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Sample records for event generator urasima

  1. Event generator overview

    SciTech Connect

    Pang, Y.

    1997-12-01

    Due to their ability to provide detailed and quantitative predictions, the event generators have become an important part of studying relativistic heavy ion physics and of designing future experiments. In this talk, the author will briefly summarize recent progress in developing event generators for the relativistic heavy ion collisions.

  2. QCD (&) event generators

    SciTech Connect

    Skands, Peter Z.; /Fermilab

    2005-07-01

    Recent developments in QCD phenomenology have spurred on several improved approaches to Monte Carlo event generation, relative to the post-LEP state of the art. In this brief review, the emphasis is placed on approaches for (1) consistently merging fixed-order matrix element calculations with parton shower descriptions of QCD radiation, (2) improving the parton shower algorithms themselves, and (3) improving the description of the underlying event in hadron collisions.

  3. Monte Carlo Event Generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dytman, Steven

    2011-10-01

    Every neutrino experiment requires a Monte Carlo event generator for various purposes. Historically, each series of experiments developed their own code which tuned to their needs. Modern experiments would benefit from a universal code (e.g. PYTHIA) which would allow more direct comparison between experiments. GENIE attempts to be that code. This paper compares most commonly used codes and provides some details of GENIE.

  4. Event generator for the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gleisberg, T.; Höche, S.; Krauss, F.; Schälicke, A.; Schumann, S.; Winter, J.

    2006-04-01

    In this contribution the new event generation framework S HERPA will be presented. It aims at the full simulation of events at current and future high-energy experiments, in particular the LHC. Some results related to the production of jets at the Tevatron will be discussed.

  5. Event Generators for Particle Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matchev, Konstantin

    2014-03-01

    I will review recent progress in developing and automating the basic set of simulation tools in high energy particle physics, including programs which are capable of automatic implementation of new physics models and generating the corresponding Feynman rules, various matrix element calculators, and event generators producing both parton-level and fully hadronized/showerted Monte Carlo event samples. I will also discuss methods for speeding up the generation of new physics samples, which could be useful in the upcoming new physics searches at the LHC.

  6. Replacement Sequence of Events Generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Forest; Gladden, Daniel Wenkert Roy; Khanampompan, Teerpat

    2008-01-01

    The soeWINDOW program automates the generation of an ITAR (International Traffic in Arms Regulations)-compliant sub-RSOE (Replacement Sequence of Events) by extracting a specified temporal window from an RSOE while maintaining page header information. RSOEs contain a significant amount of information that is not ITAR-compliant, yet that foreign partners need to see for command details to their instrument, as well as the surrounding commands that provide context for validation. soeWINDOW can serve as an example of how command support products can be made ITAR-compliant for future missions. This software is a Perl script intended for use in the mission operations UNIX environment. It is designed for use to support the MRO (Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter) instrument team. The tool also provides automated DOM (Distributed Object Manager) storage into the special ITAR-okay DOM collection, and can be used for creating focused RSOEs for product review by any of the MRO teams.

  7. Brief introduction of the neutrino event generators

    SciTech Connect

    Hayato, Yoshinari

    2015-05-15

    The neutrino interaction simulation programs (event generators) play an important role in the neutrino experiments. This article briefly explains what is the neutrino event generator and how it works.

  8. Introduction to Parton-Shower Event Generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höche, Stefan

    This lecture discusses the physics implemented by Monte Carlo event generators for hadron colliders. It details the construction of parton showers and the matching of parton showers to fixed-order calculations at higher orders in perturbative QCD. It also discusses approaches to merge calculations for a varying number of jets, the interface to the underlying event and hadronization.

  9. Status of Monte-Carlo Event Generators

    SciTech Connect

    Hoeche, Stefan; /SLAC

    2011-08-11

    Recent progress on general-purpose Monte-Carlo event generators is reviewed with emphasis on the simulation of hard QCD processes and subsequent parton cascades. Describing full final states of high-energy particle collisions in contemporary experiments is an intricate task. Hundreds of particles are typically produced, and the reactions involve both large and small momentum transfer. The high-dimensional phase space makes an exact solution of the problem impossible. Instead, one typically resorts to regarding events as factorized into different steps, ordered descending in the mass scales or invariant momentum transfers which are involved. In this picture, a hard interaction, described through fixed-order perturbation theory, is followed by multiple Bremsstrahlung emissions off initial- and final-state and, finally, by the hadronization process, which binds QCD partons into color-neutral hadrons. Each of these steps can be treated independently, which is the basic concept inherent to general-purpose event generators. Their development is nowadays often focused on an improved description of radiative corrections to hard processes through perturbative QCD. In this context, the concept of jets is introduced, which allows to relate sprays of hadronic particles in detectors to the partons in perturbation theory. In this talk, we briefly review recent progress on perturbative QCD in event generation. The main focus lies on the general-purpose Monte-Carlo programs HERWIG, PYTHIA and SHERPA, which will be the workhorses for LHC phenomenology. A detailed description of the physics models included in these generators can be found in [8]. We also discuss matrix-element generators, which provide the parton-level input for general-purpose Monte Carlo.

  10. Event generation with SHERPA 1.1

    SciTech Connect

    Gleisberg, T.; Hoche, Stefan.; Krauss, F.; Schoenherr, M.; Schumann, S.; Siegert, F.; Winter, J.

    2008-12-18

    In this paper the current release of the Monte Carlo event generator Sherpa, version 1.1, is presented. Sherpa is a general-purpose tool for the simulation of particle collisions at high-energy colliders. It contains a very flexible tree-level matrix-element generator for the calculation of hard scattering processes within the Standard Model and various new physics models. The emission of additional QCD partons off the initial and final states is described through a parton-shower model. To consistently combine multi-parton matrix elements with the QCD parton cascades the approach of Catani, Krauss, Kuhn and Webber is employed. A simple model of multiple interactions is used to account for underlying events in hadron-hadron collisions. The fragmentation of partons into primary hadrons is described using a phenomenological cluster-hadronization model. A comprehensive library for simulating tau-lepton and hadron decays is provided. Where available form-factor models and matrix elements are used, allowing for the inclusion of spin correlations; effects of virtual and real QED corrections are included using the approach of Yennie, Frautschi and Suura.

  11. Modern Particle Physics Event Generation with WHIZARD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reuter, J.; Bach, F.; Chokoufé, B.; Kilian, W.; Ohl, T.; Sekulla, M.; Weiss, C.

    2015-05-01

    We describe the multi-purpose Monte-Carlo event generator WHIZARD for the simulation of high-energy particle physics experiments. Besides the presentation of the general features of the program like SM physics, BSM physics, and QCD effects, special emphasis will be given to the support of the most accurate simulation of the collider environments at hadron colliders and especially at future linear lepton colliders. On the more technical side, the very recent code refactoring towards a completely object-oriented software package to improve maintainability, flexibility and code development will be discussed. Finally, we present ongoing work and future plans regarding higher-order corrections, more general model support including the setup to search for new physics in vector boson scattering at the LHC, as well as several lines of performance improvements.

  12. Elegent—An elastic event generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kašpar, J.

    2014-03-01

    Although elastic scattering of nucleons may look like a simple process, it presents a long-lasting challenge for theory. Due to missing hard energy scale, the perturbative QCD cannot be applied. Instead, many phenomenological/theoretical models have emerged. In this paper we present a unified implementation of some of the most prominent models in a C++ library, moreover extended to account for effects of the electromagnetic interaction. The library is complemented with a number of utilities. For instance, programs to sample many distributions of interest in four-momentum transfer squared, t, impact parameter, b, and collision energy √{s}. These distributions at ISR, Spp¯S, RHIC, Tevatron and LHC energies are available for download from the project web site. Both in the form of ROOT files and PDF figures providing comparisons among the models. The package includes also a tool for Monte-Carlo generation of elastic scattering events, which can easily be embedded in any other program framework. Catalogue identifier: AERT_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AERT_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen’s University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: GNU General Public License, version 3 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 10551 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 126316 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++. Computer: Any in principle, tested on x86-64 architecture. Operating system: Any in principle, tested on GNU/Linux. RAM: Strongly depends on the task, but typically below 20MB Classification: 11.6. External routines: ROOT, HepMC Nature of problem: Monte-Carlo simulation of elastic nucleon-nucleon collisions Solution method: Implementation of some of the most prominent phenomenological/theoretical models providing cumulative distribution function that is used for random event generation. Running time: Strongly depends on the task, but

  13. Event-by-event fission simulation code, generates complete fission events

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2013-04-01

    FREYA is a computer code that generates complete fission events. The output includes the energy and momentum of these final state particles: fission products, prompt neutrons and prompt photons. The version of FREYA that is to be released is a module for MCNP6.

  14. The STAR "plug and play" event generator framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, J.; Novak, J.; Lauret, J.; Perevoztchikov, V.

    2014-06-01

    The STAR experiment pursues a broad range of physics topics in pp,pA and AA collisions produced by the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). Such a diverse experimental program demands a simulation framework capable of supporting an equally diverse set of event generators, and a flexible event record capable of storing the (common) particle-wise and (varied) event-wise information provided by the external generators. With planning underway for the next round of upgrades to exploit ep and eA collisions from the electron-ion collider (or eRHIC), these demands on the simulation infrastructure will only increase and requires a versatile framework. STAR has developed a new event-generator framework based on the best practices in the community (a survey of existing approach had been made and the "best of all worlds" kept in mind in our design). It provides a common set of base classes which establish the interface between event generators and the simulation and handles most of the bookkeeping associated with a simulation run. This streamlines the process of integrating and configuring an event generator within our software chain. Developers implement two classes: the interface for their event generator, and their event record. They only need to loop over all particles in their event and push them out into the event record. The framework is responsible for vertex assignment, stacking the particles out for simulation, and event persistency. Events from multiple generators can be merged together seamlessly, with an event record which is capable of tracing each particle back to its parent generator. We present our work and approach in detail and illustrate its usefulness by providing examples of event generators implemented within the STAR framework covering for very diverse physics topics. We will also discuss support for event filtering, allowing users to prune the event record of particles which are outside of our acceptance, and/or abort events prior to the more

  15. Concerning the Perturbations Generated by Flux Transfer Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sibeck, David G.

    2010-01-01

    The interaction of the solar wind with the Earth's magnetosphere is often highly unsteady. Bursts of magnetic reconnection at multiple locations on the dayside equatorial magnetopause generate flux transfer events or FTEs: twisted ropes of interconnected magnetosheath and magnetospheric magnetic field lines. Once formed, the events move antisunward, displacing and perturbing the ambient media. This talk explores the perturbations predicted by both global numerical simulations and analytical models. Results from global hybrid code simulation confirm the predictions of analytical models indicating that the events generate standing forward slow mode waves as their speeds relative to the magnetosheath flow approach the Alfven velocity. Geometric considerations lead to the conclusion that events generated by component reconnection on the dayside magnetopause move poleward and exhibit strong signatures during intervals of southward IMF orientation, but move towards the flanks and exhibit weak signatures during intervals of northward IMF orientation. Changing event orientations and magnetosheath/magnetospheric magnetic field orientation can enhance the amplitudes of events reaching the flanks. Although the orientations of events on the flanks inferred from multispacecraft timing techniques are consistent with the predictions of the component reconnection model, occurrence patterns versus latitude and IMF orientation require an explanation in terms of both the component and antiparallel reconnection models.

  16. Fact and fantasy: The effects of internally generated events on the apparent frequency of externally generated events.

    PubMed

    Johnson, M K; Taylor, T H; Raye, C L

    1977-01-01

    As John Locke pointed out, there are at least two sources of the contents of the mind: events that occur in the world and events that originate in the mind. Memory, as a record of experience, should contain information from both sources. The present studies investigated memory for the frequency of externally and internally generated events. Individual items were presented to subjects varying numbers of times and tested varying numbers of times. Later, subjects were asked to estimate the frequency of both types of events. Experiment 1 showed that internally generated events influenced the judged frequency of externally generated events and vice versa. The first of these was called the IFE effect and the second the IFI effect. Experiment 2 indicated that the IFE effect was greater when tests consisted of overt, as compared to covert, recall trials. The results were discussed in terms of a model for storing and using occurrence information which would account for both our ability to discriminate between and our tendency to confuse internally and externally generated memory representations. PMID:21331877

  17. General-purpose event generators for LHC physics

    SciTech Connect

    Buckley, Andy; Butterworth, Jonathan; Gieseke, Stefan; Grellscheid, David; Hoche, Stefan; Hoeth, Hendrik; Krauss, Frank; Lonnblad, Leif; Nurse, Emily; Richardson, Peter; Schumann, Steffen; Seymour, Michael H.; Sjostrand, Torbjorn; Skands, Peter; Webber, Bryan; /Cambridge U.

    2011-03-03

    We review the physics basis, main features and use of general-purpose Monte Carlo event generators for the simulation of proton-proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider. Topics included are: the generation of hard-scattering matrix elements for processes of interest, at both leading and next-to-leading QCD perturbative order; their matching to approximate treatments of higher orders based on the showering approximation; the parton and dipole shower formulations; parton distribution functions for event generators; non-perturbative aspects such as soft QCD collisions, the underlying event and diffractive processes; the string and cluster models for hadron formation; the treatment of hadron and tau decays; the inclusion of QED radiation and beyond-Standard-Model processes. We describe the principal features of the Ariadne, Herwig++, Pythia 8 and Sherpa generators, together with the Rivet and Professor validation and tuning tools, and discuss the physics philosophy behind the proper use of these generators and tools. This review is aimed at phenomenologists wishing to understand better how parton-level predictions are translated into hadron-level events as well as experimentalists wanting a deeper insight into the tools available for signal and background simulation at the LHC.

  18. Absolute GPS Time Event Generation and Capture for Remote Locations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    HIRES Collaboration

    The HiRes experiment operates fixed location and portable lasers at remote desert locations to generate calibration events. One physics goal of HiRes is to search for unusual showers. These may appear similar to upward or horizontally pointing laser tracks used for atmospheric calibration. It is therefore necessary to remove all of these calibration events from the HiRes detector data stream in a physics blind manner. A robust and convenient "tagging" method is to generate the calibration events at precisely known times. To facilitate this tagging method we have developed the GPSY (Global Positioning System YAG) module. It uses a GPS receiver, an embedded processor and additional timing logic to generate laser triggers at arbitrary programmed times and frequencies with better than 100nS accuracy. The GPSY module has two trigger outputs (one microsecond resolution) to trigger the laser flash-lamp and Q-switch and one event capture input (25nS resolution). The GPSY module can be programmed either by a front panel menu based interface or by a host computer via an RS232 serial interface. The latter also allows for computer logging of generated and captured event times. Details of the design and the implementation of these devices will be presented. 1 Motivation Air Showers represent a small fraction, much less than a percent, of the total High Resolution Fly's Eye data sample. The bulk of the sample is calibration data. Most of this calibration data is generated by two types of systems that use lasers. One type sends light directly to the detectors via optical fibers to monitor detector gains (Girard 2001). The other sends a beam of light into the sky and the scattered light that reaches the detectors is used to monitor atmospheric effects (Wiencke 1998). It is important that these calibration events be cleanly separated from the rest of the sample both to provide a complete set of monitoring information, and more

  19. Sensor-Generated Time Series Events: A Definition Language

    PubMed Central

    Anguera, Aurea; Lara, Juan A.; Lizcano, David; Martínez, Maria Aurora; Pazos, Juan

    2012-01-01

    There are now a great many domains where information is recorded by sensors over a limited time period or on a permanent basis. This data flow leads to sequences of data known as time series. In many domains, like seismography or medicine, time series analysis focuses on particular regions of interest, known as events, whereas the remainder of the time series contains hardly any useful information. In these domains, there is a need for mechanisms to identify and locate such events. In this paper, we propose an events definition language that is general enough to be used to easily and naturally define events in time series recorded by sensors in any domain. The proposed language has been applied to the definition of time series events generated within the branch of medicine dealing with balance-related functions in human beings. A device, called posturograph, is used to study balance-related functions. The platform has four sensors that record the pressure intensity being exerted on the platform, generating four interrelated time series. As opposed to the existing ad hoc proposals, the results confirm that the proposed language is valid, that is generally applicable and accurate, for identifying the events contained in the time series.

  20. Monte Carlo event generators for hadron-hadron collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Knowles, I.G.; Protopopescu, S.D.

    1993-06-01

    A brief review of Monte Carlo event generators for simulating hadron-hadron collisions is presented. Particular emphasis is placed on comparisons of the approaches used to describe physics elements and identifying their relative merits and weaknesses. This review summarizes a more detailed report.

  1. Recent developments in Monte-Carlo Event Generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schönherr, Marek

    2016-07-01

    With Run II of the LHC having started, the need for high precision theory predictions whose uncertainty matches that of the data to be taken necessitated a range of new developments in Monte-Carlo Event Generators. This talk will give an overview of the progress in recent years in the field and what can and cannot be expected from these newly written tools.

  2. An exclusive event generator for e+e- scan experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ping, Rong-Gang

    2014-08-01

    An exclusive event generator is designed for e+e- scan experiments, including initial state radiation effects up to the second order correction. The generator is coded within the framework of BesEvtGen. There are seventy hadronic decay modes available, with effective center-of-mass energy coverage from the two pion mass threshold up to about 6 GeV. The accuracy achieved for the initial state radiation correction reaches the level achieved by the KKMC generator. The uncertainty associated with the calculation of the correction factor to the initial state radiation is dominated by the measurements of the energy-dependent Born cross section.

  3. EVENT GENERATOR FOR RHIC SPIN PHYSICS-VOLUME 11

    SciTech Connect

    SAITO,N.; SCHAEFER,A.

    1998-12-01

    This volume contains the report of the RIKEN BNL Research Center workshop on ''Event Generator for RHIC Spin Physics'' held on September 21-23, 1998 at Brookhaven National Laboratory. A major objective of the workshop was to establish a firm collaboration to develop suitable event generators for the spin physics program at RHIC. With the completion of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) as a polarized collider a completely new domain of high-energy spin physics will be opened. The planned studies address the spin structure of the nucleon, tests of the standard model, and transverse spin effects in initial and final states. RHIC offers the unique opportunity to pursue these studies because of its high and variable energy, 50 {le} {radical}s {le} 500 GeV, high polarization, 70%, and high luminosity, 2 x 10{sup 32} cm{sup -2} sec{sup -1} or more at 500 GeV. To maximize the output from the spin program at RHIC, the understanding of both experimental and theoretical systematic errors is crucial. It will require full-fledged event generators, to simulate the processes of interest in great detail. The history of event generators shows that their development and improvement are ongoing processes taking place in parallel to the physics analysis by various experimental groups. The number of processes included in the generators has been increasing and the precision of their predictions has been being improved continuously. Our workshop aims at getting this process well under way for the spin physics program at RHIC, based on the fist development in this direction, SPHINX. The scope of the work includes: (1) update of the currently existing event generator by including the most recent parton parameterizations as a library and reflecting recent progress made for spin-independent generators, (2) implementation of new processes, especially parity violating effects in high energy pp collisions, (3) test of the currently available event generator by comparing to existing

  4. A Scenario Generation Method for Wind Power Ramp Events Forecasting

    SciTech Connect

    Cui, Ming-Jian; Ke, De-Ping; Sun, Yuan-Zhang; Gan, Di; Zhang, Jie; Hodge, Bri-Mathias

    2015-07-03

    Wind power ramp events (WPREs) have received increasing attention in recent years due to their significant impact on the reliability of power grid operations. In this paper, a novel WPRE forecasting method is proposed which is able to estimate the probability distributions of three important properties of the WPREs. To do so, a neural network (NN) is first proposed to model the wind power generation (WPG) as a stochastic process so that a number of scenarios of the future WPG can be generated (or predicted). Each possible scenario of the future WPG generated in this manner contains the ramping information, and the distributions of the designated WPRE properties can be stochastically derived based on the possible scenarios. Actual data from a wind power plant in the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) was selected for testing the proposed ramp forecasting method. Results showed that the proposed method effectively forecasted the probability of ramp events.

  5. Maize transformation technology development for commercial event generation

    PubMed Central

    Que, Qiudeng; Elumalai, Sivamani; Li, Xianggan; Zhong, Heng; Nalapalli, Samson; Schweiner, Michael; Fei, Xiaoyin; Nuccio, Michael; Kelliher, Timothy; Gu, Weining; Chen, Zhongying; Chilton, Mary-Dell M.

    2014-01-01

    Maize is an important food and feed crop in many countries. It is also one of the most important target crops for the application of biotechnology. Currently, there are more biotech traits available on the market in maize than in any other crop. Generation of transgenic events is a crucial step in the development of biotech traits. For commercial applications, a high throughput transformation system producing a large number of high quality events in an elite genetic background is highly desirable. There has been tremendous progress in Agrobacterium-mediated maize transformation since the publication of the Ishida et al. (1996) paper and the technology has been widely adopted for transgenic event production by many labs around the world. We will review general efforts in establishing efficient maize transformation technologies useful for transgenic event production in trait research and development. The review will also discuss transformation systems used for generating commercial maize trait events currently on the market. As the number of traits is increasing steadily and two or more modes of action are used to control key pests, new tools are needed to efficiently transform vectors containing multiple trait genes. We will review general guidelines for assembling binary vectors for commercial transformation. Approaches to increase transformation efficiency and gene expression of large gene stack vectors will be discussed. Finally, recent studies of targeted genome modification and transgene insertion using different site-directed nuclease technologies will be reviewed. PMID:25140170

  6. Effective Spectral Function for Neutrino Quasielastic Scattering Event Generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coopersmith, Brian; Bodek, Arie; Christy, M. Eric

    2014-03-01

    The spectral functions that are used in modeling of quasi elastic scattering in neutrino event generators such as GENIE, NEUT, NUANCE and NUWRO event generators include (Global) Fermi gas, local Fermi gas, Bodek-Ritche Fermi gas with high momentum tail, and the Benhar Fantoni spectral function. We find that these spectral functions do not agree with the prediction of ψ' superscaling functions that are extracted from electron quasi elastic scattering data on nuclear targets. It is known that spectral functions do not fully describe quasi elastic scattering because they only model the initial state. Final state interactions distort the shape of the quasi elastic peak, reduce the cross section at the peak and increase the cross section at the tail of the distribution for large energy transfer to final state nucleons. We show that an ``effective spectral function'' can be constructed to reliably reproduce the kinematic distributions predicted by the ψ' super scaling formalism.

  7. Automated event generation for loop-induced processes

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Hirschi, Valentin; Mattelaer, Olivier

    2015-10-22

    We present the first fully automated implementation of cross-section computation and event generation for loop-induced processes. This work is integrated in the MadGraph5_aMC@NLO framework. We describe the optimisations implemented at the level of the matrix element evaluation, phase space integration and event generation allowing for the simulation of large multiplicity loop-induced processes. Along with some selected differential observables, we illustrate our results with a table showing inclusive cross-sections for all loop-induced hadronic scattering processes with up to three final states in the SM as well as for some relevant 2 → 4 processes. Furthermore, many of these are computed heremore » for the first time.« less

  8. Automated event generation for loop-induced processes

    SciTech Connect

    Hirschi, Valentin; Mattelaer, Olivier

    2015-10-22

    We present the first fully automated implementation of cross-section computation and event generation for loop-induced processes. This work is integrated in the MadGraph5_aMC@NLO framework. We describe the optimisations implemented at the level of the matrix element evaluation, phase space integration and event generation allowing for the simulation of large multiplicity loop-induced processes. Along with some selected differential observables, we illustrate our results with a table showing inclusive cross-sections for all loop-induced hadronic scattering processes with up to three final states in the SM as well as for some relevant 2 → 4 processes. Furthermore, many of these are computed here for the first time.

  9. Stochastic generation of hourly rainstorm events in Johor

    SciTech Connect

    Nojumuddin, Nur Syereena; Yusof, Fadhilah; Yusop, Zulkifli

    2015-02-03

    Engineers and researchers in water-related studies are often faced with the problem of having insufficient and long rainfall record. Practical and effective methods must be developed to generate unavailable data from limited available data. Therefore, this paper presents a Monte-Carlo based stochastic hourly rainfall generation model to complement the unavailable data. The Monte Carlo simulation used in this study is based on the best fit of storm characteristics. Hence, by using the Maximum Likelihood Estimation (MLE) and Anderson Darling goodness-of-fit test, lognormal appeared to be the best rainfall distribution. Therefore, the Monte Carlo simulation based on lognormal distribution was used in the study. The proposed model was verified by comparing the statistical moments of rainstorm characteristics from the combination of the observed rainstorm events under 10 years and simulated rainstorm events under 30 years of rainfall records with those under the entire 40 years of observed rainfall data based on the hourly rainfall data at the station J1 in Johor over the period of 1972–2011. The absolute percentage error of the duration-depth, duration-inter-event time and depth-inter-event time will be used as the accuracy test. The results showed the first four product-moments of the observed rainstorm characteristics were close with the simulated rainstorm characteristics. The proposed model can be used as a basis to derive rainfall intensity-duration frequency in Johor.

  10. Radial flow afterburner for event generators and the baryon puzzle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuautle, E.; Paic, G.

    2008-07-01

    A simple afterburner to add radial flow to the randomized transverse momentum obtained from event generators, PYTHIA and HIJING, has been implemented to calculate the p/π ratios and compare them with available data. A coherent trend of qualitative agreement has been obtained in pp and Au+Au collisions for various centralities. These results indicate that the radial flow does play an important role in the so-called baryon puzzle anomaly.

  11. Neutrino-Argon Interaction with GENIE Event Generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chesneanu, Daniela

    2010-11-01

    Neutrinos are very special particles, have only weak interactions, except gravity, and are produced in very different processes in Nuclear and Particle Physics. Neutrinos are, also, messengers from astrophysical objects, as well as relics from Early Universe. Therefore, its can give us information on processes happening in the Universe, during its evolution, which cannot be studied otherwise. The underground instrumentation including a variety of large and very large detectors, thanks to technical breakthroughs, have achieved new fundamental results like the solution of the solar neutrino puzzle and the evidence for Physics beyond the Standard Model of elementary interactions in the neutrino sector with non-vanishing neutrino masses and lepton flavour violation. Two of the LAGUNA (Large Apparatus studying Grand Unification and Neutrino Astrophysics) detectors, namely: GLACIER (Giant Liquid Argon Charge Imaging ExpeRiment) [1] and LENA (Low Energy Neutrino Astrophysics) [2] could be emplaced in ``Unirea'' salt mine from Slănic-Prahova, Romania. A detailed analysis of the conditions and advantages is necessary. A few results have been presented previously [3]. In the present work, we propose to generate events and compute the cross sections for interactions between neutrino and Argon-40, to estimate possible detection performances and event types. For doing this, we use the code GENIE (G_enerates E_vents for N_eutrino I_nteraction E_xperiments) [4]. GENIE Code is an Object-Oriented Neutrino MC Generator supported and developed by an international collaboration of neutrino interaction experts.

  12. Automatic generation of efficient orderings of events for scheduling applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Robert A.

    1994-01-01

    In scheduling a set of tasks, it is often not known with certainty how long a given event will take. We call this duration uncertainty. Duration uncertainty is a primary obstacle to the successful completion of a schedule. If a duration of one task is longer than expected, the remaining tasks are delayed. The delay may result in the abandonment of the schedule itself, a phenomenon known as schedule breakage. One response to schedule breakage is on-line, dynamic rescheduling. A more recent alternative is called proactive rescheduling. This method uses statistical data about the durations of events in order to anticipate the locations in the schedule where breakage is likely prior to the execution of the schedule. It generates alternative schedules at such sensitive points, which can be then applied by the scheduler at execution time, without the delay incurred by dynamic rescheduling. This paper proposes a technique for making proactive error management more effective. The technique is based on applying a similarity-based method of clustering to the problem of identifying similar events in a set of events.

  13. Tool for Generating Realistic Residential Hot Water Event Schedules: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Hendron, B.; Burch, J.; Barker, G.

    2010-08-01

    The installed energy savings for advanced residential hot water systems can depend greatly on detailed occupant use patterns. Quantifying these patterns is essential for analyzing measures such as tankless water heaters, solar hot water systems with demand-side heat exchangers, distribution system improvements, and recirculation loops. This paper describes the development of an advanced spreadsheet tool that can generate a series of year-long hot water event schedules consistent with realistic probability distributions of start time, duration and flow rate variability, clustering, fixture assignment, vacation periods, and seasonality. This paper also presents the application of the hot water event schedules in the context of an integral-collector-storage solar water heating system in a moderate climate.

  14. Neutrino-Argon Interaction with GENIE Event Generator

    SciTech Connect

    Chesneanu, Daniela

    2010-11-24

    Neutrinos are very special particles, have only weak interactions, except gravity, and are produced in very different processes in Nuclear and Particle Physics. Neutrinos are, also, messengers from astrophysical objects, as well as relics from Early Universe. Therefore, its can give us information on processes happening in the Universe, during its evolution, which cannot be studied otherwise. The underground instrumentation including a variety of large and very large detectors, thanks to technical breakthroughs, have achieved new fundamental results like the solution of the solar neutrino puzzle and the evidence for Physics beyond the Standard Model of elementary interactions in the neutrino sector with non-vanishing neutrino masses and lepton flavour violation.Two of the LAGUNA(Large Apparatus studying Grand Unification and Neutrino Astrophysics) detectors, namely: GLACIER (Giant Liquid Argon Charge Imaging ExpeRiment) and LENA (Low Energy Neutrino Astrophysics) could be emplaced in 'Unirea' salt mine from Slanic-Prahova, Romania. A detailed analysis of the conditions and advantages is necessary. A few results have been presented previously. In the present work, we propose to generate events and compute the cross sections for interactions between neutrino and Argon-40, to estimate possible detection performances and event types. For doing this, we use the code GENIE(G lowbar enerates E lowbar vents for N lowbar eutrino I lowbar nteraction E lowbar xperiments). GENIE Code is an Object-Oriented Neutrino MC Generator supported and developed by an international collaboration of neutrino interaction experts.

  15. Heavy ion event generator HYDJET++ (HYDrodynamics plus JETs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lokhtin, I. P.; Malinina, L. V.; Petrushanko, S. V.; Snigirev, A. M.; Arsene, I.; Tywoniuk, K.

