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Sample records for even-even sup164-170er levels

  1. ( γ, 2n)-Reaction cross-section calculations of several even-even lanthanide nuclei using different level density models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplan, A.; Sarpün, İ. H.; Aydın, A.; Tel, E.; Çapalı, V.; Özdoǧan, H.

    2015-01-01

    There are several level density models that can be used to predict photo-neutron cross sections. Some of them are Constant Temperature + Fermi Gas Model (CTFGM), Back-Shifted Fermi Gas Model (BSFM), Generalized Superfluid Model (GSM), Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov microscopic Model (HFBM). In this study, the theoretical photo-neutron cross sections produced by ( γ, 2 n) reactions for several eveneven lanthanide nuclei such as 140,142Ce, 142,144,146,148,150Nd, 144,148,150,152,154Sm, and 160Gd have been calculated on the different level density models as mentioned above by using TALYS 1.6 and EMPIRE 3.1 computer codes for incident photon energies up to 30 MeV. The obtained results have been compared with each other and available experimental data existing in the EXFOR database. Generally, at least one level density model cross-section calculations are in agreement with the experimental results for all reactions except 144Sm( γ, 2 n)142Sm along the incident photon energy, TALYS 1.6 BSFM option for the level density model cross-section calculations can be chosen if the experimental data are not available or are improbable to be produced due to the experimental difficulty.

  2. (γ, 2n)-Reaction cross-section calculations of several even-even lanthanide nuclei using different level density models

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, A.; Sarpün, İ. H.; Aydın, A.; Tel, E.; Çapalı, V.; Özdoǧan, H.

    2015-01-15

    There are several level density models that can be used to predict photo-neutron cross sections. Some of them are Constant Temperature + Fermi Gas Model (CTFGM), Back-Shifted Fermi Gas Model (BSFM), Generalized Superfluid Model (GSM), Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov microscopic Model (HFBM). In this study, the theoretical photo-neutron cross sections produced by (γ, 2n) reactions for several eveneven lanthanide nuclei such as {sup 140,142}Ce, {sup 142,144,146,148,150}Nd, {sup 144,148,150,152,154}Sm, and {sup 160}Gd have been calculated on the different level density models as mentioned above by using TALYS 1.6 and EMPIRE 3.1 computer codes for incident photon energies up to 30 MeV. The obtained results have been compared with each other and available experimental data existing in the EXFOR database. Generally, at least one level density model cross-section calculations are in agreement with the experimental results for all reactions except {sup 144}Sm(γ, 2n){sup 142}Sm along the incident photon energy, TALYS 1.6 BSFM option for the level density model cross-section calculations can be chosen if the experimental data are not available or are improbable to be produced due to the experimental difficulty.

  3. Subthreshold Photofission of Even-Even Nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Kadmensky, S.G.; Rodionova, L.V.

    2005-09-01

    Within quantum-mechanical fission theory, the angular distributions of fragments originating from the subthreshold photofission of the even-even nuclei {sup 232}Th, {sup 234}U, {sup 236}U, {sup 238}U, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 240}Pu, and {sup 242}Pu are analyzed for photon energies below 7 MeV. Special features of various fission channels are assessed under the assumption that the fission barrier has a two-humped shape. It is shown that the maximum value of the relative orbital angular momentum L{sub m} of fission fragments can be found upon taking into account deviations from the predictions of A. Bohr's formula for the angular distributions of fission fragments. The result is L{sub m} {approx_equal} 30. The existence of an 'isomeric shelf' for the angular distributions of fragments from {sup 236}U and {sup 238}U photofission in the low-energy region is confirmed.

  4. {alpha} decay of even-even superheavy elements

    SciTech Connect

    Denisov, V. Yu.; Khudenko, A. A.

    2010-03-15

    The {alpha}-decay half-lives of even-even superheavy elements within the range of proton number 104<=Z<=126, which can be formed by possible cold and hot fusion reactions, are calculated in the framework of various approaches for {alpha}-decay half-life evaluation and by using the Q values of {alpha} transitions obtained within different approximations for atomic masses. The dependencies of {alpha}-decay half-lives of superheavy elements on model approaches for both the Q values and half-life calculations are discussed in detail.

  5. Theory of band comparison in even-even nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buck, B.; Merchant, A. C.; Perez, S. M.

    2003-08-01

    We previously found that a cluster model reproduces satisfactorily the properties of normal deformed (ND) ground state and superdeformed (SD) excited bands in a wide range of even-even nuclei. We show here that the fractional change of the transition energies in two bands described by similar core-cluster configurations is closely related to the fractional change in the corresponding reduced masses. We compare our predictions to data on ground state ND bands for a series of light rare-earth and actinide isotopes, and on SD bands in the A˜150 and 190 regions. The model strongly suggests the existence of similar excited SD bands in 212Pb and 212Po, in addition to the observed α-cluster-like ND ground state bands of these nuclei.

  6. Photon strength distributions in stable even even molybdenum isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, A.; Beyer, R.; Erhard, M.; Grosse, E.; Junghans, A. R.; Klug, J.; Kosev, K.; Nair, C.; Nankov, N.; Rusev, G.; Schilling, K. D.; Schwengner, R.

    2008-01-01

    Electromagnetic dipole-strength distributions up to the particle separation energies are studied for the stable even even nuclides 92,94,96,98,100Mo in photon-scattering experiments at the superconducting electron accelerator ELBE of the Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf. The influence of inelastic transitions to low-lying excited states has been corrected by a simulation of γ cascades using a statistical model. After corrections for branching ratios of ground-state transitions, the photon-scattering cross sections smoothly connect to data obtained from (γ, n) reactions. With the newly determined electromagnetic dipole response of nuclei well below the particle separation energies, the parametrization of the isovector giant dipole resonance is done with improved precision.

  7. Fission barriers for even-even superheavy nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Kowal, M.; Sobiczewski, A.; Jachimowicz, P.

    2010-07-15

    A quantitative model for the evaluation of the heights of static fission barriers is formulated within the framework of the macroscopic-microscopic approach. In order to describe the main properties (at the ground state and at the saddle point) of superheavy nuclei, a high-dimensional deformation space is used. In the present paper we systematically calculate fission barrier heights B{sub f} for even-even heavy and superheavy nuclei in the range of proton numbers 92<=Z<=126 and neutron numbers 134<=N<=192. Comparisons with experimental data and different theoretical calculations are also shown. The dependence on B{sub f} of fully incorporated, nonaxiality, and reflection-asymmetric degrees of freedom is discussed.

  8. Spin-dependent γ softness or triaxiality in even-even 132-138Nd nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chai, Qing-Zhen; Wang, Hua-Lei; Yang, Qiong; Liu, Min-Liang

    2015-02-01

    The properties of γ instability in rapidly rotating even-even 132-138Nd isotopes have been investigated using the pairing-deformation self-consistent total-Routhian-surface calculations in a deformation space of (β2, γ, β4). It is found that even-even 134-138Nd nuclei exhibit triaxiality in both ground and excited states, even up to high-spin states. The lightest isotope possesses a well-deformed prolate shape without a γ deformation component. The current numerical results are compared with previous calculations and available observables such as quadrupole deformation β2 and the feature of γ-band levels, showing basically a general agreement with the observed trend of γ correlations (e.g. the pattern of the odd-even energy staggering of the γ band). The existing differences between theory and experiment are analyzed and discussed briefly. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (10805040,11175217), Foundation and Advanced Technology Research Program of Henan Province(132300410125) and S & T Research Key Program of Henan Province Education Department (13A140667)

  9. Fragmentation of mixed-symmetry excitations in stable even-even tellurium nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Hicks, S. F.; Vanhoy, J. R.; Yates, S. W.

    2008-11-15

    The lowest six excited 2{sup +} levels of the even-even {sup 122-130}Te nuclei have been investigated using {gamma}-ray spectroscopy following inelastic neutron scattering. These levels have been identified and their decay properties have been characterized from {gamma}-ray excitation functions and {gamma}-ray angular distributions; additionally, lifetimes of these levels have been deduced using the Doppler-shift attenuation method. Electromagnetic transition rates and E2/M1 multipole mixing ratios from the 2{sub x}{sup +}[x=2-6]{yields}2{sub 1}{sup +} transitions have been examined to identify the lowest mixed-symmetry states in these nuclei. In each nucleus, the mixed-symmetry strength appears to be fragmented between more than one level. The summed M1 strength from the 2{sub x}{sup +}[x=2-6] states to the 2{sub 1}{sup +} level agrees rather well with neutron-proton interacting boson model predictions in the U(5) or O(6) limits for these Te nuclei.

  10. Calculation of the ground state properties of even-even Sn isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Aytekin, H. Baldik, R.; Tel, E.

    2010-06-15

    We investigate the ground-state properties of even-even Sn isotopes using the Skyrme-Hartree-Fock (SHF) and Skyrme-Hartree-Fock-Bogolyubov (SHFB) methods with SKM* and SLy4 force parameters. We focus on isotopes of even-even Sn because these isotopes are vital to the structural studies of unstable nuclei taking place at the electron radioactive-ion collider at RIKEN. In the present paper, we calculate the binding energies per particle, the rms nuclear charge radii, the rms nuclear proton density radii, and the rms nuclear neutron density radii, for even-even Sn isotopes, using the SHF and SHFB methods. We compare our results with experimental data and with the results of relativistic mean-field theory. Notably, we fit our calculated binding energies per particle to experimental results, using the aforementioned SHF methods with SKM* and SLy4 parameters

  11. Alpha Decay Preformation Factors for Even-Even 280-316116 Superheavy Isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alsaif, Norah A. M.; Radiman, Shahidan; Yahaya, Redzuwan; Ahmed, Saad M. Saleh

    2016-06-01

    The success of the cluster formation model (CFM) in deriving an energy-dependent formula for the preformation factors of heavy nuclei has motivated us to expand this approach to the superheavy isotopes (SHI). In this paper, the alpha-cluster formation (preformation factor) behavior inside the parent nuclei of SHI with atomic number Z = 116 and neutron numbers 164 ≤ N ≤ 200 is determined using the alpha preformation formula contained within the CFM. The cluster formation energy of the alpha particles and the total energy of the parent nuclei are calculated on the basis of the various binding energies. Our results clearly show that the CFM remains valid for superheavy nuclei (SHN). In addition, our calculations reveal that the alpha clustering mechanism and formation probability in 280-316116 even-even SHI are similar to those of even-even heavy nuclei in a general sense.

  12. Microscopic investigation of structural evolution in even-even N = 60 isotones

    SciTech Connect

    Oudih, M. R.; Fellah, M.; Allal, N. H.; Benhamouda, N.

    2012-10-20

    The ground state properties of even-even N=60 isotones from the neutron-rich to the proton-rich side are investigated within the self-consistent Skyrme-Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov theory in the triaxial landscape. Quantities such as binding energies and root-mean-square radii are investigated and compared with available experimental data. The evolution of the potential energy surfaces in the ({beta},{gamma}) deformation plane is presented and discussed.

  13. The influence of intruder states in even-even Po isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    García-Ramos, J. E.; Heyde, K.

    2015-10-15

    We study the role of intruder states and shape coexistence in the even-even {sup 190–206}Po isotopes, through an interacting boson model with configuration mixing calculation. We analyzed the results in the light of known systematics on various observable in the Pb region, paying special attention to the unperturbed energy systematics and quadrupole deformation. We find that shape coexistence in the Po isotopes behaves in very much the same way as in the Pt isotopes, i.e., it is somehow hidden, contrary to the situation in the Pb and the Hg isotopes.

  14. Branching ratios of {alpha} decay to excited states of even-even nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Y. Z.; Zhang, H. F.; Dong, J. M.; Royer, G.

    2009-01-15

    Branching ratios of {alpha} decay to members of the ground state rotational band and excited 0{sup +} states of even-even nuclei are calculated in the framework of the generalized liquid drop model (GLDM) by taking into account the angular momentum of the {alpha} particle and the excitation probability of the daughter nucleus. The calculation covers isotopic chains from Hg to Fm in the mass regions 180=}224. The calculated branching ratios of the {alpha} transitions are in good agreement with the experimental data and some useful predictions are provided for future experiments.

  15. Contributions to δVpn for Even-Even ra Isotopes Based on the Covariant Density Functional Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, W.; Li, Z. P.; Zhang, S. Q.

    The δVpn for even-even 208-228Ra are investigated in the covariant density functional theory and the quadrupole-octupole collective Hamiltonian method. It is shown that the successive introduction of static deformation and collective fluctuation are crucial ingredients for the reproduction of data, especially for N = 132 - 136. The properties of the nuclei associated with δVpn at N = 132 are analyzed in detail. Microscopically, near the Fermi surfaces in the single-particle level spectrums, levels with similar energies above the gaps N = 132 and Z = 88 can be found for 220Ra.

  16. Rotational energy term in the empirical formula for the yrast energies in even-even nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Ha, Eunja; Hong, S. W.

    2009-03-15

    We show that part of the empirical formula describing the gross features of the measured yrast energies of the natural parity even multipole states for even-even nuclei can be related to the rotational energy of nuclei. When the first term of the empirical formula, {alpha}A{sup -{gamma}}, is regarded as the rotational energy, we can better understand the results of the previous analyses of the excitation energies. We show that the values of the parameters {alpha} and {gamma} newly obtained by considering the {alpha}A{sup -{gamma}} term as the rotational energy of a rigid rotor are remarkably consistent with those values extracted from the earlier 'modified'{chi}{sup 2} analyses, in which we use the logarithms of the excitation energies in defining the 'modified'{chi}{sup 2} values.

  17. Binding energies of even-even superheavy nuclei in a semi-microscopic approach

    SciTech Connect

    Ismail, M.; Ellithi, A. Y.; Botros, M. M.; Adel, A.

    2010-10-15

    The structure of some even-even superheavy nuclei with the proton number Z = 98-120 is studied using a semi-microscopic but not self-consistent model. The macroscopic energy part is obtained from the Skyrme nucleon-nucleon interaction in the semi-classical extended Thomas-Fermi approach. A simple but accurate method is derived for calculating the direct part of the Coulomb energy. The microscopic shell plus pairing energy corrections are calculated from the traditional Strutinsky method. Within this semi-microscopic approach, the total energy curves with the quadrupole deformation of the studied superheavy nuclei were calculated. The same approach features the well known {sup 208}Pb or {sup 238}U nuclei. For each nucleus the model predictions for the binding energy, the deformation parameters, the half-density radii and comparison with other theoretical models are made. The calculated binding energies are in good agreement with the available experimental data.

  18. Isotopic yield in cold binary fission of even-even 244-258Cf isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santhosh, K. P.; Cyriac, Annu; Krishnan, Sreejith

    2016-05-01

    The cold binary fission of even-even 244-258Cf isotopes has been studied by taking the interacting barrier as the sum of Coulomb and proximity potential. The favorable fragment combinations are obtained from the cold valley plot (plot of driving potential vs. mass number of fragments) and by calculating the yield for charge minimized fragments. It is found that for 244,246,248Cf isotopes highest yield is for the fragments with isotope of Pb (Z = 82) as one fragment, whereas for 250Cf and 252Cf isotopes the highest yield is for the fragments with isotope of Hg (Z = 80) as one fragment. In the case of 254,256,258Cf isotopes the highest yield is for the fragments with Sn (Z = 50) as one fragment. Thus, the fragment combinations with maximum yield reveal the role of doubly magic and near doubly magic nuclei in binary fission. It is found that asymmetric splitting is favored for Cf isotopes with mass number A ≤ 250 and symmetric splitting is favored for Cf isotopes with A > 252. In the case of Cf isotope with A = 252, there is an equal probability for asymmetric and symmetric splitting. The individual yields obtained for the cold fission of 252Cf isotope are compared with the experimental data taken from the γ- γ- γ coincidences technique using Gammasphere.

  19. Characteristics of collectivity along the yrast line in even-even tungsten isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Qiong; Wang, Hua-Lei; Liu, Min-Liang; Xu, Fu-Rong

    2016-08-01

    The collective nature of high-spin yrast states in even-even W-190160 isotopes was systematically investigated by means of pairing self-consistent Woods-Saxon-Strutinsky calculations using the total Routhian surface approach in (β2,γ ,β4) deformation space. The calculated ground-state deformations are consistent with previous calculations and available experimental data. The deformation energy curves are presented to show the shape and softness evolutions, in particular in the triaxial direction. The backbending or upbending behavior in moment of inertia is attributed to band crossing. It is found that the neutron rotation alignment is preferred for most of the W isotopes (e.g., in W-180164), while in other nuclei the competition between the neutron and proton alignments may occur, even the proton alignment is favored in the very neutron-deficient nucleus 160W. In addition, the evolution and transition between vibrational and rotational collective modes along the yrast line are investigated on the basis of the new centipedelike E-GOS (E-Gamma Over Spin) curves introduced by us, which to some extent explains the existing differences (e.g., in the moment of inertia) between theory and experiment.

  20. Global properties of even-even superheavy nuclei in macroscopic-microscopic models

    SciTech Connect

    Baran, Andrzej; Lojewski, Zdzislaw; Sieja, Kamila; Kowal, Michal

    2005-10-01

    A systematic study of global properties of superheavy nuclei in the framework of macroscopic-microscopic method is performed. Equilibrium deformations, masses, quadrupole moments, radii, shell energies, fission barriers and half-lives are calculated using the following macroscopic models: Myers-Swiatecki liquid drop, droplet, Yukawa-plus-exponential, and Lublin-Strasbourg drop. Shell and pairing energies are calculated in Woods-Saxon potential with a universal set of parameters. The analysis covers a wide range of even-even superheavy nuclei from Z=100 to 122. Magic and semimagic numbers occurring in this region are indicated and their influence on the observables is discussed. The strongest shell effects appear at proton number Z=114 and at neutron number N=184. Deformed shell closures are found at N=152 and 162. Spontaneous fission half-lives are calculated in a dynamical approach where the full minimization of the action integral in a three-dimensional deformation space of {beta} deformations is performed. The fission half-lives obtained this way are two orders of magnitude smaller than the ones resulting from static calculations. The agreement of theoretical results and experimental data is satisfying.

  1. A primer on rotational collective enhancements in even-even nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Younes, W

    2004-07-15

    The enhancement of the level density for deformed nuclei relative to the level density in spherical nuclei is calculated. The qualitative behavior of the enhancement factor as a function of excitation energy is explained, and a prescription for a more quantitative description of this behavior is suggested. The results presented here can be found elsewhere in the literature, however the treatments of this topic are dispersed in the literature, are often terse, and require some familiarity with disparate branches of physics. The emphasis of this paper is on step-by-step derivations of the physics and mathematics used in the calculation of level densities and rotational enhancement factors. Pertinent techniques from thermodynamics and group theory are introduced. Appendices provide detailed introductions to the principal mathematical tools.

  2. Triaxial shapes in the ground states of even-even neutron-rich Ru isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, I.; Lister, C.J.; Morss, L.R.

    1995-08-01

    Partial level schemes for {sup 108,110,112}Ru, and {sup 114}Ru about which nothing was previously known, were determined from the measurement of prompt, triple-gamma coincidences in {sup 248}Cm fission fragments. A 5-mg {sup 249}Cm source, mixed with 65-mg KCl and pressed in the form of a 7-mm diameter pellet, was used for the experiment. Prompt {gamma} rays emitted from the fission fragments were detected with the Eurogam array at Daresbury, which at that time consisted of 45 Compton suppressed Ge detectors and 5 LEPS spectrometers. Transitions in Ru were identified by gating on {gamma} rays in the complementary Te fragments. Figure I-25 shows the technique used to identify the previously unknown transitions in {sup 114}Ru and its partial level scheme. High spin states up to spin 10 h were observed and the {gamma}-ray branching ratios were determined. The ratios of electric quadrupole transition probabilities deduced from the experimental branching ratios were found to be in good agreement with the predictions of a simple model of rigid triaxial rotor. Our analysis shows that gamma deformation in Ru isotopes is increasing with the neutron number and the gamma value for {sup 112}Ru and {sup 114}Ru is {approximately} 25 degrees. This is one of the highest gamma values encountered in nuclei, suggesting soft triaxial shapes for {sup 112}Ru and {sup 114}Ru. The results of this investigation were published.

  3. Evolution of shapes in even-even nuclei using the standard interacting boson model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalaf, Ali M.; Taha, Mahmoud M.

    2015-02-01

    The sd-version of the interacting boson model (IBM) is used to establish the shape phase transitional structure. A simplified Hamiltonian is used which is intermediate between the three dynamical symmetries of U(6), namely the spherical U(5), the prolate and oblate deformed SU(3) and the -unstable O(6) limits. The potential energy surfaces (PESs) to the IBM Hamiltonian have been obtained using the intrinsic state formalism which introduces the shape variables and . The Gadolinium (Gd) and Ruthenium (Ru) isotopic chains have been taken as examples in illustrating the U(5)-SU(3) and U(5)-O(6) shape phase transitions, respectively. We used the standard test to get the IBM Hamiltonian parameters. The fit is performed by minimizing the function for some selected experimental low-lying energy levels, the two neutron separation energies and B(E2) transition rates.

  4. {beta} decay of the even-even {sup 124}Ba nucleus: A test for the interacting boson-fermion-fermion model

    SciTech Connect

    Brant, S.; Yoshida, N.; Zuffi, L.

    2006-08-15

    The interacting boson-fermion-fermion model approach to {beta} decay is applied to the decay from the even-even {sup 124}Ba to the odd-odd {sup 124}Cs nucleus. The theoretical results for energy levels, electromagnetic properties and {beta} decay rates are compared with experimental data for {sup 124}Cs. The calculated {beta}-decay rates demonstrate that the interacting boson approximation can be applied in the description of {beta} decays from even-even to odd-odd nuclei.

