topology that restore equilibrium to unstable configurations that violate Plateau's laws. The instabilities occur when the length of an edge on a polyhedral foam cell vanishes. The length can tend to zero smoothly or abruptly with strain. The abrupt case occurs when a small increase in strain changes the energy profile in the neighborhood of a foam structure from a local minimum to a saddle point, which can lead to symmetry-breaking bifurcations. In general, the new foam topology associated with each stable solution branch results from a cascade of local topology changes called T1 transitions. Each T1 cascade produces different cell neighbors, reduces surface energy, and provides an irreversible, film-level mechanism for plastic yield behavior. Stress-strain curves and average stresses are evaluated by examining foam orientations that admit strain-periodic behavior. For some orientations, the deformation cycle includes Kelvin cells instead of the original TCP structure; but the foam does not remain perfectly ordered. Bifurcations during subsequent T1 cascades lead to disorder and can even cause strain localization.

  19. On the Performance of TCP Spoofing in Satellite Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ishac, Joseph; Allman, Mark

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze the performance of Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) in a network that consists of both satellite and terrestrial components. One method, proposed by outside research, to improve the performance of data transfers over satellites is to use a performance enhancing proxy often dubbed 'spoofing.' Spoofing involves the transparent splitting of a TCP connection between the source and destination by some entity within the network path. In order to analyze the impact of spoofing, we constructed a simulation suite based around the network simulator ns-2. The simulation reflects a host with a satellite connection to the Internet and allows the option to spoof connections just prior to the satellite. The methodology used in our simulation allows us to analyze spoofing over a large range of file sizes and under various congested conditions, while prior work on this topic has primarily focused on bulk transfers with no congestion. As a result of these simulations, we find that the performance of spoofing is dependent upon a number of conditions.

  20. Adaptive Timer-Based Countermeasures against TCP SYN Flood Attacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanabe, Masao; Akaike, Hirofumi; Aida, Masaki; Murata, Masayuki; Imase, Makoto

    As a result of the rapid development of the Internet in recent years, network security has become an urgent issue. Distributed denial of service (DDoS) attacks are one of the most serious security issues. In particular, 60 percent of the DDoS attacks found on the Internet are TCP attacks, including SYN flood attacks. In this paper, we propose adaptive timer-based countermeasures against SYN flood attacks. Our proposal utilizes the concept of soft-state protocols that are widely used for resource management on the Internet. In order to avoid deadlock, a server releases resources using a time-out mechanism without any explicit requests from its clients. If we change the value of the timer in accordance with the network conditions, we can add more flexibility to the soft-state protocols. The timer is used to manage the resources assigned to half-open connections in a TCP 3-way handshake mechanism, and its value is determined adaptively according to the network conditions. In addition, we report our simulation results to show the effectiveness of our approach.

  1. Design and Evaluation of Modifications to the NASA Langley Flow Impedance Tube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Michael G.; Watson, Willie R.; Parrott, Tony L.; Smith, Charles D.

    2004-01-01

    The need to minimize fan noise radiation from commercial aircraft engine nacelles continues to provide an impetus for developing new acoustic liner concepts. If the full value of such concepts is to be attained, an understanding of grazing flow effects is crucial. Because of this need for improved understanding of grazing flow effects, the NASA Langley Research Center Liner Physics Group has invested a large effort over the past decade into the development of a 2-D finite element method that characterizes wave propagation through a lined duct. The original test section in the Langley Grazing IncidenceTube was used to acquire data needed for implementation of this finite element method. This test section employed a stepper motor-driven axial-traversing bar, embedded in the wall opposite the test liner, to position a flush-mounted microphone at pre-selected locations. Complex acoustic pressure data acquired with this traversing microphone were used to educe the acoustic impedance of test liners using this 2-D finite element method and a local optimization technique. Results acquired in this facility have been extensively reported, and were compared with corresponding results from various U.S. aeroacoustics laboratories in the late 1990 s. Impedance data comparisons acquired from this multi-laboratory study suggested that it would be valuable to incorporate more realistic 3-D aeroacoustic effects into the impedance eduction methodology. This paper provides a description of modifications that have been implemented to facilitate studies of 3-D effects. The two key features of the modified test section are (1) the replacement of the traversing bar and its flush-mounted microphone with an array of 95 fixed-location microphones that are flush-mounted in all four walls of the duct, and (2) the inclusion of a suction device to modify the boundary layer upstream of the lined portion of the duct. The initial results achieved with the modified test section are provided in this

  2. DETERMINATION OF 3,5,6-TRICHLORO-2-PYRIDINOL (TCP) BY ELISA

    EPA Science Inventory

    A sensitive, competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for 3,5,6-trichloro-2pyridinol (TCP) has been developed to quantitate parts per billion (ppb) amounts of the analyte in urine. TCP is a major metabolite and environmental degradation product of the insecticide c...

  3. Evaluation of the Crude Oil Policy Model (COPM) and recommended modifications

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, B.

    1991-07-26

    This is an evaluation of the Crude Oil Policy Model (COPM) and the assumptions driving the estimates of future crude oil production and abandonments attributable to an accelerated federal oil R&D program which were cited in the National Energy Strategy. This evaluation focuses on the logic and inputs to the model itself, and their impact on the NES estimates. A plan for making the recommended enhancements is also discussed. A parallel effort is also now in progress to make a number of model enhancements that will facilitate the analysis of RCRA impacts. This effort is scheduled to be completed for the Office of Planning and Environment in mid-August. A description of these enhancements is also included in our plan for correcting and enhancing the COPM.

  4. Evaluation of Corneal Biomechanical Properties Modification after Small Incision Lenticule Extraction Using Scheimpflug-Based Noncontact Tonometer

    PubMed Central

    Calienno, Roberta; Lanzini, Manuela; Colasante, Martina; Mastropasqua, Alessandra; Mattei, Peter A.; Nubile, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To quantify the effect of small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) on the corneal biomechanics using Scheimpflug noncontact tonometer (Corvis ST). Methods. Twenty eyes of twenty patients, evaluated as eligible for surgery, with high myopia and/or moderate myopic astigmatism, underwent small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE). All patients underwent Corvis ST preoperatively and postoperatively after 1 week, and 1 and 3 months to observe alterations of corneal biomechanical properties. The main outcome measures were Deformation Amplitude, 1st-AT, and 2nd-AT. The relationship between the amount of stroma removed and the percentage variation of the measured parameters from baseline was evaluated with generalized linear model from each time point. For completeness also intraocular pressure (IOP), central corneal thickness (CCT), and their variations after surgery were evaluated. Results. The ratio between the amount of removed refractive error and, respectively, changes of Deformation Amplitude, 1st-AT, and 2nd-AT were significantly modified at the 1st week after surgery (P = 0.005; P = 0.001; P = 0.024). At 1 and 3 months these values did not show statistically significant alterations. Intraocular pressure and central corneal thickness showed statistically significant changes during follow-up. Conclusions. No significant modifications in biomechanical properties were observed after SMILE so this procedure could induce only minimal transient alterations of corneal biomechanics. PMID:25309907

  5. Calorimetry investigations of milled α-tricalcium phosphate (α-TCP) powders to determine the formation enthalpies of α-TCP and X-ray amorphous tricalcium phosphate.

    PubMed

    Hurle, Katrin; Neubauer, Juergen; Bohner, Marc; Doebelin, Nicola; Goetz-Neunhoeffer, Friedlinde

    2015-09-01

    One α-tricalcium phosphate (α-TCP) powder was either calcined at 500°C to obtain fully crystalline α-TCP or milled for different durations to obtain α-TCP powders containing various amounts of X-ray amorphous tricalcium phosphate (ATCP). These powders containing between 0 and 71wt.% ATCP and up to 2.0±0.1wt.% β-TCP as minor phase were then hydrated in 0.1M Na2HPO4 aqueous solution and the resulting heat flows were measured by isothermal calorimetry. Additionally, the evolution of the phase composition during hydration was determined by in situ XRD combined with the G-factor method, an external standard method which facilitates the indirect quantification of amorphous phases. Maximum ATCP hydration was reached after about 1h, while that of crystalline α-TCP hydration occurred between 4 and 11h, depending on the ATCP content. An enthalpy of formation of -4065±6kJ/mol (T=23°C) was calculated for ATCP (Ca3(PO4)2), while for crystalline α-TCP (α-Ca3(PO4)2) a value of -4113±6kJ/mol (T=23°C) was determined. PMID:26026302

  6. Application of stochastic discrete event system framework for detection of induced low rate TCP attack.

    PubMed

    Barbhuiya, F A; Agarwal, Mayank; Purwar, Sanketh; Biswas, Santosh; Nandi, Sukumar

    2015-09-01

    TCP is the most widely accepted transport layer protocol. The major emphasis during the development of TCP was its functionality and efficiency. However, not much consideration was given on studying the possibility of attackers exploiting the protocol, which has lead to several attacks on TCP. This paper deals with the induced low rate TCP attack. Since the attack is relatively new, only a few schemes have been proposed to mitigate it. However, the main issues with these schemes are scalability, change in TCP header, lack of formal frameworks, etc. In this paper, we have adapted the stochastic DES framework for detecting the attack, which addresses most of these issues. We have successfully deployed and tested the proposed DES based IDS on a test bed. PMID:26073643

  7. TCP2 positively regulates HY5/HYH and photomorphogenesis in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    He, Zhimin; Zhao, Xiaoying; Kong, Fanna; Zuo, Zecheng; Liu, Xuanming

    2016-01-01

    Light regulates plant growth and development via multiple photoreceptors including phytochromes and cryptochromes. Although the functions of photoreceptors have been studied extensively, questions remain regarding the involvement of cryptochromes in photomorphogenesis. In this study, we identified a protein, TEOSINTE-LIKE1, CYCLOIDEA, and PROLIFERATING CELL FACTOR 2 (TCP2), which interacts with the cryptochrome 1 (CRY1) protein in yeast and plant cells via the N-terminal domains of both proteins. Transgenic plants overexpressing TCP2 displayed a light-dependent short hypocotyl phenotype, especially in response to blue light. Moreover, light affected TCP2 expression in a wavelength-dependent manner and TCP2 positively regulates mRNA expression of HYH and HY5. These results support the hypothesis that TCP2 is a transcription activator which acts downstream of multiple photoreceptors, including CRY1. PMID:26596765

  8. Modification and evaluation of Brucella broth based Campylobacter jejuni transport medium.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yao; Cui, Sheng Hui; Xu, Xiao; Li, Feng Qin

