Sample records for evidence-based infection control

  1. The efficacy and risks of using povidone-iodine irrigation to prevent surgical site infection: an evidence-based review

    PubMed Central

    Chundamala, Josie; Wright, James G.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Surgical site infection is a serious complication of surgery. This evidence-based review sought to determine the efficacy and risks of using povidone-iodine irrigation to prevent surgical site infection. Methods We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) or comparative studies only (level of evidence I–III). Results Of the 15 included studies, all of which were level I or level II evidence (11 RCTs and 4 prospective comparative studies), 10 found povidone-iodine irrigation to be significantly more effective at preventing surgical site infection than the comparison interventions of saline, water or no irrigation. No significant risks were associated with the use of povidone-iodine irrigation other than increased postoperative serum iodine. Conclusion Povidone-iodine irrigation is a simple and inexpensive solution with the potential to prevent surgical site infection. PMID:18053377

  2. Network Influences on Dissemination of Evidence-Based Guidelines in State Tobacco Control Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luke, Douglas A.; Wald, Lana M.; Carothers, Bobbi J.; Bach, Laura E.; Harris, Jenine K.

    2013-01-01

    Little is known regarding the social network relationships that influence dissemination of evidence-based public health practices and policies. In public health, it is critical that evidence-based guidelines, such as the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's "Best Practices for Comprehensive Tobacco Control Programs," are…

  3. Evidence-based management of deep wound infection after spinal instrumentation.

    PubMed

    Lall, Rishi R; Wong, Albert P; Lall, Rohan R; Lawton, Cort D; Smith, Zachary A; Dahdaleh, Nader S

    2015-02-01

    In this study, evidence-based medicine is used to assess optimal surgical and medical management of patients with post-operative deep wound infection following spinal instrumentation. A computerized literature search of the PubMed database was performed. Twenty pertinent studies were identified. Studies were separated into publications addressing instrumentation retention versus removal and publications addressing antibiotic therapy regimen. The findings were classified based on level of evidence (I-III) and findings were summarized into evidentiary tables. No level I or II evidence was identified. With regards to surgical management, five studies support instrumentation retention in the setting of early deep infection. In contrast, for delayed infection, the evidence favors removal of instrumentation at the time of initial debridement. Surgeons should be aware that for deformity patients, even if solid fusion is observed, removal of instrumentation may be associated with significant loss of correction. A course of intravenous antibiotics followed by long-term oral suppressive therapy should be pursued if instrumentation is retained. A shorter treatment course may be appropriate if hardware is removed. PMID:25308619

  4. Building the evidence base for global tobacco control.

    PubMed Central

    Corrao, M. A.; Guindon, G. E.; Cokkinides, V.; Sharma, N.

    2000-01-01

    The tobacco control movement needs a global information system permitting routine monitoring of the tobacco trade, tobacco farming, the tobacco industry, the prevalence of tobacco use, associated mortality, and national resources for combating tobacco. The Tobacco Control Country Profiles database, a data collection initiative led by the American Cancer Society in collaboration with WHO and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, represents the first step in the development of such a system. Baseline data on several indicators of tobacco use were obtained from 191 Member States of WHO, two Associate Members, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of China (Hong Kong SAR), China (Province of Taiwan) and the West Bank and Gaza Strip. The methods used to compile the data are described in the present paper. Selected indicators from the database were analysed in order to demonstrate the potential utility and value of data derived from an information system devoted to tobacco control. The analyses covered gender-specific smoking prevalence by WHO Region, per capita cigarette consumption by Human Development Index (HDI) category, and average real annual percentage changes in cigarette prices between 1990 and 1999 for selected countries in each category. In 1998, men were almost four times more likely than women to be smokers. The prevalence of smoking among men was highest in the Western Pacific Region. The differential in gender-specific smoking prevalence was narrowest in the Region of the Americas and the European Region. It was wider in the South-East Asia Region and the Western Pacific Region. The lowest and highest per capita consumption of manufactured cigarettes occurred in the lowest and highest HDI categories respectively. In the medium HDI category, China's growing cigarette consumption after 1975 had a major bearing on the rise in per capita consumption. Cigarette price trends suggest that there is considerable scope for increasing taxes on tobacco products, particularly in low or medium HDI countries. The implications of the findings for future tobacco control efforts are discussed, as are issues surrounding the quality of available data, priorities for future data collection and the need to maintain and improve the information system in order to support such efforts. PMID:10994261

  5. Infection control: beyond the horizon.

    PubMed

    Gray, J

    2015-04-01

    This article will consider possible future directions for innovation and research in infection prevention and control, and will make the case for the importance of including clinical and cost-effectiveness evaluation in such research. Opportunities for studies in a number of broad subject areas will be considered, including prevention and control of existing and emerging infection hazards, the challenges posed by changes in the way that medical care is being delivered, technological developments that could be harnessed for infection prevention and control, how new laboratory diagnostic technologies might benefit infection prevention and control, cleaning and decontamination, and the infection control aspects of hospital design. The need for robust economic data to support the wide and timely implementation of evidence-based practice is emphasized. PMID:25586986

  6. Infection control in the intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Osman, Mohamed F; Askari, Reza

    2014-12-01

    It is critical for health care personnel to recognize and appreciate the detrimental impact of intensive care unit (ICU)-acquired infections. The economic, clinical, and social expenses to patients and hospitals are overwhelming. To limit the incidence of ICU-acquired infections, aggressive infection control measures must be implemented and enforced. Researchers and national committees have developed and continue to develop evidence-based guidelines to control ICU infections. A multifaceted approach, including infection prevention committees, antimicrobial stewardship programs, daily reassessments-intervention bundles, identifying and minimizing risk factors, and continuing staff education programs, is essential. Infection control in the ICU is an evolving area of critical care research. PMID:25440118

  7. A restatement of the natural science evidence base relevant to the control of bovine tuberculosis in Great Britain†

    PubMed Central

    Godfray, H. Charles J.; Donnelly, Christl A.; Kao, Rowland R.; Macdonald, David W.; McDonald, Robbie A.; Petrokofsky, Gillian; Wood, James L. N.; Woodroffe, Rosie; Young, Douglas B.; McLean, Angela R.

    2013-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is a very important disease of cattle in Great Britain, where it has been increasing in incidence and geographical distribution. In addition to cattle, it infects other species of domestic and wild animals, in particular the European badger (Meles meles). Policy to control bTB is vigorously debated and contentious because of its implications for the livestock industry and because some policy options involve culling badgers, the most important wildlife reservoir. This paper describes a project to provide a succinct summary of the natural science evidence base relevant to the control of bTB, couched in terms that are as policy-neutral as possible. Each evidence statement is placed into one of four categories describing the nature of the underlying information. The evidence summary forms the appendix to this paper and an annotated bibliography is provided in the electronic supplementary material. PMID:23926157

  8. Infection Prevention and Control Practices in Children's Hospitals.

    PubMed

    Bender, Jeffrey M; Virgallito, Mary; Newland, Jason G; Sammons, Julia S; Thorell, Emily A; Coffin, Susan E; Pavia, Andrew T; Sandora, Thomas J; Hersh, Adam L

    2015-05-01

    We surveyed hospital epidemiologists at 28 Children's Hospital Association member hospitals regarding their infection prevention and control programs. We found substantial variability between children's hospitals in both the structure and the practice of these programs. Research and the development of evidence-based guidelines addressing infection prevention in pediatrics are needed. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2015;00(0): 1-4. PMID:25666492

  9. Optimizing Care for HIV-Infected People Who Use Drugs: Evidence-Based Approaches to Overcoming Healthcare Disparities

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Jaimie P.; Althoff, Amy L.; Altice, Frederick L.

    2013-01-01

    Substance use disorders (SUDs) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are pervasive epidemics that synergize, resulting in negative outcomes for HIV-infected people who use drugs (PWUDs). The expanding epidemiology of substance use demands a parallel evolution of the HIV specialist—beyond HIV to diagnosis and management of comorbid SUDs. The purpose of this paper is to describe healthcare disparities for HIV-infected PWUDs along each point of a continuum of care, and to suggest evidence-based strategies for overcoming these healthcare disparities. Despite extensive dedicated resources and availability of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in the United States, PWUDs continue to experience delayed HIV diagnosis, reduced entry into and retention in HIV care, delayed initiation of ART, and inferior HIV treatment outcomes. Overcoming these healthcare disparities requires integrated packages of clinical, pharmacological, behavioral, and social services, delivered in ways that are cost-effective and convenient and include, at a minimum, screening for and treatment of underlying SUDs. PMID:23797288

  10. Testing for sexually transmitted infections at intrauterine device insertion: an evidence-based approach.

    PubMed

    Sufrin, Carolyn B; Averbach, Sarah H

    2014-12-01

    This article reviews evidence to guide safe and cost-effective testing for asymptomatic Neisseria gonorrhea and Chlamydia trachomatis infection before inserting intrauterine devices (IUDs). All women should be screened with a history and pelvic examination before IUD insertion, but only high-risk women need a laboratory test; this includes women aged 25 years or younger with no test within the last year, and women with additional behavioral risk factors. If testing is indicated, it should be done on the same day as insertion not a separate visit. Women with positive test results should be treated as soon as results are available. PMID:25222531

  11. A framework for developing an evidence-based, comprehensive tobacco control program

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Tobacco control is an area where the translation of evidence into policy would seem to be straightforward, given the wealth of epidemiological, behavioural and other types of research available. Yet, even here challenges exist. These include information overload, concealment of key (industry-funded) evidence, contextualization, assessment of population impact, and the changing nature of the threat. Methods In the context of Israel's health targeting initiative, Healthy Israel 2020, we describe the steps taken to develop a comprehensive tobacco control strategy. We elaborate on the following: a) scientific issues influencing the choice of tobacco control strategies; b) organization of existing evidence of effectiveness of interventions into a manageable form, and c) consideration of relevant philosophical and political issues. We propose a framework for developing a plan and illustrate this process with a case study in Israel. Results Broad consensus exists regarding the effectiveness of most interventions, but current recommendations differ in the emphasis they place on different strategies. Scientific challenges include integration of complex and sometimes conflicting information from authoritative sources, and lack of estimates of population impact of interventions. Philosophical and political challenges include the use of evidence-based versus innovative policymaking, the importance of individual versus governmental responsibility, and whether and how interventions should be prioritized. The proposed framework includes: 1) compilation of a list of potential interventions 2) modification of that list based on local needs and political constraints; 3) streamlining the list by categorizing interventions into broad groupings of related interventions; together these groupings form the basis of a comprehensive plan; and 4) refinement of the plan by comparing it to existing comprehensive plans. Conclusions Development of a comprehensive tobacco control plan is a complex endeavour, involving crucial decisions regarding intervention components. "Off the shelf" plans, which need to be adapted to local settings, are available from a variety of sources, and a multitude of individual recommendations are available. The proposed framework for adapting existing approaches to the local social and political climate may assist others planning for smoke-free societies. Additionally, this experience has implications for development of evidence-based health plans addressing other risk factors. PMID:20507612

  12. Luliconazole for the treatment of fungal infections: an evidence-based review

    PubMed Central

    Khanna, Deepshikha; Bharti, Subhash

    2014-01-01

    Luliconazole is an imidazole antifungal agent with a unique structure, as the imidazole moiety is incorporated into the ketene dithioacetate structure. Luliconazole is the R-enantiomer, and has more potent antifungal activity than lanoconazole, which is a racemic mixture. In this review, we summarize the in vitro data, animal studies, and clinical trial data relating to the use of topical luliconazole. Preclinical studies have demonstrated excellent activity against dermatophytes. Further, in vitro/in vivo studies have also shown favorable activity against Candida albicans, Malassezia spp., and Aspergillus fumigatus. Luliconazole, although belonging to the azole group, has strong fungicidal activity against Trichophyton spp., similar to that of terbinafine. The strong clinical antifungal activity of luliconazole is possibly attributable to a combination of strong in vitro antifungal activity and favorable pharmacokinetic properties in the skin. Clinical trials have demonstrated its superiority over placebo in dermatophytosis, and its antifungal activity to be at par or even better than that of terbinafine. Application of luliconazole 1% cream once daily is effective even in short-term use (one week for tinea corporis/cruris and 2 weeks for tinea pedis). A Phase I/IIa study has shown excellent local tolerability and a lack of systemic side effects with use of topical luliconazole solution for onychomycosis. Further studies to evaluate its efficacy in onychomycosis are underway. Luliconazole 1% cream was approved in Japan in 2005 for the treatment of tinea infections. It has recently been approved by US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of interdigital tinea pedis, tinea cruris, and tinea corporis. Topical luliconazole has a favorable safety profile, with only mild application site reactions reported occasionally. PMID:25285056

  13. Luliconazole for the treatment of fungal infections: an evidence-based review.

    PubMed

    Khanna, Deepshikha; Bharti, Subhash

    2014-01-01

    Luliconazole is an imidazole antifungal agent with a unique structure, as the imidazole moiety is incorporated into the ketene dithioacetate structure. Luliconazole is the R-enantiomer, and has more potent antifungal activity than lanoconazole, which is a racemic mixture. In this review, we summarize the in vitro data, animal studies, and clinical trial data relating to the use of topical luliconazole. Preclinical studies have demonstrated excellent activity against dermatophytes. Further, in vitro/in vivo studies have also shown favorable activity against Candida albicans, Malassezia spp., and Aspergillus fumigatus. Luliconazole, although belonging to the azole group, has strong fungicidal activity against Trichophyton spp., similar to that of terbinafine. The strong clinical antifungal activity of luliconazole is possibly attributable to a combination of strong in vitro antifungal activity and favorable pharmacokinetic properties in the skin. Clinical trials have demonstrated its superiority over placebo in dermatophytosis, and its antifungal activity to be at par or even better than that of terbinafine. Application of luliconazole 1% cream once daily is effective even in short-term use (one week for tinea corporis/cruris and 2 weeks for tinea pedis). A Phase I/IIa study has shown excellent local tolerability and a lack of systemic side effects with use of topical luliconazole solution for onychomycosis. Further studies to evaluate its efficacy in onychomycosis are underway. Luliconazole 1% cream was approved in Japan in 2005 for the treatment of tinea infections. It has recently been approved by US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of interdigital tinea pedis, tinea cruris, and tinea corporis. Topical luliconazole has a favorable safety profile, with only mild application site reactions reported occasionally. PMID:25285056

  14. An Evidence-Based Practice Educational Intervention for Athletic Trainers: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Welch, Cailee E.; Van Lunen, Bonnie L.; Hankemeier, Dorice A.

    2014-01-01

    Context: As evidence-based practice (EBP) becomes a necessity in athletic training, Web-based modules have been developed and made available to the National Athletic Trainers' Association membership as a mechanism to educate athletic trainers (ATs) on concepts of EBP. Objective: To assess the effect of an educational intervention on enhancing knowledge of EBP among ATs. Design: Randomized controlled trial. Setting: Web-based modules and knowledge assessment. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 164 of 473 ATs (34.7% response rate), including professional athletic training students, graduate students, clinical preceptors, educators, and clinicians, were randomized into a control group (40 men, 42 women) or experimental group (33 men, 49 women). Intervention(s): Ten Web-based modules were developed that covered concepts involved in the EBP process. Both groups completed the Evidence-Based Practice Knowledge Assessment before and after the intervention phase. During the intervention phase, the experimental group had access to the Web-based modules for 4 weeks, whereas the control group had no direct responsibilities for the investigation. The knowledge assessment consisted of 60 multiple choice questions pertaining to concepts presented in the 10 modules. Test-retest reliability was determined to be good (intraclass correlation coefficient [2,1] = 0.726, 95% confidence interval = 0.605, 0.814). Main Outcome Measure(s): Independent variables consisted of group (control, experimental) and time (preassessment, postassessment). Knowledge scores were tabulated by awarding 1 point for each correct answer (maximum = 60). Between-group and within-group differences were calculated using a 2 × 2 repeated-measures analysis of variance (P ? .05), post hoc t tests, and Hedges g effect size with 95% confidence intervals. Results: We found a group × time interaction (F1,162 = 26.29, P < .001). No differences were identified between the control (30.12 ± 5.73) and experimental (30.65 ± 5.93) groups during the preassessment (t162 = 0.58, P = .84). The experimental group (36.35 ± 8.58) obtained higher scores on the postassessment than the control group (30.99 ± 6.33; t162 = 4.55, P = .01). No differences were identified among time instances within the control group (t81 = 1.77, P = .08); however, the experimental group obtained higher scores on the postassessment than the preassessment (t81 = 7.07, P < .001). Conclusions: An educational intervention consisting of 10 Web-based modules was an effective mechanism to increase knowledge of foundational EBP concepts among ATs. However, it is not known whether ATs are integrating EBP into daily clinical practice. Researchers should determine whether increased knowledge of EBP affects the daily clinical decision making of ATs. PMID:24568228

  15. Tobacco Control: Using evidence-based research to prevent, treat, and control tobacco use.

    Cancer.gov

    Increasing Smoking Cessation in Low Income Adult Populations Erik Augustson, PhD, MPH Tobacco Control Research Branch Behavioral Research Program Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences RFA Purpose • To promote innovative research

  16. Teaching of evidence-based medicine to medical students in Mexico: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM) is an important competency for the healthcare professional. Experimental evidence of EBM educational interventions from rigorous research studies is limited. The main objective of this study was to assess EBM learning (knowledge, attitudes and self-reported skills) in undergraduate medical students with a randomized controlled trial. Methods The educational intervention was a one-semester EBM course in the 5th year of a public medical school in Mexico. The study design was an experimental parallel group randomized controlled trial for the main outcome measures in the 5th year class (M5 EBM vs. M5 non-EBM groups), and quasi-experimental with static-groups comparisons for the 4th year (M4, not yet exposed) and 6th year (M6, exposed 6 months to a year earlier) groups. EBM attitudes, knowledge and self-reported skills were measured using Taylor’s questionnaire and a summative exam which comprised of a 100-item multiple-choice question (MCQ) test. Results 289 Medical students were assessed: M5 EBM=48, M5 non-EBM=47, M4=87, and M6=107. There was a higher reported use of the Cochrane Library and secondary journals in the intervention group (M5 vs. M5 non-EBM). Critical appraisal skills and attitude scores were higher in the intervention group (M5) and in the group of students exposed to EBM instruction during the previous year (M6). The knowledge level was higher after the intervention in the M5 EBM group compared to the M5 non-EBM group (p<0.001, Cohen's d=0.88 with Taylor's instrument and 3.54 with the 100-item MCQ test). M6 Students that received the intervention in the previous year had a knowledge score higher than the M4 and M5 non-EBM groups, but lower than the M5 EBM group. Conclusions Formal medical student training in EBM produced higher scores in attitudes, knowledge and self-reported critical appraisal skills compared with a randomized control group. Data from the concurrent groups add validity evidence to the study, but rigorous follow-up needs to be done to document retention of EBM abilities. PMID:23131115

  17. Implementation of evidence-based antenatal care in Mozambique: a cluster randomized controlled trial: study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Antenatal care (ANC) reduces maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality directly through the detection and treatment of pregnancy-related illnesses, and indirectly through the detection of women at increased risk of delivery complications. The potential benefits of quality antenatal care services are most significant in low-resource countries where morbidity and mortality levels among women of reproductive age and neonates are higher. WHO developed an ANC model that recommended the delivery of services scientifically proven to improve maternal, perinatal and neonatal outcomes. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of an intervention designed to increase the use of the package of evidence-based services included in the WHO ANC model in Mozambique. The primary hypothesis is that the intervention will increase the use of evidence-based practices during ANC visits in comparison to the standard dissemination channels currently used in the country. Methods This is a demonstration project to be developed through a facility-based cluster randomized controlled trial with a stepped wedge design. The intervention was tailored, based on formative research findings, to be readily applicable to local prenatal care services and acceptable to local pregnant women and health providers. The intervention includes four components: the provision of kits with all necessary medicines and laboratory supplies for ANC (medical and non-medical equipment), a storage system, a tracking system, and training sessions for health care providers. Ten clinics were selected and will start receiving the intervention in a random order. Outcomes will be computed at each time point when a new clinic starts the intervention. The primary outcomes are the delivery of selected health care practices to women attending the first ANC visit, and secondary outcomes are the delivery of selected health care practices to women attending second and higher ANC visits as well as the attitude of midwives in relation to adopting the practices. This demonstration project is pragmatic in orientation and will be conducted under routine conditions. Discussion There is an urgent need for effective and sustainable scaling-up approaches of health interventions in low-resource countries. This can only be accomplished by the engagement of the country’s health stakeholders at all levels. This project aims to achieve improvement in the quality of antenatal care in Mozambique through the implementation of a multifaceted intervention on three levels: policy, organizational and health care delivery levels. The implementation of the trial will probably require a change in accountability and behaviour of health care providers and we expect this change in ‘habits’ will contribute to obtaining reliable health indicators, not only related to research issues, but also to health care outcomes derived from the new health care model. At policy level, the results of this study may suggest a need for revision of the supply chain management system. Given that supply chain management is a major challenge for many low-resource countries, we envisage that important lessons on how to improve the supply chain in Mozambique and other similar settings, will be drawn from this study. Trial registration Pan African Clinical Trial Registry database. Identification number: PACTR201306000550192. PMID:24886392

  18. An ontology of randomized controlled trials for evidence-based practice: content specification and evaluation using the competency decomposition method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ida Sim; Ben Olasov; Simona Carini

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are one of the least biased sources of clinical research evidence, and are therefore a critical resource for the practice of evidence-based medicine. With over 10,000 new RCTs indexed in Medline each year, knowledge systems are needed,to help clinicians translate evidence into practice. Common,ontologies for RCTs and other domains,would,facilitate the development of these knowledge systems.

  19. Teaching evidence-based medicine literature searching skills to medical students during the clinical years: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Tepper, Katrina; Misso, Marie

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Constructing an answerable question and effectively searching the medical literature are key steps in practicing evidence-based medicine (EBM). This study aimed to identify the effectiveness of delivering a single workshop in EBM literature searching skills to medical students entering their first clinical years of study. Methods: A randomized controlled trial was conducted with third-year undergraduate medical students. Participants were randomized to participate in a formal workshop in EBM literature searching skills, with EBM literature searching skills and perceived competency in EBM measured at one-week post-intervention via the Fresno tool and Clinical Effectiveness and Evidence-Based Practice Questionnaire. Results: A total of 121 participants were enrolled in the study, with 97 followed-up post-intervention. There was no statistical mean difference in EBM literature searching skills between the 2 groups (mean difference?=?0.007 (P?=?0.99)). Students attending the EBM workshop were significantly more confident in their ability to construct clinical questions and had greater perceived awareness of information resources. Conclusions: A single EBM workshop did not result in statistically significant changes in literature searching skills. Teaching and reinforcing EBM literature searching skills during both preclinical and clinical years may result in increased student confidence, which may facilitate student use of EBM skills as future clinicians. PMID:22879808

  20. [Infection prevention and control for foodborne infections].

    PubMed

    Mitsuda, Toshihiro

    2012-08-01

    Patients' care for foodborne infections is sometimes very critical, since these patients exerting high copy numbers of contagious pathogens. Recently, Norovirus infection became the most frequent pathogen for large outbreaks in the community and the hospital around the world. Norovirus is alcohol-resistant and highly contagious. For preventing outbreaks of foodborne infections, standard precaution(and contact precaution for diaper changing patients) is required by the CDC's isolation precaution guideline revised at 2007. We need to provide for infection prevention and control in the epidemic winter period not only in healthcare facilities but also for communities. PMID:22894082

  1. Randomised Controlled Trials for Evidence-based Education: Some Problems in Judging "What Works."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Keith

    2001-01-01

    Makes the case that faith in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to determine "what works" in education may be misplaced. Identifies eight possible problems with relying on RCTs and notes that the rigor required for RCTs may not be practicable. (SLD)

  2. Evidence-based control of canine rabies: a critical review of population density reduction

    PubMed Central

    Morters, Michelle K; Restif, Olivier; Hampson, Katie; Cleaveland, Sarah; Wood, James L N; Conlan, Andrew J K

    2013-01-01

    Control measures for canine rabies include vaccination and reducing population density through culling or sterilization. Despite the evidence that culling fails to control canine rabies, efforts to reduce canine population density continue in many parts of the world. The rationale for reducing population density is that rabies transmission is density-dependent, with disease incidence increasing directly with host density. This may be based, in part, on an incomplete interpretation of historical field data for wildlife, with important implications for disease control in dog populations. Here, we examine historical and more recent field data, in the context of host ecology and epidemic theory, to understand better the role of density in rabies transmission and the reasons why culling fails to control rabies. We conclude that the relationship between host density, disease incidence and other factors is complex and may differ between species. This highlights the difficulties of interpreting field data and the constraints of extrapolations between species, particularly in terms of control policies. We also propose that the complex interactions between dogs and people may render culling of free-roaming dogs ineffective irrespective of the relationship between host density and disease incidence. We conclude that vaccination is the most effective means to control rabies in all species. PMID:23004351

  3. Applying psychological theories to evidence-based clinical practice: Identifying factors predictive of managing upper respiratory tract infections without antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    Eccles, Martin P; Grimshaw, Jeremy M; Johnston, Marie; Steen, Nick; Pitts, Nigel B; Thomas, Ruth; Glidewell, Elizabeth; Maclennan, Graeme; Bonetti, Debbie; Walker, Anne

    2007-01-01

    Background Psychological models can be used to understand and predict behaviour in a wide range of settings. However, they have not been consistently applied to health professional behaviours, and the contribution of differing theories is not clear. The aim of this study was to explore the usefulness of a range of psychological theories to predict health professional behaviour relating to management of upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) without antibiotics. Methods Psychological measures were collected by postal questionnaire survey from a random sample of general practitioners (GPs) in Scotland. The outcome measures were clinical behaviour (using antibiotic prescription rates as a proxy indicator), behavioural simulation (scenario-based decisions to managing URTI with or without antibiotics) and behavioural intention (general intention to managing URTI without antibiotics). Explanatory variables were the constructs within the following theories: Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB), Social Cognitive Theory (SCT), Common Sense Self-Regulation Model (CS-SRM), Operant Learning Theory (OLT), Implementation Intention (II), Stage Model (SM), and knowledge (a non-theoretical construct). For each outcome measure, multiple regression analysis was used to examine the predictive value of each theoretical model individually. Following this 'theory level' analysis, a 'cross theory' analysis was conducted to investigate the combined predictive value of all significant individual constructs across theories. Results All theories were tested, but only significant results are presented. When predicting behaviour, at the theory level, OLT explained 6% of the variance and, in a cross theory analysis, OLT 'evidence of habitual behaviour' also explained 6%. When predicting behavioural simulation, at the theory level, the proportion of variance explained was: TPB, 31%; SCT, 26%; II, 6%; OLT, 24%. GPs who reported having already decided to change their management to try to avoid the use of antibiotics made significantly fewer scenario-based decisions to prescribe. In the cross theory analysis, perceived behavioural control (TPB), evidence of habitual behaviour (OLT), CS-SRM cause (chance/bad luck), and intention entered the equation, together explaining 36% of the variance. When predicting intention, at the theory level, the proportion of variance explained was: TPB, 30%; SCT, 29%; CS-SRM 27%; OLT, 43%. GPs who reported that they had already decided to change their management to try to avoid the use of antibiotics had a significantly higher intention to manage URTIs without prescribing antibiotics. In the cross theory analysis, OLT evidence of habitual behaviour, TPB attitudes, risk perception, CS-SRM control by doctor, TPB perceived behavioural control and CS-SRM control by treatment entered the equation, together explaining 49% of the variance in intention. Conclusion The study provides evidence that psychological models can be useful in understanding and predicting clinical behaviour. Taking a theory-based approach enables the creation of a replicable methodology for identifying factors that predict clinical behaviour. However, a number of conceptual and methodological challenges remain. PMID:17683558

  4. A framework for developing an evidence-based, comprehensive tobacco control program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laura Rosen; Elliot Rosenberg; Martin McKee; Shosh Gan-Noy; Diane Levin; Elana Mayshar; Galia Shacham; John Borowski; Gabi Bin Nun; Boaz Lev

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tobacco control is an area where the translation of evidence into policy would seem to be straightforward, given the wealth of epidemiological, behavioural and other types of research available. Yet, even here challenges exist. These include information overload, concealment of key (industry-funded) evidence, contextualization, assessment of population impact, and the changing nature of the threat. METHODS: In the context

  5. Communicating Program Outcomes to Encourage Policymaker Support for Evidence-Based State Tobacco Control

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Allison M.; Ranney, Leah M.; Goldstein, Adam O.

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco use, the leading cause of preventable death in the U.S., can be reduced through state-level tobacco prevention and cessation programs. In the absence of research about how to communicate the need for these programs to policymakers, this qualitative study aimed to understand the motivations and priorities of policymakers in North Carolina, a state that enacted a strong tobacco control program from 2003–2011, but drastically reduced funding in recent years. Six former legislators (three Democrats, three Republicans) and three lobbyists for health organizations were interviewed about their attitudes towards tobacco use, support of state-funded programs, and reactions to two policy briefs. Five themes emerged: (1) high awareness of tobacco-related health concerns but limited awareness of program impacts and funding, (2) the primacy of economic concerns in making policy decisions, (3) ideological differences in views of the state’s role in tobacco control, (4) the impact of lobbyist and constituent in-person appeals, and (5) the utility of concise, contextualized data. These findings suggest that building relationships with policymakers to communicate ongoing program outcomes, emphasizing economic data, and developing a constituent advocacy group would be valuable to encourage continued support of state tobacco control programs. PMID:25485977

  6. Insights in public health: Building support for an evidence-based teen pregnancy and sexually transmitted infection prevention program adapted for foster youth.

    PubMed

    Smith, Tamara; Clark, Judith F; Nigg, Claudio R

    2015-01-01

    Hawai'i Youth Services Network (HYSN) was founded in 1980 and is incorporated as a 501(c) (3) organization. HYSN plays a key role in the planning, creation, and funding of local youth services. One of HYSN's focuses is teen pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STI) prevention among foster youth. Foster youth are at a greater risk for teen pregnancy and STI due to a variety of complex factors including instability, trauma, and emancipation from the foster care system. This article highlights how HYSN is leveraging both federal and local funding, as well as other resources, in order to implement an evidence-based teen pregnancy and STI prevention program adapted for foster youth. PMID:25628980

  7. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Brief and Expanded Evidence-Based Risk Reduction Interventions for HIV-Infected People Who Inject Drugs in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Song, Dahye L.; Altice, Frederick L.; Copenhaver, Michael M.; Long, Elisa F.

    2015-01-01

    Aims Two behavioral HIV prevention interventions for people who inject drugs (PWID) infected with HIV include the Holistic Health Recovery Program for HIV+ (HHRP+), a comprehensive evidence-based CDC-supported program, and an abbreviated Holistic Health for HIV (3H+) Program, an adapted HHRP+ version in treatment settings. We compared the projected health benefits and cost-effectiveness of both programs, in addition to opioid substitution therapy (OST), to the status quo in the U.S. Methods A dynamic HIV transmission model calibrated to epidemic data of current US populations was created. Projected outcomes include future HIV incidence, HIV prevalence, and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) gained under alternative strategies. Total medical costs were estimated to compare the cost-effectiveness of each strategy. Results Over 10 years, expanding HHRP+ access to 80% of PWID could avert up to 29,000 HIV infections, or 6% of the projected total, at a cost of $7,777/QALY gained. Alternatively, 3H+ could avert 19,000 infections, but is slightly more cost-effective ($7,707/QALY), and remains so under widely varying effectiveness and cost assumptions. Nearly two-thirds of infections averted with either program are among non-PWIDs, due to reduced sexual transmission from PWID to their partners. Expanding these programs with broader OST coverage could avert up to 74,000 HIV infections over 10 years and reduce HIV prevalence from 16.5% to 14.1%, but is substantially more expensive than HHRP+ or 3H+ alone. Conclusions Both behavioral interventions were effective and cost-effective at reducing HIV incidence among both PWID and the general adult population; however, 3H+, the economical HHRP+ version, was slightly more cost-effective than HHRP+. PMID:25658949

  8. A randomised-controlled trial of two educational modes for undergraduate evidence-based medicine learning in Asia

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Janice M; Schooling, C Mary; Leung, Gabriel M

    2009-01-01

    Background As the overall evidence for the effectiveness of teaching of evidence based medicine (EBM) is not strong, and the impact of cultural and societal influences on teaching method is poorly understood, we undertook a randomised-controlled trial to test the effectiveness and learning satisfaction with two different EBM teaching methods (usual teaching vs. problem based learning (PBL)) for undergraduate medical students. Methods A mixed methods study that included a randomised-controlled crossover trial with two intervention arms (usual teaching and PBL) and a nested qualitative study with focus groups to explore student perceptions of learning and to assess the effectiveness and utility of the two teaching methods. All 129 second-year medical students at the University of Hong Kong in 2007. The main outcomes measures were attitudes towards EBM; personal application and current use of EBM; EBM knowledge; future use of EBM. Results PBL was less effective at imparting knowledge than usual teaching consisting of a lecture followed by a group tutorial. After usual teaching students showed improvement in scores for 'attitudes towards EBM', 'personal application and current use of EBM' and 'EBM knowledge, which were not evident after PBL. In contrast to the usual teaching, students found PBL difficult as they lacked the statistical knowledge necessary to support discussion, failed to understand core concepts, and lost direction. Conclusion The evidence presented here would suggest that the teaching of EBM within an Asian environment should adopt a format that facilitates both the acquisition of knowledge and encourages enquiry. PMID:19785777

  9. [The effect of evidence-based evaluation and economic evaluation for price control of medical disposable materials].

    PubMed

    Yang, Hai

    2010-05-01

    Evidence-based evaluation and economic evaluation could be identical to the products which should be priced by bidding or which should be listed individually through evidence-based evaluation. Meanwhile, economic evaluation is helpful to price listing individual products in a reasonable range. It will be extremely grateful if all colleagues can be a part of the program and set up a standard pricing rationale in science. PMID:20812653

  10. 42 CFR 460.74 - Infection control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Infection control. 460.74 Section 460...Administrative Requirements § 460.74 Infection control. (a) Standard procedures...and standard procedures with respect to infection control, including at least the...

  11. 42 CFR 460.74 - Infection control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Infection control. 460.74 Section 460...Administrative Requirements § 460.74 Infection control. (a) Standard procedures...and standard procedures with respect to infection control, including at least the...

  12. A cluster randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of the clinically integrated RHL evidence -based medicine course

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background and objectives Evidence-based health care requires clinicians to engage with use of evidence in decision-making at the workplace. A learner-centred, problem-based course that integrates e-learning in the clinical setting has been developed for application in obstetrics and gynaecology units. The course content uses the WHO reproductive health library (RHL) as the resource for systematic reviews. This project aims to evaluate a clinically integrated teaching programme for incorporation of evidence provided through the WHO RHL. The hypothesis is that the RHL-EBM (clinically integrated e-learning) course will improve participants' knowledge, skills and attitudes, as well as institutional practice and educational environment, as compared to the use of standard postgraduate educational resources for EBM teaching that are not clinically integrated. Methods The study will be a multicentre, cluster randomized controlled trial, carried out in seven countries (Argentina, Brazil, Democratic Republic of Congo, India, Philippines, South Africa, Thailand), involving 50-60 obstetrics and gynaecology teaching units. The trial will be carried out on postgraduate trainees in the first two years of their training. In the intervention group, trainees will receive the RHL-EBM course. The course consists of five modules, each comprising self-directed e-learning components and clinically related activities, assignments and assessments, coordinated between the facilitator and the postgraduate trainee. The course will take about 12 weeks, with assessments taking place pre-course and 4 weeks post-course. In the control group, trainees will receive electronic, self-directed EBM-teaching materials. All data collection will be online. The primary outcome measures are gain in EBM knowledge, change in attitudes towards EBM and competencies in EBM measured by multiple choice questions (MCQs) and a skills-assessing questionniare administered eletronically. These questions have been developed by using questions from validated questionnaires and adapting them to the current course. Secondary outcome measure will be educational environment towards EBM which will be assessed by a specifically developed questionnaire. Expected outcomes The trial will determine whether the RHL EBM (clinically integrated e-leraning) course will increase knowledge, skills and attitudes towards EBM and improve the educational environment as compared to standard teaching that is not clinically integrated. If effective, the RHL-EBM course can be implemented in teaching institutions worldwide in both, low-and middle income countries as well as industrialized settings. The results will have a broader impact than just EBM training because if the approach is successful then the same educational strategy can be used to target other priority clinical and methodological areas. Trial Registration ACTRN12609000198224 PMID:20470382

  13. Day Care Infection Control Protocol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seattle-King County Dept. of Public Health, Seattle, WA.

    This day care infection control manual was assembled to provide technical guidance for the prevention and control of communicable diseases to child day care facilities in Seattle and King County, Washington. For each disease, the manual provides background information, public health control recommendations, and letters that can be used to…

  14. A cluster randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of the clinically integrated RHL evidence -based medicine course

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Regina Kulier; Khalid S Khan; A Metin Gulmezoglu; Guillermo Carroli; Jose G Cecatti; Maria J Germar; Pisake Lumbiganon; Suneeta Mittal; Robert Pattinson; Jean-Jose Wolomby-Molondo; Anne-Marie Bergh; Win May

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Evidence-based health care requires clinicians to engage with use of evidence in decision-making at the workplace. A learner-centred, problem-based course that integrates e-learning in the clinical setting has been developed for application in obstetrics and gynaecology units. The course content uses the WHO reproductive health library (RHL) as the resource for systematic reviews. This project aims to

  15. A Randomized Control Trial Examining the Effect of Acceptance and Commitment Training on Clinician Willingness to Use Evidence-Based Pharmacotherapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alethea A. Varra; Steven C. Hayes; Nancy Roget; Gary Fisher

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of acceptance and commitment training (ACT) for increasing drug and alcohol counselors' willingness to use evidence-based agonist and antagonist pharmacotherapy. Fifty-nine drug and alcohol counselors were randomly assigned to either a 1-day ACT workshop or a 1-day educational control workshop. Both groups then attended a 2-day workshop on empirically supported treatments for substance abuse. Measures

  16. What is the evidence base to guide surgical treatment of infected hip prostheses? systematic review of longitudinal studies in unselected patients

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Prosthetic joint infection is an uncommon but serious complication of hip replacement. There are two main surgical treatment options, with the choice largely based on the preference of the surgeon. Evidence is required regarding the comparative effectiveness of one-stage and two-stage revision to prevent reinfection after prosthetic joint infection. Methods We conducted a systematic review to identify randomised controlled trials, systematic reviews and longitudinal studies in unselected patients with infection treated exclusively by one- or two-stage methods or by any method. The Embase, MEDLINE and Cochrane databases were searched up to March 2011. Reference lists were checked, and citations of key articles were identified by using the ISI Web of Science portal. Classification of studies and data extraction were performed independently by two reviewers. The outcome measure studied was reinfection within 2 years. Data were combined to produce pooled random-effects estimates using the Freeman-Tukey arc-sine transformation. Results We identified 62 relevant studies comprising 4,197 patients. Regardless of treatment, the overall rate of reinfection after any treatment was 10.1% (95% CI = 8.2 to 12.0). In 11 studies comprising 1,225 patients with infected hip prostheses who underwent exclusively one-stage revision, the rate of reinfection was 8.6% (95% CI = 4.5 to 13.9). After two-stage revision exclusively in 28 studies comprising 1,188 patients, the rate of reinfection was 10.2% (95% CI = 7.7 to 12.9). Conclusion Evidence of the relative effectiveness of one- and two-stage revision in preventing reinfection of hip prostheses is largely based on interpretation of longitudinal studies. There is no suggestion in the published studies that one- or two stage methods have different reinfection outcomes. Randomised trials are needed to establish optimum management strategies. PMID:22340795

  17. Glutathione S-Transferase Polymorphism Interactions with Smoking Status and HPV Infection in Cervical Cancer Risk: An Evidence-Based Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhen, Shuai; Hu, Chen-Ming; Bian, Li-Hong

    2013-01-01

    Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is considered the major cause of cervical cancer (CC), but a number of infected women do not develop invasive lesions, suggesting the role of genetic susceptibility and environmental co-factors for cancer outbreak. Glutathione S- transferases (GSTs) are multifunctional enzymes that play a key role in the detoxification of varieties of both endogenous products of oxidative stress and exogenous carcinogens. Methods MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases were searched. All studies evaluating the association between GSTM1 polymorphisms and cervical cancer were included. Pooled odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated using fixed-or random-effects model. Results A total of 23 case-control studies were included in the meta-analysis. The overall result showed that the association between GSTM1 null genotype and risk for cervical cancer was statistically significant (OR?=?1.56; 95%CI, 1.39–1.75). Subgroup analyses were performed based on ethnicity, smoking and HPV infection. Our results showed that smokers with null GSTM1 genotype had higher risk of cervical cancer (OR?=?2.27, 95%CI, 1.46–3.54). For the ethnicity stratification, significant increased risk of null GSTM1 genotype was found in Chinese and Indian population, but no increased risk in other population was found. Conclusions this meta-analysis provided strong evidence that the GSTM1 genotype is associated with CC development, especially in Chinese and Indian populations. Smoking and HPV infection modified the association between the null GSTM1 genotype and CC. PMID:24391774

  18. Infection control: avoiding the inevitable.

    PubMed

    Mollitt, Daniel L

    2002-04-01

    Infection, while a major cause of morbidity, should not be considered an inevitable consequence of injury. Good aseptic technique, compulsive attention to detail, and thorough understanding of the points addressed in the following list of critical points are the best guarantee that infection will not add avoidable morbidity to misfortune. Critical points regarding infectious problems in care of the injured child: 1. Polymicrobial infection is the rule with 50% of isolates being mixed aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. 2. It is a misnomer to consider antibiotic use in a pediatric trauma victim as prophylactic. Antimicrobials used in this setting are best considered adjunctive. 3. The major indication for anti-infective therapy in pediatric trauma is an injury with a high probability of infection. 4. Antibiotics do not sterilize the wound or body cavity; they limit bacterial proliferation, thereby supplementing effective immune control. 5. Available studies suggest that 24 hours is as efficacious as a longer treatment duration in a purely adjunctive mode. 6. In bites inflicted by dogs and cats, Pasturella species are frequent. 7. Human bites may result in infection by Eikenella corrodens. 8. Based on this bacteriology, adjunctive intravenous ampicillin sulbactam or oral amoxicillin clavulanate are recommended for human and animal bites. 9. Tetanus prophylaxis is indicated in all significant soft tissue injuries. 10. Risk of osteomyelitis correlates directly with the extent of the associated soft tissue injury and vascular compromise. 11. The majority of infectious complications in the injured child are not a consequence of the injury itself, but rather in the treatment thereof. 12. In the injured child the most common nosocomial infection is lower respiratory followed by primary blood stream and the urinary tract. 13. The management of nosocomial pneumonia in the injured child is based on the time of diagnoses. Early evidence of pulmonary infection requires treatment with a third generation cephalosporin with or without an antistaphylococcal penicillin. Late pneumonia is treated with an aminoglycoside with or without an antipseudomonal added. 14. Catheter related infection is, in the injured child, overwhelmingly gram positive with coagulase negative staphlococcal species accounting for 30-60% of isolates. Staphlococcus aureus is responsible for an additional 15-20%. 15. The role of antibiotics in the prevention of catheter related meningitis is controversial. Recent adult studies suggest no advantage to their routine use. If utilized, they should only be employed prophylactically and not continued throughout the monitoring period. 16. Lack of response to treatment of sepsis may represent an inappropriate antimicrobial agent, improper dosage, inability to achieve adequate levels at the site of infection. (eg, CSF) fungal pathogen, and/or ongoing contamination or undrained purulent focus. PMID:12113372

  19. Evidence-Based Librarianship

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan D. Eldredge

    2000-01-01

    This paper discusses the challenges of finding evidence needed to implement Evidence-Based Librarianship (EBL). Focusing first on database coverage for three health sciences librarianship journals, the article examines the information contents of different databases. Strategies are needed to search for relevant evidence in the library literature via these databases, and the problems associated with searching the grey literature of librarianship.

  20. Evidence-based dentistry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D Richards; A Lawrence

    1998-01-01

    We live in an age of information, innovation and change. Clinical decision making based on good quality evidence should lead to more effective and efficient treatments. Each practitioner has a role in assesing this information. This paper outlines this role, together with the advantages and problems of introducing an evidence-based approach to dentistry.

  1. Effect of computerised evidence based guidelines on management of asthma and angina in adults in primary care: cluster randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Eccles, Martin; McColl, Elaine; Steen, Nick; Rousseau, Nikki; Grimshaw, Jeremy; Parkin, David; Purves, Ian

    2002-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the use of a computerised support system for decision making for implementing evidence based clinical guidelines for the management of asthma and angina in adults in primary care. Design A before and after pragmatic cluster randomised controlled trial utilising a two by two incomplete block design. Setting 60 general practices in north east England. Participants General practitioners and practice nurses in the study practices and their patients aged 18 or over with angina or asthma. Main outcome measures Adherence to the guidelines, based on review of case notes and patient reported generic and condition specific outcome measures. Results The computerised decision support system had no significant effect on consultation rates, process of care measures (including prescribing), or any patient reported outcomes for either condition. Levels of use of the software were low. Conclusions No effect was found of computerised evidence based guidelines on the management of asthma or angina in adults in primary care. This was probably due to low levels of use of the software, despite the system being optimised as far as was technically possible. Even if the technical problems of producing a system that fully supports the management of chronic disease were solved, there remains the challenge of integrating the systems into clinical encounters where busy practitioners manage patients with complex, multiple conditions. What is already known on this topicComputerised decision support systems produce improvements in patient care across a range of conditions and settingsPrevious evaluations have been undermined by flaws in study designFew studies have evaluated complex decision support systems for the management of chronic diseaseWhat this study addsNo impact was found of a computerised decision support system delivering evidence based guidelines for chronic diseases on either the process or outcomes of careIt is unclear whether there are benefits from integrating such systems into clinical encounters where busy practitioners manage patients with complex and multiple conditions PMID:12399345

  2. Clinician-led improvement in cancer care (CLICC) - testing a multifaceted implementation strategy to increase evidence-based prostate cancer care: phased randomised controlled trial - study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Clinical practice guidelines have been widely developed and disseminated with the aim of improving healthcare processes and patient outcomes but the uptake of evidence-based practice remains haphazard. There is a need to develop effective implementation methods to achieve large-scale adoption of proven innovations and recommended care. Clinical networks are increasingly being viewed as a vehicle through which evidence-based care can be embedded into healthcare systems using a collegial approach to agree on and implement a range of strategies within hospitals. In Australia, the provision of evidence-based care for men with prostate cancer has been identified as a high priority. Clinical audits have shown that fewer than 10% of patients in New South Wales (NSW) Australia at high risk of recurrence after radical prostatectomy receive guideline recommended radiation treatment following surgery. This trial will test a clinical network-based intervention to improve uptake of guideline recommended care for men with high-risk prostate cancer. Methods/Design In Phase I, a phased randomised cluster trial will test a multifaceted intervention that harnesses the NSW Agency for Clinical Innovation (ACI) Urology Clinical Network to increase evidence-based care for men with high-risk prostate cancer following surgery. The intervention will be introduced in nine NSW hospitals over 10 months using a stepped wedge design. Outcome data (referral to radiation oncology for discussion of adjuvant radiotherapy in line with guideline recommended care or referral to a clinical trial of adjuvant versus salvage radiotherapy) will be collected through review of patient medical records. In Phase II, mixed methods will be used to identify mechanisms of provider and organisational change. Clinicians’ knowledge and attitudes will be assessed through surveys. Process outcome measures will be assessed through document review. Semi-structured interviews will be conducted to elucidate mechanisms of change. Discussion The study will be one of the first randomised controlled trials to test the effectiveness of clinical networks to lead changes in clinical practice in hospitals treating patients with high-risk cancer. It will additionally provide direction regarding implementation strategies that can be effectively employed to encourage widespread adoption of clinical practice guidelines. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR): ACTRN12611001251910. PMID:24884877

  3. Teaching evidence based medicine literature searching skills to medical students during the clinical years - a protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Two of the key steps in evidence based medicine (EBM) are being able to construct a clinical question and effectively search the literature to source relevant information. No evidence currently exists that informs whether such skills should be taught to medical students during their pre-clinical years, or delivered to include both the pre-clinical and clinical years of study. This is an important component of curriculum design as the level of clinical maturity of students can affect their perception of the importance and uptake of EBM principles in practice. Methods/Design A randomised controlled trial will be conducted to identify the effectiveness of delivering a formal workshop in EBM literature searching skills to third year medical students entering their clinical years of study. The primary outcome of EBM competency in literature searching skills will be evaluated using the Fresno tool. Discussion This trial will provide novel information on the effectiveness of delivering a formal education workshop in evidence based medicine literature searching skills during the clinical years of study. The result of this study will also identify the impact of teaching EBM literature searching skills to medical students during the clinical years of study. PMID:21794173

  4. An evidence-based shared decision making programme on the prevention of myocardial infarction in type 2 diabetes: protocol of a randomised-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Lack of patient involvement in decision making has been suggested as one reason for limited treatment success. Concepts such as shared decision making may contribute to high quality healthcare by supporting patients to make informed decisions together with their physicians. A multi-component shared decision making programme on the prevention of heart attack in type 2 diabetes has been developed. It aims at improving the quality of decision-making by providing evidence-based patient information, enhancing patients’ knowledge, and supporting them to actively participate in decision-making. In this study the efficacy of the programme is evaluated in the setting of a diabetes clinic. Methods/Design A single blinded randomised-controlled trial is conducted to compare the shared decision making programme with a control-intervention. The intervention consists of an evidence-based patient decision aid on the prevention of myocardial infarction and a corresponding counselling module provided by diabetes educators. Similar in duration and structure, the control-intervention targets nutrition, sports, and stress coping. A total of 154 patients between 40 and 69 years of age with type 2 diabetes and no previous diagnosis of ischaemic heart disease or stroke are enrolled and allocated either to the intervention or the control-intervention. Primary outcome measure is the patients’ knowledge on benefits and harms of heart attack prevention captured by a standardised knowledge test. Key secondary outcome measure is the achievement of treatment goals prioritised by the individual patient. Treatment goals refer to statin taking, HbA1c-, blood pressure levels and smoking status. Outcomes are assessed directly after the counselling and at 6 months follow-up. Analyses will be carried out on intention-to-treat basis. Concurrent qualitative methods are used to explore intervention fidelity and to gain insight into implementation processes. Discussion Interventions to facilitate evidence-based shared decision making represent an innovative approach in diabetes care. The results of this study will provide information on the efficacy of such a concept in the setting of a diabetes clinic in Germany. Trial registration ISRCTN84636255 PMID:24138325

  5. 77 FR 58397 - Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee (HICPAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-20

    ...Disease Control and Prevention Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee...CDC, regarding (1) the practice of infection control; (2) strategies for surveillance...and control of healthcare-associated infections (e.g., nosocomial infections)...