  5. Tables of E2 transition probabilities from the first 2+ states in even-even nuclei [B(E2) evaluation for 0+1 → 2+1 transitions in even-even nuclei

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Pritychenko, B.; Birch, M.; Singh, B.; Horoi, M.

    2015-11-03

    A complete B(E2)↑ evaluation and compilation for even-even nuclei has been presented. The present paper is a continuation of P.H. Stelson and L. Grodzins, and S. Raman et al. nuclear data evaluations and was motivated by a large number of new measurements. It extends the list of evaluated nuclides from 328 to 452, includes an extended list of nuclear reaction kinematics parameters and comprehensive shell model analysis. Evaluation policies for analysis of experimental data have been discussed and conclusions are given. Moreover, future plans for B(E2)↑ systematics and experimental technique analyses of even-even nuclei are outlined.

  6. Influence of the Isovector Pairing Effect on Nuclear Statistical Quantities in N ≈ Z Even-Even Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belabbas, M.; Fellah, M.; Allal, N. H.; Benhamouda, N.; Ami, I.; Oudih, M. R.

    The influence of the isovector neutron-proton (np) pairing effect on nuclear statistical quantities is studied in N ≈ Z even-even systems. Expressions of the energy, the entropy, and the heat capacity are established using a recently proposed temperature-dependent isovector pairing gap equations. They generalize the conventional finite temperature BCS (FTBCS) ones. The model is first numerically tested using the schematic one-level model. As a second step, realistic cases are considered using the single-particle energies of a deformed Woods-Saxon mean-field. It is shown that: (i) the gap parameter Δnp(T) behaves like Δtt(T), t = n, p, in the conventional FTBCS model and the critical temperature value Tcnp is such as Tcnp

  7. Neutron-Proton pairing effect on the thermodynamical quantities of even-even proton-rich nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belabbas, M.; Fellah, M.; Allal, N. H.; Ami, I.

    2012-02-01

    Expressions of the thermodynamical quantities, i.e. the energy E, the entropy S and the heat capacity C are established by including the isovector neutron-proton (np) pairing effect. They are deduced using temperature-dependent gap equations . E, S and C are numerically studied as a function of the temperature for some even-even proton-rich nuclei. The single-particle energies used are those of a Woods-Saxon deformed mean field. It is shown that the isovector pairing effect on E, S and C is non-negligible, not only in the 0 <= T <= Tcnp region (Tcnp being the critical temperature beyond which the np pairing vanishes), but also in the Tcnp <= T <= Tcn region (Tcn being the neutron-system critical temperature).

  8. Systematic study of α decay half-lives for even-even nuclei within a two-potential approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiao-Dong; Guo, Ping; Li, Xiao-Hua

    2016-03-01

    α decay is a common and important process of natural radioactivity of heavy and superheavy nuclei. The α decay half-lives for even-even nuclei from Z =62 to Z =118 are systematically studied based on the two-potential approach with a quasistationary state approximation. As for the nuclear potential, the isospin effect is considered, which slightly improves the results by 6.8%. To reduce the deviations between experimental half-lives and calculated results due to the nuclear shell structure, the analytic expression of hindrance factors is employed. Our results can reproduce the experimental half-lives as good as using the density-dependent cluster model and the generalized liquid drop model.

  9. Computer program for the relativistic mean field description of the ground state properties of even-even axially deformed nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ring, P.; Gambhir, Y. K.; Lalazissis, G. A.

    1997-09-01

    We present a Fortran program for the calculation of the ground state properties of axially deformed even-even nuclei in the framework of Relativistic Mean Field Theory (RMF). In this approach a set of coupled partial differentials has to be solved self-consistently: the Dirac equation for the nucleons moving in self-consistent fields and the Klein-Gordon equations for the meson fields and the electromagnetic field, whose sources are scalar and vector densities determined of the nucleons. For this purpose the Dirac spinors as well as the meson fields are expanded in terms of anisotropic oscillator wave functions in cylindrical coordinates. This requires a matrix diagonalization for the solution of the Dirac equations and the solution of an inhomogeneous matrix equation for the meson fields. For the determination of the Coulomb field the Greens function method is used.

  10. NpNn dependence of empirical formula for the lowest excitation energy of the 2+ states in even even nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Guanghao; Yoon, Jin-Hee; Cha, Dongwoo

    2008-03-01

    We examine the effects of the additional term of the type {\\sim} e^{- \\lambda^{\\prime} N_pN_n} on the recently proposed empirical formula for the lowest excitation energy of the 2+ states in even-even nuclei. This study is motivated by the fact that this term carries the favorable dependence of the valence nucleon numbers dictated by the NpNn scheme. We show explicitly that there is not any improvement in reproducing Ex(2+1) by including the extra NpNn term. However, our study also reveals that the excitation energies Ex(2+1), when calculated by the NpNn term alone (with the mass number A dependent term), are quite comparable to those calculated by the original empirical formula.

  11. Fine structure in α decay of even-even nuclei using a finite-range nucleon-nucleon interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adel, A.; Alharbi, T.

    2015-07-01

    A systematic study on α -decay fine structure is presented for even-even nuclei in the range 78 ≤Z ≤102 . The penetration probability is obtained from the WKB approximation in combination with the Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization condition. The potential barrier is numerically constructed in the well-established double-folding model for both Coulomb and nuclear potentials. A realistic M3Y interaction, based on the G -matrix elements of the Paris N N potential, has been used in the folding calculation. The local approximation for the nondiagonal one-body density matrix in the calculation of the exchange potential was included by using the harmonic oscillator representation of the nondiagonal density matrix of the α particle. The computed partial half-lives and branching ratios are compared with the recent experimental data and they are in good agreement.

  12. Octupole deformation in the ground states of even-even nuclei: A global analysis within the covariant density functional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agbemava, S. E.; Afanasjev, A. V.; Ring, P.

    2016-04-01

    A systematic investigation of octupole-deformed nuclei is presented for even-even systems with Z ≤106 located between the two-proton and two-neutron driplines. For this study we use five most-up-to-date covariant energy density functionals of different types, with a nonlinear meson coupling, with density-dependent meson couplings, and with density-dependent zero-range interactions. Pairing correlations are treated within relativistic Hartree-Bogoliubov theory based on an effective separable particle-particle interaction of finite range. This allows us to assess theoretical uncertainties within the present covariant models for the prediction of physical observables relevant for octupole-deformed nuclei. In addition, a detailed comparison with the predictions of nonrelativistic models is performed. A new region of octupole deformation, centered around Z ˜98 ,N ˜196 is predicted for the first time. In terms of its size in the (Z ,N ) plane and the impact of octupole deformation on binding energies this region is similar to the best known region of octupole-deformed nuclei centered at Z ˜90 ,N ˜136 . For the later island of octupole-deformed nuclei, the calculations suggest substantial increase of its size as compared with available experimental data.

  13. Deformation effects in the alpha accompanied cold ternary fission of even-even 244-260Cf isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santhosh, K. P.; Krishnan, Sreejith

    2016-04-01

    Within the unified ternary fission model (UTFM), the alpha accompanied ternary fission of even-even 244-260Cf isotopes has been studied by taking the interacting barrier as the sum of Coulomb and proximity potential. For the alpha accompanied ternary fission of the 244Cf isotope, the highest yield is obtained for the fragment combination 108Ru + 4He + 132Te, which contains the near doubly magic nucleus 132Te ( N = 80, Z = 52). In the case of 246Cf and 248Cf isotopes, the highest yield is obtained for the fragment combinations with the near doubly magic nucleus 134Te ( N = 82, Z = 52) as the heaviest fragment. The highest yield obtained for 250Cf, 252Cf, 254Cf, 256Cf, 258Cf and 260Cf isotopes is for the fragment combination with the doubly magic nucleus 132Sn ( N = 82), Z = 50 as the heaviest fragment. We have included the effect of deformation and orientation of fragments and this has revealed that in addition to the closed shell effect, ground-state deformation also plays an important role in the calculation of the relative yield of favorable fragment combinations. The computed isotopic yields for the alpha accompanied ternary fission of the 252Cf isotope are found to be in agreement with the experimental data. The emission probability and kinetic energy of the long-range alpha particle is calculated for the various isotopes of Cf and are found to be in good agreement with the experimental data.

  14. Measuring g factors of 41+ and 61+ states in even-even nuclei with 80

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, Diego; Benczer-Koller, N.; Kumbartzki, G.; Gürdal, G.; Sharon, Y. Y.; Zamick, L.; Speidel, K.-H.; Ilie, G.; Heinz, A.; Ahn, T.; Werner, V.; Robinson, S. J. Q.

    2011-10-01

    The measurement of g factors of the low lying excited states in even-even nuclei with lifetimes of the order of 1 to 50 picoseconds presents challenging questions for both theory and experiment. The experimental determination of accurate g factor values uses the transient field technique in inverse kinematics and requires an understanding of the reaction mechanism used to populate the final states. So far, the main method of excitation has been Coulomb excitation. More recently, alpha transfer from a 12C target to selected beams made it possible to populate states in nuclei not available as stable beams. This method has been successful for lighter nuclei up to A ~70. A comparison between Coulomb excitation and alpha transfer reactions will be presented. The experiments used the Tandem at the Wright Nuclear Structure Laboratory at Yale University. Preliminary results for the 100Pd, 96Ru and 86Sr nuclei will be presented. Experimental challenges for future experiments will be discussed. Supported in part by the DOE and the NSF.

  15. Electro-Magnetic Dipole Properties of The Even-Even {sup 160}Gd Nucleus in The Spectroscopic Region

    SciTech Connect

    Ertugral, Filiz; Kuliev, Ali; Guliyev, Ekber

    2008-11-11

    In this study result of calculations using rotational, translational and Galilean invariant quasiparticle random-phase approximation is presented for the low lying dipole excitations in the even-even {sup 60}Gd nucleus. To make detail structure analysis for electric and magnetic dipole states, calculations carried out for both {delta}K = 1 and {delta}K = 0 branches. The analysis shows that almost all transitions with {delta}K = 1 are magnetic character in 2.4 divide 4 MeV energy interval. However, the calculations indicate the presence of a few prominent negative parity K{sup {pi}} = 1 states in the investigated energy interval, one of them with rather high E1 strength B(E1) = 7.1{center_dot}10{sup -3} e{sup 2} fm{sup 2} at energy 3.2 MeV. Calculated M1 dipole strength of the scissors mode K{sup {pi}} = 1{sup +} excitations clustered in two groups around 2.7 and 3.3 MeV. A similar situation arises for the experimentally obtained states two bumps around {omega}{sub i} = 2.7 MeV and {omega}{sub i} = 3.3 MeV. It has been shown that main part of spin-1 states, observed at energy 2.4 divide 4 MeV in {sup 160}Gd may be attributed to have M1 character and may be interpreted as main fragments of the scissors mode. However, it is apparent that the experimental data exceeds the calculation results for the summed B(M1) by a factor of 1.13 for M1 transitions.

  16. Low-lying spectroscopy of a few even-even silicon isotopes investigated with the multiparticle-multihole Gogny energy density functional

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pillet, N.; Zelevinsky, V. G.; Dupuis, M.; Berger, J.-F.; Daugas, J. M.

    2012-04-01

    A multiconfiguration microscopic method has been applied with the Gogny effective interaction to the calculation of low-lying positive-parity states in even-even 26-32Si isotopes. The aim of the study is to compare the results of this approach with those of a standard method of generator coordinate method (GCM) type and to get insight into the predictive power of multiconfiguration methods employed with effective nucleon-nucleon force tailored to mean-field calculations. It is found that the multiconfiguration approach leads to an excellent description of the low-lying spectroscopy of 26Si, 28Si, and 32Si, but gives a systematic energy shift in 30Si. A careful analysis of this phenomenon shows that this discrepancy originates from too large proton-neutron matrix elements supplied by the Gogny interaction at the level of the approximate resolution of the multiparticle-multihole configuration mixing method done in the present study. These proton-neutron matrix elements enter in the definition of both single-particle orbital energies and coupling matrix elements. Finally, a statistical analysis of highly excited configurations in 28Si is performed, revealing exponential convergence in agreement with previous work in the context of the shell model approach. This latter result provides strong arguments toward an implicit treatment of highly excited configurations.

  17. Study of Even-Even/Odd-Even/Odd-Odd Nuclei in Zn-Ga-Ge Region in the Proton-Neutron IBM/IBFM/IBFFM

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshida, N.; Brant, S.; Zuffi, L.

    2009-08-26

    We study the even-even, odd-even and odd-odd nuclei in the region including Zn-Ga-Ge in the proton-neutron IBM and the models derived from it: IBM2, IBFM2, IBFFM2. We describe {sup 67}Ga, {sup 65}Zn, and {sup 68}Ga by coupling odd particles to a boson core {sup 66}Zn. We also calculate the beta{sup +}-decay rates among {sup 68}Ge, {sup 68}Ga and {sup 68}Zn.

  18. Lowest bound of energies for random interactions and the origin of spin-zero ground state dominance in even-even nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshinaga, N.; Arima, A.; Zhao, Y. M.

    2006-01-01

    In this report we study the origin of spin-zero ground-state dominance for even-even nuclei in the presence of random two-body interactions. We evaluate the ground-state energy in terms of the energy centroid and the width of the random Hamiltonian. For both fermions and bosons in a single orbital, we obtain excellent agreement between the spin-I ground state probabilities predicted by using our formula and those obtained by diagonalizing the random Hamiltonian.

  19. Tables of E2 transition probabilities from the first 2+ states in even-even nuclei [B(E2) evaluation for 0+1 → 2+1 transitions in even-even nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Pritychenko, B.; Birch, M.; Singh, B.; Horoi, M.

    2015-11-03

    A complete B(E2)↑ evaluation and compilation for even-even nuclei has been presented. The present paper is a continuation of P.H. Stelson and L. Grodzins, and S. Raman et al. nuclear data evaluations and was motivated by a large number of new measurements. It extends the list of evaluated nuclides from 328 to 452, includes an extended list of nuclear reaction kinematics parameters and comprehensive shell model analysis. Evaluation policies for analysis of experimental data have been discussed and conclusions are given. Moreover, future plans for B(E2)↑ systematics and experimental technique analyses of even-even nuclei are outlined.

  20. Moment of inertia of even-even proton-rich nuclei using a particle-number conserving approach in the isovector neutron-proton pairing case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammache, Faiza; Allal, N. H.; Fellah, M.; Oudih, M. R.

    2016-05-01

    An expression of the particle-number projected nuclear moment of inertia (MOI) has been established in the neutron-proton (np) isovector pairing case within the cranking model. It generalizes the one obtained in the like-particles pairing case. The formalism has been, as a first step, applied to the picket-fence model. As a second step, it has been applied to deformed even-even nuclei such as (N ‑ Z) = 0, 2, 4, and of which the experimentally deduced values of the pairing gap parameters Δtt‧, t,t‧ = n,p, are known. The single-particle energies and eigenstates used are those of a deformed Woods-Saxon mean-field. It was shown, in both models, that the np pairing effect and the projection one are non-negligible. In realistic cases, it also appears that the np pairing effect strongly depends on (N ‑ Z), whereas the projection effect is practically independent from the same quantity.

  1. A differential equation for the transition probability B(E2)↑ and the resulting recursion relations connecting even-even nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pattnaik, S.; Nayak, R. C.

    2014-04-01

    We obtain here a new relation for the reduced electric quadrupole transition probability B(E2)↑ of a given nucleus in terms of its derivatives with respect to neutron and proton numbers based on a similar local energy relation in the Infinite Nuclear Matter (INM) model of atomic nuclei, which is essentially built on the foundation of the Hugenholtz-Van Hove (HVH) theorem of many-body theory. Obviously, such a relation in the form of a differential equation is expected to be more powerful than the usual algebraic difference equations. Although the relation for B(E2)↑ has been perceived simply on the basis of a corresponding differential equation for the local energy in the INM model, its theoretical foundation otherwise has been clearly demonstrated. We further exploit the differential equation in using the very definitions of the derivatives to obtain two different recursion relations for B(E2)↑, connecting in each case three neighboring even-even nuclei from lower to higher mass numbers and vice versa. We demonstrate their numerical validity using available data throughout the nuclear chart and also explore their possible utility in predicting B(E2)↑ values.

  2. Identification of highly deformed even-even nuclei in the neutron- and proton-rich regions of the nuclear chart from the B(E2)↑ and E2 predictions in the generalized differential equation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayak, R. C.; Pattnaik, S.

    2015-11-01

    We identify here the possible occurrence of large deformations in the neutron- and proton-rich (n-rich and p-rich) regions of the nuclear chart from extensive predictions of the values of the reduced quadrupole transition probability B(E2)↑ for the transition from the ground state to the first 2+ state and the corresponding excitation energy E2 of even-even nuclei in the recently developed generalized differential equation (GDE) model exclusively meant for these physical quantities. This is made possible from our analysis of the predicted values of these two physical quantities and the corresponding deformation parameters derived from them such as the quadrupole deformation β2, the ratio of β2 to the Weisskopf single-particle β2(sp) and the intrinsic electric quadrupole moment Q0, calculated for a large number of both known as well as hitherto unknown even-even isotopes of oxygen to fermium (0 to FM; Z = 8-100). Our critical analysis of the resulting data convincingly support possible existence of large collectivity for the nuclides 30,32Ne,34Mg, 60Ti, 42,62,64Cr,50,68Fe, 52,72Ni, 72,70,96Kr,74,76Sr,78,80,106,108Zr, 82,84,110,112Mo, 140Te,144Xe, 148Ba,122Ce, 128,156Nd,130,132,158,160Sm and 138,162,164,166Gd, whose values of β2 are found to exceed 0.3 and even 0.4 in some cases. Our findings of large deformations in the exotic n-rich regions support the existence of another “island of inversion” in the heavy-mass region possibly caused by breaking of the N = 70 subshell closure.

  3. Nucleon-pair states of even-even Sn isotopes based on realistic effective interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Y. Y.; Qi, C.; Zhao, Y. M.; Arima, A.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper we study yrast states of 128,126,124Sn and 104,106,108Sn by using the monopole-optimized realistic interactions in terms of both the shell model (SM) and the nucleon-pair approximation (NPA). For yrast states of 128,126Sn and 104,106Sn, we calculate the overlaps between the wave functions obtained in the full SM space and those obtained in the truncated NPA space, and find that most of these overlaps are very close to 1. Very interestingly, for most of these states with positive parity and even spin or with negative parity and odd spin, the SM wave function is found to be well represented by one nucleon-pair basis state, viz., a simple picture of "nucleon-pair states" (nucleon-pair configuration without mixings) emerges. In 128,126Sn, the positive-parity (or negative-parity) yrast states with spin J >10 (or J >7 ) are found to be well described by breaking one or two S pairs in the 101+ (or 71-) state, i.e., the yrast state of seniority-two, spin-maximum, and positive-parity (or negative-parity), into non-S pair(s). Similar regularity is also pointed out for 104,106Sn. The evolution of E 2 transition rates between low-lying states in 128,126,124Sn is discussed in terms of the seniority scheme.

  4. Interplay between tensor force and deformation in even-even nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernard, Rémi N.; Anguiano, Marta

    2016-09-01

    In this work we study the effect of the nuclear tensor force on properties related with deformation. We focus on isotopes in the Mg, Si, S, Ar, Sr and Zr chains within the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov theory using the D1ST2a Gogny interaction. Contributions to the tensor energy in terms of saturated and unsaturated subshells are analyzed. Like-particle and proton-neutron parts of the tensor term are independently examinated. We found that the tensor term may considerably modify the potential energy landscapes and change the ground state shape. We analyze too how the pairing characteristics of the ground state change when the tensor force is included.

  5. Angular anisotropy of photofission of even-even nuclei at above-barrier energies

    SciTech Connect

    Rudnikov, V.E.; Smirenkin, G.N.; Soldatov, A.S.; Juhasz, S.

    1988-09-01

    Results of measurements are presented for angular distributions of photofission fragments of /sup 232/Th and /sup 234//sup ,//sup 236//sup ,//sup 238/U by bremsstrahlung ..gamma.. rays in the maximum energy range of E/sub max/ = 6--10 MeV. The observed angular anisotropy of photofission is discussed as a function of E/sub max/ and the nucleon composition of the nucleus.

  6. Theory of rotational population patterns in heavy-ion transfer reactions: Even-even thorium nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, S.Y.; Rasmussen, J.O.; Donangelo, R.; Stoyer, M.A.; Frauendorf, S.; Shimizu, Y.R.

    1992-11-01

    A Hamiltonian matrix diagonalization (HMD) method is applied to calculate the lowest several bands in {sup 230,232,234}Th. Neutron pair transfer strength distributions are calculated and compared between HMD and cranked Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov plus Random Phase Approximation (CHFB+RPA). Sudden-approximation methods are applied to estimate pair transfer population patterns in {sup 206}Pb + {sup 232}Th reactions. Band-crossing, pairing, and spin alignment properties are also discussed.

  7. Theory of rotational population patterns in heavy-ion transfer reactions: Even-even thorium nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, S.Y.; Rasmussen, J.O. ); Donangelo, R. ); Stoyer, M.A. ); Frauendorf, S. ); Shimizu, Y.R. . Dept. of Physics)

    1992-11-01

    A Hamiltonian matrix diagonalization (HMD) method is applied to calculate the lowest several bands in [sup 230,232,234]Th. Neutron pair transfer strength distributions are calculated and compared between HMD and cranked Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov plus Random Phase Approximation (CHFB+RPA). Sudden-approximation methods are applied to estimate pair transfer population patterns in [sup 206]Pb + [sup 232]Th reactions. Band-crossing, pairing, and spin alignment properties are also discussed.