    2014-06-01

    Reliable transport of Campylobacter jejuni isolates is critical to microbial epidemiology research, especially in developing countries without a good temperature control mailing system. Various factors, including oxygen, temperature, transport medium composition, could affect the survival of C. jejuni. In this study, the protective effects of different ingredients in C. jejuni transport media at 4 °C and 25 °C and under aerobic condition were quantitatively evaluated respectively. The results showed that enriched medium, supplementation with 5% blood and being kept at 4 °C could improve the viability of different C. jejuni strains during transport. In addition, supplementation with 25 mmol/L L-fucose in Wang's transport medium could significantly improve the survival of C. jejuni at both 4 °C and 25 °C. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to evaluate the protective effect of L-fucose in enriched C. jejuni transport medium which is feasible in developing countries without an effective cold chain mailing system. These data will be good reference for C. jejuni transport medium improvement in future. PMID:24961857

  9. Thiol Modification of Psyllium Husk Mucilage and Evaluation of Its Mucoadhesive Applications

    PubMed Central

    Bhatia, Meenakshi

    2013-01-01

    Thiol functionalization of psyllium was carried out to enhance its mucoadhesive potential. Thiolation of psyllium was achieved by esterification with thioglycolic acid. Thiolation was observed to change the surface morphology of psyllium from fibrous to granular and result in a slight increase in the crystallinity and swelling. Thiolated psyllium was found to contain 3.282 m moles of thiol groups/g of the polymer. Mucoadhesive applications of thiolated psylium were explored by formulating gels using metronidazole as the model drug. On comparative evaluation thiolated psyllium gels showed 3-fold higher mucoadhesive strength than the psyllium gels as determined by modified physical balance using chicken buccal pouch. The results of in vitro release study revealed that thiolated psyllium gels provided a prolonged release of metronidazole. Further, the psyllium and thiolated psyllium gels were found to release the drug following first-order kinetics by combination of polymer relaxation and diffusion through the matrix. PMID:24348147

  10. Thiol modification of psyllium husk mucilage and evaluation of its mucoadhesive applications.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Meenakshi; Ahuja, Munish

    2013-01-01

    Thiol functionalization of psyllium was carried out to enhance its mucoadhesive potential. Thiolation of psyllium was achieved by esterification with thioglycolic acid. Thiolation was observed to change the surface morphology of psyllium from fibrous to granular and result in a slight increase in the crystallinity and swelling. Thiolated psyllium was found to contain 3.282 m moles of thiol groups/g of the polymer. Mucoadhesive applications of thiolated psylium were explored by formulating gels using metronidazole as the model drug. On comparative evaluation thiolated psyllium gels showed 3-fold higher mucoadhesive strength than the psyllium gels as determined by modified physical balance using chicken buccal pouch. The results of in vitro release study revealed that thiolated psyllium gels provided a prolonged release of metronidazole. Further, the psyllium and thiolated psyllium gels were found to release the drug following first-order kinetics by combination of polymer relaxation and diffusion through the matrix. PMID:24348147

  11. TGF-β1-Enhanced TCP-Coated Sensate Scaffolds Can Detect Bone Bonding

    PubMed Central

    Szivek, J.A.; Margolis, D.S.; Garrison, B.K.; Nelson, E.; Vaidyanathan, R.K.; DeYoung, D.W.

    2008-01-01

    Porous polybutylene terephthalate (PBT) scaffold systems were tested as orthopedic implants to determine whether these scaffolds could be used to detect strain transfer following bone growth into the scaffold. Three types of scaffold systems were tested: porous PBT scaffolds, porous PBT scaffolds with a thin β-tricalcium phosphate coating (LC-PBT), and porous PBT scaffolds with the TCP coating vacuum packed into the scaffold pores (VI-PBT). In addition, the effect of applying TGF-β1 to scaffolds as an enhancement was examined. The scaffolds were placed onto the femora of rats and left in vivo for 4 months. The amount of bone ingrowth and the strain transfer through various scaffolds was evaluated by using scanning electron microscopy, histology, histomorphometry, and cantilever bend testing. The VI-PBT scaffold showed the highest and most consistent degree of mechanical interaction between bone and scaffold, providing strain transfers of 68.5% (±20.6) and 79.2% (±8.7) of control scaffolds in tension and compression, respectively. The strain transfer through the VI-PBT scaffold decreased to 29.1% (±24.3) and 30.4% (±25.8) in tension and compression when used with TGF-β1. TGF-β1 enhancement increased the strain transfer through LC-PBT scaffolds in compression from 9.4% (±8.7) to 49.7% (±31.0). The significant changes in mechanical strain transfer through LC-PBT and VI-PBT scaffolds correlated with changes in bone ingrowth fraction, which was increased by 39.6% in LC-PBT scaffolds and was decreased 21.3% in VI-PBT scaffolds after TGF-β1 enhancement. Overall, the results indicate that strain transfer through TCP-coated PBT scaffolds correlate with bone ingrowth after implantation, making these instrumented scaffolds useful for monitoring bone growth by monitoring strain transfer. PMID:15682399

  12. Evaluation of Surface Modification as a Lunar Dust Mitigation Strategy for Thermal Control Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaier, James R.; Waters, Deborah L.; Misconin, Robert M.; Banks, Bruce A.; Crowder, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Three surface treatments were evaluated for their ability to lower the adhesion between lunar simulant dust and AZ93, AlFEP, and AgFEP thermal control surfaces under simulated lunar conditions. Samples were dusted in situ and exposed to a standardized puff of nitrogen gas. Thermal performance before dusting, after dusting, and after part of the dust was removed by the puff of gas, were compared to perform the assessment. None of the surface treatments was found to significantly affect the adhesion of lunar simulants to AZ93 thermal control paint. Oxygen ion beam texturing also did not lower the adhesion of lunar simulant dust to AlFEP or AgFEP. But a workfunction matching coating and a proprietary Ball Aerospace surface treatment were both found to significantly lower the adhesion of lunar simulants to AlFEP and AgFEP. Based on these results, it is recommended that all these two techniques be further explored as dust mitigation coatings for AlFEP and AgFEP thermal control surfaces.

  13. Matching references with MEDLINE via TCP/IP.

    PubMed Central

    Guidi, J. N.

    1993-01-01

    Bibliographic references are an important part of databases and information resources used by clinicians and biomedical researchers. In addition to the obvious clerical advantages of standard references, bibliographic references can also be used as links to related items in different data sets. This paper describes an effort that involved matching references from a variety of disparate databases to canonical MEDLINE references. The references matched were those involved in a database unification project which is part of the Mouse Genome Informatics effort at The Jackson Laboratory. Software was developed to take advantage of a commercially available retrieval engine which accesses MEDLINE on CD-ROM disks. The software permits client programs on UNIX/C, and potentially other environments, to access unabridged MEDLINE via networks supporting the TCP/IP protocols. The matching process described can be used as a model for similar efforts with different research or clinical data sets, as well as different hardware or software environments. PMID:8130546

  14. OsTCP19 influences developmental and abiotic stress signaling by modulating ABI4-mediated pathways

    PubMed Central

    Mukhopadhyay, Pradipto; Tyagi, Akhilesh Kumar; Tyagi, Akhilesh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Class-I TCP transcription factors are plant-specific developmental regulators. In this study, the role of one such rice gene, OsTCP19, in water-deficit and salt stress response was explored. Besides a general upregulation by abiotic stresses, this transcript was more abundant in tolerant than sensitive rice genotypes during early hours of stress. Stress, tissue and genotype-dependent retention of a small in-frame intron in this transcript was also observed. Overexpression of OsTCP19 in Arabidopsis caused upregulation of IAA3, ABI3 and ABI4 and downregulation of LOX2, and led to developmental abnormalities like fewer lateral root formation. Moreover, decrease in water loss and reactive oxygen species, and hyperaccumulation of lipid droplets in the transgenics contributed to better stress tolerance both during seedling establishment and in mature plants. OsTCP19 was also shown to directly regulate a rice triacylglycerol biosynthesis gene in transient assays. Genes similar to those up- or downregulated in the transgenics were accordingly found to coexpress positively and negatively with OsTCP19 in Rice Oligonucleotide Array Database. Interactions of OsTCP19 with OsABI4 and OsULT1 further suggest its function in modulation of abscisic acid pathways and chromatin structure. Thus, OsTCP19 appears to be an important node in cell signaling which crosslinks stress and developmental pathways. PMID:25925167

  15. The adsorption and thermal decomposition of tricresylphosphate (TCP) on iron and gold

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, D. R.; Faut, O. D.

    1983-01-01

    Because tricresyl-phosphate (TCP) is a common antiwear additive in lubricants, there is great interest in its interactions with metal substrates. The TCP was allowed to adsorb on polycrystalline iron and gold at room temperature. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to analyze the adsorbed species. The substrate was then heated in steps to 330 C, and the changes in the adsorbate were analyzed after each step. On both substrates saturation adsorption occurred at about one monolayer, but the sticking coefficient was less on gold than on iron. Comparison of the XPS spectra of TCP on each substrate with the spectrum from condensed TCP indicated nondissociative adsorption on gold, possibly by dipole-induced dipole interaction. On iron, there was apparently additional interaction between the substrate and the tolyl groups on the TCP molecule. TCP began to desorb molecularly from gold as soon as the gold was heated above room temperature. The desorption was complete by 200 C. However, when the iron substrate was heated, TCP did not desorb but decomposed between 150 and 250 C.

  16. Potential modification of the UKPDS risk engine and evaluation of macrovascular event rates in controlled clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Fred; Ye, June; Pomerantz, Kenneth; Stewart, Murray

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate a modified UKPDS risk engine in order to establish a risk prediction benchmark for the general diabetes population. Methods Data sources were summary demographic and risk factor data from the major type 2 diabetes mellitus outcomes studies, including ACCORD, ADVANCE, VADT, RECORD, PROactive, ADOPT, and BARI 2D. Patients in these studies spanned a wide spectrum of disease, from drug-naïve to insulin-dependent. Cardiovascular events/major adverse coronary events (CVE/MACE) were primary or safety end points. Overall observed rates for cardiovascular events/MACE were summarized, and the observed annualized event rates were calculated using linear approximation. Simulation studies were then conducted using original (cardiovascular history excluded) and modified (cardiovascular history included) United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) models; the predicted event rates were then compared with the observed event rates for all studies. The consistency of the predicted rates derived from each model was then evaluated using descriptive statistics and linear regression. Results The original UKPDS model tended to overestimate event rates across studies. The ratio of predicted events versus observed MACE ranged from 0.9 to 2.0, with mean of 1.5 ± 0.4 and a coefficient of variation of 26% (R2 = 0.80). However, cardiovascular risk predictions were more precise using a modified UKPDS model; the ratio of predicted versus observed MACE events ranged from 1.8 to 2.4, with a mean of 2.1 ± 0.25 and a coefficient of variation of 13% (R2 = 0.94). Conclusion A modified UKPDS model which includes adjustments for prior cardiovascular history has the potential for use as a tool for benchmarking and may be useful for predicting cardiovascular rates in clinical studies. This modification could be further evaluated, recalibrated, and validated using patient-level information derived from prospective clinical studies to yield greater

  17. ARSENIC REMOVAL FROM DRINKING WATER BY PROCESS MODIFICATION TO COAGULATION/FILTRATION. USEPA DEMONSTRATION PROJECT AT LIDGERWOOD, ND. FINAL PERFORMANCE EVALUATION REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report documents the activities performed and the results obtained for the arsenic removal treatment technology demonstration project at the Lidgerwood, North Dakota site. The objectives of the project were to evaluate: (1) the effectiveness of process modifications to an e...