  6. Evidence-based practice.

    PubMed

    Goding, Lois; Edwards, Keith

    2002-01-01

    This article provides an insight into the philosophical assumptions underpinning evidence-based practice (EBP). Lois Goding and Keith Edwards believe that EBP has often been adopted within nursing, midwifery and health visiting without careful consideration of the nature of such evidence. This article explores the issues surrounding different research methodologies and methods, in particular the dichotomous relationships between positivism, constructivism and postmodernism. The authors believe that nursing involves complex, intangible human behaviour that demands an interpretative, holistic approach investigating perceptions rather than a reductionist approach. PMID:12149896

  7. Effectiveness of the tailored Evidence Based Practice training program for Filipino physical therapists: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study evaluated the effectiveness of the contextualized EBP training program for Filipino physical therapists in terms of knowledge, skills, attitudes and behavior. Methods A randomized controlled trial was designed to assess the effectiveness of the EBP training program. Fifty four physical therapists were randomly allocated to the EBP group (intervention) and waitlist (control) group. The EBP group had a one day face-to-face training with an online support, whilst the control was waitlisted. There were three measurement points which were pre, post, and three months post intervention for knowledge, skills and attitudes. Activity diaries were used to measure behavior. The diaries were collected after three months. Data analysis was by intention to treat in EBP domains of knowledge, skills and attitudes. Results Fifty-four physical therapists were included in the study. Fifty two (52) completed the post training assessment and 26 completed the 3 months post training assessment for EBP knowledge, skills and attitudes. There were significant improvements in these domains in the EBP group from pre to post training and over a period of three months (p?control group. Thirty seven (37) physical therapists completed their activity diaries over three months. Behavior significantly improved in the EBP group in terms of EBP behaviors (formulating PICO, searching, appraising and applying the evidence) when faced with both new/unique and usual case scenarios (p?control group significantly performed non-EBP behaviors (asking doctors and reading textbooks) when faced with new/unique cases compared with the EBP group (p?controlled trials ISRCTN74485061 (Registration date: February 9, 2011). PMID:25034409

  8. What are the Evidence Based Public Health Interventions for Prevention and Control of NCDs in Relation to India?

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Kavita; Reddy, K Srinath; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj

    2011-01-01

    The accelerating epidemics of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) in India call for a comprehensive public health response which can effectively combat and control them before they peak and inflict severe damage in terms of unaffordable health, economic, and social costs. To synthesize and present recent evidences regarding the effectiveness of several types of public health interventions to reduce NCD burden. Interventions influencing behavioral risk factors (like unhealthy diet, physical inactivity, tobacco and alcohol consumption) through policy, public education, or a combination of both have been demonstrated to be effective in reducing the NCD risk in populations as well as in individuals. Policy interventions are also effective in reducing the levels of several major biological risk factors linked to NCDs (high blood pressure; overweight and obesity; diabetes and abnormal blood cholesterol). Secondary prevention along the lines of combination pills and ensuring evidenced based clinical care are also critical. Though the evidence for health promotion and primary prevention are weaker, policy interventions and secondary prevention when combined with these are likely to have a greater impact on reducing national NCD burden. A comprehensive and integrated response to NCDs control and prevention needs a “life course approach.” Proven cost-effective interventions need to be integrated in a NCD prevention and control policy framework and implemented through coordinated mechanisms of regulation, environment modification, education, and health care responses. PMID:22628907

  9. What are the Evidence Based Public Health Interventions for Prevention and Control of NCDs in Relation to India?

    PubMed

    Singh, Kavita; Reddy, K Srinath; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj

    2011-12-01

    The accelerating epidemics of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) in India call for a comprehensive public health response which can effectively combat and control them before they peak and inflict severe damage in terms of unaffordable health, economic, and social costs. To synthesize and present recent evidences regarding the effectiveness of several types of public health interventions to reduce NCD burden. Interventions influencing behavioral risk factors (like unhealthy diet, physical inactivity, tobacco and alcohol consumption) through policy, public education, or a combination of both have been demonstrated to be effective in reducing the NCD risk in populations as well as in individuals. Policy interventions are also effective in reducing the levels of several major biological risk factors linked to NCDs (high blood pressure; overweight and obesity; diabetes and abnormal blood cholesterol). Secondary prevention along the lines of combination pills and ensuring evidenced based clinical care are also critical. Though the evidence for health promotion and primary prevention are weaker, policy interventions and secondary prevention when combined with these are likely to have a greater impact on reducing national NCD burden. A comprehensive and integrated response to NCDs control and prevention needs a "life course approach." Proven cost-effective interventions need to be integrated in a NCD prevention and control policy framework and implemented through coordinated mechanisms of regulation, environment modification, education, and health care responses. PMID:22628907

  10. Evidence-Based Anatomy

    PubMed Central

    Yammine, Kaissar

    2014-01-01

    Anatomy is a descriptive basic medical science that is no longer considered a research-led discipline. Many publications in clinical anatomy are prevalence studies treating clinically relevant anatomical variations and reporting their frequencies and/or associations with variables such as age, sex, side, laterality, and ancestry. This article discusses the need to make sense of the available literature. A new concept, evidence-based anatomy (EBA), is proposed to find, appraise, and synthetize the results reported in such publications. It consists in applying evidence-based principles to the field of epidemiological anatomy research through evidence synthesis using systematic reviews and meta-analyses to generate weighted pooled results. Pooled frequencies and associations based on large pooled sample size are likely to be more accurate and to reflect true population statistics and associations more closely. A checklist of a typical systematic review in anatomy is suggested and the implications of EBA for practice and future research, along with its scope, are discussed. The EBA approach would have positive implications for the future preservation of anatomy as a keystone basic science, for sound knowledge of anatomical variants, and for the safety of medical practice. Clin. Anat. 27:847–852, 2014. PMID:24797314

  11. Influence network linkages across implementation strategy conditions in a randomized controlled trial of two strategies for scaling up evidence-based practices in public youth-serving systems

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Given the importance of influence networks in the implementation of evidence-based practices and interventions, it is unclear whether such networks continue to operate as sources of information and advice when they are segmented and disrupted by randomization to different implementation strategy conditions. The present study examines the linkages across implementation strategy conditions of social influence networks of leaders of youth-serving systems in 12 California counties participating in a randomized controlled trial of community development teams (CDTs) to scale up use of an evidence-based practice. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 38 directors, assistant directors, and program managers of county probation, mental health, and child welfare departments. A web-based survey collected additional quantitative data on information and advice networks of study participants. A mixed-methods approach to data analysis was used to create a sociometric data set (n?=?176) to examine linkages between treatment and standard conditions. Results Of those network members who were affiliated with a county (n?=?137), only 6 (4.4%) were directly connected to a member of the opposite implementation strategy condition; 19 (13.9%) were connected by two steps or fewer to a member of the opposite implementation strategy condition; 64 (46.7%) were connected by three or fewer steps to a member of the opposite implementation strategy condition. Most of the indirect steps between individuals who were in different implementation strategy conditions were connections involving a third non-county organizational entity that had an important role in the trial in keeping the implementation strategy conditions separate. When these entities were excluded, the CDT network exhibited fewer components and significantly higher betweenness centralization than did the standard condition network. Conclusion Although the integrity of the RCT in this instance was not compromised by study participant influence networks, RCT designs should consider how influence networks may extend beyond boundaries established by the randomization process in implementation studies. Trial registration NCT00880126 PMID:24229373

  12. Delivery of Evidence-Based Treatment for Multiple Anxiety Disorders in Primary Care: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Roy-Byrne, Peter; Craske, Michelle G.; Sullivan, Greer; Rose, Raphael D.; Edlund, Mark J.; Lang, Ariel J.; Bystritsky, Alexander; Welch, Stacy Shaw; Chavira, Denise A.; Golinelli, Daniela; Campbell-Sills, Laura; Sherbourne, Cathy D.; Stein, Murray B.

    2010-01-01

    Context Improving the quality of mental health care requires moving clinical interventions from controlled research settings into “real world” practice settings. While such advances have been made for depression, little work has been done for anxiety disorders. Objective To determine whether a flexible treatment-delivery model for multiple primary care anxiety disorders (panic, generalized anxiety, social anxiety, and/or posttraumatic stress disorders) would be superior to usual care. Design, Setting, and Participants Randomized controlled effectiveness trial of CALM (“Coordinated Anxiety Learning and Management”) compared to usual care (UC) in 17 primary care clinics in 4 US cities. Between June 2006 and April 2008, 1004 patients with anxiety disorders (with or without major depression), age 18–75, English- or Spanish-speaking, enrolled and subsequently received treatment for 3–12 months. Blinded follow-up assessments at 6, 12, and 18 months after baseline were completed in October 2009. Intervention(s) CALM allowed choice of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), medication, or both; included real-time web-based outcomes monitoring to optimize treatment decisions and a computer-assisted program to optimize delivery of CBT by non-expert care managers who also assisted primary care providers in promoting adherence and optimizing medications. Main Outcome Measure(s) 12-item Brief Symptom Inventory (anxiety and somatic symptoms) score. Secondary outcomes: Proportion of responders (? 50% reduction from pre-treatment BSI-12 score) and remitters (total BSI-12 score < 6). Results Significantly greater improvement for CALM than UC in global anxiety symptoms: BSI-12 group differences of ?2.49 (95% CI, ?3.59 to ?1.40), ?2.63 (95% CI, ?3.73 to ?1.54), and ?1.63 (95% CI, ?2.73 to ?0.53) at 6, 12, and 18 months, respectively. At 12 months, response and remission rates (CALM vs. UC) were 63.66% (58.95–68.37) vs. 44.68% (39.76–49.59), and 51.49% (46.60–56.38) vs. 33.28% (28.62–37.93), with a number needed to treat (NNT) of 5.27 (4.18–7.13) for response and 5.5 (4.32–7.55) for remission. Conclusions For patients with anxiety disorders treated in primary care clinics, a collaborative care intervention, compared to usual care, resulted in greater improvement in anxiety symptoms, functional disability, and quality of care over 18 months. PMID:20483968

  13. Enterobiasis (Pinworm Infection): Prevention and Control

    MedlinePLUS

    ... General Information Pinworm Infection FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Biology Disease Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals Publications Information For: Travelers ...

  14. Perioperative pain control after total knee arthroplasty: An evidence based review of the role of peripheral nerve blocks

    PubMed Central

    Danninger, Thomas; Opperer, Mathias; Memtsoudis, Stavros G

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decades, the number of total knee arthroplasty procedures performed in the United States has been increasing dramatically. This very successful intervention, however, is associated with significant postoperative pain, and adequate postoperative analgesia is mandatory in order to allow for successful rehabilitation and recovery. The use of regional anesthesia and peripheral nerve blocks has facilitated and improved this goal. Many different approaches and techniques for peripheral nerve blockades, either landmark or, more recently, ultrasound guided have been described over the last decades. This includes but is not restricted to techniques discussed in this review. The introduction of ultrasound has improved many approaches to peripheral nerves either in success rate and/or time to block. Moreover, ultrasound has enhanced the safety of peripheral nerve blocks due to immediate needle visualization and as consequence needle guidance during the block. In contrast to patient controlled analgesia using opioids, patients with a regional anesthetic technique suffer from fewer adverse events and show higher patient satisfaction; this is important as hospital rankings and advertisement have become more common worldwide and many patients use these factors in order to choose a certain institution for a specific procedure. This review provides a short overview of currently used regional anesthetic and analgesic techniques focusing on related implications, considerations and outcomes. PMID:25035824

  15. Aztreonam (for inhalation solution) for the treatment of chronic lung infections in patients with cystic fibrosis: an evidence-based review

    PubMed Central

    Kirkby, Stephen; Novak, Kimberly; McCoy, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a genetic disease caused by abnormal chloride transport across cellular membranes. In the respiratory tract, this molecular defect causes obstruction of the airways by mucus and chronic endobronchial infection. The majority of patients suffer early death from chronic respiratory disease. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the predominant chronic airway pathogen in older children and adults with CF and is associated with worse outcomes. However, overall survival in CF has been greatly improved in recent decades due in large part to the aggressive treatment of chronic infections such as P. aeruginosa. While intravenous and oral antibiotics are commonly used in the management of CF respiratory infections, inhaled anti-infective therapies offer the benefit of delivering the drug directly to the site of infection and avoiding potential toxicities associated with systemic absorption. Aztreonam lysine (AZLI) has recently been developed as an inhaled antibiotic for chronic use in CF patients with endobronchial P. aeruginosa infection. This paper reviews background data and the clinical studies which contributed to AZLI’s formal FDA approval and growing role in the management of CF pulmonary disease. PMID:22022288

  16. Diffusion of an evidence-based smoking cessation intervention through Facebook: a randomised controlled trial study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Cobb, Nathan K; Jacobs, Megan A; Saul, Jessie; Wileyto, E Paul; Graham, Amanda L

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Online social networks represent a potential mechanism for the dissemination of health interventions including smoking cessation; however, which elements of an intervention determine diffusion between participants is unclear. Diffusion is frequently measured using R, the reproductive rate, which is determined by the duration of use (t), the ‘contagiousness’ of an intervention (?) and a participant's total contacts (z). We have developed a Facebook ‘app’ that allows us to enable or disable various components designed to impact the duration of use (expanded content, proactive contact), contagiousness (active and passive sharing) and number of contacts (use by non-smoker supporters). We hypothesised that these elements would be synergistic in their impact on R, while including non-smokers would induce a ‘carrier’ state allowing the app to bridge clusters of smokers. Methods and analysis This study is a fractional factorial, randomised control trial of the diffusion of a Facebook application for smoking cessation. Participants recruited through online advertising are randomised to 1 of 12 cells and serve as ‘seed’ users. All user interactions are tracked, including social interactions with friends. Individuals installing the application that can be traced back to a seed participant are deemed ‘descendants’ and form the outcome of interest. Analysis will be conducted using Poisson regression, with event count as the outcome and the number of seeds in the cell as the exposure. Results The results will be reported as a baseline R0 for the reference group, and incidence rate ratio for the remainder of predictors. Ethics and Dissemination This study uses an abbreviated consent process designed to minimise barriers to adoption and was deemed to be minimal risk by the Institutional Review Board (IRB). Results will be disseminated through traditional academic literature as well as social media. If feasible, anonymised data and underlying source code are intended to be made available under an open source license. ClinicalTrials.gov registration number NCT01746472. PMID:24448847

  17. A KT intervention including the evidence alert system to improve clinician’s evidence-based practice behavior—a cluster randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background It is difficult to foster research utilization among allied health professionals (AHPs). Tailored, multifaceted knowledge translation (KT) strategies are now recommended but are resource intensive to implement. Employers need effective KT solutions but little is known about; the impact and viability of multifaceted KT strategies using an online KT tool, their effectiveness with AHPs and their effect on evidence-based practice (EBP) decision-making behavior. The study aim was to measure the effectiveness of a multifaceted KT intervention including a customized KT tool, to change EBP behavior, knowledge, and attitudes of AHPs. Methods This is an evaluator-blinded, cluster randomized controlled trial conducted in an Australian community-based cerebral palsy service. 135 AHPs (physiotherapists, occupational therapists, speech pathologists, psychologists and social workers) from four regions were cluster randomized (n?=?4), to either the KT intervention group (n?=?73 AHPs) or the control group (n?=?62 AHPs), using computer-generated random numbers, concealed in opaque envelopes, by an independent officer. The KT intervention included three-day skills training workshop and multifaceted workplace supports to redress barriers (paid EBP time, mentoring, system changes and access to an online research synthesis tool). Primary outcome (self- and peer-rated EBP behavior) was measured using the Goal Attainment Scale (individual level). Secondary outcomes (knowledge and attitudes) were measured using exams and the Evidence Based Practice Attitude Scale. Results The intervention group’s primary outcome scores improved relative to the control group, however when clustering was taken into account, the findings were non-significant: self-rated EBP behavior [effect size 4.97 (95% CI -10.47, 20.41) (p?=?0.52)]; peer-rated EBP behavior [effect size 5.86 (95% CI -17.77, 29.50) (p?=?0.62)]. Statistically significant improvements in EBP knowledge were detected [effect size 2.97 (95% CI 1.97, 3.97 (p?

  18. Job analysis 1996: Infection control professional

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joan G. Turner; Koleen M. Kolenc; Lisa Docken

    1999-01-01

    The Certification Board in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc, directed its Test and Administrative Subcommittees to compose a Job Analysis Committee in 1995. This 16-member Job Analysis Committee, in collaboration with Applied Measurement Professionals, Inc, conducted a job analysis survey of infection control professionals in the United States and Canada during 1996. The reassessment of the previous Certification Board in

  19. Colistimethate sodium for the treatment of chronic pulmonary infection in cystic fibrosis: an evidence-based review of its place in therapy

    PubMed Central

    Koerner-Rettberg, Cordula; Ballmann, Manfred

    2014-01-01

    Chronic bacterial respiratory-tract infections are a major driving force in the pathogenesis of cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease and promote chronic lung-function decline, destruction, and progression to respiratory failure at a premature age. Gram-negative bacteria colonizing the airways in CF are a major problem in CF therapy due to their tendency to develop a high degree of resistance to antibiotic agents over time. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the dominating bacterial strain infecting the CF lung from early childhood on, and multiresistant strains frequently develop after years of therapy. Colistin has been used for treating pulmonary bacterial infections in CF for decades due to its very good Gram-negative activity. However, drawbacks include concerns regarding toxicity when being applied systemically, and the lack of approval for application by inhalation in the USA for many years. Other antibiotic substances for systemic use are available with good to excellent Gram-negative and anti-Pseudomonas activity, while there are only three substances approved for inhalation use in the treatment of chronic pulmonary infection with proven benefit in CF. The emergence of multiresistant strains leaving nearly no antibiotic substance as a treatment option, the limited number of antibiotics with high activity against P. aeruginosa, the concerns about increasing the risk of antibiotic resistance by continuous antibiotic therapy, the development of new drug formulations and drug-delivery devices, and, finally, the differing treatment strategies used in CF centers call for defining the place of this “old” drug, colistimethate, in today’s CF therapy. This article reviews the available evidence to reflect on the place of colistimethate sodium in the therapy of chronic pulmonary infection in CF. PMID:25278817

  20. 76 FR 63622 - Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee, (HICPAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-13

    ...Control and Prevention Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee...1) The practice of healthcare infection control; (2) strategies for surveillance, prevention, and control of infections (e.g., nosocomial...

  1. Effect of evidence-based drug therapy on long-term outcomes in patients discharged after myocardial infarction: a nested case–control study in Italy†‡§

    PubMed Central

    Kirchmayer, Ursula; Di Martino, Mirko; Agabiti, Nera; Bauleo, Lisa; Fusco, Danilo; Belleudi, Valeria; Arcà, Massimo; Pinnarelli, Luigi; Perucci, Carlo Alberto; Davoli, Marina

    2013-01-01

    Purpose There are some methodological concerns regarding results from observational studies about the effectiveness of evidence-based (EB) drug therapy in secondary prevention after myocardial infarction. The present study used a nested case–control approach to address these major methodological limitations. Methods A cohort of 6880 patients discharged from hospital after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in 2006–2007 was enrolled and followed-up throughout 2009. Exposure was defined as adherence to each drug in terms of the proportion of days covered (cutoff ? 75%). Composite treatment groups, that is, groups with no EB therapy or therapy with one, two, three, or four EB drugs), were analyzed. Outcomes were overall mortality and reinfarction. Nested case–control studies were performed for both outcomes, matching four controls to every case (841 deaths, 778 reinfarctions) by gender, age, and individual follow-up. The association between exposure to EB drug therapy and outcomes was analyzed using conditional logistic regression, adjusting for revascularization procedures, comorbidities, duration of index admission, and use of the study drugs prior to admission. Results Mortality and reinfarction risk decreased with the use of an increasing number of EB drugs. Combinations of two or more EB drugs were associated with a significant protective effect (p < 0.001) versus no EB drugs (mortality: 4 EB drugs: ORadj = 0.35; 95%CI: 0.21–0.59; reinfarction: 4 EB drugs: ORadj = 0.23; 95%CI: 0.15–0.37). Conclusions These findings of the beneficial effects of EB polytherapy on mortality and morbidity in a population-based setting using a nested case–control approach strengthen existing evidence from observational studies. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:23529919

  2. Infection control in paediatric office settings

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Transmission of infection in the paediatric office is of increasing concern. The present document discusses routes of transmission of infection and the principles of current infection control measures. Prevention includes appropriate office design and administrative policies, triage, routine practices for the care of all patients (eg, hand hygiene; use of gloves, masks, eye protection and gowns for specific procedures; adequate cleaning, disinfection and sterilization of surfaces and equipment including toys, and aseptic technique for invasive procedures), and additional precautions for specific infections. Personnel should be adequately immunized, and those infected should follow work-restriction policies. PMID:19412374

  3. Compliance with infection prevention and control in oral health-care facilities: a global perspective.

    PubMed

    Oosthuysen, Jeanné; Potgieter, Elsa; Fossey, Annabel

    2014-12-01

    Many publications are available on the topic of compliance with infection prevention and control in oral health-care facilities all over the world. The approaches of developing and developed countries show wide variation, but the principles of infection prevention and control are the same globally. This study is a systematic review and global perspective of the available literature on infection prevention and control in oral health-care facilities. Nine focus areas on compliance with infection-control measures were investigated: knowledge of infectious occupational hazards; personal hygiene and care of hands; correct application of personal protective equipment; use of environmental barriers and disposable items; sterilisation (recirculation) of instruments and handpieces; disinfection (surfaces) and housekeeping; management of waste disposal; quality control of dental unit waterlines, biofilms and water; and some special considerations. Various international studies from developed countries have reported highly scientific evidence-based information. In developed countries, the resources for infection prevention and control are freely available, which is not the case in developing countries. The studies in developing countries also indicate serious shortcomings with regard to infection prevention and control knowledge and education in oral health-care facilities. This review highlights the fact that availability of resources will always be a challenge, but more so in developing countries. This presents unique challenges and the opportunity for innovative thinking to promote infection prevention and control. PMID:25244364

  4. A Systematic Review of Evidence-Based Behavioral Interventions for African American Youth at Risk for HIV\\/STI Infection, 1988–2007

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Khiya Marshall; Nicole Crepaz; Ann O’Leary

    \\u000a In the United States, African American youth are disproportionally affected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and sexually\\u000a transmitted infections (STIs). An estimated 1.2 million people are living with HIV\\/AIDS (Glynn & Rhodes, 2005). Data from\\u000a 33 states in the United States with confidential name-based reporting show that in 2006 African Americans of all ages represented\\u000a 49% of HIV\\/AIDS diagnosis, although

  5. Requirements for infrastructure and essential activities of infection control and epidemiology in out-of-hospital settings: a consensus panel report. Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology and Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America.

    PubMed

    Friedman, C; Barnette, M; Buck, A S; Ham, R; Harris, J A; Hoffman, P; Johnson, D; Manian, F; Nicolle, L; Pearson, M L; Perl, T M; Solomon, S L

    1999-10-01

    In 1997 the Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology and the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America established a consensus panel to develop recommendations for optimal infrastructure and essential activities of infection control and epidemiology programs in out-of-hospital settings. The following report represents the Consensus Panel's best assessment of requirements for a healthy and effective out-of-hospital-based infection control and epidemiology program. The recommendations fall into 5 categories: managing critical data and information; developing and recommending policies and procedures; intervening directly to prevent infections; educating and training of health care workers, patients, and nonmedical caregivers; and resources. The Consensus Panel used an evidence-based approach and categorized recommendations according to modifications of the scheme developed by the Clinical Affairs Committee of the Infectious Diseases Society of America and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee. PMID:10530650

  6. Job analysis 1992: infection control practitioner.

    PubMed

    Bjerke, N B; Fabrey, L J; Johnson, C B; Bennett, G; Schollenberger, D; Jacobsen, D; Vinci, C; Tsivitis, M C; McGill, M L; Bergmann, E

    1993-04-01

    The Certification Board of Infection Control directed its Research Subcommittee to compose a Job Analysis Committee in 1991. This 9-member Job Analysis Committee, in collaboration with Applied Measurement Professionals, Inc., conducted a job analysis of ICPs during 1992. The reassessment of the previous Certification Board of Infection Control task analysis, formation of a job-analysis survey tool, and the actual job-analysis process and its results are described in this article. The previous and newly revised test specification outlines are compared. The national Certification Examination for Infection Control for November 1993 will reflect the efforts of this endeavor. PMID:8498694

  7. Infection Control During Filoviral Hemorrhagic Fever Outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    Vanessa, N Raabe; Matthias, Borchert

    2012-01-01

    Breaking the human-to-human transmission cycle remains the cornerstone of infection control during filoviral (Ebola and Marburg) hemorrhagic fever outbreaks. This requires effective identification and isolation of cases, timely contact tracing and monitoring, proper usage of barrier personal protection gear by health workers, and safely conducted burials. Solely implementing these measures is insufficient for infection control; control efforts must be culturally sensitive and conducted in a transparent manner to promote the necessary trust between the community and infection control team in order to succeed. This article provides a review of the literature on infection control during filoviral hemorrhagic fever outbreaks focusing on outbreaks in a developing setting and lessons learned from previous outbreaks. The primary search database used to review the literature was PUBMED, the National Library of Medicine website. PMID:22529631

  8. 42 CFR 418.60 - Condition of participation: Infection control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...false Condition of participation: Infection control. 418.60 Section 418...60 Condition of participation: Infection control. The hospice must maintain and document an effective infection control program that protects...

  9. Infection Control: Old Problems and New Challenges

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alejandro E. Macias; Samuel Ponce-de-Leon

    Infection control faces radical changes at the beginning of the third millennium. The first part of this review focuses on problems not yet solved, such as 1) surveillance systems, which should be active and extremely flexible; 2) infection outbreaks in hospitals and strategies to avoid them; 3) hand washing and alternatives such as rapid hand antisepsis; 4) water and food

  10. Evidence-Based Language Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollock, Eric J.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to examine evidence-based procedures in medicine and to demonstrate that the same protocols can be used in English language instruction. In the evidence-based methodology, studies are divided into those that address specific language problems. Integrated studies are presented as a systematic overview, meta-analysis,…

  11. Evidence-based management: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Young, Sam K

    2002-05-01

    This paper presents a review of evidence-based management (EBM), exploring whether management activities within healthcare have been, or can be, subject to the same scientific framework as clinical practice. The evidence-based approach was initially examined, noting the hierarchy of evidence ranging from randomized control trials to clinical anecdote. The literature varied in its degree of criticism of this approach; the most common concern referring to the assumed superiority of positivism. However, evidence-based practice was generally accepted as the best way forward. Stewart (1998) offered the only detailed exposition of EBM, outlining a necessary 'attitude of mind' both for EBM and for the creation of a research culture. However, the term 'clinical effectiveness' emerged as a possible replacement buzz-word for EBM (McClarey 1998). The term appears to encompass the sentiments of the evidence-based approach, but with a concomitant concern for economic factors. In this paper the author has examined the divide between those who viewed EBM as an activity for managers to make their own practice accountable and those who believed it to be a facilitative practice to help clinicians with evidence-based practice. Most papers acknowledged the limited research base for management activities within the health service and offered some explanation such as government policy constraints and lack of time. Nevertheless, the overall emphasis is that ideally there should be a management culture firmly based in evidence. PMID:11982781

  12. 38 CFR 51.190 - Infection control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...190 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) PER DIEM FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Standards § 51.190 Infection control. The facility management must...

  13. 38 CFR 51.190 - Infection control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...190 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) PER DIEM FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Standards § 51.190 Infection control. The facility management must...

  14. 38 CFR 51.190 - Infection control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...190 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) PER DIEM FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Standards § 51.190 Infection control. The facility management must...

  15. INFECTION CONTROL IN ALTERNATIVE HEALTHCARE SETTINGS

    PubMed Central

    Flanagan, Elaine; Chopra, Teena; Mody, Lona

    2011-01-01

    SYNOPSIS With the changing healthcare delivery, patients receive care at various settings including acute care hospitals, skilled nursing facilities, outpatient primary care and specialty clinics, as well as at home, exposing them to pathogens in various settings. Various healthcare settings face unique challenges requiring individualized infection control programs. Infection control programs in skilled nursing facilities should address: surveillance for infections and antimicrobial resistance, outbreak investigation and control plan for epidemics, isolation precautions, hand hygiene, staff education, and employee and resident health programs. Infection control programs in ambulatory clinics should address: Triage and standard – transmission based precautions, cleaning, disinfection and sterilization principles, surveillance in surgical clinics, safe injection practices, and bioterrorism and disaster planning for ambulatory clinics. PMID:21316005

  16. Salmonella infection: Diagnosis and control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. Robinson

    1970-01-01

    ExtractIn spite of numerous publications on the salmonellae and their effects on various hosts, few countries can assess accurately the annual toll of human illness or economic losses in. livestock as a result of these infections. Attempts are being made, at both international and national levels, to remedy this deficiency, particularly as food-borne salmonellosis in countries with high standards of

  17. Improving Infection Control Education for Nurses Using Self-Learning Modules: An Infection Control Project

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Koll; B. Raucher; J. Reich; I. Jabara; G. Fraser

    2004-01-01

    ISSUE: Beth Israel Medical Center (BIMC)—Petrie Division is an 850-bed tertiary-care hospital located in New York City. The Infection Control Department (IC) has made major efforts to educate all levels of staff on infection control policies and practices. Because the nursing staff has very complicated work schedules, a self-learning module was developed to improve education on infection control topics for

  18. IMPLEmenting a clinical practice guideline for acute low back pain evidence-based manageMENT in general practice (IMPLEMENT): Cluster randomised controlled trial study protocol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joanne E McKenzie; Simon D French; Denise A O'Connor; Jeremy M Grimshaw; Duncan Mortimer; Susan Michie; Jill Francis; Neil Spike; Peter Schattner; Peter M Kent; Rachelle Buchbinder; Sally E Green

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Evidence generated from reliable research is not frequently implemented into clinical practice. Evidence-based clinical practice guidelines are a potential vehicle to achieve this. A recent systematic review of implementation strategies of guideline dissemination concluded that there was a lack of evidence regarding effective strategies to promote the uptake of guidelines. Recommendations from this review, and other studies, have suggested

  19. Pharmacological pain control for human immunodeficiency virus—infected adults with a history of drug dependence

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Sanjay; Bruce, R. Douglas; Barry, Declan T.; Altice, Frederick L.

    2007-01-01

    Clinicians treating human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients with substance use disorders often face the challenge of managing patients' acute or chronic pain conditions while keeping in mind the potential dangers of prescription opiate dependence. In this clinical review, we critically appraise the existing data concerning barriers to appropriate treatment of pain among HIV-infected patients with substance use disorders. We then analyze published studies concerning the choice of pharmacological pain control regimens for acute and chronic pain conditions in HIV-infected patients, keeping in mind HIV-specific issues related to drug interactions and substance use disorders. We summarize this information in the form of flowcharts for physicians approaching HIV-infected patients who present with complaints of pain, providing evidence-based guidance for the structuring of pain management services and for addressing aberrant drug-taking behaviors. PMID:17481463

  20. Reduction of central line-associated bloodstream infection rates in a neonatal intensive care unit after implementation of a multidisciplinary evidence-based quality improvement collaborative: A four-year surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Ting, Joseph Y; Goh, Vicki SK; Osiovich, Horacio

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The use of central venous catheters has permitted lifesaving treatment for critically ill neonates; however, the attributable mortality rate for central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) has been estimated to be between 4% and 20%. In 2006/2007, the authors’ neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) had a CLABSI rate that was nearly twofold higher than that reported by other Canadian NICUs. OBJECTIVE: To implement a quality improvement collaborative to reduce the incidence of neonatal CLABSI. METHODS: A retrospective observational study was performed to compare CLABSI in neonates admitted to the authors’ level III NICU between August 2007 and March 2011. The entire study period was divided into four time periods to evaluate secular trends. A comprehensive catheter-related bloodstream infection prevention initiative was implemented in August 2007. The initiatives included staff education, standardization of skin preparation protocol, introduction of new antiseptic agents, implementation of central catheter insertion and maintenance checklists, reinforcement of the use of maximal sterile barrier precautions, and revision of the central catheter configuration and maintenance protocols. RESULTS: The median CLABSI rate of 7.9 per 1000 catheter days at the beginning of the study (period 1 [August 2007 to June 2008]) gradually decreased over the entire study period (P=0.034): period 2 (July 2008 to May 2009), 3.3 per 1000 catheter days; period 3 (June 2009 to April 2010), 2.6 per 1000 catheter days; and period 4 (May 2010 to March 2011), 2.2 per 1000 catheter days. CONCLUSION: A multidisciplinary evidence-based quality improvement collaborative resulted in a significant reduction in the CLABSI rate. Continuous quality improvement measures are required to reduce catheter-related bloodstream infections among low-birth-weight infants. PMID:24489559

  1. Bilingual Language Control and General Purpose Cognitive Control among Individuals with Bilingual Aphasia: Evidence Based on Negative Priming and Flanker Tasks

    PubMed Central

    Dash, Tanya; Kar, Bhoomika R.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Bilingualism results in an added advantage with respect to cognitive control. The interaction between bilingual language control and general purpose cognitive control systems can also be understood by studying executive control among individuals with bilingual aphasia. Objectives. The current study examined the subcomponents of cognitive control in bilingual aphasia. A case study approach was used to investigate whether cognitive control and language control are two separate systems and how factors related to bilingualism interact with control processes. Methods. Four individuals with bilingual aphasia performed a language background questionnaire, picture description task, and two experimental tasks (nonlinguistic negative priming task and linguistic and nonlinguistic versions of flanker task). Results. A descriptive approach was used to analyse the data using reaction time and accuracy measures. The cumulative distribution function plots were used to visualize the variations in performance across conditions. The results highlight the distinction between general purpose cognitive control and bilingual language control mechanisms. Conclusion. All participants showed predominant use of the reactive control mechanism to compensate for the limited resources system. Independent yet interactive systems for bilingual language control and general purpose cognitive control were postulated based on the experimental data derived from individuals with bilingual aphasia. PMID:24982591

  2. Best infection control practices for intradermal, subcutaneous, and intramuscular needle injections.

    PubMed Central

    Hutin, Yvan; Hauri, Anja; Chiarello, Linda; Catlin, Mary; Stilwell, Barbara; Ghebrehiwet, Tesfamicael; Garner, Julia

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To draw up evidence-based guidelines to make injections safer. METHODS: A development group summarized evidence-based best practices for preventing injection-associated infections in resource-limited settings. The development process included a breakdown of the WHO reference definition of a safe injection into a list of potentially critical steps, a review of the literature for each of these steps, the formulation of best practices, and the submission of the draft document to peer review. FINDINGS: Eliminating unnecessary injections is the highest priority in preventing injection-associated infections. However, when intradermal, subcutaneous, or intramuscular injections are medically indicated, best infection control practices include the use of sterile injection equipment, the prevention of contamination of injection equipment and medication, the prevention of needle-stick injuries to the provider, and the prevention of access to used needles. CONCLUSION: The availability of best infection control practices for intradermal, subcutaneous, and intramuscular injections will provide a reference for global efforts to achieve the goal of safe and appropriate use of injections. WHO will revise the best practices five years after initial development, i.e. in 2005. PMID:12973641

  3. 42 CFR 482.42 - Condition of participation: Infection control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... false Condition of participation: Infection control. 482.42 Section 482...482.42 Condition of participation: Infection control. The hospital must provide...environment to avoid sources and transmission of infections and communicable diseases. There...

  4. The control of hookworm infection in China

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Qi; Chen, Ying; Zhang, Hao-Bing; Chen, Jia-Xu; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2009-01-01

    Background Hookworm is still one of the three main soil-transmitted helminths prevalent in China, and 39 million cases infected with hookworm were estimated in China in 2006. Results The main approach to the control of hookworm infections in China consists of large-scale deworming, rebuilding sanitation systems in rural areas and health education. The availability of low-cost, safe and single-dose albendazole make large-scale deworming programs possible in China. Currently, sanitary latrines with three-cells are recommended by government for the control of soil-transmitted helminths, since 35% of helminth infections and 83% of worm eggs could be reduced after using this kind of sanitary latrine. In addition, economic prosperity contributes greatly to the reduction of hookworm prevalence, but the inequity of economic and social development among different regions of China provides a scenario that the worst threat of hookworm infection is located in the poorest areas of southern and central China. Therefore, it is necessary to put more investments into prophylaxis and treatment of hookworm in these poor regions. Conclusion Although the prevalence of hookworm infection has fallen significantly in the last 15 years in China, the current strategy for controlling hookworm infections still needs to be strengthened along with the three-pronged approach, e.g. distributing anthelmintic drugs in schools and undertaking large-scale of hookworm deworming, improving water supplies and sanitation, and proper health education. PMID:19775473

  5. Effectiveness and efficiency of the two trolley system as an infection control mechanism in the operating theatre.

    PubMed

    Tuisawana, Viliame

    2009-11-01

    A good infection control manager understands the need to prevent a complete cycle of infection. The Infection Control Working Group Manual of Fiji, emphasised that the Cycle of Infection is the series of stage in which infection is spread. Operating theatres have infection control protocols. Most equipments and instruments used in operating theatre circulate within the theatre. The theatre trolleys are a main component in managing an operating theatre but the least recognised. This paper reviews the effectiveness and efficiency of the current two-trolley system as an infection control mechanism in theatre. The paper will discuss infection control using the current trolley system in relation to the layout of Labasa Hospital operating theatre, human resource, equipment standard and random swab results. The following are random swab results of theatre equipments taken by the Infection Control Nurse from 2006 to 2008. The Labasa Hospital Infection Committee have discouraged random swab sample from mid 2008 based on new guidelines on infection control. The two trolley system, in which an allocated outside trolley transports patients from the ward to a semi-sterile area in theatre. The inside trolley which transports the patient to the operating table. The two trolley system means more trolleys, extra staffs for lifting, additional handling of very sick patients, congestion and delay in taking patients to operating table in theatres should be considered. The one-trolley system in theatre greatly reduces the chances of manually lifting patients, thus reducing the risk of patient injury from fall and risk of back injuries to nurses. There are other evident based practices which can compliment the one trolley system for an effective infection control mechanism in theatres. The Fiji Infection Control Manual (2002) emphases the importance of regularly cleaning the environment and equipments in theatre but there is never a mention about using a two trolley system as an infection control mechanism for theatre. PMID:20443520

  6. Adaptation of an Evidence-Based Intervention Targeting HIV-Infected Prisoners Transitioning to the Community: The Process and Outcome of Formative Research for the Positive Living Using Safety (PLUS) Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, Sutopa; Altice, Frederick L.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract No evidence-based interventions (EBIs) have been designed for implementation during the critical period when HIV-infected prisoners are being transitioned from prison to the community. We therefore conducted formative research aimed at systematically selecting and adapting an EBI that integrates HIV risk reduction and adherence to antiretroviral therapy to implement among HIV-infected prisoners transitioning back to the community. Our formative research involved a critical examination of established EBIs and associated published reports complemented by data elicited through structured interviews with key stakeholders in community and correctional settings and members of the target population. Between September 2006 and February 2007, structured one-on-one interviews were conducted with key stakeholders in the target organizations (n?=?19) and with members of the target population (n?=?26) in Hartford and New Haven, Connecticut. Based on the formative research, we abbreviated and adapted the Holistic Health Recovery Program targeting people living with HIV (HHRP+), an EBI, to consist of four 45-minute sessions that cover a range of prespecified topics so that participants may individually apply intervention content as needed to their own HIV risk profile and antiretroviral adherence issues. The EBI was adapted so that it could be provided in an individual or group format and delivered in either consecutive or weekly sessions and so that it could be provided within the prison system and delivered just prior to release, or in a community-based setting where it could be delivered immediately after release. This study provides a comprehensive exemplar of the process of selecting and adapting an EBI taking into account both empirical evidence and input from target organization stakeholders and target population members in real-world settings where high-risk populations are concentrated. PMID:19260773

  7. Can psychological models bridge the gap between clinical guidelines and clinicians' behaviour? A randomised controlled trial of an intervention to influence dentists' intention to implement evidence-based practice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Johnston; N B Pitts; C Deery; I Ricketts; M Bahrami; C Ramsay; J Johnston; D Bonetti

    2003-01-01

    Objective The lag between publication of evidence for clinical practice and implementation by clinicians may be decades. Research using psychological models demonstrates that changing intention is very important in changing behaviour. This study examined an intervention (rehearsing alternative actions) to change dentists' intention to implement evidence-based practice (EBP) for third molar (TM) management.Design Randomised controlled trial \\/ postal.Setting Primary care.Subjects

  8. RCN introduce new guidelines in infection control.

    PubMed

    Sims-Williams, F

    1987-08-01

    The RCN Safety Representatives Conference Co-ordinating Committee urge all nurses, not only to be vaccinated against hepatitis B, but also to ensure that they understand, and appreciate, infection control guidelines, and to ensure that, in their local working environment, they are followed closely. This statement is contained in the preface of the Royal College of Nursing's Introduction to Hepatitis B and Nursing Guidelines for Infection Control, launched in London on 30th June 1987, as part of the RCN's active campaign on hepatitis B. It is anticipated that these guidelines will have an enormous impact on the NHS. PMID:10284270

  9. Certification in infection control matters: Impact of infection control department characteristics and policies on rates of multidrug-resistant infections

    PubMed Central

    Pogorzelska, Monika; Stone, PatriciaW.; Larson, Elaine L.

    2012-01-01

    Background The study objective is to describe infection control policies aimed at multidrug-resistant organisms (MDRO) in California hospitals and assess the relationship among these policies, structural characteristics, and rates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) or vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) bloodstream infections and Clostridium difficile infections. Methods Data on infection control policies, structural characteristics, and MDRO rates were collected through a 2010 survey of California infection control departments. Bivariate and multivariable Poisson and negative binomial regressions were conducted. Results One hundred eighty hospitals provided data (response rate, 54%). Targeted MRSA screening upon admission was reported by the majority of hospitals (87%). The majority of hospitals implemented contact precautions for confirmed MDRO and C difficile patients; presumptive isolation/contact precautions for patients with pending screens were less frequently implemented. Few infection control policies were associated with lower MDRO rates. Hospitals with a certified infection control director had significantly lower rates of MRSA bloodstream infections (P < .05). Conclusion Although most California hospitals are involved in activities to decrease MDRO, there is variation in specific activities utilized with the most focus placed on MRSA. This study highlights the importance of certification and its significant impact on infection rates. Additional research is needed to confirm these findings. PMID:22381222

  10. From evidence based bioethics to evidence based social policies. [Commentary

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. G. A. Bonneux

    2007-01-01

    In this issue, Norwegian authors demonstrate that causes of early expulsion out the workforce are rooted in childhood. They reconstruct individual biographies in administrative databases linked by an unique national identification number, looking forward 15 years in early adulthood and looking back 20 years till birth with close to negligible loss to follow up. Evidence based bioethics suggest that it

  11. [Infection control measures and surveillance of patients with ventricular assist devices].

    PubMed

    Mattner, F; Chaberny, I F; Mattner, L; Gastmeier, P; Tessmann, R; Strüber, M

    2007-05-01

    Ventricular assist devices (VAD) are a new routine therapy option for end-stage heart failure. However, the incidence of VAD-related infections varies between 20 and 188% and makes a major contribution to VAD-related morbidity. Therefore, optimised infection control policies should be applied to prevent VAD-related infections. As to date only a few studies exist investigating particular prevention measures for VAD recipients, we have tried to adapt evidence-based guidelines. In detail the following preventive measures are discussed: antibiotic prophylaxis, endocarditis prophylaxis, dressing technique for the driveline-exit site and education of patients and medical staff. A new patient-based surveillance system is proposed which reflects the different times since implantation of VADs and therefore allows a fair method for interhospital comparison. PMID:17431552

  12. Updating the evidence base on the operational costs of supplementary immunization activities for current and future accelerated disease control, elimination and eradication efforts

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To achieve globally or regionally defined accelerated disease control, elimination and eradication (ADC/E/E) goals against vaccine-preventable diseases requires complementing national routine immunization programs with intensive, time-limited, and targeted Supplementary Immunization Activities (SIAs). Many global and country-level SIA costing efforts have historically relied on what are now outdated benchmark figures. Mobilizing adequate resources for successful implementation of SIAs requires updated estimates of non-vaccine costs per target population. Methods This assessment updates the evidence base on the SIA operational costs through a review of literature between 1992 and 2012, and an analysis of actual expenditures from 142 SIAs conducted between 2004 and 2011 and documented in country immunization plans. These are complemented with an analysis of budgets from 31 SIAs conducted between 2006 and 2011 in order to assess the proportion of total SIA costs per person associated with various cost components. All results are presented in 2010 US dollars. Results Existing evidence indicate that average SIA operational costs were usually less than US$0.50 per person in 2010 dollars. However, the evidence is sparse, non-standardized, and largely out of date. Average operational costs per person generated from our analysis of country immunization plans are consistently higher than published estimates, approaching US$1.00 for injectable vaccines. The results illustrate that the benchmarks often used to project needs underestimate the true costs of SIAs and the analysis suggests that SIA operational costs have been increasing over time in real terms. Our assessment also illustrates that operational costs vary across several dimensions. Variations in the actual costs of SIAs likely to reflect the extents to which economies of scale associated with campaign-based delivery can be attained, the underlying strength of the immunization program, sensitivities to the relative ease of vaccine administration (i.e. orally, or by injection), and differences in disease-specific programmatic approaches. The assessment of SIA budgets by cost component illustrates that four cost drivers make up the largest proportion of costs across all vaccines: human resources, program management, social mobilization, and vehicles and transportation. These findings suggest that SIAs leverage existing health system infrastructure, reinforcing the fact that strong routine immunization programs are an important pre-requisite for achieving ADC/E/E goals. Conclusions The results presented here will be useful for national and global-level actors involved in planning, budgeting, resource mobilization, and financing of SIAs in order to create more realistic assessments of resource requirements for both existing ADC/E/E efforts as well as for new vaccines that may deploy a catch-up campaign-based delivery component. However, limitations of our analysis suggest a need to conduct further research into operational costs of SIAs. Understanding the changing face of delivery costs and cost structures for SIAs will continue to be critical to avoid funding gaps and in order to improve vaccination coverage, reduce health inequities, and achieve the ADC/E/E goals many of which have been endorsed by the World Health Assembly and are included in the Decade of Vaccines Global Vaccine Action Plan. PMID:24450832

  13. Hepatitis C Infections in Hospitals Show Need for Tight Infection Control Practices

    MedlinePLUS

    ... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hepatitis C Infections in Hospitals Show Need for Tight Infection ... Friday, February 27, 2015 Related MedlinePlus Pages Hepatitis C Infection Control Patient Safety FRIDAY, Feb. 27, 2015 ( ...

  14. Evidence-based librarianship: an overview

    PubMed Central

    Eldredge, Jonathan D.

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To demonstrate how the core characteristics of both evidence-based medicine (EBM) and evidence-based health care (EBHC) can be adapted to health sciences librarianship. Method: Narrative review essay involving development of a conceptual framework. The author describes the central features of EBM and EBHC. Following each description of a central feature, the author then suggests ways that this feature applies to health sciences librarianship. Results: First, the decision-making processes of EBM and EBHC are compatible with health sciences librarianship. Second, the EBM and EBHC values of favoring rigorously produced scientific evidence in decision making are congruent with the core values of librarianship. Third, the hierarchical levels of evidence can be applied to librarianship with some modifications. Library researchers currently favor descriptive-survey and case-study methods over systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials, or other higher levels of evidence. The library literature nevertheless contains diverse examples of randomized controlled trials, controlled-comparison studies, and cohort studies conducted by health sciences librarians. Conclusions: Health sciences librarians are confronted with making many practical decisions. Evidence-based librarianship offers a decision-making framework, which integrates the best available research evidence. By employing this framework and the higher levels of research evidence it promotes, health sciences librarians can lay the foundation for more collaborative and scientific endeavors. PMID:11055296

  15. Infections Control in North American Dental Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sampson, Elise; Dhuru, Virendra B.

    1989-01-01

    Results from 1982 and 1987 surveys of dental schools concerning infection control issues found greater recent emphasis on instrument sterilization and barrier use, but some inconsistency and confusion concerning hepatitis B and HIV virus carrier patients and personnel. The information was used to develop guidelines for school policy formation.…

  16. Correlates of infection control practices in dentistry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robyn R. M. Gershon; Christine Karkashian; David Vlahov; Martha Grimes; Elizabeth Spannhake

    1998-01-01

    Background: Studies conducted in the first decade of the AIDS epidemic indicated that, in general, dentists had suboptimal levels of compliance with standard infection control practices, including work practices designed to reduce exposure to bloodborne pathogens. This study was designed to assess current rates of compliance with these practices in a population of Maryland dentists and to identify correlates of

  17. Infection control practices for dental radiography.

    PubMed

    Palenik, Charles John

    2004-06-01

    Infection control for dental radiography employs the same materials, processes, and techniques used in the operatory, yet unless proper procedures are established and followed, there is a definite potential for cross-contamination to clinical area surfaces and DHCP. In general, the aseptic practices used are relatively simple and inexpensive, yet they require complete application in every situation. PMID:15218669

  18. Evidence-based Management Strategies for Treatment of Chronic Wounds

    PubMed Central

    Werdin, Frank; Tennenhaus, Mayer; Schaller, Hans-Eberhardt; Rennekampff, Hans-Oliver

    2009-01-01

    The care and management of patients with chronic wounds and their far-reaching effects challenge both the patient and the practitioner. Further complicating this situation is the paucity of evidence-based treatment strategies for chronic wound care. After searching both MEDLINE and Cochrane databases, we reviewed currently available articles concerning chronic wound care. Utilizing this information, we have outlined a review of current, evidence-based concepts as they pertain to the treatment of chronic wounds, focusing on fundamental treatment principles for the management of venous, arterial, diabetic, and pressure ulcers. Individualized treatment options as well as general wound management principles applicable to all varieties of chronic wounds are described. Classification and treatment guidelines as well as the adoption of the TIME acronym facilitate an organized conceptional approach to wound care. In so doing, individual aspects of generalized wound care such as debridement, infection, and moisture control as well as attention to the qualities of the wound edge are comprehensively evaluated, communicated, and addressed. Effective adjuvant agents for the therapy of chronic wounds including nutritional and social support measures are listed, as is a brief review of strategies helpful for preventing recurrence. An appreciation of evidence-based treatment pathways and an understanding of the pathophysiology of chronic wounds are important elements in the management of patients with chronic wounds. To achieve effective and long-lasting results, a multidisciplinary approach to patient care, focused on the education and coordination of patient, family as well as medical and support staff can prove invaluable. PMID:19578487

  19. Control of viruses infecting grapevine.

    PubMed

    Maliogka, Varvara I; Martelli, Giovanni P; Fuchs, Marc; Katis, Nikolaos I

    2015-01-01

    Grapevine is a high value vegetatively propagated fruit crop that suffers from numerous viruses, including some that seriously affect the profitability of vineyards. Nowadays, 64 viruses belonging to different genera and families have been reported in grapevines and new virus species will likely be described in the future. Three viral diseases namely leafroll, rugose wood, and infectious degeneration are of major economic importance worldwide. The viruses associated with these diseases are transmitted by mealybugs, scale and soft scale insects, or dagger nematodes. Here, we review control measures of the major grapevine viral diseases. More specifically, emphasis is laid on (i) approaches for the production of clean stocks and propagative material through effective sanitation, robust diagnosis, as well as local and regional certification efforts, (ii) the management of vectors of viruses using cultural, biological, and chemical methods, and (iii) the production of resistant grapevines mainly through the application of genetic engineering. The benefits and limitations of the different control measures are discussed with regard to accomplishments and future research directions. PMID:25591880

  20. 42 CFR 482.42 - Condition of participation: Infection control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...transmission of infections and communicable diseases. There must be an active...investigation of infections and communicable diseases. (a) Standard: Organization...control of infections and communicable diseases. (1) The...

  1. Effectiveness of Infection Control Barriers for Construction in Healthcare

    E-print Network

    Huo, Jinyun

    2014-08-12

    are transmitted on dust particles, to reduce the risk of fatal infections. Infection control barriers have been largely adopted for new hospital construction at an existing facility to reduce the incidence of infections caused by construction dust borne pathogens...

  2. How Evidence-Based Are the Recommendations in Evidence-Based Guidelines?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Finlay A. McAlister; Sean van Diepen; Rajdeep S. Padwal; Jeffrey A. Johnson; Sumit R. Majumdar

    2007-01-01

    BackgroundTreatment recommendations for the same condition from different guideline bodies often disagree, even when the same randomized controlled trial (RCT) evidence is cited. Guideline appraisal tools focus on methodology and quality of reporting, but not on the nature of the supporting evidence. This study was done to evaluate the quality of the evidence (based on consideration of its internal validity,

  3. Control of infection in an international airline.

    PubMed

    Kelly, M

    1993-05-01

    The paper examines the possible sources of infection on an international aircraft, including the provision of food, the supply of drinking water, and the removal of waste. It considers aspects of control, and explains some of the steps which have to be taken by a major international carrier to ensure that the high quality expected by the customer is provided in all areas of the world, even those where natural resources and expertise may be limited. The emphasis is on providing a safe product, and removing any possible risk of infection of the passengers. PMID:8495009

  4. 38 CFR 51.190 - Infection control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...related to infections. (b) Preventing spread of infection. (1) When the infection...resident needs isolation to prevent the spread of infection, the facility management...transport linens so as to prevent the spread of infection. (Authority: 38...

  5. 42 CFR 483.65 - Infection control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...related to infections. (b) Preventing spread of infection. (1) When the infection...resident needs isolation to prevent the spread of infection, the facility must isolate...transport linens so as to prevent the spread of infection. [56 FR 48876,...

  6. 38 CFR 51.190 - Infection control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...related to infections. (b) Preventing spread of infection. (1) When the infection...resident needs isolation to prevent the spread of infection, the facility management...transport linens so as to prevent the spread of infection. (Authority: 38...

  7. 42 CFR 483.65 - Infection control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...related to infections. (b) Preventing spread of infection. (1) When the infection...resident needs isolation to prevent the spread of infection, the facility must isolate...transport linens so as to prevent the spread of infection. [56 FR 48876,...