  8. Nucleon-pair states of even-even N =82 isotones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Y. Y.; Zhao, Y. M.; Arima, A.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper we study low-lying states of five N =82 isotones, 134Te, 136Xe, 138Ba, 140Ce and 142Nd, within the framework of the nucleon-pair approximation (NPA). For the low-lying yrast states of 136Xe and 138Ba, we calculate the overlaps between the wave functions obtained in the full shell-model (SM) space and those obtained in the truncated NPA space, and find that most of these overlaps are very close to 1. Very interestingly and surprisingly, for most of these yrast states, the SM wave functions are found to be well approximated by one-dimensional, optimized pair basis states, which indicates a simple picture of "nucleon-pair states". The positive-parity yrast states with spin J >6 in these nuclei, as well as the 82+ state, are found to be well described by breaking one or two S pair(s) of the 61+ or 62+ state (low-lying, seniority-two, spin-maximum, and positive-parity); similarly, negative-parity yrast states with spin J >9 are well represented by breaking one or two S pair(s) of the 91- state (low-lying, seniority-two, spin-maximum, and negative-parity). It is shown that the low-lying negative-parity yrast states of 136Xe and 138Ba are reasonably described to be one-octupole-phonon excited states. The evolution of the 61+ and 62+ states for the five isotones are also systematically investigated.

  9. Two-Neutron Separation Energies Of Even-Even Rare-Earth Neutron-Rich Nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Benhamouda, N.; Oudih, M. R.; Allal, N. H.; Fellah, M.

    2007-04-23

    The variation of the two-neutron separation energy (S2N), as a function of N, is studied using a microscopic model that includes the pairing effects rigorously within the Fixed-Sharp-BCS method. The model has been tested for ''ordinary'' nuclei and has correctly reproduced the experimental data. The study has then been extended to the neutron-rich nuclei and has shown a relatively important variation of S2N when N= 100 which may be attributed to the existence of a new magic number.

  10. Isovector Pairing Effect on Nuclear Moment of Inertia at Finite Temperature in N = Z Even-Even Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ami, I.; Fellah, M.; Allal, N. H.; Benhamouda, N.; Belabbas, M.; Oudih, M. R.

    Expressions of temperature-dependent perpendicular (ℑ⊥) and parallel (ℑ‖) moments of inertia, including isovector pairing effects, have been established using the cranking method. They are derived from recently proposed temperature-dependent gap equations. The obtained expressions generalize the conventional finite-temperature BCS (FTBCS) ones. Numerical calculations have been carried out within the framework of the schematic Richardson model as well as for nuclei such as N = Z, using the single-particle energies and eigenstates of a deformed Woods-Saxon mean-field. ℑ⊥ and ℑ‖ have been studied as a function of the temperature. It has been shown that the isovector pairing effect on both the perpendicular and parallel moments of inertia is non-negligible at finite temperature. These correlations must thus be taking into account in studies of warm rotating nuclei in the N ≃ Z region.

  11. Intruder states and the onset of deformation in the neutron-deficient even-even polonium isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    The ISOLDE Collaboration

    1995-12-01

    Alpha- and beta-decay studies of mass-separated Rn and At nuclei reveal the existence of a low-lying 0{sup +} state in {sup 196,198,200,202}Po. The excited 0{sup +} states are interpreted as proton-pair excitations across the {ital Z}=82 shell gap leading to a deformed state, coexisting with the spherical ground state. It is shown that with decreasing neutron number the deformed configuration intrudes to lower excitation energy, increasingly mixing into the ground state. {copyright} {ital 1995 The American Physical Society.}

  12. Decay out of the yrast and excited highly-deformed bands in the even-even nucleus {sup 134}Nd

    SciTech Connect

    Petrache, C.M.; Bazzacco, D.; Lunardi, S.

    1996-12-31

    The resolving power achieved by the new generation of {gamma}-ray detector arrays allows now to observe transitions with intensities of the order of {approximately}10{sup {minus}3} of the population of the final residual nucleus, making therefore feasible the study of the very weakly populated excited bands built on the superdeformed (SD) minimum or of the decay out of the SD bands. As a matter of fact, numerous excited SD bands have been observed in the different regions of superdeformation, which led to a deeper understanding of the single-particle excitation in the second minimum. The first experimental breakthrough in the study of the decay out process has been achieved in the odd-even {sup 133,135}Nd nuclei of the A=130 mass region. There, the observation of the discrete linking transitions has been favored by the relatively higher intensity of the highly-deformed (HD) bands ({approximately}10%), as well as by the small excitation energy with respect to the yrast line in the decay-out region ({approximately}1 MeV). No discrete linking transitions have been so far observed in the A=80, 150 mass regions. The present results suggest that the decay out of the HD bands in {sup 134}Nd is triggered by the crossing with the N=4 [402]5/2{sup +} Nilsson orbital, that has a smaller deformation than the corresponding N=6 intruder configuration. The crossing favours the mixing with the ND rotational bands strongly enhancing the decay-out process and weakening the in-band transition strength. The HD band becomes fragmented and looses part of its character. The intensity of the decay-out transitions increases when the spin of the HD state decreases, indicating enhanced ND amplitude in the wavefunction when going down the band. Lifetime measurements of the HD bands are crucial to further elucidate the decay-out process.

  13. Decay Out of the Yrast and Excited Highly Deformed Bands in the Even-Even Nucleus {sup 134}Nd

    SciTech Connect

    Petrache, C.M.; Bazzacco, D.; Lunardi, S.; Rossi Alvarez, C.; Venturelli, R.; Pavan, P.; Medina, N.H.; Rao, M.N.; Burch, R.; de Angelis, G.; Gadea, A.; Maron, G.; Napoli, D.R.; Zhu, L.; Wyss, R.

    1996-07-01

    The decay out of the yrast and excited highly deformed (HD) bands in {sup 134}Nd has been investigated via the {sup 28}Si+{sup 110}Pd reaction at 130MeV using the GASP array. Several deexcitation pathways have been established for both the yrast and excited HD bands. The resulting spins remove previous ambiguities in the assignment of the excited HD band and confirm the structure assigned to the yrast HD band. The decay out is understood in terms of mixing between the normal-deformed and HD states, which is triggered by the crossing between the {nu}{ital i}{sub 13/2} and {nu}{ital d}{sub 5/2} orbitals. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  14. Decay Properties of New Isotopes 234Bk and 230Am, and Even-Even Nuclides 234Cm and 230Pu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaji, Daiya; Morimoto, Kouji; Haba, Hiromitsu; Ideguchi, Eiji; Koura, Hiroyuki; Morita, Kosuke

    2016-01-01

    A neutron-deficient berkelium isotope of 234Bk produced via 197Au(40Ar,3n) reaction and the daughter product of 230Am were newly identified. Alpha-decay energies of eleven 234Bk were found at 7.62-7.96 MeV, and six fission events that correlated with the α-decay of 234Bk were observed. The half-lives of 234Bk and 230Am were determined to be 19 - 4 + 6 s and 32 - 9 + 22 s, respectively. The 234Cm followed by the β-decay of 234Bk was also identified.

  15. The reduced transition probabilities for excited states of rare-earths and actinide even-even nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Ghumman, S. S.

    2015-08-28

    The theoretical B(E2) ratios have been calculated on DF, DR and Krutov models. A simple method based on the work of Arima and Iachello is used to calculate the reduced transition probabilities within SU(3) limit of IBA-I framework. The reduced E2 transition probabilities from second excited states of rare-earths and actinide even–even nuclei calculated from experimental energies and intensities from recent data, have been found to compare better with those calculated on the Krutov model and the SU(3) limit of IBA than the DR and DF models.

  16. IBA for novice experimentalists. I. Introduction to IBA: mostly symmetries. II. Tests in even-even nuclei: mostly transitional systems. III. Supersymmetries: theory and experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Cizewski, J.A.

    1982-08-01

    The report contains the notes from a series of lectures on the Interacting Boson Approximation (IBA) model. The lectures were presented at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory on July 28, 30 and August 1, 1982 by Jolie A. Cizewski from Yale University. The IBA was developed by F. Iachello and A. Arima starting about seven years ago to understand collective quadrupole excitations in medium and heavy mass nuclei away from closed shells. Since then the formalism has been extended to odd-mass nuclei and considerable work has gone into understanding the microscopic construction of the bosons in this model. The IBA has been applied to nuclei as light as Zn and Ge and as heavy as U and Pu; to nuclei near closed shells, such as Mo and Hg; to stable nuclei and nuclei far from stability. The present lectures were designed to give the experimentalist an introduction to the IBA and to give specific examples of how it could be applied to understand the structure of heavy even and odd mass nuclei. Much of the emphasis was on the symmetries (and supersymmetries) of the model and how the use of symmetries enabled the relatively straightforward understanding of empirical systems as deviations from these symmetries. The richness of possible applications of the IBA to understanding collective phenomena in nuclei was not fully explored, but rather a few illustrative examples were selected and described in detail. The references, accumulated at the end of this report, provide a more comprehensive, although not complete, list of tests of the IBA in even mass nuclei and the new symmetries in odd mass nuclei. The references also list the main theoretical papers which provide the details of the IBA formalism.

  17. Clustering effects in fusion evaporation reactions with light even-even N = Z nuclei. The {sup 24}Mg and {sup 28}Si cases

    SciTech Connect

    Morelli, L. D’Agostino, M.; Bruno, M.; Baiocco, G.; Gulminelli, F.; Cinausero, M.; Gramegna, F.; Marchi, T.; Degerlier, M.; Fabris, D.; Barlini, S.; Bini, M.; Casini, G.; Gelli, N.; Olmi, A.; Pasquali, G.; Piantelli, S.

    2015-10-15

    In the recent years, cluster structures have been evidenced in many ground and excited states of light nuclei [1, 2]. Within the currently ongoing experimental campaign by the NUCL-EX collaboration we have measured the {sup 12}C+{sup 12}C and {sup 14}N+{sup 10}B reactions at 95 MeV and 80 MeV respectively, and compared experimental data corresponding to complete fusion of target and projectile into an excited {sup 24}Mg nucleus to the results of a pure statistical model[3, 4]. We found clear deviations from the statstical model in the decay pattern: emission channels involving multiple α particles are more probable than expected from a purely statistical behavior. To continue the investigation on light systems, we have recentely measured the {sup 16}O+{sup 12}C reaction at three different beam energies, namely E{sub beam} = 90, 110 and 130 MeV.

  18. Clustering effects in fusion evaporation reactions with light even-even N=Z nuclei. The 24Mg and 28Si cases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morelli, L.; Bruno, M.; D'Agostino, M.; Baiocco, G.; Gulminelli, F.; Cinausero, M.; Degerlier, M.; Fabris, D.; Gramegna, F.; Marchi, T.; Barlini, S.; Bini, M.; Casini, G.; Gelli, N.; Pasquali, G.; Piantelli, S.; Valdrè, S.

    2016-06-01

    In the recent years, cluster structures have been evidenced in many ground and excited states of light nuclei [1, 2]. The decay of highly excited states of 24Mg is studied in fusion evaporation events completely detected in charge in the reactions 12C+12C and 14N+10B at 95 and 80 MeV incident energy, respectively, and compared to the results of a pure statistical model [3, 4]. Inclusive variables are in general well reproduced by the model. We found clear deviations from the statistical model if we select emission channels involving multiple α particles which are more probable than expected from a purely statistical behavior. Data from 12C+12C reaction have been analyzed in order to study the decay of the Hoyle state of 12C* with two different selections: peripheral binary collisions and 6α decay channel in central events. To continue the investigation on light systems, we have recently measured the 16O+12C reaction at three different beam energies, namely Ebeam = 90, 110 and 130 MeV. Preliminary results are presented.

  19. Particle-rotor model analysis of low-spin identical bands in neighboring odd-[ital A] and even-even nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Mukherjee, A.; Datta Pramanik, U.; Sarkar, M.S.; Sen, S. )

    1994-10-01

    A conventional particle-rotor model calculation has been performed for a number of odd-[ital A] rare earth nuclei in the mass region [ital A][congruent]160--190. A detailed analysis of the results of the calculation has been made. It shows that the positive parity bands which exhibit identical dynamical moments of inertia with their even-([ital A][minus]1) neighbors are not at all perturbed by the Coriolis interaction. On the other hand, the positive parity bands which are appreciably perturbed by the Coriolis interaction show normal'' behavior. This feature essentially points out that the core is not polarized in presence of the unpaired valence proton. In case of the negative parity bands, an interesting feature is observed. For most of them, which show identical band behavior, agreement with experimental spectra can be achieved with reasonable values of Coriolis attenuation factor only if their neighboring ([ital A]+1) even nuclei are used as cores.

  20. Parity-projected shell model Monte Carlo level densities for medium-mass nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Oezen, C.; Langanke, K.; Martinez-Pinedo, G.; Dean, D. J.

    2008-11-11

    We investigate the effects of single-particle structure and pairing on the equilibration of positive and negative-parity level densities for the even-even nuclei {sup 58,62,66}Fe and {sup 58}Ni and the odd-A nuclei {sup 59}Ni and {sup 65}Fe. Calculations are performed using the shell model Monte Carlo method in the complete fp-gds shell-model space using a pairing+quadrupole type residual interaction. We find for the even-even nuclei that the positive-parity states dominate at low excitation energies due to strong pairing correlations. At excitation energies at which pairs are broken, single-particle structure of these nuclei is seen to play the decisive role for the energy dependence of the ratio of negative-to-positive parity level densities. We also find that equilibration energies are noticeably lower for the odd-A nuclei {sup 59}Ni and {sup 65}Fe than for the neighboring even-even nuclei {sup 58}Ni and {sup 66}Fe.

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    MedlinePlus

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  3. Triglyceride level

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003493.htm Triglyceride level To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The triglyceride level is a blood test to measure the amount ...

  4. Shell energy and the level-density parameter of hot nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Nerlo-Pomorska, Bozena; Pomorski, Krzysztof; Bartel, Johann

    2006-09-15

    Macroscopic-microscopic calculations have been performed with the Yukawa folded mean field for 134 spherical even-even nuclei and 6 deformed ones at temperatures 0{<=}T{<=}5 MeV and elongations ranging from oblate shapes to the scission configuration of fissioning nuclei. The Strutinsky type free-energy shell corrections for this sample of nuclei and their temperature and deformation dependence are found by a folding procedure in particle-number space. The average dependence of the single-particle level-density parameter on mass number A and isospin I is determined and compared with previous estimates obtained using the relativistic mean-field theory, the Hartree-Fock approximation with the Skyrme effective interaction, and the phenomenological Thomas-Fermi approach adjusted to experimental data. The estimates for the level-density parameter obtained for different deformations are fitted by a liquid-drop type expression.

  5. Let's Start Leveling about Leveling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glasswell, Kath; Ford, Michael

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the authors propose a revised way of thinking about reading levels, one that promotes a wider and more flexible view of teacher decision making about the use of leveled texts in classrooms. They share five key principles to consider when looking at the use of instruction that involves matching leveled materials with readers.…

  6. Hormone levels

    MedlinePlus

    Blood or urine tests can determine the levels of various hormones in the body. This includes reproductive hormones, thyroid hormones, adrenal hormones, pituitary hormones, and many others. For more information, see: ...

  7. Leveling Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bautista, Nazan

    2014-01-01

    A national survey reports that 42% of mainstream teachers have English language learners (ELLs) in their classrooms, but only 12.5% say they have been prepared to work with them (National Center for Education Statistics 2002). This article supplies a framework to address the cognitive demands of ELLs with varying proficiency levels, guided by the…

  8. Two-term formula for ground band energy symmetry in low-lying levels of light Mg-Zr nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devi, Vidya

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, two parameter single-term energy formula EJ = aJb is used to study the energy spin relationship within the ground bands of even-even Mg-Zr nuclei. The formula works better for the γ-soft nuclei as well as vibrational nuclei. We also compared it with other two-parameter formulas: Ejiri, ab, pq and soft rotor formula (SRF). We also study the symmetry of the nuclei in the framework of interacting boson model (IBM-1). The IBM-1 was employed to determine the most appropriate Hamiltonian, the Hamiltonian of the IBM-1 and O(6) symmetry calculation, for the study of these isotopes. We have also calculated energy levels and B(E2) values for number of transitions in these 76-78Se and 76-78Kr isotopes and there is a good agreement between the presented results and the previous experimental data.

  9. The role of seniority-zero states in nuclear level densities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Åberg, S.; Carlsson, B. G.; Døssing, Th.; Möller, P.

    2015-09-01

    At low excitation energies seniority-zero states dominate the level density of K = 0 bands in deformed even-even nuclei, while they play no role at higher excitation energies. We describe the level densities in a Fermi-gas model as well as in a combinatorial level-density model and compare to detailed experimental data for some rare-earth nuclei. An explanation is provided for recent observations of an odd-even staggering in the spin-distribution function as an effect of r-symmetry of wave functions for deformed nuclei. The structure of 0+ states in deformed nuclei is discussed in the model and compared to data, stressing the role of the seniority quantum number. The Fermi-gas model is utilized to obtain an overview of the odd-even staggering phenomenon in other mass regions. Odd-even staggering in spherical nuclei, appearing in open-shell nuclei, is briefly discussed as caused by fermion exchange symmetry.

  10. Level densities and gamma-ray strength functions in 170,171,172-Yb

    SciTech Connect

    Agvaanluvsan, U; Schiller, A; Becker, J; Bernstein, L; Garrett, P; Guttormsen, M; Mitchell, G; Rekstad, J; Siem, S; Voinov, A; Younes, W

    2004-07-28

    Level densities and radiative strength functions in {sup 171}Yb and {sup 170}Yb nuclei have been measured using the {sup 171}Yb({sup 3}He{sup 3}He{gamma}){sup 171}Yb and {sup 171}Yb({sup 3}He,{alpha}{gamma}){sup 170}Yb reactions. New data on {sup 171}Yb are compared to a previous measurement for {sup 171}Yb from the {sup 172}Yb({sup 3}He,{alpha}{gamma}){sup 171}Yb reaction. Systematics of level densities and radiative strength functions in {sup 170,171,172}Yb are established. The entropy excess in {sup 171}Yb relative to the even-even nuclei {sup 170,172}Yb due to the unpaired neutron quasiparticle is found to be approximately 2k{sub B}. Results for the radiative strength function from the two reactions lead to consistent parameters characterizing the ''pygmy'' resonances. Pygmy resonances in the {sup 170,172}Yb populated by the ({sup 3}He,{alpha}) reaction appear to be split into two components for both of which a complete set of resonance parameters are obtained.

  11. Idaho Marketing Education Core Curriculum. Career Sustaining Level, Specialist Level, Supervisory Level, Entrepreneurial Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allbright, Bruce; Holup, John

    This guide lists the competencies expected to be developed in four levels of the marketing education curriculum in Idaho: the career sustaining level, the specialist level, the supervisory level, and the entrepreneurial level. For the career sustaining and specialist levels, 15 competencies are listed: define and apply the role of marketing in the…

  12. Making a Laser Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Harry

    2004-01-01

    This article describes how to construct a laser level. This laser level can be made using a typical 4' (or shorter) bubble level and a small laser point. The laser unit is detachable, so the bubble level can also be used in the conventional way. However, the laser level works better than a simple bubble level. Making this inexpensive device is an…

  13. Effects of pairing correlations on the inverse level density parameter of hot rotating nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thi Quynh Huong, Le; Quang Hung, Nguyen; Thi Quynh Trang, Le

    2016-06-01

    Angular momentum dependence of the inverse level density parameter K in the excitation-energy region of ∼ 30 – 40 MeV is studied within the finite-temperature Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (FTBCS) theory and the FTBCS theory that includes the effect due to quasiparticle-number fluctuations (FTBCS1). The two theories take into account the noncollective rotation of the nucleus at nonzero values of z-projection M of the total angular momentum. The comparison between the results obtained within the FTBCS and FTBCS1 as well as the case without pairing correlations and the experimental data for two medium-mass even-even nuclei 108Cd and 122Te shows that by including the pairing corrections the FTBCS and FTBCS1 reproduces quite well all the experimental data, whereas the non-pairing case always overestimates the data. Due to the effect of quasiparticle-number fluctuations, the FTBCS1 gaps at different M values do not collapse at critical temperature TC as in the FTBCS ones but monotonously decrease with increasing T and being finite even at high T. As the result, the values of K obtained within the FTBCS1 are always closer to the experimental data than those obtained within the FTBCS.

  14. Levels of {sup 105}Pd populated in the decay of {sup 105}Ag{sup {ital m},{ital g}} and comparison with interacting boson-fermion model calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, R.A.; Jackson, S.V.; Brant, S.; Paar, V.

    1996-12-01

    Deexcitation properties of low-spin levels in {sup 105}Pd populated in the decay of {sup 105}Ag{sup {ital m}} and {sup 105}Ag{sup {ital g}} are investigated. The calculation for {sup 105}Pd is performed in the interacting boson-fermion model (IBFM), using a nearly spherical boson core corresponding to {sup 104}Pd. As a result, we obtain an approximate quasiweak-coupling pattern, which is in contrast to previously assumed symmetric rotor model calculations. Rather good agreement between theory and experiment was obtained. The extension of the IBFM calculations to lighter {ital N}=59 isotones is consistent with the recent discovery of coexisting structures and dual double-subshell closure in respective even-even core nuclei. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  15. Low sodium level

    MedlinePlus

    Low sodium level is a condition in which the amount of sodium (salt) in the blood is lower ... and this causes many of the symptoms of low sodium. With low sodium level (hyponatremia), the imbalance of ...