  18. Uptake of tri-p-cresyl phosphate (TCP) in soybean plants

    SciTech Connect

    Casterline, J.L. Jr.; Ku, Y.; Barnett, N.M.

    1985-08-01

    Because of the possible release of TCP to the environment, this study was undertaken to determine the uptake and translocation of TCP by soybean plants, using pure tri-p-cresyl phosphate (TpCP) as a model compound. The authors wished to learn the propensity of TpCP to move into the food crops from the soil. This study was not concerned with phytotoxicity, but with the possibility of foods becoming contaminated with TCP through the use of sludge or waste-water on agricultural lands.

  19. Control theoretical analysis of a window-based flow control mechanism for TCP connections with different propagation delays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohsaki, Hiroyuki; Takagaki, Keiichi; Murata, Masayuki

    2001-07-01

    A feedback-based congestion control mechanism is essential to realize an efficient best-effort service in high-speed networks. A window-based flow control mechanism called TCP (Transmission Control Protocol), which a sort of feedback-based congestion control mechanism, has been widely used in the current Internet. Recently-proposed TCP Vegas is another version of TCP mechanism, and can achieve better performance than the current TCP Reno. In our previous works, we have analyzed stability of a window-based flow control mechanism based on TCP Vegas in both homogeneous and heterogeneous networks. In this paper, using our analytic results, we invesitigate how the dynamics of the window-based flow control mechanism based on TCP Vegas is affected by the difference in propagation delays of TCP connections. We also investigate the effect of various system parameters on transient performance of the window-based flow control mechanism.

  20. 23 CFR Appendix D to Subpart A of... - Guidance Criteria for Evaluating Requests for Modifications to the National Highway System

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Modifications to the National Highway System D Appendix D to Subpart A of Part 470 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PLANNING AND RESEARCH HIGHWAY SYSTEMS Federal-aid Highway Systems Pt... for Modifications to the National Highway System Section 103(b), of title 23, U.S.C., allows...

  1. Toll/Interleukin-1 Receptor Domain Derived from TcpC (TIR-TcpC) Ameliorates Experimental Autoimmune Arthritis by Down-modulating Th17 Cell Response.

    PubMed

    Pasi, Shweta; Kant, Ravi; Surolia, Avadhesha

    2016-06-01

    Evasion through immunomodulation is one of the several strategies adopted by pathogens to prolong their survival within the host. One such pathogen, Escherichia coli CFT073, utilizes an immunomodulatory protein, TcpC, to combat the host's innate immune defense. TcpC abrogates the function of MyD88 in macrophages, thus perturbing all the signaling processes that involve this adaptor protein. Although central to various signaling pathways initiated by IL-1, IL-18, and toll-like receptors, the precise contribution of MyD88 to the development of autoimmunity, particularly rheumatoid arthritis, still needs extensive exploration. Herein, by using the toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domain homologous C-terminal motif of TcpC, i.e. TIR-TcpC, we found MyD88 to be critical for the induction and progression of rheumatoid arthritis through its pivotal role in the development of Th17 cells, the subset of CD4(+) T-cells widely implicated in various autoimmune disorders. The TIR-TcpC mediated inhibition of signaling through MyD88, and subsequent amelioration of experimental autoimmune arthritis was observed to be an outcome of perturbations in the NFκB-RORγt (RAR-related orphan receptor γt) axis. PMID:27022030

  2. β-TCP porous pellets as an orthopaedic drug delivery system: ibuprofen/carrier physicochemical interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baradari, Hiba; Damia, Chantal; Dutreih-Colas, Maggy; Champion, Eric; Chulia, Dominique; Viana, Marylène

    2011-10-01

    Calcium phosphate bone substitute materials can be loaded with active substances for in situ, targeted drug administration. In this study, porous β-TCP pellets were investigated as an anti-inflammatory drug carrier. Porous β-TCP pellets were impregnated with an ethanolic solution of ibuprofen. The effects of contact time and concentration of ibuprofen solution on drug adsorption were studied. The ibuprofen adsorption equilibrium time was found to be one hour. The adsorption isotherms fitted to the Freundlich model, suggesting that the interaction between ibuprofen and β-TCP is weak. The physicochemical characterizations of loaded pellets confirmed that the reversible physisorption of ibuprofen on β-TCP pellets is due to Van der Waals forces, and this property was associated with the 100% ibuprofen release.

  3. SM_TCP: a new reliable multicast transport protocol for satellite IP networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Gongliang; Gu, Xuemai; Li, Shizhong

    2005-11-01

    A new reliable multicast transport protocol SM_TCP is proposed for satellite IP networks in this paper. In SM_TCP, the XOR scheme with the aid of on-board buffering and processing is used for error recovery and an optimal retransmission algorithm is designed, which can reduce the recovery time by half of the RTT and minimize the number of retransmissions. In order to avoid the unnecessary decrease of congestion window in the high BER satellite channels, the occupied buffer sizes at bottlenecks are measured in adjusting the congestion window, instead of depending on the packet loss information. The average session rate of TCP sessions and of multicast sessions passing through the satellite are also measured and compared in adjusting the congestion window, which contributes to bandwidth fairness. Analysis and simulation results show fairness with TCP flows and scalability.

  4. New approach in subjective and objective speech transmission quality measurement in TCP/IP networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souček, Pavel; Slavata, Oldřich; Holub, Jan

    2015-02-01

    This paper deals with problems of speech transmission quality measurement in modern telecommunication networks. It focuses on problems caused by specific types of distortions and errors caused present in transmissions using TCP/IP networks.

  5. ACTS 118x Final Report High-Speed TCP Interoperability Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivancic, William D.; Zernic, Mike; Hoder, Douglas J.; Brooks, David E.; Beering, Dave R.; Welch, Arun

    1999-01-01

    With the recent explosion of the Internet and the enormous business opportunities available to communication system providers, great interest has developed in improving the efficiency of data transfer using the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) of the Internet Protocol (IP) suite. The satellite system providers are interested in solving TCP efficiency problems associated with long delays and error-prone links. Similarly, the terrestrial community is interested in solving TCP problems over high-bandwidth links. Whereas the wireless community is interested in improving TCP performance over bandwidth constrained, error-prone links. NASA realized that solutions had already been proposed for most of the problems associated with efficient data transfer over large bandwidth-delay links (which include satellite links). The solutions are detailed in various Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) Request for Comments (RFCs). Unfortunately, most of these solutions had not been tested at high-speed (155+ Mbps). Therefore, the NASA's ACTS experiments program initiated a series of TCP experiments to demonstrate scalability of TCP/IP and determine how far the protocol can be optimized over a 622 Mbps satellite link. These experiments were known as the 118i and 118j experiments. During the 118i and 118j experiments, NASA worked closely with SUN Microsystems and FORE Systems to improve the operating system, TCP stacks. and network interface cards and drivers. We were able to obtain instantaneous data throughput rates of greater than 520 Mbps and average throughput rates of 470 Mbps using TCP over Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) over a 622 Mbps Synchronous Optical Network (SONET) OC12 link. Following the success of these experiments and the successful government/industry collaboration, a new series of experiments. the 118x experiments. were developed.

  6. Osteointegration of PLGA implants with nanostructured or microsized β-TCP particles in a minipig model.

    PubMed

    Kulkova, Julia; Moritz, Niko; Suokas, Esa O; Strandberg, Niko; Leino, Kari A; Laitio, Timo T; Aro, Hannu T

    2014-12-01

    Bioresorbable suture anchors and interference screws have certain benefits over equivalent titanium-alloy implants. However, there is a need for compositional improvement of currently used bioresorbable implants. We hypothesized that implants made of poly(l-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) compounded with nanostructured particles of beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) would induce stronger osteointegration than implants made of PLGA compounded with microsized β-TCP particles. The experimental nanostructured self-reinforced PLGA (85L:15G)/β-TCP composite was made by high-energy ball-milling. Self-reinforced microsized PLGA (95L:5G)/β-TCP composite was prepared by melt-compounding. The composites were characterized by gas chromatography, Ubbelohde viscometry, scanning electron microscopy, laser diffractometry, and standard mechanical tests. Four groups of implants were prepared for the controlled laboratory study employing a minipig animal model. Implants in the first two groups were prepared from nanostructured and microsized PLGA/β-TCP composites respectively. Microroughened titanium-alloy (Ti6Al4V) implants served as positive intra-animal control, and pure PLGA implants as negative control. Cone-shaped implants were inserted in a random order unilaterally in the anterior cortex of the femoral shaft. Eight weeks after surgery, the mechanical strength of osteointegration of the implants was measured by a push-out test. The quality of new bone surrounding the implant was assessed by microcomputed tomography and histology. Implants made of nanostructured PLGA/β-TCP composite did not show improved mechanical osteointegration compared with the implants made of microsized PLGA/β-TCP composite. In the intra-animal comparison, the push-out force of two PLGA/β-TCP composites was 35-60% of that obtained with Ti6Al4V implants. The implant materials did not result in distinct differences in quality of new bone surrounding the implant. PMID:25241283

  7. The Predigest Project of TCP/IP Protocol Communication System Based on DSP Technology and Ethernet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    hong-you, Wang; san-ping, Zhao

    The paper introduce a predigest project of TCP/IP based on DSP CMOS chip TMS320F2407 and Ethernet interface. The system design the Network Interface Controller using TMS320F2407and TRL8019AS,it simplify TCP/IP, achieve simple protocol stack in DSP, and achieve Data transmission by software program. The experiment indicated that, the communication system constructed by TMS320F2407andTRL8019AS is low cast, simple and reliable.

  8. Applying a Hypoxia-Incorporating TCP Model to Experimental Data on Rat Sarcoma

    SciTech Connect

    Ruggieri, Ruggero; Stavreva, Nadejda; Naccarato, Stefania; Stavrev, Pavel

    2012-08-01

    Purpose: To verify whether a tumor control probability (TCP) model which mechanistically incorporates acute and chronic hypoxia is able to describe animal in vivo dose-response data, exhibiting tumor reoxygenation. Methods and Materials: The investigated TCP model accounts for tumor repopulation, reoxygenation of chronic hypoxia, and fluctuating oxygenation of acute hypoxia. Using the maximum likelihood method, the model is fitted to Fischer-Moulder data on Wag/Rij rats, inoculated with rat rhabdomyosarcoma BA1112, and irradiated in vivo using different fractionation schemes. This data set is chosen because two of the experimental dose-response curves exhibit an inverse dose behavior, which is interpreted as due to reoxygenation. The tested TCP model is complex, and therefore, in vivo cell survival data on the same BA1112 cell line from Reinhold were added to Fischer-Moulder data and fitted simultaneously with a corresponding cell survival function. Results: The obtained fit to the combined Fischer-Moulder-Reinhold data was statistically acceptable. The best-fit values of the model parameters for which information exists were in the range of published values. The cell survival curves of well-oxygenated and hypoxic cells, computed using the best-fit values of the radiosensitivities and the initial number of clonogens, were in good agreement with the corresponding in vitro and in situ experiments of Reinhold. The best-fit values of most of the hypoxia-related parameters were used to recompute the TCP for non-small cell lung cancer patients as a function of the number of fractions, TCP(n). Conclusions: The investigated TCP model adequately describes animal in vivo data exhibiting tumor reoxygenation. The TCP(n) curve computed for non-small cell lung cancer patients with the best-fit values of most of the hypoxia-related parameters confirms previously obtained abrupt reduction in TCP for n < 10, thus warning against the adoption of severely hypofractionated schedules.