  8. Factors that influenced county system leaders to implement an evidence-based program: a baseline survey within a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Despite the burgeoning number of well-validated interventions that have been shown in randomized trials to produce superior outcomes compared to usual services, it is estimated that only 10% of public systems deliver evidence-based mental health services. In California, for example, more than 15,000 children are placed in group homes or residential centers with some evidence of iatrogenic effects. The present study evaluates the willingness among county leaders of child public service systems to adopt a new evidence-based model, Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care, (MTFC), as a way to decrease the prevalence of out-of-home placements. Specifically, the study examines how county-level socio-demographic factors and child public service system leaders' perceptions of their county's organizational climate influence their decision of whether or not to consider adopting MTFC. Methods Two levels were examined in this study: Stable and historical factors from 40 California counties gathered from public records including population size, number of entries into out-of-home care, financing of mental health services, and percent minority population; and system leaders' perceptions of their county's organizational climate and readiness for change measured via a web-based survey. The number of days-to-consent was the primary outcome variable defined as the duration of time between being notified of the opportunity to implement MTFC and the actual signing of a consent form indicating interest in considering implementation. Survival analysis methods were used to assess the predictors of this time-to-event measure. The present study is part of a larger randomized trial comparing two methods of implementation where counties are randomized to one of three time cohorts and two implementation conditions. Results The number of entries into care was the primary predictor of days-to-consent. This variable was significantly correlated to county size. System leader's perceptions of positive climate and organizational readiness for change also contributed to but did not mediate or moderate the days-to-consent. Conclusions System leaders' decision to consider implementing a new evidence-based model was influenced most by their objective need for the program and next by their perception of the county's organizational climate and motivation to change. These findings highlight the importance of understanding the fit between the needs of the systems or agencies and the potential for addressing those needs with the proposed new program. PMID:20925947

  9. Module: Evidence Based Practice Module Specification

    E-print Network

    Weyde, Tillman

    Module: Evidence Based Practice Module Specification KEY FACTS Module Code: RCM005 Department: Evidence Based Practice Summary Description Evidence based practice is an approach to clinical problem solving and health care provision based on "good evidence". The purpose of evidence based practice

  10. Sicily statement on evidence-based practice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Dawes; William Summerskill; Paul Glasziou; Antonino Cartabellotta; Janet Martin; Kevork Hopayian; Franz Porzsolt; Amanda Burls; James Osborne

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A variety of definitions of evidence-based practice (EBP) exist. However, definitions are in themselves insufficient to explain the underlying processes of EBP and to differentiate between an evidence-based process and evidence-based outcome. There is a need for a clear statement of what Evidence-Based Practice (EBP) means, a description of the skills required to practise in an evidence-based manner and

  11. What Is Evidence-Based Behavior Analysis?

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Tristram

    2013-01-01

    Although applied behavior analysts often say they engage in evidence-based practice, they express differing views on what constitutes “evidence” and “practice.” This article describes a practice as a service offered by a provider to help solve a problem presented by a consumer. Solving most problems (e.g., increasing or decreasing a behavior and maintaining this change) requires multiple intervention procedures (i.e., a package). Single-subject studies are invaluable in investigating individual procedures, but researchers still need to integrate the procedures into a package. The package must be standardized enough for independent providers to replicate yet flexible enough to allow individualization; intervention manuals are the primary technology for achieving this balance. To test whether the package is effective in solving consumers' problems, researchers must evaluate outcomes of the package as a whole, usually in group studies such as randomized controlled trials. From this perspective, establishing an evidence-based practice involves more than analyzing the effects of discrete intervention procedures on behavior; it requires synthesizing information so as to offer thorough solutions to problems. Recognizing the need for synthesis offers behavior analysts many promising opportunities to build on their existing research to increase the quality and quantity of evidence-based practices. PMID:25729130

  12. Treatment of cutaneous warts: an evidence-based review.

    PubMed

    Dall'oglio, Federica; D'Amico, Valentina; Nasca, Maria R; Micali, Giuseppe

    2012-04-01

    Cutaneous warts are common skin lesions caused by human papillomavirus infection. Treatment is aimed at relieving the patient's physical and psychological discomfort and at preventing the spread of infection by autoinoculation. Among the available medical and destructive therapeutic options for cutaneous warts, none is uniformly effective or virucidal. Moreover, in most cases their safety and efficacy has not been assessed in double-blind, controlled clinical trials, so that the reproducibility of many of the listed treatments is difficult to evaluate and a possible placebo effect cannot be ruled out. The aim of this article is to describe the outcome of current therapies for each clinical wart type according to evidence-based medicine studies published in the literature. For each clinical form, the existing treatments are classified as first-, second-, and third-line therapy. First-line therapy includes medical treatments (salicylic acid, silver nitrate, glutaraldehyde) that are useful to treat a single wart or a few and/or small common warts of short duration (less than 1 year). If these treatments have failed or are contraindicated, cryotherapy may be considered as second-line therapy. For recurrent or difficult-to-treat lesions, third-line therapy includes a variety of alternative therapeutic options (topical, intralesional, systemic, and physical destruction) that are generally off-label (not US FDA approved), and whose use is limited by drawbacks or adverse effects. From pooled evidence-based medicine data, it is possible to conclude that significantly higher remission rates may be expected only with cryotherapy and salicylic acid used in combination. PMID:22292461

  13. Optimizing hospital infection control: the role of mathematical modeling.

    PubMed

    Doan, Tan N; Kong, David C M; Kirkpatrick, Carl M J; McBryde, Emma S

    2014-12-01

    Multidrug-resistant bacteria are major causes of nosocomial infections and are associated with considerable morbidity, mortality, and healthcare costs. Preventive strategies have therefore become increasingly important. Mathematical modeling has been widely used to understand the transmission dynamics of nosocomial infections and the quantitative effects of infection control measures. This review will explore the principles of mathematical modeling used in nosocomial infections and discuss the effectiveness of infection control measures investigated using mathematical modeling. PMID:25419775

  14. Requirements for infrastructure and essential activities of infection control and epidemiology in out-of-hospital settings: a Consensus Panel report.

    PubMed

    Friedman, C; Barnette, M; Buck, A S; Ham, R; Harris, J A; Hoffman, P; Johnson, D; Manian, F; Nicolle, L; Pearson, M L; Perl, T M; Solomon, S L

    1999-10-01

    In 1997 the Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology and the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America established a consensus panel to develop recommendations for optimal infrastructure and essential activities of infection control and epidemiology programs in out-of-hospital settings. The following report represents the Consensus Panel's best assessment of requirements for a healthy and effective out-of-hospital-based infection control and epidemiology program. The recommendations fall into 5 categories: managing critical data and information; developing and recommending policies and procedures; intervening directly to prevent infections; educating and training of health care workers, patients, and nonmedical caregivers; and resources. The Consensus Panel used an evidence-based approach and categorized recommendations according to modifications of the scheme developed by the Clinical Affairs Committee of the Infectious Diseases Society of America and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee. PMID:10511489

  15. Evidence-Based Practice and Organizational Development in Libraries

    E-print Network

    Russell, Keith

    2008-01-01

    to information, and to data-driven decision making, anticipated the current movement toward evidence-based practice (EBP) in libraries. He suggests that libraries embrace the premises, philosophy, values, and practices of organizational development (OD... control over an ever-growing body of intellectual content and bibliographic information. Lancaster is one Evidence-Based Practice and Organizational Development in Libraries Keith Russell LIBRARY TRENDS, Vol. 56, No. 4, Spring 2008 (“The Evaluation...

  16. Fuzzy modeling and control of HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Zarei, Hassan; Kamyad, Ali Vahidian; Heydari, Ali Akbar

    2012-01-01

    The present study proposes a fuzzy mathematical model of HIV infection consisting of a linear fuzzy differential equations (FDEs) system describing the ambiguous immune cells level and the viral load which are due to the intrinsic fuzziness of the immune system's strength in HIV-infected patients. The immune cells in question are considered CD4+ T-cells and cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTLs). The dynamic behavior of the immune cells level and the viral load within the three groups of patients with weak, moderate, and strong immune systems are analyzed and compared. Moreover, the approximate explicit solutions of the proposed model are derived using a fitting-based method. In particular, a fuzzy control function indicating the drug dosage is incorporated into the proposed model and a fuzzy optimal control problem (FOCP) minimizing both the viral load and the drug costs is constructed. An optimality condition is achieved as a fuzzy boundary value problem (FBVP). In addition, the optimal fuzzy control function is completely characterized and a numerical solution for the optimality system is computed. PMID:22536298

  17. Impact of an Infection Control Program in a Specialized Preschool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krilov, Leonard R.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Evaluated effects of infection control interventions--including infection control lectures and attention to environmental hygiene--on the number and types of infection illnesses occurring in a specialized preschool. Subjects were infants and preschoolers with Down Syndrome. Found that total illnesses decreased significantly, particularly for…

  18. Evaluation of Nosocomial Infection Control Programs in health services 1

    PubMed Central

    Menegueti, Mayra Gonçalves; Canini, Silvia Rita Marin da Silva; Bellissimo-Rodrigues, Fernando; Laus, Ana Maria

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: to evaluate the Nosocomial Infection Control Programs in hospital institutions regarding structure and process indicators. METHOD: this is a descriptive, exploratory and quantitative study conducted in 2013. The study population comprised 13 Nosocomial Infection Control Programs of health services in a Brazilian city of the state of São Paulo. Public domain instruments available in the Manual of Evaluation Indicators of Nosocomial Infection Control Practices were used. RESULTS: The indicators with the highest average compliance were "Evaluation of the Structure of the Nosocomial Infection Control Programs" (75%) and "Evaluation of the Epidemiological Surveillance System of Nosocomial Infection" (82%) and those with the lowest mean compliance scores were "Evaluation of Operational Guidelines" (58.97%) and "Evaluation of Activities of Control and Prevention of Nosocomial Infection" (60.29%). CONCLUSION: The use of indicators identified that, despite having produced knowledge about prevention and control of nosocomial infections, there is still a large gap between the practice and the recommendations. PMID:25806637

  19. Evidence-Based Practice in Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The evidence-based practice movement has become an important feature of health care systems and health care policy. Within this context, the APA 2005 Presidential Task Force on Evidence-Based Practice defines and discusses evidence-based practice in psychology (EBPP). In an integration of science and practice, the Task Force's report describes…

  20. Evidence-Based Practices for Designing Public

    E-print Network

    Minnesota, University of

    Evidence-Based Practices for Designing Public Engagement in Transportation Kathryn Quick Assistant Questions for Evidence-Based Design 1. What are the purposes of this public engagement effort? 2. Can we for Evidence-Based Design 1. What are the purposes of this public engagement effort? 2. Can we move beyond

  1. An Evidence-Based Systematic Review of

    E-print Network

    Connor, Ed

    (Kang et al., 2012). The main objective of this Evidence-Based Practice (EBP) project was to compare and the highest quality of care. Methods Utilizing the Johns Hopkins Nursing Evidence-Based Practice (EBP) modelAn Evidence-Based Systematic Review of Efficacious Interventions for the Management of Delirium

  2. 42 CFR 418.60 - Condition of participation: Infection control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...controlling infections and communicable diseases. (a) Standard: Prevention...transmission of infections and communicable diseases, including the use of standard...investigation of infectious and communicable diseases that— (1) Is an...

  3. Evidence-based Science Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahan, D.

    2012-12-01

    This presentation will describe a concrete strategy for bridging the gap between the *science* of science communication and the practice of it. In recent years, social scientists have made substantial progress in identifying the psychological influences that shape public receptivity to scientific information relating to climate change and other public policy issues. That work, however, has consisted nearly entirely of laboratory experiments and public opinion surveys; these methods identify general mechanisms of information processing but do not yield concrete prescriptions for communication in field settings. In order to integrate the findings of the science of science communication with the practice of it, field communication must now be made into a meaningful site of science communication research. "Evidence-based science communication" will involve collaborative work between social scientists and practitioners aimed at formulating and testing scientifically informed communication strategies in real-world contexts.

  4. Improving preventive service delivery at adult complete health check-ups: the Preventive health Evidence-based Recommendation Form (PERFORM) cluster randomized controlled trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vinita Dubey; Roy Mathew; Karl Iglar; Rahim Moineddin; Richard Glazier

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To determine the effectiveness of a single checklist reminder form to improve the delivery of preventive health services at adult health check-ups in a family practice setting. METHODS: A prospective cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted at four urban family practice clinics among 38 primary care physicians affiliated with the University of Toronto. Preventive Care Checklist Forms© were created

  5. Hospital Epidemiology and Infection Control in Acute-Care Settings

    PubMed Central

    Sydnor, Emily R. M.; Perl, Trish M.

    2011-01-01

    Summary: Health care-associated infections (HAIs) have become more common as medical care has grown more complex and patients have become more complicated. HAIs are associated with significant morbidity, mortality, and cost. Growing rates of HAIs alongside evidence suggesting that active surveillance and infection control practices can prevent HAIs led to the development of hospital epidemiology and infection control programs. The role for infection control programs has grown and continues to grow as rates of antimicrobial resistance rise and HAIs lead to increasing risks to patients and expanding health care costs. In this review, we summarize the history of the development of hospital epidemiology and infection control, common HAIs and the pathogens causing them, and the structure and role of a hospital epidemiology and infection control program. PMID:21233510

  6. Evidence-Based Integrative Dermatology

    PubMed Central

    Narahari, Saravu R; Prasanna, Kodimoole S; Sushma, Kandathu V

    2013-01-01

    American recognition for medical pluralism arrived in 1991. The National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine was established under the National Institutes of Health in 1998. Following this, patients and researchers began exploring use of integrative medicine. Terence Ryan with Gerry Bodeker in Europe, Brian Berman in America, and the Indian council of Medical Research advocated traditional medicine and integrative medicine. The Institute of Applied Dermatology (IAD), Kerala has developed integrated allopathic (biomedical) and ayurvedic therapies to treat Lymphatic Filariasis, Lichen planus, and Vitiligo. Studies conducted at the IAD have created a framework for evidence-based and integrative dermatology (ID). This paper gives an overview of advances in ID with an example of Lichen Planus, which was examined jointly by dermatologists and Ayurveda doctors. The clinical presentation in these patients was listed in a vikruthi table of comparable biomedical terms. A vikruthi table was used for drug selection in ayurvedic dermatology. A total of 19 patients were treated with ayurvedic prescriptions to normalize the vatha-kapha for 3 months. All patients responded and no side effects were recorded. In spite of advancing knowledge on ID, several challenges remain for its use on difficult to treat chronic skin diseases. The formation of new integrative groups and financial support are essential for the growth of ID in India. PMID:23716802

  7. Effectiveness of a multifaceted implementation strategy on physicians’ referral behavior to an evidence-based psychosocial intervention in dementia: a cluster randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To evaluate the effectiveness of a multifaceted implementation strategy on physicians’ referral rate to and knowledge on the community occupational therapy in dementia program (COTiD program). Methods A cluster randomized controlled trial with 28 experimental and 17 control clusters was conducted. Cluster included a minimum of one physician, one manager, and two occupational therapists. In the control group physicians and managers received no interventions and occupational therapists received a postgraduate course. In the experimental group physicians and managers had access to a website, received newsletters, and were approached by telephone. In addition, physicians were offered one outreach visit. In the experimental group occupational therapists received the postgraduate course, training days, outreach visits, regional meetings, and access to a reporting system. Main outcome measure was the number of COTiD referrals received by each cluster which was assessed at 6 and 12 months after the start of the intervention. Referrals were included from both participating physicians (enrolled in the study and received either the control or experimental intervention) and non-participating physicians (not enrolled but of whom referrals were received by participating occupational therapists). Mixed model analyses were used to analyze the data. All analyses were based on the principle of intention-to-treat. Results At 12 months experimental clusters received significantly more referrals with an average of 5,24 referrals (SD 5,75) to the COTiD program compared to 2,07 referrals in the control group (SD 5,14). The effect size at 12 months was 0.58. Although no difference in referral rate was found for the physicians participating in the study, the number of referrals from non-participating physicians (t ?2,55 / 43 / 0,02) differed significantly at 12 months. Conclusion Passive dissemination strategies are less likely to result in changes in professional behavior. The amount of physicians exposed to active strategies was limited. In spite of this we found a significant difference in the number of referrals which was accounted for by more referrals of non-participating physicians in the experimental clusters. We hypothesize that the increase in referrals was caused by an increase in occupational therapists’ efforts to promote their services within their network. Trial registration NCT01117285 PMID:23718565

  8. IMMUNE CONTROL OF BABESIA BOVIS INFECTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Babesia bovis causes an acute and often fatal infection in adult cattle, which if resolved, leads to a state of persistent infection in otherwise clinically healthy cattle. Persistently infected cattle are generally resistant to reinfection with related parasite strains, and this resistance in the f...

  9. Nosocomial RSV infection control and outbreak management.

    PubMed

    Bont, Louis

    2009-06-01

    The incidence of nosocomial respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection in different areas of the world is not well known. However, it is clear that RSV infection of hospitalized infants with congenital heart disease or following preterm birth is highly relevant. Nosocomial RSV infection in these high-risk group infants often follows a severe course of disease, even resulting in mortality. Transmission of RSV mainly occurs through direct contact, but not through inhalation. Consequently, prevention of nosocomial RSV infection should aim to prevent direct contact between non-infected infants and RSV-infected people. Evidence of the role of gowns, masks and gloves is discussed. The effect and safety of cohorting RSV-infected infants is reviewed. International guidelines with respect to RSV prevention and outbreak management are analysed. PMID:19651394

  10. Treating PTSD in patients with psychosis: a within-group controlled feasibility study examining the efficacy and safety of evidence-based PE and EMDR protocols.

    PubMed

    de Bont, Paul A J M; van Minnen, Agnes; de Jongh, Ad

    2013-12-01

    The present study uses a within-group controlled design to examine the efficacy and safety of two psychological approaches to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in 10 patients with a concurrent psychotic disorder. Patients were randomly assigned either to prolonged exposure (PE; N=5) or eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR; N=5). Before, during, and after treatment, a total of 20 weekly assessments of PTSD symptoms, hallucinations, and delusions were carried out. Twelve weekly assessments of adverse events took place during the treatment phase. PTSD diagnosis, level of social functioning, psychosis-prone thinking, and general psychopathology were assessed pretreatment, posttreatment, and at three-month follow-up. Throughout the treatment, adverse events were monitored at each session. An intention-to-treat analysis of the 10 patients starting treatment showed that the PTSD treatment protocols of PE and EMDR significantly reduced PTSD symptom severity; PE and EMDR were equally effective and safe. Eight of the 10 patients completed the full intervention period. Seven of the 10 patients (70%) no longer met the diagnostic criteria for PTSD at follow-up. No serious adverse events occurred, nor did patients show any worsening of hallucinations, delusions, psychosis proneness, general psychopathology, or social functioning. The results of this feasibility trial suggest that PTSD patients with comorbid psychotic disorders benefit from trauma-focused treatment approaches such as PE and EMDR. PMID:24094795

  11. 42 CFR 485.725 - Condition of participation: Infection control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Public Health Agencies as Providers of Outpatient Physical Therapy and Speech-Language Pathology Services § 485...control. The organization that provides outpatient physical therapy services establishes an infection-control...

  12. Infection Control: The Use and Handling of Toothbrushes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Control in Dental Settings FAQs for Infection Control File Formats Help: How do I view different file formats (PDF, DOC, PPT, MPEG) on this site? Adobe PDF file Microsoft PowerPoint file Microsoft Word file Microsoft Excel ...

  13. Systematic review of adherence to infection control guidelines in dentistry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. L Gordon; F. J. T Burke; J Bagg; H. S Marlborough; E. S McHugh

    2001-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the knowledge and attitudes of dental health care workers (DHCWs) towards infection control procedures, to examine DHCWs’ practising behaviour in respect of infection control, and to determine whether a relationship exists between knowledge, attitudes and behaviour.Methods:Within this systematic review, study quality was assessed in line with selection criteria relating to study

  14. 78 FR 6328 - Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee: Notice of Charter Renewal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-30

    ...Disease Control and Prevention Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee...October 6, 1972, that the Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee...Executive Secretary, Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory...

  15. 76 FR 9577 - Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee: Notice of Charter Renewal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-18

    ...Disease Control and Prevention Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee...October 6, 1972, that the Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee...Executive Secretary, Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory...

  16. Maintaining infection control during restorative procedures.

    PubMed

    Christensen, R P

    1993-07-01

    This report has listed criteria, example products, and pertinent information to aid clinicians in performing infection control procedures using products and techniques with verified efficacy. The goal is to provide optimal protection of clinicians and patients from cross-contamination in the dental environment. Subjects reviewed were face masks, eye protection, gloves, hand antiseptics, uniforms, vaccines, instrument cleaning, sterilization, environmental surface management, and contaminated waste management. The criteria proposed and the products listed were not intended to be all-inclusive or absolute. The omission of a product from this article or from the examples of products that did meet the criteria listed is not intended to disparage the product. No endorsement or approval of any product is made or intended by the author, editors, or publisher. The intent is to provide some direction at this time. Many new products and concepts now in development will bring changes in the future. The products referenced have been evaluated by independent researchers and clinicians in laboratory and clinical-use tests, and data are available upon request to support all recommendations. PMID:8348988

  17. Evidence-Based Clearinghouses in Social Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soydan, Haluk; Mullen, Edward J.; Alexandra, Laine; Rehnman, Jenny; Li, You-Ping

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this article is to describe several evidence-based clearinghouses focused on social work and related intervention outcomes, placing them in the context of how such clearinghouses can contribute to research dissemination to foster effective, evidence-based practice. Method: The study employed an analysis of data provided…

  18. The need for evidence-based conservation

    E-print Network

    Kark, Salit

    to which medical practice was based on research evidence of effectiveness and led to the conclusionThe need for evidence-based conservation William J. Sutherland1 , Andrew S. Pullin2 , Paul M Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK. NR4 7TJ 2 Centre for Evidence-Based Conservation, School

  19. Implementing Evidence-Based Social Work Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullen, Edward J.; Bledsoe, Sarah E.; Bellamy, Jennifer L.

    2008-01-01

    Recently, social work has been influenced by new forms of practice that hold promise for bringing practice and research together to strengthen the scientific knowledge base supporting social work intervention. The most recent new practice framework is evidence-based practice. However, although evidence-based practice has many qualities that might…

  20. Translating Research and Building the Evidence Base

    E-print Network

    Keinan, Alon

    promoting evidence-based, rigorously-tested programs and practices throughout all program areas, including Discovery Practice-based Evidence DIFFUSION #12;What's New About Translational Research? Hasn't CCE beenTranslating Research and Building the Evidence Base John Eckenrode Professor of Human Development

  1. Evidence-Based Practices in Secondary Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Test, David W.; Fowler, Catherine H.; Richter, Sharon M.; White, James; Mazzotti, Valerie; Walker, Allison R.; Kohler, Paula; Kortering, Larry

    2009-01-01

    A literature review was conducted to identify evidence-based practices in secondary transition using quality indicator checklists for experimental research. Practices were categorized by the Taxonomy for Transition Programming. Overall, 32 secondary transition evidence-based practices were identified. Two practices had a strong level of evidence,…

  2. Making Evidence-based Practice Educational.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, John

    2001-01-01

    Examines David Hargreaves' ideas about the nature of evidence-based practice and the future direction for educational research. States that one major theme is that current discourse about evidence-based teaching is uninformed by an articulate educational theory, therefore excluding thoughtful consideration of implications of such a theory for…

  3. Evidence-Based Practice and School Nursing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Susan; McCarthy, Ann Marie

    2005-01-01

    School nurses need to demonstrate that their practice is based on the best evidence available, which is usually data obtained from research. Evidence-based practice involves combining the best evidence available with nursing expertise and patient and family preferences to determine optimum care. Evidence-based practice guidelines are developed by…

  4. Evidence Based Practice for Library Instruction

    E-print Network

    Oakleaf, Megan

    practitioners make more informed decisions about the quality of the research that they may be considering.meganoakleaf.info moakleaf@syr.edu #12;© M. Oakleaf 2011 Definition "Evidence-Based Librarianship (EBL) is an approach Literacy · Evidence Based Library & Information Practice · Journal of Education for Library & Information

  5. Strategies for searching and managing evidence-based practice resources.

    PubMed

    Robb, Meigan; Shellenbarger, Teresa

    2014-10-01

    Evidence-based nursing practice requires the use of effective search strategies to locate relevant resources to guide practice change. Continuing education and staff development professionals can assist nurses to conduct effective literature searches. This article provides suggestions for strategies to aid in identifying search terms. Strategies also are recommended for refining searches by using controlled vocabulary, truncation, Boolean operators, PICOT (Population/Patient Problem, Intervention, Comparison, Outcome, Time) searching, and search limits. Suggestions for methods of managing resources also are identified. Using these approaches will assist in more effective literature searches and may help evidence-based practice decisions. PMID:25221988

  6. Varicocele treatment in the light of evidence-based andrology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Kamischke; E. Nieschlag

    2001-01-01

    Treatment of varicoceles became the most common treatment for male infertility merely on an empirical basis. However, in the age of evidence-based medicine it is surprising that only a few, and mainly recent, randomized controlled clinical trials with relevant outcome parameters have been published to allow adequate judgement of treatment effectiveness. Moreover, difficulties in study design could also be detected

  7. Unapparent foot and mouth disease infection (sub-clinical infections and carriers): implications for control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Sutmoller; R. Casas Olascoaga

    Summary Unlike animals which are carriers of foot and mouth disease (FMD), sub-clinically infected animals may be highly contagious. The implications of sub-clinical infections for the control of FMD are serious because such animals are likely to disseminate the disease when in contact with susceptible livestock. Recent dissemination of FMD virus (FMDV) in Europe shows that sub-clinically infected animals render

  8. Human natural killer cells control Plasmodium falciparum infection by eliminating infected

    E-print Network

    Dao, Ming

    Human natural killer cells control Plasmodium falciparum infection by eliminating infected red, Singapore 138602; b Humanized Mouse Unit, Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, Agency for Science for review October 25, 2013) Immunodeficient mouse­human chimeras provide a powerful approach to study host

  9. 42 CFR 416.51 - Conditions for coverage-Infection control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false Conditions for coverage-Infection control. 416.51 Section 416.51... § 416.51 Conditions for coverage—Infection control. The ASC must maintain an infection control program that seeks to...

  10. ICMR programme on Antibiotic Stewardship, Prevention of Infection & Control (ASPIC)

    PubMed Central

    Chandy, Sujith J.; Michael, Joy Sarojini; Veeraraghavan, Balaji; Abraham, O.C.; Bachhav, Sagar S.; Kshirsagar, Nilima A.

    2014-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance and hospital infections have increased alarmingly in India. Antibiotic stewardship and hospital infection control are two broad strategies which have been employed globally to contain the problems of resistance and infections. For this to succeed, it is important to bring on board the various stakeholders in hospitals, especially the clinical pharmacologists. The discipline of clinical pharmacology needs to be involved in themes such as antimicrobial resistance and hospital infection which truly impact patient care. Clinical pharmacologists need to collaborate with faculty in other disciplines such as microbiology to achieve good outcomes for optimal patient care in the hospital setting. The ASPIC programme was initiated by the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) in response to the above need and was designed to bring together faculty from clinical pharmacology, microbiology and other disciplines to collaborate on initiating and improving antibiotic stewardship and concurrently curbing hospital infections through feasible infection control practices. This programme involves the participation of 20 centres per year throughout the country which come together for a training workshop. Topics pertaining to the above areas are discussed in addition to planning a project which helps to improve antibiotic stewardship and infection control practices in the various centres. It is hoped that this programme would empower hospitals and institutions throughout the country to improve antibiotic stewardship and infection control and ultimately contain antimicrobial resistance. PMID:24718396

  11. Practicing Evidence-Based Practices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ruth Blennerhassett Eren; Pamela Owen Brucker

    \\u000a Public education in the United States has a history of local control in the development of curriculum and instruction. Although\\u000a notable court decisions have led to more universal applications of educational policy and practices (Brown v. Board of Education\\u000a 1954, Oberti v. Clementon 1993), it has been federal law that has resulted in significant changes in instruction. The Individuals\\u000a with

  12. [Critical role of clinical laboratories in hospital infection control].

    PubMed

    Yagi, Tetsuya

    2010-11-01

    The hospital infection control and prevention is recognized to be more and more important according to the advances in modern medical treatment and care. Clinical microbiology laboratory play critical roles in the hospital infection control as a member of infection control team (ICT). They are the first in a hospital to identify outbreak of MRSA in NICU and molecular epidemiological analysis of the isolates lead proper intervention of ICT to the concerned ward. From a viewpoint of infectious disease specialist, rapid and precise microbiological information is essential for the appropriate diagnosis and treatment of infectious diseases. Each medical technologist need to make efforts to understand the characteristics of the examinations for infectious diseases and send out information useful for clinical practices. In our hospital, with the participation of all members of medical technologists, rapid reporting system was developed for blood culture examinations, which greatly contribute to the appropriate treatment of bloodstream infections. Collaborations of clinical microbiology laboratory with other members of ICT realize high quality hospital infection control. They also need to be aware of themselves as good practitioners of infection control measures to prevent hospital infections. PMID:21229708

  13. Harmonizing and supporting infection control training in Europe.

    PubMed

    Brusaferro, S; Arnoldo, L; Cattani, G; Fabbro, E; Cookson, B; Gallagher, R; Hartemann, P; Holt, J; Kalenic, S; Popp, W; Privitera, G; Prikazsky, V; Velasco, C; Suetens, C; Varela Santos, C

    2015-04-01

    Healthcare-associated infection (HCAI), patient safety, and the harmonization of related policies and programmes are the focus of increasing attention and activity in Europe. Infection control training for healthcare workers (HCWs) is a cornerstone of all patient safety and HCAI prevention and control programmes. In 2009 the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) commissioned an assessment of needs for training in infection control in Europe (TRICE), which showed a substantial increase in commitment to HCAI prevention. On the other hand, it also identified obstacles to the harmonization and promotion of training in infection control and hospital hygiene (IC/HH), mostly due to differences between countries in: (i) the required qualifications of HCWs, particularly nurses; (ii) the available resources; and (iii) the sustainability of IC/HH programmes. In 2013, ECDC published core competencies for infection control and hospital hygiene professionals in the European Union and a new project was launched ['Implementation of a training strategy for infection control in the European Union' (TRICE-IS)] that aimed to: define an agreed methodology and standards for the evaluation of IC/HH courses and training programmes; develop a flexible IC/HH taxonomy; and implement an easily accessible web tool in 'Wiki' format for IC/HH professionals. This paper reviews several aspects of the TRICE and the TRICE-IS projects. PMID:25777079

  14. 42 CFR 485.725 - Condition of participation: Infection control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...Clinics, Rehabilitation Agencies, and Public Health Agencies as Providers of Outpatient Physical Therapy and Speech-Language Pathology Services § 485.725 Condition of participation: Infection control. The organization that provides...

  15. 42 CFR 485.725 - Condition of participation: Infection control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...Participation for Clinics, Rehabilitation Agencies, and Public Health Agencies as Providers of Outpatient Physical Therapy and Speech-Language Pathology Services § 485.725 Condition of participation: Infection control. The organization...

  16. 42 CFR 485.725 - Condition of participation: Infection control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...Participation for Clinics, Rehabilitation Agencies, and Public Health Agencies as Providers of Outpatient Physical Therapy and Speech-Language Pathology Services § 485.725 Condition of participation: Infection control. The organization...

  17. 42 CFR 485.725 - Condition of participation: Infection control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...Participation for Clinics, Rehabilitation Agencies, and Public Health Agencies as Providers of Outpatient Physical Therapy and Speech-Language Pathology Services § 485.725 Condition of participation: Infection control. The organization...

  18. 77 FR 28392 - Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee (HICPAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-14

    ...surveillance, prevention, and control...periodic updating of guidelines and other policy...statements regarding prevention of healthcare-associated...guideline for prevention of infections...post-exposure prophylaxis; draft...

  19. Evidence Based Library & Information Practice by

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rick Wallace; Nakia Carter

    Program Abstract: Evidence Based Library & Information Practice (EBLIP) is a way of using the best rese arch to solve practical problems in the library. This session will cover the fundamentals of EBLIP, along with possible applications. \\

  20. [Infection control and hygiene management in equine hospitals].

    PubMed

    Walther, Birgit; Janssen, Traute; Gehlen, Heidrun; Vincze, Szilvia; Borchers, Kerstin; Wieler, Lothar H; Barton, Ann Kristin; Lübke-Becker, Antina

    2014-01-01

    With the rising importance of nosocomial infections in equine hospitals, increased efforts with regard to biosecurity and infection control are necessary. This even more since nosocomial infections are often associated with multi-drug resistant pathogens. Consequently, the implementation of targeted prevention programs is essential. Since nosocomial infections are usually multifactorial events, realization of only a single measure is rarely effective to overcome nosocomial spread in clinical practice. Equine patients may be colonized at admission with multi-drug resistant pathogens such as methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and/or extended spectrum beta lactamase-producing (ESBL-) Enterobacteriaceae. Regardless of their individual resistance properties, these bacteria are common and usually unnoticed colonizers of either the nasopharynx or the intestinal tract. Also viral diseases caused by equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1) and EHV-4 may reach a clinic by patients which are latently infected or in the incubation period. To prevent nosocomal outbreaks, achieve an interruption in the infection chain and to eradicate infectious agents from the hospital environment, a professional hospital management is necessary. This should be adapted to both the wide range of pathogens causing nosocomial infections and the individual needs of equine patients. Amongst others, this approach includes a risk classification of equine patients at admission and information/enlightenment of the animal owners at discharge. An efficient management of inpatients, a targeted hygiene management and clear responsibilities with respect to biosecurity together with a surveillance of nosocomial infections form the cornerstone of infection control in equine hospitals. PMID:25872258

  1. The Art of Evidence-Based Practice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David E. Pollio

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss evidence-based practice (EBP) from the perspective of a self-identified evidence-based practitioner. Discussion of EBP includes choosing an initial intervention and evaluation procedures, the iterative process of rechoosing and refining an intervention over the treatment life span, and the importance of evi- dence within the specific clinical situation. Two illustrative case studies are

  2. Evidence-Based Practice: Management of Vertigo

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen-Huynh, Anh T.

    2012-01-01

    Synopsis The article focuses on the evidence basis for the management of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV), the most common diagnosis of vertigo in both primary care and subspecialty settings. Like all articles in this compilation of evidence-based practice, an overview is presented along with evidence based clinical assessment, diagnosis, and management. Summaries of differential diagnosis of vertigo and outcomes are presented. PMID:22980676

  3. A Third-Generation Evidence Base for Human Spaceflight Risks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kundrot, Craig E.; Lumpkins, Sarah; Steil, Jennifer; Pellis, Neal; Charles, John

    2014-01-01

    NASA's Human Research Program seeks to understand and mitigate risks to crew health and performance in exploration missions center dot HRP's evidence base consists of an Evidence Report for each HRP risk center dot Three generations of Evidence Reports 1) Review articles + Good content - Limited authorship, infrequent updates 2) Wikipedia articles + Viewed often, very open to contributions - Summary of reviews, very few contributions 3) HRP-controlled wiki articles + Incremental additions to review articles with editorial control

  4. Job analysis 1996: Infection control professional. Certification Board in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc, 1996 Job Analysis Committee.

    PubMed

    Turner, J G; Kolenc, K M; Docken, L

    1999-04-01

    The Certification Board in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc, directed its Test and Administrative Subcommittees to compose a Job Analysis Committee in 1995. This 16-member Job Analysis Committee, in collaboration with Applied Measurement Professionals, Inc, conducted a job analysis survey of infection control professionals in the United States and Canada during 1996. The reassessment of the previous Certification Board in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc, task analysis, formation of a job-analysis survey tool, the actual job-analysis process, and its results are described in this article. The previous and newly revised test specification outlines are compared. The Revised Certification Examination for Infection Control offered beginning in 1997 will reflect the efforts of this endeavor. PMID:10196491

  5. [Infection prevention and control in neonatal intensive care unit].

    PubMed

    Lorenzini, Elisiane; Lorenzini, Elisiane; da Costa, Tatiane Costa; da Silva, Eveline Franco

    2013-12-01

    This study was aimed to identify the knowledge of the nursing team of a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) on infection control, identijfying the factors that facilitate or hinder the prevention and control of Healthcare Associated Infections (HICAI). A descriptive study using a qualitative research method conducted with three nurses and 15 nurse technicians, who work in a NICU of a charitable organization, in southern Brazil. It became evident that the nursing staff had great knowledge about the factors that facilitate the prevention and control of HCAI in NICU, the most important factor being proper hand hygiene. Among the factors that hinder infection prevention and control are to overcrowding and excessive workload. The efficient performance of the nursing staff is an important part of the strategy for prevention and control of HCAI. PMID:25080707

  6. Evidence-based medicine applied to cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Kitchener, Henry

    2002-11-01

    All too frequently current healthcare is characterised by non evidence based practice, variation in practice, inadequate outcome data, inequality of access to optimal treatment and ultimately a lack of evidence base. By developing a culture of evidence based medicine some of these shortcomings could be addressed. In trying to develop a true assessment of evidence, we have to confront a huge literature, much of which does not inform clinical effectiveness which is a key underpinning of an evidence base. It is necessary to adopt methodologically sound protocols as well as a systematic approach to weighing the evidence. In general informative studies should specify the population studied, the intervention, with what it is being compared, and relevant clinical outcomes. It is clear that randomised controlled trials (RCTs) will carry most weight in terms of reducing outcome bias. The Cochrane Collaboration is an international collaboration dedicated to the science of systematic reviews and meta analysis. It functions through a process of peer review of Title of Review, Proposed Protocol, Completed Review with eventual publication in the electronic Cochrane Library. There is an active Cochrane Collaborative Review Group in Gynaecological Cancer. As far as evidence for the effective management of cervical cancer is concerned, the strongest evidence would relate to the effectiveness of concurrent chemoradiation for treating locally advanced disease compared with radiation alone. PMID:12445657

  7. Lessons to be Learned from Evidence-based Medicine: Practice and Promise of Evidence-based Medicine and Evidence-based Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Fredric M.

    2000-01-01

    Presents statistics of deaths caused by medical errors and argues the effects of misconceptions in diagnosis and treatment. Suggests evidence-based medicine to enhance the quality of practice and minimize error rates. Presents 10 evidence-based lessons and discusses the possible benefits of evidence-based medicine to evidence-based education and…

  8. Evidence-Based Assessment in Case Management to Improve Abnormal Cancer Screen Follow-Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vourlekis, Betsy; Ell, Kathleen; Padgett, Deborah

    2005-01-01

    The authors describe an evidence-based assessment protocol for intensive case management to improve screening diagnostic follow-up developed through a research project in breast and cervical cancer early detection funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Three components of an evidence-based approach to assessment are presented…

  9. Evidence-based policymaking: a critique.

    PubMed

    Greenhalgh, Trisha; Russell, Jill

    2009-01-01

    The idea that policy should be based on best research evidence might appear to be self-evident. But a closer analysis reveals a number of problems and paradoxes inherent in the concept of "evidence-based policymaking." The current conflict over evidence-based policymaking parallels a long-standing "paradigm war" in social research between positivist, interpretivist, and critical approaches. This article draws from this debate in order to inform the discussions over the appropriateness of evidence- based policymaking and the related question of what is the nature of policymaking. The positivist, empiricist worldview that underpins the theory and practice of evidence-based medicine (EBM) fails to address key elements of the policymaking process. In particular, a narrowly "evidence-based" framing of policymaking is inherently unable to explore the complex, context-dependent, and value-laden way in which competing options are negotiated by individuals and interest groups. Sociolinguistic tools such as argumentation theory offer opportunities for developing richer theories about how policymaking happens. Such tools also have potential practical application in the policymaking process: by enhancing participants' awareness of their own values and those of others, the quality of the collective deliberation that lies at the heart of policymaking may itself improve. PMID:19395827

  10. Viewpoint: Moving beyond evidence-based medicine.

    PubMed

    Henry, Stephen G; Zaner, Richard M; Dittus, Robert S

    2007-03-01

    The evidence-based medicine movement has remained both well known and controversial since its inception. The authors reframe the evidence-based medicine debate by pointing out an underappreciated epistemological deficiency: evidence-based medicine as currently conceptualized cannot accommodate concepts that resist quantitative analysis and therefore cannot logically differentiate human beings from complex machines. The authors use Michael Polanyi's philosophy of tacit knowing (which refers to the taken-for-granted knowledge at the periphery of attention that allows persons to understand the world and discern meaning in it) as a starting point for rectifying this deficiency and for working towards an improved, person-centered epistemology of medical practice. The authors demonstrate that not only evidence-based medicine but also most traditional theories of medical practice need a concept such as tacit knowing to account for the kinds of knowledge human beings actually use. Polanyi's philosophy of tacit knowing is defined and briefly explained. A medical epistemology that can account for the tacit dimension of human knowledge and recognize physicians and patients as persons requires a revised conception of medical uncertainty and a recognition that clinician-patient interactions are central to medicine. The authors discuss practical implications of tacit knowing for medical practice, education, research, and health care policy and suggest ways for moving beyond evidence-based medicine towards a comprehensive epistemology of medical practice. PMID:17327722

  11. Trichophyton tonsurans infection in Japan: Epidemiology, clinical features, diagnosis and infection control.

    PubMed

    Hiruma, Junichiro; Ogawa, Yumi; Hiruma, Masataro

    2015-03-01

    In this review, we summarize the status of Trichophyton tonsurans infection in Japan in terms of epidemiology, clinical features, diagnosis and infection control. Since approximately 2000, outbreaks of T. tonsurans infections among combat sports club members have been reported frequently, with the infection then spreading to their friends and family members. The most common clinical features of T. tonsurans infection are tinea corporis, which is difficult to differentiate from eczema, and tinea capitis. Tinea capitis is classified as the seborrheic form, kerion celsi form or "black dot" form, although 90% or more of patients are asymptomatic carriers. The diagnosis of symptomatic T. tonsurans infection is established by potassium hydroxide examination and fungal culture. However, because there are many asymptomatic carriers of T. tonsurans infection, tests using the hairbrush culture method are necessary. An increase in asymptomatic carriers of T. tonsurans makes assessment of the current prevalence of the infection challenging and underscores the importance of educational efforts and public awareness campaigns to prevent T. tonsurans epidemics. PMID:25736317

  12. Computer-Assisted Instruction in AIDS Infection Control for Physicians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett, T. J.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    A microcomputer program to provide health care workers with instruction in Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) infection control was assessed by medical residents. The experimental group (n=24) acquired more knowledge than controls (n=33). Response to the method was positive, and computer-assisted instruction is seen as useful for AIDS…

  13. Understanding Evidence-Based Public Health Policy

    PubMed Central

    Chriqui, Jamie F.; Stamatakis, Katherine A.

    2009-01-01

    Public health policy has a profound impact on health status. Missing from the literature is a clear articulation of the definition of evidence-based policy and approaches to move the field forward. Policy-relevant evidence includes both quantitative (e.g., epidemiological) and qualitative information (e.g., narrative accounts). We describe 3 key domains of evidence-based policy: (1) process, to understand approaches to enhance the likelihood of policy adoption; (2) content, to identify specific policy elements that are likely to be effective; and (3) outcomes, to document the potential impact of policy. Actions to further evidence-based policy include preparing and communicating data more effectively, using existing analytic tools more effectively, conducting policy surveillance, and tracking outcomes with different types of evidence. PMID:19608941

  14. Build your own infection control link nurse:an innovative study day

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. L. Teare; A. J. Peacock; H. Dakin; L. Bates; J. Grant-Casey

    2001-01-01

    Infection control is everyone's business and it is important that all members of staff observe good infection control practice. An effective infection control link nurse system has been shown to support and develop this approach. The strength of ward-based infection control link nurses depends upon their effectiveness as role models and their ability to influence practice on their wards and

  15. Evidence-Based Psychological Treatments for Insomnia in Older Adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan M. McCurry; Rebecca G. Logsdon; Linda Teri; Michael V. Vitiello

    2007-01-01

    The review describes evidence-based psychological treatments (EBTs) for insomnia in older adults. Following coding procedures developed by the American Psychological Association's Committee on Science and Practice of the Society for Clinical Psychology, two treatments were found to meet EBT criteria: sleep restriction–sleep compression therapy and multicomponent cognitive–behavioral therapy. One additional treatment (stimulus control therapy) partially met criteria, but further corroborating

  16. Promoting Evidence-Based Practice in Child Protection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Geraldine Macdonald

    1998-01-01

    This article argues for the adoption of an evidence-based approach to decision-making in child protection. Such a change hinges upon the availability of good quality, up-to-date evidence that is readily accessible to practitioners and policy-makers. Following a resume' of the arguments for recognizing controlled trials as methodologically superior to other forms of methodology in evaluating professional interventions, the article presents

  17. Evidence-based radiology: why and how?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francesco Sardanelli; Myriam G. Hunink; Fiona J. Gilbert; Giovanni Di Leo; Gabriel P. Krestin

    2010-01-01

    Purpose  To provide an overview of evidence-based medicine (EBM) in relation to radiology and to define a policy for adoption of this\\u000a principle in the European radiological community.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  Starting from Sackett’s definition of EBM we illustrate the top-down and bottom-up approaches to EBM as well as EBM’s limitations.\\u000a Delayed diffusion and peculiar features of evidence-based radiology (EBR) are defined with emphasis

  18. Implementing evidence-based recommended practices for the management of patients with mild traumatic brain injuries in Australian emergency care departments: study protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Mild head injuries commonly present to emergency departments. The challenges facing clinicians in emergency departments include identifying which patients have traumatic brain injury, and which patients can safely be sent home. Traumatic brain injuries may exist with subtle symptoms or signs, but can still lead to adverse outcomes. Despite the existence of several high quality clinical practice guidelines, internationally and in Australia, research shows inconsistent implementation of these recommendations. The aim of this trial is to test the effectiveness of a targeted, theory- and evidence-informed implementation intervention to increase the uptake of three key clinical recommendations regarding the emergency department management of adult patients (18 years of age or older) who present following mild head injuries (concussion), compared with passive dissemination of these recommendations. The primary objective is to establish whether the intervention is effective in increasing the percentage of patients for which appropriate post-traumatic amnesia screening is performed. Methods/design The design of this study is a cluster randomised trial. We aim to include 34 Australian 24-hour emergency departments, which will be randomised to an intervention or control group. Control group departments will receive a copy of the most recent Australian evidence-based clinical practice guideline on the acute management of patients with mild head injuries. The intervention group will receive an implementation intervention based on an analysis of influencing factors, which include local stakeholder meetings, identification of nursing and medical opinion leaders in each site, a train-the-trainer day and standardised education and interactive workshops delivered by the opinion leaders during a 3 month period of time. Clinical practice outcomes will be collected retrospectively from medical records by independent chart auditors over the 2 month period following intervention delivery (patient level outcomes). In consenting hospitals, eligible patients will be recruited for a follow-up telephone interview conducted by trained researchers. A cost-effectiveness analysis and process evaluation using mixed-methods will be conducted. Sample size calculations are based on including 30 patients on average per department. Outcome assessors will be blinded to group allocation. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12612001286831 (date registered 12 December 2012). PMID:25012235

  19. Evidence-Based Practice: Promoting Evidence-Based Interventions in School Psychology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas R. Kratochwill; Elisa Steele Shernoff

    2003-01-01

    We present an overview of issues related to evidence-based practice and the role that the school psychology profession can play in developing and disseminating evidence-based interventions (EBIs). Historical problems relating to and the recurring debate about the integration of research into practice are presented as a context for the current challenges faced by those engaged in the EBI movement in

  20. Examining hospital patients' knowledge and attitudes toward hospital-acquired infections and their participation in infection control.

    PubMed

    Seale, Holly; Novytska, Yuliya; Gallard, Julie; Kaur, Rajneesh

    2015-04-01

    It is crucial to assess patients' understanding of and readiness to participate in infection control programs. While 80% of hospital patients reported that they were willing to help hospital staff with infection prevention, many felt that they would not feel comfortable asking a healthcare worker to sanitize his or her hands. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2015;00(0): 1-3. PMID:25782901

  1. Bioengineered probiotics, a strategic approach to control enteric infections

    PubMed Central

    Amalaradjou, Mary Anne Roshni; Bhunia, Arun K

    2013-01-01

    Enteric infections account for high morbidity and mortality and are considered to be the fifth leading cause of death at all ages worldwide. Seventy percent of all enteric infections are foodborne. Thus significant efforts have been directed toward the detection, control and prevention of foodborne diseases. Many antimicrobials including antibiotics have been used for their control and prevention. However, probiotics offer a potential alternative intervention strategy owing to their general health beneficial properties and inhibitory effects against foodborne pathogens. Often, antimicrobial probiotic action is non-specific and non-discriminatory or may be ineffective. In such cases, bioengineered probiotics expressing foreign gene products to achieve specific function is highly desirable. In this review we summarize the strategic development of recombinant bioengineered probiotics to control enteric infections, and to examine how scientific advancements in the human microbiome and their immunomodulatory effects help develop such novel and safe bioengineered probiotics. PMID:23327986

  2. Putting it into practice: Infection Control Professionals' perspectives on early career nursing graduates' microbiology and infection control knowledge and practice.

    PubMed

    Cox, Jennifer L; Simpson, Maree Donna; Letts, Will; Cavanagh, Heather Ma

    2014-11-10

    Abstract Background: The microbiology component of Australian undergraduate nursing programs varies considerably. Any actual or potential impact of this variation on infection control practice, as a nursing graduate, is relatively unknown. Aims: The aim of this study was to explore Infection Control Professionals' perceptions of the importance of microbiology and infection control training in undergraduate nursing curricula and the perceived retention of that knowledge and its transferability to practice. Method: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight infection control professionals from a range of hospital settings in Australia. Findings: Four main themes emerged: theory versus practice, importance of role modelling, disjunction between university curricula and 'the real world', and learning in context. Conclusion: As the underpinning element of infection control practice, the role of microbiology education and training in nursing education will benefit from review. Further discussions about the nature and timing of theoretical microbiology content and assessment of undergraduate students' microbiology knowledge to ensure retention and appropriate application of that knowledge in practice are urgently needed. PMID:25382059

  3. Evidence-Based Practice Goes beyond Google

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klitzing, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    Evidence-based practice (EBP) is applying research to assist in the selection of interventions that result in increased client quality care. Recently the Commission on Accreditation of Allied Health Education Programs (2010), a new accreditation body for recreational therapy education, included standards that state students should obtain knowledge…

  4. Evidence-Based Practices and Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mesibov, Gary B.; Shea, Victoria

    2011-01-01

    Interventions for autism are increasing being held to standards such as "evidence-based practice" in psychology and "scientifically-based research" in education. When these concepts emerged in the context of adult psychotherapy and regular education, they caused considerable controversy. Application of the concepts to autism treatments and special…

  5. Finding Evidence-Based Practice Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Childs, Gary M.

    2009-01-01

    Locating sources that are rich in evidence-based practice information can be more difficult for physical as well as occupational therapists in practice settings in which there is not direct access to a health sciences library. In addition, once information has been found, there may not be an easy way to access the data. This commentary will…

  6. Evidence-Based Practices and Autism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary B. Mesibov; Victoria Shea

    2011-01-01

    Interventions for autism are increasing being held to standards such as ‘evidence-based practice’ in psychology and ‘scientifically-based research’ in education. When these concepts emerged in the context of adult psychotherapy and regular education, they caused considerable controversy. Application of the concepts to autism treatments and special education has raised additional concerns. An analysis of the benefits and limitations of current

  7. Evidence-Based Practice and Social Work

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Aaron McNeece; Bruce A. Thyer

    2004-01-01

    The essential features of contemporary evidence-based practice (EBP) are outlined, with specific reference to the applications of this model to various areas of social work, micro through macro. EBP is seen as a welcome addition to our field, representing a fuller and more comprehensive development of earlier and related positions such as empirical clinical practice within social work, and the

  8. Evidence Based Education Request Desk. EBE #555

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regional Educational Laboratory Southeast, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This Evidence Based Education (EBE) Request seeks to provide an overview of recent research regarding school improvement and reform with special concentration on turning around chronically low-performing schools. The response is divided into four main sections: Research on Effective Methods for Turning Around Low-Performing Schools, Frameworks for…

  9. Evidence-based policy Gordon Mackenzie

    E-print Network

    Evidence-based policy Gordon Mackenzie #12;How does research contribute to policy? · Traditionally, the link between research findings and policy processes has been viewed as a linear process · A set of research findings is shifted from the 'research sphere' over to the 'policy sphere', and then has some

  10. Finding an Evidence-Based Program

    Cancer.gov

    Know how to use your needs assessment and program goals and objectives to help you select your program. Be able to find evidence-based program resources. Know how to use search options to narrow your program choices and find out what programs will and will not work with your community.