  16. Precision liquid level sensor

    DOEpatents

    Field, M.E.; Sullivan, W.H.

    A precision liquid level sensor utilizes a balanced bridge, each arm including an air dielectric line. Changes in liquid level along one air dielectric line imbalance the bridge and create a voltage which is directly measurable across the bridge.

  17. High potassium level

    MedlinePlus

    High potassium level is a problem in which the amount of potassium in the blood is higher than normal. The medical ... There are often no symptoms with a high level of potassium. When symptoms do occur, they may ...

  18. Low magnesium level

    MedlinePlus

    Low magnesium level is a condition in which the amount of magnesium in the blood is lower than normal. The medical ... that convert or use energy ( metabolism ). When the level of magnesium in the body drops below normal, ...

  19. Low potassium level

    MedlinePlus

    Low potassium level is a condition in which the amount of potassium in the blood is lower than normal. The medical ... in the body. Common causes of low potassium level include: Antibiotics Diarrhea or vomiting Using too much ...

  20. High blood cholesterol levels

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ency/article/000403.htm High blood cholesterol levels To use the sharing features on this page, ... called "bad" cholesterol For many people, abnormal cholesterol levels are partly due to an unhealthy lifestyle. This ...

  1. Therapeutic drug levels

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003430.htm Therapeutic drug levels To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Therapeutic drug levels are lab tests to look for the presence ...

  2. Video-Level Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, Ray W.

    1993-01-01

    Video-level monitor developed to provide full-scene monitoring of video and indicates level of brightest portion. Circuit designed nonspecific and can be inserted in any closed-circuit camera system utilizing RS170 or RS330 synchronization and standard CCTV video levels. System made of readily available, off-the-shelf components. Several units are in service.

  3. Liquid level detector

    DOEpatents

    Grasso, A.P.

    1984-02-21

    A liquid level detector for low pressure boilers. A boiler tank, from which vapor, such as steam, normally exits via a main vent, is provided with a vertical side tube connected to the tank at the desired low liquid level. When the liquid level falls to the level of the side tube vapor escapes therethrough causing heating of a temperature sensitive device located in the side tube, which, for example, may activate a liquid supply means for adding liquid to the boiler tank. High liquid level in the boiler tank blocks entry of vapor into the side tube, allowing the temperature sensitive device to cool, for example, to ambient temperature.

  4. Liquid level detector

    DOEpatents

    Grasso, Albert P.

    1986-01-01

    A liquid level detector for low pressure boilers. A boiler tank, from which apor, such as steam, normally exits via a main vent, is provided with a vertical side tube connected to the tank at the desired low liquid level. When the liquid level falls to the level of the side tube vapor escapes therethrough causing heating of a temperature sensitive device located in the side tube, which, for example, may activate a liquid supply means for adding liquid to the boiler tank. High liquid level in the boiler tank blocks entry of vapor into the side tube, allowing the temperature sensitive device to cool, for example, to ambient temperature.

  5. Levels in Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korthagen, Fred; Lagerwerf, Bram

    In 1957, Van Hiele published his study on levels in learning mathematics. In this article we present an elaboration of the theory on levels in learning and an illustration of this theory based on empirical results. We distinguish between three levels: The first is the formation of an image out of a range of familiar examples or experiences. Second, on the basis of the image a schema can be built, which includes all kinds of interrelated details. Third, a theory can be developed with basic assumptions, definitions, and logical inferences. Before entering the next level, the learner should be sufficiently experienced on the actual level. It is shown that the theory on levels in learning can be integrated with other learning principles, such as notions from constructivism.Received: 18 October 1994; Revised: 24 March 1995;

  6. Liquid level sensing device

    DOEpatents

    Tokarz, Richard D.

    1983-01-01

    A liquid level sensing device comprising a load cell supporting a column or stack of segments freely resting on one another. The density of each element is substantially identical to that of the surrounding liquid. The elements are freely guided within a surrounding tube. As each element is exposed above the liquid level, its weight will be impressed through the column to the load cell, thereby providing a signal at the load cell directly proportional to the liquid level elevation.

  7. Nuclear Level Densities

    SciTech Connect

    Grimes, S.M.

    2005-05-24

    Recent research in the area of nuclear level densities is reviewed. The current interest in nuclear astrophysics and in structure of nuclei off of the line of stability has led to the development of radioactive beam facilities with larger machines currently being planned. Nuclear level densities for the systems used to produce the radioactive beams influence substantially the production rates of these beams. The modification of level-density parameters near the drip lines would also affect nucleosynthesis rates and abundances.

  8. PEP liquid level system

    SciTech Connect

    Lauritzen, T.; Sah, R.C.

    1981-03-01

    A liquid level system has been installed in the accelerator housing of the PEP storage ring. This instrument spans the entire 2.2 km circumference of the PEP project, and over one hundred readouts provide reference elevations which are used for the accurate alignment of accelerator components. The liquid level has proven to be extremely precise (+-0.10 mm) and quick to use, and it has contributed to the accurate alignment of PEP before beam turn-on. Since the liquid level readouts are rigidly attached to the accelerator housing, the liquid level has been a convenient means to monitor the settling of the accelerator housing.

  9. Tiltmeter leveling mechanism

    DOEpatents

    Hunter, Steven L.; Boro, Carl O.; Farris, Alvis

    2002-01-01

    A tiltmeter device having a pair of orthogonally disposed tilt sensors that are levelable within an inner housing containing the sensors. An outer housing can be rotated to level at least one of the sensor pair while the inner housing can be rotated to level the other sensor of the pair. The sensors are typically rotated up to about plus or minus 100 degrees. The device is effective for measuring tilts in a wide range of angles of inclination of wells and can be employed to level a platform containing a third sensor.

  10. MISR Level 3 Products

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2015-06-04

    ... MISR Level 3 Imagery:   Overview  | Products |  View Data  |  Download Data There are currently five types of Level 3 ... MIL3MRD, MIL3QRD, MIL3YRD Parameter Definition Sample Radiance Radiance data for 4 bands and 9 view ...

  11. Definition of Virtual Levels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shore, Bruce W.

    1979-01-01

    Presents an examination of graphical displays of solutions to time-dependent Schrodinger equation modeling a laser-excited three-level atom. It suggests that an energy level may be regarded as virtual when it is detuned from resonance by more than two Rabi frequencies. (Author/HM)

  12. Learning across Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stahl, Gerry

    2013-01-01

    The theme of this year's Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL) 2013 conference--"To see the world 'and' a grain of sand: Learning across levels of space, time and scale"--targets a provocative challenge for CSCL, namely that the interactions of collaborative learning be understood, supported and analysed at multiple levels. As the…

  13. Skimming & Scanning. Advanced Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fry, Edward B.

    Part of a series intended to develop essential specialized reading skills, this text/workbook is designed to provide instruction and practice in skimming and scanning for students reading at the seventh through tenth grade reading levels, considered the advanced level. Part 1 of the book deals with skimming. A lesson defines skimming (the rapid…

  14. Precision liquid level sensor

    DOEpatents

    Field, M.E.; Sullivan, W.H.

    1985-01-29

    A precision liquid level sensor utilizes a balanced R. F. bridge, each arm including an air dielectric line. Changes in liquid level along one air dielectric line imbalance the bridge and create a voltage which is directly measurable across the bridge. 2 figs.

  15. Precision liquid level sensor

    DOEpatents

    Field, Michael E.; Sullivan, William H.

    1985-01-01

    A precision liquid level sensor utilizes a balanced R. F. bridge, each arm including an air dielectric line. Changes in liquid level along one air dielectric line imbalance the bridge and create a voltage which is directly measurable across the bridge.

  16. Construal level and procrastination.

    PubMed

    McCrea, Sean M; Liberman, Nira; Trope, Yaacov; Sherman, Steven J

    2008-12-01

    According to construal-level theory, events that are distant in time tend to be represented more abstractly than are events that are close in time. This mental association between level of abstractness and temporal distance is proposed to be a bidirectional relationship, such that level of representation of an event should also have effects on the time when the activity is performed. In the present studies, participants were asked to respond to a questionnaire via e-mail within 3 weeks. The questionnaire was designed to induce either an abstract or a concrete construal. Using a variety of manipulations of construal level, the studies supported the predictions of construal-level theory. Individuals were less likely to procrastinate performing the task when the questionnaire induced a more concrete construal. Furthermore, this effect did not depend on the attractiveness, importance, or perceived difficulty of the task. PMID:19121142

  17. Global sea level rise

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas, B.C. )

    1991-04-15

    Published values for the long-term, global mean sea level rise determined from tide gauge records exhibit considerable scatter, from about 1 mm to 3 mm/yr. This disparity is not attributable to instrument error; long-term trends computed at adjacent sites often agree to within a few tenths of a millimeter per year. Instead, the differing estimates of global sea level rise appear to be in large part due to authors' using data from gauges located at convergent tectonic plate boundaries, where changes of land elevation give fictitious sea level trends. In addition, virtually all gauges undergo subsidence or uplift due to postglacial rebound (PGR) from the last deglaciation at a rate comparable to or greater than the secular rise of sea level. Modeling PGR by the ICE-3G model of Tushingham and Peltier (1991) and avoiding tide gauge records in areas of converging tectonic plates produces a highly consistent set of long sea level records. The value for mean sea level rise obtained from a global set of 21 such stations in nine oceanic regions with an average record length of 76 years during the period 1880-1980 is 1.8 mm/yr {plus minus} 0.1. This result provides confidence that carefully selected long tide gauge records measure the same underlying trend of sea level and that many old tide gauge records are of very high quality.

  18. Immunoglobulin levels in Iraq.

    PubMed Central

    Al-Agidi, S K; Papiha, S S; Roberts, D F

    1977-01-01

    In a study of immunoglobulin levels in 192 apparently healthy individuals in Iraq, regional differences occur in IgE and IgG. The main levels of IgG, IgM and IgA tend to be low, and of IgE clearly elevated. It is suggested that this pattern may be explained by the presence of intestinal parasites which stimulate IgE production. The genetic differences that exist between the regional populations, and the occurrence of associations of immunoglobulin level with several polymorphic systems, suggests the possibility of a genetic element in the regional immunoglobulin differences. PMID:908174

  19. Sea level variation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Douglas, Bruce C.

    1992-01-01

    Published values for the long-term, global mean sea level rise determined from tide gauge records range from about one to three mm per year. The scatter of the estimates appears to arise largely from the use of data from gauges located at convergent tectonic plate boundaries where changes of land elevation give fictitious sea level trends, and the effects of large interdecadal and longer sea level variations on short (less than 50+ years) or sappy records. In addition, virtually all gauges undergo subsidence or uplift due to isostatic rebound from the last deglaciation at a rate comparable to or greater than the secular rise of sea level. Modeling rebound by the ICE-3G model of Tushingham and Peltier (1990) and avoiding tide gauge records in areas of converging tectonic plates produces a highly consistent set of long sea level records. A global set of 21 such stations in nine oceanic regions with an average record length of 76 years during the period 1880-1980 yields the global sea level rise value 1.8 mm/year +/- 0.1. Greenhouse warming scenarios commonly forecast an additional acceleration of global sea level in the next 5 or 6+ decades in the range 0.1-0.2 mm/yr2. Because of the large power at low frequencies in the sea level spectrum, very long tide gauge records (75 years minimum) have been examined for past apparent sea level acceleration. For the 80-year period 1905-1985, 23 essentially complete tide gauge records in 10 geographic groups are available for analysis. These yielded the apparent global acceleration -0.011 (+/- 0.012) mm/yr2. A larger, less uniform set of 37 records in the same 10 groups with 92 years average length covering the 141 years from 1850-1991 gave 0.001 (+/- 0.008) mm/yr2. Thus there is no evidence for an apparent acceleration in the past 100+ years that is significant either statistically, or in comparison to values associated with global warming. Unfortunately, the large interdecadal fluctuations of sea level severely affect

  20. Lead levels - blood

    MedlinePlus

    Blood lead levels ... A blood sample is needed. Most of the time blood is drawn from a vein located on the inside ... may be used to puncture the skin. The blood collects in a small glass tube called a ...

  1. Low potassium level

    MedlinePlus

    ... or vomiting Using too much laxative, which can cause diarrhea Chronic kidney disease Diuretic medicines (water pills), used to treat heart failure and high blood pressure Eating disorders (such as bulimia ) Low magnesium level Sweating

  2. Projecting future sea level

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cayan, Daniel R.; Bromirski, Peter; Hayhoe, Katharine; Tyree, Mary; Dettinger, Mike; Flick, Reinhard

    2006-01-01

    California’s coastal observations and global model projections indicate that California’s open coast and estuaries will experience increasing sea levels over the next century. Sea level rise has affected much of the coast of California, including the Southern California coast, the Central California open coast, and the San Francisco Bay and upper estuary. These trends, quantified from a small set of California tide gages, have ranged from 10–20 centimeters (cm) (3.9–7.9 inches) per century, quite similar to that estimated for global mean sea level. So far, there is little evidence that the rate of rise has accelerated, and the rate of rise at California tide gages has actually flattened since 1980, but projections suggest substantial sea level rise may occur over the next century. Climate change simulations project a substantial rate of global sea level rise over the next century due to thermal expansion as the oceans warm and runoff from melting land-based snow and ice accelerates. Sea level rise projected from the models increases with the amount of warming. Relative to sea levels in 2000, by the 2070–2099 period, sea level rise projections range from 11–54 cm (4.3–21 in) for simulations following the lower (B1) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions scenario, from 14–61 cm (5.5–24 in) for the middle-upper (A2) emission scenario, and from 17–72 cm (6.7–28 in) for the highest (A1fi) scenario. In addition to relatively steady secular trends, sea levels along the California coast undergo shorter period variability above or below predicted tide levels and changes associated with long-term trends. These variations are caused by weather events and by seasonal to decadal climate fluctuations over the Pacific Ocean that in turn affect the Pacific coast. Highest coastal sea levels have occurred when winter storms and Pacific climate disturbances, such as El Niño, have coincided with high astronomical tides. This study considers a range of projected future

  3. Low magnesium level

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the body that convert or use energy ( metabolism ). When the level of magnesium in the body ... Walls RM, et al., eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier ...

  4. Predicting Aircraft Noise Levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, B. J.

    1983-01-01

    Computer program developed for predicting aircraft noise levels either in flight or in ground tests. Noise sources include fan inlet and exhaust jet flap (for powered lift), core (combustor), turbine and airframe. Program written in FORTRAN IV.

  5. Sea level change

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, M.F.

    1996-12-31

    The IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) 1995 Scientific Assessment, Chapter 7. Sea Level Change, presents a modest revision of the similar chapter in the 1990 Assessment. Principal conclusions on observed sea-level change and the principal terms in the sea-level equation (ocean thermal expansion, glaciers, ice sheets, and land hydrology), including our knowledge of the present-day (defined as the 20th Century) components of sea-level rise, and projections of these for the future, are presented here. Some of the interesting glaciological problems which are involved in these studies are discussed in more detail. The emphasis here is on trends over decades to a century, not on shorter variations nor on those of the geologic past. Unfortunately, some of the IPCC projections had not been agreed at the time of writing of this paper, and these projections will not be given here. 15 refs., 2 figs.

  6. Vitamin B12 level

    MedlinePlus

    The vitamin B12 level is a blood test that measures how much vitamin B12 is in your blood. ... a form of megaloblastic anemia caused by poor vitamin B12 absorption. This can occur when the stomach ...

  7. Liquid level controller

    DOEpatents

    Mangus, J.D.; Redding, A.H.

    1975-07-15

    A system for maintaining two distinct sodium levels within the shell of a heat exchanger having a plurality of J-shaped modular tube bundles each enclosed in a separate shell which extends from a common base portion. A lower liquid level is maintained in the base portion and an upper liquid level is maintained in the shell enwrapping the long stem of the J-shaped tube bundles by utilizing standpipes with a notch at the lower end which decreases in open area the distance from the end of the stand pipe increases and a supply of inert gas fed at a constant rate to produce liquid levels, which will remain generally constant as the flow of liquid through the vessel varies. (auth)

  8. Low sodium level

    MedlinePlus

    Low sodium level is a condition in which the amount of sodium (salt) in the blood is lower than normal. The ... Sodium is found mostly in the body fluids outside the cells. It is very important for maintaining ...

  9. Changing Sea Levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pugh, David

    2004-04-01

    Flooding of coastal communities is one of the major causes of environmental disasters world-wide. This textbook explains how sea levels are affected by astronomical tides, weather effects, ocean circulation and climate trends. Based on courses taught by the author in the U.K. and the U.S., it is aimed at undergraduate students at all levels, with non-basic mathematics being confined to Appendices and a website http://publishing.cambridge.org/resources/0521532183/.

  10. Contemporary sea level rise.

    PubMed

    Cazenave, Anny; Llovel, William

    2010-01-01

    Measuring sea level change and understanding its causes has considerably improved in the recent years, essentially because new in situ and remote sensing observations have become available. Here we report on most recent results on contemporary sea level rise. We first present sea level observations from tide gauges over the twentieth century and from satellite altimetry since the early 1990s. We next discuss the most recent progress made in quantifying the processes causing sea level change on timescales ranging from years to decades, i.e., thermal expansion of the oceans, land ice mass loss, and land water-storage change. We show that for the 1993-2007 time span, the sum of climate-related contributions (2.85 +/- 0.35 mm year(-1)) is only slightly less than altimetry-based sea level rise (3.3 +/- 0.4 mm year(-1)): approximately 30% of the observed rate of rise is due to ocean thermal expansion and approximately 55% results from land ice melt. Recent acceleration in glacier melting and ice mass loss from the ice sheets increases the latter contribution up to 80% for the past five years. We also review the main causes of regional variability in sea level trends: The dominant contribution results from nonuniform changes in ocean thermal expansion. PMID:21141661

  11. Liquid level sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Kulkarni, Atul; Karekar, R.N.; Aiyer, R.C.

    2005-10-15

    The article reports an idea of using a simple, cantilever-type load cell with a rod as a level sensor for continuous liquid level measurements. The sensor is based on the principle of the Archimedes buoyancy principle. The density and geometry of the rod govern the choice of the load cell. The length of the rod is governed by the height of the tank. A series of cyclic tests have demonstrated a highly repeatable response of the sensor. The accuracy of this low-cost sensor is field tested and found to be {+-}0.5% of the full range, for a 10 m level of water in a tank, and is working reliably for the period of 18 months. The sensor range can be easily extended to lower and higher tank heights. The sensor is crowned by its easy installation and calibration.

  12. High level nuclear waste

    SciTech Connect

    Crandall, J L

    1980-01-01

    The DOE Division of Waste Products through a lead office at Savannah River is developing a program to immobilize all US high-level nuclear waste for terminal disposal. DOE high-level wastes include those at the Hanford Plant, the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, and the Savannah River Plant. Commercial high-level wastes, for which DOE is also developing immobilization technology, include those at the Nuclear Fuel Services Plant and any future commercial fuels reprocessing plants. The first immobilization plant is to be the Defense Waste Processing Facility at Savannah River, scheduled for 1983 project submission to Congress and 1989 operation. Waste forms are still being selected for this plant. Borosilicate glass is currently the reference form, but alternate candidates include concretes, calcines, other glasses, ceramics, and matrix forms.

  13. Liquid level detection

    SciTech Connect

    Fryer, C.D.; Stie, K.E.; Wedel, M.W.; Stamper, K.R.

    1992-03-10

    This patent describes an apparatus for detecting the presence of a liquid level at a first point along the depth of a borehole, wherein the first point is selected for monitoring as a safe level for underground water in the borehole. It comprises a measuring tube having a length for extending from a reference surface to a second point, wherein the second point is predetermined distance below the first point in the borehole, means for installing the measuring tube in the borehole, wherein the lower end of the measuring tube is positionable in the borehole at the second point; and means for establishing a visual signal responsive to the liquid level in the borehole, wherein the visual signal is significantly elevated above the earth's surface.

  14. Caribbean Sea Level Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Hillebrandt-Andrade, C.; Crespo Jones, H.

    2012-12-01

    Over the past 500 years almost 100 tsunamis have been observed in the Caribbean and Western Atlantic, with at least 3510 people having lost their lives to this hazard since 1842. Furthermore, with the dramatic increase in population and infrastructure along the Caribbean coasts, today, millions of coastal residents, workers and visitors are vulnerable to tsunamis. The UNESCO IOC Intergovernmental Coordination Group for Tsunamis and other Coastal Hazards for the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions (CARIBE EWS) was established in 2005 to coordinate and advance the regional tsunami warning system. The CARIBE EWS focuses on four areas/working groups: (1) Monitoring and Warning, (2) Hazard and Risk Assessment, (3) Communication and (4) Education, Preparedness and Readiness. The sea level monitoring component is under Working Group 1. Although in the current system, it's the seismic data and information that generate the initial tsunami bulletins, it is the data from deep ocean buoys (DARTS) and the coastal sea level gauges that are critical for the actual detection and forecasting of tsunamis impact. Despite multiple efforts and investments in the installation of sea level stations in the region, in 2004 there were only a handful of sea level stations operational in the region (Puerto Rico, US Virgin Islands, Bermuda, Bahamas). Over the past 5 years there has been a steady increase in the number of stations operating in the Caribbean region. As of mid 2012 there were 7 DARTS and 37 coastal gauges with additional ones being installed or funded. In order to reach the goal of 100 operational coastal sea level stations in the Caribbean, the CARIBE EWS recognizes also the importance of maintaining the current stations. For this, a trained workforce in the region for the installation, operation and data analysis and quality control is considered to be critical. Since 2008, three training courses have been offered to the sea level station operators and data analysts. Other

  15. Nuclear Level Densities

    SciTech Connect

    Grimes, S. M.; Voinov, A.