  9. The effect of Tricresyl-Phosphate (TCP) as an additive on wear of Iron (Fe)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghose, Hiren M.; Ferrante, John; Honecy, Frank C.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of tricresyl phosphate (TCP) as an antiwear additive in lubricant trimethyol propane triheptanoate (TMPTH) was investigated. The objective was to examine step loading wear by use of surface analysis, wetting, and chemical bonding changes in the lubricant. The investigation consisted of steploading wear studies by a pin or disk tribometer, the effects on wear related to wetting by contact angle and surface tension measurements of various liquid systems, the chemical bonding changes between lubricant and TCP chromatographic analysis, and by determining the reaction between the TCP and metal surfaces through wear scar analysis by Auger emission spectroscopy (AES). The steploading curve for the base fluid alone shows rapid increase of wear rate with load. The steploading curve for the base fluid in presence of 4.25 percent by volume TCP under dry air purge has shown a great reduction of wear rate with all loads studied. It has also been found that the addition of 4.25 percent by volume TCP plus 0.33 percent by volume water to the base lubricant under N2 purge also greatly reduces the wear rate with all loads studied. AES surface analysis reveals a phosphate type wear resistant film, which greatly increases load-bearing capacity, formed on the iron disk. Preliminary chromatographic studies suggest that this film forms either because of ester oxidation or TCP degradation. Wetting studies show direct correlation between the spreading coefficient and the wear rate.

  10. Momentary Recovery Algorithm: A New Look at the Traditional Problem of TCP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Jae-Hyun; Yoo, See-Hwan; Yoo, Chuck

    Traditional TCP has a good congestion control strategy that adapts its sending rate in accordance with network congestion. In addition, a fast recovery algorithm can help TCP achieve better throughput by responding to temporary network congestion well. However, if multiple packet losses occur, the time to enter congestion avoidance phase would be delayed due to the long recovery time. Moreover, during the recovery phase, TCP freezes congestion window size until all lost packets are recovered, and this can make recovery time much longer resulting in performance degradation. To mitigate such recovery overhead, we propose Momentary recovery algorithm that recovers packet loss without an extra recovery phase. As other TCP and variants, our algorithm also halves the congestion window size when packet drop is detected, but it performs congestion avoidance phase immediately as if loss recovery is completed. For lost packets, TCP sender transmits them along with normal packets as long as congestion window permits rather than performs fast retransmission. In this manner, we can eliminate recovery overhead efficiently and reach steady state momentarily after network congestion. Finally, we provide a simulation based study on TCP recovery behaviors and confirm that our Momentary recovery algorithm always shows better performance compared with NewReno, SACK, and FACK.

  11. HALR: A TCP Enhancement Scheme Using Local Caching in High-Availability Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Yi-Hsuan; Huang, Nen-Fu; Wu, Yen-Min

    In this paper, we study the end-to-end TCP performance over a path deploying a High-Availability cluster, whose characteristics are highlighted by the failover procedure to remove single-point failure. This paper proposes an approach, called High-Availability Local Recovery (HALR), to enhance TCP performance in the face of a cluster failover. To minimize the latency of retransmission, HALR saves TCP packets selectively and resends them locally after the failover is finished. For better understanding, we further develop simple analytic models to predict the TCP performance in the aspect of flow latency under a range of failover times and the effects of HALR. Using simulation results, we validate our models and show that HALR improves the TCP performance significantly over a failover event as compared with the original TCP. Typically, HALR reduces the flow latency from 4.1sec to less than 1.9sec when the failover time equals to 500ms. The simulation by real packet trace further demonstrates that the memory requirement of the proposed solution is not a concern for modern network equipments.

  12. Analysis of the TCP genes expressed in the inflorescence of the orchid Orchis italica

    PubMed Central

    De Paolo, Sofia; Gaudio, Luciano; Aceto, Serena

    2015-01-01

    TCP proteins are plant-specific transcription factors involved in many different processes. Because of their involvement in a large number of developmental pathways, their roles have been investigated in various plant species. However, there are almost no studies of this transcription factor family in orchids. Based on the available transcriptome of the inflorescence of the orchid Orchis italica, in the present study we identified 12 transcripts encoding TCP proteins. The phylogenetic analysis showed that they belong to different TCP classes (I and II) and groups (PCF, CIN and CYC/TB1), and that they display a number of conserved motifs when compared with the TCPs of Arabidopsis and Oryza. The presence of a specific cleavage site for the microRNA miRNA319, an important post-transcriptional regulator of several TCP genes in other species, was demonstrated for one transcript of O. italica, and the analysis of the expression pattern of the TCP transcripts in different inflorescence organs and in leaf tissue suggests that some TCP transcripts of O. italica exert their role only in specific tissues, while others may play multiple roles in different tissues. In addition, the evolutionary analysis showed a general purifying selection acting on the coding region of these transcripts. PMID:26531864

  13. The TCP1γ subunit of Leishmania donovani forms a biologically active homo-oligomeric complex.

    PubMed

    Bhaskar; Mitra, Kalyan; Kuldeep, Jitendra; Siddiqi, Mohammad Imran; Goyal, Neena

    2015-12-01

    Chaperonins are a class of molecular chaperons that encapsulate nascent or stress-denatured proteins and assist their intracellular assembly and folding in an ATP-dependent manner. The ubiquitous eukaryotic chaperonin, TCP1 ring complex is a hetero-oligomeric complex comprising two rings, each formed of eight subunits that may have distinct substrate recognition and ATP hydrolysis properties. In Leishmania, only the TCP1γ subunit has been cloned and characterized. It exhibited differential expression at various growth stages of promastigotes. In the present study, we expressed the TCP1γ subunit in Escherichia coli to investigate whether it forms chaperonin-like complexes and plays a role in protein folding. LdTCP1γ formed high-molecular-weight complexes within E. coli cells as well as in Leishmania cell lysates. The recombinant protein is arranged into two back-to-back rings of seven subunits each, as predicted by homology modelling and observed by negative staining electron microscopy. This morphology is consistent with that of the oligomeric double-ring group I chaperonins found in mitochondria. The LdTCP1γ homo-oligomeric complex hydrolysed ATP, and was active as assayed by luciferase refolding. Thus, the homo-oligomer performs chaperonin reactions without partner subunit(s). Further, co-immunoprecipitation studies revealed that LdTCP1γ interacts with actin and tubulin proteins, suggesting that the complex may have a role in maintaining the structural dynamics of the cytoskeleton of parasites. PMID:26395202

  14. Behavior modification.

    PubMed

    Pelham, W E; Fabiano, G A

    2000-07-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a chronic and substantially impairing disorder. This means that treatment must also be chronic and substantial. Behavior Modification, and in many cases, the combination of behavior modification and stimulant medication, is a valid, useful treatment for reducing the pervasive impairment experienced by children with ADHD. Based on the research evidence reviewed, behavior modification should be the first line of treatment for children with ADHD. PMID:10944662

  15. beta-TCP/MCPM-based premixed calcium phosphate cements.

    PubMed

    Han, Bing; Ma, Peng-Wei; Zhang, Li-Li; Yin, Yu-Ji; Yao, Kang-De; Zhang, Fu-Jiang; Zhang, Yong-Dong; Li, Xiu-Lan; Nie, Wei

    2009-10-01

    Novel premixed calcium phosphate cements (CPCs) were prepared by combining cement liquids comprised of glycerol or polyethylene glycol with CPC powders that consisted of beta-tricalcium phosphate (beta-TCP) and monocalcium phosphate monohydrate (MCPM). Changing the powder to liquid mass ratio enabled the setting time to be regulated, and improved the compressive strength of the CPCs. Although some ratios of the new premixed CPCs had long setting times, these ranged from 12.4 to 27.8 min which is much shorter than the hour or more reported previously for a premixed CPC. The premixed CPCs had tolerable washout resistance before final setting, and the cements had strengths matching that of cancellous bone (5-10 MPa); their maximum compressive strength was up to 12 MPa. The inflammatory response around the premixed CPCs implanted in the subcutaneous tissue in rabbits was more prominent than that of apatite cement. These differences might be due to the much faster resorption rate of the premixed CPCs. PMID:19427931

  16. Temporal Control of Plant Organ Growth by TCP Transcription Factors.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tengbo; Irish, Vivian F

    2015-06-29

    The Arabidopsis petal is a simple laminar organ whose development is largely impervious to environmental effects, making it an excellent model for dissecting the regulation of cell-cycle progression and post-mitotic cell expansion that together sculpt organ form. Arabidopsis petals grow via basipetal waves of cell division, followed by a phase of cell expansion. RABBIT EARS (RBE) encodes a C2H2 zinc finger transcriptional repressor and is required for petal development. During the early phase of petal initiation, RBE regulates a microRNA164-dependent pathway that controls cell proliferation at the petal primordium boundaries. The effects of rbe mutations on petal lamina growth suggest that RBE is also required to regulate later developmental events during petal organogenesis. Here, we demonstrate that, early in petal development, RBE represses the transcription of a suite of CIN-TCP genes that in turn act to inhibit the number and duration of cell divisions; the temporal alleviation of that repression results in the transition from cell division to post-mitotic cell expansion and concomitant petal maturation. PMID:26073137

  17. Evaluating the Cost-Effectiveness of Lifestyle Modification versus Metformin Therapy for the Prevention of Diabetes in Singapore