    2009-05-01

    HYDJET++ is a Monte Carlo event generator for simulation of relativistic heavy ion AA collisions considered as a superposition of the soft, hydro-type state and the hard state resulting from multi-parton fragmentation. This model is the development and continuation of HYDJET event generator (Lokhtin and Snigirev, EPJC 45 (2006) 211). The main program is written in the object-oriented C++ language under the ROOT environment. The hard part of HYDJET++ is identical to the hard part of Fortran-written HYDJET and it is included in the generator structure as a separate directory. The soft part of HYDJET++ event is the "thermal" hadronic state generated on the chemical and thermal freeze-out hypersurfaces obtained from the parameterization of relativistic hydrodynamics with preset freeze-out conditions. It includes the longitudinal, radial and elliptic flow effects and the decays of hadronic resonances. The corresponding fast Monte Carlo simulation procedure, C++ code FAST MC (Amelin et al., PRC 74 (2006) 064901; PRC 77 (2008) 014903) is adapted to HYDJET++. It is designed for studying the multi-particle production in a wide energy range of heavy ion experimental facilities: from FAIR and NICA to RHIC and LHC. Program summaryProgram title: HYDJET++, version 2 Catalogue identifier: AECR_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AECR_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 100 387 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 797 019 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++ (however there is a Fortran-written part which is included in the generator structure as a separate directory) Computer: Hardware independent (both C++ and Fortran compilers and ROOT environment [1] ( http://root.cern.ch/) should be installed

  16. Event generator tunes obtained from underlying event and multiparton scattering measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Asilar, E.; Bergauer, T.; Brandstetter, J.; Brondolin, E.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Hartl, C.; Hörmann, N.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; Knünz, V.; König, A.; Krammer, M.; Krätschmer, I.; Liko, D.; Matsushita, T.; Mikulec, I.; Rabady, D.; Rahbaran, B.; Rohringer, H.; Schieck, J.; Schöfbeck, R.; Strauss, J.; Treberer-Treberspurg, W.; Waltenberger, W.; Wulz, C.-E.; Mossolov, V.; Shumeiko, N.; Suarez Gonzalez, J.; Alderweireldt, S.; Cornelis, T.; de Wolf, E. A.; Janssen, X.; Knutsson, A.; Lauwers, J.; Luyckx, S.; van de Klundert, M.; van Haevermaet, H.; van Mechelen, P.; van Remortel, N.; van Spilbeeck, A.; Abu Zeid, S.; Blekman, F.; D'Hondt, J.; Daci, N.; de Bruyn, I.; Deroover, K.; Heracleous, N.; Keaveney, J.; Lowette, S.; Moreels, L.; Olbrechts, A.; Python, Q.; Strom, D.; Tavernier, S.; van Doninck, W.; van Mulders, P.; van Onsem, G. P.; van Parijs, I.; Barria, P.; Brun, H.; Caillol, C.; Clerbaux, B.; de Lentdecker, G.; Fasanella, G.; Favart, L.; Grebenyuk, A.; Karapostoli, G.; Lenzi, T.; Léonard, A.; Maerschalk, T.; Marinov, A.; Perniè, L.; Randle-Conde, A.; Seva, T.; Vander Velde, C.; Yonamine, R.; Vanlaer, P.; Yonamine, R.; Zenoni, F.; Zhang, F.; Adler, V.; Beernaert, K.; Benucci, L.; Cimmino, A.; Crucy, S.; Dobur, D.; Fagot, A.; Garcia, G.; Gul, M.; McCartin, J.; Ocampo Rios, A. A.; Poyraz, D.; Ryckbosch, D.; Salva, S.; Sigamani, M.; Tytgat, M.; van Driessche, W.; Yazgan, E.; Zaganidis, N.; Basegmez, S.; Beluffi, C.; Bondu, O.; Brochet, S.; Bruno, G.; Caudron, A.; Ceard, L.; da Silveira, G. G.; Delaere, C.; Favart, D.; Forthomme, L.; Giammanco, A.; Hollar, J.; Jafari, A.; Jez, P.; Komm, M.; Lemaitre, V.; Mertens, A.; Musich, M.; Nuttens, C.; Perrini, L.; Pin, A.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Popov, A.; Quertenmont, L.; Selvaggi, M.; Vidal Marono, M.; Beliy, N.; Hammad, G. H.; Júnior, W. L. Aldá; Alves, F. L.; Alves, G. A.; Brito, L.; Correa Martins Junior, M.; Hamer, M.; Hensel, C.; Moraes, A.; Pol, M. E.; Rebello Teles, P.; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, E.; Carvalho, W.; Chinellato, J.; Custódio, A.; da Costa, E. M.; de Jesus Damiao, D.; de Oliveira Martins, C.; Fonseca de Souza, S.; Huertas Guativa, L. M.; Malbouisson, H.; Matos Figueiredo, D.; Mora Herrera, C.; Mundim, L.; Nogima, H.; Prado da Silva, W. L.; Santoro, A.; Sznajder, A.; Tonelli Manganote, E. J.; Vilela Pereira, A.; Ahuja, S.; Bernardes, C. A.; de Souza Santos, A.; Dogra, S.; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T. R.; Gregores, E. M.; Mercadante, P. G.; Moon, C. S.; Novaes, S. F.; Padula, Sandra S.; Romero Abad, D.; Ruiz Vargas, J. C.; Aleksandrov, A.; Hadjiiska, R.; Iaydjiev, P.; Rodozov, M.; Stoykova, S.; Sultanov, G.; Vutova, M.; Dimitrov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Litov, L.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.; Ahmad, M.; Bian, J. G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, M.; Cheng, T.; Du, R.; Jiang, C. H.; Plestina, R.; Romeo, F.; Shaheen, S. M.; Spiezia, A.; Tao, J.; Wang, C.; Wang, Z.; Zhang, H.; Asawatangtrakuldee, C.; Ban, Y.; Li, Q.; Liu, S.; Mao, Y.; Qian, S. J.; Wang, D.; Xu, Z.; Avila, C.; Cabrera, A.; Chaparro Sierra, L. F.; Florez, C.; Gomez, J. P.; Gomez Moreno, B.; Sanabria, J. C.; Godinovic, N.; Lelas, D.; Puljak, I.; Ribeiro Cipriano, P. M.; Antunovic, Z.; Kovac, M.; Brigljevic, V.; Kadija, K.; Luetic, J.; Micanovic, S.; Sudic, L.; Attikis, A.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Mousa, J.; Nicolaou, C.; Ptochos, F.; Razis, P. A.; Rykaczewski, H.; Bodlak, M.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Abdelalim, A. A.; Awad, A.; Mahrous, A.; Mohammed, Y.; Radi, A.; Calpas, B.; Kadastik, M.; Murumaa, M.; Raidal, M.; Tiko, A.; Veelken, C.; Eerola, P.; Pekkanen, J.; Voutilainen, M.; Härkönen, J.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Mäenpää, T.; Peltola, T.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Wendland, L.; Talvitie, J.; Tuuva, T.; Besancon, M.; Couderc, F.; Dejardin, M.; Denegri, D.; Fabbro, B.; Faure, J. L.; Favaro, C.; Ferri, F.; Ganjour, S.; Givernaud, A.; Gras, P.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Jarry, P.; Locci, E.; Machet, M.; Malcles, J.; Rander, J.; Rosowsky, A.; Titov, M.; Zghiche, A.; Antropov, I.; Baffioni, S.; Beaudette, F.; Busson, P.; Cadamuro, L.; Chapon, E.; Charlot, C.; Dahms, T.; Davignon, O.; Filipovic, N.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Jo, M.; Lisniak, S.; Mastrolorenzo, L.; Miné, P.; Naranjo, I. N.; Nguyen, M.; Ochando, C.; Ortona, G.; Paganini, P.; Pigard, P.; Regnard, S.; Salerno, R.; Sauvan, J. B.; Sirois, Y.; Strebler, T.; Yilmaz, Y.; Zabi, A.; Agram, J.-L.; Andrea, J.; Aubin, A.; Bloch, D.; Brom, J.-M.; Buttignol, M.; Chabert, E. C.; Chanon, N.; Collard, C.; Conte, E.; Coubez, X.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Gelé, D.; Goerlach, U.; Goetzmann, C.; Le Bihan, A.-C.; Merlin, J. A.; Skovpen, K.

    2016-03-01

    New sets of parameters ("tunes") for the underlying-event (UE) modelling of the pythia8, pythia6 and herwig++ Monte Carlo event generators are constructed using different parton distribution functions. Combined fits to CMS UE proton-proton ({p}{p}) data at sqrt{s} = 7 text {TeV} and to UE proton-antiproton ({p}overline{p} ) data from the CDF experiment at lower sqrt{s}, are used to study the UE models and constrain their parameters, providing thereby improved predictions for proton-proton collisions at 13 text {TeV}. In addition, it is investigated whether the values of the parameters obtained from fits to UE observables are consistent with the values determined from fitting observables sensitive to double-parton scattering processes. Finally, comparisons are presented of the UE tunes to "minimum bias" (MB) events, multijet, and Drell-Yan (q overline{q} rightarrow Z/ γ ^* rightarrow lepton-antilepton+jets) observables at 7 and 8 text {TeV}, as well as predictions for MB and UE observables at 13 text {TeV}.

  17. The Generator of the Event Structure Lexicon (GESL): Automatic Annotation of Event Structure for Textual Inference Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Im, Seohyun

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation aims to develop the Generator of the Event Structure Lexicon (GESL) which is a tool to automate annotating the event structure of verbs in text to support textual inference tasks related to lexically entailed subevents. The output of the GESL is the Event Structure Lexicon (ESL), which is a lexicon of verbs in text which includes…

  18. Next-Generation Navigational Infrastructure and the ATLAS Event Store

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Gemmeren, P.; Malon, D.; Nowak, M.; Atlas Collaboration

    2014-06-01

    The ATLAS event store employs a persistence framework with extensive navigational capabilities. These include real-time back navigation to upstream processing stages, externalizable data object references, navigation from any data object to any other both within a single file and across files, and more. The 2013-2014 shutdown of the Large Hadron Collider provides an opportunity to enhance this infrastructure in several ways that both extend these capabilities and allow the collaboration to better exploit emerging computing platforms. Enhancements include redesign with efficient file merging in mind, content-based indices in optimized reference types, and support for forward references. The latter provide the potential to construct valid references to data before those data are written, a capability that is useful in a variety of multithreading, multiprocessing, distributed processing, and deferred processing scenarios. This paper describes the architecture and design of the next generation of ATLAS navigational infrastructure.

  19. Molecular Characterization of Transgenic Events Using Next Generation Sequencing Approach

    PubMed Central

    Mammadov, Jafar; Ye, Liang; Soe, Khaing; Richey, Kimberly; Cruse, James; Zhuang, Meibao; Gao, Zhifang; Evans, Clive; Rounsley, Steve; Kumpatla, Siva P.

    2016-01-01

    Demand for the commercial use of genetically modified (GM) crops has been increasing in light of the projected growth of world population to nine billion by 2050. A prerequisite of paramount importance for regulatory submissions is the rigorous safety assessment of GM crops. One of the components of safety assessment is molecular characterization at DNA level which helps to determine the copy number, integrity and stability of a transgene; characterize the integration site within a host genome; and confirm the absence of vector DNA. Historically, molecular characterization has been carried out using Southern blot analysis coupled with Sanger sequencing. While this is a robust approach to characterize the transgenic crops, it is both time- and resource-consuming. The emergence of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies has provided highly sensitive and cost- and labor-effective alternative for molecular characterization compared to traditional Southern blot analysis. Herein, we have demonstrated the successful application of both whole genome sequencing and target capture sequencing approaches for the characterization of single and stacked transgenic events and compared the results and inferences with traditional method with respect to key criteria required for regulatory submissions. PMID:26908260

  20. Molecular Characterization of Transgenic Events Using Next Generation Sequencing Approach.

    PubMed

    Guttikonda, Satish K; Marri, Pradeep; Mammadov, Jafar; Ye, Liang; Soe, Khaing; Richey, Kimberly; Cruse, James; Zhuang, Meibao; Gao, Zhifang; Evans, Clive; Rounsley, Steve; Kumpatla, Siva P

    2016-01-01

    Demand for the commercial use of genetically modified (GM) crops has been increasing in light of the projected growth of world population to nine billion by 2050. A prerequisite of paramount importance for regulatory submissions is the rigorous safety assessment of GM crops. One of the components of safety assessment is molecular characterization at DNA level which helps to determine the copy number, integrity and stability of a transgene; characterize the integration site within a host genome; and confirm the absence of vector DNA. Historically, molecular characterization has been carried out using Southern blot analysis coupled with Sanger sequencing. While this is a robust approach to characterize the transgenic crops, it is both time- and resource-consuming. The emergence of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies has provided highly sensitive and cost- and labor-effective alternative for molecular characterization compared to traditional Southern blot analysis. Herein, we have demonstrated the successful application of both whole genome sequencing and target capture sequencing approaches for the characterization of single and stacked transgenic events and compared the results and inferences with traditional method with respect to key criteria required for regulatory submissions. PMID:26908260

  1. An event generator for simulations of complex β-decay experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, D.; Algora, A.; Tain, J. L.

    2016-08-01

    This article describes a Monte Carlo event generator for the design, optimization and performance characterization of beta decay spectroscopy experimental set-ups. The event generator has been developed within the Geant4 simulation architecture and provides new features and greater flexibility in comparison with the current available decay generator.

  2. Hyperbola-generator for location of aperiodic events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paucker, H. R.; Spitzer, C. R.; Vann, D. S.

    1970-01-01

    Plotting device, when used in conjunction with three or more detectors and local receiver and recorder, can quickly pinpoint location of any aperiodic event. Operation requires minimal training and is readily adapted to the field. Mechanical error in device prototype is less than or equal to 3 percent.

  3. A Trick to Improve the Efficiency of Generating Unweighted $B_c$ Events from BCVEGPY

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xian-You; Wu, Xing-Gang; /Chongqing U. /SLAC

    2012-09-14

    In the present paper, we provide an addendum to improve the efficiency of generating unweighted events within PYTHIA environment for the generator BCVEGPY2.1 [C.H. Chang, J.X. Wang, X.G. Wu, Comput. Phys. Commun. 174 (2006) 241]. This trick is helpful for experimental simulation. Moreover, the BCVEGPY output has also been improved, i.e. one Les Houches Event common block has been added so as to generate a standard Les Houches Event file that contains the information of the generated Bc meson and the accompanying partons, which can be more conveniently used for further simulation.

  4. NEXT GENERATION NUCLEAR PLANT LICENSING BASIS EVENT SELECTION WHITE PAPER

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Holbrook

    2010-09-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) will be a licensed commercial high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) plant capable of producing the electricity and high temperature process heat for industrial markets supporting a range of end-user applications. The NGNP Project has adopted the 10 CFR 52 Combined License (COL) application process, as recommended in the Report to Congress, dated August 2008, as the foundation for the NGNP licensing strategy. NRC licensing of the NGNP plant utilizing this process will demonstrate the efficacy of licensing future HTGRs for commercial industrial applications. This white paper is one in a series of submittals that will address key generic issues of the COL priority licensing topics as part of the process for establishing HTGR regulatory requirements.

  5. Identification and classification of dynamic event tree scenarios via possibilistic clustering: application to a steam generator tube rupture event.

    PubMed

    Mercurio, D; Podofillini, L; Zio, E; Dang, V N

    2009-11-01

    This paper illustrates a method to identify and classify scenarios generated in a dynamic event tree (DET) analysis. Identification and classification are carried out by means of an evolutionary possibilistic fuzzy C-means clustering algorithm which takes into account not only the final system states but also the timing of the events and the process evolution. An application is considered with regards to the scenarios generated following a steam generator tube rupture in a nuclear power plant. The scenarios are generated by the accident dynamic simulator (ADS), coupled to a RELAP code that simulates the thermo-hydraulic behavior of the plant and to an operators' crew model, which simulates their cognitive and procedures-guided responses. A set of 60 scenarios has been generated by the ADS DET tool. The classification approach has grouped the 60 scenarios into 4 classes of dominant scenarios, one of which was not anticipated a priori but was "discovered" by the classifier. The proposed approach may be considered as a first effort towards the application of identification and classification approaches to scenarios post-processing for real-scale dynamic safety assessments. PMID:19819366

  6. ISAJET: a Monte Carlo event generator for pp and anti pp interactions. Version 3

    SciTech Connect

    Paige, F.E.; Protopopescu, S.D.

    1982-09-01

    ISAJET is a Monte Carlo computer program which simulates pp and anti pp reactions at high energy. It can generate minimum bias events representative of the total inelastic cross section, high PT hadronic events, and Drell-Yan events with a virtual ..gamma.., W/sup + -/, or Z/sup 0/. It is based on perturbative QCD and phenomeno-logical models for jet fragmentation.

  7. ELRADGEN: Monte Carlo generator for radiative events in elastic electron-proton scattering

    SciTech Connect

    A.V. Afanasev; I. Akushevich; A. Ilyichev; B. Niczyporuk

    2003-08-01

    We discuss the theoretical approach and practical algorithms for simulation of radiative events in elastic ep-scattering. A new Monte Carlo generator for real photon emission events in the process of elastic electron-proton scattering is presented. We perform a few consistency checks and present numerical results.

  8. Effects of self-generated versus experimenter-provided cues on the representation of future events.

    PubMed

    Neroni, Maria Adriana; Gamboz, Nadia; de Vito, Stefania; Brandimonte, Maria Antonella

    2016-01-01

    Most experimental studies of prospection focused on episodic forms of future events prompted by means of verbal cues. However, there is evidence suggesting that future events differ considerably according to whether they are produced in response to external, experimenter-provided verbal cues or they are self-generated. In the present study, we compared the quality, the phenomenal characteristics, the temporal distribution, and the content of imagined events prompted by experimenter-provided cues (i.e., cue-words and short verbal sentences) or elicited by means of verbal cues that were self-generated in an autobiographical fluency task. The results showed that future events prompted by means of self-generated cues contained fewer event-specific details than future events prompted by experimenter-provided cues. However, future events elicited by means of self-generated and by experimenter-provided cues did not differ with respect to their phenomenal characteristics. The temporal distribution and the thematic content of future representations were also affected by the type of cue used to elicit prospection. These results offer a holistic view of the properties of future thinking and suggest that the content and the characteristics of envisioned future events may be affected by the method used to elicit prospection. PMID:26444043

  9. Mid-peripheral collisions around the Fermi energy: comparison with an event generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudan, Sylvie; McIntosh, A. B.; Gosser, Z.; Metelko, C.; Rudolph, M.; Yanez, R.; de Souza, R.; Chbihi, A.; Famiano, M.; Fregeau, M. O.; Gauthier, J.; Moisan, J.; Roy, R.; Bianchin, S.; Schwarz, C.; Trautmann, W.; Durand, D.

    2009-05-01

    The reactions ^124Xe+^112,124Sn at E/A=50MeV have been recently measured. For mid-peripheral collisions, the projectile-like-fragment has been measured in coincidence with emitted particles (charged particles and neutrons). Experimental data will be compared to those obtained by the event generator Elie[1]. This two-step event generator consists of an entrance channel phase using a random process to determine the initial partition; and of kinematic propagation and secondary decay as the second phase. Experimental and generated energy distributions, angular distributions, and Z distributions of charged products will be examined. Yields of isotopically resolved fragments will be studied, including the effect of the target N/Z. [1] Elie: an event generator for nuclear reactions, Dominique Durand, arXiv:0803.2159

  10. A trick to improve the efficiency of generating unweighted B events from BCVEGPY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xian-You; Wu, Xing-Gang

    2012-02-01

    In the present paper, we provide an addendum to improve the efficiency of generating unweighted events within PYTHIA environment for the generator BCVEGPY2.1 [C.H. Chang, J.X. Wang, X.G. Wu, Comput. Phys. Commun. 174 (2006) 241]. This trick is helpful for experimental simulation. Moreover, the BCVEGPY output has also been improved, i.e. one Les Houches Event common block has been added so as to generate a standard Les Houches Event file that contains the information of the generated B meson and the accompanying partons, which can be more conveniently used for further simulation. New version program summaryTitle of program: BCVEGPY2.1a Catalogue identifier: ADTJ_v2_2 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADTJ_v2_2.html Program obtained from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 166 133 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 1 655 390 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language used: FORTRAN 77/90 Computer: Any LINUX based on PC with FORTRAN 77 or FORTRAN 90 and GNU C compiler as well Operating systems: LINUX RAM: About 2.0 MB Classification: 11.2, 11.5 Catalogue identifier of previous version: ADTJ_v2_1 Reference in CPC: Comput. Phys. Commun. 175 (2006) 624 Does the new version supersede the old program: No Nature of physical problem: Hadronic Production of B meson and its excited states Method of solution: To generate weighted and unweighted B events within PYTHIA environment effectively. Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Hadronic production of ( cb¯)-quarkonium via the gluon-gluon fusion mechanism are given by the 'complete calculation approach'. The simulation of B events is done within PYTHIA environment. Reasons for new version: More and more data are accumulated at the large hadronic collider, it would be possible to make

  11. Detection of Upper Airway Status and Respiratory Events by a Current Generation Positive Airway Pressure Device

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qing Yun; Berry, Richard B.; Goetting, Mark G.; Staley, Bethany; Soto-Calderon, Haideliza; Tsai, Sheila C.; Jasko, Jeffrey G.; Pack, Allan I.; Kuna, Samuel T.

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: To compare a positive airway pressure (PAP) device's detection of respiratory events and airway status during device-detected apneas with events scored on simultaneous polysomnography (PSG). Design: Prospective PSGs of patients with sleep apnea using a new-generation PAP device. Settings: Four clinical and academic sleep centers. Patients: Forty-five patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and complex sleep apnea (Comp SA) performed a PSG on PAP levels adjusted to induce respiratory events. Interventions: None. Measurements and Results: PAP device data identifying the type of respiratory event and whether the airway during a device-detected apnea was open or obstructed were compared to time-synced, manually scored respiratory events on simultaneous PSG recording. Intraclass correlation coefficients between device-detected and PSG scored events were 0.854 for apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), 0.783 for apnea index, 0.252 for hypopnea index, and 0.098 for respiratory event-related arousals index. At a device AHI (AHIFlow) of 10 events/h, area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.98, with sensitivity 0.92 and specificity 0.84. AHIFlow tended to overestimate AHI on PSG at values less than 10 events/h. The device detected that the airway was obstructed in 87.4% of manually scored obstructive apneas. Of the device-detected apneas with clear airway, a minority (15.8%) were manually scored as obstructive apneas. Conclusions: A device-detected apnea-hypopnea index (AHIFlow) < 10 events/h on a positive airway pressure device is strong evidence of good treatment efficacy. Device-detected airway status agrees closely with the presumed airway status during polysomnography scored events, but should not be equated with a specific type of respiratory event. Citation: Li QY, Berry RB, Goetting MG, Staley B, Soto-Calderon H, Tsai SC, Jasko JG, Pack AI, Kuna ST. Detection of upper airway status and respiratory events by a current generation positive

  12. Assessing hail risk for a building portfolio by generating stochastic events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolet, Pierrick; Choffet, Marc; Demierre, Jonathan; Imhof, Markus; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Nguyen, Liliane; Voumard, Jérémie

    2015-04-01

    Among the natural hazards affecting buildings, hail is one of the most costly and is nowadays a major concern for building insurance companies. In Switzerland, several costly events were reported these last years, among which the July 2011 event, which cost around 125 million EUR to the Aargauer public insurance company (North-western Switzerland). This study presents the new developments in a stochastic model which aims at evaluating the risk for a building portfolio. Thanks to insurance and meteorological radar data of the 2011 Aargauer event, vulnerability curves are proposed by comparing the damage rate to the radar intensity (i.e. the maximum hailstone size reached during the event, deduced from the radar signal). From these data, vulnerability is defined by a two-step process. The first step defines the probability for a building to be affected (i.e. to claim damages), while the second, if the building is affected, attributes a damage rate to the building from a probability distribution specific to the intensity class. To assess the risk, stochastic events are then generated by summing a set of Gaussian functions with 6 random parameters (X and Y location, maximum hailstone size, standard deviation, eccentricity and orientation). The location of these functions is constrained by a general event shape and by the position of the previously defined functions of the same event. For each generated event, the total cost is calculated in order to obtain a distribution of event costs. The general events parameters (shape, size, …) as well as the distribution of the Gaussian parameters are inferred from two radar intensity maps, namely the one of the aforementioned event, and a second from an event which occurred in 2009. After a large number of simulations, the hailstone size distribution obtained in different regions is compared to the distribution inferred from pre-existing hazard maps, built from a larger set of radar data. The simulation parameters are then

  13. A trick to improve the efficiency of generating unweighted B events from BCVEGPY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xian-You; Wu, Xing-Gang

    2012-02-01

    In the present paper, we provide an addendum to improve the efficiency of generating unweighted events within PYTHIA environment for the generator BCVEGPY2.1 [C.H. Chang, J.X. Wang, X.G. Wu, Comput. Phys. Commun. 174 (2006) 241]. This trick is helpful for experimental simulation. Moreover, the BCVEGPY output has also been improved, i.e. one Les Houches Event common block has been added so as to generate a standard Les Houches Event file that contains the information of the generated B meson and the accompanying partons, which can be more conveniently used for further simulation. New version program summaryTitle of program: BCVEGPY2.1a Catalogue identifier: ADTJ_v2_2 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADTJ_v2_2.html Program obtained from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 166 133 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 1 655 390 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language used: FORTRAN 77/90 Computer: Any LINUX based on PC with FORTRAN 77 or FORTRAN 90 and GNU C compiler as well Operating systems: LINUX RAM: About 2.0 MB Classification: 11.2, 11.5 Catalogue identifier of previous version: ADTJ_v2_1 Reference in CPC: Comput. Phys. Commun. 175 (2006) 624 Does the new version supersede the old program: No Nature of physical problem: Hadronic Production of B meson and its excited states Method of solution: To generate weighted and unweighted B events within PYTHIA environment effectively. Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Hadronic production of ( cb¯)-quarkonium via the gluon-gluon fusion mechanism are given by the 'complete calculation approach'. The simulation of B events is done within PYTHIA environment. Reasons for new version: More and more data are accumulated at the large hadronic collider, it would be possible to make

  14. Event generator for RHIC spin physics. RIKEN BNL Research Center Proceedings, Volume 18

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, N.; Schaefer, A.

    1999-03-15

    This volume archives the reports from the RIKEN BNL Research Center workshop on ''Event Generator for RHIC Spin Physics II'' held during the week March 15, 1999 at Brookhaven National Laboratory. It was the second meeting on the subject following a first one in last September. This workshop has been initiated to establish a firm collaboration between theorists and experimentalists involved in RHIC spin physics with the aim of developing a reliable, high-precision event generator for RHIC spin physics. Needless to say, adequate event generators are indispensible tools for high energy physics programs in general, especially in the process of: planning the experimental programs, developing algorithms to extract the physics signals of interest, estimating the background in the extracted results, and connecting the final particle kinematics to the fundamental i.e. partonic level processes. Since RHIC is the first polarized collider, dedicated efforts are required to obtain a full-fledged event generator which describes spin dependent reactions in great detail. The RHIC spin project will be in the transition from R&D and construction phase to operation phase in the year 2000. As soon as data will be available, it should be analysed, interpreted and compared with theoretical predictions to extract its physical significance. Without mutual understanding between theorists and experimentalists on the technical details, it is hard to perform detailed comparisons in a consistent framework. The importance of this fact has been recognized especially during the analyses of hadron induced reactions observed at CERN, Fermilab and DESY. Since the use of event generator is indispensible for the analyses, it should be developed in a way that both experimentalists and theorists can agree upon.

  15. Event generator for RHIC spin physics. Proceedings of RIKEN BNL Research Center workshop: Volume 11

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-31

    A major objective of the workshop was to establish a firm collaboration to develop suitable event generators for the spin physics program at RHIC. With the completion of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) as a polarized collider a completely new domain of high-energy spin physics will be opened. The planned studies address the spin structure of the nucleon, tests of the standard model, and transverse spin effects in initial and final states. RHIC offers the unique opportunity to pursue these studies because of its high and variable energy, 50 {le} {radical}s {le} 500 GeV, high polarization, 70%, and high luminosity, 2 {times} 10{sup 32} cm{sup {minus}2} sec{sup {minus}1} or more at 500 GeV. To maximize the output from the spin program at RHIC, the understanding of both experimental and theoretical systematic errors is crucial. It will require full-fledged event generators, to simulate the processes of interest in great detail. The history of event generators shows that their development and improvement are ongoing processes taking place in parallel to the physics analysis by various experimental groups. The number of processes included in the generators has been increasing and the precision of their predictions is being improved continuously. This workshop aims at getting this process well under way for the spin physics program at RHIC, based on the first development in this direction, SPHINX.

  16. Search for a QGP with a TPC spectrometer, and QGP signals predicted by new event generator

    SciTech Connect

    Lindenbaum, S.J.

    1988-12-08

    The BNL/CCNY/Johns Hopkins/Rice Collaboration has developed and successfully tested a TPC Magnetic Spectrometer to search for OGP signals produced by ion beams at AGS. Test data with 14.5 GeV/c /times/ A Oxygen ions incident on a Pb target has been obtained. These include a 78-prong nuclear interaction in the MPS magnet which was pattern recognized with an efficiency approx.75%. A cascade and plasma event generator has also been developed, the predictions of which are used to illustrate how our technique can detect possible plasma signals at AGS and RHIC. A 4..pi.. tracking TPC magnetic spectrometer has been proposed for RHIC. The new event generator predicts striking central rapidity bump QGP signals at RHIC for p, /bar p/, ..pi../sup +-/, K/sup +-/, etc., produced by 100 GeV/c /times/ A Au on Au collisions and these are presented. 2 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  17. A fast, programmable, stand-alone pulse generator emulating spectroscopy nuclear events

    SciTech Connect

    Imperiale, C.

    1996-10-01

    The design of a fast, programmable, stand-alone pulse generator emulating spectroscopy nuclear events is described. The generator is one unit in a system aiming to test the validity of the simulation and theoretical work relating to the shaping, acquisition, and processing of spectroscopy signals in different experimental situations arising from different technical and scientific fields. The generator output, which also includes piled-up shapes, can be used in many different ways. For example, it can be used: (1) as an input to a charge sensitive preamplifier and shaping amplifier system; (2) as an input to a module for real-time digital shaping of spectroscopy pulses; and (3) it can generate a digital sequence emulating a digitally sampled analog pulse. The signals that it can emulate include those from simple charge sensitive preamplifiers, from more refined analog shapers, and the signals generated directly from scintillation detectors. The main element of the generator is the Analog Devices 21060, a fast and flexible digital signal processor (DSP). This paper considers various generator configurations arising from the need to reach a compromise among generator speed, shape resolution, and memory requirements. It is possible to program both the emulated average counting rate and the time interval between two consecutive samples (tns) using a predetermined pulse shape. The minimum tns value is equal to 10 ns in parallel configurations.

  18. Comparisons of neutrino event generators from an oscillation-experiment perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, Nathan

    2015-05-01

    Monte Carlo generators are crucial to the analysis of high energy physics data, ideally giving a baseline comparison between the state-of-art theoretical models and experimental data. Presented here is a comparison between three of final state distributions from the GENIE, Neut, NUANCE, and NuWro neutrino Monte Carlo event generators. The final state distributions chosen for comparison are: the electromagnetic energy fraction in neutral current interactions, the energy of the leading π0 vs. the scattering angle for neutral current interactions, and the muon energy vs. scattering angle of νµ charged current interactions.

  19. The Sequence of Events generator: A powerful tool for mission operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wobbe, Hubertus; Braun, Armin

    1994-01-01

    The functions and features of the sequence of events (SOE) and flight operations procedures (FOP) generator developed and used at DLR/GSOC for the positioning of EUTELSAT 2 satellites are presented. The SOE and FOP are the main operational documents that are prepared for nominal as well as for non-nominal mission execution. Their structure and application are described. Both of these documents are generated, validated, and maintained by a common software tool. Its main features and advantages are demonstrated. The tool has been improved continuously over the last 5 years. Due to its flexibility it can easily be applied to other projects and new features may be added.

  20. Comparisons of neutrino event generators from an oscillation-experiment perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Mayer, Nathan

    2015-05-15

    Monte Carlo generators are crucial to the analysis of high energy physics data, ideally giving a baseline comparison between the state-of-art theoretical models and experimental data. Presented here is a comparison between three of final state distributions from the GENIE, Neut, NUANCE, and NuWro neutrino Monte Carlo event generators. The final state distributions chosen for comparison are: the electromagnetic energy fraction in neutral current interactions, the energy of the leading π{sup 0} vs. the scattering angle for neutral current interactions, and the muon energy vs. scattering angle of ν{sub µ} charged current interactions.

  1. BEEC: An event generator for simulating the Bc meson production at an e+e- collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhi; Wu, Xing-Gang; Wang, Xian-You

    2013-12-01

    The Bc meson is a doubly heavy quark-antiquark bound state and carries flavors explicitly, which provides a fruitful laboratory for testing potential models and understanding the weak decay mechanisms for heavy flavors. In view of the prospects in Bc physics at the hadronic colliders such as Tevatron and LHC, Bc physics is attracting more and more attention. It has been shown that a high luminosity e+e- collider running around the Z0-peak is also helpful for studying the properties of Bc meson and has its own advantages. For this purpose, we write down an event generator for simulating Bc meson production through e+e- annihilation according to relevant publications. We name it BEEC, in which the color-singlet S-wave and P-wave (cb¯)-quarkonium states together with the color-octet S-wave (cb¯)-quarkonium states can be generated. BEEC can also be adopted to generate the similar charmonium and bottomonium states via the semi-exclusive channels e++e-→|(QQ¯)[n]>+Q+Q¯ with Q=b and c respectively. To increase the simulation efficiency, we simplify the amplitude as compact as possible by using the improved trace technology. BEEC is a Fortran program written in a PYTHIA-compatible format and is written in a modular structure, one may apply it to various situations or experimental environments conveniently by using the GNU C compiler make. A method to improve the efficiency of generating unweighted events within PYTHIA environment is proposed. Moreover, BEEC will generate a standard Les Houches Event data file that contains useful information of the meson and its accompanying partons, which can be conveniently imported into PYTHIA to do further hadronization and decay simulation. Catalogue identifier: AEQC_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEQC_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen’s University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in

  2. A methodology for generating dynamic accident progression event trees for level-2 PRA

    SciTech Connect

    Hakobyan, A.; Denning, R.; Aldemir, T.; Dunagan, S.; Kunsman, D.

    2006-07-01

    Currently, the development and analysis of Accident Progression Event Trees (APETs) are performed in a manner that is computationally time consuming, difficult to reproduce and also can be phenomenologically inconsistent. A software tool (ADAPT) is described for automated APET generation using the concept of dynamic event trees. The tool determines the branching times from a severe accident analysis code based on user specified criteria for branching. It assigns user specified probabilities to every branch, tracks the total branch probability, and truncates branches based on the given pruning/truncation rules to avoid an unmanageable number of scenarios. While the software tool could be applied to any systems analysis code, the MELCOR code is used for this illustration. A case study is presented involving station blackout with the loss of auxiliary feedwater system for a pressurized water reactor. (authors)

  3. Generating extreme weather event sets from very large ensembles of regional climate models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massey, Neil; Guillod, Benoit; Otto, Friederike; Allen, Myles; Jones, Richard; Hall, Jim

    2015-04-01

    Generating extreme weather event sets from very large ensembles of regional climate models Neil Massey, Benoit P. Guillod, Friederike E. L. Otto, Myles R. Allen, Richard Jones, Jim W. Hall Environmental Change Institute, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK Extreme events can have large impacts on societies and are therefore being increasingly studied. In particular, climate change is expected to impact the frequency and intensity of these events. However, a major limitation when investigating extreme weather events is that, by definition, only few events are present in observations. A way to overcome this issue it to use large ensembles of model simulations. Using the volunteer distributed computing (VDC) infrastructure of weather@home [1], we run a very large number (10'000s) of RCM simulations over the European domain at a resolution of 25km, with an improved land-surface scheme, nested within a free-running GCM. Using VDC allows many thousands of climate model runs to be computed. Using observations for the GCM boundary forcings we can run historical "hindcast" simulations over the past 100 to 150 years. This allows us, due to the chaotic variability of the atmosphere, to ascertain how likely an extreme event was, given the boundary forcings, and to derive synthetic event sets. The events in these sets did not actually occur in the observed record but could have occurred given the boundary forcings, with an associated probability. The event sets contain time-series of fields of meteorological variables that allow impact modellers to assess the loss the event would incur. Projections of events into the future are achieved by modelling projections of the sea-surface temperature (SST) and sea-ice boundary forcings, by combining the variability of the SST in the observed record with a range of warming signals derived from the varying responses of SSTs in the CMIP5 ensemble to elevated greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in three RCP scenarios. Simulating the future with a

  4. Online integrated solution to collect data, generate information and manage events in the human biomonitoring field.

    PubMed

    Reis, M Fátima; Tedim, João; Aguiar, Pedro; Miguel, J Pereira; Casteleyn, Ludwine; Joas, Reinhard; Van Tongelen, Birgit

    2007-05-01

    In the ambit of Work Package 1 of the ESBIO Project, an online integrated solution to collect data, to generate information, and to manage mainly information-sharing events related with human biomonitoring within Europe has been designed and is being implemented. The present paper summarises the methodological approaches used by the authors as proposers, general promoters and disseminators of this strategic concept, as well as the first outcomes and future actions to be taken, in the short and longer term, to face present and future challenges to make this innovative solution happen. PMID:17344095

  5. Landslide-generated tsunamis in a perialpine lake: Historical events and numerical models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilbe, Michael; Anselmetti, Flavio S.