  11. Evidence Based Education Request Desk. EBE #798

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regional Educational Laboratory Southeast, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Evidence Based Education (EBE) #555 was in response to the request "Is there any new compelling research for turning around low-performing schools?" The articles included in that document are on target, but include articles through 2009. This EBE Request seeks to provide an updated review of recent research (2009-present) regarding school…

  12. Latent tuberculosis infection in a Malaysian prison: implications for a comprehensive integrated control program in prisons

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Prisons continue to fuel tuberculosis (TB) epidemics particularly in settings where access to TB screening and prevention services is limited. Malaysia is a middle-income country with a relatively high incarceration rate of 138 per 100,000 population. Despite national TB incidence rate remaining unchanged over the past ten years, data about TB in prisons and its contribution to the overall national rates does not exist. This survey was conducted to address the prevalence of latent TB infection (LTBI) in Malaysia’s largest prison. Methods From July to December 2010, all HIV-infected and a comparative group of HIV-uninfected prisoners housed separately in Kajang prison were asked to participate in the survey after explaining the study protocol. Subjects providing informed consent were interviewed using a structured questionnaire followed by the placement of tuberculin skin test (TST) with 2 TU of PPD RT-23 to subjects not being treated for active TB. TST was read after 48-72 hours and indurations of ??5 mm and ??10 mm were considered positive among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected subjects, respectively. Additionally, HIV-infected inmates underwent phlebotomy for CD4 lymphocyte count assessment. A logistic regression model was explored to determine factors associated with TST positivity. Results Overall, 286 subjects (138 HIV-infected and 148 HIV-uninfected) had complete data and TST results. The majority were men (95.1%), less than 40 years old (median age 36.0, SD 7.87), and Malaysians (93.3%). Most (82.5%) had been previously incarcerated and more than half (53.1%) reported sharing needles just prior to their incarceration. TST was positive in 88.8% (84.7% among HIV-infected and 92.5% among HIV-uninfected subjects) and was independently associated with being HIV-uninfected (AOR?=?2.97, p?=?0.01) and with frequent previous incarcerations (AOR?=?1.22 for every one previous incarceration, p?=?0.01) after adjusting for other potential confounding factors. Conclusions The prevalence of LTBI was extraordinary high in this sample of Malaysian prisoners, regardless of their age or HIV status. This warrants further examination of the size of the problem of TB in other congregate settings and the establishment of an evidence-based TB control program in Malaysian prisons with integrated TB, HIV and substance abuse components. PMID:24405607

  13. Evidence that hepatitis C virus genome partly controls infection outcome.

    PubMed

    Hartfield, Matthew; Bull, Rowena; White, Peter A; Lloyd, Andrew; Luciani, Fabio; Alizon, Samuel

    2014-05-01

    Infection by hepatitis C virus (HCV) leads to one of two outcomes; either the infection resolves within approximately 6 months or the virus can persist indefinitely. Host genetics are known to affect the likelihood of clearance or persistence. By contrast, the importance of the virus genotype in determining infection outcome is unknown, as quantifying this effect traditionally requires well-characterized transmission networks, which are rare. Extending phylogenetic approaches previously developed to estimate the virus control over set-point viral load in HIV-1 infections, we simulate inheritance of a binary trait along a phylogenetic tree, use this data to quantify how infection outcomes cluster and ascertain the effect of virus genotype on these. We apply our method to the Hepatitis C Incidence and Transmission Study in prisons (HITS-p) data set from Australia, as this cohort prospectively identified incident cases including viraemic subjects who ultimately clear the virus, thus providing us with a unique collection of sequences from clearing infections. We detect significant correlations between infection outcome and virus distance in the phylogeny for viruses of Genotype 1, with estimates lying at around 67%. No statistically significant estimates were obtained for viruses of Genotype 3a. PMID:24944567

  14. Evidence that hepatitis C virus genome partly controls infection outcome

    PubMed Central

    Hartfield, Matthew; Bull, Rowena; White, Peter A; Lloyd, Andrew; Luciani, Fabio; Alizon, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    Infection by hepatitis C virus (HCV) leads to one of two outcomes; either the infection resolves within approximately 6 months or the virus can persist indefinitely. Host genetics are known to affect the likelihood of clearance or persistence. By contrast, the importance of the virus genotype in determining infection outcome is unknown, as quantifying this effect traditionally requires well-characterized transmission networks, which are rare. Extending phylogenetic approaches previously developed to estimate the virus control over set-point viral load in HIV-1 infections, we simulate inheritance of a binary trait along a phylogenetic tree, use this data to quantify how infection outcomes cluster and ascertain the effect of virus genotype on these. We apply our method to the Hepatitis C Incidence and Transmission Study in prisons (HITS-p) data set from Australia, as this cohort prospectively identified incident cases including viraemic subjects who ultimately clear the virus, thus providing us with a unique collection of sequences from clearing infections. We detect significant correlations between infection outcome and virus distance in the phylogeny for viruses of Genotype 1, with estimates lying at around 67%. No statistically significant estimates were obtained for viruses of Genotype 3a. PMID:24944567

  15. Carboxymethylcellulose film for bacterial wound infection control and healing.

    PubMed

    Wong, Tin Wui; Ramli, Nor Amlizan

    2014-11-01

    Infection control and wound healing profiles of sodium carboxymethylcellulose (SCMC) films were investigated as a function of their anti-bacterial action, physical structures, polymer molecular weights and carboxymethyl substitution degrees. The films were prepared with in vitro polymer/film and in vivo microbe-colonized wound healing/systemic infection profiles examined. Adhesive high carboxymethyl substituted SCMC films aided healing via attaching to microbes and removing them from wound. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was removed via encapsulating in gelling low molecular weight SCMC film, whereas Staphylococcus aureus was trapped in tight folds of high molecular weight SCMC film. Incomplete microbe removal from wound did not necessary translate to inability to heal as microbe remnant at wound induced fibroblast migration and aided tissue reconstruction. Using no film nonetheless will cause systemic blood infection. SCMC films negate infection and promote wound healing via specific polymer-microbe adhesion, and removal of S. aureus and P. aeruginosa requires films of different polymer characteristics. PMID:25129756

  16. The Infection Control Doctor and Clostridium difficile

    E-print Network

    Glasgow, University of

    ­ Serious complications · Review data by: ­ Date ­ Origin ­ Age distribution · Statistical process control;Relationship between antibiotic defined daily doses (DDD, total and cefuroxime) and C difficile cases (UHL that the 027 ribotype was the predominant ribotype in Leicester at this time. 2. A quantitative antibiotic

  17. Ataxia telangiectasia mutated kinase controls chronic gammaherpesvirus infection.

    PubMed

    Kulinski, Joseph M; Leonardo, Steven M; Mounce, Bryan C; Malherbe, Laurent; Gauld, Stephen B; Tarakanova, Vera L

    2012-12-01

    Gammaherpesviruses, such as Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), are ubiquitous cancer-associated pathogens that interact with DNA damage response, a tumor suppressor network. Chronic gammaherpesvirus infection and pathogenesis in a DNA damage response-insufficient host are poorly understood. Ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) is associated with insufficiency of ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM), a critical DNA damage response kinase. A-T patients display a pattern of anti-EBV antibodies suggestive of poorly controlled EBV replication; however, parameters of chronic EBV infection and pathogenesis in the A-T population remain unclear. Here we demonstrate that chronic gammaherpesvirus infection is poorly controlled in an animal model of A-T. Intriguingly, in spite of a global increase in T cell activation and numbers in wild-type (wt) and ATM-deficient mice in response to mouse gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV68) infection, the generation of an MHV68-specific immune response was altered in the absence of ATM. Our finding that ATM expression is necessary for an optimal adaptive immune response against gammaherpesvirus unveils an important connection between DNA damage response and immune control of chronic gammaherpesvirus infection, a connection that is likely to impact viral pathogenesis in an ATM-insufficient host. PMID:22993144

  18. The impact of economic recession on infection prevention and control.

    PubMed

    O'Riordan, M; Fitzpatrick, F

    2015-04-01

    The economic recession that began in 2007 led to austerity measures and public sector cutbacks in many European countries. Reduced resource allocation to infection prevention and control (IPC) programmes is impeding prevention and control of tuberculosis, HIV and vaccine-preventable infections. In addition, higher rates of infectious disease in the community have a significant impact on hospital services, although the extent of this has not been studied. With a focus on quick deficit reduction, preventive services such IPC may be regarded as non-essential. Where a prevention programme succeeds in reducing disease burden to a low level, its very success can undermine the perceived need for the programme. To mitigate the negative effects of recession, we need to: educate our political leaders about the economic benefits of IPC; better quantify the costs of healthcare-associated infection; and evaluate the effects of budget cuts on healthcare outcomes and IPC activities. PMID:25639208

  19. Infections in Hematogical Cancer Patients: The Contribution of Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mical Paul; Anat Gafter-Gvili; Elad Goldberg; Dafna Yahav

    2011-01-01

    Systematic reviews and meta-analyses have made a major contribution to the evidence-based management of infections in cancer patients. We review the contribution of systematic reviews with regard to antibiotic, antifungal, antiviral and Pneumocystis pneumonia prophylaxis; antibiotic and antifungal treatment of febrile neutropenia; use of intravenous immunoglobulins, and infection control strategies during neutropenia. We focus on limitations of randomized controlled trials

  20. Therapeutic depletion of natural killer cells controls persistent infection.

    PubMed

    Waggoner, Stephen N; Daniels, Keith A; Welsh, Raymond M

    2014-02-01

    Persistent viral infections are associated with host and viral factors that impair effective antiviral immunity. Natural killer (NK) cells contribute to establishment of persistent lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) infection in mice through suppression of virus-specific T cell responses during the first few days of infection, but NK cell depletion during those early time points can enable severe T cell-mediated immune pathology and death of the host. Here we show that long after their peak in cytolytic activation, NK cells continue to support viral persistence at later times of infection. Delayed depletion of NK cells, 2 to 3 weeks after infection, enhanced virus-specific T cell responses and viral control. This enhancing effect of delayed NK cell depletion on antiviral immunity, in contrast to early NK cell depletion, was not associated with increased morbidity and mortality, and mice quickly regained weight after treatment. The efficacy of the depletion depended in part upon the size of the original virus inoculum, the viral load at the time of depletion, and the presence of CD4 T cells. Each of these factors is an important contributor to the degree of CD8 T cell dysfunction during viral persistence. Thus, NK cells may continuously contribute to exhaustion of virus-specific T cells during chronic infection, possibly by depleting CD4 T cells. Targeting of NK cells could thus be considered in combination with blockade of other immunosuppressive pathways, such as the interleukin-10 (IL-10) and programmed death 1 (PD-1) pathways, as a therapy to cure chronic human infections, including those with HIV or hepatitis C virus. IMPORTANCE Persistent virus infections are a major threat to global human health. The capacity of viruses, including HIV and hepatitis C virus, to overwhelm or subvert host immune responses contributes to a prolonged state of dampened antiviral immune functionality, which in turn facilitates viral persistence. Recent efforts have focused on therapeutics that can restore the effector functions of these functionally exhausted virus-specific T cells in order to expedite viral clearance. Here we establish that natural killer (NK) cells actively contribute to immune dysfunction and viral persistence at later stages of infection. This previously undescribed mechanism of immune suppression during chronic infection provides a vital clue for the design of novel therapeutic strategies targeting NK cell immunosuppressive activity in order to restore immune function and enhance viral control in chronically infected individuals. PMID:24284324

  1. Evidence-Based Medicine, the Essential Role of Systematic Reviews,

    E-print Network

    Meng, Weiyi

    available, most appropriate evidence in the care of each patient, a practice known as Evidence-based Storage and Retrieval, Text-Mining, Evidence-Based Medicine. 1. Introduction The practice of Evidence-Based of these reviews including the Cochrane Collaboration (e.g., Adams, et al., 2008) and the Evidence-based Practice

  2. PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF RETICULOENDOTHELIOSIS VIRUS INFECTION: RATIONALE AND STRATEGIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) is a common retroviral infection of poultry that only rarely causes significant disease problems. Typically, the issue of control is dismissed as unnecessary for and not practiced in commercial flocks. Prevention is a more relevant issue and preventive measures ar...

  3. JOHN DEMPSEY HOSPITAL DENTAL CLINICS INFECTION CONTROL PROGRAM

    E-print Network

    Oliver, Douglas L.

    PROCESSING 27 HANDPIECE STERILIZATION 28 DENTAL UNIT CARE 30 POST-EXPOSURE PROTOCOLS John Dempsey Hospital central sterilization aide Non-Employees predoctoral students postdoctoral students dental laboratoryJOHN DEMPSEY HOSPITAL DENTAL CLINICS INFECTION CONTROL PROGRAM INFORMATION AND POLICY MANUAL 2005

  4. Control of Acute Dengue Virus Infection by Natural Killer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Petitdemange, Caroline; Wauquier, Nadia; Rey, Juliana; Hervier, Baptiste; Leroy, Eric; Vieillard, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    Dengue fever is the most important arthropod-borne viral disease worldwide, affecting 50–100 million individuals annually. The clinical picture associated with acute dengue virus (DENV) infections ranges from classical febrile illness to life-threatening disease. The innate immunity is the first line of defense in the control of viral replication. This review will examine the particular role of natural killer (NK) cells in DENV infection. Over recent years, our understanding of the interplay between NK cells and viral pathogenesis has improved significantly. NK cells express an array of inhibitory and activating receptors that enable them to detect infected targets while sparing normal cells, and to recruit adaptive immune cells. To date, the exact mechanism by which NK cells may contribute to the control of DENV infection remains elusive. Importantly, DENV has acquired mechanisms to evade NK cell responses, further underlining the relevance of these cells in pathophysiology. Hence, understanding how NK cells affect the outcome of DENV infection could benefit the management of this acute disease. PMID:24860571

  5. Ectopic pregnancy and genital infections: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Tuomivaara, L M

    1990-02-01

    This case-control study was carried out to evaluate the significance of genital infections as risk factors in ectopic pregnancy. The study population consisted of 86 consecutive patients with ectopic pregnancy and two age- and parity-matched control groups of women with normal early pregnancy; those with planned pregnancy (I; 65 pairs) and those having legal abortion (II; 51 pairs). Histories of salpingo-oophoritis in the two groups (22% against 5%, P less than 0.05), and of cervical Chlamydia trachomatis infection (9% against 0%, P less than 0.05) were more common in patients with ectopic pregnancy than in their controls with planned pregnancy; women in the control group who had undergone legal abortion did not differ from patients with ectopic pregnancy. In serological studies antibodies against Herpes simplex viruses were commoner in patients with ectopic pregnancy than in both control groups (89% against 62%, and 88% against 57%, P less than 0.001). Antibodies against cytomegalovirus were also commoner in patients with ectopic pregnancy than in controls who had had a planned pregnancy (88% against 72%, P less than 0.05). The results support the concept that gynaecological infections are among factors predisposing to ectopic pregnancies. PMID:2158799

  6. Evidence-based consensus on the diagnosis, prevention and management of hepatitis C virus disease.

    PubMed

    Shaheen, Mahrukh Akbar; Idrees, Muhammad

    2015-03-27

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a potent human pathogen and is one of the main causes of chronic hepatitis round the world. The present review describes the evidence-based consensus on the diagnosis, prevention and management of HCV disease. Various techniques, for the detection of anti-HCV immunoglobulin G immunoassays, detection of HCV RNA by identifying virus-specific molecules nucleic acid testings, recognition of core antigen for diagnosis of HCV, quantitative antigen assay, have been used to detect HCV RNA and core antigen. Advanced technologies such as nanoparticle-based diagnostic assays, loop-mediated isothermal amplification and aptamers and Ortho trak-C assay have also come to the front that provides best detection results with greater ease and specificity for detection of HCV. It is of immense importance to prevent this infection especially among the sexual partners, injecting drug users, mother-to-infant transmission of HCV, household contact, healthcare workers and people who get tattoos and piercing on their skin. Management of this infection is intended to eradicate it out of the body of patients. Management includes examining the treatment (efficacy and protection), assessment of hepatic condition before commencing therapy, controlling the parameters upon which dual and triple therapies work, monitoring the body after treatment and adjusting the co-factors. Examining the treatment in some special groups of people (HIV/HCV co-infected, hemodialysis patients, renal transplanted patients). PMID:25848486

  7. Evidence-based consensus on the diagnosis, prevention and management of hepatitis C virus disease

    PubMed Central

    Shaheen, Mahrukh Akbar; Idrees, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a potent human pathogen and is one of the main causes of chronic hepatitis round the world. The present review describes the evidence-based consensus on the diagnosis, prevention and management of HCV disease. Various techniques, for the detection of anti-HCV immunoglobulin G immunoassays, detection of HCV RNA by identifying virus-specific molecules nucleic acid testings, recognition of core antigen for diagnosis of HCV, quantitative antigen assay, have been used to detect HCV RNA and core antigen. Advanced technologies such as nanoparticle-based diagnostic assays, loop-mediated isothermal amplification and aptamers and Ortho trak-C assay have also come to the front that provides best detection results with greater ease and specificity for detection of HCV. It is of immense importance to prevent this infection especially among the sexual partners, injecting drug users, mother-to-infant transmission of HCV, household contact, healthcare workers and people who get tattoos and piercing on their skin. Management of this infection is intended to eradicate it out of the body of patients. Management includes examining the treatment (efficacy and protection), assessment of hepatic condition before commencing therapy, controlling the parameters upon which dual and triple therapies work, monitoring the body after treatment and adjusting the co-factors. Examining the treatment in some special groups of people (HIV/HCV co-infected, hemodialysis patients, renal transplanted patients).

  8. Evidence-based medicine in otolaryngology journals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Boris L. Bentsianov; Marina Boruk; Richard M. Rosenfeld

    2002-01-01

    Objective: We set out to assess, within the context of evidence-based medicine, the levels of supporting evidence for therapeutic recommendations made in leading otolaryngology journals. Design: We used a cross-sectional survey of clinical research articles published in 1999 in 4 high-circulation otolaryngology journals. Outcome Measures: We used study design methodology and level of evidence for clinical research articles with therapeutic

  9. Evidence-based Medicine in Animal Reproduction.

    PubMed

    Arlt, S P; Heuwieser, W

    2014-09-01

    With new knowledge being generated and published daily, the importance of evidence-based approaches in veterinary medicine is obvious. Clinicians must stay current or risk making poor decisions that clients may challenge. Especially in animal reproduction, several new substances and procedures to diagnose or treat reproductive disorders have been introduced in the last years. On the other hand, a closer look at the quality of published literature on animal reproduction reveals major deficits in methodology and reporting of many clinical trials. We strongly recommend systematically assessing the quality of scientific information when reading journal papers before using the given information in practice. The aim of evidence-based medicine (EBM) is to base the decisions in the practice of medicine on valid, clinically relevant research data. Therefore, we suggest that students should become familiar with the concepts of evidence-based veterinary medicine (EBVM) at the beginning of their veterinary education. Concepts and supporting tools such as checklists for literature assessment have been developed and validated. The purpose of this article is to review and discuss the importance of incorporating EBVM in animal reproduction. The need for further research that produces strong evidence in different fields of animal reproduction and better reporting of relevant study information is obvious. PMID:25220744

  10. Evidence Based Psychosocial Interventions in Substance Use

    PubMed Central

    Jhanjee, Sonali

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, there has been significant progress and expansion in the development of evidence-based psychosocial treatments for substance abuse and dependence. A literature review was undertaken using the several electronic databases (PubMed, Cochrane Database of systemic reviews and specific journals, which pertain to psychosocial issues in addictive disorders and guidelines on this topic). Overall psychosocial interventions have been found to be effective. Some interventions, such as cognitive behavior therapy, motivational interviewing and relapse prevention, appear to be effective across many drugs of abuse. Psychological treatment is more effective when prescribed with substitute prescribing than when medication or psychological treatment is used alone, particularly for opiate users. The evidence base for psychological treatment needs to be expanded and should also include research on optimal combinations of psychological therapies and any particular matching effects, if any. Psychological interventions are an essential part of the treatment regimen and efforts should be made to integrate evidence-based interventions in all substance use disorder treatment programs. PMID:24860208

  11. Geographical Representativeness of Published and Ongoing Randomized Controlled Trials. The Example of: Tobacco Consumption and HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Nizar; Boutron, Isabelle; Dechartres, Agnes; Durieux, Pierre; Ravaud, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Background The challenge for evidence-based healthcare is to reduce mortality and the burden of diseases. This study aimed to compare where research is conducted to where research is needed for 2 public health priorities: tobacco consumption and HIV infection. Methods We identified randomized controlled trials (RCTs) included in Cochrane systematic reviews published between 1997 and 2007 and registered ongoing RCTs identified in January 2009 through the World Health Organization's International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (WHO-ICTRP) evaluating interventions aimed at reducing or stopping tobacco use and treating or preventing HIV infection. We used the WHO and World Bank reports to classify the countries by income level, as well as map the global burden of disease and mortality attributable to tobacco use and HIV infection to the countries where the trials performed. Results We evaluated 740 RCTs included in systematic reviews and 346 ongoing RCTs. For tobacco use, 4% of RCTs included in systematic reviews and 2% of ongoing trials were performed in low- and middle-income countries, even though these countries represented 70% of the mortality related to tobacco use. For HIV infection, 31% of RCTs included in systematic reviews and 33% of ongoing trials were performed in low- and middle-income countries, even though these countries represented 99% of the mortality related to HIV infection. Conclusions Our results highlight an important underrepresentation of low- and middle-income countries in currently available evidence (RCTs included in systematic reviews) and awaiting evidence (registered ongoing RCTs) for reducing or stopping tobacco use and treating or preventing HIV infection. PMID:21347383

  12. Slaving and release in co-infection control

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Animal and human infection with multiple parasite species is the norm rather than the exception, and empirical studies and animal models have provided evidence for a diverse range of interactions among parasites. We demonstrate how an optimal control strategy should be tailored to the pathogen community and tempered by species-level knowledge of drug sensitivity with use of a simple epidemiological model of gastro-intestinal nematodes. Methods We construct a fully mechanistic model of macroparasite co-infection and use it to explore a range of control scenarios involving chemotherapy as well as improvements to sanitation. Results Scenarios are presented whereby control not only releases a more resistant parasite from antagonistic interactions, but risks increasing co-infection rates, exacerbating the burden of disease. In contrast, synergisms between species result in their becoming epidemiologically slaved within hosts, presenting a novel opportunity for controlling drug resistant parasites by targeting co-circulating species. Conclusions Understanding the effects on control of multi-parasite species interactions, and vice versa, is of increasing urgency in the advent of integrated mass intervention programmes. PMID:23721567

  13. Human gastrointestinal nematode infections: are new control methods required?

    PubMed Central

    Stepek, Gillian; Buttle, David J; Duce, Ian R; Behnke, Jerzy M

    2006-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) nematode infections affect 50% of the human population worldwide, and cause great morbidity as well as hundreds of thousands of deaths. Despite modern medical practices, the proportion of the population infected with GI nematodes is not falling. This is due to a number of factors, the most important being the lack of good healthcare, sanitation and health education in many developing countries. A relatively new problem is the development of resistance to the small number of drugs available to treat GI nematode infections. Here we review the most important parasitic GI nematodes and the methods available to control them. In addition, we discuss the current status of new anthelmintic treatments, particularly the plant cysteine proteinases from various sources of latex-bearing plants and fruits. PMID:16965561

  14. Efficacy of surveillance in nosocomial infection control in a surgical service

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Miguel Delgado-Rodríguez; Antonio Gómez-Ortega; María Sillero-Arenas; Gabriel Martínez-Gallego; Marcelino Medina-Cuadros; Javier Llorca

    2001-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of surveillance of nosocomial infection in infection control at a service of general surgery.Design: A surveillance study that included 1483 patients with a prospective identification of nosocomial infection was carried out. Its results were discussed with the staff, and a program on nosocomial infection control was implemented. One year

  15. Therapeutic Depletion of Natural Killer Cells Controls Persistent Infection

    PubMed Central

    Daniels, Keith A.; Welsh, Raymond M.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Persistent viral infections are associated with host and viral factors that impair effective antiviral immunity. Natural killer (NK) cells contribute to establishment of persistent lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) infection in mice through suppression of virus-specific T cell responses during the first few days of infection, but NK cell depletion during those early time points can enable severe T cell-mediated immune pathology and death of the host. Here we show that long after their peak in cytolytic activation, NK cells continue to support viral persistence at later times of infection. Delayed depletion of NK cells, 2 to 3 weeks after infection, enhanced virus-specific T cell responses and viral control. This enhancing effect of delayed NK cell depletion on antiviral immunity, in contrast to early NK cell depletion, was not associated with increased morbidity and mortality, and mice quickly regained weight after treatment. The efficacy of the depletion depended in part upon the size of the original virus inoculum, the viral load at the time of depletion, and the presence of CD4 T cells. Each of these factors is an important contributor to the degree of CD8 T cell dysfunction during viral persistence. Thus, NK cells may continuously contribute to exhaustion of virus-specific T cells during chronic infection, possibly by depleting CD4 T cells. Targeting of NK cells could thus be considered in combination with blockade of other immunosuppressive pathways, such as the interleukin-10 (IL-10) and programmed death 1 (PD-1) pathways, as a therapy to cure chronic human infections, including those with HIV or hepatitis C virus. IMPORTANCE PMID:24284324

  16. Infection control in pulmonary and critical care medicine.

    PubMed

    Raucher, B G

    1999-12-01

    During the routine care of patients, pulmonary and critical care specialist may have significant exposure to respiratory infections and potentially infectious body fluids such as blood and pleural fluid. Bronchoscopy and intensive care services often require close contact with patients and the use of sharp devices required for intravascular catheterization. Rendering such care places physicians at risk for acquiring agents such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis viruses, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. As of December 1998, 188 cases of occupational transmission of HIV to health care workers (HCWs) in the United States have been reported to the Centers for Disease Control. Most documented cases of seroconversion involve percutaneous injury involving blood, with the greatest risks being associated with injury from a hollow-bore needle that has been in an infected patient's vein or artery. Because thousands of HIV-infected persons are unaware of their infection, HCWs must consider all patients to be infected with HIV and improve work practices accordingly. Nevertheless, elimination of all exposures is impossible, and postexposure prophylaxis with combination antiretroviral therapy is recommended for persons deemed a high risk of contracting HIV. Pulmonary specialists are at high risk of exposure to tuberculosis; proper precautions include isolation of patients with suspected tuberculosis and the use of DMF-HEPA respirator masks, especially while performing procedures like bronchoscopy. Contaminated bronchoscopes have been implicated in transmission and "pseudoinfection" of tuberculosis and nontuberculous mycobacteria, underscoring the need for rigorous cleaning and disinfection practices. PMID:10638518

  17. Gut motor function: immunological control in enteric infection and inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Khan, W I; Collins, S M

    2006-01-01

    Alteration in gastrointestinal (GI) motility occurs in a variety of clinical settings which include acute enteritis, inflammatory bowel disease, intestinal pseudo-obstruction and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Most disorders affecting the GI tract arise as a result of noxious stimulation from the lumen via either microbes or chemicals. However, it is not clear how injurious processes initiated in the mucosa alter function in the deeper motor apparatus of the gut wall. Activation of immune cells may lead to changes in motor-sensory function in the gut resulting in the development of an efficient defence force which assists in the eviction of the noxious agent from the intestinal lumen. This review addresses the interface between immune and motor system in the context of host resistance based on the studies in murine model of enteric nematode parasite infection. These studies clearly demonstrate that the infection-induced T helper 2 type immune response is critical in producing the alterations of infection-induced intestinal muscle function in this infection and that this immune-mediated alteration in muscle function is associated with host defence mechanisms. In addition, by manipulating the host immune response, it is possible to modulate the accompanying muscle function, and this may have clinical relevance. These observations not only provide valuable information on the immunological control of gut motor function and its role in host defence in enteric infection, but also provide a basis for understanding pathophysiology of gastrointestinal motility disorders such as in IBS. PMID:16487236

  18. T cells home to the thymus and control infection

    PubMed Central

    Nobrega, Claudia; Nunes-Alves, Cláudio; Cerqueira-Rodrigues, Bruno; Roque, Susana; Barreira-Silva, Palmira; Behar, Samuel M.; Correia-Neves, Margarida

    2012-01-01

    The thymus is a target of multiple pathogens. How the immune system responds to thymic infection is largely unknown. Despite being considered an immune privileged organ, we detect a mycobacteria-specific T cell response in the thymus following dissemination of Mycobacterium avium or Mycobacterium tuberculosis. This response includes pro-inflammatory cytokine production by mycobacteria-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, which stimulates infected cells and controls bacterial growth in the thymus. Importantly, the responding T cells are mature peripheral T cells that recirculate back to the thymus. The recruitment of these cells is associated with an increased expression of Th1 chemokines and an enrichment of CXCR3+ mycobacteria-specific T cells in the thymus. Finally, we demonstrate it is the mature T cells that home to the thymus that most efficiently control mycobacterial infection. Although the presence of mature T cells in the thymus has been recognized for some time, these data are the first to show that T cell recirculation from the periphery to the thymus is a mechanism that allows the immune system to respond to thymic infection. Maintaining a functional thymic environment is essential to maintain T cell differentiation and prevent the emergence of central tolerance to the invading pathogens. PMID:23315077

  19. Evidence based update: Open versus closed reduction.

    PubMed

    Ghayoumi, Pouriya; Kandemir, Utku; Morshed, Saam

    2015-03-01

    Outcomes after operative treatment of displaced femoral neck fractures in young adults are fraught with high complications rates including non-union and avascular necrosis. Among the therapeutic controversies that persist is the role of open reduction, which would allow surgeons a direct means to improve the quality of reduction, a predictor of successful treatment. We performed a systematic review of the literature to compare the outcomes (nonunion, avascular necrosis, and deep infection) after open reduction with internal fixation (ORIF) to closed reduction with internal fixation (CRIF) of acute (surgery performed less than 6 weeks from injury) femoral neck fractures in young adults (average age of 50 or younger) followed for at least one year. Despite the large literature investigating outcomes after operative treatment of femoral neck fracture, relatively few studies aimed to determine the relative risk of complications associated with method of reduction. Therefore, both observational and randomised studies as well as case series with clear descriptions of surgical approach and outcomes were included. We identified 21 studies that matched our inclusion criteria. The incidence of nonunion was 11.6% in closed reduction and 14.9% in the open reduction group (P=0.25). The incidence of avascular necrosis for CRIF and ORIF were 17.2% and 17.7% respectively (P=0.91). The incidence of deep wound infection was 0.49% in the closed reduction group and 3.9% in the open reduction group (P=0.0019). Meta-analysis of risk ratios estimated from six of the studies with comparative data revealed no significant difference in the incidence of nonunion, avascular necrosis or total complications between the two reduction techniques. In summary, systematic review of the literature reveals a lack of evidence in support of ORIF versus CRIF as a means of treating displaced femoral neck fractures in young patients with respect to union and avascular necrosis; however, the incidence of surgical site infections may be lower with CRIF. Firm conclusions cannot be drawn given the lack of high quality prospective studies and patient reported outcomes. In the future, randomised controlled trials will be required to test the effect of reduction method. PMID:25554424

  20. Strategies for Training Counselors in Evidence-Based Treatments

    PubMed Central

    Martino, Steve

    2010-01-01

    Evidence-based treatments (EBTs) for substance abuse and dependence have demonstrated superiority over treatment as usual when applied with strict fidelity in controlled clinical trials. Effective counselor training is critical if substance abuse programs are to realize these interventions’ full potential to enhance client outcomes in community practice. Although few empirical evaluations of training in EBTs have been conducted to date, the existing data warrant tentative conclusions concerning the appropriate roles and effectiveness of workshops, clinical supervision, distance learning, and blended learning. Among several outstanding research issues are questions of benchmarks for counselors’ performance in training and the relationships between such performance and clients’ substance abuse outcomes. PMID:22002451

  1. Perioperative Glucose Control and Infection Risk in Older Surgical Patients

    PubMed Central

    Mody, Lona

    2014-01-01

    The aging of the U.S. population is leading to an increasing number of surgical procedures performed on older adults. At the same time, the quality of medical care is being more closely scrutinized. Surgical site infection is a widely-assessed outcome. Evidence suggests that strict perioperative serum glucose control among patients with or without diabetes can lower the risk of these infections, but it is unclear whether this control should be applied to older surgical patients. In this clinical review, we discuss current research on perioperative serum glucose management for cardiothoracic, orthopedic, and general/colorectal surgery. In addition, we summarize clinical recommendations and quality-of-care process indicators provided by surgical, diabetes, and geriatric medical organizations. PMID:25431751

  2. Hawaii's statewide evidence-based practice program.

    PubMed

    Mark, Debra D; Latimer, Rene'e W; White, Joan P; Bransford, Deborah; Johnson, Katherine G; Song, Valerie L

    2014-09-01

    Hawaii's innovative statewide evidence-based practice program facilitates practice change across multiple health care systems. The innovation eliminated duplicative efforts and provided resources, was compatible with the values of health care organizations, and had experience with a pilot program. Interpersonal and mass media communication promoted and embedded the practice change. Users included nurse champions with multidisciplinary team members. The rate of adoption varied across projects and, although resources seemed to be a major determinant of successful institutionalization, there does not seem to be a predictable pattern of successful project implementation. PMID:25155528

  3. Cultural considerations in evidence-based practice.

    PubMed

    Hulme, Polly A

    2010-07-01

    The role of culture in evidence-based practice (EBP) is examined using the components of the EBP process as a framework for discussion. Issues that are identified include the recruitment and retention of ethnic groups in research; paternalism and institutional racism in regard to those who cannot afford best practice; and cultural differences between health professionals and patients in their understanding of best practice, health, and illness. Strategies that are suggested to reduce cultural incongruence include shared clinical decision making and development of a cultural knowledge system to improve EBP and outcomes on an organizational level. PMID:20527676

  4. Vaccine to control the viral infection of fish

    DOEpatents

    Leong, Jo-Ann C. (Albany, OR)

    1994-10-11

    Subunit vaccines and their use for immunizing fish against infection by viruses are disclosed. In particular, plasmid pG8 is constructed by joining, with the plasmid pUC8, DNA which encodes the glycoprotein of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV). E. coli cells are transformed by pG8, whereby pure viral antigen is produced to provide a vaccine for the control of IHNV in fish.

  5. Vaccine to Control the Viral Infection of Fish.

    DOEpatents

    Leong, JoAnn Ching

    1994-10-11

    Subunit vaccines and their use for immunizing fish against infection by viruses are disclosed. In particular, plasmid pG8 is constructed by joining, with the plasmid pUC8, DNA which encodes the glycoprotein of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV). E. coli cells are transformed by pG8, whereby pure viral antigen is produced to provide a vaccine for the control of IHNV in fish. 10 figs.

  6. Viral Immune Evasion in Dengue: Toward Evidence-Based Revisions of Clinical Practice Guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Chiappelli, Francesco; Santos, Silvana Maria Eloi; Caldeira Brant, Xenia Maria; Bakhordarian, Andre; Thames, April D; Maida, Carl A; Du, Angela M; Jan, Allison L; Nahcivan, Melissa; Nguyen, Mia T; Sama, Nateli

    2014-01-01

    Dengue, a leading cause of illness and death in the tropics and subtropics since the 1950?s, is fast spreading in the Western hemisphere. Over 30% of the world?s population is at risk for the mosquitoes that transmit any one of four related Dengue viruses (DENV). Infection induces lifetime protection to a particular serotype, but successive exposure to a different DENV increases the likelihood of severe form of dengue fever (DF), dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF), or dengue shock syndrome (DSS). Prompt supportive treatment lowers the risk of developing the severe spectrum of Dengue-associated physiopathology. Vaccines are not available, and the most effective protective measure is to prevent mosquito bites. Here, we discuss selected aspects of the syndemic nature of Dengue, including its potential for pathologies of the central nervous system (CNS). We examine the fundamental mechanisms of cell-mediated and humoral immunity to viral infection in general, and the specific implications of these processes in the regulatory control of DENV infection, including DENV evasion from immune surveillance. In line with the emerging model of translational science in health care, which integrates translational research (viz., going from the patient to the bench and back to the patient) and translational effectiveness (viz., integrating and utilizing the best available evidence in clinical settings), we examine novel and timely evidence-based revisions of clinical practice guidelines critical in optimizing the management of DENV infection and Dengue pathologies. We examine the role of tele-medicine and stakeholder engagement in the contemporary model of patient centered, effectiveness-focused and evidence-based health care. Abbreviations BBB - blood-brain barrier, CNS - central nervous system, DAMP - damage-associated molecular patterns, DENV - dengue virus, DF - dengue fever, DHF - dengue hemorrhagic fever, DSS - dengue shock syndrome, DALYs - isability adjusted life years, IFN-g - interferon-gamma, ILX - interleukinX, JAK/STAT - janus kinase (JAK) / Signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT), LT - Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin formulations deficient in GM1 binding by mutation (LT[G33D]), MCP-1 - monocyte chemotactic protein 1, M-CSF - macrophage colony-stimulating fact, MHC - major histocompatibility complex, MIF - macrophage migration inhibitory factor, [MIP-1]-? / -? - macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha and beta, mAb - monoclonal antibody, NS1 - non-structural protein 1 of dengue virus, NK - natural killer cells, PAMP - pathogen-associated molecular patterns, PBMC - peripheral blood mononuclear cells, TBF-b - transforming growth factor-beta, TNF-? - tumor necrosis-alpha, VHFs - virus hemorrhagic fevers, WHO - World Health Organization. PMID:25670874

  7. Cutaneous fungal infection following renal transplantation: a case control study.

    PubMed

    Shuttleworth, D; Philpot, C M; Salaman, J R

    1987-11-01

    The prevalence of cutaneous fungal infection was studied in 72 patients who had undergone renal transplantation and compared with a group of age and sex matched controls. Samples were obtained from toe nails, toe webs, and the upper back; clinically suspicious lesions from other areas were also examined. A total of 576 sites were sampled (288 in each group). Pathogenic fungi were identified from 44 sites (15%) in the renal transplant (RT) group compared with 26 sites (9%) in the control group, (P less than 0.05). However, site-specific differences were less marked; no difference was found between the RT group and controls when the results from the toe nails and toe webs were analysed separately. Trichophyton mentagrophytes was the most common species isolated from both groups. Colonization of the back with Pityrosporum yeasts was significantly more common in the RT group, but few patients in either group had tinea versicolor. 'Mixed infections', with more than one species of fungus isolated in an individual, were only found in the RT group. We also examined the relationship between the presence of fungal infection and the presence or absence of cutaneous malignancy in the renal transplant group. No increase in the prevalence of fungal colonization was found in those patients who had developed cutaneous malignancy compared with those who had not. PMID:3318908

  8. "They just know": the epistemological politics of "evidence-based" non-formal education.

    PubMed

    Archibald, Thomas

    2015-02-01

    Community education and outreach programs should be evidence-based. This dictum seems at once warranted, welcome, and slightly platitudinous. However, the "evidence-based" movement's more narrow definition of evidence--privileging randomized controlled trials as the "gold standard"--has fomented much debate. Such debate, though insightful, often lacks grounding in actual practice. To address that lack, the purpose of the study presented in this paper was to examine what actually happens, in practice, when people support the implementation of evidence-based programs (EBPs) or engage in related efforts to make non-formal education more "evidence-based." Focusing on three cases--two adolescent sexual health projects (one in the United States and one in Kenya) and one more general youth development organization--I used qualitative methods to address the questions: (1) How is evidence-based program and evidence-based practice work actually practiced? (2) What perspectives and assumptions about what non-formal education is are manifested through that work? and (3) What conflicts and tensions emerge through that work related to those perspectives and assumptions? Informed by theoretical perspectives on the intersection of science, expertise, and democracy, I conclude that the current dominant approach to making non-formal education more evidence-based by way of EBPs is seriously flawed. PMID:25204228

  9. Transformational and Transactional Leadership: Association With Attitudes Toward Evidence-Based Practice

    PubMed Central

    Aarons, Gregory A.

    2006-01-01

    Objective Leadership in organizations is important in shaping workers’ perceptions, responses to organizational change, and acceptance of innovations, such as evidence-based practices. Transformational leadership inspires and motivates followers, whereas transactional leadership is based more on reinforcement and exchanges. Studies have shown that in youth and family service organizations, mental health providers’ attitudes toward adopting an evidence-based practice are associated with organizational context and individual provider differences. The purpose of this study was to expand these findings by examining the association between leadership and mental health providers’ attitudes toward adopting evidence-based practice. Methods Participants were 303 public-sector mental health service clinicians and case managers from 49 programs who were providing mental health services to children, adolescents, and their families. Data were gathered on providers’ characteristics, attitudes toward evidence-based practices, and perceptions of their supervisors’ leadership behaviors. Zero-order correlations and multilevel regression analyses were conducted that controlled for effects of service providers’ characteristics. Results Both transformational and transactional leadership were positively associated with providers’ having more positive attitudes toward adoption of evidence-based practice, and transformational leadership was negatively associated with providers’ perception of difference between the providers’ current practice and evidence-based practice. Conclusions Mental health service organizations may benefit from improving transformational and transactional supervisory leadership skills in preparation for implementing evidence-based practices. PMID:16870968

  10. Cultural adaptations of evidence-based family interventions to strengthen families and improve children's developmental outcomes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karol L. Kumpfer; Cátia Magalhães; Jing Xie

    2012-01-01

    Evidence-based parenting and family interventions are effective in improving parenting skills, positive parent–child relations and children's developmental outcomes. Programmes based on “principles of effective prevention” do not prove that a programme works. Evidence-based programmes (EBPs) are programmes tested in multiple randomized control trials by different researchers and producing large effect sizes. Hence, selecting a family EBP that best matches the

  11. A Delphi study to determine nursing research priorities in the North Glasgow University Hospitals NHS Trust and the corresponding evidence base.

    PubMed

    Kirkwood, Michelle; Wales, Ann; Wilson, Anne

    2003-06-01

    The aims of the study are to identify and prioritize research questions of importance to nurses in North Glasgow University Hospitals NHS Trust and to investigate and describe the existing evidence base for the highest priority questions identified. The consensus method known as the Delphi technique was used. Systematic searching of the literature for each question identified from the research priorities enabled the existing evidence base to be characterized. The following priorities were identified as the most important (in descending order of importance): Recruitment and Retention of Nursing Staff; Staff Stress & Morale; Training & Education of Nursing Staff; Infection Control; and Pain Management. The Delphi technique proved a useful method to determine and prioritize research areas in nursing. PMID:12757436

  12. Continuing Progress in Infection Control in U.S. Dental Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merchant, Virginia A.; Molinari, John A.

    1990-01-01

    Results of a 1988 survey of dental school deans concerning infection control instruction and protocols found increased attention to infection control and application of recommended protocols. Findings are contrasted with those of earlier studies, and remaining obstacles to implementation of infection control programs are discussed. (Author/MSE)

  13. Disseminating evidence-based care into practice.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Eric A; Rosenbek, Susan A; Roman, Sarah P

    2013-08-01

    The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) has launched the Partnership for Patients initiative, promising a 20% reduction in readmissions nationally across all payers by December 31, 2013. To address this ambitious goal, CMS has awarded grants to Hospital Engagement Networks, Pioneer Accountable Care Organizations, and the Community-based Care Transitions Program, as well as instituted new penalties for excessive readmission that began in October 2012. National efforts aimed at realizing this goal are predicated, in part, on our effectiveness in disseminating evidence-based care models into practice to improve outcomes and reduce costs. The Care Transitions Intervention (CTI) has been developed, tested, and disseminated to over 750 health care organizations in 40 states nationwide. Four factors promote wide-scale CTI dissemination. The first factor focuses on model fidelity whereby adopters are given insight into which elements of the intervention can be adapted and customized. The second factor concerns the selection of Transitions Coaches and reinforcement of their role through training and participation in a national peer learning network. The third factor relates to model execution with attention to integrating the intervention into existing workflows and fostering relationships with community stakeholders. The fourth factor involves cultivating the support to sustain or expand the intervention through continually making the business case in a changing health care landscape. The lessons learned through the dissemination and implementation of the CTI may be generalizable to the spread of a variety of evidence-based care models. PMID:23537156

  14. Evidence-based medical education -quo vadis?

    PubMed

    Leung, Gabriel M; Johnston, Janice M

    2006-06-01

    The evidence base for most educational initiatives, at least until very recently, is largely composed of low-level evidence. Four major barriers underlie this historical observation, namely: (1) perceived ethical and acceptability problems arising from the unequal treatment of learners in experimental designs; (2) limited choice of outcome measures and validated instruments; (3) time and resource constraints; and (4) methodological issues concerning contextual confounding and small sample sizes. We advocate the adoption of a 'balanced scorecard' approach in the evaluation of education interventions that brings together a comprehensive panel of outcomes under one framework. We require a diversity of rigorously applied methods to generate these outcomes, drawing from the quantitative and qualitative disciplines of epidemiology, psychology and economics. We further suggest that the research community discuss and agree on a standardized set of common metrics or benchmarks. We conclude with a case study examining whether a hand-held computer clinical decision support tool improves clerkship learning of evidence-based medicine. The era of Brownian motion in health education research is over. What we demand in terms of burden of proof for educational effectiveness should be no less rigorous than our call for an ever escalating threshold concerning evidence of clinical care. PMID:16722922

  15. Evidence-Based Chinese Medicine for Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jie; Xiong, Xingjiang

    2013-01-01

    Hypertension is an important worldwide public -health challenge with high mortality and disability. Due to the limitations and concerns with current available hypertension treatments, many hypertensive patients, especially in Asia, have turned to Chinese medicine (CM). Although hypertension is not a CM term, physicians who practice CM in China attempt to treat the disease using CM principles. A variety of approaches for treating hypertension have been taken in CM. For seeking the best evidence of CM in making decisions for hypertensive patients, a number of clinical studies have been conducted in China, which has paved the evidence-based way. After literature searching and analyzing, it appeared that CM was effective for hypertension in clinical use, such as Chinese herbal medicine, acupuncture, moxibustion, cupping, qigong, and Tai Chi. However, due to the poor quality of primary studies, clinical evidence is still weak. The potential benefits and safety of CM for hypertension still need to be confirmed in the future with well-designed RCTs of more persuasive primary endpoints and high-quality SRs. Evidence-based Chinese medicine for hypertension still has a long way to go. PMID:23861720

  16. The Coalition for Evidence-Based Policy

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Coalition for Evidence-Based Policy's aim is to increase government effectiveness by using evidence of what works based on rigorous policy analysis. On the "Mission & Activities" tab near the top of any page, visitors can read of the ineffective policies the Coalition targets. For example, the site details government-funded social programs that have failed to make progress in the areas they are supposed to help, such as "poverty reduction", "K-12 education", and "economic mobility." Further down the page is a list of programs that have been deemed effective by the Coalition - "Nurse-Family Partnership," "Career Academies," and "Success for All in Grades K-2." The "Publications" tab lists the five types of publications of the Coalition, including "Rigorous Evidence," their monthly e-newsletter that can be subscribed to for free for anyone interested in evidence-based policy. Some of the other publications include "Published Op-Eds/Letters to the Editor" and "Coalition Policy Proposals," which have covered, among other things, "Technology Development," "Crime/Substance Abuse," and "Health Care."

  17. Evidence-based radiology: review and dissemination.

    PubMed

    Medina, L Santiago; Blackmore, C Craig

    2007-08-01

    Evidence-based radiology (EBR) is an important tool for the practice of radiology. The user of the EBR approach identifies evidence in a systematic fashion and then assimilates information through in-depth, explicit critical review of the best-designed and most recent literature on the subject in question. Clinical decision making is then based on the best current evidence, clinical expertise, and patient values. Substantial progress has been made in the review and dissemination of EBR. Dissemination of EBR within radiology has two critical aspects. The first is increased understanding of the methods required for EBR and of the appropriate use of EBR. The second important component is the dissemination of the data and critical literature reviews necessary to allow use of the EBR approach. Resources available for both EBR methods and EBR data in radiology include societies, journals, medical meetings, Web sites, and textbooks. Although radiology has made important progress in this field in recent years, the specialty is still behind other specialties that have been at the forefront of evidence-based medicine in the past decade. PMID:17641360

  18. Evidence-based Assessment of Pediatric Pain

    PubMed Central

    Lemanek, Kathleen; Blount, Ronald L.; Dahlquist, Lynnda M.; Lim, Crystal S.; Palermo, Tonya M.; McKenna, Kristine D.; Weiss, Karen E.

    2008-01-01

    Objective To conduct an evidence-based review of pediatric pain measures. Methods Seventeen measures were examined, spanning pain intensity self-report, questionnaires and diaries, and behavioral observations. Measures were classified as “Well-established,” “Approaching well-established,” or “Promising” according to established criteria. Information was highlighted to help professionals evaluate the instruments for particular purposes (e.g., research, clinical work). Results Eleven measures met criteria for “Well-established,” six “Approaching well-established,” and zero were classified as “Promising.” Conclusions There are a number of strong measures for assessing children's pain, which allows professionals options to meet their particular needs. Future directions in pain assessment are identified, such as highlighting culture and the impact of pain on functioning. This review examines the research and characteristics of some of the commonly used pain tools in hopes that the reader will be able to use this evidence-based approach and the information in future selection of assessment devices for pediatric pain. PMID:18024983

  19. Evidence-based ethics? On evidence-based practice and the "empirical turn" from normative bioethics

    PubMed Central

    Goldenberg, Maya J

    2005-01-01

    Background The increase in empirical methods of research in bioethics over the last two decades is typically perceived as a welcomed broadening of the discipline, with increased integration of social and life scientists into the field and ethics consultants into the clinical setting, however it also represents a loss of confidence in the typical normative and analytic methods of bioethics. Discussion The recent incipiency of "Evidence-Based Ethics" attests to this phenomenon and should be rejected as a solution to the current ambivalence toward the normative resolution of moral problems in a pluralistic society. While "evidence-based" is typically read in medicine and other life and social sciences as the empirically-adequate standard of reasonable practice and a means for increasing certainty, I propose that the evidence-based movement in fact gains consensus by displacing normative discourse with aggregate or statistically-derived empirical evidence as the "bottom line". Therefore, along with wavering on the fact/value distinction, evidence-based ethics threatens bioethics' normative mandate. The appeal of the evidence-based approach is that it offers a means of negotiating the demands of moral pluralism. Rather than appealing to explicit values that are likely not shared by all, "the evidence" is proposed to adjudicate between competing claims. Quantified measures are notably more "neutral" and democratic than liberal markers like "species normal functioning". Yet the positivist notion that claims stand or fall in light of the evidence is untenable; furthermore, the legacy of positivism entails the quieting of empirically non-verifiable (or at least non-falsifiable) considerations like moral claims and judgments. As a result, evidence-based ethics proposes to operate with the implicit normativity that accompanies the production and presentation of all biomedical and scientific facts unchecked. Summary The "empirical turn" in bioethics signals a need for reconsideration of the methods used for moral evaluation and resolution, however the options should not include obscuring normative content by seemingly neutral technical measure. PMID:16277663

  20. Factsheets, Evidence-Based Reviews and Outside Reports

    Cancer.gov

    Factsheets, Evidence-Based Reviews & Reports View All  |  Tab View Factsheets Evidence-Based Reviews Reports Please see: NCI Fact Sheets: Diet and Nutrition These documents are issued by the Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine

  1. Regional infection control assessment of antibiotic resistance knowledge and practice.

    PubMed

    Black, Stephanie R; Weaver, Kingsley N; Weinstein, Robert A; Hayden, Mary K; Lin, Michael Y; Lavin, Mary Alice; Gerber, Susan I

    2015-04-01

    OBJECTIVE Multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) are an increasing burden among healthcare facilities. We assessed facility-level perceived importance of and responses to various MDROs. DESIGN A pilot survey to assess staffing, knowledge, and the perceived importance of and response to various multidrug resistant organisms (MDROs) SETTING Acute care and long-term healthcare facilities METHODS In 2012, a survey was distributed to infection preventionists at ~300 healthcare facilities. Pathogens assessed were Clostridium difficile, carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE), carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus, multidrug-resistant (defined as bacterial resistance to ?3 antibiotic classes) Pseudomonas, and extended-spectrum ?-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli. RESULTS A total of 74 unique facilities responded, including 44 skilled nursing facilities (SNFs) and 30 acute care facilities (ACFs). While ACFs consistently isolated patients with active infections or colonization due to these MDROs, SNFs had more variable responses. SNFs had more multi-occupancy rooms and reported less specialized training in infection control and prevention than did ACFs. Of all facilities with multi-occupancy rooms, 86% employed a cohorting practice for patients, compared with 50% of those without multi-occupancy rooms; 20% of ACFs and 7% of SNFs cohorted staff while caring for patients with the same MDRO. MRSA and C. difficile were identified as important pathogens in ACFs and SNFs, while CRE importance was unknown or was considered important in <50% of SNFs. CONCLUSION We identified stark differences in human resources, knowledge, policy, and practice between ACFs and SNFs. For regional control of emerging MDROs like CRE, there is an opportunity for public health officials to provide targeted education and interventions. Education campaigns must account for differences in audience resources and baseline knowledge. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2015;00(0): 1-6. PMID:25782891

  2. Evidence-based practice: A challenge for European developmental psychology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christiane Spiel

    2009-01-01

    In recent years the evidence-based practice movement has been seeing great gains in impact. Standards for research leading to evidence-based practice have been defined. So far, however, in the area of education standards of evidence are not extensively implemented and in most federal European policies an evidence-based reform has not been attained. The present paper advocates investing effort in evidence-based

  3. Multidisciplinary and evidence-based management of fistulizing perianal Crohn’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Sordo-Mejia, Ricardo; Gaertner, Wolfgang B

    2014-01-01

    Perianal symptoms are common in patients with Crohn’s disease and cause considerable morbidity. The etiology of these symptoms include skin tags, ulcers, fissures, abscesses, fistulas or stenoses. Fistula is the most common perianal manifestation. Multiple treatment options exist although very few are evidence-based. The phases of treatment include: drainage of infection, assessment of Crohn’s disease status and fistula tracts, medical therapy, and selective operative management. The impact of biological therapy on perianal Crohn’s disease is uncertain given that outcomes are conflicting. Operative treatment to eradicate the fistula tract can be attempted once infection has resolved and Crohn’s disease activity is controlled. The operative approach should be tailored according to the anatomy of the fistula tract. Definitive treatment is challenging with medical and operative treatment rarely leading to true healing with frequent complications and recurrence. Treatment success must be weighed against the risk of complications, specially anal sphincter injury. A full understanding of the etiology and all potential therapeutic options is critical for success. Multidisciplinary management of fistulizing perianal Crohn’s disease is crucial to improve outcomes. PMID:25133026

  4. Evidence-Based Medicine in the Education of Psychiatrists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Srihari, Vinod

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Evidence-based medicine has an important place in the teaching and practice of psychiatry. Attempts to teach evidence-based medicine skills can be weakened by conceptual confusions feeding a false polarization between traditional clinical skills and evidence-based medicine. Methods: The author develops a broader conception of clinical…

  5. Clustering of Medical Publications for Evidence Based Medicine Summarisation

    E-print Network

    Aliod, Diego Mollá

    practitioners to improve their effective practice of EBM. 2 Clustering for Evidence Based Medicine The ultimate and evidence- based summaries obtained from the "Clinical Inquiries" section of the Journal of Family PracticeClustering of Medical Publications for Evidence Based Medicine Summarisation Sara Faisal Shash

  6. Evaluation of Evidence-Based Practices in Online Learning

    E-print Network

    Alpay, S. Pamir

    Evaluation of Evidence-Based Practices in Online Learning A Meta-Analysis and Review of Online Learning Studies #12;#12;Evaluation of Evidence-Based Practices in Online Learning: A Meta.S. Department of Education, Office of Planning, Evaluation, and Policy Development, Evaluation of Evidence-Based

  7. The ABCs of Evidence-Based Practice for Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kretlow, Allison G.; Blatz, Sharon L.