    PubMed Central

    Png, May Ee; Yoong, Joanne Su-Yin

    2014-01-01

    Background In Singapore, as diabetes is an increasingly important public health issue, the cost-effectiveness of pursuing lifestyle modification programs and/or alternative prevention strategies is of critical importance for policymakers. While the US Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) compared weight loss through lifestyle modification with oral treatment of diabetes drug metformin to prevent/delay the onset of type 2 diabetes in pre-diabetic subjects, no data on either the actual or potential cost effectiveness of such a program is available for East or South-east Asian populations. This study estimates the 3-year cost-effectiveness of lifestyle modification and metformin among pre-diabetic subjects from a Singapore health system and societal perspective. Methodology Cost effectiveness was analysed from 2010–2012 using a decision-based model to estimate the rates of getting diabetes, healthcare costs and health-related quality of life. Cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) was estimated using costs relevant to the time horizon of the study from Singapore. All costs are expressed in 2012 US dollars. Principal Findings The total economic cost for non-diabetic subjects from the societal perspective was US$25,867, US$28,108 and US$26,177 for placebo, lifestyle modification and metformin intervention respectively. For diabetic patients, the total economic cost from the societal perspective was US$32,921, US$35,163 and US$33,232 for placebo, lifestyle modification and metformin intervention respectively. Lifestyle modification relative to placebo is likely to be associated with an incremental cost per QALY gained at US$36,663 while that of metformin intervention is likely to be US$6,367 from a societal perspective. Conclusion Based on adaptation of the DPP data to local conditions, both lifestyle modification and metformin intervention are likely to be cost-effective and worth implementing in Singapore to prevent or delay the onset of type 2 diabetes. However

  18. Combining Phylogenetic and Syntenic Analyses for Understanding the Evolution of TCP ECE Genes in Eudicots

    PubMed Central

    Citerne, Hélène L.; Le Guilloux, Martine; Sannier, Julie; Nadot, Sophie; Damerval, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    TCP ECE genes encode transcription factors which have received much attention for their repeated recruitment in the control of floral symmetry in core eudicots, and more recently in monocots. Major duplications of TCP ECE genes have been described in core eudicots, but the evolutionary history of this gene family is unknown in basal eudicots. Reconstructing the phylogeny of ECE genes in basal eudicots will help set a framework for understanding the functional evolution of these genes. TCP ECE genes were sequenced in all major lineages of basal eudicots and Gunnera which belongs to the sister clade to all other core eudicots. We show that in these lineages they have a complex evolutionary history with repeated duplications. We estimate the timing of the two major duplications already identified in the core eudicots within a timeframe before the divergence of Gunnera and after the divergence of Proteales. We also use a synteny-based approach to examine the extent to which the expansion of TCP ECE genes in diverse eudicot lineages may be due to genome-wide duplications. The three major core-eudicot specific clades share a number of collinear genes, and their common evolutionary history may have originated at the γ event. Genomic comparisons in Arabidopsis thaliana and Solanumlycopersicum highlight their separate polyploid origin, with syntenic fragments with and without TCP ECE genes showing differential gene loss and genomic rearrangements. Comparison between recently available genomes from two basal eudicots Aquilegiacoerulea and Nelumbonucifera suggests that the two TCP ECE paralogs in these species are also derived from large-scale duplications. TCP ECE loci from basal eudicots share many features with the three main core eudicot loci, and allow us to infer the makeup of the ancestral eudicot locus. PMID:24019982

  19. A critical evaluation of the fish early-life stage toxicity test for engineered nanomaterials: experimental modifications and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Benjamin J; Liddle, Corin C; Windeatt, Kirsten M; Handy, Richard D

    2016-09-01

    There are concerns that regulatory toxicity tests are not fit for purpose for engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) or need modifications. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the OECD 210 fish, early-life stage toxicity test for use with TiO2 ENMs, Ag ENMs, and MWCNT. Both TiO2 ENMS (≤160 mg l(-1)) and MWCNT (≤10 mg l(-1)) showed limited acute toxicity, whilst Ag ENMs were acutely toxic to zebrafish, though less so than AgNO3 (6-day LC50 values of 58.6 and 5.0 µg l(-1), respectively). Evidence of delayed hatching, decreased body length and increased muscle width in the tail was seen in fish exposed to Ag ENMs. Oedema (swollen yolk sacs) was also seen in fish from both Ag treatments with, for example, mean yolk sac volumes of 17, 35 and 39 µm(3) for the control, 100 µg l(-1) Ag ENMs and 5 µg l(-1) AgNO3 treatments, respectively. Among the problems with the standard test guidelines was the inability to maintain the test solutions within ±20 % of nominal concentrations. Pronounced settling of the ENMs in some beakers also made it clear the fish were not being exposed to nominal concentrations. To overcome this, the exposure apparatus was modified with the addition of an exposure chamber that ensured mixing without damaging the delicate embryos/larvae. This allowed more homogeneous ENM exposures, signified by improved measured concentrations in the beakers (up to 85.7 and 88.1 % of the nominal concentrations from 10 mg l(-1) TiO2 and 50 µg l(-1) Ag ENM exposures, respectively) and reduced variance between measurements compared to the original method. The recommendations include: that the test is conducted using exposure chambers, the use of quantitative measurements for assessing hatching and morphometrics, and where there is increased sensitivity of larvae over embryos to conduct a shorter, larvae-only toxicity test with the ENMs. PMID:27318802

  20. Avoiding Biased-Feeding in the Scheduling of Collaborative Multipath TCP.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Meng-Hsun; Chou, Chien-Ming; Lan, Kun-Chan

    2016-01-01

    Smartphones have become the major communication and portable computing devices that access the Internet through Wi-Fi or mobile networks. Unfortunately, users without a mobile data subscription can only access the Internet at limited locations, such as hotspots. In this paper, we propose a collaborative bandwidth sharing protocol (CBSP) built on top of MultiPath TCP (MPTCP). CBSP enables users to buy bandwidth on demand from neighbors (called Helpers) and uses virtual interfaces to bind the subflows of MPTCP to avoid modifying the implementation of MPTCP. However, although MPTCP provides the required multi-homing functionality for bandwidth sharing, the current packet scheduling in collaborative MPTCP (e.g., Co-MPTCP) leads to the so-called biased-feeding problem. In this problem, the fastest link might always be selected to send packets whenever it has available cwnd, which results in other links not being fully utilized. In this work, we set out to design an algorithm, called Scheduled Window-based Transmission Control (SWTC), to improve the performance of packet scheduling in MPTCP, and we perform extensive simulations to evaluate its performance. PMID:27529783

  1. Avoiding Biased-Feeding in the Scheduling of Collaborative Multipath TCP

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Smartphones have become the major communication and portable computing devices that access the Internet through Wi-Fi or mobile networks. Unfortunately, users without a mobile data subscription can only access the Internet at limited locations, such as hotspots. In this paper, we propose a collaborative bandwidth sharing protocol (CBSP) built on top of MultiPath TCP (MPTCP). CBSP enables users to buy bandwidth on demand from neighbors (called Helpers) and uses virtual interfaces to bind the subflows of MPTCP to avoid modifying the implementation of MPTCP. However, although MPTCP provides the required multi-homing functionality for bandwidth sharing, the current packet scheduling in collaborative MPTCP (e.g., Co-MPTCP) leads to the so-called biased-feeding problem. In this problem, the fastest link might always be selected to send packets whenever it has available cwnd, which results in other links not being fully utilized. In this work, we set out to design an algorithm, called Scheduled Window-based Transmission Control (SWTC), to improve the performance of packet scheduling in MPTCP, and we perform extensive simulations to evaluate its performance. PMID:27529783

  2. The TCP4 transcription factor of Arabidopsis blocks cell division in yeast at G1 {yields} S transition

    SciTech Connect

    Aggarwal, Pooja; Padmanabhan, Bhavna; Bhat, Abhay; Sarvepalli, Kavitha; Sadhale, Parag P.; Nath, Utpal

    2011-07-01

    Highlights: {yields} TCP4 is a class II TCP transcription factor, that represses cell division in Arabidopsis. {yields} TCP4 expression in yeast retards cell division by blocking G1 {yields} S transition. {yields} Genome-wide expression studies and Western analysis reveals stabilization of cell cycle inhibitor Sic1, as possible mechanism. -- Abstract: The TCP transcription factors control important aspects of plant development. Members of class I TCP proteins promote cell cycle by regulating genes directly involved in cell proliferation. In contrast, members of class II TCP proteins repress cell division. While it has been postulated that class II proteins induce differentiation signal, their exact role on cell cycle has not been studied. Here, we report that TCP4, a class II TCP protein from Arabidopsis that repress cell proliferation in developing leaves, inhibits cell division by blocking G1 {yields} S transition in budding yeast. Cells expressing TCP4 protein with increased transcriptional activity fail to progress beyond G1 phase. By analyzing global transcriptional status of these cells, we show that expression of a number of cell cycle genes is altered. The possible mechanism of G1 {yields} S arrest is discussed.

  3. End-to-end wireless TCP with noncongestion packet loss detection and handling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jae-Joon; Liu, Fang; Kuo, C.-C. Jay

    2003-07-01

    Traditional TCP performance degrades over lossy links, as the TCP sender assumes that packet loss is caused by congestion in the network path and thus reduces the sending rate by cutting the congestion window multiplicatively, and a mechanism to overcome this limitation is investigated in this research. Our scheme identifies the network path condition to differentiate whether congestion happens or not, and responds differently. The basic idea of separating congestion and non-congestion caused losses is to compare the estimated current available bandwidth and the average available bandwidth. To minimize the effect of temporary fluctuation of measurements, we estimate the available bandwidth with a higher weight on stable measurements and a lower weight on unstable fluctuations. In our scheme, packet loss due to congestion invokes the TCP Newreno procedure. In cases of random loss that is not related to congestion, the multiplicative decrease of the sending rate is avoided to achieve higher throughput. In addition, each duplicate acknowledgement after a fast retransmission will increase the congestion window to fully recover its sending rate. Extensive simulation results show that our differentiation algorithm achieves high accuracy. Accordingly, the TCP connection over lossy link with the proposed scheme provides higher throughput than TCP Newreno.