    2009-01-28

    A summary of some recent level density research is presented. Although the subject is an old one, it is argued that a number of unanswered questions remain. These include uncertainties in related quantities such as the parity ratio and the spin cutoff parameter, which are needed to deduce level density parameters from resonance counting for low energy neutrons. Additional points of interest are the extent to which the low energy region shows constant temperature rather than Fermi gas energy dependence, whether the region below the neutron binding energy shows significant structure and whether the level density for fixed A shows a drop for neutron-rich and proton-rich nuclei compared to nuclei on the valley of stability.

  16. Liquid-level detector

    DOEpatents

    Not Available

    1981-01-29

    Aliquid level sensor is described which has a pair of upright conductors spaced by an insulator defining a first high resistance path between the conductors. An electrically conductive path is interposed between the upright conductors at a discrete location at which liquid level is to be measured. It includes a liquid accessible gap of a dimension such that the electrical resistance across the conductor when the gap is filled with the liquid is detectably less than when the gap is emptied. The conductor might also be physically altered by temperature changes to serve also as an indicator of elevated temperature.

  17. Liquid level detector

    DOEpatents

    Tokarz, Richard D.

    1982-01-01

    A liquid level sensor having a pair of upright conductors spaced by an insulator defining a first high resistance path between the conductors. An electrically conductive path is interposed between the upright conductors at a discrete location at which liquid level is to be measured. It includes a liquid accessible gap of a dimension such that the electrical resistance across the conductor when the gap is filled with the liquid is detectably less than when the gap is emptied. The conductor might also be physically altered by temperature changes to serve also as an indicator of elevated temperature.

  18. Uncertainty of decibel levels.

    PubMed

    Taraldsen, Gunnar; Berge, Truls; Haukland, Frode; Lindqvist, Bo Henry; Jonasson, Hans

    2015-09-01

    The mean sound exposure level from a source is routinely estimated by the mean of the observed sound exposures from repeated measurements. A formula for the standard uncertainty based on the Guide to the expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM) is derived. An alternative formula is derived for the case where the GUM method fails. The formulas are applied on several examples, and compared with a Monte Carlo calculation of the standard uncertainty. The recommended formula can be seen simply as a convenient translation of the uncertainty on an energy scale into the decibel level scale, but with a theoretical foundation. PMID:26428824

  19. Ultrasonic liquid level detector

    DOEpatents

    Kotz, Dennis M.; Hinz, William R.

    2010-09-28

    An ultrasonic liquid level detector for use within a shielded container, the detector being tubular in shape with a chamber at its lower end into which liquid from in the container may enter and exit, the chamber having an ultrasonic transmitter and receiver in its top wall and a reflector plate or target as its bottom wall whereby when liquid fills the chamber a complete medium is then present through which an ultrasonic wave may be transmitted and reflected from the target thus signaling that the liquid is at chamber level.

  20. Drilling at Advanced Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Case, Doug

    1977-01-01

    Instances where drilling is useful for advanced language are discussed. Several types of drills are recommended, with the philosophy that advanced level drills should have a lighter style and be regarded as a useful, occasional means of practicing individual new items. (CHK)

  1. Levels of Conceptual Difficulty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaskell, D. C.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the Piagetian stages of cognitive development and their significance to the science curriculum. Refers to research that indicates that a number of concepts incorporated into the Nuffield O-level physics and chemistry curricula come too early in the courses, before many students have developed sufficiently to deal with them. (JR)

  2. Blood Cotinine Level

    EPA Science Inventory

    This indicator describes the presence of cotinine in the blood of the U.S. population from 1999 to 2008. Blood cotinine levels from this period are also compared to those measured during earlier surveys (1988 to 1991). Blood cotinine is a chemical that forms inside the body af...

  3. High blood cholesterol levels

    MedlinePlus

    Steps you can take to improve their cholesterol levels, and help prevent heart disease and a heart attack include: Quit smoking. This is the single biggest change you can make to reduce your risk of heart attack and stroke. Eat foods ...

  4. SPACE: Intermediate Level Modules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana State Dept. of Education, Indianapolis. Center for School Improvement and Performance.

    These modules were developed to assist teachers at the intermediate level to move away from extensive skill practice and toward more meaningful interdisciplinary learning. This packet, to be used by teachers in the summer Extended Learning Program, provides detailed thematic lesson plans matched to the Indiana Curriculum Proficiency Guide. The…

  5. Lassoing Levels of Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muniz, Eva Vera

    In early stages of writing, the writing process encourages "writing the way we talk," but in the end students are expected to write as academicians: a student must control his/her written level of language. For English speaking students, needing to belong to ingroups, and the casual attitude of American society both contribute to students'…

  6. IMPORT "CLEARANCE" LEVEL METHODOLOGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    All materials contain some levels of radioactivity, both natural and man-made. As detection devices installed at borders and ports become more sensitive, materials, which might otherwise be considered "clean", could therefore become suspect. The purpose of this activity is to p...

  7. Gulf Arabic: Intermediate Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qafisheh, Hamdi A.

    This Gulf Arabic text is designed for those who want to acquire a conversational tool beyond the basic level; it is also of interest to Arabists, anthropologists, and Arabic dialectologists. The language in this text is used in informal situations by the indigenous populations of the southern coast of the Persian Gulf. The text contains 21 lessons…

  8. Sound level measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-07-01

    This report describes procedures for measuring the sound levels of developmental and production materiel as a means of evaluating personnel safety, recognition and community annoyance (by a drive-by test). It covers tests for steady-state noise from military vehicles and general equipment, and impulse noise from weapon systems and explosive ordnance material.

  9. Current level detector

    DOEpatents

    Kerns, Cordon R.

    1977-01-01

    A device is provided for detecting the current level of a DC signal. It includes an even harmonic modulator to which a reference AC signal is applied. The unknown DC signal acts on the reference AC signal so that the output of the modulator includes an even harmonic whose amplitude is proportional to the unknown DC current.

  10. Middle Level Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyman, Richard M., Jr.; Young, Katherine A.; Sliger, Bruce; Kafi, Patricia; Singer, Alan; Lamme, Linda Leonard

    1998-01-01

    Presents five brief articles related to middle-level learning. The articles are, "Using Children's Diaries to Teach the Oregon Trail"; "Living the Geography of Joseph and Temperance Brown"; "The ABCs of Small Grant Acquisition for Social Studies"; "Isomo Loruko: The Yoruba Naming Ceremony"; and "Child Laborers in Children's Literature." (MJP)

  11. Levels of Valence

    PubMed Central

    Shuman, Vera; Sander, David; Scherer, Klaus R.

    2013-01-01

    The distinction between the positive and the negative is fundamental in our emotional life. In appraisal theories, in particular in the component process model of emotion (Scherer, 1984, 2010), qualitatively different types of valence are proposed based on appraisals of (un)pleasantness, goal obstructiveness/conduciveness, low or high power, self-(in)congruence, and moral badness/goodness. This multifaceted conceptualization of valence is highly compatible with the frequent observation of mixed feelings in real life. However, it seems to contradict the one-dimensional conceptualization of valence often encountered in psychological theories, and the notion of valence as a common currency used to explain choice behavior. Here, we propose a framework to integrate the seemingly disparate conceptualizations of multifaceted valence and one-dimensional valence by suggesting that valence should be conceived at different levels, micro and macro. Micro-valences correspond to qualitatively different types of evaluations, potentially resulting in mixed feelings, whereas one-dimensional macro-valence corresponds to an integrative “common currency” to compare alternatives for choices. We propose that conceptualizing levels of valence may focus research attention on the mechanisms that relate valence at one level (micro) to valence at another level (macro), leading to new hypotheses, and addressing various concerns that have been raised about the valence concept, such as the valence-emotion relation. PMID:23717292

  12. Urinary Pesticide Level

    EPA Science Inventory

    This indicator describes the presence of pesticide metabolite levels in urine in the U.S. population from 1999 to 2004. This indicator reports the results of human biomonitoring for three classes of non-persistent insecticides (carbamates, organophosphates, and pyrethroids)...

  13. Levels of Geometric Understanding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pegg, John; Davey, Geoff

    1991-01-01

    Three activities are presented to assess the level of students' geometric understanding according to van Hiele learning model. The activities--Descriptions, Minimum Properties, and Class Inclusion--are applied to the example of classifying quadrilaterals as squares, rectangles, rhombi, or parallelograms. Implications of this assessment are…

  14. Assessment after Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Geraint; Burnham, Sally

    2014-01-01

    Ten years ago, two heads of department in contrasting schools presented a powerfully-argued case for resisting the use of level descriptions within their assessment regimes. Influenced both by research into the nature of children's historical thinking and by principles of assessment "for" learning, Sally Burnham and Geraint Brown…

  15. Developing Higher Level Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Limbach, Barbara; Waugh, Wendy

    2010-01-01

    This paper identifies an interdisciplinary, five-step process, built upon existing theory and best practices in cognitive development, effective learning environments, and outcomes-based assessment. The "Process for the Development of Higher Level Thinking Skills" provides teachers with an easy to implement method of moving toward a more…

  16. Levelling Australian Tertiary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pyke, L. H.

    1975-01-01

    Traces the development of Australia's binary system of higher education, in which universities granted degrees and colleges of advanced education (CAE's) and teachers colleges issued diplomas and certificates, through the rapid growth of the past 20 years as Commonwealth funding has raised the level of teachers colleges and of CAE's, which now…

  17. Assessment without Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Earle, Sarah; Davies, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Assessment is primarily a matter of judgement rather than measurement, yet for too long the nation has been pretending that pupils' attainment and measurement can be measured in increasingly fine detail (one APS "point" being one sixth of an original National Curriculum level). The lack of validity and reliability of this approach…

  18. Predicted airframe noise levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raney, J. P.

    1980-09-01

    Calculated values of airframe noise levels corresponding to FAA noise certification conditions for six aircraft are presented. The aircraft are: DC-9-30; Boeing 727-200; A300-B2 Airbus; Lockheed L-1011; DC-10-10; and Boeing 747-200B. The prediction methodology employed is described and discussed.

  19. School Sound Level Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

    California has conducted on-site sound surveys of 36 different schools to determine the degree of noise, and thus disturbance, within the learning environment. This report provides the methodology and results of the survey, including descriptive charts and graphs illustrating typical desirable and undesirable sound levels. Results are presented…

  20. ENRAF gauge reference level calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Huber, J.H., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-02-06

    This document describes the method for calculating reference levels for Enraf Series 854 Level Detectors as installed in the tank farms. The reference level calculation for each installed level gauge is contained herein.

  1. Understanding Sea Level Changes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Benjamin F.

    2004-01-01

    Today more than 100 million people worldwide live on coastlines within one meter of mean sea level; any short-term or long-term sea level change relative to vertical ground motion is of great societal and economic concern. As palm-environment and historical data have clearly indicated the existence and prevalence of such changes in the past, new scientific information regarding to the nature and causes and a prediction capability are of utmost importance for the future. The 10-20 cm global sea-level rise recorded over the last century has been broadly attributed to two effects: (1) the steric effect (thermal expansion and salinity-density compensation of sea water) following global climate; (2) mass-budget changes due to a number of competing geophysical and hydrological processes in the Earth-atmosphere-hydrosphere-cryosphere system, including water exchange from polar ice sheets and mountain glaciers to the ocean, atmospheric water vapor and land hydrological variations, and anthropogenic effects such as water impoundment in artificial reservoirs and extraction of groundwater, all superimposed on the vertical motions of solid Earth due to tectonics, rebound of the mantle from past and present deglaciation, and other local ground motions. As remote-sensing tools, a number of space geodetic measurements of sea surface topography (e.g., TOPEX/Poseidon, Jason), ice mass (e.g., ICESat), time-variable gravity (e.g. GRACE), and ground motions (SLR, VLBI, GPS, InSAR, Laser altimetry, etc.) become directly relevant. Understanding sea level changes "anywhere, anytime" in a well-defined terrestrial reference frame in terms of climate change and interactions among ice masses, oceans, and the solid Earth, and being able to predict them, emerge as one of the scientific challenges in the Solid Earth Science Working Group (SESWG, 2003) conclusions.

  2. Liquid Level Sensing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korman, Valentin (Inventor); Wiley, John T. (Inventor); Duffell, Amanda G. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A liquid level sensing system includes waveguides disposed in a liquid and distributed along a path with a gap between adjacent waveguides. A source introduces electromagnetic energy into the waveguides at a first end of the path. A portion of the electromagnetic energy exits the waveguides at a second end of the path. A detector measures the portion of the electromagnetic energy exiting the second end of the path.

  3. Level up Book Club

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaGarde, Jennifer; Winner, Matthew C.

    2012-01-01

    Like all great ideas, Level Up Book Club grew out of a genuine need, the spontaneous firing of a few brain sparks, and the kind of luck that comes from being "in the right place at the right time." By mid-June 2011 the authors were already "bona fide" wonder twins--two educators who, although they'd never met, had stumbled upon each other through…

  4. Investigation of possible correlation between α -particle preformation probability and energy levels for α emitters with 74 ≤Z ≤83

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, M.; Adel, A.

    2014-12-01

    The preformation probability of an α cluster inside radioactive parent nuclei is investigated. The calculations are employed in the framework of the density-dependent cluster model for both even-even and odd-A isotopes with 74 ≤Z ≤83 . A realistic density-dependent nucleon-nucleon (N N ) interaction with a finite-range exchange part is used to calculate the microscopic α -nucleus potential in the well-established double-folding model. The main effect of antisymmetrization under exchange of nucleons between the α and daughter nuclei has been included in the folding model through the finite-range exchange part of the N N interaction. The calculated potential is then implemented to find both the assault frequency and the penetration probability of the α particle by means of the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin approximation in combination with the Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization condition. We investigated the correlation between the α -particle preformation probability, Sα, and the energy levels of the parent nucleus for α emitters with atomic number 74 ≤Z ≤83 . Based on the similarity in the behavior of Sα with the neutron number for two nuclei, we try to predict or confirm the unknown or doubted nuclear spins and parities in this mass region.

  5. Mediterranean sea level variations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vigo, I.; Sánchez Reales, J. M.; García, D.; Chao, B. F.

    2009-04-01

    In this work we report an updated study of the sea level variations for the Mediterranean sea for the period from October 1992 to January 2008. The study addresses two mayor issues: (i)The analysis of the spatial and temporal variability of sea surface height (SSH) from radar altimetry measurements (from TOPEX/Poseidon (T/P) + Jason-1, etc.). We use EOF analysis to explain most of its interannual variation, and how the different basins interact. (ii) The analysis of dynamics and balance of water mass transport for the whole period. We estimate the steric SSH by combining the steric SSH estimated from temperature and salt profiles simulated by the ECCO model with time-variable gravity (TVG) data (from GRACE) for the Mediterranean Sea. The estimated steric SSH together with the SSH obtained from altimetry allow for a more realistic estimation of the water mass variations in the Mediterranean for the whole period.

  6. System level electrochemical principles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thaller, L. H.

    1985-01-01

    The traditional electrochemical storage concepts are difficult to translate into high power, high voltage multikilowatt storage systems. The increased use of electronics, and the use of electrochemical couples that minimize the difficulties associated with the corrective measures to reduce the cell to cell capacity dispersion were adopted by battery technology. Actively cooled bipolar concepts are described which represent some attractive alternative system concepts. They are projected to have higher energy densities lower volumes than current concepts. They should be easier to scale from one capacity to another and have a closer cell to cell capacity balance. These newer storage system concepts are easier to manage since they are designed to be a fully integrated battery. These ideas are referred to as system level electrochemistry. The hydrogen-oxygen regenerative fuel cells (RFC) is probably the best example of the integrated use of these principles.

  7. Liquid level detector

    DOEpatents

    Tshishiku, Eugene M.

    2011-08-09

    A liquid level detector for conductive liquids for vertical installation in a tank, the detector having a probe positioned within a sheath and insulated therefrom by a seal so that the tip of the probe extends proximate to but not below the lower end of the sheath, the lower end terminating in a rim that is provided with notches, said lower end being tapered, the taper and notches preventing debris collection and bubble formation, said lower end when contacting liquid as it rises will form an airtight cavity defined by the liquid, the interior sheath wall, and the seal, the compression of air in the cavity preventing liquid from further entry into the sheath and contact with the seal. As a result, the liquid cannot deposit a film to form an electrical bridge across the seal.

  8. Switch wear leveling

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Hunter; Sealy, Kylee; Gilchrist, Aaron

    2015-09-01

    An apparatus for switch wear leveling includes a switching module that controls switching for two or more pairs of switches in a switching power converter. The switching module controls switches based on a duty cycle control technique and closes and opens each switch in a switching sequence. The pairs of switches connect to a positive and negative terminal of a DC voltage source. For a first switching sequence a first switch of a pair of switches has a higher switching power loss than a second switch of the pair of switches. The apparatus includes a switch rotation module that changes the switching sequence of the two or more pairs of switches from the first switching sequence to a second switching sequence. The second switch of a pair of switches has a higher switching power loss than the first switch of the pair of switches during the second switching sequence.

  9. Additive usage levels.

    PubMed

    Langlais, R

    1996-01-01

    With the adoption of the European Parliament and Council Directives on sweeteners, colours and miscellaneous additives the Commission is now embarking on the project of coordinating the activities of the European Union Member States in the collection of the data that are to make up the report on food additive intake requested by the European Parliament. This presentation looks at the inventory of available sources on additive use levels and concludes that for the time being national legislation is still the best source of information considering that the directives have yet to be transposed into national legislation. Furthermore, this presentation covers the correlation of the food categories as found in the additives directives with those used by national consumption surveys and finds that in a number of instances this correlation still leaves a lot to be desired. The intake of additives via food ingestion and the intake of substances which are chemically identical to additives but which occur naturally in fruits and vegetables is found in a number of cases to be higher than the intake of additives added during the manufacture of foodstuffs. While the difficulties are recognized in contributing to the compilation of food additive intake data, industry as a whole, i.e. the food manufacturing and food additive manufacturing industries, are confident that in a concerted effort, use data on food additives by industry can be made available. Lastly, the paper points out that with the transportation of the additives directives into national legislation and the time by which the food industry will be able to make use of the new food legislative environment several years will still go by; food additives use data by the food industry will thus have to be reviewed at the beginning of the next century. PMID:8792135

  10. Science Curriculum Guide, Level 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newark School District, DE.

    The fourth of four levels in a K-12 science curriculum is outlined. In Level 4 (grades 9-12), science areas include earth science, biology, chemistry, and physics. Six major themes provide the basis for study in all levels (K-12). These are: Change, Continuity, Diversity, Interaction, Limitation, and Organization. In Level 4, all six themes are…

  11. The CDF LEVEL3 trigger

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, T.; Joshi, U.; Auchincloss, P.

    1989-04-01

    CDF is currently taking data at a luminosity of 10{sup 30} cm{sup -2} sec{sup -1} using a four level event filtering scheme. The fourth level, LEVEL3, uses ACP (Fermilab`s Advanced Computer Program) designed 32 bit VME based parallel processors (1) capable of executing algorithms written in FORTRAN. LEVEL3 currently rejects about 50% of the events.

  12. OVERALL VIEW OF BASEMENT LEVEL LOOKING SOUTHEAST ( SAME LEVEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERALL VIEW OF BASEMENT LEVEL LOOKING SOUTHEAST ( SAME LEVEL AS CYLINDER HEADS IN PREVIOUS VIEWS). - Colt Fire Arms Company, East Armory Building, 36-150 Huyshope Avenue, 17-170 Van Dyke Avenue, 49 Vredendale Avenue, Hartford, Hartford County, CT

  13. Bit-level systolic arrays

    SciTech Connect

    De Groot, A.J.

    1989-01-01

    In this dissertation the author considered the design of bit - level systolic arrays where the basic computational unit consists of a simple one - bit logic unit, so that the systolic process is carried out at the level of individual bits. In order to pursue the foregoing research, several areas have been studied. First, the concept of systolic processing has been investigated. Several important algorithms were investigated and put into systolic form using graph-theoretic methods. The bit-level, word-level and block-level systolic arrays which have been designed for these algorithms exhibit linear speedup with respect to the number of processors and exhibit efficiency close to 100%, even with low interprocessor communication bandwidth. Block-level systolic arrays deal with blocks of data with block-level operations and communications. Block-level systolic arrays improve cell efficiency and are more efficient than their word-level counterparts. A comparison of bit-level, word-level and block-level systolic arrays was performed. In order to verify the foregoing theory and analysis a systolic processor called the SPRINT was developed to provide and environment where bit-level, word-level and block-level systolic algorithms could be confirmed by direct implementation rather than by computer simulation. The SPRINT is a supercomputer class, 64-element multiprocessor with a reconfigurable interconnection network. The theory has been confirmed by the execution on the SPRINT of the bit-level, word-level, and block-level systolic algorithms presented in the dissertation.

  14. MOPITT V7 Level 1 & Level 2 Release Announcement

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-08-02

    MOPITT V7 Level 1 & Level 2 Release Announcement Wednesday, August 10, 2016 ... Infrared Radiances) •   MOP01    - MOPITT Level 1 Radiances   Several significant retrieval algorithm and product ... Featured improvements in the V7 retrieval products include (1) the representation of changing atmospheric concentrations of N2O, (2) ...

  15. Enhanced Waste Tank Level Model

    SciTech Connect

    Duignan, M.R.

    1999-06-24

    'With the increased sensitivity of waste-level measurements in the H-Area Tanks and with periods of isolation, when no mass transfer occurred for certain tanks, waste-level changes have been recorded with are unexplained.'