    2014-05-01

    Many of the perialpine lakes in Central Europe - the large, glacier-carved basins formed during the Pleistocene glaciations of the Alps - have proven to be environments prone to subaquatic landsliding. Among these, Lake Lucerne (Switzerland) has a particularly well-established record of subaquatic landslides and related tsunamis. Its sedimentary archive documents numerous landslides over the entire Holocene, which have either been triggered by earthquakes, or which occurred apparently spontaneously, possibly due to rapid sediment accumulation on delta slopes. Due to their controlled boundary conditions and the possibility to be investigated on a complete basinal scale, such lacustrine tsunamis may be used as textbook analogons for their marine counterparts. Two events in the 17th century illustrate these processes and their consequences: In AD 1601, an earthquake (Mw ~ 5.9) led to widespread failure of the sediment drape covering the lateral slopes in several basins. The resulting landslides generated tsunami waves that reached a runup of several metres, as reported in historical accounts. The waves caused widespread damage as well as loss of lives in communities along the shores. In AD 1687, the apparently spontaneous collapse of a river delta in the lake led to similar waves that damaged nearby villages. Based on detailed information on topography, bathymetry and the geometry of the landslide deposits, numerical simulations combining two-dimensional, depth-averaged models for landslide propagation, as well as for tsunami generation, propagation and inundation, are able to reproduce most of the reported tsunami effects for these events. Calculated maximum runup of the waves is 6 to >10 m in the directly affected lake basins, but significantly less in neighbouring basins. Flat alluvial plains adjacent to the most heavily affected areas are inundated over distances of several hundred metres. Taken as scenarios for possible future events, these past events suggest

  6. Risk-based generation dispatch in the power grid for resilience against extreme weather events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javanbakht, Pirooz

    Natural disasters have been considered as one of the main causes of the largest blackouts in North America. When it comes to power grid resiliency against natural hazards, different solutions exist that are mainly categorized based on the time-frame of analysis. At the design stage, robustness and resiliency may be improved through redundant designs and inclusion of advanced measurement, monitoring, control and protection systems. However, since massive destructive energy may be released during the course of a natural disaster (such as a hurricane) causing large-scale and widespread disturbances, design-stage remedies may not be sufficient for ensuring power grid robustness. As a result, to limit the consequent impacts on the operation of the power grid, the system operator may be forced to take immediate remedial actions in real-time. To effectively manage the disturbances caused by severe weather events, weather forecast information should be incorporated into the operational model of the power grid in order to predict imminent contingencies. In this work, a weather-driven generation dispatch model is developed based on stochastic programming to provide a proactive solution for power grid resiliency against imminent large-scale disturbances. Hurricanes and ice storms are studied as example disaster events to provide numerical results. In this approach, the statistics of the natural disaster event are taken into account along with the expected impact on various power grid components in order to determine the availability of the grid. Then, a generation dispatch strategy is devised that helps operate the grid subject to weather-driven operational constraints.

  7. Identifying generation mechanisms in U.S. east coast non-seismic tsunami events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, C. W.; Arcas, D.; Kanoglu, U.; Titov, V.; Gonzalez-Vida, J.

    2013-12-01

    On April 11, and June 13, 2013 two long-period water level anomalies were recorded at different locations along the northeastern seaboard of the United States. Wave amplitudes reached almost 10 centimeters in deep water, as recorded at DART buoy 44402 and 20 to 30 centimeters at coastal tide gauges in Rhode Island, Massachusetts, New York and New Jersey. Smaller signatures were seen in tide gauges as far away as Bermuda and Puerto Rico. There seems to be circumstantial evidence indicating a meteorological origin for the June 13 event, however, that explanation is less compelling for the event of April 11. Moreover, travel time contours trace the origin of both perturbations back to an area located in the vicinity of Hudson Canyon. A preliminary bathymetric survey of the walls of the canyon failed to locate any recent landslide evidence, and forward modeling of potential landslides in the canyon indicates that a larger source would have been needed to generate the kind of wavelengths recorded during this event. A model using a source just shoreward of the canyon shows arrival times that agree well with data at both the DART buoy and the tide gauges, but fails to reproduce some large amplitude waves within Delaware Bay that may, indeed, be atmospherically forced. The present study tries to identify possible landslide sources of this non-seismic tsunami, primarily located along the continental break outside of the Hudson Canyon. Failure to identify any such sources will strengthen the hypothesis of a meteotsunami. Positive identification of potential landslide sources may open up additional lines of investigation as to the real source of the event.

  8. Identifying generation mechanisms in U.S. east coast non-seismic tsunami events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, C. W.; Arcas, D.; Kanoglu, U.; Titov, V.; Gonzalez-Vida, J.

    2011-12-01

    On April 11, and June 13, 2013 two long-period water level anomalies were recorded at different locations along the northeastern seaboard of the United States. Wave amplitudes reached almost 10 centimeters in deep water, as recorded at DART buoy 44402 and 20 to 30 centimeters at coastal tide gauges in Rhode Island, Massachusetts, New York and New Jersey. Smaller signatures were seen in tide gauges as far away as Bermuda and Puerto Rico. There seems to be circumstantial evidence indicating a meteorological origin for the June 13 event, however, that explanation is less compelling for the event of April 11. Moreover, travel time contours trace the origin of both perturbations back to an area located in the vicinity of Hudson Canyon. A preliminary bathymetric survey of the walls of the canyon failed to locate any recent landslide evidence, and forward modeling of potential landslides in the canyon indicates that a larger source would have been needed to generate the kind of wavelengths recorded during this event. A model using a source just shoreward of the canyon shows arrival times that agree well with data at both the DART buoy and the tide gauges, but fails to reproduce some large amplitude waves within Delaware Bay that may, indeed, be atmospherically forced. The present study tries to identify possible landslide sources of this non-seismic tsunami, primarily located along the continental break outside of the Hudson Canyon. Failure to identify any such sources will strengthen the hypothesis of a meteotsunami. Positive identification of potential landslide sources may open up additional lines of investigation as to the real source of the event.

  9. On transient events in the upper atmosphere generated away of thunderstorm regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozenko, V.; Garipov, G.; Khrenov, B.; Klimov, P.; Panasyuk, M.; Sharakin, S.; Zotov, M.

    2011-12-01

    Experimental data on transient events in UV and Red-IR ranges obtained in the MSU missions "Unversitetsky-Tatiana" (wavelengths 300-400 nm) and "Unversitetsky-Tatiana-2" (wavelengths 300-400 nm and 600-800 nm), published by Garipov et al, in 2010 at COSPAR session http://www.cospar2010.org, at TEPA conference http://www.aragats.am/Conferences/tepa2010 and in 2011 by Sadovnichy et al, Solar System Research, 45, #1, 3-29 (2011); Vedenkin et al, JETP, v. 140, issue 3(9), 1-11 (2011) demonstrated existence of transients at large distances (up to thousands km) away of cloud thunderstorm regions. Those "remote" transients are short (1-5 msec) and are less luminous than the transients above thunderstorm regions. The ratio of Red-IR to UV photon numbers in those transients indicates high altitude of their origin (~70 km). Important observation facts are also: 1. a change of the exponent in transient distribution on luminosity Q ("-1" for photon numbers Q=1020 -1023 to "-2" for Q>1023), 2. a change of global distribution of transient with their luminosity (transients with Q>1023 are concentrated in equatorial range above continents, while transients with low luminosity are distributed more uniformly), 3. a phenomenon of transient sequences in one satellite orbit which is close to geomagnetic meridian. In the present paper phenomenological features of transients are explained in assumption that the observed transients have to be divided in two classes: 1. transients related to local, lower in the atmosphere, lightning at distance not more than hundreds km from satellite detector field of view in the atmosphere and 2. transients generated by far away lightning. Local transients are luminous and presumably are events called "transient luminous events" (TLE). In distribution on luminosity those events have some threshold Q~1023 and their differential luminosity distribution is approximated by power law exponent "-2". Remote transients have to be considered separately. Their

  10. Possible Improvements to MCNP6 and its CEM/LAQGSM Event-Generators

    SciTech Connect

    Mashnik, Stepan Georgievich

    2015-08-04

    This report is intended to the MCNP6 developers and sponsors of MCNP6. It presents a set of suggested possible future improvements to MCNP6 and to its CEM03.03 and LAQGSM03.03 event-generators. A few suggested modifications of MCNP6 are quite simple, aimed at avoiding possible problems with running MCNP6 on various computers, i.e., these changes are not expected to change or improve any results, but should make the use of MCNP6 easier; such changes are expected to require limited man-power resources. On the other hand, several other suggested improvements require a serious further development of nuclear reaction models, are expected to improve significantly the predictive power of MCNP6 for a number of nuclear reactions; but, such developments require several years of work by real experts on nuclear reactions.

  11. PHANTOM: A Monte Carlo event generator for six parton final states at high energy colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballestrero, Alessandro; Belhouari, Aissa; Bevilacqua, Giuseppe; Kashkan, Vladimir; Maina, Ezio

    2009-03-01

    PHANTOM is a tree level Monte Carlo for six parton final states at proton-proton, proton-antiproton and electron-positron colliders at O(αEM6) and O(αEM4αS2) including possible interferences between the two sets of diagrams. This comprehends all purely electroweak contributions as well as all contributions with one virtual or two external gluons. It can generate unweighted events for any set of processes and it is interfaced to parton shower and hadronization packages via the latest Les Houches Accord protocol. It can be used to analyze the physics of boson-boson scattering, Higgs boson production in boson-boson fusion, tt¯ and three boson production. Program summaryProgram title:PHANTOM (V. 1.0) Catalogue identifier: AECE_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AECE_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 175 787 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 965 898 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Fortran 77 Computer: Any with a UNIX, LINUX compatible Fortran compiler Operating system: UNIX, LINUX RAM: 500 MB Classification: 11.1 External routines: LHAPDF (Les Houches Accord PDF Interface, http://projects.hepforge.org/lhapdf/), CIRCE (beamstrahlung for ee ILC collider). Nature of problem: Six fermion final state processes have become important with the increase of collider energies and are essential for the study of top, Higgs and electroweak symmetry breaking physics at high energy colliders. Since thousands of Feynman diagrams contribute in a single process and events corresponding to hundreds of different final states need to be generated, a fast and stable calculation is needed. Solution method:PHANTOM is a tree level Monte Carlo for six parton final states at proton-proton, proton-antiproton and

  12. mFOAM-1.02: A compact version of the cellular event generator FOAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jadach, S.; Sawicki, P.

    2007-09-01

    The general-purpose self-adapting Monte Carlo (MC) event generator/simulator mFOAM (standing for mini-FOAM) is a new compact version of the FOAM program, with a slightly limited functionality with respect to its parent version. On the other hand, mFOAM is easier to use for the average user. This new version is fully integrated with the ROOT package, the C++ utility library used widely in the particle physics community. The internal structure of the code is simplified and the very valuable feature of the persistency of the objects of the mFOAM class is improved. With the persistency at hand, it is possible to record very easily the complete state of a MC simulator object based on mFOAM and ROOT into a disk-file at any stage of its use: just after object allocation, after full initialization (exploration of the distribution), or at any time during the generation of the long series of MC events. Later on the MC simulator object can be easily restored from the disk-file in the "ready to go" state. Objects of the TFoam class can be used as a stand-alone solution to many everyday problems in the area of the Monte Carlo simulation, or as building blocks in large-scale MC projects, taking full advantage of the object-oriented technology and persistency. Program summaryManuscript title: mFOAM-1.02: A compact version of the cellular event generator FOAM Authors: S. Jadach, P. Sawicki Program title: mFOAM (mini FOAM), version 1.02 Catalogue identifier: ADYX_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADYX_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 2 036 711 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 21 403 104 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: ANSI C++ Computer: Most Unix workstations, supercomputers and PC Operating

  13. The Relationship among Negative Life Events, Cognitions, and Depression within Three Generations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nacoste, Denise R. Barnes; Wise, Erica H.

    1991-01-01

    Investigated extent to which cognitions mediate relationship between negative life events and depression. College students and their same-sex parents and grandparents (n=171) completed measures of stressful life events, automatic thoughts, dysfunctional attitudes, and depression. Found interaction between negative life events and cognition for…

  14. Event Generators for Simulating Heavy Ion Interactions of Interest in Evaluating Risks in Human Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Thomas L.; Pinsky, Lawrence; Andersen, Victor; Empl, Anton; Lee, Kerry; Smirmov, Georgi; Zapp, Neal; Ferrari, Alfredo; Tsoulou, Katerina; Roesler, Stefan; Vlachoudis, Vasilis

    2005-01-01

    Simulating the Space Radiation environment with Monte Carlo Codes, such as FLUKA, requires the ability to model the interactions of heavy ions as they penetrate spacecraft and crew member's bodies. Monte-Carlo-type transport codes use total interaction cross sections to determine probabilistically when a particular type of interaction has occurred. Then, at that point, a distinct event generator is employed to determine separately the results of that interaction. The space radiation environment contains a full spectrum of radiation types, including relativistic nuclei, which are the most important component for the evaluation of crew doses. Interactions between incident protons with target nuclei in the spacecraft materials and crew member's bodies are well understood. However, the situation is substantially less comfortable for incident heavier nuclei (heavy ions). We have been engaged in developing several related heavy ion interaction models based on a Quantum Molecular Dynamics-type approach for energies up through about 5 GeV per nucleon (GeV/A) as part of a NASA Consortium that includes a parallel program of cross section measurements to guide and verify this code development.

  15. ExHuME 1.3: A Monte Carlo event generator for exclusive diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monk, J.; Pilkington, A.

    2006-08-01

    We have written the Exclusive Hadronic Monte Carlo Event (ExHuME) generator. ExHuME is based around the perturbative QCD calculation of Khoze, Martin and Ryskin of the process pp→p+X+p, where X is a centrally produced colour singlet system. Program summaryTitle of program:ExHuME Catalogue identifier:ADYA_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADYA_v1_0 Program obtainable from:CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions:None Programming language used:C++, some FORTRAN Computer:Any computer with UNIX capability. Users should refer to the README file distributed with the source code for further details Operating system:Linux, Mac OS X No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.:111 145 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 791 085 Distribution format:tar.gz RAM:60 MB External routines/libraries:LHAPDF [ http://durpdg.dur.ac.uk/lhapdf/], CLHEP v1.8 or v1.9 [L. Lönnblad, Comput. Phys. Comm. 84 (1994) 307; http://wwwinfo.cern.ch/asd/lhc++/clhep/] Subprograms used:Pythia [T. Sjostrand et al., Comput. Phys. Comm. 135 (2001) 238], HDECAY [A. Djouadi, J. Kalinowski, M. Spira, HDECAY: A program for Higgs boson decays in the standard model and its supersymmetric extension, Comput. Phys. Comm. 108 (1998) 56, hep-ph/9704448]. Both are distributed with the source code Nature of problem:Central exclusive production offers the opportunity to study particle production in a uniquely clean environment for a hadron collider. This program implements the KMR model [V.A. Khoze, A.D. Martin, M.G. Ryskin, Prospects for New Physics observations in diffractive processes at the LHC and Tevatron, Eur. Phys. J. C 23 (2002) 311, hep-ph/0111078], which is the only fully perturbative model of exclusive production. Solution method:Monte Carlo techniques are used to produce the central exclusive parton level system. Pythia routines are then used to develop a realistic hadronic system

  16. Analysis of runoff generation during rainfall and snowmelt events in an Alpine catchment based on isotopic and electrical conductivity data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penna, Daniele; van Meerveld, Ilja; Zuecco, Giulia; Dalla Fontana, Giancarlo; Borga, Marco

    2015-04-01

    Alpine catchments are valuable sources of fresh water. However, compared to lower altitude catchments, our knowledge of the hydrologic behavior of high-elevation catchments is still relatively poor. We, therefore, set out to identify the dominant controls on runoff generation in the 0.14-km2 Bridge Creek Catchment in the Italian Dolomites (Central-Eastern Alps). Stable isotopes of water and electrical conductivity (EC) data, coupled with hydrometric measurements (precipitation, streamflow, spatially-distributed shallow groundwater and soil moisture at different depths), were collected during nine rainfall-runoff events and six snowmelt-runoff events in spring, summer and autumn of 2010-2012. Specifically, we aimed to i) quantify the relative contributions of event water to streamflow and detect the factors affecting the event water fractions in the stream; ii) identify the dominant runoff pathways for event and pre-event water to the stream; and iii) determine if the selection of pre-event water samples significantly affects the results of the isotope-based hydrograph separation analyses. The traditional two-component hydrograph separation technique was applied to deuterium data in two ways: i) assuming that the stream water sample taken prior to the event represented the isotopic composition of pre-event water , or ii) assuming that the average composition of stream water samples taken during baseflow conditions at different times of the year represented the pre-event water composition. For rainfall events, the hydrograph separation results for the two methods were very similar (root mean squared error=0.3 l/s) but for snowmelt events they significantly differed, especially when the event water runoff was high (root mean squared error=1.8 l/s). This was due to residual snowmelt (particularly late in the melt season) contained in stream water that influenced the isotopic composition of the stream between melt events. The pre-event water fraction dominated

  17. Haplotype diversity generated by ancient recombination-like events in the MHC of Indian rhesus macaques.

    PubMed

    Doxiadis, Gaby G M; de Groot, Nanine; Otting, Nel; de Vos-Rouweler, Annemiek J M; Bolijn, Maria J; Heijmans, Corrine M C; de Groot, Natasja G; van der Wiel, Marit K H; Remarque, Edmond J; Vangenot, Christelle; Nunes, José M; Sanchez-Mazas, Alicia; Bontrop, Ronald E

    2013-08-01

    The Mamu-A, Mamu-B, and Mamu-DRB genes of the rhesus macaque show several levels of complexity such as allelic heterogeneity (polymorphism), copy number variation, differential segregation of genes/alleles present on a haplotype (diversity) and transcription level differences. A combination of techniques was implemented to screen a large panel of pedigreed Indian rhesus macaques (1,384 individuals representing the offspring of 137 founding animals) for haplotype diversity in an efficient and inexpensive manner. This approach allowed the definition of 140 haplotypes that display a relatively low degree of region variation as reflected by the presence of only 17 A, 18 B and 22 DRB types, respectively, exhibiting a global linkage disequilibrium comparable to that in humans. This finding contrasts with the situation observed in rhesus macaques from other geographic origins and in cynomolgus monkeys from Indonesia. In these latter populations, nearly every haplotype appears to be characterised by a unique A, B and DRB region. In the Indian population, however, a reshuffling of existing segments generated "new" haplotypes. Since the recombination frequency within the core MHC of the Indian rhesus macaques is relatively low, the various haplotypes were most probably produced by recombination events that accumulated over a long evolutionary time span. This idea is in accord with the notion that Indian rhesus macaques experienced a severe reduction in population during the Pleistocene due to a bottleneck caused by geographic changes. Thus, recombination-like processes appear to be a way to expand a diminished genetic repertoire in an isolated and relatively small founder population. PMID:23715823

  18. Ionospheric response to infrasonic-acoustic waves generated by natural hazard events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zettergren, M. D.; Snively, J. B.

    2015-09-01

    Recent measurements of GPS-derived total electron content (TEC) reveal acoustic wave periods of ˜1-4 min in the F region ionosphere following natural hazard events, such as earthquakes, severe weather, and volcanoes. Here we simulate the ionospheric responses to infrasonic-acoustic waves, generated by vertical accelerations at the Earth's surface or within the lower atmosphere, using a compressible atmospheric dynamics model to perturb a multifluid ionospheric model. Response dependencies on wave source geometry and spectrum are investigated at middle, low, and equatorial latitudes. Results suggest constraints on wave amplitudes that are consistent with observations and that provide insight on the geographical variability of TEC signatures and their dependence on the geometry of wave velocity field perturbations relative to the ambient geomagnetic field. Asymmetries of responses poleward and equatorward from the wave sources indicate that electron perturbations are enhanced on the equatorward side while field aligned currents are driven principally on the poleward side, due to alignments of acoustic wave velocities parallel and perpendicular to field lines, respectively. Acoustic-wave-driven TEC perturbations are shown to have periods of ˜3-4 min, which are consistent with the fraction of the spectrum that remains following strong dissipation throughout the thermosphere. Furthermore, thermospheric acoustic waves couple with ion sound waves throughout the F region and topside ionosphere, driving plasma disturbances with similar periods and faster phase speeds. The associated magnetic perturbations of the simulated waves are calculated to be observable and may provide new observational insight in addition to that provided by GPS TEC measurements.

  19. "Regime of Truth" as a Serendipitous Event: An Essay Concerning the Relationship between Research Data and the Generation of Ideas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garratt, Dean

    1998-01-01

    Argues that realist researchers regard serendipitous events in research with suspicion, resulting in the lack of analysis of the role of serendipity in the generation of research ideas. Analyzes the significance and impact of serendipity in the process of a case study. Deliberates the problematic nature of constructing research stories. (DSK)

  20. Drawing a Crowd: Graphic Novel Events Are Great Ways to Generate Excitement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, Heidi

    2004-01-01

    As graphic novels grow in popularity, with teen readers, libraries are finding the world of comics, manga, and anime a fertile field for inspiring events, as well as a great way to promote libraries to teens in general. These events can range from simple--a reading/signing--to elaborate--workshops, or even a mini convention. All provide a unique…

  1. Detection of planets in extremely weak central perturbation microlensing events via next-generation ground-based surveys

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Sun-Ju; Lee, Chung-Uk; Koo, Jae-Rim E-mail: leecu@kasi.re.kr

    2014-04-20

    Even though the recently discovered high-magnification event MOA-2010-BLG-311 had complete coverage over its peak, confident planet detection did not happen due to extremely weak central perturbations (EWCPs, fractional deviations of ≲ 2%). For confident detection of planets in EWCP events, it is necessary to have both high cadence monitoring and high photometric accuracy better than those of current follow-up observation systems. The next-generation ground-based observation project, Korea Microlensing Telescope Network (KMTNet), satisfies these conditions. We estimate the probability of occurrence of EWCP events with fractional deviations of ≤2% in high-magnification events and the efficiency of detecting planets in the EWCP events using the KMTNet. From this study, we find that the EWCP events occur with a frequency of >50% in the case of ≲ 100 M {sub E} planets with separations of 0.2 AU ≲ d ≲ 20 AU. We find that for main-sequence and sub-giant source stars, ≳ 1 M {sub E} planets in EWCP events with deviations ≤2% can be detected with frequency >50% in a certain range that changes with the planet mass. However, it is difficult to detect planets in EWCP events of bright stars like giant stars because it is easy for KMTNet to be saturated around the peak of the events because of its constant exposure time. EWCP events are caused by close, intermediate, and wide planetary systems with low-mass planets and close and wide planetary systems with massive planets. Therefore, we expect that a much greater variety of planetary systems than those already detected, which are mostly intermediate planetary systems, regardless of the planet mass, will be significantly detected in the near future.

  2. Factor XIa and Thrombin Generation Are Elevated in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome and Predict Recurrent Cardiovascular Events

    PubMed Central

    Loeffen, Rinske; van Oerle, René; Leers, Mathie P. G.; Kragten, Johannes A.; Crijns, Harry; Spronk, Henri M. H.; ten Cate, Hugo

    2016-01-01

    Objective In acute coronary syndrome (ACS) cardiac cell damage is preceded by thrombosis. Therefore, plasma coagulation markers may have additional diagnostic relevance in ACS. By using novel coagulation assays this study aims to gain more insight into the relationship between the coagulation system and ACS. Methods We measured plasma thrombin generation, factor XIa and D-dimer levels in plasma from ACS (n = 104) and non-ACS patients (n = 42). Follow-up measurements (n = 73) were performed at 1 and 6 months. Associations between coagulation markers and recurrent cardiovascular events were calculated by logistic regression analysis. Results Thrombin generation was significantly enhanced in ACS compared to non-ACS patients: peak height 148±53 vs. 122±42 nM. There was a significantly diminished ETP reduction (32 vs. 41%) and increased intrinsic coagulation activation (25 vs. 7%) in ACS compared to non-ACS patients. Furthermore, compared to non-ACS patients factor XIa and D-dimer levels were significantly elevated in ACS patients: 1.9±1.1 vs. 1.4±0.7 pM and 495(310–885) vs. 380(235–540) μg/L. Within the ACS spectrum, ST-elevated myocardial infarction patients had the highest prothrombotic profile. During the acute event, thrombin generation was significantly increased compared to 1 and 6 months afterwards: peak height 145±52 vs. 100±44 vs. 98±33 nM. Both peak height and factor XIa levels on admission predicted recurrent cardiovascular events (OR: 4.9 [95%CI 1.2–20.9] and 4.5 [1.1–18.9]). Conclusion ACS patients had an enhanced prothrombotic profile, demonstrated by an increased thrombin generation potential, factor XIa and D-dimer levels. This study is the first to demonstrate the positive association between factor XIa, thrombin generation and recurrent cardiovascular events. PMID:27419389

  3. Monte Carlo event generators in atomic collisions: A new tool to tackle the few-body dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciappina, M. F.; Kirchner, T.; Schulz, M.

    2010-04-01

    We present a set of routines to produce theoretical event files, for both single and double ionization of atoms by ion impact, based on a Monte Carlo event generator (MCEG) scheme. Such event files are the theoretical counterpart of the data obtained from a kinematically complete experiment; i.e. they contain the momentum components of all collision fragments for a large number of ionization events. Among the advantages of working with theoretical event files is the possibility to incorporate the conditions present in a real experiment, such as the uncertainties in the measured quantities. Additionally, by manipulating them it is possible to generate any type of cross sections, specially those that are usually too complicated to compute with conventional methods due to a lack of symmetry. Consequently, the numerical effort of such calculations is dramatically reduced. We show examples for both single and double ionization, with special emphasis on a new data analysis tool, called four-body Dalitz plots, developed very recently. Program summaryProgram title: MCEG Catalogue identifier: AEFV_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEFV_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 2695 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 18 501 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: FORTRAN 77 with parallelization directives using scripting Computer: Single machines using Linux and Linux servers/clusters (with cores with any clock speed, cache memory and bits in a word) Operating system: Linux (any version and flavor) and FORTRAN 77 compilers Has the code been vectorised or parallelized?: Yes RAM: 64-128 kBytes (the codes are very cpu intensive) Classification: 2.6 Nature of problem: The code deals with single and double

  4. Historical Trauma, Substance Use, and Indigenous Peoples: Seven Generations of Harm From a "Big Event".

    PubMed

    Nutton, Jennifer; Fast, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Indigenous peoples the world over have and continue to experience the devastating effects of colonialism including loss of life, land, language, culture, and identity. Indigenous peoples suffer disproportionately across many health risk factors including an increased risk of substance use. We use the term "Big Event" to describe the historical trauma attributed to colonial policies as a potential pathway to explain the disparity in rates of substance use among many Indigenous populations. We present "Big Solutions" that have the potential to buffer the negative effects of the Big Event, including: (1) decolonizing strategies, (2) identity development, and (3) culturally adapted interventions. Study limitations are noted and future needed research is suggested. PMID:26158749

  5. BlackMax: A black-hole event generator with rotation, recoil, split branes, and brane tension

    SciTech Connect

    Dai Dechang; Starkman, Glenn; Stojkovic, Dejan; Issever, Cigdem; Tseng, Jeff; Rizvi, Eram

    2008-04-01

    We present a comprehensive black-hole event generator, BlackMax, which simulates the experimental signatures of microscopic and Planckian black-hole production and evolution at the LHC in the context of brane world models with low-scale quantum gravity. The generator is based on phenomenologically realistic models free of serious problems that plague low-scale gravity, thus offering more realistic predictions for hadron-hadron colliders. The generator includes all of the black-hole gray-body factors known to date and incorporates the effects of black-hole rotation, splitting between the fermions, nonzero brane tension, and black-hole recoil due to Hawking radiation (although not all simultaneously). The generator can be interfaced with Herwig and Pythia. The main code can be downloaded from http://www-pnp.physics.ox.ac.uk/{approx}issever/BlackMax/blackmax.html.

  6. Study of heavy-quark production in p+ p collisions at RHIC using different Monte-Carlo event generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, Yue Hang; Dion, Alan; Drees, Axel; Sharma, Deepali

    2015-10-01

    Heavy flavor is one of the most sought observables to study the properties of the hot and dense medium created in heavy-ion collisions. A variety of heavy-flavor (charm and bottom) related measurements in different collision systems, as well as different collision energies have been measured at RHIC. However, the total and differential charm and bottom cross-sections are still not understood in detail. We present a comprehensive study of all the heavy flavor measurements in p+ p collisions at RHIC at √{sNN} = 200 GeV. We compare the measured charm and bottom pT, rapidity, and correlation distributions to three different Monte-Carlo event generators, PYTHIA, MC@NLO and POWHEG. Various data sets are fitted to the spectral shapes from these event generators with the charm and bottom cross-sections as free parameters. Although the spectral shapes are well described in general, the normalization of the simulated samples are different between data sets describing different regions of phase space. These measurements suggest that while current Monte-Carlo event generators describe experimental data near mid rapidity, they are inconsistent when compared over a wide range in phase space.

  7. Interaction of solar wind with the magnetopause-boundary layer and generation of magnetic impulse events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, L. C.; Wei, C. Q.

    1993-01-01

    The transport of mass, momentum, energy and waves from the solar wind to the Earth's magnetosphere takes place in the magnetopause-boundary layer region. Various plasma processes that may occur in this region have been proposed and studied. In this paper, we present a brief review of the plasma processes in the dayside magnetopause-boundary layer. These processes include (1) flux transfer events at the dayside magnetopause, (2) formation of plasma vortices in the low-latitude boundary layer by the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability and coupling to the polar ionosphere, (3) the response of the magnetopause to the solar wind dynamic pressure pulses, and (4) the impulsive penetration of solar wind plasma filaments through the dayside magnetopause into the magnetospheric boundary layer. Through the coupling of the magnetopause-boundary layer to the polar ionosphere, those above processes may lead to occurrence of magnetic impulse events observed in the high-latitude stations.

  8. Detection of Local/Regional Events in Kuwait Using Next-Generation Detection Algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    Gok, M. Rengin; Al-Jerri, Farra; Dodge, Douglas; Al-Enezi, Abdullah; Hauk, Terri; Mellors, R.

    2014-12-10

    Seismic networks around the world use conventional triggering algorithms to detect seismic signals in order to locate local/regional seismic events. Kuwait National Seismological Network (KNSN) of Kuwait Institute of Scientific Research (KISR) is operating seven broad-band and short-period three-component stations in Kuwait. The network is equipped with Nanometrics digitizers and uses Antelope and Guralp acquisition software for processing and archiving the data. In this study, we selected 10 days of archived hourly-segmented continuous data of five stations (Figure 1) and 250 days of continuous recording at MIB. For the temporary deployment our selection criteria was based on KNSN catalog intensity for the period of time we test the method. An autonomous event detection and clustering framework is employed to test a more complete catalog of this short period of time. The goal is to illustrate the effectiveness of the technique and pursue the framework for longer period of time.

  9. Generations.

    PubMed

    Chambers, David W

    2005-01-01

    Groups naturally promote their strengths and prefer values and rules that give them an identity and an advantage. This shows up as generational tensions across cohorts who share common experiences, including common elders. Dramatic cultural events in America since 1925 can help create an understanding of the differing value structures of the Silents, the Boomers, Gen Xers, and the Millennials. Differences in how these generations see motivation and values, fundamental reality, relations with others, and work are presented, as are some applications of these differences to the dental profession. PMID:16623137

  10. Applications of flood depth from rapid post-event footprint generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Booth, Naomi; Millinship, Ian

    2015-04-01

    Immediately following large flood events, an indication of the area flooded (i.e. the flood footprint) can be extremely useful for evaluating potential impacts on exposed property and infrastructure. Specifically, such information can help insurance companies estimate overall potential losses, deploy claims adjusters and ultimately assists the timely payment of due compensation to the public. Developing these datasets from remotely sensed products seems like an obvious choice. However, there are a number of important drawbacks which limit their utility in the context of flood risk studies. For example, external agencies have no control over the region that is surveyed, the time at which it is surveyed (which is important as the maximum extent would ideally be captured), and how freely accessible the outputs are. Moreover, the spatial resolution of these datasets can be low, and considerable uncertainties in the flood extents exist where dry surfaces give similar return signals to water. Most importantly of all, flood depths are required to estimate potential damages, but generally cannot be estimated from satellite imagery alone. In response to these problems, we have developed an alternative methodology for developing high-resolution footprints of maximum flood extent which do contain depth information. For a particular event, once reports of heavy rainfall are received, we begin monitoring real-time flow data and extracting peak values across affected areas. Next, using statistical extreme value analyses of historic flow records at the same measured locations, the return periods of the maximum event flow at each gauged location are estimated. These return periods are then interpolated along each river and matched to JBA's high-resolution hazard maps, which already exist for a series of design return periods. The extent and depth of flooding associated with the event flow is extracted from the hazard maps to create a flood footprint. Georeferenced ground, aerial

  11. A Multivariate Statistical Approach based on a Dynamic Moving Storms (DMS) Generator for Estimating the Frequency of Extreme Storm Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, N. Z.; Gao, S.