    2011-01-01

    It is critical teachers adhere to federal policies regarding evidence-based practices. Quickly identifying and effectively using evidence-based programs and practices is particularly important for special educators, because students in special education often already have academic or behavioral deficits. Using evidence-based practices with…

  8. Evidence-based oral care for oral mucositis.

    PubMed

    Farrington, Michele; Cullen, Laura; Dawson, Cindy

    2013-01-01

    Nurses must intervene to provide evidence-based supportive care and symptom management for cancer patients. Oral mucositis, a distressing side effect of cancer treatment, is both a research and clinical priority. Nurses can lead improvements with evidence-based oral mucositis interventions. This article describes application of evidence-based clinical recommendations for oral mucositis across diverse patient populations. PMID:24069711

  9. Applying Evidence-Based Medicine Principles to Hip Fracture Management

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, Joseph; Morshed, Saam; Helfet, David L.; Bhandari, Mohit; Ahn, Jaimo

    2014-01-01

    Bone has the capacity to regenerate and not scar after injury – sometimes leaving behind no evidence at all of a prior fracture. As surgeons capable of facilitating such healing, it becomes our responsibility to help choose a treatment that minimizes functional deficits and residual symptoms. And in the case of the geriatric hip fracture, we have seen the accumulation of a vast amount of evidence to help guide us. The best method we currently have for selecting treatment plans is by the practice of evidence-based medicine. According to the now accepted hierarchy, the best is called Level I evidence (e.g., well performed randomized controlled trials) – but this evidence is best only if it is available and appropriate. Lower forms of accepted evidence include cohort studies, case control studies, case series, and case reports, and last, expert opinion – all of which can be potentially instructive. The hallmark of evidence-based treatment is not so much the reliance on evidence in general, but to use the best available evidence relative to the particular patient, the clinical setting and surgeon experience. Correctly applied, varying forms of evidence each have a role in aiding surgeons offer appropriate care for their patients – to help them best fix the fracture. PMID:25593964

  10. Root cause analysis to support infection control in healthcare premises.

    PubMed

    Venier, A-G

    2015-04-01

    Infection control teams (ICTs) seek to prevent healthcare-associated infections (HCAIs). They undertake surveillance and prevention, promote safety and quality of care, and evaluate and manage risk. Root cause analysis (RCA) can support this work but is not widely used by ICTs. This paper describes how ICTs can use RCA to enhance their day-to-day work. Many different tools and methods exist for RCA. Its primary aim is to identify the factors that have led to HCAI, but RCA can also be used for near-misses. A team effort and multidisciplinary work are usually required. Published accounts and personal experience in the field indicate that an ICT that correctly uses RCA implements more effective prevention measures, improves practice and collaborative working, enhances teamwork, and reduces the risk of HCAI. RCA should be promoted among ICTs because it adds value to their work and helps to develop a hospital culture that anticipates and pre-empts problems. PMID:25634490

  11. Toward Evidence-Based Transport of Evidence-Based Treatments: MST as an Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoenwald, Sonja K.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the journey toward evidence-based transport and implementation in usual care settings of Multisystemic Therapy (MST) for youth with drug abuse and behavioral problems (Henggeler, Schoenwald, Borduin, Rowland, & Cunningham, 1998). Research and experience informing the design of the MST transport strategy, progress in…

  12. Comprehensive Control of Human Papillomavirus Infections and Related Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Bosch, F. Xavier; Broker, Thomas R.; Forman, David; Moscicki, Anna-Barbara; Gillison, Maura L.; Doorbar, John; Stern, Peter L.; Stanley, Margaret; Arbyn, Marc; Poljak, Mario; Cuzick, Jack; Castle, Philip E.; Schiller, John T.; Markowitz, Lauri E.; Fisher, William A.; Canfell, Karen; Denny, Lynette A.; Franco, Eduardo L.; Steben, Marc; Kane, Mark A.; Schiffman, Mark; Meijer, Chris J.L.M.; Sankaranarayanan, Rengaswamy; Castellsagué, Xavier; Kim, Jane J.; Brotons, Maria; Alemany, Laia; Albero, Ginesa; Diaz, Mireia; de Sanjosé, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) is recognized as one of the major causes of infection-related cancer worldwide, as well as the causal factor in other diseases. Strong evidence for a causal etiology with HPV has been stated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer for cancers of the cervix uteri, penis, vulva, vagina, anus and oropharynx (including base of the tongue and tonsils). Of the estimated 12.7 million new cancers occurring in 2008 worldwide, 4.8% were attributable to HPV infection, with substantially higher incidence and mortality rates seen in developing versus developed countries. In recent years, we have gained tremendous knowledge about HPVs and their interactions with host cells, tissues and the immune system; have validated and implemented strategies for safe and efficacious prophylactic vaccination against HPV infections; have developed increasingly sensitive and specific molecular diagnostic tools for HPV detection for use in cervical cancer screening; and have substantially increased global awareness of HPV and its many associated diseases in women, men, and children. While these achievements exemplify the success of biomedical research in generating important public health interventions, they also generate new and daunting challenges: costs of HPV prevention and medical care, the implementation of what is technically possible, socio-political resistance to prevention opportunities, and the very wide ranges of national economic capabilities and health care systems. Gains and challenges faced in the quest for comprehensive control of HPV infection and HPV-related cancers and other disease are summarized in this review. The information presented may be viewed in terms of a reframed paradigm of prevention of cervical cancer and other HPV-related diseases that will include strategic combinations of at least four major components: 1) routine introduction of HPV vaccines to women in all countries, 2) extension and simplification of existing screening programs using HPV-based technology, 3) extension of adapted screening programs to developing populations, and 4) consideration of the broader spectrum of cancers and other diseases preventable by HPV vaccination in women, as well as in men. Despite the huge advances already achieved, there must be ongoing efforts including international advocacy to achieve widespread—optimally universal—implementation of HPV prevention strategies in both developed and developing countries. This article summarizes information from the chapters presented in a special ICO Monograph ‘Comprehensive Control of HPV Infections and Related Diseases’ Vaccine Volume 30, Supplement 5, 2012. Additional details on each subtopic and full information regarding the supporting literature references may be found in the original chapters. PMID:24229716

  13. Evidence-based assessment of personality disorders.

    PubMed

    Widiger, Thomas A; Samuel, Douglas B

    2005-09-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide a foundation for the development of evidence-based guidelines for the assessment of personality disorders, focusing in particular on integrated assessment strategies. The general strategy recommended herein is to first administer a self-report inventory to alert oneself to the potential presence of particular maladaptive personality traits followed by a semistructured interview to verify their presence. This strategy is guided by the existing research that suggests particular strengths of self-report inventories and semistructured interviews relative to unstructured clinical interviews. However, the authors also consider research that suggests that further improvements to the existing instruments can be made. The authors emphasize, in particular, a consideration of age of onset, distortions in self-perception and presentation, gender bias, culture and ethnicity, and personality change. PMID:16262454

  14. How to Practice Evidence-Based Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Swanson, Jennifer A.; Schmitz, DeLaine; Chung, Kevin C.

    2015-01-01

    Evidence-based medicine (EBM) is defined as the conscientious, explicit and judicious use of current best evidence, combined with individual clinical expertise and patient preferences and values, in making decisions about the care of individual patients. In an effort to emphasize the importance of EBM in plastic surgery, ASPS and PRS have launched an initiative to improve the understanding of EBM concepts and provide tools for implementing EBM in practice. Through a series of special articles aimed at educating plastic surgeons, our hope is that readers will be compelled to learn more about EBM and incorporate its principles into their own practices. As the first of the series, this article provides a brief overview of the evolution, current application, and practice of EBM. PMID:20224459

  15. Implementation of infection control best practice in intensive care units throughout Europe: a mixed-method evaluation study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The implementation of evidence-based infection control practices is essential, yet challenging for healthcare institutions worldwide. Although acknowledged that implementation success varies with contextual factors, little is known regarding the most critical specific conditions within the complex cultural milieu of varying economic, political, and healthcare systems. Given the increasing reliance on unified global schemes to improve patient safety and healthcare effectiveness, research on this topic is needed and timely. The ‘InDepth’ work package of the European FP7 Prevention of Hospital Infections by Intervention and Training (PROHIBIT) consortium aims to assess barriers and facilitators to the successful implementation of catheter-related bloodstream infection (CRBSI) prevention in intensive care units (ICU) across several European countries. Methods We use a qualitative case study approach in the ICUs of six purposefully selected acute care hospitals among the 15 participants in the PROHIBIT CRBSI intervention study. For sensitizing schemes we apply the theory of diffusion of innovation, published implementation frameworks, sensemaking, and new institutionalism. We conduct interviews with hospital health providers/agents at different organizational levels and ethnographic observations, and conduct rich artifact collection, and photography during two rounds of on-site visits, once before and once one year into the intervention. Data analysis is based on grounded theory. Given the challenge of different languages and cultures, we enlist the help of local interpreters, allot two days for site visits, and perform triangulation across multiple data sources. Qualitative measures of implementation success will consider the longitudinal interaction between the initiative and the institutional context. Quantitative outcomes on catheter-related bloodstream infections and performance indicators from another work package of the consortium will produce a final mixed-methods report. Conclusion A mixed-methods study of this scale with longitudinal follow-up is unique in the field of infection control. It highlights the ‘Why’ and ‘How’ of best practice implementation, revealing key factors that determine success of a uniform intervention in the context of several varying cultural, economic, political, and medical systems across Europe. These new insights will guide future implementation of more tailored and hence more successful infection control programs. Trial registration Trial number: PROHIBIT-241928 (FP7 reference number) PMID:23421909

  16. Minimally invasive treatment of Peyronie's disease: evidence-based progress.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Gerald H; Carson, Culley C; Lipshultz, Larry I

    2014-07-01

    Peyronie's disease (PD) is often physically and psychologically devastating for patients, and the goal of treatment is to improve symptoms and sexual function without adding treatment-related morbidity. The potential for treatment-related morbidity after more invasive interventions, e.g. surgery, creates a need for effective minimally invasive treatments. We critically examined the available literature using levels of evidence to determine the reported support for each treatment. Most available minimally invasive treatments lack critical support for effectiveness due to the absence of randomised, placebo-controlled trials (RCTs) or non-significant results after RCTs. Iontophoresis, oral therapies (vitamin E, potassium para-aminobenzoate, tamoxifen, carnitine, and colchicine), extracorporeal shockwave therapy, and intralesional injection with verapamil or nicardipine have shown mixed or negative results. Treatments that have decreased penile curvature deformity in Level 1 or Level 2 evidence-based, placebo-controlled studies include intralesional injection with interferon ?-2b or collagenase clostridium histolyticum. PMID:24447536

  17. An Interdisciplinary Infection Control Education Intervention: Necessary But Not Sufficient

    PubMed Central

    P. Wagner, Dianne; J. Parker, Carol; E. Mavis, Brian; Smith, Mary Kay

    2011-01-01

    Background Patient care environments are struggling to eradicate health care associated infections and studies of undergraduate and graduate medical trainees have revealed significant gaps in their performance of proper hand hygiene and aseptic technique (HH/AT), suggesting the need for improved curriculum. High-reliability industries have provided a model using standardization of approach and interprofessional training, and both are particularly suited to the teaching and assessment of these life-saving skills. The Infection Control Education project is a grant-funded, multi-institutional pilot launched to improve the teaching and assessment of HH/AT in our community. Methods An interprofessional team of leaders and educators from 2 local hospital systems and 3 health colleges developed a 9-component “ICE PACK,” which includes a unanimously endorsed, detailed HH/AT checklist. This teaching and assessment module was delivered to nursing/medical student and postgraduate year 1 resident/nurse intern pairs. Retention of checklist skills was retested 2 to 5 months after participation in the module. Results Learner pairs participating in the 2-hour module mastered the HH/AT checklist and rated the experience highly. Retention after several weeks was disappointingly low in 2 of the 3 participant groups. Conclusions A community-wide HH/AT checklist was developed and an ICE PACK of materials created that is portable, standardizes the teaching and assessment of HH/AT skills, and is designed for interprofessional pairs of learners. Retention of checklist steps was disappointing in most of participant groups. Multiple, simultaneous strategies for improving compliance with infection control mandates appear necessary. PMID:22655143

  18. Need for more targeted measures - Only less severe hospital-associated infections declined after introduction of an infection control program.

    PubMed

    Koch, Anne Mette; Nilsen, Roy Miodini; Dalheim, Anne; Cox, Rebecca Jane; Harthug, Stig

    2014-12-01

    A systematic infection control program is found to be an important tool to reduce hospital-associated infections (HAIs) and surveillance of infection is a significant part of it. The aim of this paper was to present the result from 17 years continuous prevalence studies after implementation of a systematic infection control program, to examine trends of hospital-associated infections and to study possible risk factors for different sites of infection. Data from 61399 in-patients at Haukeland University Hospital, Norway, from 1994 to 2010 was included in the study. Overall prevalence of HAIs was 7.6%. There was a reduction in HAIs from 8.3% in 1994 to 7.1% in 2010 (relative decrease 14.4%), mostly attributable to a significant reduction in the prevalence of urinary tract infections (UTI). For surgical site infections (SSI) we found a borderline significant increase (p=0.05). Male gender (except for UTI), urinary tract catheter and surgical operation were all strong predictors for HAIs. Higher age was a risk factor for all infection types, except for BSI. In conclusion, repeated prevalence surveys demonstrated a significant reduction in HAIs but no decrease in hospital-associated BSI, LRTI and SSI. There was, however, a rapid decline of UTI and other less severe HAIs. PMID:25488823

  19. The Perfidious Effect of Topical Placebo: Calibration of Staphylococcus aureus Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia Incidence within Selective Digestive Decontamination Studies versus the Broader Evidence Base

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Among various methods for preventing ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), the evidence base for selective digestive decontamination (SDD) appears most compelling. However, the extent of Staphylococcus aureus emergence with SDD use remains uncertain. Groups from 37 observational studies and component (control and intervention) groups from 58 studies of SDD and other methods of VAP prevention were sourced exclusively from 10 systematic reviews. S. aureus as a proportion of VAP isolates (S. aureus isolate proportion [S. aureus IP]) among component groups was calibrated versus that among observational groups (the benchmark). The influence of topical placebo used for blinding purposes and other group-level factors was estimated using generalized estimating equation methods (GEE). The mean S. aureus IP is 22% (95% confidence interval [CI], 19 to 25) for 37 observational groups versus 32% (24 to 41) and 20% (15 to 25) for 22 control groups from the SDD evidence base which did versus did not receive topical placebo, respectively. In GEE models including all 148 observational and component groups, membership of a control (P = 0.03) or intervention (P < 0.001) group of an SDD study that used topical placebo was associated with higher S. aureus IP, whereas, in contrast, membership of these groups was without effect on Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Topical placebo is implicated as a vehicle for selective cross-infection with S. aureus within the specific context of the SDD evidence base. This effect of topical placebo is perfidious; it could contribute to the higher VAP incidence and inflate the apparent “effectiveness” of SDD. The SDD evidence base requires reappraisal. PMID:23836178

  20. Evidence-based National Vaccine Policy.

    PubMed

    Madhavi, Y; Puliyel, Jacob M; Mathew, Joseph L; Raghuram, N; Phadke, Anant; Shiva, Mira; Srinivasan, S; Paul, Yash; Srivastava, R N; Parthasarathy, A; Gupta, Sunil; Ranga, Udaykumar; Lakshmi, V Vijaya; Joshi, Nayana; Nath, Indira; Gulhati, C M; Chatterjee, Prabir; Jain, Anuradha; Priya, Ritu; Dasgupta, Rajib; Sridhar, S; Dabade, Gopal; Gopakumar, K M; Abrol, Dinesh; Santhosh, M R; Srivastava, Sadhana; Visalakshi, S; Bhargava, Anurag; Sarojini, N B; Sehgal, Devinder; Selvaraj, Sakthivel; Banerji, D

    2010-05-01

    India has over a century old tradition of development and production of vaccines. The Government rightly adopted self-sufficiency in vaccine production and self-reliance in vaccine technology as its policy objectives in 1986. However, in the absence of a full-fledged vaccine policy, there have been concerns related to demand and supply, manufacture vs. import, role of public and private sectors, choice of vaccines, new and combination vaccines, universal vs. selective vaccination, routine immunization vs. special drives, cost-benefit aspects, regulatory issues, logistics etc. The need for a comprehensive and evidence based vaccine policy that enables informed decisions on all these aspects from the public health point of view brought together doctors, scientists, policy analysts, lawyers and civil society representatives to formulate this policy paper for the consideration of the Government. This paper evolved out of the first ever ICMR-NISTADS national brainstorming workshop on vaccine policy held during 4-5 June, 2009 in New Delhi, and subsequent discussions over email for several weeks, before being adopted unanimously in the present form. PMID:20516532

  1. Evidence-Based Management of Anticoagulant Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Schulman, Sam; Witt, Daniel M.; Vandvik, Per Olav; Fish, Jason; Kovacs, Michael J.; Svensson, Peter J.; Veenstra, David L.; Crowther, Mark; Guyatt, Gordon H.

    2012-01-01

    Background: High-quality anticoagulation management is required to keep these narrow therapeutic index medications as effective and safe as possible. This article focuses on the common important management questions for which, at a minimum, low-quality published evidence is available to guide best practices. Methods: The methods of this guideline follow those described in Methodology for the Development of Antithrombotic Therapy and Prevention of Thrombosis Guidelines: Antithrombotic Therapy and Prevention of Thrombosis, 9th ed: American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines in this supplement. Results: Most practical clinical questions regarding the management of anticoagulation, both oral and parenteral, have not been adequately addressed by randomized trials. We found sufficient evidence for summaries of recommendations for 23 questions, of which only two are strong rather than weak recommendations. Strong recommendations include targeting an international normalized ratio of 2.0 to 3.0 for patients on vitamin K antagonist therapy (Grade 1B) and not routinely using pharmacogenetic testing for guiding doses of vitamin K antagonist (Grade 1B). Weak recommendations deal with such issues as loading doses, initiation overlap, monitoring frequency, vitamin K supplementation, patient self-management, weight and renal function adjustment of doses, dosing decision support, drug interactions to avoid, and prevention and management of bleeding complications. We also address anticoagulation management services and intensive patient education. Conclusions: We offer guidance for many common anticoagulation-related management problems. Most anticoagulation management questions have not been adequately studied. PMID:22315259

  2. Infections

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Infections Warts West Nile Virus What Is "PANS"? Whooping Cough (Pertussis) Yersiniosis Ear Infections Can Chronic Ear Infections ... Scarlet Fever Sinusitis Strep Throat Tuberculosis Walking Pneumonia Whooping Cough (Pertussis) Medical Tests A Directory of Medical Tests ...

  3. Infection control preparedness for human infection with influenza A H7N9 in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Vincent C C; Tai, Josepha W M; Lee, W M; Chan, W M; Wong, Sally C Y; Chen, Jonathan H K; Poon, Rosana W S; To, Kelvin K W; Chan, Jasper F W; Ho, P L; Chan, K H; Yuen, K Y

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess the effectiveness of infection control preparedness for human infection with influenza A H7N9 in Hong Kong. DESIGN A descriptive study of responses to the emergence of influenza A H7N9. SETTING A university-affiliated teaching hospital. PARTICIPANTS Healthcare workers (HCWs) with unprotected exposure (not wearing N95 respirator during aerosol-generating procedure) to a patient with influenza A H7N9. METHODS A bundle approach including active and enhanced surveillance, early airborne infection isolation, rapid molecular diagnostic testing, and extensive contact tracing for HCWs with unprotected exposure was implemented. Seventy HCWs with unprotected exposure to an index case were interviewed especially regarding their patient care activities. RESULTS From April 1, 2013, through May 31, 2014, a total of 126 (0.08%) of 163,456 admitted patients were tested for the H7 gene by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction per protocol. Two confirmed cases were identified. Seventy (53.8%) of 130 HCWs had unprotected exposure to an index case, whereas 41 (58.6%) and 58 (82.9%) of 70 HCWs wore surgical masks and practiced hand hygiene after patient care, respectively. Sixteen (22.9%) of 70 HCWs were involved in high-risk patient contacts. More HCWs with high-risk patient contacts received oseltamivir prophylaxis (P=0.088) and significantly more had paired sera collected for H7 antibody testing (P<0.001). Ten (14.3%) of 70 HCWs developed influenza-like illness during medical surveillance, but none had positive results by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Paired sera was available from 33 of 70 HCWs with unprotected exposure, and none showed seroconversion against H7N9. CONCLUSIONS Despite the delay in airborne precautions implementation, no patient-to-HCW transmission of influenza A H7N9 was demonstrated. PMID:25627766

  4. Merging Evidence-Based Psychosocial Interventions in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Lecomte, Tania; Corbière, Marc; Simard, Stéphanie; Leclerc, Claude

    2014-01-01

    Psychosocial interventions are an essential part of the treatment for people with severe mental illness such as schizophrenia. The criteria regarding what makes an intervention “evidence-based” along with a current list of evidence-based interventions are presented. Although many evidence-based interventions exist, implementation studies reveal that few, if any, are ever implemented in a given setting. Various theories and approaches have been developed to better understand and overcome implementation obstacles. Among these, merging two evidence-based interventions, or offering an evidence-based intervention within an evidence-based service, are increasingly being reported and studied in the literature. Five such merges are presented, along with their empirical support: cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) with skills training; CBT and family psychoeducation; supported employment (SE) and skills training; SE and cognitive remediation; and SE and CBT. PMID:25431447

  5. Directing the public to evidence-based online content.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Crystale Purvis; Gelb, Cynthia A; Vaughn, Alexandra N; Smuland, Jenny; Hughes, Alexandra G; Hawkins, Nikki A

    2014-07-22

    To direct online users searching for gynecologic cancer information to accurate content, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) 'Inside Knowledge: Get the Facts About Gynecologic Cancer' campaign sponsored search engine advertisements in English and Spanish. From June 2012 to August 2013, advertisements appeared when US Google users entered search terms related to gynecologic cancer. Users who clicked on the advertisements were directed to relevant content on the CDC website. Compared with the 3?months before the initiative (March-May 2012), visits to the CDC web pages linked to the advertisements were 26 times higher after the initiative began (June-August 2012) (p<0.01), and 65 times higher when the search engine advertisements were supplemented with promotion on television and additional websites (September 2012-August 2013) (p<0.01). Search engine advertisements can direct users to evidence-based content at a highly teachable moment-when they are seeking relevant information. PMID:25053580

  6. Training Staff and Parents: Evidence-Based Approaches

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dennis H. Reid; Wendy H. Fitch

    \\u000a The benefits of relying on evidence-based treatment for people with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have become increasingly\\u000a apparent. Most notably, reliance on treatment approaches with an established evidence base significantly enhances the likelihood\\u000a that treatment will be effective and desired outcomes will result for people with ASD. Although controversy continues over\\u000a what represents a sufficient evidence base in some cases

  7. Viral infections as controlling factors for the deep biosphere? (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelen, B.; Engelhardt, T.; Sahlberg, M.; Cypionka, H.

    2009-12-01

    The marine deep biosphere represents the largest biotope on Earth. Throughout the last years, we have obtained interesting insights into its microbial community composition. However, one component that was completely overlooked so far is the viral inventory of deep-subsurface sediments. While viral infections were identified to have a major impact on the benthic microflora of deep-sea surface sediments (Danavaro et al. 2008), no studies were performed on deep-biosphere samples, so far. As grazers probably play only a minor role in anoxic and highly compressed deep sediments, viruses might be the main “predators” for indigenous microorganisms. Furthermore, the release of cell components, called “the viral shunt”, could have a major impact on the deep biosphere in providing labile organic compounds to non-infected microorganisms in these generally nutrient depleted sediments. However, direct counting of viruses in sediments is highly challenging due to the small size of viruses and the high background of small particles. Even molecular surveys using “universal” PCR primers that target phage-specific genes fail due to the vast phage diversity. One solution for this problem is the lysogenic viral life cycle as many bacteriophages integrate their DNA into the host genome. It is estimated that up to 70% of cultivated bacteria contain prophages within their genome. Therefore, culture collections (Batzke et al. 2007) represent an archive of the viral composition within the respective habitat. These prophages can be induced to become free phage particles in stimulation experiments in which the host cells are set under certain stress situations such as a treatment with UV exposure or DNA-damaging antibiotics. The study of the viral component within the deep biosphere offers to answer the following questions: To which extent are deep-biosphere populations controlled by viral infections? What is the inter- and intra-specific diversity and the host-specific viral biogeography? Can viral infections tell us something about the physiological state of indigenous microorganisms? Finally, we will obtain estimates for the viral shunt as an important factor for sustaining the deep biosphere. References: Batzke A, Engelen B, Sass H, Cypionka H (2007) Phylogenetic and physiological diversity of cultured deep-biosphere bacteria from Equatorial Pacific Ocean and Peru Margin sediments. Geomicrobiology J 24:261-273 Danovaro R, Dell'Anno A, Corinaldesi C, Magagnini M, Noble R, Tamburini C, Weinbauer M (2008) Major viral impact on the functioning of benthic deep-sea ecosystems. Nature 454: 1084-U1027.

  8. Controlled release of gentamicin from polyelectrolyte multilayers to treat implant-related infection

    E-print Network

    Moskowitz, Joshua Seth

    2012-01-01

    Polyelectrolyte multilayered (PEM) coatings were fabricated to incorporate and release the small, hydrophilic antibiotic gentamicin from implant surfaces for infection control. The use of a cationic hydrolytically cleavable ...

  9. Measuring the quality of infection control in Dutch nursing homes using a standardized method; the Infection prevention RIsk Scan (IRIS)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background We developed a standardised method to assess the quality of infection control in Dutch Nursing Home (NH), based on a cross-sectional survey that visualises the results. The method was called the Infection control RIsk Infection Scan (IRIS). We tested the applicability of this new tool in a multicentre surveillance executed June and July 2012. Methods The IRIS includes two patient outcome-variables, i.e. the prevalence of healthcare associated infections (HAI) and rectal carriage of Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL) producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E); two patient-related risk factors, i.e. use of medical devices, and antimicrobial therapy; and three ward-related risk factors, i.e. environmental contamination, availability of local guidelines, and shortcomings in infection prevention preconditions. Results were categorised as low-, intermediate- and high risk, presented in an easy-to-read graphic risk spider-plot. This plot was given as feedback to management and healthcare workers of the NH. Results Large differences were found among most the variables in the different NH. Common shortcomings were the availability of infection control guidelines and the level of environmental cleaning. Most striking differences were observed in the prevalence of ESBL carriage, ranged from zero to 20.6% (p?infection control situation of the participating NH. The results can be used to improve the quality of infection control based on the specific needs of a NH but needs further validation in future studies. Repeated measurement can determine the effectiveness of the interventions. This makes the IRIS a useful tool for quality systems. PMID:25243067

  10. Case-control study of disease determinants for non-typhoidal Salmonella infections among Michigan children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Muhammad Younus; Melinda J Wilkins; Herbert D Davies; Mohammad H Rahbar; Julie Funk; Chau Nguyen; Azfar-E A Siddiqi; Seongbeom Cho; Mahdi Saeed

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Infections with Salmonella serotypes continue to be a significant global public health problem. In addition to contaminated foods, several other sources contribute to infections with Salmonella serotypes. We have assessed the role of socioeconomic factors, exposure to food, and environmental sources in the etiology of non-typhoidal Salmonella infections in Michigan children. FINDINGS: A case-control study among Michigan children aged

  11. Bloodstream infections and central line-associated bloodstream infections.

    PubMed

    Watson, Christopher M; Al-Hasan, Majdi N

    2014-12-01

    It is estimated that more than 575,000 individuals develop bloodstream infections (BSI) annually in North America, accounting for nearly 80,000 deaths. Central line-associated BSI (CLABSI) is a major contributor to the cost of health care. Although primary BSI may be seen by the surgeon, a secondary BSI is more likely to be encountered, especially CLABSI. Prompt identification of the source of infection in patients with secondary BSI is paramount. This practice allows early source control and initiation of appropriate antimicrobial therapy, with subsequent improvement in outcomes. An understanding of evidence-based preventative measures and bundles is important. PMID:25440121

  12. Integrating evidence-based perfusion into practices: the International Consortium for Evidence-Based Perfusion.

    PubMed

    Likosky, Donald S

    2006-12-01

    There is surmounting pressure for clinicians domestically and abroad not only to practice evidence-based perfusion, but also to supplement practice with documentation thereof. In this editorial, I shall describe an international initiative aimed at embracing this dictum from patients, regulatory bodies, and payers. "Research is the only hope that the future will be different than the past"- Daniel Mintz, MD "Practical men who believe themselves to be quite exempt from any intellectual influences are usually the slaves of some defunct economist.... It is ideas not vested interests which are dangerous for good or evil."-John Maynard Keynes. PMID:17312899

  13. 75 FR 63844 - Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee (HICPAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-18

    ...will include updates on CDC's activities for healthcare-associated infections; the draft guideline for the Prevention of Norovirus Gastroenteritis Outbreaks in Healthcare Settings; draft guideline for prevention of infections among patients in...

  14. 75 FR 29772 - Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee, (HICPAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-27

    ...will include: Updates on CDC's activities for healthcare associated infections; the draft guideline for the Prevention of Norovirus Gastroenteritis Outbreaks in Healthcare Settings; the draft guideline for prevention of infections among patients in...

  15. Evidence-Based Practice in Education. Conducting Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pring, Richard; Thomas, Gary

    2004-01-01

    The book begins with an explication of evidence-based practice. Some of the ideas of its proponents are discussed, including the Campbell Collaboration, and the application to education of Cochrane-style reviews and meta-analyses. The thinking behind evidence-based practice has been the subject of much criticism, particularly in education, and…

  16. Evidence-based gene predictions in plant genomes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Automated evidence-based gene building is a rapid and cost-effective way to provide reliable gene annotations on newly sequenced genomes. One of the limitations of evidence-based gene builders, however, is their requirement for gene expression evidence—known proteins, full-length cDNAs, or expressed...

  17. Towards an Understanding of Evidence-Based Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Digennaro Reed, Florence D.; Reed, Derek D.

    2008-01-01

    The past two decades have seen a rise in the use of the term "evidence-based practice" and a simultaneous increase in the variations in its definition and evaluation. Subsequently, this rise in interest for evidence-based practices has become a double-edged sword for practitioners--that is, while there are a number of interpretations on the…

  18. Counting what counts: performance measurement and evidence-based practice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew Booth

    2006-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore conceptual and practical links between performance measurement and evidence-based library and information practice (EBLIP) and to identify lessons to be learned from evidence-based healthcare. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper presents a selective review of key writings in EBLIP for reference to performance measurement. Findings – The paper finds that performance measurement

  19. Evidence-Based Practice in Rehabilitation Counseling: Perceptions and Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bezyak, Jill L.; Kubota, Coleen; Rosenthal, David

    2010-01-01

    This study describes certified rehabilitation counselors' attitudes (n=163) about evidence based practice, knowledge and skills related to obtaining and evaluating evidence, use of literature in practice, availability of information, and perceived barriers to evidence-based practice. Responses related to knowledge and skills were mixed with strong…

  20. Ms Siti ZUBAIDAH, Assistant Director of Nursing (Evidence Based-

    E-print Network

    Kan, Min-Yen

    Ms Siti ZUBAIDAH, Assistant Director of Nursing (Evidence Based- Nursing Unit) Dr Emily Ang Deputy Quanzhen, RN Lin Qianqian (Front row) eEvidence: Evidence based care supported by Technology Paula M is determined by the nurses in clinical and community practice · Evidence available immediately at the point

  1. Opening Pandora's Box: Evidence-based practice for educational psychologists

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark Fox

    2003-01-01

    Over the past few years evidence-based practice has become of central concern to health and social services in this country. The fundamental tenant is that there must be a clear link between professional practice and its research base. This paper outlines the concept of evidence-based practice and how it rests on the concept of good quality research -- defined as

  2. Evidence-Based Practice: Integrating Classroom Curriculum and Field Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuchman, Ellen; Lalane, Monique

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the use of problem-based learning to teach the scope and consequences of evidence-based practices in mental health through an innovative assignment that integrates classroom and field learning. The authors illustrate the planning and implementation of the Evidence-Based Practice: Integrating Classroom Curriculum and Field…

  3. Evidence-based veterinary medicine: new graduates' perspectives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laura Spoor; Simon Priestnall; Jen Claridge; Ben Dustan; Stephanie Reed

    2009-01-01

    IN October 2008, Sally Everitt looked at how evidence-based medicine could be integrated into veterinary practice (In Practice, vol 30, pp 526-528). Here, five veterinary graduates who have undertaken an intercalated degree comment on the use of evidence-based medicine in veterinary practice.

  4. The Evidence-Based Manifesto for School Librarians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todd, Ross

    2008-01-01

    School Library Journal's 2007 Leadership Summit, "Where's the Evidence? Understanding the Impact of School Libraries," focused on the topic of evidence-based practice. Evidence-based school librarianship is a systematic approach that engages research-derived evidence, school librarian-observed evidence, and user-reported evidence in the processes…

  5. Evidence-Based Treatment and Stuttering--Historical Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prins, David; Ingham, Roger J.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To illustrate the way in which both fluency shaping (FS) and stuttering management (SM) treatments for developmental stuttering in adults are evidence based. Method: A brief review of the history and development of FS and SM is provided. It illustrates that both can be justified as evidence-based treatments, each treatment seeking…

  6. Evidence-Based Guidelines in Laboratory Medicine: Principles and Methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wytze P. Oosterhuis; David E. Bruns; Joseph Watine; Sverre Sandberg; Andrea R. Horvath

    2004-01-01

    Background: Guidelines are commonly used tools for supporting medical decisions. Formulating evidence- based recommendations has become a leading principle in guideline development. Aim: This narrative review integrates the most recent methods of evidence-based guideline development and adapts those to the field of laboratory medicine. Summary: We present a 10-step process and a list of criteria for the development of laboratory

  7. Evidence-Based Practice Guidelines and School Nursing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Susan; McCarthy, Ann Marie

    2007-01-01

    The use of evidence-based practice (EBP) has become the standard of health care practice. Nurses are expected to use best evidence on a wide range of topics, yet most nurses have limited time, resources, and/or skills to access and evaluate the quality of research and evidence needed to practice evidence-based nursing. EBP guidelines allow nurses…

  8. Creating Evidence-Based Research in Adapted Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Greg; Bouffard, Marcel; MacDonald, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Professional practice guided by the best research evidence is a usually referred to as evidence-based practice. The aim of the present paper is to describe five fundamental beliefs of adapted physical activity practices that should be considered in an 8-step research model to create evidence-based research in adapted physical activity. The five…

  9. [Evidence based surgery of cancer of head of pancreas].

    PubMed

    Launois, Bernard; Huguier, Michel

    2004-01-01

    Physicians and surgeons who treat patients with gastrointestinal or hepatic disease must prescribe the most appropriate diagnostic tests, together with an accurate prognosis and effective and safe therapy. This paper examines the best modalities of surgical treatment for cancer of the pancreas, in an evidence-based approach. Evidence was classified as follows: Grade A : evidence from large randomized controlled trials (RCT) or systematic reviews (including meta-analyses) of multiple randomized trials which collectively have at least as much data as one single well-defined trial. Grade B: evidence from at least one high-quality study of non-randomized cohorts or evidence from at least one high-quality case-control study or one high-quality case series. Grade C: opinions from experts without references or access to any of the foregoing The data were obtained from Medline and from controlled randomized trials listed in the Cochrane Library up to the end of 2003. Two series (grade B) showed the superiority of Whipple over total pancreatectomy, with respective median survival times of 12.6 months and 9.6 months. Extensive lymphadenectomy (grade A) in patients with positive lymph nodes gave significantly better survival than standard resection in one trial, but this was not confirmed in the other trial. Results of pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy (PPPD) were not different from those of the Whipple procedure on postoperative mortality, morbidity or survival (grade A). Portal vein resection increased the resectability rate. Post-operative mortality was not increased: survival was not different in four studies and was shorter in another four studies (grade C). Low-dose postoperative erythromycin accelerates gastric emptying if the right gastric artery is preserved (grade A). One trial suggests that pancreaticogastrostomy reduces the risk of pancreatic fistula. The two other trials are controversial and showed no difference. One prospective non randomized study showed that stenting in pancreaticojejunostomy reduces the risk of pancreatic fistulae and intraabdominal abscess. To prevent this risk of pancreatic fistula, six controlled trials involving patients receiving octreotride were performed Three European trials showed a smaller volume of abdominal drainage fluid and an abnormal amylase concentration; however, two American trials failed to demonstrate a significant difference. Occlusion of the pancreatic duct with fibrin glue did not reduce the risk of pancreatic fistula, but increased the risk of developing diabetes. Intraabdominal drainage after pancreatic resection significantly increased post-operative complications (grade A). Surgical resection and reconstruction procedures for pancreatic cancer must be based on evidence-based studies. However, the most important prognostic factor is the surgeon's experience, not only with regard to the post-operative course, but also survival. Specific teaching and training is thus essential. PMID:15656235

  10. Evidence-based practice: a deconstruction and postmodern critique: book review article.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Peter

    2005-03-01

    This paper discusses the significance of postmodernism for healthcare practice, specifically the discourse known as 'evidence-based practice'. It considers two texts, both of which present postmodern analyses of contemporary issues. One text presents a deconstruction of evidence-based practice in an attempt to reveal its 'true' nature, which is portrayed as one that does not respect research paradigms other than the randomised controlled trial, merely pays lip service to expertise and fails to connect with the real nature of clinical practice. The second text considers the accusation that absolute relativism implied by postmodern approaches may permit an 'anything goes' mentality and provide succour to those advocating unacceptable practices. A 'defence' of postmodernism in relation to the accusation that it encourages holocaust denial is used to consider further the nature and limitations of postmodern critiques of evidence-based practice. This review concludes that postmodernism fundamentally challenges the apparent 'objectivity' of evidence-based practice but it does not challenge the fundamental rules for acquiring and testing evidence. Rather it is the selection of questions to be asked and answered by evidence-based practice/practitioners that is the true limitation. This is the ground upon which fruitful argument can be had about the significance of evidence without undermining the requirement that there be evidence and standards to judge such evidence. PMID:15708022

  11. Applying Evidence-Based Medicine to Traditional Chinese Medicine: Debate and Strategy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeanne L. Shea

    2006-01-01

    Drawing on recent paper published literature in both English and Chinese, this explores reactions to the eval- uation of Chinese medicine using randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and the standards of evidence-based medicine (EBM). The literature review revealed a few sources which contend that Chinese medicine should not be evaluated on the basis of RCTs, but a far greater number which

  12. Developing Evidence-Based Practice: The Role of Case-Based Research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David J. A. Edwards; Frank M. Dattilio; Dennis B. Bromley

    2004-01-01

    How can practitioners engage in evidence-based practice when the evidence for effectiveness of psychological treatments comes from randomized controlled trials using patient populations different from those encountered in everyday settings and treatment manuals that seem oversimplified and inflexible? The authors argue that important evidence about best practice comes from case-based research, which builds knowledge in a clinically useful manner and

  13. An Evidence-Based Approach to the Treatment of Adults with Sickle Cell Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard Lottenberg; Kathryn L. Hassell

    The application of evidence-based medicine to the management of adults with sickle cell disease (SCD) is currently primarily driven by clinical expertise and patient preference, as there is a paucity of randomized controlled trial (RCT) data to guide decision-making. A summary of SCD management principles in the areas of health care maintenance, transfusion therapy, treatment and prevention of painful episodes,

  14. Examining the Sustainability of an Evidence-Based Preschool Curriculum: The REDI Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanford DeRousie, Rebecca M.; Bierman, Karen L.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which an evidence-based preschool curriculum (Head Start REDI) was sustained by 20 teachers during the year following a randomized controlled efficacy trial, when teachers were no longer required by the research project to implement the curriculum. Two quantitative measures of sustainability (teacher ratings, REDI…

  15. Updated Diagnoses and Evidence-based Treatments

    E-print Network

    Hofmann, Hans A.

    -IV Diagnosis of Drug Problems · drug abuse is diagnosed by 1 (or more) out month period #12;Drug abuse is voluntary, the user has control over drug use and is making bad choices. (We could say that drug abusers

  16. JAMA Patient Page: Evidence-Based Medicine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... guidelines. This Patient Page is based on one published in the September 6, 2006, issue of JAMA . ... A Patient Page on randomized controlled trials was published in the June 21, 2006, issue; one on ...

  17. Adaptation Guidance for Evidence-Based Teen Pregnancy and STI/HIV Prevention Curricula: From Development to Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rolleri, Lori A.; Fuller, Taleria R.; Firpo-Triplett, Regina; Lesesne, Catherine A.; Moore, Claire; Leeks, Kimberly D.

    2014-01-01

    Evidence-based interventions (EBIs) are effective in preventing adolescent pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections; however, prevention practitioners are challenged when selecting and adapting the most appropriate programs. While there are existing adaptation frameworks, there is little practical guidance in applying research in the field.…

  18. Current Treatment of Toxoplasma Retinochoroiditis: An Evidence-Based Review

    PubMed Central

    Carvounis, Petros E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To perform an evidence-based review of treatments for Toxoplasma retinochoroiditis (TRC). Methods. A systematic literature search was performed using the PubMed database and the key phrase “ocular toxoplasmosis treatment” and the filter for “controlled clinical trial” and “randomized clinical trial” as well as OVID medline (1946 to May week 2 2014) using the keyword ‘‘ocular toxoplasmosis”. The included studies were used to evaluate the various treatment modalities of TRC. Results. The electronic search yielded a total of 974 publications of which 44 reported on the treatment of ocular toxoplasmosis. There were 9 randomized controlled studies and an additional 3 comparative studies on the treatment of acute TRC with systemic or intravitreous antibiotics or on reducing the recurrences of TRC. Endpoints of studies included visual acuity improvement, inflammatory response, lesion size changes, recurrences of lesions, and adverse effects of medications. Conclusions. There was conflicting evidence as to the effectiveness of systemic antibiotics for TRC. There is no evidence to support that one antibiotic regimen is superior to another so choice needs to be informed by the safety profile. Intravitreous clindamycin with dexamethasone seems to be as effective as systemic treatments. There is currently level I evidence that intermittent trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole prevents recurrence of the disease. PMID:25197557

  19. [Evidence-based practice for perioperative patient safety: preface and comments].

    PubMed

    Kawamata, Mikito

    2014-03-01

    Various kinds of evidence-based checklists and guidelines aimed at patient safety in the perioperative period are becoming popular in the clinical setting. These include WHO guidelines on surgical patient safety, surgical-crisis checklists, checklist for preventing major complications associated with cesarean delivery, NICE guidelines for surgical site infection, guidelines for the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of pulmonary thromboembolism and deep vein thrombosis, appropriateness criteria for stress echocardiography and so on. Better knowledge of evidence of these guidelines and check lists for acute care in the perioperative period helps us provide high-quality care for surgical patients. When we use the guidelines and checklists correctly, we could see what is happening in a patient and what to do next for the patient leading us to correct diagnosis and appropriate treatment. Thus, evidence-based practice will be established in the near future in the perioperative period. PMID:24724432

  20. Sustained institutional effects of an evidence-based HIV prevention intervention.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bo; Stanton, Bonita; Knowles, Valerie; Russell-Rolle, Glenda; Deveaux, Lynette; Dinaj-Koci, Veronica; Li, Xiaoming; Brathwaite, Nanika; Lunn, Sonja

    2014-06-01

    Limited data are available as to what happens in institutions involved in behavioral intervention trials after the trial has ended. Specifically, do the trainers continue to administer the behavioral intervention that had been the focus of the trial? To address this question, we examined data in grade six schools before a year-long behavioral intervention had been delivered in some schools (and a year-long control condition in others) and data obtained again 6 and 7 years later in the same two sets of schools. Data were derived from the baseline surveys of two interventions: (1) national implementation of the evidence-based Focus on Youth in the Caribbean (FOYC) intervention in 2011; and (2) the randomized, controlled trial of the FOYC intervention in 2004/2005. Cross-sectional, longitudinal comparisons and random coefficient regression analysis were conducted to evaluate long-term intervention effects. Results indicate that grade six students in 2011 from schools in which the FOYC intervention had been implemented in 2004/2005 had a higher level of HIV/AIDS knowledge, increased reproductive health skills, increased self-efficacy regarding their ability to prevent HIV infection, and greater intention to use protection if they were to have sex compared to their counterparts from schools where no such training took place. We concluded that new cohorts of students benefited from the extensive training and/or experience in teaching the FOYC curriculum received by teachers, guidance counselors and administrators in schools which had delivered the FOYC intervention as part of a randomized trial several years earlier. The findings suggest that teachers who previously were trained to deliver the FOYC intervention may continue to teach at least some portions of the curriculum to subsequent classes of students attending these schools. PMID:23584570

  1. Towards Evidence-Based Practice in Science Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millar, Robin; Leach, John; Osborne, Jonathan; Ratcliffe, Mary; Hames, Vicky; Hind, Andy; Bartholomew, Hannah; Collins, Sue; Lewis, Jenny; Scott, Phil; Duschl, Rick

    2002-01-01

    Suggests that teaching should be informed by research and reports interim findings from three of the four projects from the Evidence-based Practice in Science Education (EPSE) Research Network. (Author/DDR)

  2. Hindawi Publishing Corporation Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine

    E-print Network

    Napadow, Vitaly

    stimulating distal acupoints. 1. Introduction Acupuncture, a component of traditional Chinese medicine, hasHindawi Publishing Corporation Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine Volume 2013 446-701, Republic of Korea 4 Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Spaulding

  3. Using Evidence-Based Principles in Clinical Practice

    E-print Network

    Storkel, Holly Lynn

    2004-01-01

    To help students better understand how to use evidence-based principles in clinical practice, Prof. Storkel is revising her SPLH 880 course so that students can access evidence from clinical research and apply it to specific patients....

  4. Development and evaluation of online evidence based guideline bank system.

    PubMed

    Park, Myonghwa

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate the online evidence-based nursing practice guideline bank system to support the best evidence-based decision in the clinical and community practice settings. The main homepage consisted of seven modules for introduction of site, EBN, guideline bank, guideline development, guideline review, related sites, and community. The major contents in the guidelines were purpose, developer, intended audience, method of development, target population, testing, knowledge components, and evaluation. Electronic versions of the guidelines were displayed by XML, PDF, and PDA versions. The system usability were evaluated by general users, guideline developers, and guideline reviewers on the web and the results showed high scores of satisfaction. This online evidence-based guideline bank system could support nurses' best and cost-effective clinical decision using the sharable standardized guidelines with education module of evidence based nursing. PMID:17102227

  5. Principles of evidence-based dental practice (EBDP).

    PubMed

    Abdellatif, Hoda; Dechow, Paul C; Jones, Daniel L

    2011-02-01

    In an effort to improve patient care, there has been a growing trend across the nation and the world to embed the principles of evidence-based dentistry into mainstream care delivery by private practicing dentists. Evidence-based dentistry is an essential tool that is used to improve the quality of care and to reduce the gap between what we know, what is possible, and what we do. An evidence-based health care practice is one that includes the decision maker's ability to find, assess, and incorporate high-quality, valid information in diagnosis and treatment. The evidence is considered in conjunction with the clinician's experience and judgment, and the patient's preferences, values, and circumstances. This article introduces the basic skills of evidence-based dentistry. Their practice requires a discipline of lifelong learning in which recent and relevant scientific evidence are translated into practical clinical applications. PMID:21473242

  6. An evidence-based assessment of prescribed grazing practices

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Synthesis findings regarding the evidence-based assessment of prescribed grazing practices include: 1) stocking rate, in conjunction with appropriate temporal and spatial animal distribution, is a key management variable that influences numerous conservation outcomes, 2) assumptions regarding livest...

  7. Clarification and Elaboration on Evidence-Based Practice in Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wampold, Bruce E.; Goodheart, Carol D.; Levant, Ronald F.

    2007-01-01

    Responds to comments by D. C. Wendt and B. D. Slife (see record 2007-13085-019), P. H. Hunsberger (see record 2007-13085-020), and R. B. Stuart and S. O. Lilienfeld (see record 2007-13085-021) regarding the report by the APA Presidential Task Force on Evidence-Based Practice (see record 2006-05893-001) entitled Evidence-based practice in…

  8. Evidence based practice: a survey of physiotherapists' current practice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ross Iles; Megan Davidson

    2006-01-01

    Backgound and Purpose. Evidence-based practice is the explicit use of current best evidence in making decisions about the care of individual patients and is a concept of growing importance for physiotherapy. The aim of the present study was to investigate Australian physiotherapists' self-reported practice, skills and knowledge of evidence-based practice and to examine differences between recent and experienced grad- uates,

  9. From evidence-based medicine to genomic medicine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dhavendra Kumar

    2007-01-01

    The concept of ‘evidence-based medicine’ dates back to mid-19th century or even earlier. It remains pivotal in planning, funding\\u000a and in delivering the health care. Clinicians, public health practitioners, health commissioners\\/purchasers, health planners,\\u000a politicians and public seek formal ‘evidence’ in approving any form of health care provision. Essentially ‘evidence-based\\u000a medicine’ aims at the conscientious, explicit and judicious use of the

  10. Evidence-based cognitive rehabilitation: Recommendations for clinical practice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Keith D. Cicerone; Cynthia Dahlberg; Kathleen Kalmar; Donna M. Langenbahn; James F. Malec; Thomas F. Bergquist; Thomas Felicetti; Joseph T. Giacino; J. Preston Harley; Douglas E. Harrington; Jean Herzog; Sally Kneipp; Linda Laatsch; Philip A. Morse

    2000-01-01

    Cicerone KD, Dahlberg C, Kalmar K, Langenbahn DM, Malec JF, Bergquist TF, Felicetti T, Giacino JT, Harley JP, Harrington DE, Herzog J, Kneipp S, Laatsch L, Morse PA. Evidence-based cognitive rehabilitation: recommendations for clinical practice. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2000;81:1596-615. Objective: To establish evidence-based recommendations for the clinical practice of cognitive rehabilitation, derived from a methodical review of the scientific

  11. Specialized Community-Based Care: An Evidence-Based Analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Specialized community-based care (SCBC) refers to services that manage chronic illness through formalized links between primary and specialized care. Objectives The objectives of this evidence-based analysis (EBA) were as follows: to summarize the literature on SCBC, also known as intermediate care to synthesize the evidence from previous Medical Advisory Secretariat (now Health Quality Ontario) EBAs on SCBC for heart failure, diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and chronic wounds to examine the role of SCBC in family practice Results Part 1: Systematic Review of Intermediate Care Seven systematic reviews on intermediate care since 2008 were identified. The literature base is complex and difficult to define. There is evidence to suggest that intermediate care is effective in improving outcomes; however, the effective interventions are still uncertain. Part 2: Synthesis of Evidence in Intermediate Care Mortality • Heart failure Significant reduction in patients receiving SCBC • COPD Nonsignificant reduction in patients receiving SCBC Hospitalization • Heart failure Nonsignificant reduction in patients receiving SCBC • COPD Significant reduction in patients receiving SCBC Emergency Department Visits • Heart failure Nonsignificant reduction in patients receiving SCBC • COPD Significant reduction in patients receiving SCBC Disease-Specific Patient Outcomes • COPD Nonsignificant improvement in lung function in patients receiving SCBC • Diabetes Significant reduction in hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and systolic blood pressure in patients receiving SCBC • Chronic wounds Significant increase in the proportion of healed wounds in patients receiving SCBC Quality of Life • Heart failure Trend toward improvement in patients receiving SCBC • COPD Significant improvement in patients receiving SCBC Part 3: Intermediate Care in Family Practice—Evidence-Based Analysis Five randomized controlled trials were identified comparing SCBC to usual care in family practice. Inclusion criteria were 1) the presence of multiple chronic conditions, and 2) interventions that included 2 or more health care professions. The GRADE quality of the evidence was assessed as low for all outcomes due to the inconsistency and indirectness of the results. Limitations This review did not look at disease-specific studies on intermediate care in family practice. Conclusions Specialized community-based care effectively improves outcomes in patients with heart failure, COPD, and diabetes. The effectiveness of SCBC in family practice is unclear. PMID:23226812

  12. Mathematical models of immune effector responses to viral infections: Virus control versus the development of pathology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wodarz, Dominik

    2005-12-01

    This article reviews mathematical models which have investigated the importance of lytic and non-lytic immune responses for the control of viral infections. Lytic immune responses fight the virus by killing infected cells, while non-lytic immune responses fight the virus by inhibiting viral replication while leaving the infected cell alive. The models suggest which types or combinations of immune responses are required to resolve infections which vary in their characteristics, such as the rate of viral replication and the rate of virus-induced target cell death. This framework is then applied to persistent infections and viral evolution. It is investigated how viral evolution and antigenic escape can influence the relative balance of lytic and non-lytic responses over time, and how this might correlate with the transition from an asymptomatic infection to pathology. This is discussed in the specific context of hepatitis C virus infection.

  13. Evidence-based treatment strategies in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Behr, Jürgen

    2013-06-01

    Recently updated guidelines have provided revised recommendations, based on the GRADE criteria, for the diagnosis and pharmacological and non-pharmacological management of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Cochrane reviews are also a highly respected and reliable source of evidence-based information that identify and analyse all available data of overall treatment effects from appropriate studies. A recent update of one Cochrane review failed to identify any new evidence supporting the use of corticosteroids in IPF. Another review of data from 15 randomised controlled studies of non-steroid agents for the treatment of IPF identified two trials of interferon-?-1b suitable for analysis. However, the pooled analysis revealed no treatment effect in terms of survival. A further meta-analysis of three phase III studies of pirfenidone treatment in IPF patients suggested a significant increase in progression-free survival. The interpretation of recent international and national European guideline updates and treatment recommendations, available clinical data from published and ongoing trials investigating potential pharmacological agents, and the individual patient's preferences, must be considered in the clinical management of this disease. PMID:23728871

  14. Disruptive Innovations for Designing and Diffusing Evidence-based Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Swendeman, Dallas; Chorpita, Bruce F.

    2013-01-01

    The numbers of evidence-based interventions (EBIs) have been growing exponentially, both therapeutic and prevention programs. Yet, EBIs have not been broadly adopted in the United States. In order for our EBI science to significantly reduce disease burden, we need to critically re-examine our scientific conventions and norms. Innovation may be spurred by re-examining the biomedical model for validating EBIs and the compartmentalization of EBIs as disease-specific, institutionally-based, counseling programs. The model of Disruptive Innovations suggests that we re-engineer EBIs based on their most robust features in order to reach more people in less time and at lower cost. Four new research agendas will be required to support disruptive innovations in EBI science: synthesize common elements across EBIs; experiment with new delivery formats (e.g., consumer controlled, self-directed, brief, paraprofessional, coaching, and technology and media strategies); adopt market strategies to promote and diffuse EBI science, knowledge, and products; and adopt continuous quality improvement as a research paradigm for systematically improving EBIs, based on ongoing data and feedback. EBI science can have more impact if it can better leverage what we know from existing EBIs in order to inspire, engage, inform, and support families and children to adopt and sustain healthy daily routines and lifestyles. PMID:22545596

  15. Nlrp-3-Driven Interleukin 17 Production by ??T Cells Controls Infection Outcomes during Staphylococcus aureus Surgical Site Infection

    PubMed Central

    Maher, Belinda M.; Mulcahy, Michelle E.; Murphy, Alison G.; Wilk, Mieszko; O'Keeffe, Kate M.; Geoghegan, Joan A.; Lavelle, Ed C.