  4. Comprehensive analysis of TCP transcription factors and their expression during cotton (Gossypium arboreum) fiber early development

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jun; Liu, Fang; Wang, Qinglian; Wang, Kunbo; Jones, Don C.; Zhang, Baohong

    2016-01-01

    TCP proteins are plant-specific transcription factors implicated to perform a variety of physiological functions during plant growth and development. In the current study, we performed for the first time the comprehensive analysis of TCP gene family in a diploid cotton species, Gossypium arboreum, including phylogenetic analysis, chromosome location, gene duplication status, gene structure and conserved motif analysis, as well as expression profiles in fiber at different developmental stages. Our results showed that G. arboreum contains 36 TCP genes, distributing across all of the thirteen chromosomes. GaTCPs within the same subclade of the phylogenetic tree shared similar exon/intron organization and motif composition. In addition, both segmental duplication and whole-genome duplication contributed significantly to the expansion of GaTCPs. Many these TCP transcription factor genes are specifically expressed in cotton fiber during different developmental stages, including cotton fiber initiation and early development. This suggests that TCP genes may play important roles in cotton fiber development. PMID:26857372

  5. Development and characterization of hydroxyapatite/β-TCP/chitosan composites for tissue engineering applications.

    PubMed

    Shavandi, Amin; Bekhit, Alaa El-Din A; Ali, M Azam; Sun, Zhifa; Gould, Maree

    2015-11-01

    Calcium phosphate ceramics that mimic bone composition provide interesting possibilities for the advancement in bone tissue engineering. The present study reports on a chitosan composite reinforced by hydroxyapatite (HA) and β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) obtained from waste mussel shells and cross-linked using tripolyphosphate (TPP). The ratios of the ceramic components in composites were 20/10/70, 30/20/50 and 40/30/30 (HA/β-TCP/CH, w/w %). Biodegradation rate, structural properties and in-vitro degradation of the bone-like composite scaffolds were investigated. The optimum amount of TPP required for composite was 2.5% and glycerol was used as plasticizer at an optimized concentration of 1%. Tripolyphosphate cross-linked chitosan composites were developed by freezing and lyophilisation. The Young's modulus of the scaffolds was increased from 4kPa to 17kPa and the porosity of composites dropped from 85 to 68% by increasing the HA/β-TCP ratio. After 28days in physiological solution, bone-like composite scaffolds with a higher ratio of HA/β-TCP (e.g. 40/30/30) showed about 2% lower biodegradation in comparison to scaffolds with a lower ratio of HA/β-TCP (i.e. 20/10/70). The obtained data suggest that the chitosan based bone-like composites could be potential candidates for biomedical applications. PMID:26249618

  6. Home Modification

    MedlinePlus

    ... it is important to consider certain safety modifications. Adaptations such as those in the following list can ... The importance of a Consumer Perspective in Home Adaptation of Alzheimer’s Households” (Chapter 6 pp 91-112) ...

  7. Ubiquitin modifications

    PubMed Central

    Swatek, Kirby N; Komander, David

    2016-01-01

    Protein ubiquitination is a dynamic multifaceted post-translational modification involved in nearly all aspects of eukaryotic biology. Once attached to a substrate, the 76-amino acid protein ubiquitin is subjected to further modifications, creating a multitude of distinct signals with distinct cellular outcomes, referred to as the 'ubiquitin code'. Ubiquitin can be ubiquitinated on seven lysine (Lys) residues or on the N-terminus, leading to polyubiquitin chains that can encompass complex topologies. Alternatively or in addition, ubiquitin Lys residues can be modified by ubiquitin-like molecules (such as SUMO or NEDD8). Finally, ubiquitin can also be acetylated on Lys, or phosphorylated on Ser, Thr or Tyr residues, and each modification has the potential to dramatically alter the signaling outcome. While the number of distinctly modified ubiquitin species in cells is mind-boggling, much progress has been made to characterize the roles of distinct ubiquitin modifications, and many enzymes and receptors have been identified that create, recognize or remove these ubiquitin modifications. We here provide an overview of the various ubiquitin modifications present in cells, and highlight recent progress on ubiquitin chain biology. We then discuss the recent findings in the field of ubiquitin acetylation and phosphorylation, with a focus on Ser65-phosphorylation and its role in mitophagy and Parkin activation. PMID:27012465

  8. SATNET development and operation. Pluribus satellite IMP development, remote site maintenance. Internet development: Mobile access terminal network, TCP for the HP3000, TCP-TAC, TCP for VAX-UNIX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bressler, R. D.

    1980-11-01

    This Quarterly Technical Report is the current edition in a series of reports which describe the work being performed at BBN in fulfillment of several ARPA work statements. This QTR covers work on several ARPA-sponsored projects including (1) development and operation of the SATNET satellite network; (2) development of the Pluribus Satellite IMP; (3) Remote Site Maintenance activities; (4) inter-network monitoring; (5) development of the Mobile Access Terminal Network; (6) TCP for the HP3000; (7) TCP-TAC; and (8) TCP for the VAX-UNIC. This work is described in this single Quarterly Technical Report with the permission of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency. The search for a mechanism for loading the UCL gateway, once the ARPANET trunking line via SATNET to the London TIP has been removed from service, has led to renewed interest in a gateway loading access path via SATNET directly. This requires a loader/dumper be written for the gateway which implements XNET4, Internet Protocol, Host-SATNET Protocol, and ARPANET VDH Protocol. Clearly, given the number of functions involved, it is essential that the implementation contain only minimal subsets of all protocols involved.

  9. In vivo labeling of phencyclidine (PCP) receptors with sup 3 H-TCP in the mouse brain

    SciTech Connect

    Maurice, T.; Vignon, J. )

    1990-07-01

    The phencyclidine (PCP) derivative N-(1-(2-thienyl)cyclohexyl)-piperidine (3H-TCP) was used to label in vivo the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-associated ionic channel in the mouse brain. After the injection of a tracer dose of 3H-TCP, a spread labeling throughout the brain was observed, but was the highest in the cerebellum. Preadministration of unlabeled TCP (30 mg/kg) resulted in a 90% reduction of 3H-TCP binding. PCP, TCP, MK-801, dexoxadrol, ketamine, and SKF 10,047 isomers dose-dependently prevented the in vivo 3H-TCP binding. ID50 determined in the cerebrum and the cerebellum were respectively correlated with K0.5 for 3H TCP high (rat cortex) and low affinity (rat cerebellum) sites in vitro. The pharmacological specificity of the 3H-TCP binding site in the cerebellum was significantly different from that in the cerebrum. ID50 values were generally higher than in the cerebrum and, particularly, MK-801, the most potent drug in the cerebrum, was without significant effect in the cerebellum, at any time and at doses as high as 30 mg/kg. N-(1-(2-benzo(b) thiophenyl)cyclohexyl)piperidine (BTCP), desipramine, and atropine showed a more efficient prevention of 3H-TCP binding in the cerebellum than in the cerebrum. The prevention of the binding by TCP or PCP, at doses close to their ID50 values, was rapid and then decreased slowly. The effect of MK-801 was long-lasting. This study confirm previous in vitro studies: 3H-TCP is an efficient tool for the labeling of the NMDA receptor-associated ionic channel.

  10. Liposomal doxorubicin for active targeting: surface modification of the nanocarrier evaluated in vitro and in vivo — challenges and prospects

    PubMed Central

    Mentz, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    Due to the inability of classical chemotherapeutic agents to exclusively target tumor cells, these treatments are associated with severe toxicity profiles. Thus, long-circulating liposomes have been developed in the past to enhance accumulation in tumor tissue by passive targeting. Accordingly, commercially available liposomal formulations of sterically stabilized liposomal doxorubicin (Caelyx®, Doxil®, Lipodox®) are associated with improved off-target profiles. However, these preparations are still not capable to selectively bind to target cells. Thus, in an attempt to further optimize existing treatment schemes immunoliposomes have been established to enable active targeting of tumor tissues. Recently, we have provided evidence for therapeutic efficacy of anti-IGF1R-targeted, surface modified doxorubicin loaded liposomes. Our approach involved a technique, which allows specific post-modifications of the liposomal surface by primed antibody-anchor conjugates thereby facilitating personalized approaches of commercially available liposomal drugs. In the current study, post-modification of sterically stabilized liposomal Dox was thoroughly investigated including the influence of different modification techniques (PIT, SPIT, SPIT60), lipid composition (SPC/Chol, HSPC/Chol), and buffers (HBS, SH). As earlier in vivo experiments did not take into account the presence of non-integrated ab-anchor conjugates this was included in the present study. Our experiments provide evidence that post-modification of commercially available liposomal preparations for active targeting is possible. Moreover, lyophilisation represents an applicable method to obtain a storable precursor of surface modifying antibody-anchor conjugates. Thus, these findings open up new approaches in patient individualized targeting of chemotherapeutic therapies. PMID:26497207

  11. A System Implementation for Cooperation between UHF RFID Reader and TCP/IP Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sang Hoon; Jin, Ik Soo

    This paper presents a system implementation for cooperation between UHF RFID reader and TCP/IP device that can be used as a home gateway. The system consists of an UHF RFID tag, an UHF RFID reader, a RF end-device, a RF coordinator and a TCP/IP I/F. The UHF RFID reader is compatible with EPC Class-0/Gen1, Class-1/Gen1, 2 and ISO18000-6B, operating at the 915MHz. In particular, UHF RFID reader can be combined with a RF end device/coordinator for ZigBee(IEEE 802.15.4) interface which is low power wireless standard. The TCP/IP device is communicated with RFID reader via wired type. On the other hand, it is connected with ZigBee end-device via wireless type. The experimental results show that the developed system can provide the right networking.

  12. Improved virtual queuing and dynamic EPD techniques for TCP over ATM

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Y.; Siu, K.Y.; Ren, W.

    1998-11-01

    It is known that TCP throughput can degrade significantly over UBR service in a congested ATM network, and the early packet discard (EPD) technique has been proposed to improve the performance. However, recent studies show that EPD cannot ensure fairness among competing VCs in a congested network, but the degree of fairness can be improved using various forms of fair buffer allocation techniques. The authors propose an improved scheme that utilizes only a single shared FIFO queue for all VCs and admits simple implementation for high speed ATM networks. The scheme achieves nearly perfect fairness and throughput among multiple TCP connections, comparable to the expensive per-VC queuing technique. Analytical and simulation results are presented to show the validity of this new scheme and significant improvement in performance as compared with existing fair buffer allocation techniques for TCP over ATM.

  13. Evaluation and modification of five techniques for estimating stormwater runoff for watersheds in west-central Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trommer, J.T.; Loper, J.E.; Hammett, K.M.

    1996-01-01

    Several traditional techniques have been used for estimating stormwater runoff from ungaged watersheds. Applying these techniques to water- sheds in west-central Florida requires that some of the empirical relationships be extrapolated beyond tested ranges. As a result, there is uncertainty as to the accuracy of these estimates. Sixty-six storms occurring in 15 west-central Florida watersheds were initially modeled using the Rational Method, the U.S. Geological Survey Regional Regression Equations, the Natural Resources Conservation Service TR-20 model, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Hydrologic Engineering Center-1 model, and the Environmental Protection Agency Storm Water Management Model. The techniques were applied according to the guidelines specified in the user manuals or standard engineering textbooks as though no field data were available and the selection of input parameters was not influenced by observed data. Computed estimates were compared with observed runoff to evaluate the accuracy of the techniques. One watershed was eliminated from further evaluation when it was determined that the area contributing runoff to the stream varies with the amount and intensity of rainfall. Therefore, further evaluation and modification of the input parameters were made for only 62 storms in 14 watersheds. Runoff ranged from 1.4 to 99.3 percent percent of rainfall. The average runoff for all watersheds included in this study was about 36 percent of rainfall. The average runoff for the urban, natural, and mixed land-use watersheds was about 41, 27, and 29 percent, respectively. Initial estimates of peak discharge using the rational method produced average watershed errors that ranged from an underestimation of 50.4 percent to an overestimation of 767 percent. The coefficient of runoff ranged from 0.20 to 0.60. Calibration of the technique produced average errors that ranged from an underestimation of 3.3 percent to an overestimation of 1.5 percent. The average

  14. On differences in radiosensitivity estimation: TCP experiments versus survival curves. A theoretical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stavrev, Pavel; Stavreva, Nadejda; Ruggieri, Ruggero; Nahum, Alan

    2015-08-01

    We have compared two methods of estimating the cellular radiosensitivity of a heterogeneous tumour, namely, via cell-survival and via tumour control probability (TCP) pseudo-experiments. It is assumed that there exists intra-tumour variability in radiosensitivity and that the tumour consists predominantly of radiosensitive cells and a small number of radio-resistant cells. Using a multi-component, linear-quadratic (LQ) model of cell kill, a pseudo-experimental cell-survival versus dose curve is derived. This curve is then fitted with a mono-component LQ model describing the response of a homogeneous cell population. For the assumed variation in radiosensitivity it is shown that the composite pseudo-experimental survival curve is well approximated by the survival curve of cells with uniform radiosensitivity. For the same initial cell radiosensitivity distribution several pseudo-experimental TCP curves are simulated corresponding to different fractionation regimes. The TCP model used accounts for clonogen proliferation during a fractionated treatment. The set of simulated TCP curves is then fitted with a mono-component TCP model. As in the cell survival experiment the fit with a mono-component model assuming uniform radiosensitivity is shown to be highly acceptable. However, the best-fit values of cellular radiosensitivity produced via the two methods are very different. The cell-survival pseudo-experiment yields a high radiosensitivity value, while the TCP pseudo-experiment shows that the dose-response is dominated by the most resistant sub-population in the tumour, even when this is just a small fraction of the total.