    2015-12-01

    Challenges of fully considering the complexity among spatially and temporally varied rainfall always exist in flood frequency analysis. Conventional approaches that simplify the complexity of spatiotemporal interactions generally undermine their impacts on flood risks. A previously developed stochastic storm generator called Dynamic Moving Storms (DMS) aims to address the highly-dependent nature of precipitation field: spatial variability, temporal variability, and movement of the storm. The authors utilize a multivariate statistical approach based on DMS to estimate the occurrence probability or frequency of extreme storm events. Fifteen years of radar rainfall data is used to generate a large number of synthetic storms as basis for statistical assessment. Two parametric retrieval algorithms are developed to recognize rain cells and track storm motions respectively. The resulted parameters are then used to establish probability density functions (PDFs), which are fitted to parametric distribution functions for further Monte Carlo simulations. Consequently, over 1,000,000 synthetic storms are generated based on twelve retrieved parameters for integrated risk assessment and ensemble forecasts. Furthermore, PDFs for parameters are used to calculate joint probabilities based on 2-dimensional Archimedean-Copula functions to determine the occurrence probabilities of extreme events. The approach is validated on the Upper Trinity River watershed and the generated results are compared with those from traditional rainfall frequency studies (i.e. Intensity-Duration-Frequency curves, and Areal Reduction Factors).

  12. Monte Carlo generator ELRADGEN 2.0 for simulation of radiative events in elastic ep-scattering of polarized particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akushevich, I.; Filoti, O. F.; Ilyichev, A.; Shumeiko, N.

    2012-07-01

    The structure and algorithms of the Monte Carlo generator ELRADGEN 2.0 designed to simulate radiative events in polarized ep-scattering are presented. The full set of analytical expressions for the QED radiative corrections is presented and discussed in detail. Algorithmic improvements implemented to provide faster simulation of hard real photon events are described. Numerical tests show high quality of generation of photonic variables and radiatively corrected cross section. The comparison of the elastic radiative tail simulated within the kinematical conditions of the BLAST experiment at MIT BATES shows a good agreement with experimental data. Catalogue identifier: AELO_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AELO_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC license, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 1299 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 11 348 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: FORTRAN 77 Computer: All Operating system: Any RAM: 1 MB Classification: 11.2, 11.4 Nature of problem: Simulation of radiative events in polarized ep-scattering. Solution method: Monte Carlo simulation according to the distributions of the real photon kinematic variables that are calculated by the covariant method of QED radiative correction estimation. The approach provides rather fast and accurate generation. Running time: The simulation of 108 radiative events for itest:=1 takes up to 52 seconds on Pentium(R) Dual-Core 2.00 GHz processor.

  13. Probabilistic Generative Models for the Statistical Inference of Unobserved Paleoceanographic Events: Application to Stratigraphic Alignment for Inference of Ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, C.; Lin, L.; Lisiecki, L. E.; Khider, D.

    2014-12-01

    The broad goal of this presentation is to demonstrate the utility of probabilistic generative models to capture investigators' knowledge of geological processes and proxy data to draw statistical inferences about unobserved paleoclimatological events. We illustrate how this approach forces investigators to be explicit about their assumptions, and about how probability theory yields results that are a mathematical consequence of these assumptions and the data. We illustrate these ideas with the HMM-Match model that infers common times of sediment deposition in two records and the uncertainty in these inferences in the form of confidence bands. HMM-Match models the sedimentation processes that led to proxy data measured in marine sediment cores. This Bayesian model has three components: 1) a generative probabilistic model that proceeds from the underlying geophysical and geochemical events, specifically the sedimentation events to the generation the proxy data Sedimentation ---> Proxy Data ; 2) a recursive algorithm that reverses the logic of the model to yield inference about the unobserved sedimentation events and the associated alignment of the records based on proxy data Proxy Data ---> Sedimentation (Alignment) ; 3) an expectation maximization algorithm for estimating two unknown parameters. We applied HMM-Match to align 35 Late Pleistocene records to a global benthic d18Ostack and found that the mean width of 95% confidence intervals varies between 3-23 kyr depending on the resolution and noisiness of the core's d18O signal. Confidence bands within individual cores also vary greatly, ranging from ~0 to >40 kyr. Results from this algorithm will allow researchers to examine the robustness of their conclusions with respect to alignment uncertainty. Figure 1 shows the confidence bands for one low resolution record.

  14. Characterization of dominant hydrologic events: the role of spatial, temporal and climatic forces in generating the greatest sediment loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Squires, A. L.; Boll, J.; Brooks, E. S.

    2013-12-01

    greatest sediment loads are flow-limited but occur after mass-limited events, (2) an event that is of long duration and is slow to peak, especially during frozen soil conditions, will contribute the greatest sediment load in a given year, and (3) urban land use generates greater sediment loads than rural land use. Multivariate analysis determined which factors lead to major sediment loads. Our presentation will focus on synthesizing the interacting variables and conditions that tend to result in dominant hydrologic events and suggestions for watershed management. This research will contribute to a more accurate assessment of the hydrology and water quality in the watershed to aid in improvement of the TMDL.

  15. Comparison of Single Event Transients Generated by Short Pulsed X-Rays, Lasers and Heavy Ions

    SciTech Connect

    Cardoza, David; LaLumondiere, Stephen D.; Tockstein, Michael A.; Brewe, Dale L.; Wells, Nathan P.; Koga, Rokutaro; Gaab, K. M.; Lotshaw, William T.; Moss, Steven C.

    2014-12-01

    We report an experimental study of the transients generated by pulsed x-rays, heavy ions, and different laser wavelengths in a Si p-i-n photodiode. We compare the charge collected by all of the excitation methods to determine the equivalent LET for pulsed x-rays relative to heavy ions. Our comparisons show that pulsed x-rays from synchrotron sources can generate a large range of equivalent LET and generate transients similar to those excited by laser pulses and heavy ion strikes. We also look at how the pulse width of the transients changes for the different excitation methods. We show that the charge collected with pulsed x-rays is greater than expected as the x-ray photon energy increases. Combined with their capability of focusing to small spot sizes and of penetrating metallization, pulsed x-rays are a promising new tool for high resolution screening of SEE susceptibility

  16. Physics cross sections and event generation of e+e- annihilations at the CEPC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mo, Xin; Li, Gang; Ruan, Man-Qi; Lou, Xin-Chou

    2016-03-01

    The cross sections of the Higgs production and the corresponding backgrounds of e+e- annihilations at the CEPC (Circular Electron and Positron Collider) are calculated by a Monte-Carlo method, and the beamstrahlung effect at the CEPC is carefully investigated. The numerical results and the expected number of events for the CEPC are provided. Supported by CAS/SAFEA International Partnership Program for Creative Research Teams, and funding from CAS and IHEP for the Thousand Talent and Hundred Talent programs, as well as grants from the State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Electronics and Particle Detectors

  17. Direct evidence and generation conditions of triggered slow slip event by teleseismic surface waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itaba, S.; Ando, R.; Takeda, N.

    2011-12-01

    In recent years slow slip events (SSE) have been observed to occur at regular intervals on the deep portions of subduction zone interfaces. There are many evidence of triggered tremor with only transient excitation by the passage of seismic waves from distant earthquakes, however SSEs, which are much larger in sizes and continue longer after the transient excitation, have been yet to be identified. Here we found, for the first time, robust and direct geodetic evidence of an interplate SSE with tremor activity in southwest Japan triggered by an earthquake in strain records from our highly sensitive strainmeter network. This SSE, in southwest Japan, which had an equivalent magnitude Mw 5.3 and duration of 1.5 days, was triggered by the surface waves of a Mw 7.6 earthquake in Tonga. The triggered SSE occurred on a place on the plate interface where the recurrence time for such events had almost expired, whereas other regions, at up to 90% of the recurrence time, were not triggered. Therefore, it is suggested that the overall segment of the triggered SSE had been necessarily very close to the critical stress level due to tectonic loading, and the seismic wave gave only the last push. Our results provide physical constraints to elucidate how earthquakes start and growth not only for the slow earthquakes but also for regular earthquakes.

  18. The state of adverse event reporting and signal generation of dietary supplements in Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Kyoung Sik; Kwon, Oran

    2010-06-01

    One of the most important objectives of post-marketing monitoring of dietary supplements is the early detection of unknown and unexpected adverse events (AEs). Since 2006, the Korea Food & Drug Administration (KFDA) has established an AE monitoring system for dietary supplements with emphases on the facilitation of AE reporting from consumers, the creation of a new database for aggregating information from multiple sources, and the proposition of appropriate tools for analyzing the likelihood that a product or an ingredient caused an adverse reaction. During the 3-year period from 2006 through 2008, 1430 AE reports had been collected from consumers and 222 AE reports providing complete case details were extracted by integrating AE reports into the product information. The 'relative AE profile' method was applied first to detect statistically significant signals, resulting in only one substrate-event pair (dietary fiber and vomiting) as a signal. Subsequently, the WHO scale was used to estimate the likelihood that dietary fiber caused vomiting. Due to the limited information available, the KFDA determined that no conclusion could be drawn to support any regulatory action, but that the relationship between dietary fiber and vomiting is an area of concern warranting further investigation. PMID:20074608

  19. A neural-specific splicing event generates an active form of the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein.

    PubMed

    Le Page, Yann; Demay, Florence; Salbert, Gilles

    2004-09-01

    Actin polymerization is required for cellular events such as podosome, lamellipode or filopode formation in migrating cells, and members of the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP) family have essential roles in regulating actin dynamics at the cell leading edge. However, WASP proteins need first to be activated in order to be able to target actin polymerization. Here, we show the occurrence of a neural-specific splicing event, which is favoured by the nuclear orphan receptor chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter-transcription factor I, and generates a truncated WASP protein deleted of exon 2-encoded amino acids. This deletion relocates the protein to the plasma membrane and induces the formation of actin-rich podosome-like structures that also contain paxillin and vinculin. Furthermore, expression of the truncated protein in PC12 cells, as well as in primary neurons, stimulates neuritogenesis. These data underscore the importance of the neural-specific splicing of WASP RNA during development. PMID:15332112

  20. Extensions of the burst generation rate method for wider application to proton/neutron-induced single event effects

    SciTech Connect

    Normand, E.

    1998-12-01

    The Burst Generation Rate (BGR) method, originally developed to calculate single event upset (SEU) rates in microelectronics due to neutrons and protons, has been extended for wider application, allowing cross sections for both SEU and single event latchup (SEL) to be calculated, and comparisons to be made with measured data. The method uses the Weibull fit to accurately represent the behavior of the heavy ion SEU cross section. Proton SEU cross sections in RAMs, microprocessors and FPGAs are calculated, with agreement generally to within a factor of 2--3, and similar results are obtained for neutron cross sections for both cosmic ray and fission spectra. The BGR method is also modified to calculate cross sections for proton/neutron induced SEL. Agreement is generally good for SEL for most devices, but there are also limitations, since some very modern devices are shown to have unusually high susceptibility to SEL by protons/neutrons.

  1. Specific features of the generation of long-periodic geomagnetic pulsations in the event on June 25, 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moiseev, A. V.; Baishev, D. G.; Barkova, E. S.; Du, A.; Yumoto, K.

    2015-03-01

    The event of the generation of long-periodic geomagnetic Pc5 pulsations occurring on June 25, 2008 under undisturbed geomagnetic conditions is considered using data from ground-based and satellite observations. Two maxima in the frequency bands 1.9-2.2 and 2.9-3.3 mHz are revealed in the spectra of oscillations in the interplanetary medium, magnetosphere, and on the Earth. Pulsations with frequency 1.9-2.2 mHz were detected in all time sectors from low to high latitudes. The maximum amplitude of the oscillations was recorded in the longitude sector coinciding with position of the ion foreshock region. It is assumed that the event under consideration was caused both by variations of the solar wind dynamic pressure (amplified by the foreshock region) and by the direct penetration of ultra-low-frequency waves from solar wind to the magnetosphere.

  2. The Next Generation of NASA Night Sky Network: A Searchable Nationwide Database of Astronomy Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ames, Z.; Berendsen, M.; White, V.

    2010-08-01

    With support from NASA, the Astronomical Society of the Pacific (ASP) first developed the Night Sky Network (NSN) in 2004. The NSN was created in response to research conducted by the Institute for Learning Innovation (ILI) to determine what type of support amateur astronomers could use to increase the efficiency and extent of their educational outreach programs. Since its creation, the NSN has grown to include an online searchable database of toolkit resources, Presentation Skills Videos covering topics such as working with kids and how to answer difficult questions, and a searchable nationwide calendar of astronomy events that supports club organization. The features of the NSN have allowed the ASP to create a template that amateur science organizations might use to create a similar support network for their members and the public.

  3. Rare recombination events generate sequence diversity among balancer chromosomes in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Danny E.; Cook, Kevin R.; Yeganeh Kazemi, Nazanin; Smith, Clarissa B.; Cockrell, Alexandria J.; Hawley, R. Scott; Bergman, Casey M.

    2016-01-01

    Multiply inverted balancer chromosomes that suppress exchange with their homologs are an essential part of the Drosophila melanogaster genetic toolkit. Despite their widespread use, the organization of balancer chromosomes has not been characterized at the molecular level, and the degree of sequence variation among copies of balancer chromosomes is unknown. To map inversion breakpoints and study potential diversity in descendants of a structurally identical balancer chromosome, we sequenced a panel of laboratory stocks containing the most widely used X chromosome balancer, First Multiple 7 (FM7). We mapped the locations of FM7 breakpoints to precise euchromatic coordinates and identified the flanking sequence of breakpoints in heterochromatic regions. Analysis of SNP variation revealed megabase-scale blocks of sequence divergence among currently used FM7 stocks. We present evidence that this divergence arose through rare double-crossover events that replaced a female-sterile allele of the singed gene (snX2) on FM7c with a sequence from balanced chromosomes. We propose that although double-crossover events are rare in individual crosses, many FM7c chromosomes in the Bloomington Drosophila Stock Center have lost snX2 by this mechanism on a historical timescale. Finally, we characterize the original allele of the Bar gene (B1) that is carried on FM7, and validate the hypothesis that the origin and subsequent reversion of the B1 duplication are mediated by unequal exchange. Our results reject a simple nonrecombining, clonal mode for the laboratory evolution of balancer chromosomes and have implications for how balancer chromosomes should be used in the design and interpretation of genetic experiments in Drosophila. PMID:26903656

  4. Macaca specific exon creation event generates a novel ZKSCAN5 transcript.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Hyun; Choe, Se-Hee; Song, Bong-Seok; Park, Sang-Je; Kim, Myung-Jin; Park, Young-Ho; Yoon, Seung-Bin; Lee, Youngjeon; Jin, Yeung Bae; Sim, Bo-Woong; Kim, Ji-Su; Jeong, Kang-Jin; Kim, Sun-Uk; Lee, Sang-Rae; Park, Young-Il; Huh, Jae-Won; Chang, Kyu-Tae

    2016-02-15

    ZKSCAN5 (also known as ZFP95) is a zinc-finger protein belonging to the Krűppel family. ZKSCAN5 contains a SCAN box and a KRAB A domain and is proposed to play a distinct role during spermatogenesis. In humans, alternatively spliced ZKSCAN5 transcripts with different 5'-untranslated regions (UTRs) have been identified. However, investigation of our Macaca UniGene Database revealed novel alternative ZKSCAN5 transcripts that arose due to an exon creation event. Therefore, in this study, we identified the full-length sequences of ZKSCAN5 and its alternative transcripts in Macaca spp. Additionally, we investigated different nonhuman primate sequences to elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying the exon creation event. We analyzed the evolutionary features of the ZKSCAN5 transcripts by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and genomic PCR, and by sequencing various nonhuman primate DNA and RNA samples. The exon-created transcript was only detected in the Macaca lineage (crab-eating monkey and rhesus monkey). Full-length sequence analysis by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) identified ten full-length transcripts and four functional isoforms of ZKSCAN5. Protein sequence analyses revealed the presence of two groups of isoforms that arose because of differences in start-codon usage. Together, our results demonstrate that there has been specific selection for a discrete set of ZKSCAN5 variants in the Macaca lineage. Furthermore, study of this locus (and perhaps others) in Macaca spp. might facilitate our understanding of the evolutionary pressures that have shaped the mechanism of exon creation in primates. PMID:26657034

  5. Apparatus for recording emissions from a rapidly generated plasma from a single plasma producing event

    DOEpatents

    Tan, Tai Ho; Williams, Arthur H.

    1985-01-01

    An optical fiber-coupled detector visible streak camera plasma diagnostic apparatus. Arrays of optical fiber-coupled detectors are placed on the film plane of several types of particle, x-ray and visible spectrometers or directly in the path of the emissions to be measured and the output is imaged by a visible streak camera. Time and spatial dependence of the emission from plasmas generated from a single pulse of electromagnetic radiation or from a single particle beam burst can be recorded.

  6. Apparatus for recording emissions from a rapidly generated plasma from a single plasma producing event

    DOEpatents

    Tan, T.H.; Williams, A.H.

    An optical fiber-coupled detector visible streak camera plasma diagnostic apparatus. Arrays of optical fiber-coupled detectors are placed on the film plane of several types of particle, x-ray and visible spectrometers or directly in the path of the emissions to be measured and the output is imaged by a visible streak camera. Time and spatial dependence of the emission from plasma generated from a single pulse of electromagnetic radiation or from a single particle beam burst can be recorded.

  7. Recognizing and monitoring adverse events of second-generation antipsychotics in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Correll, Christoph U; Penzner, Julie B; Parikh, Umesh H; Mughal, Tahir; Javed, Tariq; Carbon, Maren; Malhotra, Anil K

    2006-01-01

    Although second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) are used increasingly in children and adolescents, data on the effectiveness and safety in pediatric populations are still sparse. Much of the safety information is derived from studies conducted in adults. This derivation is problematic because children and adolescents are exposed to SGAs during a phase of unparalleled physical and psychologic development that can affect pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic drug actions, efficacy, and side-effect patterns. This article presents an overview of SGA-related side effects in children and adolescents and strategies to monitor health outcomes effectively in youngsters receiving SGAs. PMID:16321730

  8. Automatically Augmenting Lifelog Events Using Pervasively Generated Content from Millions of People

    PubMed Central

    Doherty, Aiden R.; Smeaton, Alan F.

    2010-01-01

    In sensor research we take advantage of additional contextual sensor information to disambiguate potentially erroneous sensor readings or to make better informed decisions on a single sensor’s output. This use of additional information reinforces, validates, semantically enriches, and augments sensed data. Lifelog data is challenging to augment, as it tracks one’s life with many images including the places they go, making it non-trivial to find associated sources of information. We investigate realising the goal of pervasive user-generated content based on sensors, by augmenting passive visual lifelogs with “Web 2.0” content collected by millions of other individuals. PMID:22294880

  9. Satellite Collision Modeling with Physics-Based Hydrocodes: Debris Generation Predictions of the Iridium-Cosmos Collision Event and Other Impact Events

    SciTech Connect

    Springer, H K; Miller, W O; Levatin, J L; Pertica, A J; Olivier, S S

    2010-09-06

    Satellite collision debris poses risks to existing space assets and future space missions. Predictive models of debris generated from these hypervelocity collisions are critical for developing accurate space situational awareness tools and effective mitigation strategies. Hypervelocity collisions involve complex phenomenon that spans several time- and length-scales. We have developed a satellite collision debris modeling approach consisting of a Lagrangian hydrocode enriched with smooth particle hydrodynamics (SPH), advanced material failure models, detailed satellite mesh models, and massively parallel computers. These computational studies enable us to investigate the influence of satellite center-of-mass (CM) overlap and orientation, relative velocity, and material composition on the size, velocity, and material type distributions of collision debris. We have applied our debris modeling capability to the recent Iridium 33-Cosmos 2251 collision event. While the relative velocity was well understood in this event, the degree of satellite CM overlap and orientation was ill-defined. In our simulations, we varied the collision CM overlap and orientation of the satellites from nearly maximum overlap to partial overlap on the outermost extents of the satellites (i.e, solar panels and gravity boom). As expected, we found that with increased satellite overlap, the overall debris cloud mass and momentum (transfer) increases, the average debris size decreases, and the debris velocity increases. The largest predicted debris can also provide insight into which satellite components were further removed from the impact location. A significant fraction of the momentum transfer is imparted to the smallest debris (< 1-5mm, dependent on mesh resolution), especially in large CM overlap simulations. While the inclusion of the smallest debris is critical to enforcing mass and momentum conservation in hydrocode simulations, there seems to be relatively little interest in their

  10. Satellite Collision Modeling with Physics-Based Hydrocodes: Debris Generation Predictions of the Iridium-Cosmos Collision Event and Other Impact Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Springer, H.; Miller, W.; Levatin, J.; Pertica, A.; Olivier, S.

    2010-09-01

    Satellite collision debris poses risks to existing space assets and future space missions. Predictive models of debris generated from these hypervelocity collisions are critical for developing accurate space situational awareness tools and effective mitigation strategies. Hypervelocity collisions involve complex phenomenon that spans several time and length-scales. We have developed a satellite collision debris modeling approach consisting of a Lagrangian hydrocode enriched with smooth particle hydrodynamics (SPH), advanced material failure models, detailed satellite mesh models, and massively parallel computers. These computational studies enable us to investigate the influence of satellite center-of-mass (CM) overlap and orientation, relative velocity, and material composition on the size, velocity, and material type distributions of collision debris. We have applied our debris modeling capability to the recent Iridium 33-Cosmos 2251 collision event. While the relative velocity was well understood in this event, the degree of satellite CM overlap and orientation was ill-defined. In our simulations, we varied the collision CM overlap and orientation of the satellites from nearly maximum overlap to partial overlap on the outermost extents of the satellites (i.e, solar panels and gravity boom). As expected, we found that with increased satellite overlap, the overall debris cloud mass and momentum (transfer) increases, the average debris size decreases, and the debris velocity increases. The largest predicted debris can also provide insight into which satellite components were further removed from the impact location. A significant fraction of the momentum transfer is imparted to the smallest debris (< 1-5mm, dependent on mesh resolution), especially in large CM overlap simulations. While the inclusion of the smallest debris is critical to enforcing mass and momentum conservation in hydrocode simulations, there seems to be relatively little interest in their

  11. Study of the Fe Ion Generating Gradual SEP Events of the 23rd Solar Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nymmik, Rikho; Korzhov, Roman; Yakobovski, Evgeny; Baranov, Dmitry; Dergachov, Vadim; Gagarin, Yuri; Panasyuk, Michail

    We continue the investigation of solar energetic particles on the board of the orbital stations, carried out from 1978 on. According to our plans, PLATAN-M No. 1 chamber with the solidstate track detector (polyethylene terephthalate) was exposed from 26.01.2002 to 03.08.2004 on the outside surface of the International Space Station. The thickness of the detector allows registration of iron particles with energy from 30 up to 160 MeV/nucleon. At present the search and the measurement of particle tracks in the chamber is carried out. The main contribution to particle fluxes during the exposition is made by a major flare in October 29, 2003. To determine and refine the transmission function of particles penetrating into the Earth's magnetosphere, it is necessary to estimate expected particle fluxes on the International Space Station orbit, using the data obtained outside the magnetosphere by the SIS spectrometer of the ACE station. In the analogous investigation of SEP events in September - October, 1989 we have determined the ionic charge of Fe increasing with energy and obtained the detailed energy spectrum of these particles in the wide energy range. We are going to continue these investigations considering the new data in the framework of the SEP probability model.

  12. A Next-Generation Countermeasure Architecture to Prevent Explosives Attacks at Large Public Events

    SciTech Connect

    Lombardo, Nicholas J.; Knudson, Christa K.; Ozanich, Richard M.; Rutz, Frederick C.; Singh, Surya V.; Tardiff, Mark F.; Kemp, Mike; Tierney, Michael

    2009-05-11

    A concept has been developed for a next-generation integrated countermeasure architecture to detect improvised explosive devices hidden on people or left behind in unstructured crowds. The work is part of the Standoff Technology Integration and Demonstration Program of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security’s Science and Technology Directorate. The architecture is based on results from an initial design tested in crowd conditions and a broad survey of existing and emerging technologies. The architecture uses a layered-defense approach that automates screening operations and prioritizes threats and mobilizes resources accordingly. A system tracks people as they move, integrating sensors to optimize threat identification accuracy and screening resources. A threat-based decision module prioritizes screening targets based on user-defined rules. Operators manage system-wide risk and mobilize field teams for interdiction. DHS is working with industry on technology development and testing to achieve the required level of system integration and economics in crowd conditions.

  13. Monte Carlo event generator for black hole production and decay in proton-proton collisions - QBH version 1.02

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gingrich, Douglas M.

    2010-11-01

    We describe the Monte Carlo event generator for black hole production and decay in proton-proton collisions - QBH version 1.02. The generator implements a model for quantum black hole production and decay based on the conservation of local gauge symmetries and democratic decays. The code in written entirely in C++ and interfaces to the PYTHIA 8 Monte Carlo code for fragmentation and decays. Program summaryProgram title: QBH Catalogue identifier: AEGU_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEGU_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 10 048 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 118 420 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++ Computer: x86 Operating system: Scientific Linux, Mac OS X RAM: 1 GB Classification: 11.6 External routines: PYTHIA 8130 ( http://home.thep.lu.se/~torbjorn/pythiaaux/present.html) and LHAPDF ( http://projects.hepforge.org/lhapdf/) Nature of problem: Simulate black hole production and decay in proton-proton collision. Solution method: Monte Carlo simulation using importance sampling. Running time: Eight events per second.

  14. Statins but Not Aspirin Reduce Thrombotic Risk Assessed by Thrombin Generation in Diabetic Patients without Cardiovascular Events: The RATIONAL Trial

    PubMed Central

    Macchia, Alejandro; Laffaye, Nicolás; Comignani, Pablo D.; Cornejo Pucci, Elena; Igarzabal, Cecilia; Scazziota, Alejandra S.; Herrera, Lourdes; Mariani, Javier A.; Bragagnolo, Julio C.; Catalano, Hugo; Tognoni, Gianni; Nicolucci, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Background The systematic use of aspirin and statins in patients with diabetes and no previous cardiovascular events is controversial. We sought to assess the effects of aspirin and statins on the thrombotic risk assessed by thrombin generation (TG) among patients with type II diabetes mellitus and no previous cardiovascular events. Methodology/Principal Findings Prospective, randomized, open, blinded to events evaluation, controlled, 2×2 factorial clinical trial including 30 patients randomly allocated to aspirin 100 mg/d, atorvastatin 40 mg/d, both or none. Outcome measurements included changes in TG levels after treatment (8 to 10 weeks), assessed by a calibrated automated thrombogram. At baseline all groups had similar clinical and biochemical profiles, including TG levels. There was no interaction between aspirin and atorvastatin. Atorvastatin significantly reduced TG measured as peak TG with saline (85.09±55.34 nmol vs 153.26±75.55 nmol for atorvastatin and control groups, respectively; p = 0.018). On the other hand, aspirin had no effect on TG (121.51±81.83 nmol vs 116.85±67.66 nmol, for aspirin and control groups, respectively; p = 0.716). The effects of treatments on measurements of TG using other agonists were consistent. Conclusions/Significance While waiting for data from ongoing large clinical randomized trials to definitively outline the role of aspirin in primary prevention, our study shows that among diabetic patients without previous vascular events, statins but not aspirin reduce thrombotic risk assessed by TG. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00793754 PMID:22470429

  15. Spatio-temporal variability of snowmelt and runoff generation during rain-on-snow events in a forested mountain environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garvelmann, Jakob; Pohl, Stefan; Weiler, Markus

    2014-05-01

    A network consisting of 81 standalone snow monitoring stations (SnoMoS), precipitation measurements, and streamflow data was used to analyze the observed snowcover distribution and melt dynamics during mid-winter rain-on-snow (ROS) events generating flooding in three study catchments with differing elevations, topographic characteristics, and areal extent in the Black Forest region of south-western Germany. The crucial importance of the initial snowcover distribution prior to the event became evident. The contribution of snowmelt to total runoff was on average about 60%, highlighting the significance of snowmelt for the flood generation during ROS. The catchment with the most distinct topography was selected to further investigate the drivers of the spatio-temporal variability of snowmelt and the water available for stormflow runoff. A multiple linear regression analysis using elevation, aspect, and land cover as predictors for the SWE distribution within the catchment was applied on an hourly time-step using the observed dynamic at the SnoMoS locations. Based on this analysis the spatial distribution of the initial snowcover and the snowmelt occurring in different parts of the study basin during two ROS events in December 2012 was calculated. The amount and the spatial distribution of water potentially being available for the generation of runoff at the interface between the snowpack and the surface below was calculated considering spatially variable melt rates, water retention capacity of the snow cover and the input of liquid precipitation. Elevation was found to be the most important terrain feature having the biggest influence on the water release from the snowpack. Even though the highest total amounts of water from precipitation and snowmelt were potentially available for runoff in the higher elevations, the snowpack released reduced amounts of water to runoff in these regions. South-facing terrain contributed more to runoff than north facing slopes and more

  16. Vy-PER: eliminating false positive detection of virus integration events in next generation sequencing data

    PubMed Central

    Forster, Michael; Szymczak, Silke; Ellinghaus, David; Hemmrich, Georg; Rühlemann, Malte; Kraemer, Lars; Mucha, Sören; Wienbrandt, Lars; Stanulla, Martin; Franke, Andre

    2015-01-01

    Several pathogenic viruses such as hepatitis B and human immunodeficiency viruses may integrate into the host genome. These virus/host integrations are detectable using paired-end next generation sequencing. However, the low number of expected true virus integrations may be difficult to distinguish from the noise of many false positive candidates. Here, we propose a novel filtering approach that increases specificity without compromising sensitivity for virus/host chimera detection. Our detection pipeline termed Vy-PER (Virus integration detection bY Paired End Reads) outperforms existing similar tools in speed and accuracy. We analysed whole genome data from childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), which is characterised by genomic rearrangements and usually associated with radiation exposure. This analysis was motivated by the recently reported virus integrations at genomic rearrangement sites and association with chromosomal instability in liver cancer. However, as expected, our analysis of 20 tumour and matched germline genomes from ALL patients finds no significant evidence for integrations by known viruses. Nevertheless, our method eliminates 12,800 false positives per genome (80× coverage) and only our method detects singleton human-phiX174-chimeras caused by optical errors of the Illumina HiSeq platform. This high accuracy is useful for detecting low virus integration levels as well as non-integrated viruses. PMID:26166306

  17. Vy-PER: eliminating false positive detection of virus integration events in next generation sequencing data.

    PubMed

    Forster, Michael; Szymczak, Silke; Ellinghaus, David; Hemmrich, Georg; Rühlemann, Malte; Kraemer, Lars; Mucha, Sören; Wienbrandt, Lars; Stanulla, Martin; Franke, Andre

    2015-01-01

    Several pathogenic viruses such as hepatitis B and human immunodeficiency viruses may integrate into the host genome. These virus/host integrations are detectable using paired-end next generation sequencing. However, the low number of expected true virus integrations may be difficult to distinguish from the noise of many false positive candidates. Here, we propose a novel filtering approach that increases specificity without compromising sensitivity for virus/host chimera detection. Our detection pipeline termed Vy-PER (Virus integration detection bY Paired End Reads) outperforms existing similar tools in speed and accuracy. We analysed whole genome data from childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), which is characterised by genomic rearrangements and usually associated with radiation exposure. This analysis was motivated by the recently reported virus integrations at genomic rearrangement sites and association with chromosomal instability in liver cancer. However, as expected, our analysis of 20 tumour and matched germline genomes from ALL patients finds no significant evidence for integrations by known viruses. Nevertheless, our method eliminates 12,800 false positives per genome (80× coverage) and only our method detects singleton human-phiX174-chimeras caused by optical errors of the Illumina HiSeq platform. This high accuracy is useful for detecting low virus integration levels as well as non-integrated viruses. PMID:26166306

  18. Stochastic generation of flood events to extend observed hydrological series by combining a copula model with hydrometeorological modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Requena, Ana; Flores, Isabel; Mediero, Luis; Garrote, Luis

    2013-04-01

    A multivariate flood frequency analysis is required for designing some structures like dams. Multivariate copula models are usually used to obtain joint return periods of the flood variables. There exist several families of copulas and a selection procedure is required to find the copula that best fits the observations. Moreover, observed hydrological series are usually short and the fit of the right tail of the copula remains highly uncertain. In this work, a procedure to extend short observed series is proposed by the use of both hydrometeorological modelling and a copula model to generate synthetic hydrographs. The procedure takes synthetic rainstorms events generated by the RainSim software as input. The RIBS rainfall-runoff model is used to simulate the hydrological processes in the basin. The procedure was tested in the Santillana reservoir in Spain, were both RainSim and RIBS models were calibrated prior to this study. A sensitivity analysis was conducted in order to find the minimum synthetic length that makes the copula selection process robust enough. As computational time of hydrometeorological modelling is not negligible, the extended record from modelling results could be re-extended by the fitted copula, reducing the computation time. This final extended hydrological series can be used to improve flood risk assessment studies. Key words: Stochastic generation, copulas, rainfall-runoff modelling Session: HS7.15 - Hydroclimatic stochastics Convener: S. Grimaldi Co-Conveners: A. A. Carsteanu, D. Koutsoyiannis, X. L. Wang and S. M. Papalexiou

  19. Identification of the functional groups on the surface of nanoparticles formed in photonucleation of aldehydes generated during forest fire events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dultsev, Fedor N.; Mik, Ivan A.; Dubtsov, Sergei N.; Dultseva, Galina G.

    2014-11-01

    We describe the new procedure developed to determine the functional groups on the surface of nanoparticles formed in photonucleation of furfural, one of the aldehydes generated during forest fire events. The procedure is based on the detection of nanoparticle rupture from chemically modified surface of the quartz crystal microbalance oscillating in the thickness shear mode under voltage sweep. The rupture force is determined from the voltage at which the rupture occurs. It depends on particle mass and on the affinity of the surface functional groups of the particle to the groups that are present on the modified QCM surface. It was demonstrated with the amine modification of the surface that the nanoparticles formed in furfural photonucleation contain carbonyl and carboxyl groups. The applicability of the method for the investigation of functional groups on the surface of the nanoparticles of atmospheric aerosol is demonstrated.