    2013-01-01

    Recent work has identified T cells and the cytokines they produce as important correlates of immune protection during Staphylococcus aureus infections through the ability of these T cells to regulate local neutrophil responses. However, the specific T-cell subsets that are involved in coordinating protection at distinct sites of infection remains to be established. In this study, we identify for the first time an important role for ??T cells in controlling S. aureus surgical site infection (SSI). ??T cells are recruited to the wound site following S. aureus challenge, where they represent the primary source of interleukin 17 (IL-17), with a small contribution from other non-??T cells. The IL-17 response is entirely dependent upon IL-1 receptor signaling. Using IL-17 receptor-deficient mice, we demonstrate that IL-17 is required to control bacterial clearance during S. aureus SSI. However, we demonstrate a strain-dependent requirement for ??T cells in this process due to the differential abilities of individual strains to activate IL-1? production. IL-1? processing relies upon activation of the Nlrp3 inflammasome complex, and we demonstrate that Nlrp3-deficient and IL-1 receptor-deficient mice have an impaired ability to control S. aureus SSI due to reduced production of IL-17 by ??T cells at the site of infection. Given that IL-17 has been identified as an important correlate of immune protection during S. aureus infection, it is vital that the unique cellular sources of this cytokine and mechanisms inducing its activation are identified at distinct sites of infection. Our study demonstrates that while IL-17 may be critically important for mediating immune protection during S. aureus SSI, the relative contribution of ??T cells to these protective effects may be strain dependent. PMID:24082072

  16. Infection control in delivery care units, Gujarat state, India: A needs assessment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rajesh Mehta; Dileep V Mavalankar; KV Ramani; Sheetal Sharma; Julia Hussein

    2011-01-01

    Background  Increasingly, women in India attend health facilities for childbirth, partly due to incentives paid under government programs.\\u000a Increased use of health facilities can alleviate the risks of infections contracted in unhygienic home deliveries, but poor\\u000a infection control practices in labour and delivery units also cause puerperal sepsis and other infections of childbirth. A\\u000a needs assessment was conducted to provide information

  17. Infection Control Best Practices in Clinical Research in Resource-Limited Settings

    PubMed Central

    Godfrey, Catherine; Schouten, Jeffrey T.

    2014-01-01

    Infection control (IC) activities in the international research setting include the development of meaningful and effective policies on specific topics such as hand and respiratory hygiene. Prevention of infection in health care workers and management of occupational exposure to transmissible agents are important aspects of the role of an IC practitioner. Hand hygiene reduces health care associated infections and practices may be implemented in the research setting. PMID:24321978

  18. 42 CFR 494.30 - Condition: Infection control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...Resource Center, 7500 Security Boulevard, Central...header “HBV-Infected Patients”, found on pages 27...Adult and Pediatric Patients,” Morbidity and...Resource Center, 7500 Security Boulevard, Central...locations.html . (3) Patient isolation...

  19. 42 CFR 494.30 - Condition: Infection control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...Resource Center, 7500 Security Boulevard, Central...header “HBV-Infected Patients”, found on pages 27...Adult and Pediatric Patients,” Morbidity and...Resource Center, 7500 Security Boulevard, Central...locations.html . (3) Patient isolation...

  20. 42 CFR 494.30 - Condition: Infection control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Resource Center, 7500 Security Boulevard, Central...header “HBV-Infected Patients”, found on pages 27...Adult and Pediatric Patients,” Morbidity and...Resource Center, 7500 Security Boulevard, Central...locations.html . (3) Patient isolation...

  1. 42 CFR 494.30 - Condition: Infection control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...Resource Center, 7500 Security Boulevard, Central...header “HBV-Infected Patients”, found on pages 27...Adult and Pediatric Patients,” Morbidity and...Resource Center, 7500 Security Boulevard, Central...locations.html . (3) Patient isolation...

  2. 42 CFR 494.30 - Condition: Infection control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...Resource Center, 7500 Security Boulevard, Central...header “HBV-Infected Patients”, found on pages 27...Adult and Pediatric Patients,” Morbidity and...Resource Center, 7500 Security Boulevard, Central...locations.html. (3) Patient isolation...

  3. Azithromycin is able to control Toxoplasma gondii infection in human villous explants

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Although Toxoplasma gondii infection is normally asymptomatic, severe cases of toxoplasmosis may occur in immunosuppressed patients or congenitally infected newborns. When a fetal infection is established, the recommended treatment is a combination of pyrimethamine, sulfadiazine and folinic acid (PSA). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of azithromycin to control T. gondii infection in human villous explants. Methods Cultures of third trimester human villous explants were infected with T. gondii and simultaneously treated with either PSA or azithromycin. Proliferation of T. gondii, as well as production of cytokines and hormones by chorionic villous explants, was analyzed. Results Treatment with either azithromycin or PSA was able to control T. gondii infection in villous explants. After azithromycin or PSA treatment, TNF-?, IL-17A or TGF-?1 levels secreted by infected villous explants did not present significant differences. However, PSA-treated villous explants had decreased levels of IL-10 and increased IL-12 levels, while treatment with azithromycin increased production of IL-6. Additionally, T. gondii-infected villous explants increased secretion of estradiol, progesterone and HCG?+??, while treatments with azithromycin or PSA reduced secretion of these hormones concurrently with decrease of parasite load. Conclusions In conclusion, these results suggest that azithromycin may be defined as an effective alternative drug to control T. gondii infection at the fetal-maternal interface. PMID:24885122

  4. Evidence-based recommendation on toothpaste use.

    PubMed

    Cury, Jaime Aparecido; Tenuta, Livia Maria Andalo

    2014-01-01

    Toothpaste can be used as a vehicle for substances to improve the oral health of individuals and populations. Therefore, it should be recommended based on the best scientific evidence available, and not on the opinion of authorities or specialists. Fluoride is the most important therapeutic substance used in toothpastes, adding to the effect of mechanical toothbrushing on dental caries control. The use of fluoride toothpaste to reduce caries in children and adults is strongly based on evidence, and is dependent on the concentration (minimum of 1000 ppm F) and frequency of fluoride toothpaste use (2'/day or higher). The risk of dental fluorosis due to toothpaste ingestion by children has been overestimated, since there is no evidence that: 1) fluoride toothpaste use should be postponed until the age of 3-4 or older, 2) low-fluoride toothpaste avoids fluorosis and 3) fluorosis has a detrimental effect on the quality of life of individuals exposed to fluoridated water and toothpaste. Among other therapeutic substances used in toothpastes, there is evidence that triclosan/copolymer reduce dental biofilm, gingivitis, periodontitis, calculus and halitosis, and that toothpastes containing stannous fluoride reduce biofilm and gingivitis. PMID:24554097

  5. Survey of acute hospital infection control resources and services in the Republic of Ireland.

    PubMed

    Cunney, R; Humphreys, H; Murphy, N

    2006-09-01

    Following the development of national guidelines on the control of antimicrobial resistance in 2001, a survey was carried out in 2003 of all 68 acute hospitals in the Republic of Ireland on resources available and current practice to control and prevent nosocomial infection. Completed questionnaires were received from 66 hospitals (97%). The median number of acute inpatient beds per hospital was 156; this was 522 in regional/tertiary referral centres. Only 31 (47%) hospitals had on-site consultant microbiologist sessions, and there was an infection control nurse in 56 (85%) hospitals. Eighteen (29%) hospitals had an occupational health physician, and 48 (73%) hospitals had an infection control committee. There was a median of one isolation room for every 16 acute beds, and a median of five rooms with en-suite bathroom facilities per hospital in those hospitals that provided data. All hospitals had documented infection control policies, and these were available in electronic format in 25 (38%) hospitals. Fifty-five (83%) hospitals undertook surveillance of nosocomial infection, and alcohol-based hand hygiene facilities were available, either at a handwashing sink or at the entrance to a ward, in 57 (86%) hospitals. In the Republic of Ireland, there remains a significant shortage of microbiologists/infection control doctors, occupational health physicians and infection control nurses. Isolation facilities are also inadequate. Although there is much agreement internationally on the importance of nosocomial infection and the priorities for surveillance, there are no agreed basic minimum standards for the resources and facilities necessary to control and prevent nosocomial infection. PMID:16835000

  6. Selecting antagonists for control of postharvest brown rot of stone fruits originating from latent infections

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In contrast to biological control of postharvest decays (BCPD) of fruits originating from wound infections after harvest, BCPD originating from latent infections occurring in the orchard has not been developed. This is largely due to the lack of methodology to screen and evaluate microbes for bioco...

  7. Pathogenic Bacterial Species Associated with Endodontic Infection Evade Innate Immune Control by Disabling Neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    Matsui, Aritsune; Jin, Jun-O; Johnston, Christopher D.; Yamazaki, Hajime; Houri-Haddad, Yael

    2014-01-01

    Endodontic infections, in which oral bacteria access the tooth pulp chamber, are common and do not resolve once established. To investigate the effects of these infections on the innate immune response, we established a mouse subcutaneous chamber model, where a mixture of four oral pathogens commonly associated with these infections (endodontic pathogens [EP]), i.e., Fusobacterium nucleatum, Streptococcus intermedius, Parvimonas micra, and Prevotella intermedia, was inoculated into subcutaneously implanted titanium chambers. Cells that infiltrated the chamber after these infections were primarily neutrophils; however, these neutrophils were unable to control the infection. Infection with a nonpathogenic oral bacterial species, Streptococcus mitis, resulted in well-controlled infection, with bacterial numbers reduced by 4 to 5 log units after 7 days. Propidium iodide (PI) staining of the chamber neutrophils identified three distinct populations: neutrophils from EP-infected chambers were intermediate in PI staining, while cells in chambers from mice infected with S. mitis were PI positive (apoptotic) or negative (live). Strikingly, neutrophils from EP-infected chambers were severely impaired in their ability to phagocytose and to generate reactive oxygen species in vitro after removal from the chamber compared to cells from S. mitis-infected chambers. The mechanism of neutrophil impairment was necrotic cell death as determined by morphological analyses. P. intermedia alone could induce a similar neutrophil phenotype. We conclude that the endodontic pathogens, particularly P. intermedia, can efficiently disable and kill infiltrating neutrophils, allowing these infections to become established. These results can help explain the persistence of endodontic infections and demonstrate a new virulence mechanism associated with P. intermedia. PMID:25024367

  8. Translating evidence-based interventions for implementation: Experiences from Project HEAL in African American churches

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Community-based approaches have been increasing in the effort to raise awareness and early detection for cancer and other chronic disease. However, many times, such interventions are tested in randomized trials, become evidence-based, and then fail to reach further use in the community. Project HEAL (Health through Early Awareness and Learning) is an implementation trial that aims to compare two strategies of implementing evidence-based cancer communication interventions in African American faith-based organizations. Method This article describes the community-engaged process of transforming three evidence-based cancer communication interventions into a coherent, branded strategy for training community health advisors with two delivery mechanisms. Peer community health advisors receive training through either a traditional classroom approach (with high technical assistance/support) or a web-based training portal (with low technical assistance/support). Results We describe the process, outline the intervention components, report on the pilot test, and conclude with lessons learned from each of these phases. Though the pilot phase showed feasibility, it resulted in modifications to data collection protocols and team and community member roles and expectations. Conclusions Project HEAL offers a promising strategy to implement evidence-based interventions in community settings through the use of technology. There could be wider implications for chronic disease prevention and control. PMID:24885069

  9. A constructive Indian country response to the evidence-based program mandate.

    PubMed

    Walker, R Dale; Bigelow, Douglas A

    2011-01-01

    Over the last 20 years governmental mandates for preferentially funding evidence-based "model" practices and programs has become doctrine in some legislative bodies, federal agencies, and state agencies. It was assumed that what works in small sample, controlled settings would work in all community settings, substantially improving safety, effectiveness, and value-for-money. The evidence-based "model" programs mandate has imposed immutable "core components," fidelity testing, alien programming and program developers, loss of familiar programs, and resource capacity requirements upon tribes, while infringing upon their tribal sovereignty and consultation rights. Tribal response in one state (Oregon) went through three phases: shock and rejection; proposing an alternative approach using criteria of cultural appropriateness, aspiring to evaluability; and adopting logic modeling. The state heard and accepted the argument that the tribal way of knowing is different and valid. Currently, a state-authorized tribal logic model and a review panel process are used to approve tribal best practices for state funding. This constructive response to the evidence-based program mandate elevates tribal practices in the funding and regulatory world, facilitates continuing quality improvement and evaluation, while ensuring that practices and programs remain based on local community context and culture. This article provides details of a model that could well serve tribes facing evidence-based model program mandates throughout the country. PMID:22400457

  10. An Evidence Base for Human Spaceflight Risks in Wikipedia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kundrot, Craig; Steil, Jennifer; Lumpkins, Sarah; Pellis, Neal

    2013-01-01

    NASA's Human Research Program (HRP) is focused on understanding and mitigating thirty two risks to crew health and performance in exploration missions beyond low Earth orbit. The HRP has developed an evidence report for each of the risks. Most evidence reports are a brief review article describing the evidence related to a specified risk, written at a level appropriate for the scientifically educated, non-specialist reader. Each evidence report captured the current state of knowledge from both research and operations. Two limitations of the evidence reports have become apparent: 1) they are updated infrequently and 2) they do not take full advantage of the expertise available in other space agencies and in related fields of terrestrial research. Therefore, the HRP is experimenting with the use of Wikipedia articles as a repository for evidence. Wikipedia's accessibility to the international space flight community and researchers in related terrestrial fields creates the opportunity to generate a more timely and comprehensive evidence base. Initial Wikipedia articles were populated for seven risks using a subset of the information in the HRP-approved evidence reports: Fatigue and Sleep Loss, Treating An Ill or Injured Crew Member, Radiation Carcinogenesis, Visual Impairment and Intracranial Pressure, Renal Stone Formation, Team Cohesion, and Intervertebral Disc Damage. Since the initial articles were created, there have been additions to these Wikipedia articles, including content from sources outside the HRP, and editorial changes to the pages. We will report on the nature of the contributions made after the initial articles were created, the comprehensiveness of the resulting Wikipedia articles, and the effort required to maintain quality control of the content. The Wikipedia approach will also be compared to wiki efforts that exert more traditional editorial control of content prior to posting.

  11. Novel Evidence-Based Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Responder Index

    PubMed Central

    Furie, Richard A.; Petri, Michelle A.; Wallace, Daniel J.; Ginzler, Ellen M.; Merrill, Joan T.; Stohl, William; Chatham, W. Winn; Strand, Vibeke; Weinstein, Arthur; Chevrier, Marc R.; Zhong, John; Freimuth, William W.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To describe a new systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) Responder Index (SRI) based on the belimumab phase II SLE trial and demonstrate its potential utility in SLE clinical trials. Methods Data from a 449-patient randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of 3 doses of belimumab (1, 4, 10 mg/kg) or placebo plus standard of care therapy (SOC) over a 56-week period were analyzed. SELENA-SLEDAI and BILAG SLE disease activity instruments, SF-36 Health Survey, and biomarker analyses were used to create a novel SRI. Response to treatment in a subset of SLE patients (n=321) who were serologically active (ANA ?1:80 and/or anti-dsDNA antibody ?30 IU) at baseline was retrospectively evaluated using the SRI. Results SRI response is defined as: 1) ?4-point reduction in SELENA-SLEDAI score; 2) no new BILAG A or no more than 1 new BILAG B domain score; and 3) no deterioration from baseline in the Physician’s Global Assessment (PGA) by ?0.3 points. In serologically active patients, addition of belimumab to SOC resulted in a response in 46% of patients at week 52 compared with 29% for the placebo patients (P=0.006). SRI responses were independent of baseline autoantibody subtype. Conclusion Evidence-based evaluation of a large randomized, placebo-controlled trial in SLE resulted in the ability to define a robust responder index based on improvement in disease activity without worsening of the overall condition or the development of significant disease activity in new organ systems. PMID:19714615

  12. Evidence-based control of plaque and gingivitis.

    PubMed

    Santos, A

    2003-01-01

    Most adults brush and floss inadequately, and constant education and/or reinforcement is often required. Bacteria are usually left behind with mechanical oral health routines, and chemotherapeutic agents may have a key role as adjuncts to daily home-care. To date, two antiseptic mouthwashes have received the ADA Seal of Acceptance: Peridex (Zila Pharmaceuticals, Phoenix, AZ, USA; CHX, chlorhexidine) and Listerine (Pfizer Consumer Healthcare, Morris Plains, NJ, USA; essential oil (EO) mouthwash). CHX has a strong affinity for tooth and tissue surfaces, but can cause brown staining on the teeth and tongue. Patients must also wait until all traces of toothpaste are removed before rinsing with CHX. Long-term use of an EO mouthwash is microbiologically safe, with no changes observed in the bacterial composition of supragingival plaque, and no evidence of antimicrobial resistance. A number of trials have demonstrated the long-term plaque- and gingivitis-reducing properties of both CHX and EO mouthwashes. These studies clearly demonstrate that these agents have lasting efficacy, and can access hard-to-reach areas. PMID:12787197

  13. How-to-Do-It: Infection Control Guidelines for Blood Typing & Blood Smear Labs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vetter, Edwin A.

    1989-01-01

    Provides a set of guidelines for infection control of the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome and the serum hepatitis viruses during blood typing procedures. Emphasizes that disposal of blood contaminated materials should comply with local health department recommendations. (RT)

  14. Evidence-based medicine and hospital reform: Tracing origins back to Florence Nightingale

    PubMed Central

    Aravind, Maya; Chung, Kevin C.

    2015-01-01

    The use of reliable evidence to evaluate health care interventions has gained strong support within the medical community and in the field of plastic surgery in particular. Evidence-based medicine aims to improve health care and reduce costs through the use of sound clinical evidence in evaluating treatments, procedures and outcomes. The field is hardly new, however, and most trace its origins back to the work of Cochrane in the 1970s and Sackett in the 1990s. Though she wouldn’t know it, Florence Nightingale was applying the concepts of evidence-based reform to the medical profession more than a century before. She used medical statistics to reveal the nature of infection in hospitals and on the battlefield. Moreover, Nightingale marshaled data and evidence to establish guidelines for health care reform. Tracing the origins of evidence-based medicine back to Nightingale underscores how critical this movement is to improving the quality and effectiveness of patient care today. PMID:19910854

  15. [Glocalization: the outlook for Taiwan evidence based health care].

    PubMed

    Chen, Chiehfeng

    2014-12-01

    Public attention to evidence-based health care (EBHC) has increased significantly in recent years. Key problems related to applying EBHC in current healthcare practice include the timely update of up-to-date knowledge and skills and the methodology used to implement EBHC in clinical settings. EBHC has been introduced to the Taiwan healthcare system for the past two decades. The annual EBM (Evidence based medicine) National Competition is a unique and important EBHC activity in Taiwan. EBHC has been promoted widely in medicine, nursing, pharmacy, public health and other professions, and EBHC-related organizations such as the Taiwan Evidence Based Medicine Association (TEBMA), and Taiwan Evidence Based Nursing Association (TEBNA), have increased in number and grown in membership. In addition to domestic developments, Taiwan is also actively involved in global organizations, such as the Cochrane Collaboration, East Asian Cochrane Alliance (EACA), and the International Society for Evidence Based Health Care (ISEHC). In Taiwan, most medical professionals work cooperatively to promote EBHC, which facilitates the gradual improvement of healthcare quality. PMID:25464951

  16. Evidence-based medicine: applications in dietetic practice.

    PubMed

    Gray, Gregory E; Gray, Lorraine K

    2002-09-01

    Evidence-based medicine has been defined as "the conscientious, explicit, and judicious use of current best evidence in making decisions about the care of individual patients." Evidence-based practice requires the ability to apply knowledge of medical informatics (eg, efficiently searching the medical literature) and clinical epidemiology (eg, being able to critically appraise the literature) to the treatment of individual patients. Being able to apply the principles of evidence-based medicine in the dietetic practice adds to the credibility and value of dietetics professionals, is consistent with the dietetic code of ethics, and is empowering. This article provides an introduction to the history, philosophy, and methods of evidence-based medicine as applied to the dietetic practice. This article focuses on a 5-step process to finding the best evidence to answer clinical questions: (a) formulate the question, (b) search for answers, (c) appraise the evidence, (d) apply the results, and (e) assess the outcome. We describe the 4S methodology-a systematic approach to efficiently finding the best evidence to answer clinical questions involving the use of systems (comprehensive, evidence-based resources), synopses (compilations of structured abstracts of high-quality studies), syntheses (systematic reviews), and studies (original research articles). Particular emphasis is given to a method for critically appraising papers that emphasizes validity, importance, and clinical applicability. Resources (including Web sites) for further learning are provided. J Am Diet Assoc. 2002;102:1263-1272. PMID:12792624

  17. Infection control in enteral feed and feeding systems in the community.

    PubMed

    Ojo, Omorogieva; Bowden, Julie

    This article examines the infection risk to adult patients receiving home enteral nutrition (HEN) and strategies for its prevention and management. Enteral nutrition was historically associated with acute care settings owing to its invasive nature. The changing landscape of community care means that it is now likely to be administered in the patient's home or in other community settings such as nursing homes. HEN is associated with two main routes of infection risks: the risk of gastrointestinal infection from contamination of the feed and feeding accessories, and local wound infection at the stoma site. Guidelines for the prevention and control of HEN-associated infection are provided and explained. These guidelines emphasise patient and carer education, effective hand hygiene, correct storage and administration of the feed, early detection and management of potential infections. PMID:23123838

  18. A randomised controlled trial of management strategies for acute infective conjunctivitis in general practice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hazel A Everitt; Paul S Little; Pete rWFS mith

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Objective To assess different management,strategies for acute infective conjunctivitis. Design Open, factorial, randomised controlled trial. Setting 30 general,practices in southern,England. Participants 307 adults and,children,with acute infective conjunctivitis. Intervention One of three antibiotic prescribing strategies—immediate,antibiotics (chloramphenicol,eye drops; n = 104), no antibiotics (controls; n = 94), or delayed antibiotics (n = 109); a patient information,leaflet or not; and an eye

  19. Recent advances in understanding the biology, epidemiology and control of chlamydial infections in koalas.

    PubMed

    Polkinghorne, Adam; Hanger, Jon; Timms, Peter

    2013-08-30

    The koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) is recognised as a threatened wildlife species in various parts of Australia. A major contributing factor to the decline and long-term viability of affected populations is disease caused by the obligate intracellular bacteria, Chlamydia. Two chlamydial species infect the koala, Chlamydia pecorum and Chlamydia pneumoniae, and have been reported in nearly all mainland koala populations. Chlamydial infections of koalas are associated with ocular infections leading to blindness and genital tract infections linked to infertility, among other serious clinical manifestations. Diagnosis can be based on clinical presentation alone, however, it is complicated by the observation that many koala chlamydial infections occur with no overt signs of clinical disease. Instead, accurate diagnosis requires detailed clinical assessment and confirmatory testing by a range of PCR-based assays. Antibiotic treatment for koala chlamydial infection is possible, however, results on its success are mixed. A more practical solution for the protection of diseased populations is the application of a koala Chlamydia vaccine, with recent trials indicating promising results. Interestingly, molecular epidemiology studies of koala C. pecorum infections and recent comparative genomic analyses of koala C. pneumoniae have revealed potential differences in their origin that will have wider ramifications for our understanding of human chlamydial infections and host adaptation of the chlamydiae. This review summarises changes to the taxonomy of koala chlamydial infections and recent advances in our understanding of the epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment, control and evolution of Chlamydia infections in this iconic wildlife species. PMID:23523170

  20. Adopting an Evidence-Based Lifestyle Physical Activity Program: Dissemination Study Design and Methods.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Andrea L; Buller, David B; Dearing, James W; Cutter, Gary; Guerra, Michele; Wilcox, Sara; Bettinghaus, Erwin P

    2012-06-01

    BACKGROUND: There is a scarcity of research studies that have examined academic-commercial partnerships to disseminate evidence-based physical activity programs. Understanding this approach to dissemination is essential because academic-commercial partnerships are increasingly common. Private companies have used dissemination channels and strategies to a degree that academicians have not, and declining resources require academicians to explore these partnerships. PURPOSE: This paper describes a retrospective case-control study design including the methods, demographics, organizational decision-making, implementation rates, and marketing strategy for Active Living Every Day (ALED), an evidence-based lifestyle physical activity program that has been commercially available since 2001. Evidence-based public health promotion programs rely on organizations and targeted sectors to disseminate these programs although relatively little is known about organizational-level and sector-level influences that lead to their adoption and implementation. METHODS: Cases (n=154) were eligible if they had signed an ALED license agreement with Human Kinetics (HK), publisher of the program's textbooks and facilitator manuals, between 2001 and 2008. Two types of controls were matched (2:2:1) and stratified by sector and region. Active controls (Control 1; n=319) were organizations that contacted HK to consider adopting ALED. Passive controls (Control 2; n=328) were organizations that received unsolicited marketing materials and did not initiate contact with HK. We used Diffusion of Innovations Theory (DIT) constructs as the basis for developing the survey of cases and controls. RESULTS: Using the multi-method strategy recommended by Dillman, a total of n=801 cases and controls were surveyed. Most organizations were from the fitness sector followed by medical, nongovernmental, governmental, educational, worksite and other sectors with significantly higher response rates from government, educational and medical sectors compared with fitness and other sectors, (p=0.02). More cases reported being involved in the decision to adopt ALED (p<0.0001). Data indicate that a low percentage of controls had ever heard of ALED despite repeated marketing and offering other types of physical activity programs and services. Finally, slightly over half of the adopters reported they had actually implemented the ALED program. CONCLUSION: Dissemination research requires new perspectives and designs to produce valid insights about the results of dissemination efforts. This study design, survey methods and theoretically-based questions can serve as a useful model for other evidence-based public health interventions that are marketed by commercial publishers to better understand key issues related to adoption and implementation of evidence-based programs. PMID:23181147

  1. Predictors of tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus co-infection: a case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Molaeipoor, Leila; Poorolajal, Jalal; Mohraz, Minoo; Esmailnasab, Nader

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and Mycobacterium tuberculosis co-infection is a major global challenge. It is not clear why some HIV-positive people are co-infected with tuberculosis (TB) while others are not. This study addressed that question. METHODS: This case-control study was conducted in Tehran, Iran in June 2004, enrolling 2,388 HIV-positive people. Cases were selected from those who were co-infected with TB and controls from those without TB. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the association between M. tuberculosis/HIV co-infection and several predictors. Odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. RESULTS: In this study, 241 cases were compared with 2,147 controls. Sex, age, marital status, educational level, imprisonment, smoking, narcotic use, route of HIV transmission, previous TB infection, isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT), antiretroviral therapy (ART), and low CD4 count (<350 cells/mm3) were independently associated with M. tuberculosis/HIV co-infection (p<0.001). However, after adjusting for all other variables in the model, only the association between M. tuberculosis/HIV co-infection and the following predictors remained statistically significant: imprisonment (odds ratio [OR], 3.82; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.11-6.90), previous TB infection (OR, 5.54; 95% CI, 1.99-15.39), IPT (OR, 0.13; 95% CI, 0.06-0.31), ART (OR, 1.81; 95% CI, 1.26-2.61), and CD4 count <350 cells/mm3 (OR, 2.34; 95% CI, 1.36-4.02). CONCLUSIONS: Several predictors are associated with M. tuberculosis/HIV co-infection, but only a few indicators were significantly associated with M. tuberculosis/HIV co-infection. It is estimated that a number of predictors of M. tuberculosis/HIV co-infection remain unknown and require further investigation. PMID:25358465

  2. The effect of triclosan coated sutures on rate of Surgical Site Infection after hip and knee replacement: a protocol for a double-blind randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background 187,000 hip and knee joint replacements are performed every year in the National Health Service (NHS). One of the commonest complications is surgical site infection (SSI), and this represents a significant burden in terms of patient morbidity, mortality and cost to health services around the world. The aim of this randomised controlled trial (RCT) is to determine if the addition of triclosan coated sutures to a standard regimen can reduce the rate of SSI after total knee replacement (TKR) and total hip replacement (THR). Methods 2400 patients due to undergo a total hip or knee replacement are being recruited into this two-centre RCT. Participants are recruited before surgery and randomised to either standard care or intervention group. Participants, outcome assessors and statistician are blind to treatment allocation throughout the study. The intervention consists of triclosan coated sutures vs. standard non-coated sutures. The primary outcome is the Health protection Agency (HPA) defined superficial surgical site infection at 30 days. Secondary outcomes include HPA defined deep surgical site infection at 12 months, length of hospital stay, critical care stay, and payer costs. Discussion To date there are no orthopaedic randomised controlled trials on this scale assessing the effectiveness of a surgical intervention, particularly those that can be translated across the surgical specialities. The results from this trial will inform evidence-based recommendations for suture selection in the management of patients undergoing total hip or knee replacement. If triclosan coated sutures are found to be an effective intervention, implementation into clinical practice could improve long-term outcomes for patients undergoing hip and knee replacement. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN 17807356. PMID:25027459

  3. The global swine flu pandemic 2: infection control measures and preparedness strategies.

    PubMed

    Pratt, Robert J

    This second in a two-part unit on swine flu looks at infection control measures for nurses. During late spring and early summer, increasing numbers of people became infected with novel swine origin influenza type A virus (influenza A(H1N1)v 2009) and a global pandemic started. Part 1 of this unit explored the biology of influenza viruses and the origins and characteristics of flu pandemics. This part reviews viral transmission, infection prevention and control and pandemic preparedness. PMID:19791672

  4. Measuring use of evidence based psychotherapy for posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Shiner, Brian; D'Avolio, Leonard W; Nguyen, Thien M; Zayed, Maha H; Young-Xu, Yinong; Desai, Rani A; Schnurr, Paula P; Fiore, Louis D; Watts, Bradley V

    2013-07-01

    To improve methods of estimating use of evidence-based psychotherapy for posttraumatic stress disorder in the Veteran's health administration, we evaluated administrative data and note text for patients newly enrolling in six VHA outpatient PTSD clinics in New England during the 2010 fiscal year (n = 1,924). Using natural language processing, we developed machine learning algorithms that mimic human raters in classifying note text. We met our targets for algorithm performance as measured by precision, recall, and F-measure. We found that 6.3 % of our study population received at least one session of evidence-based psychotherapy during the initial 6 months of treatment. Evidence-based psychotherapies appear to be infrequently utilized in VHA outpatient PTSD clinics in New England. Our method could support efforts to improve use of these treatments. PMID:22535469

  5. Implementing Evidence-Based Practices: Considerations for the Hospice Setting

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Sara; Mackin, Melissa Lehan; Reyes, Jimmy; Herr, Keela; Titler, Marita; Fine, Perry; Forcucci, Chris

    2015-01-01

    With tighter regulations and greater scrutiny of outcomes, hospice programs are being challenged to consider the implementation of Evidence-Based Practices (EBPs). This study reports the findings from interviews conducted with hospice directors and focus groups with the staff at eight experimental site hospice programs that occurred following the completion of a multifaceted translating research into practice (TRIP) intervention designed to promote the adoption of evidence-based pain management interventions. The purpose of this paper is to provide a background in the use of EBPs, to report the facilitators and barriers to overall implementation of evidence-based pain practices in the hospice setting, and to provide recommendations for hospices interested in improving use of EBPs in this setting. It was determined that hospice programs need to evaluate three main factors prior to the start of an EBP initiative: Community culture, Agency culture, and Staff culture. Recommendations for implementation of EBPs in hospice organizations are provided. PMID:20167834

  6. Evidence-Based Review of Subjective Pediatric Sleep Measures

    PubMed Central

    Toliver-Sokol, Marisol; Palermo, Tonya M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective?This manuscript provides an evidence-based psychometric review of parent and child-report pediatric sleep measures using criteria developed by the American Psychological Association (APA) Division 54 Evidence-Based Assessment (EBA) Task Force.?Methods?Twenty-one measures were reviewed: four measures of daytime sleepiness, four measures of sleep habits/hygiene, two measures assessing sleep-related attitudes/cognitions, five measures of sleep initiation/maintenance, and six multidimensional sleep measures.?Results?Six of the 21 measures met “well-established” evidence-based assessment criteria. An additional eight measures were rated as “approaching well-established” and seven were rated as “promising.”?Conclusions?Overall, the multidimensional sleep measures received the highest ratings. Strengths and weaknesses of the measures are described. Recommendations for future pediatric sleep assessment are presented including further validation of measures, use of multiple informants, and stability of sleep measures over time. PMID:21227912

  7. Infection control for SARS in a tertiary neonatal centre

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P C Ng; K W So; T F Leung; F W T Cheng; D J Lyon; W Wong; K L Cheung; K S C Fung; C H Lee; A M Li; K L E Hon; C K Li; T F Fok

    2003-01-01

    The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) is a newly discovered infectious disease caused by a novel coronavirus, which can readily spread in the healthcare setting. A recent community outbreak in Hong Kong infected a significant number of pregnant women who subsequently required emergency caesarean section for deteriorating maternal condition and respiratory failure. As no neonatal clinician has any experience in

  8. Infection Control in the Long Term Care Facility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Sara

    This booklet is intended to increase the awareness of persons working in long-term care facilities regarding the danger of infectious disease and the ways in which it can be spread. Materials in this booklet include: (1) a brief discussion of historical events in the study of microorganisms; (2) information about how microorganisms cause infection

  9. Essential elements for community engagement in evidence-based youth violence prevention.

    PubMed

    Miao, Tai-An; Umemoto, Karen; Gonda, Deanna; Hishinuma, Earl S

    2011-09-01

    In the field of youth violence prevention, there has been increasing emphasis on "evidence based" programs and principles shown through scientific research as reaching their intended outcomes. Community mobilization and engagement play a critical role in many evidence-based programs and strategies, as it takes a concerted effort among a wide range of people within a community to alter behavior and maintain behavioral change. How do concerned individuals and groups within a community engage others within and outside of that community to effectively plan, develop and implement appropriate EB programs as well as evaluate the outcomes and impacts of locally developed programs yet to be proven? The authors discuss five elements essential for community engagement in evidence-based youth violence prevention based on their work in a university-community partnership through the Asian/Pacific Islander Youth Violence Prevention Center (API Center), a National Academic Center for Excellence on Youth Violence Prevention Center supported by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. They include: (a) aligning EBPs with a community's shared vision and values; (b) establishing an inclusive environment for the planning, implementation and evaluation of EBPs; (c) nurturing collaboration for increased effectiveness and efficacy of EBPs; (d) building adequate leadership and community capacity to develop and sustain EBPs; and (e) building a learning community for evaluation and self-reflection. The authors propose placing greater emphasis on "evaluative thinking" and organizational capacity for evaluation as we pursue evidence-based practices for youth violence prevention. This is especially important for ethnic groups for which an evidence base is not well established. PMID:21203825

  10. Mental Health Clinicians’ Experiences of Implementing Evidence-Based Treatments

    PubMed Central

    Powell, Byron J.; Hausmann-Stabile, Carolina; McMillen, J. Curtis

    2013-01-01

    Implementation research has tremendous potential to bridge the research-practice gap; however, we know more about barriers to evidence-based care than the factors that contribute to the adoption and sustainability of evidence-based treatments (EBTs). This qualitative study explores the experiences of clinicians (N = 11) who were implementing EBTs, highlighting the factors that they perceived to be most critical to successful implementation. The clinicians’ narratives reveal many leverage points that can inform administrators, clinical supervisors, and clinicians who wish to implement EBTs, as well as other stakeholders who wish to develop and test strategies for moving EBTs into routine care. PMID:24066630

  11. Application of meta-analysis in evidence-based oncology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaoping Lin; Qingsheng Wang

    2008-01-01

    The Cochrane Collaboration is an international not-for-profit and independent organization, dedicated to providing up-to-date\\u000a evidence-based information about the effects of healthcare in the form of systematic reviews. Meta-analysis is a statistical\\u000a tool to prepare the systematic reviews. This paper briefly introduces the above terms and how to apply evidence-based oncology.\\u000a Recent findings by using meta-analysis for cancers of the breast,

  12. Common infections in the history of cancer patients and controls

    Microsoft Academic Search

    U. Abel; N. Becker; R. Angerer; R. Frentzel-Beyme; M. Kaufmann; P. Schlag; S. Wysocki; J. Wahrendorf; G. Schulz

    1991-01-01

    Summary The association between the frequency of manifest infectious diseases and cancer risk was investigated in a case-control study at Heidelberg, FRG. A total of 255 cases with carcinomas of the stomach, colon, rectum, breast, and ovary, as well as 255 population controls and 230 hospital controls were interviewed using a standard questionnaire. Controls were matched to the cases for

  13. Infection prevention and control in the operating theatre: reducing the risk of surgical site infections (SSIs).

    PubMed

    Weaving, Paul; Cox, Felicia; Milton, Sherran

    2008-05-01

    Continuing advances in surgical techniques, asepsis, operating theatre protocols and ventilation systems that ensure an uninterrupted supply of clean air, should allow all patients to undergo both invasive and minimally-invasive procedures with reduced risk. Patients having surgery in the United Kingdom are probably less vulnerable to surgical site infections (SSIs) than ever before--despite persisting concerns about meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and increasing antibiotic resistance in other organisms such as vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE). PMID:18578358

  14. Biofilms and persistent wound infections in United States military trauma patients: a case–control analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Complex traumatic injuries sustained by military personnel, particularly when involving extremities, often result in infectious complications and substantial morbidity. One factor that may further impair patient recovery is the persistence of infections. Surface-attached microbial communities, known as biofilms, may play a role in hindering the management of infections; however, clinical data associating biofilm formation with persistent or chronic infections are lacking. Therefore, we evaluated the production of bacterial biofilms as a potential risk factor for persistent infections among wounded military personnel. Methods Bacterial isolates and clinical data from military personnel with deployment-related injuries were collected through the Trauma Infectious Disease Outcomes Study. The study population consisted of patients with diagnosed skin and soft-tissue infections. Cases (wounds with bacterial isolates of the same organism collected 14 days apart) were compared to controls (wounds with non-recurrent bacterial isolates), which were matched by organism and infectious disease syndrome. Potential risk factors for persistent infections, including biofilm formation, were examined in a univariate analysis. Data are expressed as odds ratios (OR; 95% confidence interval [CI]). Results On a per infected wound basis, 35 cases (representing 25 patients) and 69 controls (representing 60 patients) were identified. Eight patients with multiple wounds were utilized as both cases and controls. Overall, 235 bacterial isolates were tested for biofilm formation in the case–control analysis. Biofilm formation was significantly associated with infection persistence (OR: 29.49; CI: 6.24-infinity) in a univariate analysis. Multidrug resistance (OR: 5.62; CI: 1.02-56.92), packed red blood cell transfusion requirements within the first 24 hours (OR: 1.02; CI: 1.01-1.04), operating room visits prior to and on the date of infection diagnosis (OR: 2.05; CI: 1.09-4.28), anatomical location of infected wound (OR: 5.47; CI: 1.65-23.39), and occurrence of polymicrobial infections (OR: 69.71; CI: 15.39-infinity) were also significant risk factors for persistent infections. Conclusions We found that biofilm production by clinical strains is significantly associated with the persistence of wound infections. However, the statistical power of the analysis was limited due to the small sample size, precluding a multivariate analysis. Further data are needed to confirm biofilm formation as a risk factor for persistent wound infections. PMID:24712544

  15. Hypothermia does not increase the risk of infection: a case control study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Hypothermia may improve outcome in patients after traumatic brain injury, especially when hypothermia is maintained for more than 48 hours. In the acute phase, patients with severe brain injury are more vulnerable to infections. Prolonged hypothermic treatment may further enhance the risk of infection. Selective decontamination of the digestive tract (SDD) reduces the risk of respiratory tract infections. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of infections in patients treated with hypothermia and normothermia while receiving SDD. Methods In this retrospective case control study 35 patients treated with prolonged hypothermia (cases) were identified and 169 patients with severe brain injury were included (controls). Propensity score matching was performed to correct for differences in baseline characteristics and clinical parameters. Primary outcome was the incidence of infection. The secondary endpoints were the micro-organisms found in the surveillance cultures and infection. In addition, a number of clinical characteristics were assessed. Results The demographic and clinical data indicated that the cases and controls were well matched. The overall risk of infection during ICU stay was 20% in the hypothermia groups versus 34.4% in the normothermia group (P = 0.388). Pneumonia was diagnosed in 11.4% of patients in both groups (P = 1.000). The incidence of meningitis, wound infection, bacteremia, and urinary tract infection was low and comparable between the groups. SDD surveillance cultures indicated a higher colonization with gram-negative bacteria in the rectal samples of the hypothermia patients. Conclusions Hypothermia does not increase the risk of infection in patients treated with SDD. PMID:21291523

  16. Infection prevention and control during prolonged human space travel.

    PubMed

    Mermel, Leonard A

    2013-01-01

    Prolonged human spaceflight to another planet or an asteroid will introduce unique challenges of mitigating the risk of infection. During space travel, exposure to microgravity, radiation, and stress alter human immunoregulatory responses, which can in turn impact an astronaut's ability to prevent acquisition of infectious agents or reactivation of latent infection. In addition, microgravity affects virulence, growth kinetics, and biofilm formation of potential microbial pathogens. These interactions occur in a confined space in microgravity, providing ample opportunity for heavy microbial contamination of the environment. In addition, there is the persistence of aerosolized, microbe-containing particles. Any mission involving prolonged human spaceflight must be carefully planned to minimize vulnerabilities and maximize the likelihood of success. PMID:23051761

  17. Reduction in Central Line-Associated Bloodstream Infection Rates After Implementations of Infection Control Measures at a Level 3 Neonatal Intensive Care Unit.

    PubMed

    Dumpa, Vikramaditya; Adler, Bonny; Allen, Delena; Bowman, Deborah; Gram, Amy; Ford, Pat; Sannoh, Sulaiman

    2014-11-01

    Advances in neonatology led to survival of micro-preemies, who need central lines. Central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) causes prolonged hospitalization, morbidities, and mortality. Health care team education decreases CLABSIs. The objective was to decrease CLABSIs using evidence-based measures. The retrospective review compared CLABSI incidence during and after changes in catheter care. In April 2011, intravenous (IV) tubing changed from Interlink to Clearlink; IV tubing changing interval increased from 24 to 72 hours. CLABSIs increased. The following measures were implemented: July 2011, reeducation of neonatal intensive care staff on Clearlink; August 2011, IV tubing changing interval returned to 24 hours; September 2011, changed from Clearlink back to Interlink; November 2011, review of entire IV process and in-service on hand hygiene; December 2011, competencies on IV access for all nurses. CLABSIs were compared during and after interventions. Means were compared using the t test and ratios using the ?(2) test; P <.05. CLABSIs decreased from 4.4/1000 to 0/1000 catheter-days; P < .05. Evidence-based interventions reduced CLABSIs. PMID:25372275

  18. Evidence-Based Selection of Candidates for the Levonorgestrel Intrauterine Device (IUD)

    PubMed Central

    Callegari, Lisa S.; Darney, Blair G.; Godfrey, Emily M.; Sementi, Olivia; Dunsmoor-Su, Rebecca; Prager, Sarah W.

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent evidence-based guidelines expanded the definition of appropriate candidates for the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS). We investigated correlates of evidence-based selection of candidates for the LNG-IUS by physicians who offer insertion. Methods We conducted a mixed-mode (online and mail) survey of practicing family physicians and obstetrician-gynecologists in Seattle. Results A total of 269 physicians responded to the survey (44% response rate). Of the 217 respondents who inserted intrauterine devices, half or fewer routinely recommended the LNG-IUS to women who are nulliparous, younger than 20 years old, or have a history of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). In multivariable analyses, training/resident status was positively associated with recommending the LNG-IUS to women <20 years old (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 3.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.6–8.0) and women with history of STI (aOR, 3.7; 95% CI, 1.6–8.4). Perceived risk of infection or infertility was negatively associated with recommending the LNG-IUS to nulliparous women (aOR, 0.2; 95% CI, 0.1–0.5) and women with a history of STI (aOR, 0.3; 95% CI, 0.1–0.8). Conclusions Many family physicians and obstetrician-gynecologists who insert the LNG-IUS are overly restrictive in selecting candidates, although those who train residents are more likely to follow evidence-based guidelines. Interventions that address negative bias and perceptions of risks, in addition to improving knowledge, are needed to promote wider use of the LNG-IUS. PMID:24390883

  19. Evidence-Based Practice for Treatment of Eating Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Resnick, Jaquelyn Liss

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to review the status of evidence-based practice (EBP) for the treatment of students with eating disorders in university and college counseling centers. Several issues affecting the application of the research findings to service delivery for eating disordered students will be addressed. These include discussion of…

  20. Evidence-Based Diagnosis: Incorporating Diagnostic Instruments into Clinical Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doss, Amanda Jensen

    2005-01-01

    This article is intended to serve as a practical guide for practitioners interested in incorporating evidence-based diagnosis (EBD) instruments into their clinical practices to refine the diagnostic process. Three measures are used to illustrate this process, the DISC-IV (Shaffer et al., 2000), the Schedule for Affective Disorders and…

  1. An Evidence-Based Course in Complementary Medicines

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the impact of an evidence-based course in complementary medicines on the attitudes, knowledge, and professional practice behavior of undergraduate pharmacy students. Design. A required 12-week evidence-based complementary medicine course was designed and introduced into the third-year undergraduate pharmacy curriculum. The course included a combination of traditional lectures, interactive tutorial sessions, and a range of formal assessments. Assessment. Pre- and post-course survey instruments were administered to assess changes in students’ attitudes, perceptions, knowledge, and the likelihood they would recommend the use of complementary medicines in a pharmacy practice environment. Conclusion. Completion of a required evidence-based complementary medicines course resulted in a positive change in pharmacy students’ perceptions of the value of various complementary medicines as well as in their willingness to recommend them, and provided students with the required knowledge to make patient-centered recommendations for use of complementary medicines in a professional pharmacy practice setting. These findings support the need for greater evidence-based complementary medicine education within pharmacy curricula to meet consumer demand and to align with pharmacists’ professional responsibilities. PMID:23275665

  2. Urticaria: an evidence-based update. Conference report.

    PubMed

    Alexandroff, A B; Harman, K E

    2010-08-01

    Summary Evidence-based update meetings are held annually by the Centre of Evidence Based Dermatology, University of Nottingham. Topics are chosen by delegates at the previous year's conference and in the past have included blistering disorders, psoriasis, hair disorders and skin cancers. Once the topic is identified, a trials database search is undertaken with the aim of including speakers who are actively involved in trials that address the subject in question. This year, the eighth Evidence Based Update meeting focused on urticaria and took place in Loughborough University on 14 May 2009. The latest data on the diagnosis and management of acute and chronic urticaria, including cold and solar urticaria, and the impact of food intolerance on chronic urticaria, were presented by an international panel of renowned speakers, who sometimes expressed different viewpoints. The highlights of the meeting included an informal atmosphere, an international perspective, and a practical question and answer session. Over 70% of the delegates stated that they would be changing their clinical practice following on from the meeting. The evidence-based update meeting in 2010 will be devoted to eczema. PMID:20666769

  3. Decision Making in Evidence?Based Practice: Science and Art

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher G. Hudson

    2009-01-01

    In this article the author reviews problems in the implementation of evidence?based practices (EBP) and concludes that these derive not only from numerous practical concerns, but also from fundamental epistemological issues. These include an antiquated understanding of the scientific method, involving types of naive inductivism and rationalism. The central argument of this article is that recent developments in the field

  4. Not Funding the Evidence-Based Model in Ohio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edlefson, Carla

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this descriptive case study was to describe the implementation of Ohio's version of the Evidence-Based Model (OEBM) state school finance system in 2009. Data sources included state budget documents and analyses as well as interviews with local school officials. The new system was responsive to three policy objectives ordered by the…

  5. Critical Thinking: Knowledge and Skills for Evidence-Based Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finn, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: I respond to Kamhi's (2011) conclusion in his article "Balancing Certainty and Uncertainty in Clinical Practice" that rational or critical thinking is an essential complement to evidence-based practice (EBP). Method: I expand on Kamhi's conclusion and briefly describe what clinicians might need to know to think critically within an EBP…

  6. Hindawi Publishing Corporation Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine

    E-print Network

    Napadow, Vitaly

    Chinese Medicine, San Francisco, CA 94103-2961, USA 11Center for Health Studies, Group Health CooperativeHindawi Publishing Corporation Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine Volume 2011-0127, USA 5Department of Research, Oregon College of Oriental Medicine, Portland, OR 97216-2859, USA 6

  7. Evidence-based laboratory medicine: is it working in practice?

    PubMed

    Price, Christopher P

    2012-02-01

    The principles of Evidence-Based Medicine have been established for about two decades, with the need for evidence-based clinical practice now being accepted in most health systems around the world. These principles can be employed in laboratory medicine. The key steps in evidence-based practice, namely (i) formulating the question; (ii) searching for evidence; (iii) appraising evidence; (iv) applying evidence; and (v) assessing the experience are all accepted but, as yet, translation into daily clinical and laboratory practice has been slow. Furthermore, the demand for evidence-based laboratory medicine (EBLM) has been slow to develop.There are many contrasting observations about laboratory medicine, for example (i) there is too much testing vs insufficient testing; (ii) testing is expensive vs laboratories are expected to generate income; and (iii) test results have little impact on outcomes vs test results are crucial to clinical decision making. However, there is little evidence to support any of these observations. Integrating the principles of EBLM into routine practice will help to resolve some of these issues by identifying (a) where laboratory medicine fits into the care pathway; (b) where testing is appropriate; (c) the nature and quality of evidence required to demonstrate the clinical utility of a test; (d) how the test result impacts on clinical actions; (e) where changes in the care pathway will occur; and (f) where benefit/value can be achieved. These answers will help to establish the culture of EBLM in clinical and laboratory practice. PMID:22363094

  8. Qualitative research in evidence-based practice: a valuable partnership

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lisa Given

    2006-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to discuss the nature of the qualitative research paradigm, with a particular emphasis on the marginalization of qualitative approaches within the current discourse of evidence-based librarianship. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper presents examples of qualitative research in the field of library and information studies, reviews the discourse of EBL as it relates to

  9. An introduction to evidence-based practice for hand therapists

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joy C. MacDermid

    2004-01-01

    Evidence-based practice (EBP) is a methodologic approach to clinical practice in which evidence is used to reach an informed decision when making a diagnosis, selecting a diagnostic test, picking an intervention, or determining a prognosis. Finding the best evidence through searching and critical appraisal of the methodologic quality of clinical evidence are essential steps. Matching clinical recommendations to the level

  10. Evidence-Based Practices and Implementation Science in Special Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Bryan G.; Odom, Samuel L.

    2013-01-01

    Establishing a process for identifying evidence-based practices (EBPs) in special education has been a significant advance for the field because it has the potential for generating more effective educational programs and producing more positive outcomes for students with disabilities. However, the potential benefit of EBPs is bounded by the…

  11. Need for evidence-based practice in prosthodontics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James D. Anderson

    2000-01-01

    Statement Of Problem. Patients, their insurers, the courts, and the scientific community are demanding more evidence to support the effectiveness of health care strategies. Purpose. This article describes evidence-based practice, its origins, and value as a way of addressing the demand for evidence of treatment effectiveness in maxillofacial prosthetics. Material And Methods. A limited review of maxillofacial prosthetics literature was

  12. Barriers and Enablers to Evidence-Based Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Robyn

    2014-01-01

    The importance of educational practices based on evidence is well-supported in the literature, however barriers to their implementation in classrooms still exist. This paper examines the phenomenon of evidence-based practice in education highlighting enablers and barriers to their implementation with particular reference to RTLB practice.

  13. What Is "Evidence-Based Practice" in Geography Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    Educationalists developed the concept of "evidence-based practice" during the 1990s because of concern about the relevance of educational research to practitioners and about its impact on their practice. This article outlines the different kinds of research evidence related to geographical education, which might inform practice. It then discusses…

  14. Is there an evidence-based practice for burns?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charmaine Childs

    1998-01-01

    Doublts and questions about clinical decision making need to be answered. Evidence-based medicine aims to provide answers by systematically finding information from the vast assortmment of research papers in the literature and bringing it together to use in everyday practice and in the best interests of the patient. Although clinical (and experimental) studies have a variety of methodologics, ranging from

  15. Evidence-Based Practice: A Framework for Making Effective Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Trina D.; Detrich, Ronnie; Slocum, Timothy A.