  15. Efficacy of dose escalation on TCP, recurrence and second cancer risks: a mathematical study

    PubMed Central

    Dhawan, A; Kohandel, M; Sivaloganathan, S

    2014-01-01

    Objective: We investigated the effects of conventional and hypofractionation protocols by modelling tumour control probability (TCP) and tumour recurrence time, and examined their impact on second cancer risks. The main objectives of this study include the following: (a) incorporate tumour recurrence time and second cancer risks into the TCP framework and analyse the effects of variable doses and (b) investigate an efficient protocol to reduce the risk of a secondary malignancy while maximizing disease-free survival and tumour control. Methods: A generalized mathematical formalism was developed that incorporated recurrence and second cancer risk models into the TCP dynamics. Results: Our results suggest that TCP and relapse time are almost identical for conventional and hypofractionated regimens; however, second cancer risks resulting from hypofractionation were reduced by 22% when compared with the second cancer risk associated with a conventional protocol. The hypofractionated regimen appears to be sensitive to dose escalation and the corresponding impact on tumour recurrence time and reduction in second cancer risks. The reduction in second cancer risks is approximately 20% when the dose is increased from 60 to 72 Gy in a hypofractionated protocol. Conclusion: Our results suggest that hypofractionation may be a more efficient regimen in the context of TCP, relapse time and second cancer risks. Overall, our study demonstrates the importance of including a second cancer risk model in designing an efficient radiation regimen. Advances in knowledge: The impact of various fractionation protocols on TCP and relapse in conjunction with second cancer risks is an important clinical question that is as yet unexplored PMID:25210783

  16. Geometrical versus Random β-TCP Scaffolds: Exploring the Effects on Schwann Cell Growth and Behavior.

    PubMed

    Sweet, Lauren; Kang, Yunqing; Czisch, Christopher; Witek, Lukasz; Shi, Yang; Smay, Jim; Plant, Giles W; Yang, Yunzhi

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated that Schwann cells (SCs) play a role in nerve regeneration; however, their role in innervating a bioceramic scaffold for potential application in bone regeneration is still unknown. Here we report the cell growth and functional behavior of SCs on β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) scaffolds arranged in 3D printed-lattice (P-β-TCP) and randomly-porous, template-casted (N-β-TCP) structures. Our results indicate that SCs proliferated well and expressed the phenotypic markers p75LNGFR and the S100-β subunit of SCs as well as displayed growth morphology on both scaffolds, but SCs showed spindle-shaped morphology with a significant degree of SCs alignment on the P-β-TCP scaffolds, seen to a lesser degree in the N-β-TCP scaffold. The gene expressions of nerve growth factor (β-ngf), neutrophin-3 (nt-3), platelet-derived growth factor (pdgf-bb), and vascular endothelial growth factor (vegf-a) were higher at day 7 than at day 14. While no significant differences in protein secretion were measured between these last two time points, the scaffolds promoted the protein secretion at day 3 compared to that on the cell culture plates. These results together imply that the β-TCP scaffolds can support SC cell growth and that the 3D-printed scaffold appeared to significantly promote the alignment of SCs along the struts. Further studies are needed to investigate the early and late stage relationship between gene expression and protein secretion of SCs on the scaffolds with refined characteristics, thus better exploring the potential of SCs to support vascularization and innervation in synthetic bone grafts. PMID:26444999

  17. Geometrical versus Random β-TCP Scaffolds: Exploring the Effects on Schwann Cell Growth and Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Czisch, Christopher; Witek, Lukasz; Shi, Yang; Smay, Jim; Plant, Giles W.; Yang, Yunzhi

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated that Schwann cells (SCs) play a role in nerve regeneration; however, their role in innervating a bioceramic scaffold for potential application in bone regeneration is still unknown. Here we report the cell growth and functional behavior of SCs on β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) scaffolds arranged in 3D printed-lattice (P-β-TCP) and randomly-porous, template-casted (N-β-TCP) structures. Our results indicate that SCs proliferated well and expressed the phenotypic markers p75LNGFR and the S100-β subunit of SCs as well as displayed growth morphology on both scaffolds, but SCs showed spindle-shaped morphology with a significant degree of SCs alignment on the P-β-TCP scaffolds, seen to a lesser degree in the N-β-TCP scaffold. The gene expressions of nerve growth factor (β-ngf), neutrophin–3 (nt–3), platelet-derived growth factor (pdgf-bb), and vascular endothelial growth factor (vegf-a) were higher at day 7 than at day 14. While no significant differences in protein secretion were measured between these last two time points, the scaffolds promoted the protein secretion at day 3 compared to that on the cell culture plates. These results together imply that the β-TCP scaffolds can support SC cell growth and that the 3D-printed scaffold appeared to significantly promote the alignment of SCs along the struts. Further studies are needed to investigate the early and late stage relationship between gene expression and protein secretion of SCs on the scaffolds with refined characteristics, thus better exploring the potential of SCs to support vascularization and innervation in synthetic bone grafts. PMID:26444999

  18. The Arabidopsis thaliana TCP transcription factors: A broadening horizon beyond development

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shutian

    2015-01-01

    The TCP family of transcription factors is named after the first 4 characterized members, namely TEOSINTE BRANCHED1 (TB1) from maize (Zea mays), CYCLOIDEA (CYC) from snapdragon (Antirrhinum majus), as well as PROLIFERATING CELL NUCLEAR ANTIGEN FACTOR1 (PCF1) and PCF2 from rice (Oryza sativa). Phylogenic analysis of this plant-specific protein family unveils a conserved bHLH-containing DNA-binding motif known as the TCP domain. In accordance with the structure of this shared domain, TCP proteins are grouped into class I (TCP-P) and class II (TCP-C), which are suggested to antagonistically modulate plant growth and development via competitively binding similar cis-regulatory modules called site II elements. Over the last decades, TCPs across the plant kingdom have been demonstrated to control a plethora of plant processes. Notably, TCPs also regulate plant development and defense responses via stimulating the biosynthetic pathways of bioactive metabolites, such as brassinosteroid (BR), jasmonic acid (JA) and flavonoids. Besides, mutagenesis analysis coupled with biochemical experiments identifies several crucial amino acids located within the TCP domain, which confer the redox sensitivity of class I TCPs and determine the distinct DNA-binding properties of TCPs. In this review, developmental functions of TCPs in various biological pathways are briefly described with an emphasis on their involvement in the synthesis of bioactive substances. Furthermore, novel biochemical aspects of TCPs with respect to redox regulation and DNA-binding preferences are elaborated. In addition, the unexpected participation of TCPs in effector-triggered immunity (ETI) and defense against insects indicates that the widely recognized developmental regulators are capable of fine-tuning defense signaling and thereby enable plants to evade deleterious developmental phenotypes. Altogether, these recent impressive breakthroughs remarkably advance our understanding as to how TCPs integrate

  19. Genome-Wide Identification, Characterization and Expression Analysis of the TCP Gene Family in Prunus mume

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yuzhen; Xu, Zongda; Zhao, Kai; Yang, Weiru; Cheng, Tangren; Wang, Jia; Zhang, Qixiang

    2016-01-01

    TCP proteins, belonging to a plant-specific transcription factors family, are known to have great functions in plant development, especially flower and leaf development. However, there is little information about this gene family in Prunus mume, which is widely cultivated in China as an ornamental and fruit tree. Here a genome-wide analysis of TCP genes was performed to explore their evolution in P. mume. Nineteen PmTCPs were identified and three of them contained putative miR319 target sites. Phylogenetic and comprehensive bioinformatics analyses of these genes revealed that different types of TCP genes had undergone different evolutionary processes and the genes in the same clade had similar chromosomal location, gene structure, and conserved domains. Expression analysis of these PmTCPs indicated that there were diverse expression patterns among different clades. Most TCP genes were predominantly expressed in flower, leaf, and stem, and showed high expression levels in the different stages of flower bud differentiation, especially in petal formation stage and gametophyte development. Genes in TCP-P subfamily had main roles in both flower development and gametophyte development. The CIN genes in double petal cultivars might have key roles in the formation of petal, while they were correlated with gametophyte development in the single petal cultivar. The CYC/TB1 type genes were highly detected in the formation of petal and pistil. The less-complex flower types of P. mume might result from the fact that there were only two CYC type genes present in P. mume and a lack of CYC2 genes to control the identity of flower types. These results lay the foundation for further study on the functions of TCP genes during flower development.

  20. [Multi-bed & multi-parameter central monitoring system based on TCP/IP protocol].

    PubMed

    Lian, S J; Hu, D K; Zhao, M H; Tang, L H

    2000-02-01

    Communication is one of the key problems to a central monitoring system. In this paper we put forward a central monitoring system using TCP/IP as the network protocol, Windows NT4.0 as the platform, forming a Intranet in a hospital. We also discussed the communication problem between the bed-side monitoring station and the central monitoring station in detail and then put forward a new protocol--Hospital Central Monitor Protocol (HCMP) based on TCP/IP to transfer monitoring data. It is easy to achieve tele-monitoring through the current communication subsystem. PMID:12583091

  1. Leaf expansion in Arabidopsis is controlled by a TCP-NGA regulatory module likely conserved in distantly related species.