  20. Generation and Loss of New Inner Belts Associated with Solar Energetic Particle Events: A Perspective from Multiple-Satellite Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y.; Larsen, B. A.; Friedel, R. H.

    2012-12-01

    It is puzzling to observe that some Solar Energetic Particle (SEP) events can generate new proton belts in the inner-belt region but not others. One hypothesis is that the new proton belt is the consequence the double-action from a SEP followed by an interplanetary shock: The former loads a seed population of protons at low L-shells and electric field impulses caused by the latter quickly transport those protons even closer to the Earth and adiabatically accelerate them to very high energies. Regarding the loss, it is often observed that the new proton belt suddenly disappear during a moderate geomagnetic storm, and the popular explanation is due to strengthened scattering from the build-up of the ring current. Here we plan to test the above two theories from multiple-point observations from LEO and HEO satellites, which provide particle measurements, in addition to the OMNI upstream solar wind data and geosynchronous observations. Comparing to HEO, LEO measurements from the NOAA POES fleet and SAMPEX provide particle distributions with a high time-resolution and wide energy coverage. Particle and field data from Polar and THEMIS are also to be used in this study. In accordance with the belt-generation hypothesis, we expect for the generation of a new electron inner-belt along with the new proton belt but with a different energy spectrum due to different sources and acceleration processes. As for the loss process, we will look into in-situ magnetic field measurements to compare with global magnetic field models so as to confirm effects of stretching field lines. By adding electron measurements to the analysis, we expect to help differentiate adiabatic effects from others. Through both case and statistical studies, this work will provide a more thorough test on existing hypothesis and possibly new insights on the generation and loss of SEP-caused proton belts by combing various types of observations from multiple space missions.

  1. Air blasts generated by rockfall impacts: Analysis of the 1996 Happy Isles event in Yosemite National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morrissey, M.M.; Savage, W.Z.; Wieczorek, G.F.

    1999-01-01

    The July 10, 1996, Happy Isles rockfall in Yosemite National Park, California, released 23,000 to 38,000 m3 of granite in four separate events. The impacts of the first two events which involved a 550-m free fall, generated seismic waves and atmospheric pressure waves (air blasts). We focus on the dynamic behavior of the second air blast that downed over 1000 trees, destroyed a bridge, demolished a snack bar, and caused one fatality and several injuries. Calculated velocities for the air blast from a two-phase, finite difference model are compared to velocities estimated from tree damage. From tornadic studies of tree damage, the air blast is estimated to have traveled <108-120 m/s within 50 m from the impact and decreased to <10-20 m/s within 500 m from the impact. The numerical model simulates the two-dimensional propagation of an air blast through a dusty atmosphere with initial conditions defined by the impact velocity and pressure. The impact velocity (105-107 m/s) is estimated from the Colorado Rockfall Simulation Program that simulates rockfall trajectories. The impact pressure (0.5 MPa) is constrained by the kinetic energy of the impact (1010-1012 J) estimated from the seismic energy generated by the impact. Results from the air blast simulations indicate that the second Happy Isles air blast (weak shock wave) traveled with an initial velocity above the local sound speed. The size and location of the first impact are thought to have injected <50 wt % dust into the atmosphere. This amount of dust lowered the local atmospheric sound speed to ???220 m/s. The discrepancy between calculated velocity data and field estimated velocity data (???220 m/s versus ???110 m/s) is attributed to energy dissipated by the downing of trees and additional entrainment of debris into the atmosphere not included in the calculations. Copyright 1999 by the American Geophysical Union.

  2. HELAC-Onia 2.0: An upgraded matrix-element and event generator for heavy quarkonium physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Hua-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    We present an upgraded version (denoted as version 2.0) of the program HELAC-ONIA for the automated computation of heavy-quarkonium helicity amplitudes within non-relativistic QCD framework. The new code has been designed to include many new and useful features for practical phenomenological simulations. It is designed for job submissions under cluster environment for parallel computations via PYTHON scripts. We have interfaced HELAC-ONIA to the parton shower Monte Carlo programs PYTHIA 8 and QEDPS to take into account the parton-shower effects. Moreover, the decay module guarantees that the program can perform the spin-entangled (cascade-)decay of heavy quarkonium after its generation. We have also implemented a reweighting method to automatically estimate the uncertainties from renormalization and/or factorization scales as well as parton-distribution functions to weighted or unweighted events. A further update is the possibility to generate one-dimensional or two-dimensional plots encoded in the analysis files on the fly. Some dedicated examples are given at the end of the writeup.

  3. GENIE event generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dytman, Steven

    2015-10-01

    GENIE is an international collaboration of physicists and programmers who develop Monte Carlo codes for neutrino-nucleus simulation. It is applicable to any neutrino experiment using beam energies between 10 MeV and 10 TeV. This short document describes recent changes in process and release schedule. The new model developments for v2.9.0 and v2.9.2 are briefly described.

  4. GENIE event generator

    SciTech Connect

    Dytman, Steven

    2015-10-15

    GENIE is an international collaboration of physicists and programmers who develop Monte Carlo codes for neutrino-nucleus simulation. It is applicable to any neutrino experiment using beam energies between 10 MeV and 10 TeV. This short document describes recent changes in process and release schedule. The new model developments for v2.9.0 and v2.9.2 are briefly described.

  5. A new method for assessing the impact of medial temporal lobe amnesia on the characteristics of generated autobiographical events.

    PubMed

    Lenton-Brym, Ariella; Kurczek, Jake; Rosenbaum, R Shayna; Sheldon, Signy

    2016-05-01

    Constructing autobiographical events involves an initial phase of event selection, in which a memory or imagined future event is initially brought to mind, followed by a phase of elaboration, in which an individual accesses detailed knowledge specific to the event. While considerable research demonstrates the importance of the medial temporal lobes (MTL) in the later phase, its role in initial event selection is unknown. The present study is the first to investigate the role of the MTL in event selection by assessing whether individuals with MTL lesions select qualitatively different events for remembering and imagining than matched control participants. To do so, we created "event captions" that reflected the type of events selected for an autobiographical event narrative task by four individuals with MTL amnesia and control counterparts. Over 450 online raters assessed these event captions on qualitative dimensions known to vary with autobiographical recall (frequency, significance, emotionality, imageability, and uniqueness). Our critical finding was that individuals with MTL amnesia were more prone to select events that were rated as more frequently occurring than healthy control participants. We interpret this finding as evidence that people with impaired episodic memory from MTL damage compensate for their compromised ability to recall detailed information by relying more heavily on semantic memory processes to select generalized events. We discuss the implications for theoretical models of memory and methodological approaches to studying autobiographical memory. PMID:26951933

  6. Multi-Meteotsunami Event in the Adriatic Sea Generated by Atmospheric Disturbances of 25-26 June 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šepić, Jadranka; Međugorac, Iva; Janeković, Ivica; Dunić, Natalija; Vilibić, Ivica

    2016-01-01

    A series of meteotsunamis hit a few locations in the Mediterranean and Black Seas during 22-27 June 2014. Meteotsunamis were particularly numerous on 25 and 26 June in the Adriatic Sea, where at least six harbours and bays were stricken by powerful waves: strongest events occurred in Vela Luka (Korčula Island), a known meteotsunami hot-spot, where waves reached height of ~3 m, and in Rijeka dubrovačka Bay, where strong ~5 m/s currents accompanied ~2.5 m high waves. Intensification of high-frequency sea level activity was observed at both the eastern and western Adriatic tide gauge stations, with maximum recorded wave heights reaching ~68 cm (Ortona, Italy). A series of individual air pressure disturbances characterized by pronounced rates of air pressure change (up to 2.4 hPa/5 min), limited spatial extent (~50 km) and high temporal variability, propagated over the Adriatic on 2 days in question. Numerical hydrodynamic model SCHISM forced by measured and idealised air pressure disturbances was utilised to reproduce the observed Adriatic sea level response. Several important conclusions were reached: (1) meteotsunamis occurring at various parts of the coast were generated by different atmospheric air pressure disturbances; (2) topographic influence can be removed from sea level spectra by computing spectral signal-to-background ratios; the result, being related to the external forcing, resembles atmospheric pressure spectra; (3) sea response is strongly dependant on details of atmospheric forcing; and (4) over complex bathymetries, like the middle and south Adriatic ones, numerous effects, including Proudman resonance, edge waves, strong topographical enhancement and refractions on the islands placed on the pathway of atmospheric disturbances should be taken into account to fully understand meteotsunami generation and dynamics. An in-depth numerical study is planned to supplement the latter conclusion and to quantify contribution of each process.

  7. The impact of hillslope groundwater dynamics and landscape functioning in event-flow generation: a field study in the Rietholzbach catchment, Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Freyberg, Jana; Rao, P. Suresh C.; Radny, Dirk; Schirmer, Mario

    2015-08-01

    A reliable prediction of hydrograph responses in mountainous headwater catchments requires a mechanistic understanding of the coupled hydro-climatic processes in these regions. This study shows that only a small fraction of the total area in a pre-Alpine headwater catchment actively regulates streamflow responses to hydro-climatic forcing, which facilitates the application of a parsimonious framework for hydrograph time-series prediction. Based on landscape analysis and hydrometric data from the Upper Rietholzbach catchment (URHB, 0.94 km2, northeast Switzerland), a conceptual model was established. Here, the rainfall-event-driven contribution of surface runoff and subsurface flow (event flow) accounts for around 50 % of total river discharge. The event-flow hydrograph is generated from approximately 25 % of the entire area consisting of riparian zones (8 %) and adjacent hillslopes (17 %), each with characteristic streamflow-generating mechanisms. Baseflow generation is attributed to deep groundwater discharge from a fractured-rock aquifer covering ˜75 % of the catchment area. A minimalistic model, that represents event flow as depletion of two parallel linear reservoirs, verified the conceptual model of the URHB with adequate hydrograph simulations ( R 2 = 0.67, Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) = 0.64). Hereby, the expansion of the event-flow contributing areas was found to be particularly significant during long and high-intensity rainfall events. These findings provide a generalized approach for the large-scale characterization of groundwater recharge and hydrological behavior of mountainous catchments with similar landscape properties.

  8. CEM2k and LAQGSM Codes as Event-Generators for Space Radiation Shield and Cosmic Rays Propagation Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mashnik, S. G.; Gudima, K. K.; Sierk, A. J.; Moskalenko, I. V.

    2002-01-01

    Space radiation shield applications and studies of cosmic ray propagation in the Galaxy require reliable cross sections to calculate spectra of secondary particles and yields of the isotopes produced in nuclear reactions induced both by particles and nuclei at energies from threshold to hundreds of GeV per nucleon. Since the data often exist in a very limited energy range or sometimes not at all, the only way to obtain an estimate of the production cross sections is to use theoretical models and codes. Recently, we have developed improved versions of the Cascade-Exciton Model (CEM) of nuclear reactions: the codes CEM97 and CEM2k for description of particle-nucleus reactions at energies up to about 5 GeV. In addition, we have developed a LANL version of the Quark-Gluon String Model (LAQGSM) to describe reactions induced both by particles and nuclei at energies up to hundreds of GeVhucleon. We have tested and benchmarked the CEM and LAQGSM codes against a large variety of experimental data and have compared their results with predictions by other currently available models and codes. Our benchmarks show that CEM and LAQGSM codes have predictive powers no worse than other currently used codes and describe many reactions better than other codes; therefore both our codes can be used as reliable event-generators for space radiation shield and cosmic ray propagation applications. The CEM2k code is being incorporated into the transport code MCNPX (and several other transport codes), and we plan to incorporate LAQGSM into MCNPX in the near future. Here, we present the current status of the CEM2k and LAQGSM codes, and show results and applications to studies of cosmic ray propagation in the Galaxy.

  9. Analysis of low-frequency seismic signals generated during a multiple-iceberg calving event at Jakobshavn Isbræ, Greenland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walter, Fabian; Amundson, Jason M.; O'Neel, Shad; Truffer, Martin; Fahnestock, Mark; Fricker, Helen A.

    2012-01-01

    We investigated seismic signals generated during a large-scale, multiple iceberg calving event that occurred at Jakobshavn Isbræ, Greenland, on 21 August 2009. The event was recorded by a high-rate time-lapse camera and five broadband seismic stations located within a few hundred kilometers of the terminus. During the event two full-glacier-thickness icebergs calved from the grounded (or nearly grounded) terminus and immediately capsized; the second iceberg to calve was two to three times smaller than the first. The individual calving and capsize events were well-correlated with the radiation of low-frequency seismic signals (<0.1 Hz) dominated by Love and Rayleigh waves. In agreement with regional records from previously published ‘glacial earthquakes’, these low-frequency seismic signals had maximum power and/or signal-to-noise ratios in the 0.05–0.1 Hz band. Similarly, full waveform inversions indicate that these signals were also generated by horizontal single forces acting at the glacier terminus. The signals therefore appear to be local manifestations of glacial earthquakes, although the magnitudes of the signals (twice-time integrated force histories) were considerably smaller than previously reported glacial earthquakes. We thus speculate that such earthquakes may be a common, if not pervasive, feature of all full-glacier-thickness calving events from grounded termini. Finally, a key result from our study is that waveform inversions performed on low-frequency, calving-generated seismic signals may have only limited ability to quantitatively estimate mass losses from calving. In particular, the choice of source time function has little impact on the inversion but dramatically changes the earthquake magnitude. Accordingly, in our analysis, it is unclear whether the smaller or larger of the two calving icebergs generated a larger seismic signal.

  10. Priming psychic and conjuring abilities of a magic demonstration influences event interpretation and random number generation biases.

    PubMed

    Mohr, Christine; Koutrakis, Nikolaos; Kuhn, Gustav

    2014-01-01

    Magical ideation and belief in the paranormal is considered to represent a trait-like character; people either believe in it or not. Yet, anecdotes indicate that exposure to an anomalous event can turn skeptics into believers. This transformation is likely to be accompanied by altered cognitive functioning such as impaired judgments of event likelihood. Here, we investigated whether the exposure to an anomalous event changes individuals' explicit traditional (religious) and non-traditional (e.g., paranormal) beliefs as well as cognitive biases that have previously been associated with non-traditional beliefs, e.g., repetition avoidance when producing random numbers in a mental dice task. In a classroom, 91 students saw a magic demonstration after their psychology lecture. Before the demonstration, half of the students were told that the performance was done respectively by a conjuror (magician group) or a psychic (psychic group). The instruction influenced participants' explanations of the anomalous event. Participants in the magician, as compared to the psychic group, were more likely to explain the event through conjuring abilities while the reverse was true for psychic abilities. Moreover, these explanations correlated positively with their prior traditional and non-traditional beliefs. Finally, we observed that the psychic group showed more repetition avoidance than the magician group, and this effect remained the same regardless of whether assessed before or after the magic demonstration. We conclude that pre-existing beliefs and contextual suggestions both influence people's interpretations of anomalous events and associated cognitive biases. Beliefs and associated cognitive biases are likely flexible well into adulthood and change with actual life events. PMID:25653626

  11. Priming psychic and conjuring abilities of a magic demonstration influences event interpretation and random number generation biases

    PubMed Central

    Mohr, Christine; Koutrakis, Nikolaos; Kuhn, Gustav

    2015-01-01

    Magical ideation and belief in the paranormal is considered to represent a trait-like character; people either believe in it or not. Yet, anecdotes indicate that exposure to an anomalous event can turn skeptics into believers. This transformation is likely to be accompanied by altered cognitive functioning such as impaired judgments of event likelihood. Here, we investigated whether the exposure to an anomalous event changes individuals’ explicit traditional (religious) and non-traditional (e.g., paranormal) beliefs as well as cognitive biases that have previously been associated with non-traditional beliefs, e.g., repetition avoidance when producing random numbers in a mental dice task. In a classroom, 91 students saw a magic demonstration after their psychology lecture. Before the demonstration, half of the students were told that the performance was done respectively by a conjuror (magician group) or a psychic (psychic group). The instruction influenced participants’ explanations of the anomalous event. Participants in the magician, as compared to the psychic group, were more likely to explain the event through conjuring abilities while the reverse was true for psychic abilities. Moreover, these explanations correlated positively with their prior traditional and non-traditional beliefs. Finally, we observed that the psychic group showed more repetition avoidance than the magician group, and this effect remained the same regardless of whether assessed before or after the magic demonstration. We conclude that pre-existing beliefs and contextual suggestions both influence people’s interpretations of anomalous events and associated cognitive biases. Beliefs and associated cognitive biases are likely flexible well into adulthood and change with actual life events. PMID:25653626

  12. Generation of large postinjection-induced seismic events by backflow from dead-end faults and fractures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClure, Mark W.

    2015-08-01

    Induced seismicity is common during hydraulic stimulation in fractured crystalline rock. Fluid injection pressurizes preexisting fractures, triggering slip and seismicity. Often, the largest induced events occur after the end of injection, which complicates efforts to manage seismic risk. In this study, a three-dimensional discrete fracture network simulator that couples fluid flow with earthquake simulation was used to investigate a novel hypothesis for why large postinjection seismic events occur. Fractures that form dead-end pathways differentially pressurize during injection. After injection is stopped, fluid backflows through the well from the dead-end fractures into larger fractures, inducing additional seismicity and potentially causing events larger than occurred during injection. Our simulations indicate that flowing fluid back to the surface immediately after injection could mitigate this effect and reduce postinjection seismicity.

  13. A Competitive Objective Structured Clinical Examination Event to Generate an Objective Assessment of Anesthesiology Resident Skills Development.

    PubMed

    Rebel, Annette; DiLorenzo, Amy N; Fragneto, Regina Y; Dority, Jeremy S; Rose, Greg; Nguyen, Dung; Hassan, Zaki-Udin; Schell, Randall M

    2016-05-15

    Residency programs are charged with teaching, assessing, and documenting resident competency for a multitude of skills throughout the course of residency training. An innovative, competition-based objective structured clinical examination event was designed in our department to objectively assess the skill level of anesthesiology residents. After conducting the identical event for 2 years in postgraduate year 1 (PGY1) and postgraduate year 2 (PGY2) residents, we tested the hypothesis that the event can provide adequate standardization to appropriately document progression in technical and nontechnical skills. Twenty-one residents participated in both events during their PGY1 and PGY2 years: n = 10, 2012/2013, n = 11, 2013/2014. The PGY1 participants in 2012 were retested in 2013 (as PGY2 residents) during an identical event, and their performance was compared as a group and on an individual level. The PGY1 residents in 2013 did the same in 2014. Four workstations were analyzed to determine whether improvement in performance occurred between the PGY1 and the PGY2 years: (1) preoperative assessment, (2) operating room anesthesia station checkout, (3) peripheral IV and endotracheal tube placement, and (4) transfer of care in the postanesthesia care unit. The performances of PGY1 and PGY2 residents were compared. The assessments were performed by anesthesiology faculty using checklists, time to complete task, and Likert scale ratings. Data analysis showed improved technical anesthesia skills (operating room setup, peripheral IV, and endotracheal tube placement) and more complete anesthesia-related information management in the preoperative assessment and postoperative transition of care in the postanesthesia care unit in PGY2 residents compared with the PGY1 performance of the same residents. The described event is a valuable tool for objective assessment of multiple anesthesia skills and possible milestones during residency. PMID:26752179

  14. The ear, the eye, earthquakes and feature selection: listening to automatically generated seismic bulletins for clues as to the differences between true and false events.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzma, H. A.; Arehart, E.; Louie, J. N.; Witzleben, J. L.

    2012-04-01

    Listening to the waveforms generated by earthquakes is not new. The recordings of seismometers have been sped up and played to generations of introductory seismology students, published on educational websites and even included in the occasional symphony. The modern twist on earthquakes as music is an interest in using state-of-the-art computer algorithms for seismic data processing and evaluation. Algorithms such as such as Hidden Markov Models, Bayesian Network models and Support Vector Machines have been highly developed for applications in speech recognition, and might also be adapted for automatic seismic data analysis. Over the last three years, the International Data Centre (IDC) of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) has supported an effort to apply computer learning and data mining algorithms to IDC data processing, particularly to the problem of weeding through automatically generated event bulletins to find events which are non-physical and would otherwise have to be eliminated by the hand of highly trained human analysts. Analysts are able to evaluate events, distinguish between phases, pick new phases and build new events by looking at waveforms displayed on a computer screen. Human ears, however, are much better suited to waveform processing than are the eyes. Our hypothesis is that combining an auditory representation of seismic events with visual waveforms would reduce the time it takes to train an analyst and the time they need to evaluate an event. Since it takes almost two years for a person of extraordinary diligence to become a professional analyst and IDC contracts are limited to seven years by Treaty, faster training would significantly improve IDC operations. Furthermore, once a person learns to distinguish between true and false events by ear, various forms of audio compression can be applied to the data. The compression scheme which yields the smallest data set in which relevant signals can still be heard is likely an

  15. System and method for generating micro-seismic events and characterizing properties of a medium with non-linear acoustic interactions

    DOEpatents

    Vu, Cung Khac; Nihei, Kurt; Johnson, Paul A.; Guyer, Robert; Ten Cate, James A.; Le Bas, Pierre-Yves; Larmat, Carene S.

    2015-12-29

    A method and system includes generating a first coded acoustic signal including pulses each having a modulated signal at a central frequency; and a second coded acoustic signal each pulse of which includes a modulated signal a central frequency of which is a fraction d of the central frequency of the modulated signal for the corresponding pulse in the first plurality of pulses. A receiver detects a third signal generated by a non-linear mixing process in the mixing zone and the signal is processed to extract the third signal to obtain an emulated micro-seismic event signal occurring at the mixing zone; and to characterize properties of the medium or creating a 3D image of the properties of the medium, or both, based on the emulated micro-seismic event signal.

  16. High-resolution, multi-proxy characterization of the event deposit generated by the catastrophic events associated with the Mw 6.2 earthquake of 21 April 2007 in Aysén fjord (Chile)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Batist, M. A.; Van Daele, M. E.; Cnudde, V.; Duyck, P.; Tjallingii, R. H.; Pino, M.; Urrutia, R.

    2012-12-01

    In 2007, a seismic swarm with more than 7000 recorded earthquakes affected the region around Aysén fjord, Chile (45°25'S). The series of seismic events reached a maximum on 21 April 2007, with an Mw 6.2 earthquake. Intensities as high as VIII to IX on the Modified Mercalli scale were reported around the epicenter. Multiple debris flows, rock slides and rock avalanches were triggered along the fjord's coastline, and several of these caused impact waves or tsunamis with wave heights of up to 6 m, which inundated the fjord shorelines and caused heavy damage and 10 casualties. In order to characterize in detail the imprint left by this series of catastrophic events in the sedimentary record of the fjord, we conducted a multi-disciplinary survey of the inner fjord region in December 2009. Multibeam bathymetry and high-resolution reflection seismic data reveal that large parts of the fjord basin floor, mostly at the foot of the fjord's steep underwater slopes, are covered by recent mass-wasting deposits or consist of mass-wasting-induced deformed basin-plain sediments. A series of short sediment cores collected throughout the inner fjord contain also the more distal deposits of this significant basin-wide mass-wasting event. By combining classical sedimentological techniques (i.e. grain-size analysis, LOI and magnetic susceptibility measurements, all at high resolution) with X-ray CT scanning and XRF scanning we were able to demonstrate that the event deposits encountered in the cores have a very complex signature and actually consist of a succession of several sub-deposits, comprising distal mass-flow deposits from different source areas (as evidenced by XRF-derived geochemical provenance indications) and with a different flow direction (as evidenced by CT-derived 3D flow-direction indications, such as imbricated rip-up mud clasts, cross and convolute laminations) and tsunami- or seiche-generated deposits. This allowed us to reconstruct the succession of sedimentary

  17. What I Say is What I Get: Stronger Effects of Self-Generated vs. Cue-Induced Expectations in Event-Related Potentials

    PubMed Central

    Kemper, Maike; Umbach, Valentin J.; Schwager, Sabine; Gaschler, Robert; Frensch, Peter A.; Stürmer, Birgit

    2012-01-01

    Expectations regarding future events enable preparatory processes and allow for faster responses to expected stimuli compared to unexpected stimuli. Expectations can have internal sources or follow external cues. While many studies on expectation effects use some form of cueing, a direct comparison with self-generated expectations involving behavioral and psychophysiological measures is lacking. In the present study we compare cue-induced expectations with self-generated expectations that are both expressed verbally in a within-subjects design, measuring behavioral performance, and event-related brain potentials (ERPs). Response time benefits for expected stimuli are much larger when expectations are self-generated as compared to externally cued. Increased amplitudes in both the N2 and P3 components for violations of self-generated expectations suggest that this advantage can at least partially be ascribed to greater perceptual preparation. This goes along with a missing benefit for stimuli matching the expected response only and is mirrored in the lateralized readiness potential (LRP). Taken together, behavioral and ERP findings indicate that self-generated expectations lead to increased premotoric preparation compared to cue-induced expectations. Underlying cognitive or neuronal functional differences between these types of expectation remain a subject for future studies. PMID:23403896

  18. Dynamical approach to MPI in W+dijet and Z+dijet production within the PYTHIA event generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blok, B.; Gunnellini, P.

    2016-04-01

    The new numerical approach that includes 1⊗ 2 mechanisms is applied to double parton scattering (DPS) in W+dijet and Z+dijet final-state production in proton-proton collisions at the LHC. By using the underlying event (UE) simulation from a pythia 8.205 tune extracted in hadronic events, we show that, like in the case of a four-jet final state, the inclusion of 1⊗ 2 mechanisms improves the description of experimental data measured at 7 TeV. The analysis is based on applying an event-by-event reweighting factor to a standard pythia 8.205 sample, by using the theoretical value of σ _eff, which includes corrections due to 1⊗ 2 mechanisms. In addition, predictions for proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV are shown for DPS-sensitive observables. The relevant code, used for this analysis, is publicly available at the following link: http://desy.de/~gunnep/SigmaEffectiveDependence/.

  19. New approach to parton shower Monte Carlo event generators for precision QCD theory: HERWIRI1.0(31)

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph, S.; Ward, B. F. L.; Majhi, S.; Yost, S. A.

    2010-04-01

    By implementing the new IR-improved Dokshitzer-Gribov-Lipatov-Altarelli-Parisi-Callan-Symanzik (DGLAP-CS) kernels recently developed by one of us in the HERWIG6.5 environment we generate a new Monte Carlo (MC), HERWIRI1.0(31), for hadron-hadron scattering at high energies. We use MC data to illustrate the comparison between the parton shower generated by the standard DGLAP-CS kernels and that generated by the new IR-improved DGLAP-CS kernels. The interface to MC-NLO, MC-NLO/HERWIRI, is illustrated. Comparisons with FNAL data and some discussion of possible implications for LHC phenomenology are also presented.

  20. Reports of Perceived Adverse Events of Stimulant Medication on Cognition, Motivation, and Mood: Qualitative Investigation and the Generation of Items for the Medication and Cognition Rating Scale

    PubMed Central

    Kovshoff, Hanna; Banaschewski, Tobias; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Carucci, Sara; Coghill, David; Danckaerts, Marina; Dittmann, Ralf W.; Falissard, Bruno; Grimshaw, Dina Gojkovic; Hollis, Chris; Inglis, Sarah; Konrad, Kerstin; Liddle, Elizabeth; McCarthy, Suzanne; Nagy, Peter; Thompson, Margaret; Wong, Ian C.K.; Zuddas, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: There is no questionnaire to specifically monitor perceived adverse events of methylphenidate (MPH) on cognition, motivation, and mood. The current study therefore had two goals. First, to harvest accounts of such putative events from transcripts of interviews in samples enriched for such potential experiences. Second, to use the derived data to generate items for a new questionnaire that can be used for monitoring such events in medication trials or routine clinical care. Methods: Following a literature search aimed at identifying associations between MPH and cognition and/or motivation, a qualitative semistructured interview was designed to focus specifically on the domains of cognition (i.e., reasoning, depth/breadth of thinking, intellectual capacity, and creativity) and motivation (i.e., drive, effort, and attitudes toward rewards/incentives). Interviews were conducted with 45 participants drawn from the following four groups: (a) clinicians, child and adolescent psychiatrists, and pediatricians specializing in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (n = 15); (2) teachers, with experience of teaching at least 10 medicated children with ADHD (n = 10); (3) parents of children with ADHD (n = 8) treated with MPH; and (4) adolescents/adults with ADHD (n = 12). Purposeful sampling was used to selectively recruit ADHD participants whose histories suggested a degree of vulnerability to MPH adverse events. Data were analyzed using a deductive approach to content analysis. Results: While we probed purposefully for cognitive and motivational adverse events, a third domain, related to mood, emerged from the reports. Therefore, three domains, each with a number of subdomains, were identified from the interview accounts: (i) Cognition (six subdomains; attention/concentration, changes in thinking, reduced creativity, sensory overload, memory, slower processing speed); (ii) motivation (four subdomains; loss of intrinsic motivation

  1. MERADGEN 1.0: Monte Carlo generator for the simulation of radiative events in parity conserving doubly-polarized Møller scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afanasev, Andrei; Chudakov, Eugene; Ilyichev, Alexander; Zykunov, Vladimir

    2007-02-01

    The Monte Carlo generator MERADGEN 1.0 for the simulation of radiative events in parity conserving doubly-polarized Møller scattering has been developed. Analytical integration wherever it is possible provides rather fast and accurate generation. Some numerical tests and histograms are presented. Program summaryProgram title: MERADGEN 1.0 Catalogue identifier:ADYM_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADYM_v1_0 Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: none Programming language: FORTRAN 77 Computer(s) for which the program has been designed: all Operating system(s) for which the program has been designed: Linux RAM required to execute with typical data: 1 MB No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.:2196 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.:23 501 Distribution format:tar.gz Has the code been vectorized or parallelized? : no Number of processors used: 1 Supplementary material: none External routines/libraries used: none CPC Program Library subprograms used: none Nature of problem: Simulation of radiative events in parity conserving doubly-polarized Møller scattering. Solution method: Monte Carlo method for simulation within QED, analytical integration wherever it is possible that provides rather fast and accurate generation. Restrictions: none Unusual features: none Additional comments: none Running time: The simulation of 10 8 radiative events for itest:=1 takes up to 45 seconds on AMD Athlon 2.80 GHz processor.

  2. Nested Architecture of Pyroclastic Bedforms Generated by a Single Flow Event: Outcrop Examples from the Izu Volcanic Islands, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemoto, Y.; Yoshida, S.

    2009-12-01

    ) round crest shape, the antidunes dominated by downstream accretion are characterized by (i) steep accretion surface that commonly exceed the angle of repose and (ii) angular to cuspate crest shape. The mechanism in charge of generating the compound antidunes is unclear; however, observations of standing waves in the modern siliciclastic depositional environments (e.g., shallow running water on the beach) suggest that compound antidunes are produced by a gravitational collapse of the crest of large and exceedingly steepened standing waves. When the crest collapes, it commonly breaks into two smaller standing waves that are positioned on the flanks of the large (but now slightly deflated) standing wave, and stay there until the angle of the flanks increases again to form a new large standing wave. The collapse-rebuilding cycle persists as long as the flow condition is sustained.

  3. The global event system

    SciTech Connect

    Winans, J.

    1994-03-02

    The support for the global event system has been designed to allow an application developer to control the APS event generator and receiver boards. This is done by the use of four new record types. These records are customized and are only supported by the device support modules for the APS event generator and receiver boards. The use of the global event system and its associated records should not be confused with the vanilla EPICS events and the associated event records. They are very different.

  4. Effect of Spatial Heterogeneity of Runoff Generation Mechanisms on the Scaling Behavior of Event Runoff Responses in a Natural River Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Hongyi; Sivapalan, Murugesu

    2011-05-26

    This paper investigates the effects of spatial heterogeneity of runoff generation processes on the scaling behavior of event runoff responses in a natural catchment, the Illinois River Basin near Tahlequah in Oklahoma. A previous study in this basin had revealed a systematic spatial trend in the relative dominance of different runoff generation mechanisms, with the fraction of total runoff generation due to the subsurface stormflow mechanism shown to increase in the downstream direction, while surface runoff generation by saturation excess showed a corresponding decrease. These trends were attributable to corresponding systematic trends in landscape properties, namely, saturated hydraulic conductivity of soils and topographic slope. Considering the differences in the timing of hillslope responses between the different runoff generation mechanisms, this paper then explores their impacts on the runoff routing responses, including how they change with increasing spatial scale. For this purpose we utilize a distributed, physically based hydrological model, with a fully hydraulic stream network routing component. The model is used to generate instantaneous response functions (IRF) for nested catchments of a range of sizes along the river network, as well as quantitative measures of their shape, e.g., peak and time-to-peak. In order to decipher and separate the effects of landscape heterogeneity from those due to basin geomorphology and hydrologic regime, the model simulations are carried out for three hypothetical cases that make assumptions about regarding landscape properties (uniform, a systematic trend, and heterogeneity plus the trend), repeating these simulations under wet and dry antecedent conditions. The simulations produced expected (consistent with previous theoretical studies) and also somewhat surprising results. For example, the power-law relationship between peak of the IRF and drainage area is shown to be flatter under wet conditions than under dry

  5. Short Communication: Investigating a Chain of HIV Transmission Events Due to Homosexual Exposure and Blood Transfusion Based on a Next Generation Sequencing Method.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qi; Zhang, Chen; Jiang, Yan; Wen, Yujie; Pan, Pinliang; Li, Yang; Zhang, Guiyun; Zhang, Lei; Qiu, Maofeng

    2015-12-01

    This study investigates a chain of HIV transmission events due to homosexual exposure and blood transfusion in China. The MiSeq platform, a next generation sequencing (NGS) system, was used to obtain genetic details of the HIV-1 env region (336 base pairs). Evolutionary analysis combined with epidemiologic evidence suggests a transmission chain from patient T3 to T2 through homosexual exposure and subsequently to T1 through blood transfusion. More importantly, a phylogenetic study suggested a likely genetic bottleneck for HIV in homosexual transmission from T3 to T2, while T1 inherited the majority of variants from T2. The result from the MiSeq platform is consistent with findings from the epidemiologic survey. The MiSeq platform is a powerful tool for tracing HIV transmissions and intrapersonal evolution. PMID:26355677

  6. Evaluation of stochastic weather generators for capturing the statistics of extreme precipitation events in the Catskill Mountain watersheds, New York State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acharya, N.; Frei, A.; Owens, E. M.; Chen, J.