    2012-01-01

    The research to practice gap in education has been a long-standing concern. The enactment of No Child Left Behind brought increased emphasis on the value of using scientifically based instructional practices to improve educational outcomes. It also brought education into the broader evidence-based practice movement that started in medicine and has…

  16. Evidence-Based Practice: Beyond Empirically Supported Treatments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stanley B. Messer

    2004-01-01

    Must the clinician choose between a practice that is strictly objective and data based and one that is purely subjective and experience based? Optimally, practitioners need to follow a model of evidence-based psychotherapy practice, such as the disciplined inquiry or local clinical scientist model, that encompasses a theoretical formulation, empirically supported treatments (ESTs), empirically supported therapy relationships, clinicians' accumulated practical

  17. INTEGRATING EVIDENCE-BASED PRACTICE AND SOCIAL WORK FIELD EDUCATION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tonya Edmond; Deborah Megivern; Cynthia Williams; Estelle Rochman; Matthew Howard

    2006-01-01

    The social work academic community is currently considering and critiquing the idea of evidence-based practice (EBP). Given the vital part that practicum education plays in the social work profession, understanding the views of field instructors on this subject is essential. The George Warren Brown School of Social Work at Washington University surveyed 283 field instructors within 180 agencies and found

  18. Evidence-Based Practice in the Social Services

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michelle Johnson; Michael J. Austin

    2008-01-01

    Evidence-based practice integrates individual practitioner expertise with the best available evidence while also considering the values and expectations of clients. Research can be categorized into two broad areas: primary (experiments, clinical trials, and surveys) and secondary research (overviews of major studies, practice guidelines, and decision and economic analyses). One of the major challenges to incorporating research evidence into organizational life

  19. How Evidence-Based Practices Contribute to Community Integration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary R. Bond; Michelle P. Salyers; Angela L. Rollins; Charles A. Rapp; Anthony M. Zipple

    2004-01-01

    Since the groundbreaking work of the Robert Wood Johnson Conference in 1998 identifying six evidence-based practices (EBPs) for people with severe mental illness (SMI), the mental health field has moved in the direction of re-examination and redesign of service systems. Surprisingly, one area that has not been fully explicated is the role that EBPs play in promoting community integration. In

  20. Evidence-Based Interprofessional Practice: Learning and Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littek, Celeste

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this journal article is to investigate evidence-based practice (EBP) or He Ritenga Whaimohio, as one of the seven principles outlined in the "Resource Teacher: Learning and Behaviour (RTLB) Toolkit" (2011) that guides RTLB practice; and to critique the principle of EBP through practical reflection. (Contains 2 tables and 2…

  1. Determining Evidence-Based Practices in Special Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Bryan G.; Tankersley, Melody; Landrum, Timothy J.

    2009-01-01

    Determining evidence-based practices is a complicated enterprise that requires analyzing the methodological quality and magnitude of the available research supporting specific practices. This article reviews criteria and procedures for identifying what works in the fields of clinical psychology, school psychology, and general education; and it…

  2. Evidence-Based Practice in the Early Childhood Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buysse, Virginia, Ed.; Wesley, Patricia W., Ed.

    2006-01-01

    Evidence-based practice is a decision-making process that integrates the best available scientific research evidence with family and professional wisdom and values. The editors argue that it has the potential to transform the services provided to children and families because it incorporates the "different ways of knowing" that characterize early…

  3. Developing Research Competence to Support Evidence-Based Practice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lora E. Burke; Elizabeth A. Schlenk; Susan M. Sereika; Susan M. Cohen; Mary Beth Happ; Janice S. Dorman

    2005-01-01

    This article describes one step in the process that was undertaken to prepare for the introduction of evidence-based practice (EBP) into the curriculum across the Bachelor of Science in Nursing, Master of Science in Nursing, and Doctor of Philosophy pro- grams, as well as the programs that were under development, Clinical Nurse Leader and Doctor of Nursing Practice, at the

  4. The Concept of Evidence in Evidence-Based Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kvernbekk, Tone

    2011-01-01

    There exists a vast literature on evidence-based practice (EBP) in education. The debate branches out in several directions, for example, what EBP entails for the nature of educational practice, what it entails for the teaching profession, what counts as use and abuse of evidence, and what educational research could or should contribute to a what…

  5. What Works? Evidence-Based Practice in Education Is Complex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hempenstall, Kerry

    2014-01-01

    There is a nascent movement towards evidence-based practice in education in Australia, evident in Federal and State education documents, if not in classrooms. Such a classroom-level outcome would require a number of conditions to be met. One of the critical requirements is that teachers be provided with knowledge and training in practices that…

  6. Integration of Evidence-Based Practice into the University Clinic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Brian A.

    2008-01-01

    The author explains different principles, which can be used for the integration of evidence-based practice into the university clinic. Research literature, systematic reviews and practice guidelines are shown to work as the evidence for the teachers, as well as the students.

  7. Developing the skills required for evidence-based practice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Beverley French

    1998-01-01

    The current health care environment requires practitioners with the skills to find and apply the best currently available evidence for effective health care, to contribute to the development of evidence-based practice protocols, and to evaluate the impact of utilizing validated research findings in practice. Current approaches to teaching research are based mainly on gaining skills by participation in the research

  8. Single-Subject Experimental Design for Evidence-Based Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byiers, Breanne J.; Reichle, Joe; Symons, Frank J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Single-subject experimental designs (SSEDs) represent an important tool in the development and implementation of evidence-based practice in communication sciences and disorders. The purpose of this article is to review the strategies and tactics of SSEDs and their application in speech-language pathology research. Method: The authors…

  9. Unraveling Evidence-Based Practices in Special Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Bryan G.; Cook, Sara Cothren

    2013-01-01

    Evidence-based practices (EBPs) are instructional techniques that meet prescribed criteria related to the research design, quality, quantity, and effect size of supporting research, which have the potential to help bridge the research-to-practice gap and improve student outcomes. In this article, the authors (a) discuss the importance of clear…

  10. Disseminating Evidence-Based Practices in Secondary Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mustian, April; Mazzotti, Valerie L.; Test, David W.

    2013-01-01

    As educators move into a new era of educational reform, it becomes imperative that teachers use evidence-based instructional practices shown to be effective for students with disabilities. One area that plays a role in this process is secondary transition. The National Secondary Transition Technical Assistance Center has identified 63…

  11. Evidence-Based Practices in Special Education: Some Practical Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Bryan G.; Tankersley, Melody; Cook, Lysandra; Landrum, Timothy J.

    2008-01-01

    A major tenet of both the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act and the No Child Left Behind Act is the identification and use of evidence-based practices, or those instructional techniques shown by research as most likely to improve student outcomes meaningfully. However, much confusion exists regarding the meaning and potential…

  12. Evidence-based assessment: no more pride or prejudice.

    PubMed

    Munro, Nancy

    2004-01-01

    Evidence-based practice is an important force in healthcare today. Its impact on the practice of the advanced practice nurse (APN) is becoming more apparent with the development of practice guidelines and protocols. The phrase, "That's the way I've always done it," is being replaced by, "This practice is evidence based." The philosophy of supporting practice with scientific evidence is not new but has been revitalized and emphasized as protocols have been developed to "mold" practice to achieve successful outcomes. This revolution is being applied to all areas of healthcare practice. Assessment of the patient is usually the first contact the APN has with the patient. It is an important time to gather information from the patient interview, physical examination, laboratory data, and test interpretation. Scientific evidence, properly interpreted, is applied in this step of assessment. The APN will then use clinical judgment and the knowledge gained from graduate education to assist with the formulation of a diagnosis. The APN has a unique opportunity to promote an evidence-based practice model at the grass roots level and persuade the bedside nurse to integrate this process into his or her practice. Ultimately, patients will receive better care and outcomes will be improved using evidence-based assessment. PMID:15586152

  13. Searching for Excellence & Diversity An evidence-based approach to

    E-print Network

    Sheridan, Jennifer

    #12;Searching for Excellence & Diversity An evidence-based approach to training search committees #12;Outline What is WISELI? Why focus on hiring? Searching for Excellence & Diversity workshops Emphasis on research on bias and assumptions How's it working? #12;Women in Science & Engineering

  14. Evidence-Based Practice for Conduct Disorder Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Christopher R.

    2006-01-01

    Patients exhibiting symptoms associated with conduct disorder present challenges in assessment and treatment. The difficulties are not only the complexities of correct identification and appropriate intervention, but also that the knowledge is rapidly growing. Evidence-based practice (EBP) provides a useful framework for dealing with these issues.…

  15. Toward an Evidence-Based Assessment of Pediatric Bipolar Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youngstrom, Eric A.; Findling, Robert L.; Kogos Youngstrom, Jen; Calabrese, Joseph R.

    2005-01-01

    This article outlines a provisional evidence-based approach to the assessment of pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD). Public attention to PBD and the rate of diagnosis have both increased substantially in the past decade. Accurate diagnosis is crucial to avoid harm due to mislabeling or unnecessary medication exposure. Because there are no proven…

  16. Inquiry in baccalaureate nursing education: fostering evidence-based practice.

    PubMed

    Callister, Lynn Clark; Matsumura, Gerry; Lookinland, Sandra; Mangum, Sandra; Loucks, Carol

    2005-02-01

    With the increasing emphasis on evidence-based nursing practice, nurse educators need to more fully implement teaching strategies that help students gain critical thinking skills related to inquiry and understand the importance of evidence-based nursing practice. Research and scholarship emphases in one baccalaureate nursing program, student-identified benefits, and challenges associated with incorporating inquiry across the curriculum are described in this article. In clinical journal entries, students described the following benefits associated with curricular emphasis on inquiry: increased interest in evidence-based nursing practice and participating in the generation of research; enhanced critical thinking skills through the development of knowledge, experience, and competencies; increased motivation to continue professional growth and development by participating in lifelong learning; the desire to become better consumers of research findings; better understanding of the "real world" of clinical research; and increased desire to pursue graduate studies in nursing. The challenge to promote student growth toward competence in the application of evidence-based principles in clinical practice is ongoing. PMID:15719712

  17. Evidence-Based Library Management: The Leadership Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lakos, Amos

    2007-01-01

    This paper is an extension of the author's earlier work on developing management information services and creating a culture of assessment in libraries. The author will focus observations on the use of data in decision-making in libraries, specifically on the role of leadership in making evidence-based decision a reality, and will review new…

  18. Evidence-based investigations and treatments of recurrent pregnancy loss

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ole B. Christiansen

    2006-01-01

    Purpose of review The majority of investigations and treatments offered to women with recurrent pregnancy loss are not evidence- based. In this review a critical analysis is given of the current management of recurrent pregnancy loss often recommended in meta-analyses and guidelines. Recent findings Our knowledge of genetic, endocrine, thrombophilic and immunological causes of recurrent pregnancy loss has been improved

  19. Dissemination of Evidence-Based Standards of Care

    PubMed Central

    Barkhordarian, Andre; Hacker, Brett; Chiappelli, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    Standards of care pertain to crafting and implementing patient-centered treatment interventions. Standards of care must take into consideration the patient's gender, ethnicity, medical and dental history, insurance coverage (or socioeconomic level, if a private patient), and the timeliness of the targeted scientific evidence. This resolves into a process by which clinical decision-making about the optimal patient-centered treatment relies on the best available research evidence, and all other necessary inputs and factors to provide the best possible treatment. Standards of care must be evidence-based, and not merely based on the evidence – the dichotomy being critical in contemporary health services research and practice. Evidence-based standards of care must rest on the best available evidence that emerges from a concerted hypothesis-driven process of research synthesis and meta-analysis. Health information technology needs to become an every-day reality in health services research and practice to ensure evidence-based standards of care. Current trends indicate that user-friendly methodologies, for the dissemination of evidence-based standards of care, must be developed, tested and distributed. They should include approaches for the quantification and analysis of the textual content of systematic reviews and of their summaries in the form of critical reviews and lay-language summaries. PMID:22355229

  20. Evidence-Based Practice and Policy: Choices Ahead

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eileen Gambrill

    2006-01-01

    Choices about how to view evidence-based practice (EBP) are being made by educators, practitioners, agency administrators, and staff in a variety of organizations designed to promote integration of research and practice such as clearinghouses on EBP. Choices range from narrow views of EBP such as use of empirically based guidelines and treatment manuals to the broad philosophy and evolving process

  1. Can Evidence-Based Dental Health Care Assure Quality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCulloch, Christopher A. G.

    1994-01-01

    It is suggested that evidence-based health care is appropriate in dental care delivery, and dental educators can play an important role in overcoming barriers to teaching and practice of this approach. Obstacles include misinterpretations, insufficient evidence, undeveloped critical appraisal skills, skepticism, inadequate time, and poor access to…

  2. Marketing evidence-based practice: what a CROC™!

    PubMed

    Boyington, Alice R; Ferrall, Sheila M; Sylvanus, Terry

    2010-10-01

    Nurses should be engaged in evidence-based practice (EBP) to ensure that nursing care is efficient and effective. This article describes one cancer center's use of the Marketing Mix framework to educate staff nurses with the CROC™: Clinging Rigidly to Outdated Care campaign. As a result of the campaign, five EBP projects have been initiated in the cancer center. PMID:20880823

  3. Disruptive Innovations for Designing and Diffusing Evidence-Based Interventions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mary Jane Rotheram-Borus; Dallas Swendeman; Bruce F. Chorpita

    2012-01-01

    Evidence-based therapeutic and preventive intervention programs (EBIs) have been growing exponentially. Yet EBIs have not been broadly adopted in the United States. In order for our EBI science to significantly reduce disease burden, we need to critically reexamine our scientific conventions and norms. Innovation may be spurred by reexamining the traditional biomedical model for validating, implementing, and diffusing EBI products

  4. Evidence-Based Clinical Voice Assessment: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Nelson; Barkmeier-Kraemer, Julie; Eadie, Tanya; Sivasankar, M. Preeti; Mehta, Daryush; Paul, Diane; Hillman, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To determine what research evidence exists to support the use of voice measures in the clinical assessment of patients with voice disorders. Method: The American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA) National Center for Evidence-Based Practice in Communication Disorders staff searched 29 databases for peer-reviewed English-language…

  5. Evidence-Based Rehabilitation Counseling Practice: A Pedagogical Imperative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kosciulek, John F.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes how rehabilitation educators can aid students and practitioners in learning about and engaging in evidence-based rehabilitation counseling practice (EBRCP). Information describing (a) the definition and rationale for EBRCP, (b) controversies surrounding EBRCP, (c) facilitating rehabilitation counselor enthusiasm for EBRCP,…

  6. A step to Evidence Based Homeopathy VERATRUM ALBUM

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michel Van Wassenhoven

    Summary Computerised daily practice gives us the opportunity to open the black box, to be confronted with the real world of homeopathy. Evidence Based Homeopathy is an approach specific to homeopathy, seeking to validate different homeopathic concepts, methodologies and strategies. Using Veratrum album and the KENT methodology as example, the author shows a new approach for the Clinical Verification of

  7. Evidence-Based Psychosocial Treatments for Child and Adolescent Depression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Corinne David-Ferdon; Nadine J. Kaslow

    2008-01-01

    The evidence-base of psychosocial treatment outcome studies for depressed youth conducted since 1998 is examined. All studies for depressed children meet Nathan and Gorman's (2002) criteria for Type 2 studies whereas the adolescent protocols meet criteria for both Type 1 and Type 2 studies. Based on the Task Force on the Promotion and Dissemination of Psychological Procedures guidelines, the cognitive-behavioral

  8. Evidence-based Laboratory Medicine: Supporting Decision-Making

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher P. Price

    2000-01-01

    There is an implicit acceptance that an evidence-based culture underpins the practice of laboratory medicine, in part because it is perceived as the scientific foundation of medicine. However, several reviews of specific test procedures or technologies have shown that the evi- dence base is limited and in many cases flawed. One of the key deficiencies in the scientific literature on

  9. Evidence-Based Practices in Outpatient Treatment for Eating Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffner, Angela D.; Buchanan, Linda Paulk

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the current issues relevant to implementing evidence-based practices in the context of outpatient treatment for eating disorders. The study also examined the effectiveness of an outpatient treatment program for eating disorders among a group of 196 patients presenting with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, or eating disorder…

  10. Need to Address Evidence-Based Practice in Educational Administration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kowalski, Theodore

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This article presents a case for addressing evidence-based practice (EBP) in educational administration. Content is arranged around four objectives: (a) summarizing the status of educational administration as a profession, (b) defining evidence and the model, (c) explaining EBP's social and professional merit, and (d) identifying barriers…

  11. Evidence-Based Practice in Adapted Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jin, Jooyeon; Yun, Joonkoo

    2010-01-01

    Although implementation of evidence-based practice (EBP) has been strongly advocated by federal legislation as well as school districts in recent years, the concept has not been well accepted in adapted physical education (APE), perhaps due to a lack of understanding of the central notion of EBP. The purpose of this article is to discuss how APE…

  12. Evidence-Based Psychosocial Treatments for Ethnic Minority Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huey, Stanley J., Jr.; Polo, Antonio J.

    2008-01-01

    This article reviews research on evidence-based treatments (EBTs) for ethnic minority youth using criteria from Chambless et al. (1998), Chambless et al. (1996), and Chambless and Hollon (1998). Although no "well-established" treatments were identified, "probably efficacious" or "possibly efficacious" treatments were found for ethnic minority…

  13. Evidence-Based Practices Project for Suicide Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodgers, Philip L.; Sudak, Howard S.; Silverman, Morton M.; Litts, David A.

    2007-01-01

    Suicide continues to be a serious public health problem. In response to this problem, a myriad of suicide prevention programs have been developed and employed across the United States. Unfortunately, the effectiveness of many of these programs is unknown because they have not been evaluated using rigorous methods. The Evidence-Based Practices…

  14. Evidence-Based Psychosocial Treatments for Child and Adolescent Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    David-Ferdon, Corinne; Kaslow, Nadine J.

    2008-01-01

    The evidence-base of psychosocial treatment outcome studies for depressed youth conducted since 1998 is examined. All studies for depressed children meet Nathan and Gorman's (2002) criteria for Type 2 studies whereas the adolescent protocols meet criteria for both Type 1 and Type 2 studies. Based on the Task Force on the Promotion and…

  15. Integrating Evidence-based Decision Making into Allied Health Curricula.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forrest, Jane L.; Miller, Syrene A.

    2001-01-01

    Evidence-based decision making (EBDM) was incorporated into an institute for 42 dental hygiene, occupational therapy, and physical therapy faculty. The 4-day sessions addressed active teaching techniques, formulation of good questions, critical appraisal of evidence, and application, feedback, and evaluation. Most participants felt prepared to…

  16. Evidence-Based Versus Reported Epilepsy Management Practices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katherine S. Mastriani; Virginia C. Williams; Thomas C. Hulsey; James W. Wheless; Bernard L. Maria

    2008-01-01

    Evidence-based medicine practices are widely touted in medicine, although their adoption by busy practitioners is problematic and cumbersome. In this study, we examined published evidence underpinning 2 relevant clinical management questions in pediatric epilepsy: when to initiate an antiepileptic drug and when to prescribe the ketogenic diet. We surveyed practicing child neurologists who were attending their national meeting to determine

  17. Organizing for Evidence-Based Decision Making and Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leimer, Christina

    2012-01-01

    In today's accountability climate, regional accrediting bodies are requiring colleges and universities to develop and sustain a culture of evidence-based decision making and improvement. But two-thirds of college presidents in a 2011 "Inside Higher Ed" survey said their institutions are not particularly strong at using data for making decisions.…

  18. Gender inequities in sexually transmitted infections: implications for HIV infection and control in Lagos State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Adeyemi, Ezekiel Oluwagbemiga

    2011-01-01

    Beyond the statistics of sex-based differences in infection rates, there are profound differences in the underlying causes and consequences of HIV infections in male and female which need to be examined. The study therefore examines; the gender differences in the STI knowledge and gender-related potential risks of HIV heterosexual transmission. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected. A multistage random sampling procedure was employed in administration of 1358 questionnaires. For qualitative data, four focus group discussions (FGD) were conducted to collect information from stakeholders within the study population, while In-depth interview was employed to collect information from 188 people living with HIV/AIDS through support groups in the State. The data collected were subjected to basic demographic analytical techniques. Combination of univariate, bivariate, and multivariate analysis were employed. Information from focus group discussions and in-depth interviews were transcribed and organized under broad headings that depict different aspects of the discussions. Majority of the respondents interviewed did not inform their partners about their infection in the study area. It was also discovered that stigmatization did not allow some women to disclose their status to their sexual partners. Some of the HIV-positive patients interviewed agreed that they did not attend the health facilities to treat the STI’s before they were finally confirmed positive. The study hypothesis revealed that communication between partners about STI’s was associated with an increase in risk reduction behaviour. The paper concluded that there is need for more information and education on communication about STI’s between the sexual partners; to reduce the spread of sexually transmitted diseases within the nation. PMID:24470905

  19. A case-control study of factors associated with HIV infection among black women.

    PubMed Central

    Forna, Fatu M.; Fitzpatrick, Lisa; Adimora, Adaora A.; McLellan-Lemal, Eleanor; Leone, Peter; Brooks, John T.; Marks, Gary; Greenberg, Alan

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify social, behavioral and epidemiologic factors associated with HIV infection among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected black women residing in North Carolina. DESIGN: A case-control study conducted in August 2004 in North Carolina. METHODS: Cases were 18-40-year-old women with HIV infections diagnosed from 2003-2004. Controls were 18-40-yearold, HIV-negative heterosexually active women recruited from HIV testing sites. Five focus group discussions were also conducted with women not participating in the case-control study. RESULTS: Multivariate analyses of 31 cases and 101 controls showed that HIV-positive women were more likely to receive public assistance [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 7.3; 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.1, 26.0], to report a history of genital herpes infection (aOR 10.6; 95% CI 2.4, 47.2), and were less likely to have discussed a variety of sexual and behavioral issues relevant to risk of HIV infection with their male partners (aOR 0.6; 95% CI 0.4, 0.8). Focus group participants indicated that financial and social demands created competing challenges for making HIV prevention a priority. CONCLUSIONS: Inadequate communication between black women and their sexual partners may create barriers to sexual and behavioral risk reduction. A multidimensional approach that addresses both biological factors such as herpes infection and socioeconomic factors may be needed to reduce HIV transmission in this population. PMID:17128690

  20. Strengths and limitations of evidence-based dermatology.

    PubMed

    Williams, Hywel C

    2014-03-01

    The need for understanding and reflecting on evidence-based dermatology (EBD) has never been greater given the exponential growth of new external evidence to inform clinical practice. Like any other branch of medicine, dermatologists need to acquire new skills in constructing answerable questions, efficiently searching electronic bibliographic databases, and critically appraising different types of studies. Secondary summaries of evidence in the form of systematic reviews (SR), that is, reviews that are conducted in a systematic, unbiased and explicit manner, reside at the top of the evidence hierarchy, because they are less prone to bias than traditional expert reviews. In addition to providing summaries of the best external evidence, systematic reviews and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are also powerful ways of identifying research gaps and ultimately setting the agenda of future clinical research in dermatology. But like any paradigm, EBD can have its limitations. Wrong application, misuse and overuse of EBD can have serious consequences. For example, mindless pooling together of data from dissimilar studies in a meta-analysis may render it a form of reductionism that does not make any sense. Similarly, even highly protocolised study designs such as SRs and RCTs are still susceptible to some degree of dishonesty and bias. Over-reliance on randomized controlled trials (RCT) may be inappropriate, as RCTs are not a good source for picking up rare but important adverse effects such as lupus syndrome with minocycline. A common criticism leveled against SRs is that these frequently conclude that there is lack of sufficient evidence to inform current clinical practice, but arguably, such a perception is grounded more on the interpretation of the SRs than anything else. The apparent absence of evidence should not paralyze the dermatologist to adopt a state of therapeutic nihilism. Poor primary data and an SR based on evidence that is not up-to-date are also limitations that can only improve with better primary studies and updated reviews such as those done by the Cochrane Collaboration. Most dermatologists are interested in integrating the best external evidence with the care of individual patients and have been practicing good EBD without realizing it. PMID:24700929

  1. Strengths and Limitations of Evidence-Based Dermatology

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Hywel C

    2014-01-01

    The need for understanding and reflecting on evidence-based dermatology (EBD) has never been greater given the exponential growth of new external evidence to inform clinical practice. Like any other branch of medicine, dermatologists need to acquire new skills in constructing answerable questions, efficiently searching electronic bibliographic databases, and critically appraising different types of studies. Secondary summaries of evidence in the form of systematic reviews (SR), that is, reviews that are conducted in a systematic, unbiased and explicit manner, reside at the top of the evidence hierarchy, because they are less prone to bias than traditional expert reviews. In addition to providing summaries of the best external evidence, systematic reviews and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are also powerful ways of identifying research gaps and ultimately setting the agenda of future clinical research in dermatology. But like any paradigm, EBD can have its limitations. Wrong application, misuse and overuse of EBD can have serious consequences. For example, mindless pooling together of data from dissimilar studies in a meta-analysis may render it a form of reductionism that does not make any sense. Similarly, even highly protocolised study designs such as SRs and RCTs are still susceptible to some degree of dishonesty and bias. Over-reliance on randomized controlled trials (RCT) may be inappropriate, as RCTs are not a good source for picking up rare but important adverse effects such as lupus syndrome with minocycline. A common criticism leveled against SRs is that these frequently conclude that there is lack of sufficient evidence to inform current clinical practice, but arguably, such a perception is grounded more on the interpretation of the SRs than anything else. The apparent absence of evidence should not paralyze the dermatologist to adopt a state of therapeutic nihilism. Poor primary data and an SR based on evidence that is not up-to-date are also limitations that can only improve with better primary studies and updated reviews such as those done by the Cochrane Collaboration. Most dermatologists are interested in integrating the best external evidence with the care of individual patients and have been practicing good EBD without realizing it. PMID:24700929

  2. [Pharmacist's requirements for evidence-based self-medication guidelines].

    PubMed

    Laven, Anna; Läer, Stephanie

    2013-03-01

    Due to the removal of many pharmaceuticals from the prescription requirement, self-medication implies an increasing responsibility for pharmacists towards their patients. The application of evidence-based guidelines could be a responsible basis for consulting in pharmacies. Evidence-based guidelines represent the systematically accumulated and evaluated facts (the evidence) of desired and undesired effects of pharmaceuticals in the population. We wanted to find out which interest pharmaceutical professionals have in evidence-based guidelines and which are the exact requirements on their content, deducted from public pharmacies everyday demands. With this purpose, three surveys were conducted between March and August 2012, in which 365, 350, and 486 pharmaceutical professionals participated respectively. The results show that pharmacy staff is very interested in evidence based guidelines. Furthermore, they suggest that the pharmacy staff feel safe with the self-diagnosis of the customer, with the consideration of limits of self-medication, as well as with the selection of the--according to own assessment--appropriate active substance. For the selection of the correct active substance, the following criteria are named: self-security in the counselling, first-hand experiences as well as the wish of the customer. At the same time, it is striking that the most frequent critique the pharmacy staff gets from pharmacy customers is the lack of effectiveness of the selected medication. With that in mind, it is possible that not the appropriate medication was selected, and the chosen criteria as selection method should be replaced by an evidence-based decision. Secondly, the results show that in up to 52% of the cases, depending on the indications, the participating consultants felt less certain to uncertain with regards to possible interactions or contraindications. Also in this context, it is desirable to prepare the existing data in such a practical way, that the pharmacies are able to apply them directly. PMID:23573693

  3. Successful Human Infection with P. falciparum Using Three Aseptic Anopheles stephensi Mosquitoes: A New Model for Controlled Human Malaria Infection

    PubMed Central

    Laurens, Matthew B.; Billingsley, Peter; Richman, Adam; Eappen, Abraham G.; Adams, Matthew; Li, Tao; Chakravarty, Sumana; Gunasekera, Anusha; Jacob, Christopher G.; Sim, B. Kim Lee; Edelman, Robert; Plowe, Christopher V.; Hoffman, Stephen L.; Lyke, Kirsten E.

    2013-01-01

    Controlled human malaria infection (CHMI) is a powerful method for assessing the efficacy of anti-malaria vaccines and drugs targeting pre-erythrocytic and erythrocytic stages of the parasite. CHMI has heretofore required the bites of 5 Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) sporozoite (SPZ)-infected mosquitoes to reliably induce Pf malaria. We reported that CHMI using the bites of 3 PfSPZ-infected mosquitoes reared aseptically in compliance with current good manufacturing practices (cGMP) was successful in 6 participants. Here, we report results from a subsequent CHMI study using 3 PfSPZ-infected mosquitoes reared aseptically to validate the initial clinical trial. We also compare results of safety, tolerability, and transmission dynamics in participants undergoing CHMI using 3 PfSPZ-infected mosquitoes reared aseptically to published studies of CHMI using 5 mosquitoes. Nineteen adults aged 18–40 years were bitten by 3 Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes infected with the chloroquine-sensitive NF54 strain of Pf. All 19 participants developed malaria (100%); 12 of 19 (63%) on Day 11. The mean pre-patent period was 258.3 hours (range 210.5–333.8). The geometric mean parasitemia at first diagnosis by microscopy was 9.5 parasites/µL (range 2–44). Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) detected parasites an average of 79.8 hours (range 43.8–116.7) before microscopy. The mosquitoes had a geometric mean of 37,894 PfSPZ/mosquito (range 3,500–152,200). Exposure to the bites of 3 aseptically-raised, PfSPZ-infected mosquitoes is a safe, effective procedure for CHMI in malaria-naïve adults. The aseptic model should be considered as a new standard for CHMI trials in non-endemic areas. Microscopy is the gold standard used for the diagnosis of Pf malaria after CHMI, but qPCR identifies parasites earlier. If qPCR continues to be shown to be highly specific, and can be made to be practical, rapid, and standardized, it should be considered as an alternative for diagnosis. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00744133 NCT00744133 PMID:23874828

  4. Gene expression profile suggests that pigs (Sus scrofa) are susceptible to Anaplasma phagocytophilum but control infection

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Anaplasma phagocytophilum infects a wide variety of hosts and causes granulocytic anaplasmosis in humans, horses and dogs and tick-borne fever in ruminants. Infection with A. phagocytophilum results in the modification of host gene expression and immune response. The objective of this research was to characterize gene expression in pigs (Sus scrofa) naturally and experimentally infected with A. phagocytophilum trying to identify mechanisms that help to explain low infection prevalence in this species. Results For gene expression analysis in naturally infected pigs, microarray hybridization was used. The expression of differentially expressed immune response genes was analyzed by real-time RT-PCR in naturally and experimentally infected pigs. Results suggested that A. phagocytophilum infection affected cytoskeleton rearrangement and increased both innate and adaptive immune responses by up regulation of interleukin 1 receptor accessory protein-like 1 (IL1RAPL1), T-cell receptor alpha chain (TCR-alpha), thrombospondin 4 (TSP-4) and Gap junction protein alpha 1 (GJA1) genes. Higher serum levels of IL-1 beta, IL-8 and TNF-alpha in infected pigs when compared to controls supported data obtained at the mRNA level. Conclusions These results suggested that pigs are susceptible to A. phagocytophilum but control infection, particularly through activation of innate immune responses, phagocytosis and autophagy. This fact may account for the low infection prevalence detected in pigs in some regions and thus their low or no impact as a reservoir host for this pathogen. These results advanced our understanding of the molecular mechanisms at the host-pathogen interface and suggested a role for newly reported genes in the protection of pigs against A. phagocytophilum. PMID:22935149

  5. Review: phage therapy: a modern tool to control bacterial infections.

    PubMed

    Qadir, Muhammad Imran

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of antibiotic-resistant in bacteria has aggravated curiosity in development of alternative therapy to conventional drugs. One of the emerging drugs that can be used alternative to antibiotics is bacteriophage therapy. The use of living phages in the cure of lethal infectious life threatening diseases caused by Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria has been reported. Another development in the field of bacteriophage therapy is the use of genetically modified and non replicating phages in the treatment of bacterial infection. Genetically engineered bacteriophages can be used as adjuvant along with antibiotic therapy. Phages encoded with lysosomal enzymes are also effectual in the treatment of infectious diseases. PMID:25553704

  6. Effect of an infection surveillance and control program on the accuracy of retrospective chart review.

    PubMed

    Haley, R W; Hooton, T M; Schoenfelder, J R; Crossley, K B; Quade, D; Stanley, R C; Culver, D H

    1980-05-01

    The primary analyses of the SENIC Project (Study on the Efficacy of Nosocomial Infection Control) will test the association between the presence of infection surveillance and control programs (ISCPs) and changes in nosocomial infection rates (NIRs) as measured by retrospective chart review (RCR). If the establishment of an ISCP affects the quality or completeness of information important for diagnosing infection by RCR, the analyses could be biased (i.e., there could be an increased chance of a Type I or Type II error). To determine whether this type of "ISCP effect" on the accuracy of RCR is likely to occur, the authors carried out a prospective intervention study in one hospital where 1) nosocomial infections among a pre-ISCP cohort of patients were detected by prospective data collection (PDC), 2) the hospital's first ISCP was instituted, and 3) infections were identically studied by PDC exactly two years later. Several months after the end of the second PDC, a team of trained chart reviewers read the medical records of the patients in both study cohorts and abstracted all clinical data bits used for diagnosing nosocomial infection. By a nonparametric matched correlation analysis, no significant change was found in the amount of relevant clinical information recorded in the medical records, and sensitivity and specificity did not change significantly. The authors conclude that, if an ISCP effect on RCR accuracy is present at all, it must be small. PMID:7377198

  7. Role of previous hospitalization in clinically-significant MRSA infection among HIV-infected inpatients: results of a case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Drapeau, Cecilia MJ; Angeletti, Claudio; Festa, Anna; Petrosillo, Nicola

    2007-01-01

    Background HIV-infected subjects have high incidence rates of Staphylococcus aureus infections, with both methicillin-susceptible and methicillin-resistant (MRSA) strains. Possible explanations could include the high burden of colonization, the behavioral risk factors, and the frequent exposures to health care facilities of HIV-infected patients. The purpose of the study was to assess the risk factors for clinically- significant methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CS-MRSA) infections in HIV-infected patients admitted to Infectious Diseases Units. Methods From January 1, 2002 to December 31, 2005, we conducted a retrospective case-control (1:2) study. We identified all the cases of CS-MRSA infections in HIV-infected patients admitted to the National Institute for Infectious Diseases (INMI) "Lazzaro Spallanzani" in the 4-year study period. A conditional logistic regression model was used to identify risk factors for CS-MRSA infection. Results We found 27 CS-MRSA infections, i.e. 0.9 CS-MRSA infections per 100 HIV-infected individuals cared for in our Institute. At multivariate analysis, independent predictors of CS-MRSA infection were cumulative hospital stay, invasive procedures in the previous year, and low CD4 cell count. Particularly, the risk for CS-MRSA increased by 14% per an increase of 5 days hospitalization in the previous year. Finally, we identified a low frequency of community-acquired MRSA infections (only 1 of 27; 3.7%) among HIV-infected patients. Conclusion Clinicians should be aware of the risk for CS-MRSA infection in the clinical management of HIV-infected patients, especially in those patients with a low CD4 cell count, longer previous hospital stay, and previous invasive procedures. PMID:17470274

  8. Herbal traditional Chinese medicine and its evidence base in gastrointestinal disorders

    PubMed Central

    Teschke, Rolf; Wolff, Albrecht; Frenzel, Christian; Eickhoff, Axel; Schulze, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Herbal traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is used to treat several ailments, but its efficiency is poorly documented and hence debated, as opposed to modern medicine commonly providing effective therapies. The aim of this review article is to present a practical reference guide on the role of herbal TCM in managing gastrointestinal disorders, supported by systematic reviews and evidence based trials. A literature search using herbal TCM combined with terms for gastrointestinal disorders in PubMed and the Cochrane database identified publications of herbal TCM trials. Results were analyzed for study type, inclusion criteria, and outcome parameters. Quality of placebo controlled, randomized, double-blind clinical trials was poor, mostly neglecting stringent evidence based diagnostic and therapeutic criteria. Accordingly, appropriate Cochrane reviews and meta-analyses were limited and failed to support valid, clinically relevant evidence based efficiency of herbal TCM in gastrointestinal diseases, including gastroesophageal reflux disease, gastric or duodenal ulcer, dyspepsia, irritable bowel syndrome, ulcerative colitis, and Crohn’s disease. In conclusion, the use of herbal TCM to treat various diseases has an interesting philosophical background with a long history, but it received increasing skepticism due to the lack of evidence based efficiency as shown by high quality trials; this has now been summarized for gastrointestinal disorders, with TCM not recommended for most gastrointestinal diseases. Future studies should focus on placebo controlled, randomized, double-blind clinical trials, herbal product quality and standard criteria for diagnosis, treatment, outcome, and assessment of adverse herb reactions. This approach will provide figures of risk/benefit profiles that hopefully are positive for at least some treatment modalities of herbal TCM. Proponents of modern herbal TCM best face these promising challenges of pragmatic modern medicine by bridging the gap between the two medicinal cultures.

  9. A programme for controlling acute respiratory infections in children: Memorandum from a WHO Meeting*

    PubMed Central

    1984-01-01

    The unacceptably high mortality related to acute respiratory infections (ARI) in children, recognition of the importance of bacteria in the causation of severe acute lower respiratory infection in developing countries, and the established effectiveness of antimicrobial and supportive treatment in averting death make a strong case for the initiation of an ARI control programme. This should be spearheaded by prototype ARI service activities, delivered through primary health care and backed up by well-coordinated health systems research. PMID:6609020

  10. Focused ethnographic studies in the WHO programme for the control of acute respiratory infections

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sandy Cove; Gretel H. Pelto

    1993-01-01

    Focused Ethnographic Studies (FESs), developed and sponsored by the World Health Organization (WHO) Programme for the Control of Acute Respiratory Infections (ARI), have facilitated ethnographic research dedicated to determining key household behaviors and understandings surrounding respiratory infections—particularly pneumonia—in children. The FES design emphasizes anthropological theory and methods while limiting the scope and duration of fieldwork to a specific “program?relevant” research

  11. Modelling nematode infections in sheep and parasite control strategies 

    E-print Network

    Laurenson, Yan Christian Stephen Mountfort

    2012-11-30

    Gastrointestinal parasitism in grazing lambs adversely affects animal performance and welfare, causing significant production losses for the sheep industry. Control of gastrointestinal parasitism using chemotherapeutic ...

  12. Mental Health Provider Attitudes Toward Adoption of Evidence-Based Practice: The Evidence-Based Practice Attitude Scale (EBPAS)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregory A. Aarons

    2004-01-01

    Mental health provider attitudes toward organizational change have not been well studied. Dissemination and implementation of evidence-based practices (EBPs) into real-world settings represent organizational change that may be limited or facilitated by provider attitudes toward adoption of new treatments, interventions, and practices. A brief measure of mental health provider attitudes toward adoption of EBPs was developed and attitudes were examined

  13. Evidence-Based Special Education and Professional Wisdom: Putting It All Together

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Bryan G.; Tankersley, Melody; Harjusola-Webb, Sanna

    2008-01-01

    There has been an increasing focus on evidence-based practices in special education with efforts underway to authoritatively identify those practices that are evidence based. However, the identification of evidence-based practices is only the beginning of the process of implementing evidence-based special education. The professional wisdom of…

  14. Claudin-1 gene variants and susceptibility to hepatitis C infection in HIV-1 infected intravenous drug users (an ANRS case-control study).

    PubMed

    Ghosn, Jade; Fouquet, Baptiste; Quertainmont, Yann; Salmon, Dominique; Sahali, Sabrinel; Rioux, Christophe; Duvivier, Claudine; Mole, Martine; Delfraissy, Jean-François; Misrahi, Micheline

    2015-04-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) seroprevalence is highly diverse among human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) infected patients, ranging between 10% of HIV-1 infected homo-bisexuel men, to >92% in patients infected with HIV-1 who acquired HIV-1 through intravenous drug use. Thus, being HCV-free while having acquired HIV-1 via intravenous drug use is a rare situation. Claudin-1 is a protein involved in intracellular tight-junctions and has been identified as a major cellular co-receptor for HCV infection. Our objective was to determine whether Claudin-1 gene (CLDN1) mutations might be involved in natural resistance to HCV infection. We conducted a case-control study. All recruited patients acquired HIV-1 infection via intravenous drug use route before 1995. The case study patients remained free from HCV infection (negative anti-HCV antibodies and HCV-RNA). The control study patients was co-infected with HCV (positive anti-HCV antibodies). Direct genomic sequencing of the CLDN1 gene coding region and adjacent intron/exons junctions was performed from peripheral blood mononuclear cells. A total of 138 Caucasian patients were enrolled. Twenty-two patients (cases) were free from HCV infection and 116 (controls) were co-infected with HCV. We found single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) described previously with no significant differences in allele frequencies between cases and controls. In conclusion, despite being a major cellular co-receptor for HCV entry in vitro, we did not identify any specific substitution in CLDN1 gene coding region in our study patients highly exposed but resistant to HCV infection in vivo. Other cellular co-factors involved in HCV infection should be investigated in this highly-exposed intravenous drug users patients. J. Med. Virol. 87:619-624, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25611191

  15. Compliance with infection control practices in an university hospital dental clinic

    PubMed Central

    Mutters, Nico T.; Hägele, Ulrike; Hagenfeld, Daniel; Hellwig, Elmar; Frank, Uwe

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Compliance with infection control practices is the key to quality care and excellence in dentistry. Infection control remains one of the most cost-beneficial interventions available. However, implementing control procedures requires full compliance of the whole dental team. The aim of our study was to measure the compliance in daily clinical practice. Methods: The compliance with infection control practices in dentistry by dental health care personnel (DHCP) in a German university dental clinic was observed during clinical work. In addition, a survey was conducted to assess the individual knowledge about infection control procedures. Contamination of the workplace during invasive dental procedures was tested, as well. Results: A total of 58 invasive dental treatments implying close contacts between HCWs and patients were scrutinized. All HCWs (100%) wore gloves during dental work, but in some cases (female dentists: 14.3%; dental assistants: 28.6%) gloves were neither changed nor hands were disinfected between different activities or patient contacts (female dentists: 68.6%; male dentists: 60.9%; dental assistants: 93%). Only 31.4% of female and 39.1% of male dentists carried out adequate hygienic hand disinfection after removing gloves. Male dentists wore significantly more often (100%) protective eyewear compared to 77.1% of female dentists (p<0.05). In addition, most of female dentists (62.9%) and dental assistants (80.7%) wore jewelry during dental procedures. Conclusion: Despite the knowledge of distinct hygiene procedures only a small percentage of dental staff performs hygiene practices according to recommended guidelines. Strict audit is clearly needed in the dental setting to ensure compliance with infection control guidelines to prevent transmission of pathogens. Our results provide insights for the development of a targeted education and training strategy to enhance compliance of dental staff especially of dental assistants with infection control procedures. PMID:25285262

  16. Summary of guidelines for infection prevention and control for flexible gastrointestinal endoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Hookey, Lawrence; Armstrong, David; Enns, Rob; Matlow, Anne; Singh, Harminder; Love, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: High-quality processes to ensure infection prevention and control in the delivery of safe endoscopy services are essential. In 2010, the Public Health Agency of Canada and the Canadian Association of Gastroenterology (CAG) developed a Canadian guideline for the reprocessing of flexible gastrointestinal endoscopy equipment. METHODS: The CAG Endoscopy Committee carefully reviewed the 2010 guidelines and prepared an executive summary. RESULTS: Key elements relevant to infection prevention and control for flexible gastrointestinal endoscopy were highlighted for each of the recommendations included in the 2010 document. The 2010 guidelines consist of seven sections, including administrative recommendations, as well as recommendations for endoscopy and endoscopy decontamination equipment, reprocessing endoscopes and accessories, endoscopy unit design, quality management, outbreak investigation and management, and classic and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease. DISCUSSION: The recommendations for infection prevention and control for flexible gastrointestinal endoscopy are intended for all individuals with responsibility for endoscopes in all settings where endoscopy is performed. PMID:23781518

  17. Comparison of Clinical and Parasitological Data from Controlled Human Malaria Infection Trials

    PubMed Central

    Roestenberg, Meta; O'Hara, Geraldine A.; Duncan, Christopher J. A.; Epstein, Judith E.; Edwards, Nick J.; Scholzen, Anja; van der Ven, André J. A. M.; Hermsen, Cornelus C.; Hill, Adrian V. S.; Sauerwein, Robert W.

    2012-01-01

    Background Exposing healthy human volunteers to Plasmodium falciparum-infected mosquitoes is an accepted tool to evaluate preliminary efficacy of malaria vaccines. To accommodate the demand of the malaria vaccine pipeline, controlled infections are carried out in an increasing number of centers worldwide. We assessed their safety and reproducibility. Methods We reviewed safety and parasitological data from 128 malaria-naïve subjects participating in controlled malaria infection trials conducted at the University of Oxford, UK, and the Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, The Netherlands. Results were compared to a report from the US Military Malaria Vaccine Program. Results We show that controlled human malaria infection trials are safe and demonstrate a consistent safety profile with minor differences in the frequencies of arthralgia, fatigue, chills and fever between institutions. But prepatent periods show significant variation. Detailed analysis of Q-PCR data reveals highly synchronous blood stage parasite growth and multiplication rates. Conclusions Procedural differences can lead to some variation in safety profile and parasite kinetics between institutions. Further harmonization and standardization of protocols will be useful for wider adoption of these cost-effective small-scale efficacy trials. Nevertheless, parasite growth rates are highly reproducible, illustrating the robustness of controlled infections as a valid tool for malaria vaccine development. PMID:22701640

  18. 75 FR 50770 - Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee (HICPAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-17

    ...To Be Discussed: The agenda will include a follow up discussion on the Draft Guideline for the Prevention and Control of Norovirus Gastroenteritis Outbreaks in Healthcare Settings. Materials for the call will be available on the HICPAC Web site,...

  19. Quantitative proteomic discovery of dynamic epigenome changes that control human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Christine M; DiMaggio, Peter A; Shenk, Thomas; Garcia, Benjamin A

    2014-09-01

    This work represents the first comprehensive quantitative analysis of global histone post-translational modifications (PTMs) from a virus infection, namely human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection. We used a nanoLC-MS/MS platform to identify and quantify the dynamic histone H3 and H4 PTMs expressed during HCMV replication in primary fibroblasts. Specifically, we examined the changes in histone PTMs over a 96 h time course to sample the immediate early (IE), early (E), and late (L) stages of viral infection. Several changes in histone H3 and H4 PTMs were observed, including a marked increase in H3K79me2 and H3K27me3K36me2, and a decrease in H4K16ac, highlighting likely epigenetic strategies of transcriptional activation and silencing during HCMV lytic infection. Heavy methyl-SILAC (hm-SILAC) was used to further confirm the histone methylation flux (especially for H3K79) during HCMV infection. We evaluated DOT1L (the H3K79 methyltransferase) mRNA levels in mock and HCMV-infected cells over a 96 h time course, and observed a significant increase in this methyltransferase as early as 24 hpi showing that viral infection up-regulates DOT1L expression, which drives H3K79me2. We then used shRNA to create a DOT1L knockdown cell population, and found that HCMV infection of the knockdown cells resulted in a 10-fold growth defect when compared with infected control cells not subjected to knockdown. This work documents multiple histone PTMs that occur in response to HCMV infection of fibroblasts, and provides a framework for evaluation of the role of epigenetic modifications in the virus-host interaction. PMID:24987098

  20. A needs-assessment and demographic survey of infection-control and disease awareness in western US animal shelters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kay K. Steneroden; Ashley E. Hill; M. D. Salman

    2011-01-01

    A cross-sectional needs-assessment survey was used to characterize animal shelters in a 6-state region in the western US and describe infection-control practices and disease awareness. Survey questions focused on shelter demographics, infection-control practices and policies, awareness and concern over infectious and zoonotic diseases, staff and volunteer training relating to infection-control and disease awareness, use of diagnostic tools, and isolation procedures

  1. Effect of executive programs of infection control committees on the prevalence of nosocomial infections in Kermanshah’s Hospitals (2010–2011)

    PubMed Central

    Vatankhah, Sodabe; Mokarami, Hamidreza; Karchani, Mohsen; Hosseini, Zahra; Izadi, Babak; Moradi, Farideh

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of executive programs of infection control committees on the incidence of nosocomial infections in hospitals affiliated with the Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences (Kermanshah, Iran) during 2010 and 2011. The numbers of patients admitted in 2010 and 2011 were 8084 and 7166, respectively, and the average prevalence of nosocomial infections in 2010 and 2011 was 0.8 and 1.9 infections per 100 patients, respectively. In 2010, the mean scores obtained by hospital for regular Infection Control Committee meetings, regular gatherings, registration of program information analysis, and regular follow-up meetings were 19, 31, 30.5, and 41.7 (out of 100), respectively. In 2011, they were 20.2, 36.4, 38.1, and 50, respectively. The results of this study indicated that executive programs of infection control committees had no effect on the incidence of nosocomial infections; therefore, the experts who assess hospitals should pay more attention to the systems that are used to conduct surveillance of nosocomial infection control programs.

  2. Identification and characterization of Cri1, a locus controlling mortality during Citrobacter rodentium infection in mice.

    PubMed

    Diez, E; Zhu, L; Teatero, S A; Paquet, M; Roy, M-F; Loredo-Osti, J C; Malo, D; Gruenheid, S

    2011-06-01

    Infection of inbred mouse strains with Citrobacter rodentium represents an ideal model to reveal the genetic factors controlling host resistance to noninvasive enteric bacterial pathogens. We have chosen a positional cloning approach to identify putative gene(s) that control the known difference in survival between resistant C57BL/6J and susceptible C3H/HeJ and C3H/HeOuJ mice. Our work has identified one major locus within proximal chromosome 15 that is responsible for the marked susceptibility of both C3H strains, and we formally exclude Tlr4 from control of survival to this pathogen. We have named this new host resistance locus Cri1 (Citrobacter rodentium infection 1). The Cri1 genetic interval currently spans ?16 Mb and it confers survival to the infection in a recessive manner. Transfer of the Cri1 locus from the surviving B6 mice into a congenic mouse with a C3Ou genetic background confirms its overall chromosomal localization and its highly significant effect on host survival. The C3Ou.B6-Cri1 mice thus produced have also enabled us to dissociate the control of mouse survival from the control of bacterial load early in the infection as well as from control of colonic hyperplasia. PMID:21326319

  3. Evidence-Based Staff Training: A Guide for Practitioners

    PubMed Central

    Parsons, Marsha B.; Rollyson, Jeannia H.; Reid, Dennis H.