  16. What Your Cholesterol Levels Mean

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More What Your Cholesterol Levels Mean Updated:Aug 17,2016 How’s your cholesterol? Time to get it checked! Keeping your cholesterol levels healthy is a great way to keep your ...

  17. MISR Level 1A Products

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-01

    ... MISR Level 1A Products Level 1A Engineering Data File Type 1 and Level 1A Navigation Data Processing ... Product Specification Rev K  (PDF). Transparent software rebuild with Irix 6.5.2 OS. F01_0007 (FM_ENG), ...

  18. The levels of analysis revisited.

    PubMed

    MacDougall-Shackleton, Scott A

    2011-07-27

    The term levels of analysis has been used in several ways: to distinguish between ultimate and proximate levels, to categorize different kinds of research questions and to differentiate levels of reductionism. Because questions regarding ultimate function and proximate mechanisms are logically distinct, I suggest that distinguishing between these two levels is the best use of the term. Integrating across levels in research has potential risks, but many benefits. Consideration at one level can help generate novel hypotheses at the other, define categories of behaviour and set criteria that must be addressed. Taking an adaptationist stance thus strengthens research on proximate mechanisms. Similarly, it is critical for researchers studying adaptation and function to have detailed knowledge of proximate mechanisms that may constrain or modulate evolutionary processes. Despite the benefits of integrating across ultimate and proximate levels, failure to clearly identify levels of analysis, and whether or not hypotheses are exclusive alternatives, can create false debates. Such non-alternative hypotheses may occur between or within levels, and are not limited to integrative approaches. In this review, I survey different uses of the term levels of analysis and the benefits of integration, and highlight examples of false debate within and between levels. The best integrative biology reciprocally uses ultimate and proximate hypotheses to generate a more complete understanding of behaviour. PMID:21690126

  19. 17. Interior of upper level (Turf Club level) of south ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Interior of upper level (Turf Club level) of south and west additions to the Clubhouse. Camera pointed W. Stairs in foreground lead to the 'Gallery' room. Stairs in background lead to the 'Callahan' room. 'Broderick' room (not shown) is entered from south side of 'Gallery' room. (July 1993) - Longacres, Clubhouse & Additions, 1621 Southwest Sixteenth Street, Renton, King County, WA

  20. 47. MAIN WAREHOUSE SECOND LEVEL ADDITION Second level was ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    47. MAIN WAREHOUSE - SECOND LEVEL ADDITION Second level was added in 1941. Note the variety of building materials used in the wall: cement, bricks and finally cement blocks, with wood topping the entire wall. - Hovden Cannery, 886 Cannery Row, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

  1. Interior view of level 2 and level 3 below, note ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of level 2 and level 3 below, note cages, steel ceiling, and floor support, view facing southwest - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Dry Dock No. 1, Pumpwell, By-Pass Valve & Saltwater Pumphouse, North end of Fifth Street, between Dry Dock No. 1 & Facility GD2 , Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  2. OVERVIEW OF FOURTH LEVEL OF MISSILE LAB (ROOFTOP LEVEL OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERVIEW OF FOURTH LEVEL OF MISSILE LAB (ROOFTOP LEVEL OF BUILDING) SHOWING TOP OF MISSILE TUBE. VIEW FACING WEST - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Ford Island Polaris Missile Lab & U.S. Fleet Ballistic Missile Submarine Training Center, Between Lexington Boulvevard and the sea plane ramps on the southwest side of Ford Island, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  3. 2. TERMINAL ROOM, SHOP LEVEL INTERIOR, SHOWING MEZZANINE LEVEL CABLE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. TERMINAL ROOM, SHOP LEVEL INTERIOR, SHOWING MEZZANINE LEVEL CABLE RACK AT UPPER RIGHT. Looking north. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Test Stand 1-A Terminal Room, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  4. TV Video-Level Controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kravitz, M.; Freedman, L. A.; Fredd, E. H.; Denef, D. E.

    1986-01-01

    Constant output maintained, though luminance varies by 5 million to 1. Three means of normalizing video output utilized in video-level controller: iris adjustment, tube voltage adjustment, and automatic gain control. With aid of automatic light control and gain control, television camera accommodates maximum light level 5 million times greater than lowest light level, while outputting constant 3-V peak signal to processing circuitry.

  5. Developing new levels of edit

    SciTech Connect

    Prono, J.K.

    1997-06-01

    Since 1985, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) staff have had four levels of edit to choose from for technical reports. When a CQI survey showed that both authors and editors felt the levels were not meeting author needs, LANL set about revising them. The goals were to simplify the editing process, focus editing on improving technical clarity, and ensure value added in editing. This paper describes the revision process and product--three author-based levels of edit.

  6. Developing new levels of edit

    SciTech Connect

    Prono, J.; DeLanoy, M.; Deupree, R.; Skiby, J.; Thompson, B.

    1998-07-01

    In 1985, the writing and editing group at Los Alamos National Laboratory established four levels of edit for technical reports. When a survey in 1994 showed that both authors and editors felt the levels were not meeting author needs, the authors set about revising them. Their goals were to simplify the editing process, focus editing on improving technical clarity, and ensure that value was added in editing. This paper describes the revision process and product -- three author-based levels of edit.

  7. Level densities of heaviest nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezbakh, A. N.; Shneidman, T. M.; Adamian, G. G.; Antonenko, N. V.

    2014-06-01

    The intrinsic level densities of superheavy nuclei in the α-decay chains of 296,298,300120 are calculated using the single-particle spectra obtained with the modified two-center shell model. The role of the shell and pairing effects on the level density as well as their quenching with excitation energy are studied. The extracted level density parameter is expressed as a function of mass number, ground-state shell correction, and excitation energy. The results are compared with the phenomenological values of level density parameters used to calculate the survival of excited heavy nuclei.

  8. Two Sea-Level Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galvin, C.

    2008-12-01

    "No place on the sandy ocean shores of the world has been shown to be eroding because of sea level rise." This statement appeared nearly 19 years ago in bold print at the top of the page in a brief article published in Shore and Beach (Galvin,1990). The term "sea level rise" was defined in 1990 as follows: "In this statement, "sea level rise" has the meaning that the average person on the street usually attaches to that term. That is, sea level is rising; not, as in some places like the Mississippi River delta, land level is sinking." While still a subject of controversy, it is now (2008) increasingly plausible (Tornqvist et al,2008) that damage from Hurricane Katrina was significantly worse on the Mississippi River delta because floodwaters exploited wetlands and levees whose elevations had been lowered by decades of compaction in the underlying soil. (1) "Sea level" commonly appears in the literature as "relative sea level rise", occurring that way in 711 publications between 1980 and 2009 (GeoRef database on 8 Sep 08). "Relative sea level rise" does not appear in the 2005 AGI Glossary. The nearest Glossary term is "relative change in sea level", but that term occurs in only 12 publications between 1980 and 2009. The Glossary defines this term in a sequence stratigraphy sense, which infers that "relative sea level rise" is the sum of bottom subsidence and eustatic sea level rise. In plain English, "relative sea level rise" means "water depth increase". For present day coastal environments, "relative sea level rise" is commonly used where eustatic sea level rise is less than subsidence, that is, where the magnitude of actual sea level rise is smaller than the magnitude of subsidence. In that situation, "relative sea level rise" misleads both the average person and the scientist who is not a coastal geologist. Thus, the first challenge is to abandon "relative sea level rise" in favor of "water depth increase", in order that the words accurately descibe what happens

  9. Balancing regional sea level budgets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leuliette, E. W.; Miller, L.; Tamisiea, M. E.

    2015-12-01

    Balancing the sea-level budget is critical to understanding recent and future climate change as well as balancing Earth's energy budget and water budget. During the last decade, advancements in the ocean observing system — satellite altimeters, hydrographic profiling floats, and space-based gravity missions — have allowed the global mean sea level budget to?be assessed with unprecedented accuracy from direct, rather than inferred, estimates. In particular, several recent studies have used the sea-level budget to bound the rate of deep ocean warming [e.g. Llovel et al. 2014]. On a monthly basis, the sum of the steric component estimated from Argo and the ocean mass (barostatic) component from GRACE agree total sea level from Jason within the estimated uncertainties with the residual difference having an r.m.s. of less than 2 mm [Leuliette 2014]. Direct measurements of ocean warming above 2000 m depth during January 2005 and July 2015 explain about one-third of the observed annual rate of global mean sea-level rise. Extending the understanding of the sea-level budget from global mean sea level to regional patterns of sea level change is crucial for identifying regional differences in recent sea level change. The local sea-level budget can be used to identify any systematic errors in the global ocean observing system. Using the residuals from closing the sea level budget, we demonstrate that systematic regional errors remain, in part due to Argo sampling. We also show the effect of applying revised geocentric pole-tide corrections for GRACE [Wahr et al. 2015] and altimetry [Desai et al., 2015].

  10. Levels of Evaluation: Beyond Kirkpatrick.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Roger; Keller, John M.

    1994-01-01

    Expands Kirkpatrick's four-level evaluation model (reaction, learning, behavior, results) to five levels: enabling/reaction, acquisition, application, organizational outputs, and societal outcomes. The expanded model enables consideration of the value and worth of training resources as well as the broader social consequences. (SK)

  11. The Many Levels of Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banchi, Heather; Bell, Randy

    2008-01-01

    Elementary teachers often struggle with how to design and implement inquiry instruction with their students. For many, just understanding what inquiry is can be difficult--let alone designing activities that support high levels of inquiry. In this article, the authors present a continuum by which to evaluate an activity's level of inquiry. Then,…

  12. Tethered float liquid level sensor

    DOEpatents

    Daily, III, William Dean

    2016-09-06

    An apparatus for sensing the level of a liquid includes a float, a tether attached to the float, a pulley attached to the tether, a rotation sensor connected to the pulley that senses vertical movement of said float and senses the level of the liquid.

  13. Teaching the Low Level Achiever.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salomone, Ronald E., Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Intended for teachers of the English language arts, the articles in this issue offer suggestions and techniques for teaching the low level achiever. Titles and authors of the articles are as follows: (1) "A Point to Ponder" (Rachel Martin); (2) "Tracking: A Self-Fulfilling Prophecy of Failure for the Low Level Achiever" (James Christopher Davis);…

  14. Fast response cryogen level sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzpatrick, J. B.; Maier, L. C.

    1981-01-01

    Liquid level in cryogenic tank or pipe, or amount of gas trapped in pipeline flow, is monitored electronically by cylindrical capacitive sensor. Changes in liquid level between concentric tubes of capacitor change its impedance, varying current in drive circuit. Since it is oriented parallel to direction of liquid flow, sensor presents little resistance to moving fluid.

  15. Probability of sea level rise

    SciTech Connect

    Titus, J.G.; Narayanan, V.K.

    1995-10-01

    The report develops probability-based projections that can be added to local tide-gage trends to estimate future sea level at particular locations. It uses the same models employed by previous assessments of sea level rise. The key coefficients in those models are based on subjective probability distributions supplied by a cross-section of climatologists, oceanographers, and glaciologists.

  16. Evaluations of average level spacings

    SciTech Connect

    Liou, H.I.

    1980-01-01

    The average level spacing for highly excited nuclei is a key parameter in cross section formulas based on statistical nuclear models, and also plays an important role in determining many physics quantities. Various methods to evaluate average level spacings are reviewed. Because of the finite experimental resolution, to detect a complete sequence of levels without mixing other parities is extremely difficult, if not totally impossible. Most methods derive the average level spacings by applying a fit, with different degrees of generality, to the truncated Porter-Thomas distribution for reduced neutron widths. A method that tests both distributions of level widths and positions is discussed extensivey with an example of /sup 168/Er data. 19 figures, 2 tables.

  17. Transitional nuclei in the rare-earth region: Energy levels and structure of sup 130,132 Ce, sup 132,134 Nd, and sup 134 Pm, via. beta. decay of sup 130,132 Pr, sup 132,134 Pm, and sup 134 Sm

    SciTech Connect

    Kortelahti, M.O. ); Kern, B.D. ); Braga, R.A.; Fink, R.W. ); Girit, I.C. Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN ); Mlekodaj, R.L. )

    1990-10-01

    An investigation of low-lying energy levels of {sup 130,132}Ce, {sup 132,134}Nd, and {sup 134}Pm has been made via {beta} decay, especially of those levels in the {ital K}{sup {pi}}=2{sup +} gamma band in the even-even nuclei. The radioactive parent nuclei were produced by the {sup 92}Mo({sup 46}Ti,{ital xpyn}) and {sup 112}Sn({sup 28}Si,{ital xpyn}) reactions with bombarding energies of 170 to 240 MeV. An isotope separator enabled {ital A}=134 mass identification. Level schemes of these five nuclei were constructed from {gamma}-{gamma}-{ital t} coincidence data. The {beta}-decay half-lives of the parent nuclei, {sup 130}Pr, {sup 132}Pr, {sup 132}Pm, {sup 134}Pm, and {sup 134}Sm, were determined to be 40{plus minus}4, 96{plus minus}18, 8.8{plus minus}0.8, 23{plus minus}2, and 9.3{plus minus}0.8 s, respectively. The suitability of the proton-neutron interaction boson model in describing {sup 130}Ce, {sup 132}Ce, {sup 132}Nd, and {sup 134}Nd is supported by the comparison of experimental relative {ital E}2 transition probabilities with proton-neutron interaction boson model predictions.

  18. Agricultural Production. Level 1. Level 2. Level 3. Support Materials for Agricultural Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batman, Kangan; Gadd, Nick; Lucas, Michele

    This publication contains the three communication skills units of the three levels of Support Materials for Agricultural Training (SMAT) in agricultural production: Level 1 (starting), 2 (continuing), and 3 (completing). The units are designed to help the learner improve his or her written and spoken communication skills needed to deal with…

  19. Paired-Associate Learning at Three Imagery Levels in Level I and Level II Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prawat, Richard S.

    Two views of paired-associate learning were examined by assessing the paired-associate learning efficiency of eighth grade samples identified by digit span and IQ test performance as Jensen-type Level I and Level II learners. Eighty eighth grade students ranging in age from 13 years 3 months to 14 years 10 months were selected as subjects. Three…

  20. Farmers as Employers. Numeracy. Level 1. Level 2. Level 3. Support Materials for Agricultural Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batman, Kangan; Tully, Chris

    This publication contains the three numeracy units of the three levels of Support Materials for Agricultural Training (SMAT) in the area of farmers as employers: Level 1 (starting), 2 (continuing), and 3 (completing). The units are designed to help the learner improve his or her numeracy skills needed to deal with employment of agriculture…

  1. Farm Management and Leadership. Numeracy. Level 1. Level 2. Level 3. Support Materials for Agricultural Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batman, Kangan; Gadd, Nick; Lucas, Michele

    This publication contains the three numeracy units of the three levels of Support Materials for Agricultural Training (SMAT) in farm management and leadership: Level 1 (starting), 2 (continuing), and 3 (completing). The units are designed to help the learner improve his or her numeracy skills needed to deal with farm management. SMAT materials can…

  2. Occupational Health and Safety. Numeracy. Level 1. Level 2. Level 3. Support Materials for Agricultural Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batman, Kangan; Tully, Chris

    This publication contains the three numeracy units of the three levels of Support Materials for Agricultural Training (SMAT) in the area of occupational health and safety: Level 1 (starting), 2 (continuing), and 3 (completing). The units are designed to help the learner improve his or her numeracy skills needed to deal with occupational safety and…

  3. Farmers as Employers. Level 1. Level 2. Level 3. Support Materials for Agricultural Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batman, Kangan; Gadd, Nick; Lucas, Michele

    This publication contains the three communication skills units of the three levels of Support Materials for Agricultural Training (SMAT) in the area of farmers as employers: Level 1 (starting), 2 (continuing), and 3 (completing). The units are designed to help the learner improve his or her written and spoken communication and numeracy skills…

  4. Occupational Health and Safety. Level 1. Level 2. Level 3. Support Materials for Agricultural Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batman, Kangan; Gadd, Nick; Lucas, Michele

    This publication contains the three communication skills units of the three levels of Support Materials for Agricultural Training (SMAT) in the area of occupational health and safety: Level 1 (starting), 2 (continuing), and 3 (completing). The units are designed to help the learner improve his or her written and spoken communication skills needed…

  5. Farm Management and Leadership. Level 1. Level 2. Level 3. Support Materials for Agricultural Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batman, Kangan; Gadd, Nick; Lucas, Michele

    This publication contains the three communication skills units of the three levels of Support Materials for Agricultural Training (SMAT) in farm management and leadership: Level 1 (starting), 2 (continuing), and 3 (completing). The units are designed to help the learner with the reading, writing, and spoken communication skills needed to deal with…

  6. Optical Cryogenic Tank Level Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duffell, Amanda

    2005-01-01

    Cryogenic fluids play an important role in space transportation. Liquid oxygen and hydrogen are vital fuel components for liquid rocket engines. It is also difficult to accurately measure the liquid level in the cryogenic tanks containing the liquids. The current methods use thermocouple rakes, floats, or sonic meters to measure tank level. Thermocouples have problems examining the boundary between the boiling liquid and the gas inside the tanks. They are also slow to respond to temperature changes. Sonic meters need to be mounted inside the tank, but still above the liquid level. This causes problems for full tanks, or tanks that are being rotated to lie on their side.

  7. Are There Levels of Consciousness?

    PubMed

    Bayne, Tim; Hohwy, Jakob; Owen, Adrian M

    2016-06-01

    The notion of a level of consciousness is a key construct in the science of consciousness. Not only is the term employed to describe the global states of consciousness that are associated with post-comatose disorders, epileptic absence seizures, anaesthesia, and sleep, it plays an increasingly influential role in theoretical and methodological contexts. However, it is far from clear what precisely a level of consciousness is supposed to be. This paper argues that the levels-based framework for conceptualizing global states of consciousness is untenable and develops in its place a multidimensional account of global states. PMID:27101880

  8. Making A Precisely Level Floor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, William G.; Walker, William H.; Cather, Jim; Burch, John B.; Clark, Keith M.; Johnston, Dwight; Henderson, David E.

    1989-01-01

    Floor-pouring procedure yields large surface level, smooth, and hard. Floor made of self-leveling, slow-curing epoxy with added black pigment. Epoxy poured to thickness no greater than 0.33 in. (0.84 cm) on concrete base. Base floor seasoned, reasonably smooth and level, and at least 4 in. (10cm) thick. Base rests on thermal barrier of gravel or cinders and contains no steel plates, dividers, or bridges to minimize thermal distortion. Metal retaining wall surrounds base.

  9. Conservation Level and Category Clustering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haynes, C. Rayfield; Kulhavy, Raymond W.

    1976-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that category recall is related to the quantity conservation of mass, weight, and volume. The predicted association between conservation level and category recall was observed. (JMB)

  10. The CMS high level trigger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gori, Valentina

    2014-05-01

    The CMS experiment has been designed with a 2-level trigger system: the Level 1 Trigger, implemented on custom-designed electronics, and the High Level Trigger (HLT), a streamlined version of the CMS offline reconstruction software running on a computer farm. A software trigger system requires a tradeoff between the complexity of the algorithms running on the available computing power, the sustainable output rate, and the selection efficiency. Here we will present the performance of the main triggers used during the 2012 data taking, ranging from simpler single-object selections to more complex algorithms combining different objects, and applying analysis-level reconstruction and selection. We will discuss the optimisation of the triggers and the specific techniques to cope with the increasing LHC pile-up, reducing its impact on the physics performance.

  11. The CMS High Level Trigger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trocino, Daniele

    2014-06-01

    The CMS experiment has been designed with a two-level trigger system: the Level-1 Trigger, implemented in custom-designed electronics, and the High-Level Trigger (HLT), a streamlined version of the CMS offline reconstruction software running on a computer farm. A software trigger system requires a tradeoff between the complexity of the algorithms running with the available computing power, the sustainable output rate, and the selection efficiency. We present the performance of the main triggers used during the 2012 data taking, ranging from simple single-object selections to more complex algorithms combining different objects, and applying analysis-level reconstruction and selection. We discuss the optimisation of the trigger and the specific techniques to cope with the increasing LHC pile-up, reducing its impact on the physics performance.

  12. Processing TES Level-2 Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poosti, Sassaneh; Akopyan, Sirvard; Sakurai, Regina; Yun, Hyejung; Saha, Pranjit; Strickland, Irina; Croft, Kevin; Smith, Weldon; Hoffman, Rodney; Koffend, John; Benenyan, Gerard; Nair, Hari; Sarkissian, Edwin; McDuffie, James; Monarrez, Ruth; Ho,David; Chan, Benny; Lampel, Michael

    2006-01-01

    TES Level 2 Subsystem is a set of computer programs that performs functions complementary to those of the program summarized in the immediately preceding article. TES Level-2 data pertain to retrieved species (or temperature) profiles, and errors thereof. Geolocation, quality, and other data (e.g., surface characteristics for nadir observations) are also included. The subsystem processes gridded meteorological information and extracts parameters that can be interpolated to the appropriate latitude, longitude, and pressure level based on the date and time. Radiances are simulated using the aforementioned meteorological information for initial guesses, and spectroscopic-parameter tables are generated. At each step of the retrieval, a nonlinear-least-squares- solving routine is run over multiple iterations, retrieving a subset of atmospheric constituents, and error analysis is performed. Scientific TES Level-2 data products are written in a format known as Hierarchical Data Format Earth Observing System 5 (HDF-EOS 5) for public distribution.

  13. High-level-waste immobilization

    SciTech Connect

    Crandall, J L

    1982-01-01

    Analysis of risks, environmental effects, process feasibility, and costs for disposal of immobilized high-level wastes in geologic repositories indicates that the disposal system safety has a low sensitivity to the choice of the waste disposal form.