    2015-12-01

    Watersheds located in the Catskill Mountains area, part of the eastern plateau climate region of New York, contributes about 90% of New York City's municipal water supply, serving 9 million New Yorkers with about 1.2 billion gallons of clean drinking water each day. The New York City Department of Environmental Protection has an ongoing series of studies to assess the potential impacts of climate change on the availability of high quality water in this water supply system. Recent studies identify increasing trends in total precipitation and in the frequency of extreme precipitation events in this region. The objectives of the present study are: to analyze the proba­bilistic structure of extreme precipitation based on historical observations: and to evaluate the abilities of stochastic weather generators (WG), statistical models that produce synthetic weather time series based on observed statistical properties at a particular location, to simulate the statistical properties of extreme precipitation events over this region. The generalized extreme value distribution (GEV) has been applied to the annual block maxima of precipitation for 60 years (1950 to 2009) observed data in order to estimate the events with return periods of 50, 75, and 100 years. These results were then used to evaluate a total of 13 WGs were : 12 parametric WGs including all combinations of three different orders of Markov chain (MC) models (1st , 2nd and 3rd) and four different probability distributions (exponential, gamma, skewed normal and mixed exponential); and one semi parametric WG based on k-nearest neighbor bootstrapping. Preliminary results suggest that three-parameter (skewed normal and mixed exponential distribution) and semi-parametric (k-nearest neighbor bootstrapping) WGs are more consistent with observations. It is also found that first order MC models perform as well as second or third order MC models.

  7. Influence of measurement frequency on the evaluation of short-term dose of sub-micrometric particles during indoor and outdoor generation events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manigrasso, M.; Stabile, L.; Avino, P.; Buonanno, G.

    2013-03-01

    Aerosol generation events due to combustion processes are characterized by high particle emissions in the nucleation mode range. Such particles are characterized by very short atmospheric lifetimes, leading to rapid decay in time and space from the emission point. Therefore, the deposited fraction of inhaled particles (dose) also changes. In fact, close to the emission source, high short-term peak exposures occur. The related exposure estimates should therefore rely on measurements of aerosol number-size distributions able to track rapid aerosol dynamics. In order to study the influence of the time resolution on such estimates, simultaneous measurements were carried out via Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) and Fast Mobility Particle Sizer (FMPS) spectrometers during particle generation events in both indoor (cooking activities) and outdoor (airstrip and urban street canyons) microenvironments. Aerosol size distributions in the range 16-520 nm were measured by SMPS and FMPS at frequencies of 0.007 s-1 and 1 s-1, respectively. Based on the two datasets, respiratory dosimetry estimates were made on the basis of the deposition model of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. During cooking activities, SMPS measurements give an approximate representation of aerosol temporal evolution. Consequently, the related instant doses can be approximated to a fair degree. In the two outdoor microenvironments considered, aerosol size distributions change rapidly: the FMPS is able to follow such evolution, whereas the SMPS is not. The high short-term peak concentrations, and the consequent respiratory doses, evidenced by FMPS data are hardly described by SMPS, which is unable to track the fast aerosol changes. The health relevance of such short peak exposures has not been thoroughly investigated in scientific literature, therefore, in the present paper highly time-resolved and size-resolved dosimetry estimates were provided in order to deepen this aspect.

  8. Resistance evolution to the first generation of genetically modified Diabrotica-active Bt-maize events by western corn rootworm: management and monitoring considerations.

    PubMed

    Devos, Yann; Meihls, Lisa N; Kiss, József; Hibbard, Bruce E

    2013-04-01

    Western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera; WCR) is a major coleopteran maize pest in North America and the EU, and has traditionally been managed through crop rotation and broad-spectrum soil insecticides. Genetically modified Bt-maize offers an additional management tool for WCR and has been valuable in reducing insecticide use and increasing farm income. A concern is that the widespread, repeated, and exclusive deployment of the same Bt-maize transformation event will result in the rapid evolution of resistance in WCR. This publication explores the potential of WCR to evolve resistance to plant-produced Bt-toxins from the first generation of Diabrotica-active Bt-maize events (MON 863 and MON 88017, DAS-59122-7 and MIR604), and whether currently implemented risk management strategies to delay and monitor resistance evolution are appropriate. In twelve of the twelve artificial selection experiments reported, resistant WCR populations were yielded rapidly. Field-selected resistance of WCR to Cry3Bb1 is documented in some US maize growing areas, where an increasing number of cases of unexpected damage of WCR larvae to Bt-maize MON 88017 has been reported. Currently implemented insect resistance management measures for Bt-crops usually rely on the high dose/refuge (HDR) strategy. Evidence (including laboratory, greenhouse and field data) indicates that several conditions contributing to the success of the HDR strategy may not be met for the first generation of Bt-maize events and WCR: (1) the Bt-toxins are expressed heterogeneously at a low-to-moderate dose in roots; (2) resistance alleles may be present at a higher frequency than initially assumed; (3) WCR may mate in a non-random manner; (4) resistance traits could have non-recessive inheritance; and (5) fitness costs may not necessarily be associated with resistance evolution. However, caution must be exercised when extrapolating laboratory and greenhouse results to field conditions. Model predictions

  9. The HLA-B*83:01 allele is generated by a gene conversion event including whole of exon 2 and partial introns 1 and 2 between B*44 and B*56 alleles.

    PubMed

    Cervera, I; Herraiz, M A; Vidart, J A; Peñaloza, J; Martinez-Laso, J

    2011-02-01

    Several studies have indicated the gene conversion as the most important mechanism about the MHC polymorphism generation when intron sequences are studied. The data obtained confirm that the B*83:01 allele is generated by gene conversion event including exon 2 and partial intron 1 and 2 between B*44 and B*56 alleles. PMID:21199389

  10. Adjusting skewness and maximum 0.5 hour intensity in CLIGEN to improve extreme event and sub-daily intensity generation for assessing climate change impacts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Both measured data and GCM/RCM projections show an general increasing trend in extreme rainfall events as temperature rises in US. Proper simulation of extreme events is particularly important for assessing climate change impacts on soil erosion and hydrology. The objective of this paper is to fin...

  11. Development of a System to Generate Near Real Time Tropospheric Delay and Precipitable Water Vapor in situ at Geodetic GPS Stations, to Improve Forecasting of Severe Weather Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, A. W.; Bock, Y.; Geng, J.; Gutman, S. I.; Laber, J. L.; Morris, T.; Offield, D. G.; Small, I.; Squibb, M. B.

    2012-12-01

    We describe a system under development for generating ultra-low latency tropospheric delay and precipitable water vapor (PWV) estimates in situ at a prototype network of geodetic GPS sites in southern California, and demonstrating their utility in forecasting severe storms commonly associated with flooding and debris flow events along the west coast of North America through infusion of this meteorological data at NOAA National Weather Service (NWS) Forecast Offices and the NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory (ESRL). The first continuous geodetic GPS network was established in southern California in the early 1990s and much of it was converted to real-time (latency <1s) high-rate (1Hz) mode over the following decades. GPS stations are multi-purpose and can also provide estimates of tropospheric zenith delays, which can be converted into mm-accuracy PWV using collocated pressure and temperature measurements, the basis for GPS meteorology (Bevis et al. 1992, 1994; Duan et al. 1996) as implemented by NOAA with a nationwide distribution of about 300 GPS-Met stations providing PW estimates at subhourly resolution currently used in operational weather forecasting in the U.S. We improve upon the current paradigm of transmitting large quantities of raw data back to a central facility for processing into higher-order products. By operating semi-autonomously, each station will provide low-latency, high-fidelity and compact data products within the constraints of the narrow communications bandwidth that often occurs in the aftermath of natural disasters. The onsite ambiguity-resolved precise point positioning solutions are enabled by a power-efficient, low-cost, plug-in Geodetic Module for fusion of data from in situ sensors including GPS and a low-cost MEMS meteorological sensor package. The decreased latency (~5 minutes) PW estimates will provide the detailed knowledge of the distribution and magnitude of PW that NWS forecasters require to monitor and predict severe winter

  12. Strong ground motion generated by controlled blasting experiments and mining induced seismic events recorded underground at deep level mines in South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milev, A.; Selllers, E.; Skorpen, L.; Scheepers, L.; Murphy, S.; Spottiswoode, S. M.

    2011-12-01

    A number of simulated rockbursts were conducted underground at deep level gold mines in South Africa in order to estimate the rock mass response when subjected to strong ground motion. The rockbursts were simulated by means of large blasts detonated in solid rock close to the sidewall of a tunnel. The simulated rockbursts involved the design of the seismic source, seismic observations in the near and far field, high-speed video filming, a study of rock mass conditions such as fractures, joints, rock strength etc. Knowledge of the site conditions before and after the simulated rockbursts was also gained. The numerical models used in the design of the simulated rockbursts were calibrated by small blasts taking place at each experimental site. A dense array of shock type accelerometers was installed along the blasting wall to monitor the attenuation of the strong ground motion as a function of the distance from the source. The attenuation of peak particle velocities, was found to be proportional to R^-1.7. Special investigations were carried out to evaluate the mechanism and the magnitude of damage, as well as the support behaviour under excessive dynamic loading. The strong ground motion generated by mining induced seismic events was studied, as part of this work, not only to characterize the rock mass response, but also to estimate the site effect on the surface of the underground excavations. A stand-alone instrument especially designed for recording strong ground motions was used to create a large database of peak particle velocities measured on stope hangingwalls. A total number of 58 sites located in stopes where the Carbon Leader Reef, Ventersdorp Contact Reef, Vaal Reef and Basal Reef are mined, were monitored. The peak particle velocities were measured at the surface of the excavations to identify the effect of the free surface and the fractures surrounding the underground mining. Based on these measurements the generally accepted velocity criterion of 3 m

  13. Hadronic event generation for hadron cascade calculations and detector simulation, Part IV: The application of the intranuclear cascade model to reactions of pions, nucleons, kaons, and their antiparticles with nuclei below 6 GeV/c

    SciTech Connect

    Haenbssgen, K.

    1987-02-01

    An extension of the intranuclear cascade model is described. The primary hadrons may be pions, kaons, nucleons, and their antiparticles. Secondary particles produced include hyperons or antihyperons. A large amount of experimental data is described by the model. The model is constructed via the Monte Carlo generation of complete events, based on a model of the nucleus structure and the hadron/nucleon interaction inside the nucleus. Calculated average multiplicities and single and double differential cross sections are compared with experimental data.

  14. Frequency of cardiovascular events in patients treated with anti hypertensive agents: A cohort study based on claims data generated by primary care practice

    PubMed Central

    Russo, Pierluigi; Capone, Alessandro; Sturani, Alessandra; Esposti, Ezio Degli

    2004-01-01

    Background: Large-scale clinical trials have shown that antihypertensive drugs reduce the risk for cardiovascular events. However, little is known about the effectiveness of these drugs in the primary care setting. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of cardiovascularevents during treatment with either of 2 of the most frequently prescribed antihypertensive drugs. Methods: This observational, longitudinal, cohort study considered the entirepopulation listed in the administrative databases of the Local Health Authority of Ravenna, Italy (356,000 residents). The demographic registry and the pharmaceutical and nosocomial databases were cross-linked to determine drug treatment, as well as the frequency of cardiovascular events on a patient-by-patient basis. Each patient aged >18 years receiving a first prescription for amlodipine or enalapril in the period between January 1, 1996, and December 31, 2000, with ≥6 months of continuous treatment with the drug was included. The follow-up period varied from 6 months to 4.5 years. Results: Of the 7500 patients analyzed (4092 women and 3408 men; mean[SD] age, 68.0 [12.4] years), 2231 (29.7%) were given amlodipine and 5269 (70.3%) were given enalapril. The observed rate of cardiovascular events was higher among patients treated with amlodipine (54 per 1000 patient-years vs 46 per 1000 patient-years; P = 0.007), with a hazard ratio 17% higher compared with enalapril (95% Cl, 5.0–24.0; P = 0.007). The result was also confirmed using Cox multivariate regression analysis. The combination of enalapril plus diuretic showed the lowest risk for cardiovascular events (0.73; 95% Cl, −36.0 to −16.0; P < 0.001). Conclusion: This analysis showed that treatment with enalapril was associatedwith a significantly lower frequency of cardiovascular events compared with amlodipine. PMID:24764590

  15. Event Perception

    PubMed Central

    Radvansky, Gabriel; Zacks, Jeffrey M.

    2012-01-01

    Events are central elements of human experience. Formally, they can be individuated in terms of the entities that compose them, the features of those entities, and the relations amongst entities. Psychologically, representations of events capture their spatiotemporal location, the people and objects involved, and the relations between these elements. Here, we present an account of the nature of psychological representations of events and how they are constructed and updated. Event representations are like images in that they are isomorphic to the situations they represent. However, they are like models or language in that they are constructed of components rather than being holistic. Also, they are partial representations that leave out some elements and abstract others. Representations of individual events are informed by schematic knowledge about general classes of events. Event representations are constructed in a process that segments continuous activity into discrete events. The construction of a series of event representations forms a basis for predicting the future, planning for that future, and imagining alternatives. PMID:23082236

  16. The Monte Carlo event generator AcerMC versions 2.0 to 3.8 with interfaces to PYTHIA 6.4, HERWIG 6.5 and ARIADNE 4.1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kersevan, Borut Paul; Richter-Waş, Elzbieta

    2013-03-01

    The AcerMC Monte Carlo generator is dedicated to the generation of Standard Model background processes which were recognised as critical for the searches at LHC, and generation of which was either unavailable or not straightforward so far. The program itself provides a library of the massive matrix elements (coded by MADGRAPH) and native phase space modules for generation of a set of selected processes. The hard process event can be completed by the initial and the final state radiation, hadronisation and decays through the existing interface with either PYTHIA, HERWIG or ARIADNE event generators and (optionally) TAUOLA and PHOTOS. Interfaces to all these packages are provided in the distribution version. The phase-space generation is based on the multi-channel self-optimising approach using the modified Kajantie-Byckling formalism for phase space construction and further smoothing of the phase space was obtained by using a modified ac-VEGAS algorithm. An additional improvement in the recent versions is the inclusion of the consistent prescription for matching the matrix element calculations with parton showering for a select list of processes. Catalogue identifier: ADQQ_v2_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADQQ_v2_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 3853309 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 68045728 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: FORTRAN 77 with popular extensions (g77, gfortran). Computer: All running Linux. Operating system: Linux. Classification: 11.2, 11.6. External routines: CERNLIB (http://cernlib.web.cern.ch/cernlib/), LHAPDF (http://lhapdf.hepforge.org/) Catalogue identifier of previous version: ADQQ_v1_0 Journal reference of previous version: Comput. Phys. Comm. 149(2003)142 Does

  17. Formational Turning Points in the Transition to College: Understanding How Communication Events Shape First-Generation Students' Pedagogical and Interpersonal Relationships with Their College Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Tiffany R.

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, I explored student-teacher interaction, student-teacher relationship formation and development, and the ways in which student-teacher interaction and relationships facilitated support and persistence for first-generation (FG) students during the transition to college. Using transition theory as a sensitizing framework, I took…

  18. Effect of spatial heterogeneity of runoff generation mechanisms on the scaling behavior of event runoff responses in a natural river basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hongyi; Sivapalan, Murugesu

    2011-03-01

    This paper presents a theoretical investigation of the effects of spatial heterogeneity of runoff generation on the scaling behavior of runoff timing responses. A previous modeling study on the Illinois River Basin in Oklahoma had revealed a systematic spatial trend in the relative dominance of different runoff generation mechanisms, attributable to corresponding systematic trends in landscape properties. Considering the differences in the timing of hillslope responses between the different runoff mechanisms, this paper explores their impacts on the catchment-scale runoff routing responses, including how they change with spatial scale. For this purpose we utilize a distributed, physically based hydrological model, with a fully hydraulic stream network routing component. The model is used to generate instantaneous response functions (IRF) for nested catchments of a range of sizes along the river network and quantitative measures of their shape, e.g., peak and time to peak. In order to separate the effects of soil heterogeneity from those due to basin geomorphology, the model simulations are carried out for three hypothetical cases that make assumptions regarding landscape properties (uniform, a systematic trend, and heterogeneity plus the trend), repeating these simulations under wet and dry antecedent conditions. The simulations produced expected and also surprising results. The power law relationship between the peak of the IRF and drainage area is shown to be flatter under wet conditions than under dry conditions, even though the (faster) saturation excess mechanism is more dominant under wet conditions. This result appears to be caused by partial area runoff generation: under wet conditions, the fraction of saturation area is about 30%, while under dry conditions it is less than 10% for the same input of rainfall. This means travel times associated with overland flow (which mostly contributes to the peak and time to peak) are, in fact, longer during wet

  19. Mining Subsidence-generated legacy sediments in a Mid-European low-order stream floodplain as an archive for historic human activity and flooding events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchty-Lemke, Michael; Lehmkuhl, Frank; Frings, Roy; Henkel, Sebastian; Schwarzbauer, Jan

    2015-04-01

    Legacy sediments, which were deposited as a consequence of mining subsidence in a floodplain area, can be used as an archive for human activity and past flooding. The morphodynamics of the Wurm River, a low-order stream in the Lower Rhine Embayment at the border between Germany and the Netherlands, is significantly influenced by a long colliery history, which caused alterations in the natural river landscape. In addition, substances which are transported via municipal wastewaters as well as contaminants emitted by specific regional industries were deposited in the floodplain sediments. This study aims at the reconstruction of human activity and past flooding events derived from geochemical and sedimentological data for different time slices within the 20st century. The spatial and chronological distribution of contaminants is investigated on the basis of several sections and drilling cores along the middle reaches of the Wurm River. Sections within mining subsidence areas and outside of those are compared regarding their sedimentation rates and element contents. Additional information is gathered from digital terrain models, historical documents such as the Tranchot map (early 19th century), and interviews of contemporary witnesses. Sedimentation rates derived from Cs-137 measurements allow a temporal assignment of the legacy sediments. A section within a segment of the Siegfried Line (Westwall), constructed in 1939, that crosses the Wurm River shows a significant increase in sedimentation rates in contrast to the floodplain area that is unaffected by subsidence processes. Furthermore, source-specific contaminants can be used to refine the stratigraphy, since source and period of emission are known. The evaluation of past flooding events is supported by numerical modeling of flood scenarios, which provides detailed information about flooded areas depending on the discharge, particularly for the areas which are under influence of mining subsidence. Besides the

  20. Rock mass response to strong ground motion generated by mining induced seismic events and blasting observed at the surface of the excavations in deep level gold mines in South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milev, Alexander; Durrheim, Ray; Ogasawara, Hiroshi

    2014-05-01

    The strong ground motion generated by mining induced seismic events was studied to characterize the rock mass response and to estimate the site effect on the surface of the underground excavations. A stand-alone instruments, especially designed for recording strong ground motions, were installed underground at a number of deep level gold mines in South Africa. The instruments were recording data at the surface of the stope hangingwalls. A maximum value of 3 m/s was measured. Therefore data were compared to the data recorded in the solid rock by the mine seismic networks to determine the site response. The site response was defined as the ratio of the peak ground velocity measured at the surface of the excavations to the peak ground velocity inferred from the mine seismic data measured in the solid rocks. The site response measured at all mines studied was found to be 9 ± 3 times larger on average. A number of simulated rockbursts were conducted underground in order to estimate the rock mass response when subjected to extreme ground motion and derive the attenuation factors in near field. The rockbursts were simulated by means of large blasts detonated in solid rock close to the sidewall of a tunnel. The numerical models used in the design of the simulated rockbursts were calibrated by small blasts taking place at each experimental site. A dense array of shock type accelerometers was installed along the blasting wall to monitor the attenuation of the strong ground motion as a function of the distance from the source. The attenuation of the ground motion was found to be proportional to the distance from the source following R^-1.1 & R^-1.7 for compact rock and R^-3.1 & R^-3.4 for more fractured rock close to the surface of the tunnel. In addition the ground motion was compared to the quasi-static deformations taking place around the underground excavations. The quasi-static deformations were measured by means of strain, tilt and closure. A good correspondence

  1. A Genomic Study of DNA Alteration Events Caused by Ionizing Radiation in Human Embryonic Stem Cells via Next-Generation Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Van; Panyutin, Irina V; Panyutin, Igor G; Neumann, Ronald D

    2016-01-01

    Ionizing radiation (IR) is a known mutagen that is widely employed for medical diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. To study the extent of genetic variations in DNA caused by IR, we used IR-sensitive human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). Four hESC cell lines, H1, H7, H9, and H14, were subjected to IR at 0.2 or 1 Gy dose and then maintained in culture for four days before being harvested for DNA isolation. Irradiation with 1 Gy dose resulted in significant cell death, ranging from 60% to 90% reduction in cell population. Since IR is often implicated as a risk for inducing cancer, a primer pool targeting genomic "hotspot" regions that are frequently mutated in human cancer genes was used to generate libraries from irradiated and control samples. Using a semiconductor-based next-generation sequencing approach, we were able to consistently sequence these samples with deep coverage for reliable data analysis. A possible rare nucleotide variant was identified in the KIT gene (chr4:55593481) exclusively in H1 hESCs irradiated with 1 Gy dose. More extensive further studies are warranted to assess the extent and distribution of genetic changes in hESCs after IR exposure. PMID:26709353

  2. Progesterone and the zona pellucida activate different transducing pathways in the sequence of events leading to diacylglycerol generation during mouse sperm acrosomal exocytosis.

    PubMed Central

    Murase, T; Roldan, E R

    1996-01-01

    We tested the involvement of protein tyrosine kinase and G-protein transducing pathways in the formation of diacylglycerol (DAG) during exocytosis in mouse spermatozoa. In capacitated spermatozoa, stimulation with solubilized zona pellucida (ZP) or progesterone led to the formation of DAG and to exocytosis of the acrosomal granule. Stimulation of DAG formation and exocytosis by ZP were inhibited in a concentration-dependent fashion by pre-exposure to tyrphostin A48, a protein tyrosine kinase inhibitor. These ZP-induced responses were also reduced in a concentration-dependent manner by prior incubation with pertussis toxin, a G-protein (Gi class) inhibitor. On the other hand, generation of DAG and exocytosis triggered by progesterone were inhibited if spermatozoa were preincubated with different concentrations of tyrphostin A48, but were not affected by pre-exposure to pertussis toxin. Progesterone acts on at least two novel surface receptors, one being a gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) type A (GABAA)-like receptor. Transducing mechanisms coupled to this receptor were tested directly by stimulating spermatozoa with GABA. Treatment of capacitated spermatozoa with GABA resulted in DAG formation and exocytosis. These responses were not seen when cells were preincubated with tyrphostin A48. Pertussis toxin, however, did not affect the generation of DAG and exocytosis triggered by GABA, in agreement with results obtained using progesterone. Taken together, these results indicate that DAG formation during acrosomal exocytosis is differentially regulated by transducing pathways activated by oocyte-associated agonists. PMID:9003394

  3. The United States' Next Generation of Atmospheric Composition and Coastal Ecosystem Measurements: NASA's Geostationary Coastal and Air Pollution Events (GEO-CAPE) Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishman, J.; Iraci, Laura T.; Al-Saddi, J.; Chance, K.; Chavez, F.; Chin, M.; Coble, P.; Davis, C.; DiGiacomo, P. M.; Edwards, D.; Eldering, A.; Goes, J.; Herman, J.; Hu, C.; Jacob, D. J.; Jordan, C.; Kawa, S. R.; Key, R.; Liu, X.; Lohrenz, S.; Mannino, A.; Natraj, V.; Neil, D.; Neu, J.; Newchurch, M.; Pickering, K.; Salisbury, J.; Sosik, H.; Subramaniam, A.; Tzortziou, M; Wang, J.; Wang, M.

    2012-01-01

    The Geostationary Coastal and Air Pollution Events (GEO-CAPE) mission was recommended by the National Research Council's (NRC's) Earth Science Decadal Survey to measure tropospheric trace gases and aerosols and coastal ocean phytoplankton, water quality, and biogeochemistry from geostationary orbit, providing continuous observations within the field of view. To fulfill the mandate and address the challenge put forth by the NRC, two GEO-CAPE Science Working Groups (SWGs), representing the atmospheric composition and ocean color disciplines, have developed realistic science objectives using input drawn from several community workshops. The GEO-CAPE mission will take advantage of this revolutionary advance in temporal frequency for both of these disciplines. Multiple observations per day are required to explore the physical, chemical, and dynamical processes that determine tropospheric composition and air quality over spatial scales ranging from urban to continental, and over temporal scales ranging from diurnal to seasonal. Likewise, high-frequency satellite observations are critical to studying and quantifying biological, chemical, and physical processes within the coastal ocean. These observations are to be achieved from a vantage point near 95deg-100degW, providing a complete view of North America as well as the adjacent oceans. The SWGs have also endorsed the concept of phased implementation using commercial satellites to reduce mission risk and cost. GEO-CAPE will join the global constellation of geostationary atmospheric chemistry and coastal ocean color sensors planned to be in orbit in the 2020 time frame.

  4. The Advanced Photon Source event system

    SciTech Connect

    Lenkszus, F.R.; Laird, R.

    1995-12-31

    The Advanced Photon Source, like many other facilities, requires a means of transmitting timing information to distributed control system 1/0 controllers. The APS event system provides the means of distributing medium resolution/accuracy timing events throughout the facility. It consists of VME event generators and event receivers which are interconnected with 10OMbit/sec fiber optic links at distances of up to 650m in either a star or a daisy chain configuration. The systems event throughput rate is 1OMevents/sec with a peak-to-peak timing jitter down to lOOns depending on the source of the event. It is integrated into the EPICS-based A.PS control system through record and device support. Event generators broadcast timing events over fiber optic links to event receivers which are programmed to decode specific events. Event generators generate events in response to external inputs, from internal programmable event sequence RAMS, and from VME bus writes. The event receivers can be programmed to generate both pulse and set/reset level outputs to synchronize hardware, and to generate interrupts to initiate EPICS record processing. In addition, each event receiver contains a time stamp counter which is used to provide synchronized time stamps to EPICS records.

  5. Event-by-Event Fission with FREYA

    SciTech Connect

    Randrup, J; Vogt, R

    2010-11-09

    The recently developed code FREYA (Fission Reaction Event Yield Algorithm) generates large samples of complete fission events, consisting of two receding product nuclei as well as a number of neutrons and photons, all with complete kinematic information. Thus it is possible to calculate arbitrary correlation observables whose behavior may provide unique insight into the fission process. The presentation first discusses the present status of FREYA, which has now been extended up to energies where pre-equilibrium emission becomes significant and one or more neutrons may be emitted prior to fission. Concentrating on {sup 239}Pu(n,f), we discuss the neutron multiplicity correlations, the dependence of the neutron energy spectrum on the neutron multiplicity, and the relationship between the fragment kinetic energy and the number of neutrons and their energies. We also briefly suggest novel fission observables that could be measured with modern detectors.

  6. Extreme Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nott, Jonathan

    2006-04-01

    The assessment of risks posed by natural hazards such as floods, droughts, earthquakes, tsunamis or cyclones, is often based on short-term historical records that may not reflect the full range or magnitude of events possible. As human populations grow, especially in hazard-prone areas, methods for accurately assessing natural hazard risks are becoming increasingly important. In Extreme Events Jonathan Nott describes the many methods used to reconstruct such hazards from natural long-term records. He demonstrates how long-term (multi-century to millennial) records are essential in gaining a realistic understanding of the variability of natural hazards, and how short-term historical records can often misrepresent the likely risks associated with natural hazards. This book will form a useful resource for students taking courses covering natural hazards and risk assessment. It will also be valuable for urban planners, policy makers and non-specialists as a guide to understanding and reconstructing long-term records of natural hazards. Explains mechanisms that cause extreme events and discusses their prehistoric records Describes how to reconstruct long-term records of natural hazards in order to make accurate risk assessments Demonstrates that natural hazards can follow cycles over time and do not occur randomly

  7. The role of synoptic-scale features and advection in prolonged warming and generation of different forms of precipitation at Dome Fuji station, Antarctica, following a prominent blocking event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirasawa, Naohiko; Nakamura, Hisashi; Motoyama, Hideaki; Hayashi, Masahiko; Yamanouchi, Takashi

    2013-07-01

    A blocking event over the East Antarctic ice sheet during June 1997 generated the highest surface air temperature (which increased from around -70°C to around -30°C) and pressure of that year at the Dome Fuji station (77.5°S, 40°E). Following the blocking event, the anomalously high air temperature (around -50°C to -60°C) and pressure were maintained at the surface for about 1 week. This study investigates how these warm conditions were maintained and documents the sequential occurrence of two forms of synoptic-scale high-pressure systems with conditions that produced precipitation by different processes in each case. In the first half of the warm period, a solitary high-pressure system (the Solitary High) formed over the Dome Fuji station and traveled west over East Antarctica after being cut off from the tip of the preceding blocking ridge. During this phase, tropospheric temperatures were higher, and surface-based temperature inversions were more intense than during the following period. While a dry-out developed in the troposphere below about 300 hPa, the precipitation of ice crystals in the surface-based temperature inversion layer was generated by deposition of moisture that had become trapped in the boundary layer after being transported onto the continent by the previous blocking ridge. This mechanism has not been previously reported elsewhere. During the second half of the warm period, a ridge of high pressure (the Transcontinental Ridge) traversed East Antarctica almost completely, and its western section was amplified by the merging of the Solitary High with a preceding quasi-stationary Rossby wave train propagating along the Southern Ocean. This ridge allowed an intrusion of warm, moist air from the Weddell Sea toward the station, which generated precipitation throughout the whole troposphere by orographic uplift once again, and ended the dry-out. This represents the typical mechanism of both moisture transportation and the generation of

  8. Default processing of event sequences.

    PubMed

    Hymel, Alicia; Levin, Daniel T; Baker, Lewis J

    2016-02-01

    In a wide range of circumstances, it is important to perceive and represent the sequence of events. For example, sequence perception is necessary to learn statistical contingencies between events, and to generate predictions about events when segmenting actions. However, viewer's awareness of event sequence is rarely tested, and at least some means of encoding event sequence are likely to be resource-intensive. Therefore, previous research may have overestimated the degree to which viewers are aware of specific event sequences. In the experiments reported here, we tested viewers' ability to detect anomalies during visual event sequences. Participants viewed videos containing events that either did or did not contain an out-of-order action. Participants were unable to consistently detect the misordered events, and performance on the task decreased significantly to very low levels when performing a secondary task. In addition, participants almost never detected misorderings in an incidental version of the task, and performance increased when videos ended immediately after the misordering, We argue that these results demonstrate that viewers can effectively perceive the elements of events, but do not consistently test their expectations about the specific sequence of natural events unless bidden to do so by task-specific demands. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26348070

  9. Events diary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-01-01

    as Imperial College, the Royal Albert Hall, the Royal College of Art, the Natural History and Science Museums and the Royal Geographical Society. Under the heading `Shaping the future together' BA2000 will explore science, engineering and technology in their wider cultural context. Further information about this event on 6 - 12 September may be obtained from Sandra Koura, BA2000 Festival Manager, British Association for the Advancement of Science, 23 Savile Row, London W1X 2NB (tel: 0171 973 3075, e-mail: sandra.koura@britassoc.org.uk ). Details of the creating SPARKS events may be obtained from creating.sparks@britassoc.org.uk or from the website www.britassoc.org.uk . Other events 3 - 7 July, Porto Alegre, Brazil VII Interamerican conference on physics education: The preparation of physicists and physics teachers in contemporary society. Info: IACPE7@if.ufrgs.br or cabbat1.cnea.gov.ar/iacpe/iacpei.htm 27 August - 1 September, Barcelona, Spain GIREP conference: Physics teacher education beyond 2000. Info: www.blues.uab.es/phyteb/index.html

  10. Tidal Disruption Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gezari, Suvi

    2013-12-01

    The majority of supermassive black holes in the Universe lie dormant and starved of fuel. These hidden beasts can be temporarily illuminated when an unlucky star passes close enough to be tidally disrupted and consumed by the black hole. Theorists first proposed in 1975 that tidal disruption events should be an inevitable consequence of supermassive black holes in galaxy nuclei and later argued that the resulting flare of radiation from the accretion of the stellar debris could be a unique signpost for the presence of a dormant black hole in the center of a normal galaxy. It was not until over two decades later that the first convincing tidal disruption event candidates emerged in the X-rays by the ROSAT All-Sky Survey. Since then, over a dozen total candidates have now emerged from searches across the electromagnetic spectrum, including the X-rays, the ultraviolet, and the optical. In the last couple of years, we have also witnessed a paradigm shift with the discovery of relativistic beamed emission associated with tidal disruption events. I review the census of observational candidates to date and discuss the exciting prospects for using large samples of tidal disruption events discovered with the next-generation of ground-based and space-based synoptic surveys to probe accretion disk and/or jet formation and black hole demographics.