    PubMed

    Ballester, Patricia; Navarrete-Gómez, Marisa; Carbonero, Pilar; Oñate-Sánchez, Luis; Ferrándiz, Cristina

    2015-09-01

    The NGATHA (NGA) clade of transcription factors (TFs) forms a small subfamily of four members in Arabidopsis thaliana. NGA genes act redundantly to direct the development of apical tissues in the gynoecium, where they have been shown to be essential for style and stigma specification. In addition, NGA genes have a more general role in controlling lateral organ growth. The four NGA genes in Arabidopsis are expressed in very similar domains, although little is known about the nature of their putative regulators. Here, we have identified a conserved region within the four NGA promoters that we have used as a bait to screen a yeast library, aiming to identify such NGA regulators. Three members of the TCP family of TFs, named after the founding factors TEOSINTE BRANCHED 1, CYCLOIDEA and PROLIFERATING CELL FACTOR 1 AND 2), were recovered from this screening, of which two [TCP2 and TCP3, members of the CINCINNATA (CIN) family of TCP genes (CIN-TCP) subclade] were shown to activate the NGA3 promoter in planta. We provide evidence that support that CIN-TCP genes are true regulators of NGA gene expression, and that part of the CIN-TCP role in leaf development is mediated by NGA upregulation. Moreover, we have found that this TCP-NGA regulatory interaction is likely conserved in angiosperms, including important crop species, for which the regulation of leaf development is a target for biotechnological improvement. PMID:25625546

  2. The Job Accommodation Scale (JAS): Psychometric evaluation of a new measure of employer support for temporary job modifications

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, William S.; Kristman, Vicki L.; Williams-Whitt, Kelly; Soklaridis, Sophie; Huang, Yueng-Hsiang; Côté, Pierre; Loisel, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION An employer offer of temporary job modification is a key strategy for facilitating return-to-work (RTW) for musculoskeletal conditions, but there are no validated scales to assess the level of support for temporary job modifications across a range of job types and organizations. OBJECTIVE To pilot test a new 21-item self-report measure (the Job Accommodation Scale [JAS]) to assess its applicability, internal consistency, factor structure, and relation to physical job demands. METHODS Supervisors (N = 804, 72.8% male, mean age = 46) were recruited from 19 employment settings in the USA and Canada and completed a 30-min online survey regarding job modification practices. As part of the survey, supervisors nominated and described a job position they supervised and completed the JAS for a hypothetical worker (in that position) with an episode of low back pain. Job characteristics were derived from the occupational informational network job classification database. RESULTS The full response range (1–4) was utilized on all 21 items, with no ceiling or floor effects. Avoiding awkward postures was the most feasible accommodation and moving the employee to a different site or location was the least feasible. An exploratory factor analysis suggested five underlying factors (Modify physical workload; Modify work environment; Modify work schedule; Find alternate work; and Arrange for assistance), and there was an acceptable goodness-of-fit for the five parceled sub-factor scores as a single latent construct in a measurement model (structural equation model). Job accommodations were less feasible for more physical jobs and for heavier industries. CONCLUSIONS The pilot administration of the JAS with respect to a hypothetical worker with LBP showed initial support for its applicability, reliability, and validity when administered to supervisors. Future studies should assess its validity for use in actual disability cases, for a range of health conditions, and to

  3. Generation of serrated and wavy petals by inhibition of the activity of TCP transcription factors in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Ohme-Takagi, Masaru; Sato, Fumihiko

    2011-01-01

    The final shape of shoot lateral organs, namely, leaves and flowers, is determined by coordinated growth after the initiation of primordia from shoot meristems in seed plants. This coordination is achieved by the complex action of many transcription factors, which include the TEOSINTE BRANCHED1, CYCLOIDEA and PCF (TCP) family. We have recently reported that CINCINNATA-like (CIN-like) TCP genes act dose-dependently to regulate the flat and smooth morphology of leaves in Arabidopsis thaliana. In contrast, the roles of CIN-like TCP genes in flower development are poorly understood. In this report, using multiple tcp mutants and transgenic plants in which the activity of CIN-like TCP transcription factors is dominantly inhibited, we found that these TCPs regulate the smooth and flat morphology of petals. Based on these findings, we discuss a possible strategy to generate a fringed morphology in floricultural plants. PMID:21455021

  4. Modelling and Simulation Study of TCP Performance with Link Layer Retransmission and Fragmentation for Satellite-UMTS Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Zongyang; Sun, Zhili; Cruickshank, Haitham

    Satellite-based Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (S-UMTS) is used to provide all kinds of Transmission Control Protocol/ Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) based Internet services for global end users. However, due to the high propagation delay and high bit error rates over satellite links, the TCP performance degrades considerably and affects many qualities of TCP based services. In this work, we focus on studying the TCP performance in S-UMTS using radio link control (RLC) with fragmentation and retransmission mechanisms. Analytical and simulation studies have been carried out to study this cross-layer problem. Two scenarios have been studied, i.e., the satellite operates in either transparent mode or with onboard processor (OBP) mode. The results indicate that the TCP performance can be enhanced substantially by employing the relay function using OBP and appropriate configurations of RLC parameters, thus providing useful information to the design the next generation communication satellite with onboard processing.

  5. TCP3 interacts with R2R3-MYB proteins, promotes flavonoid biosynthesis and negatively regulates the auxin response in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Li, Shutian; Zachgo, Sabine

    2013-12-01

    TCP proteins belong to the plant-specific bHLH transcription factor family, and function as key regulators of diverse developmental processes. Functional redundancy amongst family members and post-transcriptional down-regulation by miRJAW of several TCP genes complicate their functional characterization. Here, we explore the role of TCP3 by analyzing transgenic plants expressing miRJAW-resistant mTCP3 and dominant-negative TCP3SRDX. Seedlings and seeds of mTCP3 plants were found to hyper-accumulate flavonols, anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins, whereas levels of proanthocyanidins were slightly reduced in TCP3SRDX plants. R2R3-MYB proteins control not only early flavonoid biosynthetic steps but also activate late flavonoid biosynthetic genes by forming ternary R2R3-MYB/bHLH/WD40 (MBW) complexes. TCP3 interacted in yeast with R2R3-MYB proteins, which was further confirmed in planta using BiFC experiments. Yeast three-hybrid assays revealed that TCP3 significantly strengthened the transcriptional activation capacity of R2R3-MYBs bound by the bHLH protein TT8. Transcriptome analysis of mTCP3 and TCP3SRDX plants supported a role for TCP3 in enhancing flavonoid biosynthesis. Moreover, several auxin-related developmental abnormalities were observed in mTCP3 plants. Transcriptome data coupled with studies of an auxin response reporter and auxin efflux carriers showed that TCP3 negatively modulates the auxin response, probably by compromising auxin transport capacity. Genetic experiments revealed that the chalcone synthase mutant tt4-11 lacking flavonoid biosynthesis abrogated the auxin-related defects caused by mTCP3. Together, these data suggest that TCP3 interactions with R2R3-MYBs lead to enhanced flavonoid production, which further negatively modulates the auxin response. PMID:24118612

  6. A Vibrio cholerae Classical TcpA Amino Acid Sequence Induces Protective Antibody That Binds an Area Hypothesized To Be Important for Toxin-Coregulated Pilus Structure

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Ronald K.; Kirn, Thomas J.; Meeks, Michael D.; Wade, Terri K.; Wade, William F.

    2004-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae is a gram-negative bacterium that has been associated with cholera pandemics since the early 1800s. Whole-cell, killed, and live-attenuated oral cholera vaccines are in use. We and others have focused on the development of a subunit cholera vaccine that features standardized epitopes from various V. cholerae macromolecules that are known to induce protective antibody responses. TcpA protein is assembled into toxin-coregulated pilus (TCP), a type IVb pilus required for V. cholerae colonization, and thus is a strong candidate for a cholera subunit vaccine. Polypeptides (24 to 26 amino acids) in TcpA that can induce protective antibody responses have been reported, but further characterization of their amino acid targets relative to tertiary or quaternary TCP structures has not been done. We report a refinement of the TcpA sequences that can induce protective antibody. One sequence, TcpA 15 (residues 170 to 183), induces antibodies that bind linear TcpA in a Western blot as well as weakly bind soluble TcpA in solution. These antibodies bind assembled pili at high density and provide 80 to 100% protection in the infant mouse protection assay. This is in sharp contrast to other anti-TcpA peptide sera (TcpA 11, TcpA 13, and TcpA 17) that bind very strongly in Western blot and solution assays yet do not provide protection or effectively bind TCP, as evidenced by immunoelectron microscopy. The sequences of TcpA 15 that induce protective antibody were localized on a model of assembled TCP. These sequences are centered on a site that is predicted to be important for TCP structure. PMID:15385509

  7. Instructional Improvement: Behavior Modification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haring, Norris G.; Hayden, Alice H.

    Sixteen papers are provided. B. F. Skinner discusses the arrangement of contingencies for learning: Lloyd Homme describes behavioral engineering; and Frank Hewett considers behavior modification in special education. Also treated are experimental education by Norris Haring, program evaluation by Arthur Lumsdaine, and administration of special…

  8. On the structural, mechanical, and biodegradation properties of HA/β-TCP robocast scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Houmard, Manuel; Fu, Qiang; Genet, Martin; Saiz, Eduardo; Tomsia, Antoni P

    2013-10-01

    Hydroxyapatite/β-tricalcium phosphate (HA/β-TCP) composite scaffolds have shown great potential for bone-tissue engineering applications. In this work, ceramic scaffold with different HA/β-TCP compositions (pure HA, 60HA/40β-TCP, and 20HA/80β-TCP) were fabricated by a robotic-assisted deposition (robocasting) technique using water-based hydrogel inks. A systematic study was conducted to investigate the porosity, mechanical property, and degradation of the scaffolds. Our results indicate that, at a similar volume porosity, the mechanical strength of the sintered scaffolds increased with the decreasing rod diameter. The compressive strength of the fabricated scaffolds (porosity ≈ 25-80 vol %) varied between ∼3 and ∼50 MPa, a value equal or higher than that of human cancellous bone (2-12 MPa). Although there was a slight increase of Ca and P ions in water after 5 month, no noticeable degradation of the scaffolds in SBF or water was observed. Our findings from this work indicate that composite calcium phosphate scaffolds with customer-designed chemistry and architecture may be fabricated by a robotic-assisted deposition method. PMID:23650043

  9. Securing TCP/IP and Dial-up Access to Administrative Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conrad, L. Dean

    1992-01-01

    This article describes Arizona State University's solution to security risk inherent in general access systems such as TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/INTERNET Protocol). Advantages and disadvantages of various options are compared, and the process of selecting a log-on authentication approach involving generation of a different password at…

  10. Specific surface area effect on adsorption of chlorpyrifos and TCP by soils and modeling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The adsorption of chlorpyrifos and TCP (3,5,6, trichloro-2-pyridinol) was determined in four soils (Mollisol, Inceptisol, Entisol, Alfisol) having different specific surface areas (19–84 m2/g) but rather similar organic matter content (2.4–3.5%). Adsorption isotherms were derived from batch equilibr...