  14. MISR Level 1A Products

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-01

    ... Data Product Specification Rev D  (PDF). HDF file access efficiency updates. F01_0003 02/16/2001 ... Initial baseline for all Level 1 products available for public release. Baseline Software:  N/A ...

  15. Sea Level Rise in Tuvalu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, C. C.; Ho, C. R.; Cheng, Y. H.

    2012-04-01

    Most people, especially for Pacific Islanders, are aware of the sea level change which may caused by many factors, but no of them has deeper sensation of flooding than Tuvaluan. Tuvalu, a coral country, consists of nine low-lying islands in the central Pacific between the latitudes of 5 and 10 degrees south, has the average elevation of 2 meters (South Pacific Sea Level and Climate Monitoring Project, SPSLCMP report, 2006) up to sea level. Meanwhile, the maximum sea level recorded was 3.44m on February 28th 2006 that damaged Tuvaluan's property badly. Local people called the flooding water oozes up out of the ground "King Tide", that happened almost once or twice a year, which destroyed the plant, polluted their fresh water, and forced them to colonize to some other countries. The predictable but uncontrollable king tide had been observed for a long time by SPSLCMP, but some of the uncertainties which intensify the sea level rise need to be analyzed furthermore. In this study, a span of 18 years of tide gauge data accessed from Sea Level Fine Resolution Acoustic Measuring Equipment (SEAFRAME) are compared with the satellite altimeter data accessed from Archiving Validation and Interpretation of Satellite Data in Oceanography (AVISO). All above are processed under the limitation of same time and spatial range. The outcome revealed a 9.26cm difference between both. After the tide gauge data shifted to the same base as altimeter data, the results showed the unknown residuals are always positive under the circumstances of the sea level rise above 3.2m. Apart from uncertainties in observing, the residual reflected unknown contributions. Among the total case number of sea level rise above 3.2m is 23 times, 22 of which were recorded with oceanic warm eddy happened simultaneously. The unknown residual seems precisely matched with oceanic warm eddies and illustrates a clear future approach for Tuvaluan to care for.

  16. Lactate levels with glioblastoma multiforme.

    PubMed

    Kahlon, Arunpreet Singh; Alexander, Mariam; Kahlon, Arundeep; Wright, Jonathan

    2016-07-01

    A 37-year-old woman with known glioblastoma multiforme was admitted for treatment of new deep vein thrombosis. Anion gap and plasma lactate levels were found to be elevated. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain showed a stable, advanced glioblastoma multiforme. All causes of lactic acidosis, including infections and medications, were ruled out. Aggressive tumors have been shown to produce lactate levels in minute quantities in their microenvironment, which helps them metastasize and evade immune response and even radiation. PMID:27365883

  17. Lactate levels with glioblastoma multiforme

    PubMed Central

    Kahlon, Arunpreet Singh; Alexander, Mariam; Kahlon, Arundeep

    2016-01-01

    A 37-year-old woman with known glioblastoma multiforme was admitted for treatment of new deep vein thrombosis. Anion gap and plasma lactate levels were found to be elevated. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain showed a stable, advanced glioblastoma multiforme. All causes of lactic acidosis, including infections and medications, were ruled out. Aggressive tumors have been shown to produce lactate levels in minute quantities in their microenvironment, which helps them metastasize and evade immune response and even radiation. PMID:27365883

  18. Levels of radioactivity in Qatar

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Thani, A.A.; Abdul-Majid, S.; Mohammed, K.

    1995-12-31

    The levels of natural and man-made radioactivity in soil and seabed were measured in Qatar to assess radiation exposure levels and to evaluate any radioactive contamination that may have reached the country from fallout or due to the Chernobyl accident radioactivity release. Qatar peninsula is located on the Arabian Gulf, 4500 km from Chernobyl, and has an area of {approximately}11,600 km{sup 2} and a population of {approximately}600,000.

  19. Rapid sea-level rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cronin, Thomas M.

    2012-11-01

    Several global and regional factors contribute to observed sea-level change along any particular coast. Global processes include changes in ocean mass (glacio-eustasy from ice melt), ocean volume (steric effects), viscoelastic land movements (glacioisostatic adjustment GIA), and changes in terrestrial water storage. Regional processes, often connected to steric and glacial changes, include changes in ocean circulation (Meridional Overturning Circulation [MOC]), glacial melting, local GIA, regional subsidence and others. Paleoclimate, instrumental and modeling studies show that combinations of these factors can cause relatively rapid rates of sea-level rise exceeding 3 mm yr-1 over various timescales along particular coasts. This paper discusses patterns and causes of sea-level rise with emphasis on paleoclimatological records. It then addresses the hypothesis of late Holocene (pre-20th century) sea-level stability in light of paleoclimatic evidence, notably from reconstructions of sea-surface temperature and glacial activity, for significant climate and sea-level variability during this time. The practical difficulties of assessing regional sea-level (SL) patterns at submillennial timescales will be discussed using an example from the eastern United States.

  20. Procalcitonin levels in salmonella infection

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Vikas; Sorabjee, Jehangir

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Procalcitonin (PCT) as a diagnostic marker for bacteremia and sepsis has been extensively studied. We aimed to study PCT levels in Salmonella infections whether they would serve as marker for early diagnosis in endemic areas to start empiric treatment while awaiting blood culture report. Materials and Methods: BACTEC blood culture was used to isolate Salmonella in suspected enteric fever patients. Serum PCT levels were estimated before starting treatment. Results: In 60 proven enteric fever patients, median value of serum PCT levels was 0.22 ng/ml, values ranging between 0.05 and 4 ng/ml. 95% of patients had near normal or mild increase (<0.5 ng/ml), only 5% of patients showed elevated levels. Notably, high PCT levels were found only in severe sepsis. Conclusion: PCT levels in Salmonella infections are near normal or minimally increased which differentiates it from other systemic Gram-negative infections. PCT cannot be used as a specific diagnostic marker of typhoid. PMID:26321807

  1. Intermittent sea-level acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olivieri, M.; Spada, G.

    2013-10-01

    Using instrumental observations from the Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level (PSMSL), we provide a new assessment of the global sea-level acceleration for the last ~ 2 centuries (1820-2010). Our results, obtained by a stack of tide gauge time series, confirm the existence of a global sea-level acceleration (GSLA) and, coherently with independent assessments so far, they point to a value close to 0.01 mm/yr2. However, differently from previous studies, we discuss how change points or abrupt inflections in individual sea-level time series have contributed to the GSLA. Our analysis, based on methods borrowed from econometrics, suggests the existence of two distinct driving mechanisms for the GSLA, both involving a minority of tide gauges globally. The first effectively implies a gradual increase in the rate of sea-level rise at individual tide gauges, while the second is manifest through a sequence of catastrophic variations of the sea-level trend. These occurred intermittently since the end of the 19th century and became more frequent during the last four decades.

  2. PREDICTION OF AIRCRAFT NOISE LEVELS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, B. J.

    1994-01-01

    Methods developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center for predicting the noise contributions from various aircraft noise sources have been incorporated into a computer program for predicting aircraft noise levels either in flight or in ground test. The noise sources accounted for include fan inlet and exhaust, jet, flap (for powered lift), core (combustor), turbine, and airframe. Noise propagation corrections are available in the program for atmospheric attenuation, ground reflections, extra ground attenuation, and shielding. The capacity to solve the geometrical relationships between an aircraft in flight and an observer on the ground has been included in the program to make it useful in evaluating noise estimates and footprints for various proposed engine installations. The program contains two main routines for employing the noise prediction routines. The first main routine consists of a procedure to calculate at various observer stations the time history of the noise from an aircraft flying at a specified set of speeds, orientations, and space coordinates. The various components of the noise are computed by the program. For each individual source, the noise levels are free field with no corrections for propagation losses other than spherical divergence. The total spectra may then be corrected for the usual effects of atmospheric attenuation, extra ground attenuation, ground reflection, and aircraft shielding. Next, the corresponding values of overall sound pressure level, perceived noise level, and tone-weighted perceived noise level are calculated. From the time history at each point, true effective perceived noise levels are calculated. Thus, values of effective perceived noise levels, maximum perceived noise levels, and tone-weighted perceived noise levels are found for a grid of specified points on the ground. The second main routine is designed to give the usual format of one-third octave sound pressure level values at a fixed radius for a number of user

  3. Promoting system-level learning from project-level lessons

    SciTech Connect

    Jong, Amos A. de; Runhaar, Hens A.C.; Runhaar, Piety R.; Kolhoff, Arend J.; Driessen, Peter P.J.

    2012-02-15

    A growing number of low and middle income nations (LMCs) have adopted some sort of system for environmental impact assessment (EIA). However, generally many of these EIA systems are characterised by a low performance in terms of timely information dissemination, monitoring and enforcement after licencing. Donor actors (such as the World Bank) have attempted to contribute to a higher performance of EIA systems in LMCs by intervening at two levels: the project level (e.g. by providing scoping advice or EIS quality review) and the system level (e.g. by advising on EIA legislation or by capacity building). The aims of these interventions are environmental protection in concrete cases and enforcing the institutionalisation of environmental protection, respectively. Learning by actors involved is an important condition for realising these aims. A relatively underexplored form of learning concerns learning at EIA system-level via project level donor interventions. This 'indirect' learning potentially results in system changes that better fit the specific context(s) and hence contribute to higher performances. Our exploratory research in Ghana and the Maldives shows that thus far, 'indirect' learning only occurs incidentally and that donors play a modest role in promoting it. Barriers to indirect learning are related to the institutional context rather than to individual characteristics. Moreover, 'indirect' learning seems to flourish best in large projects where donors achieved a position of influence that they can use to evoke reflection upon system malfunctions. In order to enhance learning at all levels donors should thereby present the outcomes of the intervention elaborately (i.e. discuss the outcomes with a large audience), include practical suggestions about post-EIS activities such as monitoring procedures and enforcement options and stimulate the use of their advisory reports to generate organisational memory and ensure a better information dissemination.

  4. Level structures in Np240

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sood, P. C.; Gowrishankar, R.; Dora, Ashish Kumar

    2014-03-01

    Whereas the 7.2 min Np240, first identified over 60 years ago, has been assigned conflicting configuration by various investigators, the 62 min Np240 is assigned a "probable" configuration, deduced in each case by primarily focusing on just a single β-connected pair of levels in either Np240 (β-) 240Pu or 240U (β-) Np240 decay. We evaluate the level energies of physically admissible 2qp configurations in 93240Np147 employing a three-step procedure, with experimental inputs at each step, and using a well tested two-particle rotor model with inclusion of residual n-p interaction and other contributions. This exercise clearly establishes that the 62 min Np240 and the 7.2 min Np240 isomers constitute a Gallagher-Moszkowski (GM) doublet corresponding to the two-quasiparticle (2qp) configuration 5+{p5/2+[642]±n5/2+[622]}0+ with JπK=1+0 for the higher-lying 7.2 min isomer. This assignment is conclusively confirmed in a level-by-level analysis of data on 23 β transitions in these decays. Structures of a few other Np240 levels populated in 240U β decay are also discussed.

  5. Space elevator systems level analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Laubscher, B. E.

    2004-01-01

    The Space Elevator (SE) represents a major paradigm shift in space access. It involves new, untried technologies in most of its subsystems. Thus the successful construction of the SE requires a significant amount of development, This in turn implies a high level of risk for the SE. This paper will present a systems level analysis of the SE by subdividing its components into their subsystems to determine their level of technological maturity. such a high-risk endeavor is to follow a disciplined approach to the challenges. A systems level analysis informs this process and is the guide to where resources should be applied in the development processes. It is an efficient path that, if followed, minimizes the overall risk of the system's development. systems level analysis is that the overall system is divided naturally into its subsystems, and those subsystems are further subdivided as appropriate for the analysis. By dealing with the complex system in layers, the parameter space of decisions is kept manageable. Moreover, A rational way to manage One key aspect of a resources are not expended capriciously; rather, resources are put toward the biggest challenges and most promising solutions. This overall graded approach is a proven road to success. The analysis includes topics such as nanotube technology, deployment scenario, power beaming technology, ground-based hardware and operations, ribbon maintenance and repair and climber technology.

  6. Differences between mean tide level and mean sea level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodworth, P. L.

    2016-07-01

    This paper discusses the differences between mean tide level (MTL) and mean sea level (MSL) as demonstrated using information from a global tide gauge data set. The roles of the two main contributors to differences between MTL and MSL (the M4 harmonic of the M2 semidiurnal tide, and the combination of the diurnal tides K1 and O1) are described, with a particular focus on the spatial scales of variation in MTL-MSL due to each contributor. Findings from the tide gauge data set are contrasted with those from a state-of-the-art global tide model. The study is of interest within tidal science, but also has practical importance regarding the type of mean level used to define land survey datums. In addition, an appreciation of MTL-MSL difference is important in the use of the historical sea level data used in climate change research, with implications for some of the data stored in international databanks. Particular studies are made of how MTL and MSL might differ through the year, and if MTL is measured in daylight hours only, as has been the practice of some national geodetic agencies on occasions in the past.

  7. Subsea well template levelling system

    SciTech Connect

    Regan, M.; Matsuda, E.S.

    1987-06-23

    A template levelling system is described for levelling a template on piles implanted in the floor of a body of water. The template has receptacles, comprising in combination: a pile receptacle carried in each template receptacle on a gimbal, the pile receptacle having a lower flange extending outwardly from and below the template receptacle; slip means located within each of the pile receptacles for gripping one of the piles to prevent downward movement of the template with respect to the piles; and hydraulic jack means for gripping the pile receptacle and pulling it and the slip means upwardly, causing the flange to contact the lower side of the template receptacle to lift the template to a level position.

  8. Cut performance levels and testing.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Bill; Moreland, Jeff

    2011-11-01

    While the ISEA performance levels and general recommendations detailed above can help tp provide guidance when selecting hand protection products, the responsibility for testing products for specific end-user applications still rests with the end user. We can indicate, for example, that a medium-weight, uncoated Kevlar glove will typically have an ISEA cut rating of 3, but we cannot say the glove will provide the level of protection needed for the range of jobs on an automobile assembly line. Another Level 3 glove might be better suited to an application the require the worker to have an oil grip. As glove manufacturers, we know gloves. We do not know the details about every workplace. We therefore, must look to our customers to provide us the properties they need for hand protection products that will sufficiently protect their workers on the job. PMID:22135955

  9. High pressure liquid level monitor

    DOEpatents

    Bean, Vern E.; Long, Frederick G.

    1984-01-01

    A liquid level monitor for tracking the level of a coal slurry in a high-pressure vessel including a toroidal-shaped float with magnetically permeable bands thereon disposed within the vessel, two pairs of magnetic field generators and detectors disposed outside the vessel adjacent the top and bottom thereof and magnetically coupled to the magnetically permeable bands on the float, and signal processing circuitry for combining signals from the top and bottom detectors for generating a monotonically increasing analog control signal which is a function of liquid level. The control signal may be utilized to operate high-pressure control valves associated with processes in which the high-pressure vessel is used.

  10. Two Level Parallel Grammatical Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ošmera, Pavel

    This paper describes a Two Level Parallel Grammatical Evolution (TLPGE) that can evolve complete programs using a variable length linear genome to govern the mapping of a Backus Naur Form grammar definition. To increase the efficiency of Grammatical Evolution (GE) the influence of backward processing was tested and a second level with differential evolution was added. The significance of backward coding (BC) and the comparison with standard coding of GEs is presented. The new method is based on parallel grammatical evolution (PGE) with a backward processing algorithm, which is further extended with a differential evolution algorithm. Thus a two-level optimization method was formed in attempt to take advantage of the benefits of both original methods and avoid their difficulties. Both methods used are discussed and the architecture of their combination is described. Also application is discussed and results on a real-word application are described.

  11. Level indicator for pressure vessels

    DOEpatents

    Not Available

    1982-04-28

    A liquid-level monitor for tracking the level of a coal slurry in a high-pressure vessel including a toroidal-shaped float with magnetically permeable bands thereon disposed within the vessel, two pairs of magnetic-field generators and detectors disposed outside the vessel adjacent the top and bottom thereof and magnetically coupled to the magnetically permeable bands on the float, and signal-processing circuitry for combining signals from the top and bottom detectors for generating a monotonically increasing analog control signal which is a function of liquid level. The control signal may be utilized to operate high-pressure control valves associated with processes in which the high-pressure vessel is used.

  12. Homocysteine levels in acromegaly patients.

    PubMed

    Hekimsoy, Zeliha; Ozmen, Bilgin; Ulusoy, Sadik

    2005-12-01

    Acromegaly is associated with a two to three-fold increase in mortality related predominantly to cardiovascular disease. The excess mortality is associated most closely with higher levels of growth hormone (GH). Survival in acromegaly may be normalized to a control age-matched rate by controlling GH levels; in particular, GH levels less than 2.5 ng/mL are associated with survival rates equal to those of the general population. Hyperhomocysteinemia has also been recognized as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, yet there are limited data on the prevalence of hyperhomocysteinemia in patients with acromegaly. Eighteen acromegaly patients (7 male, 11 female, mean age 42.8 +/- 11.0 years) in our endocrine clinic consented to having the following tests performed: complete blood count (CBC), thyroid hormones, folic acid, vitamin B12, plasma homocysteine levels, uric acid, fibrinogen, CRP, fasting glucose, insulin, C-peptide, total serum cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, GH, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and GH levels after an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). By history, fourteen had macroadenomas and four had microadenomas; eight had hypertension; two had glucose intolerance, and four had diabetes. Fifteen had had transsphenoidal or transfrontal surgery: two had been cured, but 13 others were taking long-acting octreotide. Five patients had undergone radiotherapy and the acromegaly in two was treated primarily with long-acting octreotide. CBC, thyroid hormone, folic acid, and vit B12 levels were normal in all patients. We divided the patients into two groups according to mean GH levels after an OGTT: Group 1 (GH<2.5 ng/mL, n=10), and Group 2 (GH<2.5 ng/mL, n=8). Comparison of the two groups using Mann-Whitney U testing revealed statistically significant lower levels in Group 1 of the following parameters: GH (1.91 +/- 0.90 vs. 8.58 +/- 5.55 ng/mL, p=0.002), IGF-1 (338.30 +/- 217.90 vs. 509.60 +/- 293.58 ng/dL, p=0.06), GH after

  13. Level Sensor for Cryogenic Fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simmons, N. E.; Schroff, R. A.

    1983-01-01

    Hot wire sensor combined with voltage-comparator circuit monitors liquid level in cryogenic-fluid storage tanks. Sensor circuit adaptable to different liquids and sensors. Constant-current source drives current through sensing probe and fixed resistor. Voltage comparator circuits interpret voltage drops to tell whether probe is immersed in liquid and is current in probe.

  14. Increasing FCC regenerator catalyst level

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, R.F. )

    1993-11-01

    A Peruvian FCC unit's operations were improved by increasing the regenerator's catalyst level. This increase resulted in lower stack losses, an improved temperature profile, increased catalyst activity and a lower catalyst consumption rate. A more stable operation saved this Peruvian refiner over $131,000 per year in catalyst alone. These concepts and data may be suitable for your FCC unit as well.

  15. Trainer Talk: Levels of Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engin, Marion

    2013-01-01

    This article aims to present examples of trainer talk that scaffold trainee teachers' understanding of teaching in a post-observation feedback session. Previous research into scaffolding in a teacher training context describes scaffolding at a technique or strategy level, without describing how, in linguistic terms, the trainer can support and…

  16. Multi-Level Document Visualization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruecker, Stan; Homich, Eric; Sinclair, Stefan

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a prototype system that allows readers to view an electronic text in multiple simultaneous views, providing insight at several different levels of granularity, including a reading view. This prospect display is combined with a number of tools for manipulating the text, for example by highlighting sections of interest for a…

  17. High-Level Radioactive Waste.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayden, Howard C.

    1995-01-01

    Presents a method to calculate the amount of high-level radioactive waste by taking into consideration the following factors: the fission process that yields the waste, identification of the waste, the energy required to run a 1-GWe plant for one year, and the uranium mass required to produce that energy. Briefly discusses waste disposal and…

  18. Cultural Understanding: Spanish Level 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Reid

    The teacher's attention is focused on selected elements of Spanish culture which may be taught integrally with instructional materials found in the first-year Spanish texts "Entender y Hablar", "La Familia Fernandez", and "A-LM Spanish, Level One". Items are cross-referenced for 42 cultural concepts ranging from nicknames to streets, roads, and…

  19. MISR Level 3 File Format

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2015-01-08

    ... library), you will need to know little more than the HDF-EOS grid and HDF-EOS field names. Note that the MISR Level 3 data are map projected as described on the  Overview  page. View Brief MISR ...

  20. Culture Curriculum: French, Level II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Ruth Wellman

    This teacher's guide to cultural instruction at level 2 integrates materials derived from several sources. The guide is based on: (1) suggestions from "French for Secondary Schools," New York State Education Department; (2) general information concerning the geography, products, industries, regions, cities of France, the French Union, and the city…

  1. Arsenic levels in Oregon waters.

    PubMed Central

    Stoner, J C; Whanger, P D; Weswig, P H

    1977-01-01

    The arsenic content of well water in certain areas of Oregon can range up to 30 to 40 times the U.S.P.H.S. Drinking Water Standard of 1962, where concentrations in excess of 50 ppb are grounds for rejection. The elevated arsenic levels in water are postulated to be due to volcanic deposits. Wells in central Lane County, Oregon, that are known to contain arsenic rich water are in an area underlain by a particular group of sedimentary and volcanic rocks, which geologists have named the Fischer formation. The arsenic levels in water from wells ranged from no detectable amounts to 2,000 ppb. In general the deeper wells contained higher arsenic water. The high arsenic waters are characterized by the small amounts of calcium and magnesium in relation to that of sodium, a high content of boron, and a high pH. Water from some hot springs in other areas of Oregon was found to range as high as 900 ppb arsenic. Arsenic blood levels ranged from 32 ppb for people living in areas where water is low in arsenic to 250 ppb for those living in areas where water is known to contain high levels of arsenic. Some health problems associated with consumption of arsenic-rich water are discussed. PMID:908291

  2. Medical Assisting. Secondary Level Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Office of Occupational and Career Education.