  11. Video Event Trigger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Glenn L.; Lichter, Michael J.

    1994-01-01

    Video event trigger (VET) processes video image data to generate trigger signal when image shows significant change like motion or appearance, disappearance, change in color, change in brightness, or dilation of object. System aids in efficient utilization of image-data-storage and image-data-processing equipment in applications in which many video frames show no changes and are wasteful to record and analyze all frames when only relatively few frames show changes of interest. Applications include video recording of automobile crash tests, automated video monitoring of entrances, exits, parking lots, and secure areas.

  12. Creating Special Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    deLisle, Lee

    2009-01-01

    "Creating Special Events" is organized as a systematic approach to festivals and events for students who seek a career in event management. This book looks at the evolution and history of festivals and events and proceeds to the nuts and bolts of event management. The book presents event management as the means of planning, organizing, directing,…

  13. A role of semi-annual and annual oscillations in generating the asymmetry between El Niño and La Niña events during very strong ENSO episodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swierczynska, Malgorzata; Niedzielski, Tomasz; Kosek, Wieslaw

    2013-04-01

    The sea level anomaly (SLA) variations obtained from observations of altimetric satellites show oscillations with different periods ranging from days to years. The residual values are obtained using a deterministic polynomial-harmonic model comprising: a linear trend and oscillations with periods of 365, 180, 120, 90 and 62 days. The residuals are analyzed using the FTBPF (Fourier Transform Band Pass Filter). The results of that study are wide band amplitudes which exist in residuals. However, some of them are more energetic than the other ones. Using this approach we detected major oscillations that drive the asymmetry between El Niño and La Niña during very strong the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) episodes, the detection of which was earlier performed using the analysis of spatial patterns of skewness and kurtosis of sea level anomaly time series. We have found that the semi-annual and annual oscillations have the greatest impact on that asymmetry. Indeed, during very strong El Niño episode in 1997/1998, the semi-annual oscillation was responsible for growth of sea level anomalies that occurred in the western equatorial coast of South America. Almost at the same time, the annual oscillation generated a local rise of seal level in the central part of the Pacific Ocean. They complemented each other and gave a complete picture of the spatial pattern of sea level variation during very strong El Niño events. The presented maps include the analyses of the ENSO episodes that occurred between 1993 and 2012. For the purpose of the study outlined above, weekly sea level anomaly maps obtained courtesy of the Archiving, Validation and Interpretation of Satellite Oceanographic data (AVISO) have been adopted.

  14. EventRiver: visually exploring text collections with temporal references.

    PubMed

    Luo, Dongning; Yang, Jing; Krstajic, Milos; Ribarsky, William; Keim, Daniel A

    2012-01-01

    Many text collections with temporal references, such as news corpora and weblogs, are generated to report and discuss real life events. Thus, event-related tasks, such as detecting real life events that drive the generation of the text documents, tracking event evolutions, and investigating reports and commentaries about events of interest, are important when exploring such text collections. To incorporate and leverage human efforts in conducting such tasks, we propose a novel visual analytics approach named EventRiver. EventRiver integrates event-based automated text analysis and visualization to reveal the events motivating the text generation and the long term stories they construct. On the visualization, users can interactively conduct tasks such as event browsing, tracking, association, and investigation. A working prototype of EventRiver has been implemented for exploring news corpora. A set of case studies, experiments, and a preliminary user test have been conducted to evaluate its effectiveness and efficiency. PMID:22076487

  15. Assessing Special Events.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neff, Bonita Dostal

    Special events defined as being "newsworthy events" are becoming a way of American life. They are also a means for making a lot of money. Examples of special events that are cited most frequently are often the most minor of events; e.g., the open house, the new business opening day gala, or a celebration of some event in an organization. Little…

  16. Event Segmentation Ability Uniquely Predicts Event Memory

    PubMed Central

    Sargent, Jesse Q.; Zacks, Jeffrey M.; Hambrick, David Z.; Zacks, Rose T.; Kurby, Christopher A.; Bailey, Heather R.; Eisenberg, Michelle L.; Beck, Taylor M.

    2013-01-01

    Memory for everyday events plays a central role in tasks of daily living, autobiographical memory, and planning. Event memory depends in part on segmenting ongoing activity into meaningful units. This study examined the relationship between event segmentation and memory in a lifespan sample to answer the following question: Is the ability to segment activity into meaningful events a unique predictor of subsequent memory, or is the relationship between event perception and memory accounted for by general cognitive abilities? Two hundred and eight adults ranging from 20 to 79 years old segmented movies of everyday events and attempted to remember the events afterwards. They also completed psychometric ability tests and tests measuring script knowledge for everyday events. Event segmentation and script knowledge both explained unique variance in event memory above and beyond the psychometric measures, and did so as strongly in older as in younger adults. These results suggest that event segmentation is a basic cognitive mechanism, important for memory across the lifespan. PMID:23942350

  17. Event-Based Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Russell G.

    1992-01-01

    Suggests that an event-based science curriculum can provide the framework for deciding what to retain in an overloaded science curriculum. Provides examples of current events and the science concepts explored related to the event. (MDH)

  18. Plasma sheet ion energization during dipolarization events

    SciTech Connect

    Delcourt, D.C. ); Sauvaud, J.A. )

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents simulation results for acceleration processes for ions during what are referred to as dipolarization events associated with storm activity. Time variations of magnetic fields over cyclotron periods, and generation of electric fields parallel to the geomagnetic field, both contribute to ion acceleration in the plasma sheet. Calculations support the observation of earthward injection of ions during such events.

  19. Event-by-Event Simulation of Induced Fission

    SciTech Connect

    Vogt, R; Randrup, J

    2007-12-13

    We are developing a novel code that treats induced fission by statistical (or Monte-Carlo) simulation of individual decay chains. After its initial excitation, the fissionable compound nucleus may either deexcite by evaporation or undergo binary fission into a large number of fission channels each with different energetics involving both energy dissipation and deformed scission prefragments. After separation and Coulomb acceleration, each fission fragment undergoes a succession of individual (neutron) evaporations, leading to two bound but still excited fission products (that may further decay electromagnetically and, ultimately, weakly), as well as typically several neutrons. (The inclusion of other possible ejectiles is planned.) This kind of approach makes it possible to study more detailed observables than could be addressed with previous treatments which have tended to focus on average quantities. In particular, any type of correlation observable can readily be extracted from a generated set of events. With a view towards making the code practically useful in a variety of applications, emphasis is being put on making it numerically efficient so that large event samples can be generated quickly. In its present form, the code can generate one million full events in about 12 seconds on a MacBook laptop computer. The development of this qualitatively new tool is still at an early stage and quantitative reproduction of existing data should not be expected until a number of detailed refinement have been implemented.

  20. Episodes, events, and models.

    PubMed

    Khemlani, Sangeet S; Harrison, Anthony M; Trafton, J Gregory

    2015-01-01

    We describe a novel computational theory of how individuals segment perceptual information into representations of events. The theory is inspired by recent findings in the cognitive science and cognitive neuroscience of event segmentation. In line with recent theories, it holds that online event segmentation is automatic, and that event segmentation yields mental simulations of events. But it posits two novel principles as well: first, discrete episodic markers track perceptual and conceptual changes, and can be retrieved to construct event models. Second, the process of retrieving and reconstructing those episodic markers is constrained and prioritized. We describe a computational implementation of the theory, as well as a robotic extension of the theory that demonstrates the processes of online event segmentation and event model construction. The theory is the first unified computational account of event segmentation and temporal inference. We conclude by demonstrating now neuroimaging data can constrain and inspire the construction of process-level theories of human reasoning. PMID:26578934

  1. Episodes, events, and models

    PubMed Central

    Khemlani, Sangeet S.; Harrison, Anthony M.; Trafton, J. Gregory

    2015-01-01

    We describe a novel computational theory of how individuals segment perceptual information into representations of events. The theory is inspired by recent findings in the cognitive science and cognitive neuroscience of event segmentation. In line with recent theories, it holds that online event segmentation is automatic, and that event segmentation yields mental simulations of events. But it posits two novel principles as well: first, discrete episodic markers track perceptual and conceptual changes, and can be retrieved to construct event models. Second, the process of retrieving and reconstructing those episodic markers is constrained and prioritized. We describe a computational implementation of the theory, as well as a robotic extension of the theory that demonstrates the processes of online event segmentation and event model construction. The theory is the first unified computational account of event segmentation and temporal inference. We conclude by demonstrating now neuroimaging data can constrain and inspire the construction of process-level theories of human reasoning. PMID:26578934

  2. Solar Eruptive Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holman, Gordon D.

    2012-01-01

    It s long been known that the Sun plays host to the most energetic explosions in the solar system. But key insights into the forms that energy takes have only recently become available. Solar flares have been phenomena of both academic and practical interest since their discovery in 1859. From the academic point of view, they are the nearest events for studying the explosive release of energy in astrophysical magnetized plasmas. From the practical point of view, they disrupt communication channels on Earth, from telegraph communications in 1859 to radio and television signals today. Flares also wreak havoc on the electrical power grid, satellite operations, and GPS signals, and energetic charged particles and radiation are dangerous to passengers on high-altitude polar flights and to astronauts. Flares are not the only explosive phenomena on the Sun. More difficult to observe but equally energetic are the large coronal mass ejections (CMEs), the ejection of up to ten billion tons of magnetized plasma into the solar wind at speeds that can exceed 1000 km/s. CMEs are primarily observed from the side, with coronagraphs that block out the bright disk of the Sun and lower solar atmosphere so that light scattered from the ejected mass can be seen. Major geomagnetic storms are now known to arise from the interaction of CMEs with Earth's magnetosphere. Solar flares are observed without CMEs, and CMEs are observed without flares. The two phenomena often occur together, however, and almost always do in the case of large flares and fast CMEs. The term solar eruptive event refers to the combination of a flare and a CME. Solar eruptive events generate a lot of heat: They can heat plasma to temperatures as high at 50 million Kelvin, producing radiation across the electromagnetic spectrum. But that s not all. A fascinating aspect of solar eruptive events is the acceleration of electrons and ions to suprathermal often relativistic energies. The accelerated particles are primarily

  3. Vaccine Adverse Events

    MedlinePlus

    ... Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Home Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Safety & Availability ( ... Center for Biologics Evaluation & Research Vaccine Adverse Events Vaccine Adverse Events Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ...

  4. Assessment of NGNP Moisture Ingress Events

    SciTech Connect

    Bill Landman

    2011-04-01

    An assessment of modular HTGR moisture ingress events, making use of a phenomena identification and ranking process, was conducted by a panel of experts in the related areas for the U.S. next generation nuclear plant (NGNP) design. Consideration was given mainly to the prismatic core gas-cooled reactor configurations incorporating a steam generator within the primary circuit.

  5. Predicting terrorist actions using sequence learning and past events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruda, Harald; Das, Subrata K.; Zacharias, Greg L.

    2003-09-01

    This paper describes the application of sequence learning to the domain of terrorist group actions. The goal is to make accurate predictions of future events based on learning from past history. The past history of the group is represented as a sequence of events. Well-established sequence learning approaches are used to generate temporal rules from the event sequence. In order to represent all the possible events involving a terrorist group activities, an event taxonomy has been created that organizes the events into a hierarchical structure. The event taxonomy is applied when events are extracted, and the hierarchical form of the taxonomy is especially useful when only scant information is available about an event. The taxonomy can also be used to generate temporal rules at various levels of abstraction. The generated temporal rules are used to generate predictions that can be compared to actual events for evaluation. The approach was tested on events collected for a four-year period from relevant newspaper articles and other open-source literature. Temporal rules were generated based on the first half of the data, and predictions were generated for the second half of the data. Evaluation yielded a high hit rate and a moderate false-alarm rate.

  6. A replication-competent retrovirus arising from a split-function packaging cell line was generated by recombination events between the vector, one of the packaging constructs, and endogenous retroviral sequences.

    PubMed

    Chong, H; Starkey, W; Vile, R G

    1998-04-01

    Previously we reported the presence of a replication-competent retrovirus in supernatant from a vector-producing line derived from a widely used split-function amphotropic packaging cell line. Rigorous routine screening of all retroviral stocks produced in our laboratory has not, previously or since, indicated the presence of such a virus. Replication-competent retroviruses have never previously been used in our laboratory, and stringent screening of all routinely used cell lines has not revealed the presence of any helper viruses. Therefore, it is highly unlikely that this virus represents an adventitious cross-contaminant or had been imported unknowingly with our cell line stocks. PCR studies with DNA from infected cell lines and Northern blot analysis and reverse transcriptase PCR with RNA from infected cells suggest that the helper virus arose by recombination events, at sites of partial homology, between sequences in the vector, one of the packaging constructs, and endogenous retroviral elements. These recombinations were not present in stocks of the packaging cell line or in an initial stock of the vector-producing line, indicating that these events occurred while the vector-producing line was being passaged for harvest of supernatant stocks. PMID:9525583

  7. Applications of Event-by-Event Fission Modeling with FREYA

    SciTech Connect

    Vogt, R; Randrup, J

    2011-09-16

    The recently developed code FREYA (Fission Reaction Event Yield Algorithm) generates large samples of complete fission events, consisting of two receding product nuclei as well as a number of neutrons and photons, all with complete kinematic information. Thus it is possible to calculate arbitrary correlation observables whose behavior may provide unique insight into the fission process. We first discuss the present status of FREYA, which has now been extended to include spontaneous fission. Concentrating on {sup 239}Pu(n{sub th},f), {sup 240}Pu(sf) and {sup 252}Cf(sf), we discuss the neutron multiplicity correlations, the dependence of the neutron energy spectrum on the neutron multiplicity, and the relationship between the fragment kinetic energy and the number of neutrons and their energies. We also suggest novel fission observables that could be measured with modern detectors.

  8. Interferometric observation of microlensing events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassan, Arnaud; Ranc, Clément

    2016-05-01

    Interferometric observations of microlensing events have the potential to provide unique constraints on the physical properties of the lensing systems. In this work, we first present a formalism that closely combines interferometric and microlensing observable quantities, which lead us to define an original microlensing (u, v) plane. We run simulations of long-baseline interferometric observations and photometric light curves to decide which observational strategy is required to obtain a precise measurement on vector Einstein radius. We finally perform a detailed analysis of the expected number of targets in the light of new microlensing surveys (2011+) which currently deliver 2000 alerts per year. We find that a few events are already at reach of long-baseline interferometers (CHARA, VLTI), and a rate of about six events per year is expected with a limiting magnitude of K ≃ 10. This number would increase by an order of magnitude by raising it to K ≃ 11. We thus expect that a new route for characterizing microlensing events will be opened by the upcoming generations of interferometers.

  9. Pan-European catalogue of flood events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parajka, Juraj; Mangini, Walter; Viglione, Alberto; Hundecha, Yeshewatesfa; Ceola, Serena

    2016-04-01

    There have been numerous extreme flood events observed in Europe in the past years. One of the way to improve our understanding about causing flood generation mechanisms is to analyse spatial and temporal variability of a large number of flood events. The aim of this study is to present a pan-European catalogue of flood events developed within the SWITCH-ON EU Project. The flood events are identified from daily discharge observations at 1315 stations listed in Global Runoff Data Centre database. The average length of discharge time-series for selected stations is 54 years. For each event, basin boundary and additional hydrological and weather characteristics are extracted. Hydrological characteristics are extracted from the pan-European HYPE model simulations. Precipitation, together with the corresponding proportions of rainfall and snowfall, snowmelt, and evapotranspiration are computed as total amounts between the event start date and event peak date. Soil moisture, soil moisture deficit, and basin accumulated snow water equivalent are computed for the event start date. Weather characteristics are derived from the weather circulation pattern catalogue developed within COST 733 Project. The results are generated in an open data access and tools framework which allows reproduction and extension of results to other regions. More information about the analysis and project are available at: http://www.water-switch-on.eu/lab.html.

  10. Solar impulsive energetic electron events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Linghua

    studies, I chose nearly scatter-free electron events and developed a forward-fitting method that assumes an isosceles triangular injection profile (equal rise and fall times) at the Sun. I find that in electron/3He-rich SEP events, the low-energy (~0.4 to 6-9 keV) electron injection starts ~9 min before the coronal release of the type III radio burst; the high-energy (~13 to ~300 keV) electron injection starts ~8 min after the type III burst; and the injection of ~MeV/nucleon, 3 He-rich ions begins ~1 hour later. I also find that the selected electron/ 3 He-rich SEP events have a remarkable one-to-one association with fast west-limb CMEs, and most of the associated CMEs are narrow. Finally, I present a case study to investigate the propagation of different energy electrons in solar impulsive electron events. I find that in the interplanetary medium, low-energy (<~ 10-30 keV) and high-energy (>~ 10-30 keV) electrons propagate differently, with more scattering at high energies. Such scattering appears to be caused by resonance with waves/turbulence at scale greater than ~ the thermal proton gyroradius in the solar wind. Although a transition to more scattering occurs at energies where the electron injection delays are detected, I show that the scattering is not enough to produce these delays. Based on the results of this thesis, a coherent picture of electron/ 3 He-rich SEP events can be built up. At the Sun, the low-energy (~0.4 to 6-9 keV) electrons may be accelerated in jets that are ejected upward from magnetic reconnection sites between closed and open field lines; these low-energy electrons generate the type III radio bursts. The jets may appear as CMEs high in the corona, and the high-energy (~13 to ~300 keV) electrons may then be accelerated at >~ 1 R S by CMEs, acting on the seed electrons provided by the low-energy injection. The ~MeV/nucleon, 3 He-rich ions may be accelerated by selective resonance with electron-beam generated waves and/or by fast, narrow CMEs

  11. Dialogue on private events

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, David C.; Eshleman, John; Brandon, Paul; Layng, T. V. Joe; McDonough, Christopher; Michael, Jack; Schoneberger, Ted; Stemmer, Nathan; Weitzman, Ray; Normand, Matthew

    2004-01-01

    In the fall of 2003, the authors corresponded on the topic of private events on the listserv of the Verbal Behavior Special Interest Group. Extracts from that correspondence raised questions about the role of response amplitude in determining units of analysis, whether private events can be investigated directly, and whether covert behavior differs from other behavior except in amplitude. Most participants took a cautious stance, noting not only conceptual pitfalls and empirical difficulties in the study of private events, but doubting the value of interpretive exercises about them. Others argued that despite such obstacles, in domains where experimental analyses cannot be done, interpretation of private events in the light of laboratory principles is the best that science can offer. One participant suggested that the notion that private events can be behavioral in nature be abandoned entirely; as an alternative, the phenomena should be reinterpreted only as physiological events. PMID:22477293

  12. Multi-threaded Event Processing with JANA

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, David

    2007-09-14

    The C++ data analysis framework \\emph{JANA} has been written to support the next generation of Nuclear Physics experiments at Jefferson Lab coinciding with the anticipated 12GeV upgrade. The JANA framework was designed to allow multi-threaded event processing with a minimal impact on developers of reconstruction software. This document describes how JANA implements multi-threaded event processing and compares it to simply running multiple instances of a program.

  13. Climate Networks and Extreme Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurths, J.

    2014-12-01

    We analyse some climate dynamics from a complex network approach. This leads to an inverse problem: Is there a backbone-like structure underlying the climate system? For this we propose a method to reconstruct and analyze a complex network from data generated by a spatio-temporal dynamical system. This approach enables us to uncover relations to global circulation patterns in oceans and atmosphere. The global scale view on climate networks offers promising new perspectives for detecting dynamical structures based on nonlinear physical processes in the climate system. Moreover, we evaluate different regional climate models from this aspect. This concept is also applied to Monsoon data in order to characterize the regional occurrence of extreme rain events and its impact on predictability. Changing climatic conditions have led to a significant increase in magnitude and frequency of spatially extensive extreme rainfall events in the eastern Central Andes of South America. These events impose substantial natural hazards for population, economy, and ecology by floods and landslides. For example, heavy floods in Bolivia in early 2007 affected more than 133.000 households and produced estimated costs of 443 Mio. USD. Here, we develop a general framework to predict extreme events by combining a non-linear synchronization technique with complex networks. We apply our method to real-time satellite-derived rainfall data and are able to predict a large amount of extreme rainfall events. Our study reveals a linkage between polar and subtropical regimes as responsible mechanism: Extreme rainfall in the eastern Central Andes is caused by the interplay of northward migrating frontal systems and a low-level wind channel from the western Amazon to the subtropics, providing additional moisture. Frontal systems from the Antarctic thus play a key role for sub-seasonal variability of the South American Monsoon System.

  14. A Prototype External Event Broker for LSST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elan Alvarez, Gabriella; Stassun, Keivan; Burger, Dan; Siverd, Robert; Cox, Donald

    2015-01-01

    LSST plans to have an alerts system that will automatically identify various types of "events" appearing in the LSST data stream. These events will include things such as supernovae, moving objects, and many other types, and it is expected that there will be millions of events nightly. It is expected that there may be tens of millions of events each night. To help the LSST community parse and make full advantage of the LSST alerts stream, we are working to design an external "events alert broker" that will generate real-time notification of LSST events to users and/or robotic telescope facilities based on user-specified criteria. For example, users will be able to specify that they wish to be notified immediately via text message of urgent events, such as GRB counterparts, or notified only occasionally in digest form of less time-sensitive events, such as eclipsing binaries. This poster will summarize results from a survey of scientists for the most important features that such an alerts notification service needs to provide, and will present a preliminary design for our external event broker.

  15. Features, Events, and Processes: Disruptive Events

    SciTech Connect

    J. King

    2004-03-31

    The primary purpose of this analysis is to evaluate seismic- and igneous-related features, events, and processes (FEPs). These FEPs represent areas of natural system processes that have the potential to produce disruptive events (DE) that could impact repository performance and are related to the geologic processes of tectonism, structural deformation, seismicity, and igneous activity. Collectively, they are referred to as the DE FEPs. This evaluation determines which of the DE FEPs are excluded from modeling used to support the total system performance assessment for license application (TSPA-LA). The evaluation is based on the data and results presented in supporting analysis reports, model reports, technical information, or corroborative documents that are cited in the individual FEP discussions in Section 6.2 of this analysis report.

  16. Features, Events, and Processes: Disruptive Events

    SciTech Connect

    P. Sanchez

    2004-11-08

    The purpose of this analysis report is to evaluate and document the inclusion or exclusion of the disruptive events features, events, and processes (FEPs) with respect to modeling used to support the total system performance assessment for license application (TSPA-LA). A screening decision, either ''Included'' or ''Excluded,'' is given for each FEP, along with the technical basis for screening decisions. This information is required by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) at 10 CFR 63.114 (d), (e), and (f) [DIRS 156605]. The FEPs addressed in this report deal with both seismic and igneous disruptive events, such as fault displacements through the repository and an igneous intrusion into the repository. For included FEPs, this analysis summarizes the implementation of the FEP in TSPA-LA (i.e., how the FEP is included). For excluded FEPs, this analysis provides the technical basis for exclusion from TSPA-LA (i.e., why the FEP is excluded). Previous versions of this report were developed to support the total system performance assessments (TSPA) for various prior repository designs. This revision addresses the repository design for the license application (LA).

  17. Events and Constructs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Noel W.

    2007-01-01

    Psychology has largely ignored the distinction between constructs and events and what comprises a scientific construct, yet this distinction is basic to some of the major divisions of thought within the discipline. Several kinds of constructs are identified and compared with events, and improper use of constructs is noted of which the mind…

  18. Activating Event Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hare, Mary; Jones, Michael; Thomson, Caroline; Kelly, Sarah; McRae, Ken

    2009-01-01

    An increasing number of results in sentence and discourse processing demonstrate that comprehension relies on rich pragmatic knowledge about real-world events, and that incoming words incrementally activate such knowledge. If so, then even outside of any larger context, nouns should activate knowledge of the generalized events that they denote or…

  19. Committed Sport Event Volunteers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Keunsu; Quarterman, Jerome; Strigas, Ethan; Ha, Jaehyun; Lee, Seungbum

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships among selected demographic characteristics (income, education and age), motivation and commitment of volunteers at a sporting event. Three-hundred and five questionnaires were collected from volunteers in a marathon event and analyzed using structural equation modeling (SEM). Based on…

  20. Contrasting Large Solar Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanzerotti, Louis J.

    2010-10-01

    After an unusually long solar minimum, solar cycle 24 is slowly beginning. A large coronal mass ejection (CME) from sunspot 1092 occurred on 1 August 2010, with effects reaching Earth on 3 August and 4 August, nearly 38 years to the day after the huge solar event of 4 August 1972. The prior event, which those of us engaged in space research at the time remember well, recorded some of the highest intensities of solar particles and rapid changes of the geomagnetic field measured to date. What can we learn from the comparisons of these two events, other than their essentially coincident dates? One lesson I took away from reading press coverage and Web reports of the August 2010 event is that the scientific community and the press are much more aware than they were nearly 4 decades ago that solar events can wreak havoc on space-based technologies.

  1. Route to extreme events in excitable systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karnatak, Rajat; Ansmann, Gerrit; Feudel, Ulrike; Lehnertz, Klaus

    2014-08-01

    Systems of FitzHugh-Nagumo units with different coupling topologies are capable of self-generating and -terminating strong deviations from their regular dynamics that can be regarded as extreme events due to their rareness and recurrent occurrence. Here we demonstrate the crucial role of an interior crisis in the emergence of extreme events. In parameter space we identify this interior crisis as the organizing center of the dynamics by employing concepts of mixed-mode oscillations and of leaking chaotic systems. We find that extreme events occur in certain regions in parameter space, and we show the robustness of this phenomenon with respect to the system size.

  2. Single event AC - DC electrospraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stachewicz, U.; Dijksman, J. F.; Marijnissen, J. C. M.

    2008-12-01

    Electrospraying is an innovative method to deposit very small amounts of, for example, biofluids (far less than 1 p1) that include DNA or protein molecules. An electric potential is applied between a nozzle filled with liquid and a counter electrode placed at 1-2 millimeter distance from the nozzle. In our set-up we use an AC field superposed on a DC field to control the droplet generation process. Our approach is to create single events of electrospraying triggered by one single AC pulse. During this pulse, the equilibrium meniscus (determined by surface tension, static pressure and the DC field) of the liquid changes rapidly into a cone and subsequently into a jet formed at the cone apex. Next, the jet breaks-up into fine droplets and the spraying stops. The meniscus returns to its equilibrium shape again. So far we obtained a stable and reproducible single event process for ethanol and ethylene glycol with water using glass pipettes. The results will be used to generate droplets on demand in a controlled way and deposit them on a pre-defined place on the substrate.

  3. An event database for rotational seismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvermoser, Johannes; Hadziioannou, Celine; Hable, Sarah; Chow, Bryant; Krischer, Lion; Wassermann, Joachim; Igel, Heiner

    2016-04-01

    The ring laser sensor (G-ring) located at Wettzell, Germany, routinely observes earthquake-induced rotational ground motions around a vertical axis since its installation in 2003. Here we present results from a recently installed event database which is the first that will provide ring laser event data in an open access format. Based on the GCMT event catalogue and some search criteria, seismograms from the ring laser and the collocated broadband seismometer are extracted and processed. The ObsPy-based processing scheme generates plots showing waveform fits between rotation rate and transverse acceleration and extracts characteristic wavefield parameters such as peak ground motions, noise levels, Love wave phase velocities and waveform coherence. For each event, these parameters are stored in a text file (json dictionary) which is easily readable and accessible on the website. The database contains >10000 events starting in 2007 (Mw>4.5). It is updated daily and therefore provides recent events at a time lag of max. 24 hours. The user interface allows to filter events for epoch, magnitude, and source area, whereupon the events are displayed on a zoomable world map. We investigate how well the rotational motions are compatible with the expectations from the surface wave magnitude scale. In addition, the website offers some python source code examples for downloading and processing the openly accessible waveforms.

  4. Holter and Event Monitors

    MedlinePlus

    ... Holter and event monitors are similar to an EKG (electrocardiogram). An EKG is a simple test that detects and records ... for diagnosing heart rhythm problems. However, a standard EKG only records the heartbeat for a few seconds. ...

  5. FLOOD EVENT MAPPING IMAGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    OSEI flood products (FLD) include multichannel color composite imagery and single-channel grayscale imagery of enlarged river areas or increased sediment flow. Typically, these events are displayed by comparison to imagery taken when flooding was not occurring.

  6. Event shape sorting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopečná, Renata; Tomášik, Boris

    2016-04-01

    We propose a novel method for sorting events of multiparticle production according to the azimuthal anisotropy of their momentum distribution. Although the method is quite general, we advocate its use in analysis of ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions where a large number of hadrons is produced. The advantage of our method is that it can automatically sort out samples of events with histograms that indicate similar distributions of hadrons. It takes into account the whole measured histograms with all orders of anisotropy instead of a specific observable ( e.g., v_2 , v_3 , q_2 . It can be used for more exclusive experimental studies of flow anisotropies which are then more easily compared to theoretical calculations. It may also be useful in the construction of mixed-events background for correlation studies as it allows to select events with similar momentum distribution.

  7. "Universe" event at AIMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-06-01

    Report of event of 11 May 2008 held at the African Institute of Mathematical Sciences (Muizenberg, Cape), with speakers Michael Griffin (Administrator of NASA), Stephen Hawking (Cambridge), David Gross (Kavli Institute, Santa Barbara) and George Smoot (Berkeley).

  8. Spaces of Abstract Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chajda, Ivan; Länger, Helmut

    2013-06-01

    We generalize the concept of a space of numerical events in such a way that this generalization corresponds to arbitrary orthomodular posets whereas spaces of numerical events correspond to orthomodular posets having a full set of states. Moreover, we show that there is a natural one-to-one correspondence between orthomodular posets and certain posets with sectionally antitone involutions. Finally, we characterize orthomodular lattices among orthomodular posets.

  9. CHED Events: New Orleans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wink, Donald J.

    2008-03-01

    These Division of Chemical Education (CHED) Committee meetings and events are planned for the Spring 2008 ACS Meeting in New Orleans. Most will take place in the Hilton Riverside Hotel, 2 Poydras Street; this includes the Sunday evening Reception and Social Event; there will be no CHED Banquet. Exceptions are the Sunday evening Poster Session and the Undergraduate Poster Sessions, which will be in Hall A of the Morial Convention Center.

  10. Activating Event Knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Hare, Mary; Jones, Michael; Thomson, Caroline; Kelly, Sarah; McRae, Ken

    2009-01-01

    An increasing number of results in sentence and discourse processing demonstrate that comprehension relies on rich pragmatic knowledge about real-world events, and that incoming words incrementally activate such knowledge. If so, then even outside of any larger context, nouns should activate knowledge of the generalized events that they denote or typically play a role in. We used short stimulus onset asynchrony priming to demonstrate that (1) event nouns prime people (sale-shopper) and objects (trip-luggage) commonly found at those events; (2) location nouns prime people/animals (hospital-doctor) and objects (barn-hay) commonly found at those locations; and (3) instrument nouns prime things on which those instruments are commonly used (key-door), but not the types of people who tend to use them (hose-gardener). The priming effects are not due to normative word association. On our account, facilitation results from event knowledge relating primes and targets. This has much in common with computational models like LSA or BEAGLE in which one word primes another if they frequently occur in similar contexts. LSA predicts priming for all six experiments, whereas BEAGLE correctly predicted that priming should not occur for the instrument-people relation but should occur for the other five. We conclude that event-based relations are encoded in semantic memory and computed as part of word meaning, and have a strong influence on language comprehension. PMID:19298961

  11. Complex Event Recognition Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzgerald, William A.; Firby, R. James

    2009-01-01

    Complex Event Recognition Architecture (CERA) is the name of a computational architecture, and software that implements the architecture, for recognizing complex event patterns that may be spread across multiple streams of input data. One of the main components of CERA is an intuitive event pattern language that simplifies what would otherwise be the complex, difficult tasks of creating logical descriptions of combinations of temporal events and defining rules for combining information from different sources over time. In this language, recognition patterns are defined in simple, declarative statements that combine point events from given input streams with those from other streams, using conjunction, disjunction, and negation. Patterns can be built on one another recursively to describe very rich, temporally extended combinations of events. Thereafter, a run-time matching algorithm in CERA efficiently matches these patterns against input data and signals when patterns are recognized. CERA can be used to monitor complex systems and to signal operators or initiate corrective actions when anomalous conditions are recognized. CERA can be run as a stand-alone monitoring system, or it can be integrated into a larger system to automatically trigger responses to changing environments or problematic situations.

  12. Seismic event classification system

    DOEpatents

    Dowla, F.U.; Jarpe, S.P.; Maurer, W.

    1994-12-13

    In the computer interpretation of seismic data, the critical first step is to identify the general class of an unknown event. For example, the classification might be: teleseismic, regional, local, vehicular, or noise. Self-organizing neural networks (SONNs) can be used for classifying such events. Both Kohonen and Adaptive Resonance Theory (ART) SONNs are useful for this purpose. Given the detection of a seismic event and the corresponding signal, computation is made of: the time-frequency distribution, its binary representation, and finally a shift-invariant representation, which is the magnitude of the two-dimensional Fourier transform (2-D FFT) of the binary time-frequency distribution. This pre-processed input is fed into the SONNs. These neural networks are able to group events that look similar. The ART SONN has an advantage in classifying the event because the types of cluster groups do not need to be pre-defined. The results from the SONNs together with an expert seismologist's classification are then used to derive event classification probabilities. 21 figures.

  13. Seismic event classification system

    DOEpatents

    Dowla, Farid U.; Jarpe, Stephen P.; Maurer, William

    1994-01-01

    In the computer interpretation of seismic data, the critical first step is to identify the general class of an unknown event. For example, the classification might be: teleseismic, regional, local, vehicular, or noise. Self-organizing neural networks (SONNs) can be used for classifying such events. Both Kohonen and Adaptive Resonance Theory (ART) SONNs are useful for this purpose. Given the detection of a seismic event and the corresponding signal, computation is made of: the time-frequency distribution, its binary representation, and finally a shift-invariant representation, which is the magnitude of the two-dimensional Fourier transform (2-D FFT) of the binary time-frequency distribution. This pre-processed input is fed into the SONNs. These neural networks are able to group events that look similar. The ART SONN has an advantage in classifying the event because the types of cluster groups do not need to be pre-defined. The results from the SONNs together with an expert seismologist's classification are then used to derive event classification probabilities.

  14. Cardiovascular and cerebrovascular risk factors and events associated with second-generation antipsychotic compared to antidepressant use in a non-elderly adult sample: results from a claims-based inception cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Correll, Christoph U; Joffe, Benjamin I; Rosen, Lisa M; Sullivan, Timothy B; Joffe, Russell T

    2015-01-01

    This is a study of the metabolic and distal cardiovascular/cerebrovascular outcomes associated with the use of second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) compared to antidepressants (ADs) in adults aged 18-65 years, based on data from Thomson Reuters MarketScan® Research Databases 2006-2010, a commercial U.S. claims database. Interventions included clinicians' choice treatment with SGAs (allowing any comedications) versus ADs (not allowing SGAs). The primary outcomes of interest were time to inpatient or outpatient claims for the following diagnoses within one year of SGA or AD discontinuation: hypertension, ischemic and hypertensive heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, and obesity. Secondary outcomes included the same diagnoses at last follow-up time point, i.e., not censoring observations at 365 days after SGA or AD discontinuation. Cox regression models, adjusted for age, gender, diagnosis of schizophrenia and mood disorders, and number of medical comorbidities, were run. Among 284,234 individuals, those within one year of exposure to SGAs versus ADs showed a higher risk of essential hypertension (adjusted hazard ratio, AHR+1.16, 95% CI: 1.12-1.21, p<0.0001), diabetes mellitus (AHR+1.43, CI: 1.33-1.53, p<0.0001), hypertensive heart disease (AHR+1.34, CI: 1.10-1.63, p<0.01), stroke (AHR+1.46, CI: 1.22-1.75, p<0.0001), coronary artery disease (AHR+1.17, CI: 1.05-1.30, p<0.01), and hyperlipidemia (AHR+1.12, CI: 1.07-1.17, p<0.0001). Unrestricted follow-up results were consistent with within one-year post-exposure results. Increased risk for stroke with SGAs has previously only been demonstrated in elderly patients, usually with dementia. This study documents, for the first time, a significantly increased risk for stroke and coronary artery disease in a non-elderly adult sample with SGA use. We also confirm a significant risk for adverse metabolic outcomes. These findings raise concerns about the longer-term safety of SGAs, given

  15. Complete event simulations of nuclear fission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogt, Ramona

    2015-10-01

    For many years, the state of the art for treating fission in radiation transport codes has involved sampling from average distributions. In these average fission models energy is not explicitly conserved and everything is uncorrelated because all particles are emitted independently. However, in a true fission event, the energies, momenta and multiplicities of the emitted particles are correlated. Such correlations are interesting for many modern applications. Event-by-event generation of complete fission events makes it possible to retain the kinematic information for all particles emitted: the fission products as well as prompt neutrons and photons. It is therefore possible to extract any desired correlation observables. Complete event simulations can be included in general Monte Carlo transport codes. We describe the general functionality of currently available fission event generators and compare results for several important observables. This work was performed under the auspices of the US DOE by LLNL, Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. We acknowledge support of the Office of Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation Research and Development in DOE/NNSA.

  16. Concepts of event-by-event analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Stroebele, H.

    1995-07-15

    The particles observed in the final state of nuclear collisions can be divided into two classes: those which are susceptible to strong interactions and those which are not, like leptons and the photon. The bulk properties of the {open_quotes}matter{close_quotes} in the reaction zone may be read-off the kinematical characteristics of the particles observable in the final state. These characteristics are strongly dependent on the last interaction these particles have undergone. In a densly populated reaction zone strongly interacting particles will experience many collisions after they have been formed and before they emerge into the asymptotic final state. For the particles which are not sensitive to strong interactions their formation is also their last interaction. Thus photons and leptons probe the period during which they are produced whereas hadrons reflect the so called freeze-out processes, which occur during the late stage in the evolution of the reaction when the population density becomes small and the mean free paths long. The disadvantage of the leptons and photons is their small production cross section; they cannot be used in an analysis of the characteristics of individual collision events, because the number of particles produced per event is too small. The hadrons, on the other hand, stem from the freeze-out period. Information from earlier periods requires multiparticle observables in the most general sense. It is one of the challenges of present day high energy nuclear physics to establish and understand global observables which differentiate between mere hadronic scenarios, i.e superposition of hadronic interactions, and the formation of a partonic (short duration) steady state which can be considered a new state of matter, the Quark-Gluon Plasma.

  17. Wind power generating system

    SciTech Connect

    Schachle, Ch.; Schachle, E. C.; Schachle, J. R.; Schachle, P. J.

    1985-03-12

    Normally feathered propeller blades of a wind power generating system unfeather in response to the actuation of a power cylinder that responds to actuating signals. Once operational, the propellers generate power over a large range of wind velocities. A maximum power generation design point signals a feather response of the propellers so that once the design point is reached no increase in power results, but the system still generates power. At wind speeds below this maximum point, propeller speed and power output optimize to preset values. The propellers drive a positive displacement pump that in turn drives a positive displacement motor of the swash plate type. The displacement of the motor varies depending on the load on the system, with increasing displacement resulting in increasing propeller speeds, and the converse. In the event of dangerous but not clandestine problems developing in the system, a control circuit dumps hydraulic pressure from the unfeathering cylinder resulting in a predetermined, lower operating pressure produced by the pump. In the event that a problem of potentially cladestine consequence arises, the propeller unfeathering cylinder immediately unloads. Upon startup, a bypass around the motor is blocked, applying a pressure across the motor. The motor drives the generator until the generator reaches a predetermined speed whereupon the generator is placed in circuit with a utility grid and permitted to motor up to synchronous speed.

  18. Hydrometeorological signatures of global extreme precipitation events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morin, Efrat; Kushnir, Yochanan

    2015-04-01

    Extreme precipitation events are one of the main causes of flooding, a global phenomenon with high ecological and societal impact. The current research is aimed on characterizing space-time features and weather patterns of global extreme precipitation events and on identifying the most influential parameters controlling the generation of floods from these events. This is an on-going research and results of the first part will be presented. We use the term "global extreme precipitation event" to refer to an event producing high precipitation amounts over large areas, with a scale in the order of tens of kilometers, and with a typical time interval of 1 day; further, such events have a low frequency of occurrence in the region in which they are observed. The presented analysis is based on precipitation estimates from the GPCP dataset and on atmospheric data from the ERA-Interim database. A procedure for detecting extreme events was developed and applied for a 15 years record (1997-2012). Spatial-temporal features, surface characteristics and parameters characterizing the atmospheric environment were computed for all the extreme events. Examination of the extreme events according to their seasonal and spatial distribution reveals clustering around cores that follow general circulation systems (e.g., northern and southern winter storm tracks, ITCZ, the Monsoon and others). Moreover, some unique features of these extreme cores are revealed by analyzing their sea vs. land location, comparing southern and northern hemisphere cores and others. The unique meteorological characteristics of extreme event clusters are identified using standard and centered composite analyses. The main finding of this ongoing research will be presented.

  19. RETRIEVAL EVENTS EVALUATION

    SciTech Connect

    T. Wilson

    1999-11-12

    The purpose of this analysis is to evaluate impacts to the retrieval concept presented in the Design Analysis ''Retrieval Equipment and Strategy'' (Reference 6), from abnormal events based on Design Basis Events (DBE) and Beyond Design Basis Events (BDBE) as defined in two recent analyses: (1) DBE/Scenario Analysis for Preclosure Repository Subsurface Facilities (Reference 4); and (2) Preliminary Preclosure Design Basis Event Calculations for the Monitored Geologic Repository (Reference 5) The objective of this task is to determine what impacts the DBEs and BDBEs have on the equipment developed for retrieval. The analysis lists potential impacts and recommends changes to be analyzed in subsequent design analyses for developed equipment, or recommend where additional equipment may be needed, to allow retrieval to be performed in all DBE or BDBE situations. This analysis supports License Application design and therefore complies with the requirements of Systems Description Document input criteria comparison as presented in Section 7, Conclusions. In addition, the analysis discusses the impacts associated with not using concrete inverts in the emplacement drifts. The ''Retrieval Equipment and Strategy'' analysis was based on a concrete invert configuration in the emplacement drift. The scope of the analysis, as presented in ''Development Plan for Retrieval Events Evaluation'' (Reference 3) includes evaluation and criteria of the following: Impacts to retrieval from the emplacement drift based on DBE/BDBEs, and changes to the invert configuration for the preclosure period. Impacts to retrieval from the main drifts based on DBE/BDBEs for the preclosure period.

  20. Solar extreme events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudson, Hugh S.

    2015-08-01

    Solar flares and CMEs have a broad range of magnitudes. This review discusses the possibility of “extreme events,” defined as those with magnitudes greater than have been seen in the existing historical record. For most quantitative measures, this direct information does not extend more than a century and a half into the recent past. The magnitude distributions (occurrence frequencies) of solar events (flares/CMEs) typically decrease with the parameter measured or inferred (peak flux, mass, energy etc. Flare radiation fluxes tend to follow a power law slightly flatter than S-2, where S represents a peak flux; solar particle events (SPEs) follow a still flatter power law up to a limiting magnitude, and then appear to roll over to a steeper distribution, which may take an exponential form or follow a broken power law. This inference comes from the terrestrial 14C record and from the depth dependence of various radioisotope proxies in the lunar regolith and in meteorites. Recently major new observational results have impacted our use of the relatively limited historical record in new ways: the detection of actual events in the 14C tree-ring records, and the systematic observations of flares and “superflares” by the Kepler spacecraft. I discuss how these new findings may affect our understanding of the distribution function expected for extreme solar events.

  1. Emergence of event cascades in inhomogeneous networks.

    PubMed

    Onaga, Tomokatsu; Shinomoto, Shigeru

    2016-01-01

    There is a commonality among contagious diseases, tweets, and neuronal firings that past events facilitate the future occurrence of events. The spread of events has been extensively studied such that the systems exhibit catastrophic chain reactions if the interaction represented by the ratio of reproduction exceeds unity; however, their subthreshold states are not fully understood. Here, we report that these systems are possessed by nonstationary cascades of event-occurrences already in the subthreshold regime. Event cascades can be harmful in some contexts, when the peak-demand causes vaccine shortages, heavy traffic on communication lines, but may be beneficial in other contexts, such that spontaneous activity in neural networks may be used to generate motion or store memory. Thus it is important to comprehend the mechanism by which such cascades appear, and consider controlling a system to tame or facilitate fluctuations in the event-occurrences. The critical interaction for the emergence of cascades depends greatly on the network structure in which individuals are connected. We demonstrate that we can predict whether cascades may emerge, given information about the interactions between individuals. Furthermore, we develop a method of reallocating connections among individuals so that event cascades may be either impeded or impelled in a network. PMID:27625183

  2. Detection of anomalous events

    DOEpatents

    Ferragut, Erik M.; Laska, Jason A.; Bridges, Robert A.

    2016-06-07

    A system is described for receiving a stream of events and scoring the events based on anomalousness and maliciousness (or other classification). The system can include a plurality of anomaly detectors that together implement an algorithm to identify low-probability events and detect atypical traffic patterns. The anomaly detector provides for comparability of disparate sources of data (e.g., network flow data and firewall logs.) Additionally, the anomaly detector allows for regulatability, meaning that the algorithm can be user configurable to adjust a number of false alerts. The anomaly detector can be used for a variety of probability density functions, including normal Gaussian distributions, irregular distributions, as well as functions associated with continuous or discrete variables.

  3. Pharmacogenomics of suicidal events

    PubMed Central

    Brent, David; Melhem, Nadine; Turecki, Gustavo

    2010-01-01

    Pharmacogenomic studies of antidepressant treatment-emergent suicidal events in depressed patients report associations with polymorphisms in genes involved in transcription (CREB1), neuroprotection (BDNF and NTRK2), glutamatergic and noradrenergic neurotransmission (GRIA3, GRIK2 and ADRA2A), the stress and inflammatory responses (FKBP5 and IL28RA), and the synthesis of glycoproteins (PAPLN). Nearly all of the reported events in these studies were modest one-time increases in suicidal ideation. In 3231 unique subjects across six studies, 424 (13.1%) patients showed increases in suicidal ideation, eight (0.25%) attempted suicide and four (0.12%) completed suicide. Systems related to most of these genes have also been implicated in studies of suicidal behavior irrespective of treatment. Future pharmacogenomic studies should target events that are clinically significant, related clinical phenotypes of response and medication side effects, and biological pathways that are involved in these outcomes in order to improve treatment approaches. PMID:20504254

  4. Underlying event studies at ATLAS and CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Kar, D.; /Dresden, Tech. U.

    2011-01-01

    data. However, using diffraction-limited minimum bias distributions and the plateau of the underlying event distributions presented here, ATLAS has developed a new PYTHIA tune AMBT1 (ATLAS Minimum Bias Tune 1) and a new HERWIG+ JIMMY tune AUET1 (ATLAS Underlying Event Tune 1) which model the p{sub T} and charged multiplicity spectra significantly better than the pre-LHC tunes of those generators. It is critical to have sensible underlying event models containing our best physical knowledge and intuition, tuned to all relevant available data.

  5. Asynchronous event-based corner detection and matching.

    PubMed

    Clady, Xavier; Ieng, Sio-Hoi; Benosman, Ryad

    2015-06-01

    This paper introduces an event-based luminance-free method to detect and match corner events from the output of asynchronous event-based neuromorphic retinas. The method relies on the use of space-time properties of moving edges. Asynchronous event-based neuromorphic retinas are composed of autonomous pixels, each of them asynchronously generating "spiking" events that encode relative changes in pixels' illumination at high temporal resolutions. Corner events are defined as the spatiotemporal locations where the aperture problem can be solved using the intersection of several geometric constraints in events' spatiotemporal spaces. A regularization process provides the required constraints, i.e. the motion attributes of the edges with respect to their spatiotemporal locations using local geometric properties of visual events. Experimental results are presented on several real scenes showing the stability and robustness of the detection and matching. PMID:25828960

  6. Event-Driven Cyberinfrastructure Technologies Supporting the Disaster Life Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graves, S. J.; Maskey, M.; Keiser, K.

    2014-12-01

    The cyberinfrastructure components to be discussed include Event-Driven Data Delivery (ED3) and Data Albums. These are complementary technologies that combine to provide comprehensive access to timely and relevant data for disaster events. ED3 provides a cyber framework that allows situational awareness and decision systems to prepare data plans consisting of data access, generation, workflows, etc., that meet the users' data needs in the event of a future disaster event. Data Albums provides a resulting container of relevant data and functionality for an overall information package for a specific event. The combination of these technologies provides useful data capabilities as part of the disaster life cycle.

  7. Generational diversity.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Linda W

    2010-01-01

    Generational diversity has proven challenges for nurse leaders, and generational values may influence ideas about work and career planning. This article discusses generational gaps, influencing factors and support, and the various generational groups present in today's workplace as well as the consequences of need addressing these issues. The article ends with a discussion of possible solutions. PMID:20395729

  8. Event-by-event simulation of experiments to create entanglement and violate Bell inequalities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michielsen, K.; De Raedt, H.

    2013-10-01

    We discuss a discrete-event, particle-based simulation approach which reproduces the statistical distributions of Maxwell's theory and quantum theory by generating detection events one-by-one. This event-based approach gives a unified causeand- effect description of quantum optics experiments such as single-photon Mach-Zehnder interferometer, Wheeler's delayed choice, quantum eraser, double-slit, Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Bohm and Hanbury Brown-Twiss experiments, and various neutron interferometry experiments. We illustrate the approach by application to single-photon Einstein-Podolsky- Rosen-Bohm experiments and single-neutron interferometry experiments that violate a Bell inequality.

  9. CLUSTERING OF RARE EVENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The clustering of cases of a rare disease is considered. The number of events observed for each unit is assumed to have a Poisson distribution, the mean of which depends upon the population size and the cluster membership of that unit. Here a cluster consists of those units that ...

  10. Teaching with Current Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peralta, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    This article describes how a teacher changed all his plans to teach the hurricane. When the Hurricane Katrina hit the Gulf Coast, kids become naturally curious and seek answers in an event this big. The author suggests the use of tragedies to help them grow as students and as citizens.

  11. Event-by-Event pseudorapidity fluctuation analysis: An outlook to multiplicity and phase space dependence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhoumik, Gopa; Bhattacharyya, Swarnapratim; Deb, Argha; Ghosh, Dipak

    2016-07-01

    A detailed study of Event-by-Event pseudorapidity fluctuation of the pions produced in 16O -AgBr interactions at 60A GeV and 32S -AgBr interactions at 200A GeV has been carried out in terms of φ , a variable defined as a measure of fluctuation. Non-zero φ values indicate the presence of strong correlation among the pions for both interactions. Multiplicity and rapidity dependence of the Event-by-Event pseudorapidity fluctuation has been investigated. A decrease of φ with average multiplicity and increase of the same variable with pseudorapidity width are observed. Decrease of φ with average multiplicity is concluded as the particle emission by several independent sources occurs for higher-multiplicity events. The increase in φ values with pseudorapidity width, taken around central rapidity, might hint towards the presence of long-range correlation and its dominance over short range one. We have compared our experimental results with Monte Carlo simulation generated assuming independent particle emission. Comparison shows that the source of correlation and fluctuation is the dynamics of the pion production process. We have also compared our results with events generated by FRITIOF code. Such events also show the presence of fluctuation and correlation; however they fail to replicate the experimental findings.

  12. VOEventNet: Event Messaging for Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drake, Andrew J.; Djorgovski, G.; Graham, M.; Williams, R.; Mahabal, A.; Donalek, C.; Glikman, E.; Bloom, J.; Vastrand, T.; White, R.; Rabinowitz, D.; Baltay, C.

    2006-12-01

    The time domain remains one of the the least explored areas in modern astronomy. In the near future the next generation of large synoptic sky surveys (Pan-STARRs, Skymapper, LSST) will probe the time dependent nature of the sky by detecting hundreds of thousands of astronomical transients (variable stars, asteroids, GRBs, lensing events). A global event distribution and follow-up network is required to characterize the nature of these transients. For over a year the VOEventNet project has been in the process of implementing a transient event follow-up network which distributes crafted structured data packets called VOEvents. These packets have been designed to be general enough to contain metadata for transients seen at all wavelengths, yet interpretable by robotic telescope systems (which are already automatically responding with follow-up observations). The VOEventNet project currently has transient event follow-up with the Palomar 60 and 200in (Caltech), RAPTOR (LANL), PARITEL and KAIT (UCB) as well as UK telescopes. VOEventNet transient event streams are publicly available. The subscription, publication and reception of VOEvents is implimented with a number of open source software clients. The software and details of how to receive streams of events are available from http://www.voeventnet.org. Current event streams include OGLE microlensing events, SDSS Supernovae, GCN GRBs, Raptor and Palomar-Quest optical transients. In the near future, many additional streams of VOEvents will be available, including optical transients from the ESSENCE, Planet and MOA projects, as well as those from UKIRT and JCMT telescopes. We also expect that transient event alerts will be available from Solar, X-ray and Radio telescopes.

  13. Event boundaries and anaphoric reference.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Alexis N; Radvansky, Gabriel A

    2016-06-01

    The current study explored the finding that parsing a narrative into separate events impairs anaphor resolution. According to the Event Horizon Model, when a narrative event boundary is encountered, a new event model is created. Information associated with the prior event model is removed from working memory. So long as the event model containing the anaphor referent is currently being processed, this information should still be available when there is no narrative event boundary, even if reading has been disrupted by a working-memory-clearing distractor task. In those cases, readers may reactivate their prior event model, and anaphor resolution would not be affected. Alternatively, comprehension may not be as event oriented as this account suggests. Instead, any disruption of the contents of working memory during comprehension, event related or not, may be sufficient to disrupt anaphor resolution. In this case, reading comprehension would be more strongly guided by other, more basic language processing mechanisms and the event structure of the described events would play a more minor role. In the current experiments, participants were given stories to read in which we included, between the anaphor and its referent, either the presence of a narrative event boundary (Experiment 1) or a narrative event boundary along with a working-memory-clearing distractor task (Experiment 2). The results showed that anaphor resolution was affected by narrative event boundaries but not by a working-memory-clearing distractor task. This is interpreted as being consistent with the Event Horizon Model of event cognition. PMID:26452376

  14. A mechanism for storm runoff generation during large rainfall events

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flow paths of storm water from upland areas have long been the subject of major debate. A series of subsurface gutter experiments, situated on the mid-slope of a Piedmont catchment were conducted to investigate a potential mechanism for the rapid mobilization of storm runoff from the unsaturated zo...

  15. Multi-threaded Event Processing with DANA

    SciTech Connect

    David Lawrence; Elliott Wolin

    2007-05-14

    The C++ data analysis framework DANA has been written to support the next generation of Nuclear Physics experiments at Jefferson Lab commensurate with the anticipated 12GeV upgrade. The DANA framework was designed to allow multi-threaded event processing with a minimal impact on developers of reconstruction software. This document describes how DANA implements multi-threaded event processing and compares it to simply running multiple instances of a program. Also presented are relative reconstruction rates for Pentium4, Xeon, and Opteron based machines.

  16. Biological event composition

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In recent years, biological event extraction has emerged as a key natural language processing task, aiming to address the information overload problem in accessing the molecular biology literature. The BioNLP shared task competitions have contributed to this recent interest considerably. The first competition (BioNLP'09) focused on extracting biological events from Medline abstracts from a narrow domain, while the theme of the latest competition (BioNLP-ST'11) was generalization and a wider range of text types, event types, and subject domains were considered. We view event extraction as a building block in larger discourse interpretation and propose a two-phase, linguistically-grounded, rule-based methodology. In the first phase, a general, underspecified semantic interpretation is composed from syntactic dependency relations in a bottom-up manner. The notion of embedding underpins this phase and it is informed by a trigger dictionary and argument identification rules. Coreference resolution is also performed at this step, allowing extraction of inter-sentential relations. The second phase is concerned with constraining the resulting semantic interpretation by shared task specifications. We evaluated our general methodology on core biological event extraction and speculation/negation tasks in three main tracks of BioNLP-ST'11 (GENIA, EPI, and ID). Results We achieved competitive results in GENIA and ID tracks, while our results in the EPI track leave room for improvement. One notable feature of our system is that its performance across abstracts and articles bodies is stable. Coreference resolution results in minor improvement in system performance. Due to our interest in discourse-level elements, such as speculation/negation and coreference, we provide a more detailed analysis of our system performance in these subtasks. Conclusions The results demonstrate the viability of a robust, linguistically-oriented methodology, which clearly distinguishes

  17. Skyalert: a Platform for Event Understanding and Dissemination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Roy; Drake, A. J.; Djorgovski, S. G.; Donalek, C.; Graham, M. J.; Mahabal, A.

    2010-01-01

    Skyalert.org is an event repository, web interface, and event-oriented workflow architecture that can be used in many different ways for handling astronomical events that are encoded as VOEvent. It can be used as a remote application (events in the cloud) or installed locally. Some applications are: Dissemination of events with sophisticated discrimination (trigger), using email, instant message, RSS, twitter, etc; Authoring interface for survey-generated events, follow-up observations, and other event types; event streams can be put into the skyalert.org repository, either public or private, or into a local inbstallation of Skyalert; Event-driven software components to fetch archival data, for data-mining and classification of events; human interface to events though wiki, comments, and circulars; use of the "notices and circulars" model, where machines make the notices in real time and people write the interpretation later; Building trusted, automated decisions for automated follow-up observation, and the information infrastructure for automated follow-up with DC3 and HTN telescope schedulers; Citizen science projects such as artifact detection and classification; Query capability for past events, including correlations between different streams and correlations with existing source catalogs; Event metadata structures and connection to the global registry of the virtual observatory.

  18. Event Index — an LHCb Event Search System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ustyuzhanin, A.; Artemov, A.; Kazeev, N.; Redkin, A.

    2015-12-01

    During LHC Run 1, the LHCb experiment recorded around 1011 collision events. This paper describes Event Index — an event search system. Its primary function is to quickly select subsets of events from a combination of conditions, such as the estimated decay channel or number of hits in a subdetector. Event Index is essentially Apache Lucene [1] optimized for read-only indexes distributed over independent shards on independent nodes.

  19. Single event mass spectrometry

    DOEpatents

    Conzemius, Robert J.

    1990-01-16

    A means and method for single event time of flight mass spectrometry for analysis of specimen materials. The method of the invention includes pulsing an ion source imposing at least one pulsed ion onto the specimen to produce a corresponding emission of at least one electrically charged particle. The emitted particle is then dissociated into a charged ion component and an uncharged neutral component. The ion and neutral components are then detected. The time of flight of the components are recorded and can be used to analyze the predecessor of the components, and therefore the specimen material. When more than one ion particle is emitted from the specimen per single ion impact, the single event time of flight mass spectrometer described here furnis This invention was made with Government support under Contract No. W-7405-ENG82 awarded by the Department of Energy. The Government has certain rights in the invention.

  20. Transionospheric chirp event classifier

    SciTech Connect

    Argo, P.E.; Fitzgerald, T.J.; Freeman, M.J.

    1995-09-01

    In this paper we will discuss a project designed to provide computer recognition of the transionospheric chirps/pulses measured by the Blackbeard (BB) satellite, and expected to be measured by the upcoming FORTE satellite. The Blackbeard data has been perused by human means -- this has been satisfactory for the relatively small amount of data taken by Blackbeard. But with the advent of the FORTE system, which by some accounts might ``see`` thousands of events per day, it is important to provide a software/hardware method of accurately analyzing the data. In fact, we are providing an onboard DSP system for FORTE, which will test the usefulness of our Event Classifier techniques in situ. At present we are constrained to work with data from the Blackbeard satellite, and will discuss the progress made to date.

  1. Developing future precipitation events from historic events: An Amsterdam case study.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manola, Iris; van den Hurk, Bart; de Moel, Hans; Aerts, Jeroen

    2016-04-01

    methodologies are statistically compared and evaluated. The comparison between the historic event generated by the model and the observed event will give information on the realism of the model for this event. The comparison between the delta transformation method and the future simulation will provide information on how the dynamics would affect the precipitation field, as compared to the statistical method.

  2. Staged Event Architecture

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2005-05-30

    Sea is a framework for a Staged Event Architecture, designed around non-blocking asynchronous communication facilities that are decoupled from the threading model chosen by any given application, Components for P networking and in-memory communication are provided. The Sea Java library encapsulates these concepts. Sea is used to easily build efficient and flexible low-level network clients and servers, and in particular as a basic communication substrate for Peer-to-Peer applications.

  3. Some Aviation Growth Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spearman, M. Leroy

    2002-01-01

    The growth of aviation since the first flight of a heavier-than-air powered manned vehicle in 1903 has been somewhat remarkable. Some of the events that have influenced this growth are reviewed in this paper. This review will include some events prior to World War I; the influence of the war itself; the events during the post-war years including the establishment of aeronautical research laboratories; and the influence of World War II which, among other things, introduced new technologies that included rocket and jet propulsion and supersonic aerodynamics. The subsequent era of aeronautical research and the attendant growth in aviation over the past half century will be reviewed from the view point of the author who, since 1944, has been involved in the NACA/NASA aeronautical research effort at what is now the Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia. The review will discuss some of the research programs related to the development of some experimental aircraft, the Century series of fighter aircraft, multi-mission aircraft, advanced military aircraft and missiles, advanced civil aircraft, supersonic transports, spacecraft and others.

  4. Predictability of Rogue Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birkholz, Simon; Brée, Carsten; Demircan, Ayhan; Steinmeyer, Günter

    2015-05-01

    Using experimental data from three different rogue wave supporting systems, determinism, and predictability of the underlying dynamics are evaluated with methods of nonlinear time series analysis. We included original records from the Draupner platform in the North Sea as well as time series from two optical systems in our analysis. One of the latter was measured in the infrared tail of optical fiber supercontinua, the other in the fluence profiles of multifilaments. All three data sets exhibit extreme-value statistics and exceed the significant wave height in the respective system by a factor larger than 2. Nonlinear time series analysis indicates a different degree of determinism in the systems. The optical fiber scenario is found to be driven by quantum noise whereas rogue waves emerge as a consequence of turbulence in the others. With the large number of rogue events observed in the multifilament system, we can systematically explore the predictability of such events in a turbulent system. We observe that rogue events do not necessarily appear without a warning, but are often preceded by a short phase of relative order. This surprising finding sheds some new light on the fascinating phenomenon of rogue waves.

  5. Verb Aspect and the Activation of Event Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferretti, Todd R.; Kutas, Marta; McRae, Ken

    2007-01-01

    The authors show that verb aspect influences the activation of event knowledge with 4 novel results. First, common locations of events (e.g., arena) are primed following verbs with imperfective aspect (e.g., was skating) but not verbs with perfect aspect (e.g., had skated). Second, people generate more locative prepositional phrases as…

  6. Event selection services in ATLAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cranshaw, J.; Cuhadar-Donszelmann, T.; Gallas, E.; Hrivnac, J.; Kenyon, M.; McGlone, H.; Malon, D.; Mambelli, M.; Nowak, M.; Viegas, F.; Vinek, E.; Zhang, Q.

    2010-04-01

    ATLAS has developed and deployed event-level selection services based upon event metadata records ("TAGS") and supporting file and database technology. These services allow physicists to extract events that satisfy their selection predicates from any stage of data processing and use them as input to later analyses. One component of these services is a web-based Event-Level Selection Service Interface (ELSSI). ELSSI supports event selection by integrating run-level metadata, luminosity-block-level metadata (e.g., detector status and quality information), and event-by-event information (e.g., triggers passed and physics content). The list of events that survive after some selection criterion is returned in a form that can be used directly as input to local or distributed analysis; indeed, it is possible to submit a skimming job directly from the ELSSI interface using grid proxy credential delegation. ELSSI allows physicists to explore ATLAS event metadata as a means to understand, qualitatively and quantitatively, the distributional characteristics of ATLAS data. In fact, the ELSSI service provides an easy interface to see the highest missing ET events or the events with the most leptons, to count how many events passed a given set of triggers, or to find events that failed a given trigger but nonetheless look relevant to an analysis based upon the results of offline reconstruction, and more. This work provides an overview of ATLAS event-level selection services, with an emphasis upon the interactive Event-Level Selection Service Interface.

  7. Multi-threaded Event Processing with JANA

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, David

    2008-11-01

    The C++ reconstruction framework JANA has been written to support the next generation of Nuclear Physics experiments at Jefferson Lab in anticipation of the 12GeV upgrade. This includes the GlueX experiment in the planned 4th experimental hall "Hall-D". The JANA framework was designed to allow multi-threaded event processing with a minimal impact on developers of reconstruction software. As we enter the multi-core era, thread-enabled code will become essential to utilizing the full processor power available without invoking the logistical overhead of managing many individual processes. Event-based reconstruction lends itself naturally to mutli-threaded processing. Emphasis will be placed on the multi-threading features of the framework. Test results of the scaling of event processing rates with number of threads will be shown.

  8. Multi-threaded Event Reconstruction with JANA

    SciTech Connect

    David Lawrence

    2007-09-01

    The C++ reconstruction framework JANA has been written to support the next generation of Nuclear Physics experiments at Jefferson Lab in anticipation of the 12GeV upgrade. The JANA framework was designed to allow multi-threaded event processing with a minimal impact on developers of reconstruction software. As we enter the multi-core (and soon many-core) era, thread-enabled code will become essential to utilizing the full processor power available without invoking the logistical overhead of managing many individual processes. Event-based reconstruction lends itself naturally to mutli-threaded processing. Emphasis will be placed on the multi-threading features of the framework. Test results of the scaling of event processing rates with number of threads are presented.

  9. Event mapping meeting

    SciTech Connect

    Eaton, L.; Mason, D.

    1997-02-20

    A one-day meeting was held by the authors to evaluate how the strategic lab workshops would tie to this year`s tactical planning exercise. In particular, they wanted to find recent events that would support the tactical goal decisions of the Lab, and they wanted to find events that verify the Lab`s present course. The events which are each briefly discussed are: Galvin Commission recommends consolidating DOE defense labs (1995); Congressional subcommittee staff force budget cuts and consolidation (1995); 28% of DOE/DP budget held back pending completion of a clear 5-yr plan for nukes (1995); DOD and DOE focus on dual use (1995); LANL work includes weapons rebuilds (1995); LANL chosen by DOE to develop and test advanced remediation techniques (1995); AGEX/DARHT Project is stopped by suits from environmental activities (1996); Non-proliferation treaty renewed (1996); US complies with Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (1996); Capability based deterrence policy put into place (1998); Stockpile shrinks to approximately 2000 weapons (2005); DOE weapons labs re-chartered as true national labs (1996); DOE terminates all nuclear weapons testing support (1996); Industrial projects at LANL up 20% from previous year (1997); NIST-ATP Program becomes an interagency process (1997); DOE warns that spent commercial reactor fuels is a major proliferation threat (1998); Non-lethal weapons work helps to reshape LANL image (1998); Global warning theory proven (2005); Overall US spending on science has been flat or decreasing for three years (1998); and Economic role of LANL in northern New Mexico declines (2005).

  10. Nuclear Effects in Generators: the Path Forward

    SciTech Connect

    Mosel, Ulrich

    2011-11-23

    The extraction of neutrino oscillation parameters requires the determination of the neutrino energy from observations of the hadronic final state. The use of nuclear targets then requires the use of event generators to isolate the interesting elementary processes and to take experimental acceptances into account. In this talk I briefly summarize the history of event generators and their use in nuclear physics, talk briefly about the generators used in the neutrino community and then discuss future necessary developments.