    This curriculum guide is intended to prepare students for entry-level employment in the health care industry. The two-year program, designed to be used in high schools in New York City, will prepare students to assist in various health career settings such as doctors' offices, hospital clinics, and group practice facilities. The curriculum guide,…

  3. High temperature liquid level sensor

    DOEpatents

    Tokarz, Richard D.

    1983-01-01

    A length of metal sheathed metal oxide cable is perforated to permit liquid access to the insulation about a pair of conductors spaced close to one another. Changes in resistance across the conductors will be a function of liquid level, since the wetted insulation will have greater electrical conductivity than that of the dry insulation above the liquid elevation.

  4. Middle Level Learning Number 47

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapham, Steven S.; Hanes, Peter; Turner, Thomas N.; Clabough, Jeremiah C.; Cole, William

    2013-01-01

    This issue's "Middle Level Learning" section presents two articles. The first is "Harriet Tubman: Emancipate Yourself!" (by Steven S. Lapham and Peter Hanes). "Argo," which won the 2012 Oscar for best picture, was about a daring escape of six U.S. diplomats from Iran during the 1979 hostage crisis. Now imagine…

  5. College Level Aviation Curriculum Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattson, Betty J.

    This document describes a college-level curriculum for airplane pilots that is expected to be available at Muskegon (Michigan) College of Business and Technology in fall 1990. The curriculum offers associate or bachelor degree, college credit for earned flight ratings, private license, transfer credit for other aviation college programs, the…

  6. Sentence-Level Rewriting Detection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Fan; Litman, Diane

    2014-01-01

    Writers usually need iterations of revisions and edits during their writings. To better understand the process of rewriting, we need to know what has changed be-tween the revisions. Prior work mainly focuses on detecting corrections within sentences, which is at the level of words or phrases. This paper proposes to detect revision changes at the…

  7. Engineering at the Elementary Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrew, Cheryl

    2012-01-01

    Can engineering technology be taught at the elementary level? Designing and building trebuchets, catapults, solar cars, and mousetrap vehicles in a west central Florida elementary class was considered very unusual in recent years. After a review of current research on failing schools and poor curriculum, the author wondered what her school could…

  8. Role Clarity and Organizational Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Posner, Barry Z.; Butterfield, D. Anthony

    1978-01-01

    Role clarity was examined in terms of its relationship with personal outcomes and organizational effectiveness. Organizational level as moderator of such relationship was also investigated. Hypotheses based on prior research were confirmed. Role clarity was positively related to perceptions of job satisfaction, personal influence, organizational…

  9. Radon levels can be predicted

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wainger, Lisa A.

    Scientists doing a yearlong study of radon levels in houses have identified several major factors that affect concentrations and have developed a method for predicting indoor radon levels before a house is built. Douglas Mose and George Mushrush (George Mason University, Fairfax, Va.) studied 1500 homes in northern Virginia and central Maryland near Washington, D.C.Radon is a radioactive decay product of uranium that occurs in many rock types. The gas can accumulate in buildings and pose a serious health hazard. Results from the Washington-area study show that ˜35% of the houses had average yearly radon concentrations above 4 pico-Curies per liter (pCi/L), the level at which the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) suggests that a homeowner should take steps to reduce radon concentrations. At a level of 4-10 pCi/L an estimated 13-120 lung cancer deaths would be expected for every 1000 people exposed. Such a risk is comparable to having 200 chest X rays per year, according to EPA statistics.

  10. FIM Levels as Ordinal Categories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linacre, John M.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses levels of the Functional Independence Measure (FIM) as ordinal categories. Presents guidelines developed through the Rasch model that prompt an analyst to investigate whether rating categories produce observations on which meaningful measurement and inference about patient status can be based. (SLD)

  11. MISR Level 1A Products

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-01

    ... Data Product Specification Rev D  (PDF). HDF file access efficiency updates. F01_03, F01_0003 ... Initial baseline for all Level 1 products available for public release. Baseline Software:  N/A     ...

  12. MISR Level 1A Products

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-01

    ... Data Product Specification Rev D  (PDF). HDF file access efficiency updates. F01_0004 02/16/2001 ... Initial baseline for all Level 1 products available for public release. Baseline Software:  N/A     ...

  13. Efficient bit-level, word-level, and block-level systolic arrays for matrix-matrix multiplication

    SciTech Connect

    De Groot, A.J.; Parker, S.R.; Johansson, E.M.

    1988-02-01

    This paper investigates the mapping of matrix-matrix multiplication onto bit level, word level and block level systolic arrays. Highly efficient and regular bit level, word level and block level systolic arrays are described. Efficiencies of many block level and word level systolic arrays reported in this paper approach 100/percent/, three times the efficiencies of systolic arrays reported previously. Bit level systolic arrays reported in this paper require less computation time than do bit level systolic arrays reported previously and, for special matrices, require less cells. Execution times of block level systolic algorithms on sixty-four-element multiprocessor agree with theory.

  14. Developing first-level leaders.

    PubMed

    Priestland, Andreas; Hanig, Robert

    2005-06-01

    Oil and energy corporation BP was well aware of the importance of its work group managers on the front lines. Their decisions, in aggregate, make an enormous difference in BP's turnover, costs, quality control, safety, innovation, and environmental performance. There were about 10,000 such supervisors, working in every part of the company-from solar plants in Spain, to drilling platforms in the North Sea, to marketing teams in Chicago. Some 70% to 80% of BP employees reported directly to these lower-level managers. Yet, until recently, the corporation didn't have a comprehensive training program--let alone an official name--for them. For their part, the frontline managers felt disconnected; it was often hard for them to understand how their individual decisions contributed to the growth and reputation of BP as a whole. In this article, BP executive Andreas Priestland and Dialogos VP Robert Hanig describe how BP in the past five years has learned to connect with this population of managers. After one and a half years of design and development, there is now a companywide name--"first-level leaders"--and a comprehensive training program for this cohort. The authors describe the collaborative effort they led to create the program's four components: Supervisory Essentials, Context and Connections, the Leadership Event, and Peer Partnerships. The design team surveyed those it had deemed first-level leaders and others throughout BP; extensively benchmarked other companies' training efforts for lower-level managers; and conducted a series of pilot programs that involved dozens of advisers. The training sessions were first offered early in 2002, and since then, more than 8000 of BP's first-level leaders have attended. The managers who've been through training are consistently ranked higher in performance than those who haven't, both by their bosses and by the employees who report to them, the authors say. PMID:15938442

  15. Multiple Level Crowding: Crowding at the Object Parts Level and at the Object Configural level.

    PubMed

    Kimchi, Ruth; Pirkner, Yossef

    2015-01-01

    In crowding, identification of a peripheral target in the presence of nearby flankers is worse than when the target appears alone. Prevailing theories hold that crowding occurs because of integration or "pooling" of low-level features at a single, relatively early stage of visual processing. Recent studies suggest that crowding can occur also between high-level object representations. The most relevant findings come from studies with faces and may be specific to faces. We examined whether crowding can occur at the object configural level in addition to part-level crowding, using nonface objects. Target (a disconnected square or diamond made of four elements) identification was measured at varying eccentricities. The flankers were similar either to the target parts or to the target configuration. The results showed crowding in both cases: Flankers interfered with target identification such that identification accuracy decreased with an increase in eccentricity, and no interference was observed at the fovea. Crowding by object parts, however, was weaker and had smaller spatial extent than crowding by object configurations; we related this finding to the relationship between crowding and perceptual organization. These results provide strong evidence that crowding occurs not only between object parts but also between configural representations of objects. PMID:26562896

  16. Levelized Power Generation Cost Codes

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1996-04-30

    LPGC is a set of nine microcomputer programs for estimating power generation costs for large steam-electric power plants. These programs permit rapid evaluation using various sets of economic and technical ground rules. The levelized power generation costs calculated may be used to compare the relative economics of nuclear and coal-fired plants based on life-cycle costs. Cost calculations include capital investment cost, operation and maintenance cost, fuel cycle cost, decommissioning cost, and total levelized power generationmore » cost. These programs can be used for quick analyses of power generation costs using alternative economic parameters, such as interest rate, escalation rate, inflation rate, plant lead times, capacity factor, fuel prices, etc. The two major types of electric generating plants considered are pressurized water reactor (PWR) and pulverized coal-fired plants. Data are also provided for the Large Scale Prototype Breeder (LSPB) type liquid metal reactor.« less

  17. Leveling circuits and crustal movements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chi, S. C.; Reilinger, R. E.; Brown, L. D.; Oliver, J. E.

    1980-01-01

    An investigation of further possible vertical crustal movements in the Western United States made with circuit microclosure analysis is presented. The San Andreas fault in Cal., the Nevada seismic zone in Nev., and the Sierra Nevada in Calif. were studied based on supposition that in areas undergoing crustal movement the misclosure for a particular circuit should have the smallest value when the circuit is formed from the most temporarily homogeneous survey data; it should have larger, predictable values when the circuit is closed with surveys conducted at other times. Leveling surveys along the San Andreas fault and the Nevada seismic zone are discussed, noting the possibility of regional tilting in the Great Basin between 1934 and 1955, and of elevation changes in the Northern Nevada Range using results of leveling surveys between Roseville, Cal. and Reno, Nev.

  18. Lead Levels in Utah Eagles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, Michelle

    2006-10-01

    Lead is a health hazard to most animals, causing adverse effects to the nervous and reproductive systems if in sufficient quantity. Found in most fishing jigs and sinkers, as well as some ammunition used in hunting, this metal can poison wildlife such as eagles. Eagles are raptors, or predatory birds, and their lead exposure would most likely comes from their food -- a fish which has swallowed a sinker or lead shot in carrion (dead animal matter). As part of an ongoing project to investigate the environment lead levels in Utah, the bone lead levels in the wing bones of eagles have been measured for eagle carcasses found throughout Utah. The noninvasive technique of x-ray fluorescence was used, consisting of a Cd-109 radioactive source to activate lead atoms and a HPGe detector with digital electronics to collect the gamma spectra. Preliminary results for the eagles measured to date will be presented.

  19. Instruction-level parallel processing.

    PubMed

    Fisher, J A; Rau, R

    1991-09-13

    The performance of microprocessors has increased steadily over the past 20 years at a rate of about 50% per year. This is the cumulative result of architectural improvements as well as increases in circuit speed. Moreover, this improvement has been obtained in a transparent fashion, that is, without requiring programmers to rethink their algorithms and programs, thereby enabling the tremendous proliferation of computers that we see today. To continue this performance growth, microprocessor designers have incorporated instruction-level parallelism (ILP) into new designs. ILP utilizes the parallel execution ofthe lowest level computer operations-adds, multiplies, loads, and so on-to increase performance transparently. The use of ILP promises to make possible, within the next few years, microprocessors whose performance is many times that of a CRAY-IS. This article provides an overview of ILP, with an emphasis on ILP architectures-superscalar, VLIW, and dataflow processors-and the compiler techniques necessary to make ILP work well. PMID:17831442

  20. Mission Level Autonomy for USSV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huntsberger, Terry; Stirb, Robert C.; Brizzolara, Robert

    2011-01-01

    On-water demonstration of a wide range of mission-proven, advanced technologies at TRL 5+ that provide a total integrated, modular approach to effectively address the majority of the key needs for full mission-level autonomous, cross-platform control of USV s. Wide baseline stereo system mounted on the ONR USSV was shown to be an effective sensing modality for tracking of dynamic contacts as a first step to automated retrieval operations. CASPER onboard planner/replanner successfully demonstrated realtime, on-water resource-based analysis for mission-level goal achievement and on-the-fly opportunistic replanning. Full mixed mode autonomy was demonstrated on-water with a seamless transition between operator over-ride and return to current mission plan. Autonomous cooperative operations for fixed asset protection and High Value Unit escort using 2 USVs (AMN1 & 14m RHIB) were demonstrated during Trident Warrior 2010 in JUN 2010

  1. System-Level Radiation Hardening

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ladbury, Ray

    2014-01-01

    Although system-level radiation hardening can enable the use of high-performance components and enhance the capabilities of a spacecraft, hardening techniques can be costly and can compromise the very performance designers sought from the high-performance components. Moreover, such techniques often result in a complicated design, especially if several complex commercial microcircuits are used, each posing its own hardening challenges. The latter risk is particularly acute for Commercial-Off-The-Shelf components since high-performance parts (e.g. double-data-rate synchronous dynamic random access memories - DDR SDRAMs) may require other high-performance commercial parts (e.g. processors) to support their operation. For these reasons, it is essential that system-level radiation hardening be a coordinated effort, from setting requirements through testing up to and including validation.

  2. Wireless Fluid Level Measuring System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Bryant D. (Inventor); Woodard, Stanley E. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A level-sensing probe positioned in a tank is divided into sections with each section including (i) a fluid-level capacitive sensor disposed along the length thereof, (ii) an inductor electrically coupled to the capacitive sensor, (iii) a sensor antenna positioned for inductive coupling to the inductor, and (iv) an electrical conductor coupled to the sensor antenna. An electrically non-conductive housing accessible from a position outside of the tank houses antennas arrayed in a pattern. Each antenna is electrically coupled to the electrical conductor from a corresponding one of the sections. A magnetic field response recorder has a measurement head with transceiving antennas arrayed therein to correspond to the pattern of the housing's antennas. When a measurement is to be taken, the measurement head is mechanically coupled to the housing so that each housing antenna is substantially aligned with a specific one of the transceiving antennas.

  3. Community-Level Physiological Profiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Kela P.; Legge, Raymond L.

    Community-level physiological profiling (CLPP) is a technique which offers an easily applied protocol yielding information regarding mixed microbial community function and functional adaptations over space and time. Different communities can be compared and classified based on sole carbon source utilization patterns (CSUPs) gathered using BIOLOG™ microplates. One of the most challenging aspects associated with the CLPP method is in the data analysis. This chapter describes the relatively simple CLPP laboratory protocol and provides a detailed description of different data analysis techniques.

  4. Immunoglobulin levels in infantile pneumocystosis

    PubMed Central

    Kohout, Elfriede; Post, Cornelius; Azadeh, Bahram; Dutz, Werner; Bandarizadeh, Bashi; Kadivar, Darius

    1972-01-01

    Two hundred and twelve determinations of IgA, IgG, and IgM were performed in 50 infants during an epidemic of interstitial plasma cell pneumonia. Criteria for diagnosis are discussed. The immunoglobulin levels in pneumocystic, non-pneumocystic, and normal American infants are compared. An analysis of the findings in individual cases reveals a time-related immunoglobulin response, which helps to elucidate the pathogenicity of the disease. PMID:4536973

  5. Parathyroid Hormone Levels and Cognition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burnett, J.; Smith, S.M.; Aung, K.; Dyer, C.

    2009-01-01

    Hyperparathyroidism is a well-recognized cause of impaired cognition due to hypercalcemia. However, recent studies have suggested that perhaps parathyroid hormone itself plays a role in cognition, especially executive dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship of parathyroid hormone levels in a study cohort of elders with impaied cognition. Methods: Sixty community-living adults, 65 years of age and older, reported to Adult Protective Services for self-neglect and 55 controls matched (on age, ethnicity, gender and socio-economic status) consented and participated in this study. The research team conducted in-home comprehensive geriatric assessments which included the Mini-mental state exam (MMSE), the 15-item geriatric depression scale (GDS) , the Wolf-Klein clock test and a comprehensive nutritional panel, which included parathyroid hormone and ionized calcium. Students t tests and linear regression analyses were performed to assess for bivariate associations. Results: Self-neglecters (M = 73.73, sd=48.4) had significantly higher PTH levels compared to controls (M =47.59, sd=28.7; t=3.59, df=98.94, p<.01). There was no significant group difference in ionized calcium levels. Overall, PTH was correlated with the MMSE (r=-.323, p=.001). Individual regression analyses revealed a statistically significant correlation between PTH and MMSE in the self-neglect group (r=-.298, p=.024) and this remained significant after controlling for ionized calcium levels in the regression. No significant associations were revealed in the control group or among any of the other cognitive measures. Conclusion: Parathyroid hormone may be associated with cognitive performance.

  6. TDR liquid level detection program

    SciTech Connect

    Reeves, G.; Toole, B.

    1996-07-01

    A data acquisition system for monitoring the SRS reactor Supplemental Safety System (SSS) during chargeback testing has been installed. The system is based on liquid level detection by means of time domain reflectometry. Software developed for the system allows data to be collected from a digitizing oscilloscope by an IBM AT computer, displayed and stored as needed by the user. The software is menu- driven to facilitate user interaction.

  7. An adaptive level set method

    SciTech Connect

    Milne, R.B.

    1995-12-01

    This thesis describes a new method for the numerical solution of partial differential equations of the parabolic type on an adaptively refined mesh in two or more spatial dimensions. The method is motivated and developed in the context of the level set formulation for the curvature dependent propagation of surfaces in three dimensions. In that setting, it realizes the multiple advantages of decreased computational effort, localized accuracy enhancement, and compatibility with problems containing a range of length scales.

  8. System-level musings about system-level science (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, W.

    2009-12-01

    In teleology, a system has a purpose. In physics, a system has a tendency. For example, a mechanical system has a tendency to lower its potential energy. A thermodynamic system has a tendency to increase its entropy. Therefore, if geospace is seen as a system, what is its tendency? Surprisingly or not, there is no simple answer to this question. Or, to flip the statement, the answer is complex, or complexity. We can understand generally why complexity arises, as the geospace boundary is open to influences from the solar wind and Earth’s atmosphere and components of the system couple to each other in a myriad of ways to make the systemic behavior highly nonlinear. But this still begs the question: What is the system-level approach to geospace science? A reductionist view might assert that as our understanding of a component or subsystem progresses to a certain point, we can couple some together to understand the system on a higher level. However, in practice, a subsystem can almost never been observed in isolation with others. Even if such is possible, there is no guarantee that the subsystem behavior will not change when coupled to others. Hence, there is no guarantee that a subsystem, such as the ring current, has an innate and intrinsic behavior like a hydrogen atom. An absolutist conclusion from this logic can be sobering, as one would have to trace a flash of aurora to the nucleosynthesis in the solar core. The practical answer, however, is more promising; it is a mix of the common sense we call reductionism and awareness that, especially when strongly coupled, subsystems can experience behavioral changes, breakdowns, and catastrophes. If the stock answer to the systemic tendency of geospace is complexity, the objective of the system-level approach to geospace science is to define, measure, and understand this complexity. I will use the example of magnetotail dynamics to illuminate some key points in this talk.

  9. Higher level twisted Zhu algebras

    SciTech Connect

    Ekeren, Jethro van

    2011-05-15

    The study of twisted representations of graded vertex algebras is important for understanding orbifold models in conformal field theory. In this paper, we consider the general setup of a vertex algebra V, graded by {Gamma}/Z for some subgroup {Gamma} of R containing Z, and with a Hamiltonian operator H having real (but not necessarily integer) eigenvalues. We construct the directed system of twisted level p Zhu algebras Zhu{sub p,{Gamma}}(V), and we prove the following theorems: For each p, there is a bijection between the irreducible Zhu{sub p,{Gamma}}(V)-modules and the irreducible {Gamma}-twisted positive energy V-modules, and V is ({Gamma}, H)-rational if and only if all its Zhu algebras Zhu{sub p,{Gamma}}(V) are finite dimensional and semisimple. The main novelty is the removal of the assumption of integer eigenvalues for H. We provide an explicit description of the level p Zhu algebras of a universal enveloping vertex algebra, in particular of the Virasoro vertex algebra Vir{sup c} and the universal affine Kac-Moody vertex algebra V{sup k}(g) at non-critical level. We also compute the inverse limits of these directed systems of algebras.

  10. System level modeling and component level control of fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Xingjian

    This dissertation investigates the fuel cell systems and the related technologies in three aspects: (1) system-level dynamic modeling of both PEM fuel cell (PEMFC) and solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC); (2) condition monitoring scheme development of PEM fuel cell system using model-based statistical method; and (3) strategy and algorithm development of precision control with potential application in energy systems. The dissertation first presents a system level dynamic modeling strategy for PEM fuel cells. It is well known that water plays a critical role in PEM fuel cell operations. It makes the membrane function appropriately and improves the durability. The low temperature operating conditions, however, impose modeling difficulties in characterizing the liquid-vapor two phase change phenomenon, which becomes even more complex under dynamic operating conditions. This dissertation proposes an innovative method to characterize this phenomenon, and builds a comprehensive model for PEM fuel cell at the system level. The model features the complete characterization of multi-physics dynamic coupling effects with the inclusion of dynamic phase change. The model is validated using Ballard stack experimental result from open literature. The system behavior and the internal coupling effects are also investigated using this model under various operating conditions. Anode-supported tubular SOFC is also investigated in the dissertation. While the Nernst potential plays a central role in characterizing the electrochemical performance, the traditional Nernst equation may lead to incorrect analysis results under dynamic operating conditions due to the current reverse flow phenomenon. This dissertation presents a systematic study in this regard to incorporate a modified Nernst potential expression and the heat/mass transfer into the analysis. The model is used to investigate the limitations and optimal results of various operating conditions; it can also be utilized to perform the