    2012-01-01

    Behavior analysts in human service agencies are commonly expected to train support staff as one of their job duties. Traditional staff training is usually didactic in nature and generally has not proven particularly effective. We describe an alternative, evidence-based approach for training performance skills to human service staff. The description includes a specific means of conducting a behavioral skills training session with a group of staff followed by on-the-job training requirements. A brief case demonstration then illustrates application of the training approach and its apparent effectiveness for training staff in two distinct skill sets: use of most-to-least prompting within teaching procedures and use of manual signs. Practical issues associated with applying evidence-based behavioral training are presented with a focus on providing training that is effective, efficient, and acceptable to staff trainees. PMID:23730462

  4. Evidence-based assessment of depression in adults.

    PubMed

    Joiner, Thomas E; Walker, Rheeda L; Pettit, Jeremy W; Perez, Marisol; Cukrowicz, Kelly C

    2005-09-01

    From diverse perspectives, there is little doubt that depressive symptoms cohere to form a valid and distinct syndrome. Research indicates that an evidence-based assessment of depression would include (a) measures with adequate psychometric properties; (b) adequate coverage of symptoms; (c) adequate coverage of depressed mood, anhedonia, and suicidality; (d) an approach to suicidality that distinguishes between resolved plans and preparations and desire and ideation; (e) assessment of the atypical, seasonal, and melancholic subtypes; (f) parameters of course and chronicity; and (g) comorbidity and bipolarity. These complexities need to be accounted for when certain assessment approaches are preferred, and when ambiguity exists regarding the categorical versus dimensional nature of depression, and whether and when clinician ratings outperform self-report. The authors conclude that no one extant procedure is ideal and suggest that the combination of certain interviews and self-report scales represents the state of the art for evidence-based assessment of depression. PMID:16262453

  5. Single-Subject Experimental Design for Evidence-Based Practice

    PubMed Central

    Byiers, Breanne J.; Reichle, Joe; Symons, Frank J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Single-subject experimental designs (SSEDs) represent an important tool in the development and implementation of evidence-based practice in communication sciences and disorders. The purpose of this article is to review the strategies and tactics of SSEDs and their application in speech-language pathology research. Method The authors discuss the requirements of each design, followed by advantages and disadvantages. The logic and methods for evaluating effects in SSED are reviewed as well as contemporary issues regarding data analysis with SSED data sets. Examples of challenges in executing SSEDs are included. Specific exemplars of how SSEDs have been used in speech-language pathology research are provided throughout. Conclusion SSED studies provide a flexible alternative to traditional group designs in the development and identification of evidence-based practice in the field of communication sciences and disorders. PMID:23071200

  6. An Evidence-based Elective on Dietary Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Caron, Whitney; Zeolla, Mario

    2009-01-01

    Objective To implement and evaluate the effectiveness of a pharmacy elective on dietary supplements that emphasized evidence-based care. Design A 3-credit elective that employed both traditional lectures and a variety of active-learning exercises was implemented. The course introduction provided a background in dietary supplement use and evidence-based medicine principles before addressing dietary supplements by primary indication. Assessment Student learning was assessed through quizzes, case assignments, discussion board participation, and completion of a longitudinal group project. Precourse and postcourse surveys were conducted to assess students' opinions, knowledge, and skills related to course objectives. Conclusion The course was an effective way to increase students' knowledge of dietary supplements and skills and confidence in providing patient care in this area. PMID:19777095

  7. Cardiac Involvement with Parasitic Infections

    PubMed Central

    Hidron, Alicia; Vogenthaler, Nicholas; Santos-Preciado, José I.; Rodriguez-Morales, Alfonso J.; Franco-Paredes, Carlos; Rassi, Anis

    2010-01-01

    Summary: Parasitic infections previously seen only in developing tropical settings can be currently diagnosed worldwide due to travel and population migration. Some parasites may directly or indirectly affect various anatomical structures of the heart, with infections manifested as myocarditis, pericarditis, pancarditis, or pulmonary hypertension. Thus, it has become quite relevant for clinicians in developed settings to consider parasitic infections in the differential diagnosis of myocardial and pericardial disease anywhere around the globe. Chagas' disease is by far the most important parasitic infection of the heart and one that it is currently considered a global parasitic infection due to the growing migration of populations from areas where these infections are highly endemic to settings where they are not endemic. Current advances in the treatment of African trypanosomiasis offer hope to prevent not only the neurological complications but also the frequently identified cardiac manifestations of this life-threatening parasitic infection. The lack of effective vaccines, optimal chemoprophylaxis, or evidence-based pharmacological therapies to control many of the parasitic diseases of the heart, in particular Chagas' disease, makes this disease one of the most important public health challenges of our time. PMID:20375355

  8. Evidence-based recommendations for building better bras for women treated for breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Gho, Sheridan A; Munro, Bridget J; Jones, Sandra C; Steele, Julie R

    2014-01-01

    Participating in exercise is beneficial for women who have been treated for breast cancer. However, not being able to find a comfortable exercise bra can be a barrier to exercise participation. This study aimed to systematically investigate what breast support women treated for breast cancer want when they exercise in order to provide evidence-based recommendations to improve exercise bra designs for these women. Based on 432 responses from a national online survey, frequency and relationship data were analysed (binary logistic regression) to understand exercise bra issues pertinent to this population. These issues included being able to control for asymmetrical cup sizes, managing heightened skin sensitivity, managing fluid (size) fluctuations, managing a prosthesis and restoring body image by restoring shape. This study provides evidence-based recommendations to inform an exercise bra design that will meet the unique needs of women treated for breast cancer. Rigorous, evidence-based evaluations of exercise bras for women treated for breast cancer may contribute to their well-being and quality of life through enhanced designs. PMID:24670005

  9. Evidence-based medicine: what has happened in the past 50 years?

    PubMed

    Mellis, Craig

    2015-01-01

    Although the phrase 'evidence-based medicine' (EBM) was used for the first time in the medical literature less than 25 years ago, the history of EBM goes back for centuries. What is remarkable is how popular and how globally accepted the EBM movement has become in such a short time. Many famous, past clinicians have played major roles in the disciplines that preceded EBM, particularly 'clinical epidemiology'. It soon became clear to the early EBM champions that 'evidence' was only part of the clinical decision-making process. Consequently, both clinical expertise and the patient's values and preferences were rapidly incorporated into the concept we now know as 'EBM'. The current need for high-quality, easily accessible 'evidence-based summaries' for busy clinicians is now apparent, as traditional EBM requires both considerable time and skill. Consequently, there is a progressive move away from the primary literature (such as randomised controlled trials) to systematic reviews and other 'evidence-based summaries'. The future of EBM will almost certainly involve widespread utilisation of 'clinical (computer)-based decision support systems'. PMID:25536873

  10. WHY IS THE CENTER OF EVIDENCE-BASED DERMATOLOGY RELEVANT TO INDIAN DERMATOLOGY?

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Hywel

    2009-01-01

    Evidence-based dermatology is the application of high-quality evidence to the care of individual patients with skin diseases. The Centre of Evidence-Based Dermatology in the UK promotes activities in this field through its three interlinking cogs, composed of the international Cochrane Skin Group, the UK Dermatology Clinical Trials Network (UKDCTN), and the UK national electronic library for skin disorders. The Cochrane Skin Group summarises what is already known about health care interventions by supporting systematic reviews of relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs). The UKDCTN then addresses the key research gaps identified in systematic reviews by coordinating and carrying out well-designed RCTs. The Skin Disorders specialist library then plays a key role in disseminating new knowledge from systematic reviews and RCTs to a community of clinical users. The electronic resources at the Centre of Evidence-Based Dermatology are all freely available to Indian Dermatologists who can use the resources in a way that could benefit their patients. Such new knoweldge only has value if it is shared and used. PMID:20101305

  11. Evidence-based practice: to be or not to be, this is the question!

    PubMed

    Zeitz, Kathryn; McCutcheon, Helen

    2003-10-01

    Evidence-based nursing is the current fashion. It is being touted as the mechanism to achieve best practice in the clinical setting. But while evidence-based practice (EBP) is being presented in the literature, discussed at nursing practice forums, and evidence-based centres of excellence have developed, there seems to be very little impact in the practice that nurses deliver on a daily basis. The case in point is the collection of vital signs. While not historically a nursing skill, over the last 60 years it has become an integral component of practice in the postoperative general surgical setting. The evidence to support these practices is scant. Policies and text purport traditional routine-regulated practice without substantive evidence to support their claims. These policies are being used to control rather than support EBP. In conjunction with the traditional practice of vital sign collection and the culture of the clinical settings, the policies are limiting opportunities for clinicians to make individual decisions about care delivery based on the unique needs of each patient. Rather than focusing on EBP as the solution to the development of best practice, is it not time to change the focus to real strategies that will assist in achieving best practice? These include the creation of rigorous relevant evidence, the valuing of clinical expertise and the changing of the cultures in which nurses develop and practice. PMID:14531848

  12. Home-based telehealth to deliver evidence-based psychotherapy in veterans with PTSD.

    PubMed

    Strachan, Martha; Gros, Daniel F; Yuen, Erica; Ruggiero, Kenneth J; Foa, Edna B; Acierno, Ron

    2012-03-01

    Although medical service delivery via home-based telehealth technology (HBT) is gaining wider acceptance in managing chronic illnesses such as diabetes or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, few studies have tested HBT applications of psychotherapy. Clinicians, administrators, and researchers question whether delivering psychotherapeutic services to patients in their homes via video-conferencing technology compromises patient safety, potency of treatment, or data security. Despite these concerns, HBT service delivery may increase access to evidence-based psychotherapies for veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), who may be less willing or less able to receive weekly treatment at a VA medical center or outpatient clinic due to symptom severity or other similar barriers to care. Indeed, although combat-exposed service members endorse high rates of psychiatric disorders, few appear to initiate mental health services or receive an adequate dose of treatment. Thus, using HBT technologies to administer evidence-based therapies remains uncharted territory in both the clinical and research arenas. This manuscript describes an ongoing four year randomized controlled trial comparing in-person Prolonged Exposure (PE) - a specialized evidence-based psychotherapy for PTSD - and PE delivered via HBT, with a particular focus on the selection, application, and strengths/weaknesses of HBT procedures. PMID:22101225

  13. Are national targets the right way to improve infection control practice?

    PubMed

    Millar, M

    2009-12-01

    The 'right way to improve infection control practice' should be cost-effective and lead to a fair distribution of infection control resources. Cost-effectiveness is a measure of aggregate 'good', and fairness emphasises similar treatment for individuals under similar circumstances. The UK national meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bloodstream infection (BSI) target encourages National Health Service trusts to prioritise strategies aimed at MRSA BSI prevention. Under resource-limited conditions, the MRSA BSI target inevitably encourages deprioritisation of patients at risk of non-target healthcare-associated infection (HCAI), some of which are associated with an equal or larger burden of adverse outcome. Established healthcare improvement strategies, such as the Plan, Do, Study, Act (PDSA) cycle advocated by the Health Foundation, require the setting of aims (or targets). If we are to improve infection control practice then we need to decide on what to measure, how to measure it, and what the improvement (target) should be. In selecting targets for infection prevention, account should be taken of the contribution of HCAI to adverse health outcomes overall. Human risk compensation behaviour and microbial adaptation may both counteract the overall benefit of infection targets isolated from overall outcomes. Risk taking is part of a healthy healthcare system. We must be careful not to isolate HCAI outcomes from overall outcomes or to isolate 'risk takers' from 'risk controllers'. We must try to limit the scope for human risk compensation and we must watch out for microbial adaptation. Targets should be set locally, taking account of fairness and cost-effectiveness. Locally relevant information is key; positive incentives work best. PMID:19699553

  14. Telehealth for underserved families: an evidence-based parenting program.

    PubMed

    Reese, Robert J; Slone, Norah C; Soares, Neelkamal; Sprang, Rob

    2012-08-01

    Families with a child diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder completed an 8-session parenting program, the Group Triple P Positive Parenting Program, provided by videoconferencing technology. Families reported improved child behavior (effect size of d = -1.23) and decreased parent distress (d = -0.34). Parent training implemented with videoconferencing technology can be an effective way of delivering evidence-based services to families with specialized needs. PMID:22867126

  15. [Vegetarian diets and cardiovascular health: evidence-based and pondering].

    PubMed

    Chen, Keji; Liu, Yue

    2014-06-01

    The correlation between vegetarian diets and cardiovascular health is always one of the hotspots. Many scholars have performed so many clinical researches all over the world, providing evidence-based medicine (EBM) reference for clarifying their correlation. In this paper, we raise ideas and expectation on the basis of a Meta-analysis about vegetarian diets and blood pressure (published on JAMA Internal Medicine in Feb 2014) in combination of main clinical research literature in this field in recent 20 years. PMID:25046943

  16. Evidence-based Interventions Using HomeSchool Collaboration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diane D. Cox

    2005-01-01

    Home-school collaboration refers to the relationship between families and schools where parents and educators work together to promote the academic and social development of children. Eighteen empirical studies of home-school collaboration interventions that also measured a school-based outcome were identified and evaluated according to guidelines outlined by the American Psychological Association’s Division 16 Task Force on Evidence-Based Interventions in School

  17. Global health: the importance of evidence-based medicine

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Global health is a varied field that comprises research, evaluation and policy that, by its definition, also occurs in disparate locations across the world. This forum article is introduced by our guest editor of the Medicine for Global Health article collection, Gretchen Birbeck. Here, experts based across different settings describe their personal experiences of global health, discussing how evidence-based medicine in resource-limited settings can be translated into improved health outcomes. PMID:24228722

  18. Practitioner Attitudes Toward Evidence-based Practice: Themes and Challenges

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timothy D. Nelson; Ric G. Steele; Jennifer A. Mize

    2006-01-01

     Abstract  The widespread successful implementation of evidence-based practices (EBPs) into community mental health settings will require\\u000a a thorough understanding of practitioner attitudes toward these approaches. This study reports on the results of two community\\u000a mental health practitioner focus groups investigating attitudes toward EBPs, perceived challenges to implementing EBPs, and\\u000a recommendations for researchers interested in facilitating EBP use in community settings. The

  19. Evidence-based treatments in child abuse and neglect

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark Chaffin; Bill Friedrich

    2004-01-01

    Abstract This article summarizes the background and basic concepts of evidence-based practice (EBP), contrasts EBP with traditional approaches, and examines how EBP fits within child welfare and child maltreatment related service systems. The emerging,recommendations,of best practice workgroups are reviewed, along with evidence across a range of child welfare target areas, including prevention, treatment and foster care settings. The article concludes

  20. Meniere's disease: an evidence based approach to assessment and management.

    PubMed

    Syed, I; Aldren, C

    2012-02-01

    Menière's disease (MD) is frequently over-diagnosed in both primary and secondary care. This is unfortunate given the significant medical and social implications of such a diagnosis. Difficulties may arise in differentiating the patient with true MD from those individuals with less clearly defined disorders of cochleo-vestibular function. In this review, we suggest a practical evidence based approach to assessment and management of the patient with MD. PMID:22257041

  1. Ethics and Evidence-Based Medicine: Is There a Conflict?

    PubMed Central

    Loewy, Erich H.

    2007-01-01

    This article addresses the advantages, disadvantages, and traps to which evidence-based medicine (EBM) may lead and suggests that, to be ethically valid, EBM must be aimed at the patient's best interests and not at the financial interests of others. While financial considerations are by no means trivial, it is hypocritical – if not dangerous – to hide them behind words like “evidence” or “quality.” PMID:18092036

  2. Evidence-Based Family-School Interventions with Preschool Children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stacey L. Bates

    2005-01-01

    Fifteen studies of family-school interventions with preschool children conducted between 1980 and 2002, and published in peer-reviewed journals, were reviewed and evaluated according to the criteria developed by the Task Force on Evidence-Based Intervention in School Psychology (Division 16 and Society for the Study of School Psychology Task Force, 2003). Results indicate that family-school interventions with preschool children have taken

  3. Evidence-Based Psychosocial Treatments for Ethnic Minority Youth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stanley J. Huey Jr; Antonio J. Polo

    2008-01-01

    This article reviews research on evidence-based treatments (EBTs) for ethnic minority youth using criteria from Chambless et al. (1998), Chambless et al. (1996), and Chambless and Hollon (1998). Although no well-established treatments were identified, probably efficacious or possibly efficacious treatments were found for ethnic minority youth with anxiety-related problems, attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder, depression, conduct problems, substance use problems, trauma-related syndromes, and

  4. Social media, evidence-based tweeting, and JCEHP.

    PubMed

    Djuricich, Alexander M

    2014-01-01

    Medical practice and medical journals must adapt to a constantly changing environment, in which social media plays an ever-increasing role. Social media platforms such as Twitter can provide an opportunity to disseminate information in innovative ways. The concept of evidence-based tweeting is introduced, especially as "tweeting the meeting" continues to expand within medical conferences and other venues important for continuing education for health care providers. Future social media strategies for the journal are outlined. PMID:25530289

  5. Evidence-based Treatment of Chronic Heart Failure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Rosen; Matthew V. Decaro; Mark G. Graham

    2007-01-01

    The past two decades have seen a knowledge explosion in the field of cardiovascular diseases, in general, and in the understanding\\u000a of chronic heart failure (HF) as a complex neurohumoral syndrome in particular. A new staging system for chronic HF has been\\u000a developed within the last decade to facilitate the evidence-based prescription of medications and medical devices for each\\u000a of

  6. Using motivational interviewing: through evidence-based health coaching.

    PubMed

    Huffman, Melinda

    2014-10-01

    To enhance compliance and achieve better outcomes, providers must actively engage their patients and caregivers in different ways than in the past. One strategy that has gained national attention is motivational interviewing through evidence-based health coaching. A closer look at this exciting new clinical skill reveals what it is, how it works, why it is so successful, and why our traditional patient approach has fallen short. PMID:25268529

  7. Creating an evidence-based practice environment: one hospital's journey.

    PubMed

    Hockenberry, Marilyn; Walden, Marlene; Brown, Terri; Barrera, Patrick

    2007-01-01

    There is increasing effort in promoting evidence-based practice (EBP) that supports the best possible care to patients and families. This article describes essential concepts for developing an environment of EBP and its implementation at a large pediatric hospital. Essential components for creating an EBP environment include vision, engagement, integration, and evaluation. An institutional initiative to decrease procedure-related pain demonstrates how EBP is used to improve clinical care. PMID:17563590

  8. Measurement of perceptions of educational environment in evidence-based medicine.

    PubMed

    Bergh, Anne-Marie; Grimbeek, Jackie; May, Win; Gülmezoglu, A Metin; Khan, Khalid S; Kulier, Regina; Pattinson, Robert C

    2014-08-01

    In recent years, there has been a renewed interest in measuring perceptions regarding different aspects of the medical educational environment. A reliable tool was developed for measuring perceptions of the educational environment as it relates to evidence-based medicine as part of a multicountry randomised controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of a clinically integrated evidence-based medicine course. Participants from 10 specialties completed the questionnaire. A working dataset of 518 observations was available. Two independent subsets of data were created for conducting an exploratory factor analysis (n=244) and a confirmatory factor analysis (n=274), respectively. The exploratory factor analysis yielded five 67-item definitive instruments, with five to nine dimensions; all resulted in acceptable explanations of the total variance (range 56.6-65.9%). In the confirmatory factor analysis phase, all goodness of-fit measures were acceptable for all models (root mean square error of approximation ? 0.047; comparative fit index ? 0.980; normed ?(2) ? 1.647; Bentler-Bonett normed fit index ? 0.951). The authors selected the factorisation with seven dimensions (factor-7 instrument) as the most useful on pragmatic grounds and named it Evidence-Based Medicine Educational Environment Measure 67 (EBMEEM-67). Cronbach's ? for subscales ranged between 0.81 and 0.93. The subscales are: 'Knowledge and learning materials'; 'Learner support'; 'General relationships and support'; 'Institutional focus on EBM'; 'Education, training and supervision'; 'EBM application opportunities'; and 'Affirmation of EBM environment'. The EBMEEM-67 can be a useful diagnostic and benchmarking tool for evaluating the perceptions of residents of the environment in which evidence-based medicine education takes place. PMID:24688088

  9. Is ophthalmology evidence based? A clinical audit of the emergency unit of a regional eye hospital

    PubMed Central

    Lai, T Y Y; Wong, V W Y; Leung, G M

    2003-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the proportion of interventions that are evidence based in the acute care unit of a regional eye hospital. Methods: A prospective clinical audit was carried out at Hong Kong Eye Hospital in July 2002 to investigate the extent to which ophthalmic practices were evidence based. The major diagnosis and intervention provided were identified through chart review. A corresponding literature search using Medline and the Cochrane Library was performed to assess the degree to which each intervention was based on current, best evidence. Each diagnosis intervention pair was accordingly analysed and graded. The level of best, current evidence supporting each intervention was graded and analysed. Results: A total of 274 consecutive consultation episodes were examined. 22 cases were excluded since no diagnosis or intervention was made during the consultation. 108 (42.9%) patient interventions were found to be based on evidence from systematic reviews, meta-analyses, or randomised controlled trials (RCT). Evidence from prospective or retrospective observational studies supported the interventions in 86 (34.1%) patients. In 58 (23.0%) cases, no evidence or opposing evidence was found regarding the intervention. The proportion of evidence based on RCT or systematic reviews was higher for surgical interventions compared with non-surgical interventions (p=0.007). The proportion of interventions based on RCT or systematic reviews was higher for specialist ophthalmologists than trainee ophthalmologists (p=0.021). Conclusion: This study demonstrated that the majority of interventions in the ophthalmic unit were evidence based and comparable to the experience of other specialties. PMID:12642295

  10. Assessment of oral mucositis in adult and pediatric oncology patients: an evidence-based approach.

    PubMed

    Farrington, Michele; Cullen, Laura; Dawson, Cindy

    2010-01-01

    Oral mucositis is a frequent side effect of cancer treatment and can lead to delayed treatment, reduced treatment dosage, altered nutrition, dehydration, infections, xerostomia, pain, and higher healthcare costs. Mucositis is defined as "inflammatory lesions of the oral and/or gastrointestinal tract caused by high-dose cancer therapies. Alimentary tract mucositis refers to the expression of mucosal injury across the continuum of oral and gastrointestinal mucosa, from the mouth to the anus" (Peterson, Bensadoun, & Roila, 2008, p. ii122). Evidence demonstrates that oral mucositis is quite distressing for patients. In addition, the majority of oncology nurses are unaware of available guidelines related to the care of oral mucositis. A multidisciplinary Oral Mucositis Committee was formed by the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics to develop evidence-based prevention and treatment strategies for adult and pediatric oncology patients experiencing oral mucositis. The first step was implementing an evidence-based nursing oral assessment. The Iowa Model was used to guide this evidence-based practice initiative. The Oral Assessment Guide (OAG) is reliable and valid, feasible, and sensitive to changing conditions. The OAG was piloted on an Adult Leukemia and Bone Marrow Transplant Unit leading to modification and adaptation. The pilot evaluation found 87% of patients had an abnormal oral assessment involving all categories in the tool. Nursing questionnaires showed that staff (8/23; 35% response) felt they were able to identify at risk patients using the OAG (3.3; 1-4 scale), and the tool accurately identifies mucosal changes (2.9; 1-4 scale). A knowledge assessment found nurses correctly identified OAG components 63% of the time. Unlike results from a national survey, most University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics nurses (63%) were aware of national guidelines for prevention and treatment of oral mucositis. Developing an evidence-based nursing policy and updating documentation systems was done before implementation occurred. Computer-based and printed educational materials were developed for nursing staff caring for oncology patients. Team members were responsible for facilitating adoption in clinical areas. After organizational roll out, the nursing assessment was documented in all patients 87% of the time, and 99% for inpatients. The highest risk population, head and neck cancer patients receiving radiation, had documentation in 88% of audited visits. Other clinics required further work. Changing the system to the electronic medical record created an additional need for integration of the evidence-based practice with housewide documentation of oral assessment being completed 60.9% of the time. Use of an evidence-based assessment is the first step in a comprehensive program to reduce a common and highly distressing side effect of cancer treatment. Nursing documentation of oral assessment is well integrated on inpatient units. Opportunities for improvement remain in ambulatory care. Multidisciplinary team collaborations to expand evidence-based assessment and research questions generated from this work will be shared. PMID:20863028

  11. Global epidemiology, ecology and control of soil-transmitted helminth infections.

    PubMed

    Brooker, S; Clements, A C A; Bundy, D A P

    2006-01-01

    Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections are among the most prevalent of chronic human infections worldwide. Based on the demonstrable impact on child development, there is a global commitment to finance and implement control strategies with a focus on school-based chemotherapy programmes. The major obstacle to the implementation of cost-effective control is the lack of accurate descriptions of the geographical distribution of infection. In recent years, considerable progress has been made in the use of geographical information systems (GIS) and remote sensing (RS) to better understand helminth ecology and epidemiology, and to develop low-cost ways to identify target populations for treatment. This review explores how this information has been used practically to guide large-scale control programmes. The use of satellite-derived environmental data has yielded new insights into the ecology of infection at a geographical scale that has proven impossible to address using more traditional approaches, and has in turn allowed spatial distributions of infection prevalence to be predicted robustly by statistical approaches. GIS/RS have increasingly been used in the context of large-scale helminth control programmes, including not only STH infections but also those focusing on schistosomiasis, filariasis and onchocerciasis. The experience indicates that GIS/RS provides a cost-effective approach to designing and monitoring programmes at realistic scales. Importantly, the use of this approach has begun to transition from being a specialist approach of international vertical programmes to becoming a routine tool in developing public sector control programmes. GIS/RS is used here to describe the global distribution of STH infections and to estimate the number of infections in school-age children in sub-Saharan Africa (89.9 million) and the annual cost of providing a single anthelmintic treatment using a school-based approach (US$5.0-7.6 million). These are the first estimates at a continental scale to explicitly include the fine spatial distribution of infection prevalence and population, and suggest that traditional methods have overestimated the situation. The results suggest that continent-wide control of parasites is, from a financial perspective, an attainable goal. PMID:16647972

  12. Global epidemiology, ecology and control of soil-transmitted helminth infections

    PubMed Central

    Brooker, Simon; Clements, Archie CA; Bundy, Don AP

    2007-01-01

    Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections are among the most prevalent of chronic human infections worldwide. Based on the demonstrable impact on child development, there is a global commitment to finance and implement control strategies with a focus on school-based chemotherapy programmes. The major obstacle to the implementation of cost-effective control is the lack of accurate descriptions of the geographical distribution of infection. In recent years considerable progress has been made in the use of geographical information systems (GIS) and remote sensing (RS) to better understand helminth ecology and epidemiology, and to develop low cost ways to identify target populations for treatment. This chapter explores how this information has been used practically to guide large-scale control programmes. The use of satellite-derived environmental data has yielded new insights into the ecology of infection at a geographical scale that has proven impossible to address using more traditional approaches, and has in turn allowed spatial distributions of infection prevalence to be predicted robustly by statistical approaches. GIS/RS have increasingly been used in the context of large-scale helminth control programmes, including not only STH infections but also those focusing on schistosomiasis, filariasis and onchocerciasis. The experience indicates that GIS/RS provides a cost-effective approach to designing and monitoring programs at realistic scale. Importantly, the use of this approach has begun to transition from being a specialist approach of international vertical programs to become a routine tool in developing public sector control programs. GIS/RS is used here to describe the global distribution of STH infections and to estimate the number of infections in school age children in sub-Saharan Africa (89.9 million) and the annual cost of providing a single anthelmintic treatment using a school-based approach (US$5.0-7.6 million). These are the first estimates at a continental scale to explicitly include the fine spatial distribution of infection prevalence and population, and suggest that traditional methods have overestimated the situation. The results suggest that continent-wide control of parasites is, from a financial perspective, an attainable goal. PMID:16647972

  13. Clarification and elaboration on evidence-based practice in psychology.

    PubMed

    Wampold, Bruce E; Goodheart, Carol D; Levant, Ronald F

    2007-09-01

    Responds to comments by D. C. Wendt and B. D. Slife, P. H. Hunsberger, and R. B. Stuart and S. O. Lilienfeld regarding the report by the APA Presidential Task Force on Evidence-Based Practice entitled Evidence-based practice in psychology. The goal of the task force was to create a scheme that would suggest how evidence should be used to design and offer services that will benefit patients and to assure the public and the health care system that psychologists are providing evidence-based services. There were and will continue to be many scientific and philosophical issues inherent in any such enterprise, and agreement by all psychologists with every aspect of EBPP may not be possible. Nevertheless, the APA's EBPP policy and the report that accompanied it are remarkably inclusive of various perspectives while remaining unambiguous about the need to use evidence in a way that leads to effective services. What is needed at this point are clinically relevant evidence and investigations of how such evidence can be used to best benefit those served by psychological interventions. PMID:17874917

  14. The personalised medicine. A paradigm of evidence-based medicine.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Dhavendra

    2011-01-01

    The practice of "evidence-based medicine" aims at the conscientious, explicit and judicious use of the current best evidence in making decisions about the individualised patient care. The clinical genetics evolved from translational genetics research and contributes to the clinical care of patients and families through evidence-based health care in managing inherited disorders through accurate diagnosis, molecular pathology and assessing phenotypic correlations. Translational genetics and genomics research has led to the development of powerful tools for clinical diagnosis, assessing individual's genomic profile for disease prediction/prevention, high-throughput genome-wide screening for predisposition and/or protection to complex medical conditions, and discovery and development of new drugs and vaccines. Gene mapping and deciphering pathogenic mutations have helped in unravelling the basic biological mechanisms leading to new drug discovery and development. Targeted pharmacotherapy is now possible for managing the highly penetrant multi-system dominantly inherited conditions. Notable examples include rapamycin (sirolimus) in suppressing the mTOR pathway associated hamartomas in dominantly inherited cancer family syndromes and angiotensin converting enzyme receptor blockers (ACE-RB) in preventing aortic dilatation in Marfan syndrome and related familial arteriopathies. The translational genomic research is the essential prerequisite for developing sound evidence-based diagnostic, therapeutic and prognostic clinical protocols for the practice of personalised clinical medicine. PMID:21430336

  15. Promoting consumers' demand for evidence-based medicine.

    PubMed

    Domenighetti, G; Grilli, R; Liberati, A

    1998-01-01

    The widespread implementation of rationing and priority-setting policies in health care opposes the stochastic practice of medicine induced by professional uncertainty and professional vested interests in market-oriented clinical environments. It also clashes with consumers' overly optimistic and "mythical" view of the effectiveness of medicine, which is bound to support a potentially unlimited provision of health services. Thus, for consumers and society at large, it is necessary to create conditions favorable for a more conscious demand of evidence-based health care. In pursuit of this goal, we suggest the adoption of a community-oriented strategy based upon delivery of information to the public in order a) to generate greater awareness ("healthy skepticism") among consumers, through disclosure of data on the true effectiveness of health care interventions and on the existing variation in their utilization, and b) to provide tools to empower consumers in dealing better with both the uncertainty in their own individual patient-physician relationships and with the health policy issues to be faced in the future. Such a community-oriented strategy could also reinforce and support, through the generation of a "bottom-up" pressure from consumers toward physicians, a wider adoption of evidence-based interventions by health care professionals. This paper, using data from surveys on public opinions and attitudes toward the practice of medicine, focuses on how consumer demand for more evidence-based medical practice can be promoted. PMID:9509798

  16. Evidence-based approach to harmonised reference intervals.

    PubMed

    Koerbin, Gus; Sikaris, Ken Andrew; Jones, Graham Ross Dallas; Ryan, Julie; Reed, Maxine; Tate, Jill

    2014-05-15

    Although we are in the era of evidence-based medicine, there is still a substantial gap between theory and current practice with the application of reference intervals as decision making tools. Different laboratories may have different reference intervals for the same tests using the same analytical methods and platforms. These differences have the potential to confuse physicians making the assessment and monitoring of patients more difficult by providing discordant information. This paper attempts to demonstrate how to use evidence-based approach for harmonising reference intervals. In order to consider harmonisation we must first have an appreciation of the various factors that influence the determination of that reference interval such as the choice of individuals within the population studied, biological variability of the analyte studied, partitioning, sample collection, analytical aspects such as bias and statistical models. An a priori approach for determining reference intervals, whilst recommended, may be beyond the scope of most laboratories and consideration should be given to the use of a validated indirect a posteriori approach. Regardless of method used, the continuing application of an evidence-based approach in harmonised reference intervals to meet the quality expectations of physicians should be pursued. PMID:24183842

  17. Psychodynamic psychotherapies: evidence-based practice and clinical wisdom.

    PubMed

    Fonagy, Peter; Roth, Anthony; Higgitt, Anna

    2005-01-01

    This article is based on an exhaustive review of the psychotherapy outcomes literature, undertaken originally at the instigation of the UK Department of Health by Roth and Fonagy (Department of Health, 1995). We have recently updated this review (Fonagy, Target, Cottrell, Phillips, & Kurtz, 2002; Roth & Fonagy, 2004) and extended it to identify all studies of psychoanalytic psychotherapy. The usual methods for identifying studies were employed (Fonagy, Target, et al., 2002; Roth & Fonagy, in press). The key questions that should be asked of this literature given the current state of research in this area (also see Westen, Morrison, & Thompson-Brenner, 2004) are: Are there any disorders for which short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy (STPP) can be considered evidence-based, Are there any disorders for which STPP is uniquely effective as either the only evidence-based treatment or as a treatment that is more effective than alternatives, and Is there any evidence base for long-term psychodynamic psychotherapy (LTPP) either in terms of achieving effects not normally associated with short-term treatment or addressing problems that have not been addressed by STPP? In this context, short-term therapy is conceived of as a treatment of around 20 sessions delivered usually once weekly. PMID:15899755

  18. SOCS3 and STAT3, major controllers of the outcome of infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Rottenberg, Martin E; Carow, Berit

    2014-12-01

    In our review, we address the role of signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3) and suppressor of cytokine signaling-3 (SOCS3) in the outcome of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, focusing on functions of these molecules in regulating the biology of myeloid and lymphoid cells. The STAT3 transcription factor has paradoxical roles: mainly activating an anti-inflammatory program in myeloid cells while promoting the differentiation and activation of inflammatory T cells. STAT3 is a major player in all phases of T cell responses, including T cell subset differentiation, T cell activation, and generation of memory. We review the roles of cytokines that activate, or are activated by, STAT3 during the infection with M. tuberculosis. SOCS3 inhibits STAT3 activation, by some but not all STAT3-activating cytokine receptors. Infection with M. tuberculosis also stimulates SOCS3 expression in phagocytes. Studies in different mouse models have proven the critical importance of SOCS3 in restraining inflammation and allowing optimal levels of protective immune responses against the infection. The accumulated data presented here suggest a relevant program coordinated by SOCS3 in different cell populations, which results in improved control of infection with M. tuberculosis. STAT3 and SOCS3 may thus be targeted to improve the control of infection with M. tuberculosis or the efficiency of vaccination. PMID:25458989

  19. Polymorphisms in eight host genes associated with control of HIV replication do not mediate elite control of viral replication in SIV-infected Indian rhesus macaques

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrea Weiler; Gemma E. May; Ying Qi; Nancy Wilson; David I. Watkins

    2006-01-01

    Polymorphisms in several host genes in HIV-infected individuals facilitate slow progression to AIDS. We have identified several SIV-infected Indian rhesus macaques that naturally control viral replication. We investigated whether spontaneous control of SIV in any of these animals could be explained by mutations in host genes. Such variables could confound studies of associations between MHC class I alleles and control

  20. Active screening of multi-drug resistant bacteria effectively prevent and control the potential infections.

    PubMed

    Ren, Yuguo; Ma, Guoliang; Peng, Lin; Ren, Yufeng; Zhang, Fengmei

    2015-03-01

    Our objective is to determine if actively screen the multi-drug resistant bacteria (MDRB) infection in intensive care unit (ICU) to prevent, control, and decrease the infection rate and transmission of MDRB. The patients admitted in ICU of one hospital in 2013 were analyzed. The throat swab, blood, defecation, and urine of patients were actively collected for bacteria cultures to screen Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Acinetobacter baumannii in patients. All patients received screening of MDRB infection and colonization within 2 days and after 2 days of admission, the results showed that there were 418 infectious bacterial strains in total and P. aeruginosa was the main bacterium. The asymptomatic infection rates of P. aeruginosa, K. pneumonia, E. coli, S. aureus, and A. baumannii were 39.02, 24.74, 44.00, 29.17, and 33.33 %, respectively; the symptomatic infection rates were 60.98, 75.26, 56.00, 70.83, and 66.67 %. 59.70 % patients received antibiotics treatment, 27.45 % patients received trachea cannula, 32.95 % patients received mechanism ventilation, 2.27 % patients received arterial cannula or venous cannula and 4.00 % patients received indwelling urinary catheters. The main MDRB in ICU is P. aeruginosa. The active screening of MDRB infection and colonization can provide the opportunity to take the life-saving measure against MDRB and treat patients. This can decrease the infection risk and the nosocomial transmission of MDRB. PMID:25416582

  1. The RPG gene of Medicago truncatula controls Rhizobium-directed polar growth during infection

    PubMed Central

    Arrighi, Jean-François; Godfroy, Olivier; de Billy, Françoise; Saurat, Olivier; Jauneau, Alain; Gough, Clare

    2008-01-01

    Rhizobia can infect roots of host legume plants and induce new organs called nodules, in which they fix atmospheric nitrogen. Infection generally starts with root hair curling, then proceeds inside newly formed, intracellular tubular structures called infection threads. A successful symbiotic interaction relies on infection threads advancing rapidly at their tips by polar growth through successive cell layers of the root toward developing nodule primordia. To identify a plant component that controls this tip growth process, we characterized a symbiotic mutant of Medicago truncatula, called rpg for rhizobium-directed polar growth. In this mutant, nitrogen-fixing nodules were rarely formed due to abnormally thick and slowly progressing infection threads. Root hair curling was also abnormal, indicating that the RPG gene fulfils an essential function in the process whereby rhizobia manage to dominate the process of induced tip growth for root hair infection. Map-based cloning of RPG revealed a member of a previously unknown plant-specific gene family encoding putative long coiled-coil proteins we have called RRPs (RPG-related proteins) and characterized by an “RRP domain” specific to this family. RPG expression was strongly associated with rhizobial infection, and the RPG protein showed a nuclear localization, indicating that this symbiotic gene constitutes an important component of symbiotic signaling. PMID:18621693

  2. Copper and selenium: auxiliary measure to control infection by Haemonchus contortus in lambs.

    PubMed

    Leal, Marta Lizandra do Rêgo; Pivoto, Felipe Lamberti; Fausto, Guilherme Costa; Aires, Adelina Rodrigues; Grando, Thirssa Helena; Roos, Daniel Henrique; Sudati, Jéssie Haigert; Wagner, Caroline; Costa, Márcio Machado; Molento, Marcelo Beltrão; da Rocha, João Batista Teixeira

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of selenium and copper on oxidative stress and its performance in lambs experimentally infected with Haemonchus contortus. Twenty-eight five-months old lambs were experimentally infected by the oral route with 5000 third-stage infective larvae and allocated into four groups, i.e., untreated animals, animals treated intramuscularly with sodium selenite (0.2 mg kg(-1)), animals treated subcutaneously with copper (3.5 mg kg(-1)), and animals treated with sodium selenite (IM; 0.2 mg kg(-1)) and copper (SC; 3.5 mg kg(-1)). These animals received oat hay (Avena sativa) and commercial concentrate, totaling 15% of crude protein, 30% being derived from oat hay and 70% of the concentrate. Lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzymes, eggs per gram of feces (EPG) and body weight were assessed on the day of infection and after 20, 40, 60 and 80 days post-infection. The number of H. contortus adults was assessed at the end of the experiment. The selenium associated or not with copper reduced the effects of oxidative stress caused by infection. The groups supplemented with copper had increased body weight, and the combination of these two minerals reduced the EPG and number of H. contortus adults in lambs. The use of selenium associated with copper may help the control of infection by H. contortus. PMID:24950380

  3. Risk factors for graft infection in India: a case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Vajpayee, R B; Boral, S K; Dada, T; Murthy, G V S; Pandey, R M; Satpathy, G

    2002-01-01

    Aim: To study the demographic, clinical, and microbiological profile and the risk factors for graft infection following penetrating keratoplasty. Methods: 50 eyes of 50 consecutive patients with graft infection after an optical penetrating keratoplasty were included as cases; 50 eyes of 50 patients with no graft infection were included as controls. The main variables evaluated in this study included the clinical and microbiological profile, sociodemographic status, suture related problems, persistent epithelial defects, and ocular surface disorders. Results: Cultures were positive in 43 (86%) eyes and Staphylococcus epidermidis (67.4%) was the most common organism isolated. Infection could be resolved with treatment in 37 (74%) eyes. In eight (16%) eyes the graft melted and a repeat penetrating keratoplasty had to be performed. Only 6% of the cases could achieve a best corrected visual acuity of 6/18 or better after resolution of the infection. In multivariate logistic regression analysis persistent epithelial defect (OR (95% CI): 3.0 (1.17 to 8.33)), suture related problems (OR (95% CI): 3.6 (1.39 to 9.25)), and ocular surface disorders (OR (95% CI): 2.4 (0.93 to 6.03)) were found to be statistically significant risk factors for graft infection following an optical penetrating keratoplasty. Conclusions: Staphylococcus epidermidis is the commonest organism responsible for post-keratoplasty microbial keratitis. Persistent epithelial defects, suture related problems, and ocular surface disorders are the major risk factors predisposing to graft infection. PMID:11864877

  4. [Social marketing: applying commercial strategies to the prevention of nosocomial infections].

    PubMed

    Sax, Hugo; Longtin, Yves; Alvarez-Ceyssat, Raymonde; Bonfillon, Chantal; Cavallero, Sabrina; Dayer, Pierre; Ginet, Claude; Herrault, Pascale

    2009-04-01

    Although a large proportion of healthcare-associated infections are avoidable, healthcare workers do not always practice evidence-based preventive strategies. Marketing technologies might help to improve patient safety. This article presents the basic principles of marketing and its potential use to promote good infection control practices. The marketing mix (Product, Price, Place, and Promotion) should be taken into account to induce behaviour change. By placing the emphasis on the perceived "profits" for healthcare workers the approach might lose its moral aspect and gain in effectiveness. VigiGerme, a non-commercial registered trademark, applies social marketing techniques to infection control and prevention. PMID:19492518

  5. Infection control in the intensive care unit: progress and challenges in systems and accountability.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Jan E; Malani, Preeti N; Maragakis, Lisa L

    2010-08-01

    Attention to the improvement of safety in healthcare lately has focused on healthcare-associated infections, including many that occur in the intensive care unit, such as catheter-related bloodstream infections and ventilator-associated pneumonias. Great strides have been made in decreasing the rates of intensive care unit hospital-acquired infections in the past decade. This is attributable to a number of factors, including standardization of care, technological advances, provider payment reform, and consumer activism. Teamwork and communication remain the most important facets in patient safety. The papers in this supplement examine the roles of human factors and process engineering, survey a spectrum of infection control and safety challenges encountered by critical care practitioners, and assess the future challenges for continued improvement in our systems of care. PMID:20647783

  6. Atmospheric pressure plasmas: infection control and bacterial responses.

    PubMed

    Mai-Prochnow, Anne; Murphy, Anthony B; McLean, Keith M; Kong, Michael G; Ostrikov, Kostya Ken

    2014-06-01

    Cold atmospheric pressure plasma (APP) is a recent, cutting-edge antimicrobial treatment. It has the potential to be used as an alternative to traditional treatments such as antibiotics and as a promoter of wound healing, making it a promising tool in a range of biomedical applications with particular importance for combating infections. A number of studies show very promising results for APP-mediated killing of bacteria, including removal of biofilms of pathogenic bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa. However, the mode of action of APP and the resulting bacterial response are not fully understood. Use of a variety of different plasma-generating devices, different types of plasma gases and different treatment modes makes it challenging to show reproducibility and transferability of results. This review considers some important studies in which APP was used as an antibacterial agent, and specifically those that elucidate its mode of action, with the aim of identifying common bacterial responses to APP exposure. The review has a particular emphasis on mechanisms of interactions of bacterial biofilms with APP. PMID:24637224

  7. Global control of pneumococcal infections by pneumococcal vaccines.

    PubMed

    Oishi, Kazunori; Tamura, Kazuyo; Akeda, Yukihiro

    2014-06-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major worldwide cause of morbidity and mortality. Pneumococcal carriage is considered to be an important source of horizontal spread of this pathogen within the community. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) is capable of inducing serotype-specific antibodies in sera of infants, and has been suggested to reduce nasopharyngeal carriage of vaccine-type pneumococci in children. PCV is generally immunogenic for pediatric patients with invasive pneumococcal disease, with an exception for the infecting serotypes. Based on evidences from the clinical trials of PCV, the health impact of childhood pneumococcal pneumonia appears to be high in developing countries where most of global childhood pneumonia deaths occur. PCV vaccination may prevent hundreds of deaths per 100,000 children vaccinated in developing countries, while PCV vaccination is expected to prevent less than 10 deaths per 100,000 children vaccinated in the developed countries. Therefore, the WHO has proposed a strategy to reduce the incidence of severe pneumonia by 75% in child less than 5 years of age compared to 2010 levels by 2025. PMID:25425955

  8. Repurposing drugs for the treatment and control of helminth infections

    PubMed Central

    Panic, Gordana; Duthaler, Urs; Speich, Benjamin; Keiser, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Helminth infections are responsible for a considerable public health burden, yet the current drug armamentarium is small. Given the high cost of drug discovery and development, the high failure rates and the long duration to develop novel treatments, drug repurposing circumvents these obstacles by finding new uses for compounds other than those they were initially intended to treat. In the present review, we summarize in vivo and clinical trial findings testing clinical candidates and marketed drugs against schistosomes, food-borne trematodes, soil-transmitted helminths, Strongyloides stercoralis, the major human filariases lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis, taeniasis, neurocysticercosis and echinococcosis. While expanding the applications of broad-spectrum or veterinary anthelmintics continues to fuel alternative treatment options, antimalarials, antibiotics, antiprotozoals and anticancer agents appear to be producing fruitful results as well. The trematodes and nematodes continue to be most investigated, while cestodal drug discovery will need to be accelerated. The most clinically advanced drug candidates include the artemisinins and mefloquine against schistosomiasis, tribendimidine against liver flukes, oxantel pamoate against trichuriasis, and doxycycline against filariasis. Preclinical studies indicate a handful of promising future candidates, and are beginning to elucidate the broad-spectrum activity of some currently used anthelmintics. Challenges and opportunities are further discussed. PMID:25516827

  9. Burn center journal club promotes clinical research, continuing education, and evidence-based practice.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Laura; Gottschlich, Michele M; Kagan, Richard J

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the structure, policy, implementation, and outcome measures of a burn team journal club to assess its effectiveness in promoting multidisciplinary education relative to research competency, clinical knowledge, and evidence-based practice. After 2 years of a new multidisciplinary format, an anonymous quality assurance survey was distributed to staff members of a regional pediatric burn center to evaluate the impact of the journal club on clinical and research indicators. The 24 journal club meetings evaluated in this study included a variety of topics, among which were wound healing, infection, nutrition, metabolism, sleep, medications, alternative medicine, research compliance, and child abuse. The speakers included a variety of hospital personnel: 26% researchers, 23% physicians, 20% registered nurses, and 31% other disciplines and attendance mean was 29 participants per session (range 17-50). Survey results from 30 respondents indicated that 100% judged the program to be valuable to personal educational needs and 83% indicated that format did not warrant change. According to self-report data, the journal club enhanced medical knowledge (90%), patient care (73%), research competency (70%), critical thinking (63%), and evidence-based practice (63%). Results indicate that the journal club program was well received by participants, and promoted enhanced knowledge and improved patient care. In the future, barriers to research initiatives and integration of research findings into practice warrant follow-up study. Journal club should be incorporated into the learning curriculum of burn practitioners as a means to promote critical thinking, research competency, and evidence-based clinical practice. PMID:23519068

  10. A focus on intra-abdominal infections

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Complicated intra-abdominal infections are an important cause of morbidity and are frequently associated with poor prognosis, particularly in higher risk patients. Well defined evidence-based recommendations for intra-abdominal infections treatment are partially lacking because of the limited number of randomized-controlled trials. Factors consistently associated with poor outcomes in patients with intra-abdominal infections include increased illness severity, failed source control, inadequate empiric antimicrobial therapy and healthcare-acquired infection. Early prognostic evaluation of complicated intra-abdominal infections is important to select high-risk patients for more aggressive therapeutic procedures. The cornerstones in the management of complicated intra-abdominal infections are both source control and antibiotic therapy. The timing and the adequacy of source control are the most important issues in the management of intra-abdominal infections, because inadequate and late control of septic source may have a negative effect on the outcomes. Recent advances in interventional and more aggressive techniques could significantly decrease the morbidity and mortality of physiologically severe complicated intra-abdominal infections, even if these are still being debated and are yet not validated by limited prospective trials. Empiric antimicrobial therapy is nevertheless important in the overall management of intra-abdominal infections. Inappropriate antibiotic therapy may result in poor patient outcomes and in the appearance of bacterial resistance. Antimicrobial management is generally standardised and many regimens, either with monotherapy or combination therapy, have proven their efficacy. Routine coverage especially against Enterococci and candida spp is not always recommended, but can be useful in particular clinical conditions. A de escalation approach may be recommended in patients with specific risk factors for multidrug resistant infections such as immunodeficiency and prolonged antibacterial exposure. Therapy should focus on the obtainment of adequate source control and adequate use of antimicrobial therapy dictated by individual patient risk factors. Other critical issues remain debated and more controversies are still open mainly because of the limited number of randomized controlled trials. PMID:20302628

  11. Control of Ditylenchus dipsaci in Infected Garlic Seed Cloves by Nonfumigant Nematicides

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, P. A.; Greathead, A. S.

    1986-01-01

    Different rates of granular formulations ofaldicarb, carbofuran, ethoprop, fensulfothion, and phenamiphos were applied directly onto garlic seed cloves in the seed furrow in sandy clay loam, clay loam, and loam soils at planting to assess efficacy for control of Ditylenchus dipsaci in infected seed cloves. All treatments were compared to hotwater-formalin clove dip disinfection treatment and to nontreated infected controls. Aldicarb and phenamiphos at 2.52 and 5.04 kg a.i./ ha, but not at lower rates, effectively suppressed infection by D. dipsaci and increased yields. Although both nematicides slightly slowed the rate of plant emergence, normal stands were established. Trace levels of infection occurred in all treatments, including the hotwater-formalin dip. Carbofuran at 5.04 kg a.i./ha controlled the nematode but was phytotoxic. Ethoprop was phytotoxic. Fensulfothion did not control D. dipsaci even at the highest application rate, 8.90 kg a.i./ha. Single and multiple applications of oxamyl at 1.12-8.96 kg a.i./ha, applied as a surface spray or in furrow irrigation water, slowed the early progression of disease symptoms but failed to provide season-long nematode control. PMID:19294142

  12. International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium (INICC) report, data summary for 2003-2008, issued June 2009.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, Victor D; Maki, Dennis G; Jamulitrat, Silom; Medeiros, Eduardo A; Todi, Subhash Kumar; Gomez, David Yepes; Leblebicioglu, Hakan; Abu Khader, Ilham; Miranda Novales, María Guadalupe; Berba, Regina; Ramírez Wong, Fernando Martín; Barkat, Amina; Pino, Osiel Requejo; Dueñas, Lourdes; Mitrev, Zan; Bijie, Hu; Gurskis, Vaidotas; Kanj, S S; Mapp, Trudell; Hidalgo, Rosalía Fernández; Ben Jaballah, Nejla; Raka, Lul; Gikas, Achilleas; Ahmed, Altaf; Thu, Le Thi Anh; Guzmán Siritt, María Eugenia

    2010-03-01

    We report the results of the International Infection Control Consortium (INICC) surveillance study from January 2003 through December 2008 in 173 intensive care units (ICUs) in Latin America, Asia, Africa, and Europe. During the 6-year study, using Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) US National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN; formerly the National Nosocomial Infection Surveillance system [NNIS]) definitions for device-associated health care-associated infection, we collected prospective data from 155,358 patients hospitalized in the consortium's hospital ICUs for an aggregate of 923,624 days. Although device utilization in the developing countries' ICUs was remarkably similar to that reported from US ICUs in the CDC's NHSN, rates of device-associated nosocomial infection were markedly higher in the ICUs of the INICC hospitals: the pooled rate of central venous catheter (CVC)-associated bloodstream infections (BSI) in the INICC ICUs, 7.6 per 1000 CVC-days, is nearly 3-fold higher than the 2.0 per 1000 CVC-days reported from comparable US ICUs, and the overall rate of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) was also far higher, 13.6 versus 3.3 per 1000 ventilator-days, respectively, as was the rate of catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI), 6.3 versus 3.3 per 1000 catheter-days, respectively. Most strikingly, the frequencies of resistance of Staphylococcus aureus isolates to methicillin (MRSA) (84.1% vs 56.8%, respectively), Klebsiella pneumoniae to ceftazidime or ceftriaxone (76.1% vs 27.1%, respectively), Acinetobacter baumannii to imipenem (46.3% vs 29.2%, respectively), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa to piperacillin (78.0% vs 20.2%, respectively) were also far higher in the consortium's ICUs, and the crude unadjusted excess mortalities of device-related infections ranged from 23.6% (CVC-associated bloodstream infections) to 29.3% (VAP). PMID:20176284

  13. Gastrointestinal Infections and Diarrheal Disease in Ghanaian Infants and Children: An Outpatient Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Krumkamp, Ralf; Sarpong, Nimako; Schwarz, Norbert Georg; Adelkofer, Julia; Loag, Wibke; Eibach, Daniel; Hagen, Ralf Matthias; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw; Tannich, Egbert; May, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Diarrheal diseases are among the most frequent causes of morbidity and mortality in children worldwide, especially in resource-poor areas. This case-control study assessed the associations between gastrointestinal infections and diarrhea in children from rural Ghana. Methods Stool samples were collected from 548 children with diarrhea and from 686 without gastrointestinal symptoms visiting a hospital from 2007–2008. Samples were analyzed by microscopy and molecular methods. Results The organisms most frequently detected in symptomatic cases were Giardia lamblia, Shigella spp./ enteroinvasive Escherichia coli (EIEC), and Campylobacter jejuni. Infections with rotavirus (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 8.4; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.3–16.6), C. parvum/hominis (aOR = 2.7; 95% CI: 1.4–5.2) and norovirus (aOR = 2.0; 95%CI: 1.3–3.0) showed the strongest association with diarrhea. The highest attributable fractions (AF) for diarrhea were estimated for rotavirus (AF = 14.3%; 95% CI: 10.9–17.5%), Shigella spp./EIEC (AF = 10.5%; 95% CI: 3.5–17.1%), and norovirus (AF = 8.2%; 95% CI 3.2–12.9%). Co-infections occurred frequently and most infections presented themselves independently of other infections. However, infections with E. dispar, C. jejuni, and norovirus were observed more often in the presence of G. lamblia. Conclusions Diarrheal diseases in children from a rural area in sub-Saharan Africa are mainly due to infections with rotavirus, Shigella spp./EIEC, and norovirus. These associations are strongly age-dependent, which should be considered when diagnosing causes of diarrhea. The presented results are informative for both clinicians treating gastrointestinal infections as well as public health experts designing control programs against diarrheal diseases. PMID:25738935

  14. User-friendly and evidence-based tool to evaluate probability of eradication of aquatic non-indigenous

    E-print Network

    Lewis, Mark

    -indigenous species. 2. We conducted a review of case studies that attempted to control aquatic non-indigenous species-words: conservation, decision support tools, invasive species, management, predictive model Introduction ManagementUser-friendly and evidence-based tool to evaluate probability of eradication of aquatic non

  15. Cognitive-Behavioral Psychotherapy for Anxiety and Depressive Disorders in Children and Adolescents: An Evidence-Based Medicine Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Compton, Scott N.; March, John S.; Brent, David; Albano, Anne Marie; Weersing, V. Robin; Curry, John

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To review the literature on the cognitive-behavioral treatment of children and adolescents with anxiety and depressive disorders within the conceptual framework of evidence-based medicine. Method: The psychiatric and psychological literature was systematically searched for controlled trials applying cognitive-behavioral treatment to…

  16. Evidence-based practice, step by step: asking the clinical question: a key step in evidence-based practice.

    PubMed

    Stillwell, Susan B; Fineout-Overholt, Ellen; Melnyk, Bernadette Mazurek; Williamson, Kathleen M

    2010-03-01

    This is the third article in a series from the Arizona State University College of Nursing and Health Innovation's Center for the Advancement of Evidence-Based Practice. Evidence-based practice (EBP) is a problem-solving approach to the delivery of health care that integrates the best evidence from studies and patient care data with clinician expertise and patient preferences and values. When delivered in a context of caring and in a supportive organizational culture, the highest quality of care and best patient outcomes can be achieved.The purpose of this series is to give nurses the knowledge and skills they need to implement EBP consistently, one step at a time. Articles will appear every two months to allow you time to incorporate information as you work toward implementing EBP at your institution. Also, we've scheduled "Ask the Authors" call-ins every few months to provide a direct line to the experts to help you resolve questions. Details about how to participate in the next call will be published with May's Evidence-Based Practice, Step by Step. PMID:20179464

  17. To Achieve an Earlier IFN-? Response Is Not Sufficient to Control Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Marzo, Elena; Barril, Carles; Vegué, Marina; Diaz, Jorge; Valls, Joaquim; López, Daniel; Cardona, Pere-Joan

    2014-01-01

    The temporo-spatial relationship between the three organs (lung, spleen and lymph node) involved during the initial stages of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection has been poorly studied. As such, we performed an experimental study to evaluate the bacillary load in each organ after aerosol or intravenous infection and developed a mathematical approach using the data obtained in order to extract conclusions. The results showed that higher bacillary doses result in an earlier IFN-? response, that a certain bacillary load (BL) needs to be reached to trigger the IFN-? response, and that control of the BL is not immediate after onset of the IFN-? response, which might be a consequence of the spatial dimension. This study may have an important impact when it comes to designing new vaccine candidates as it suggests that triggering an earlier IFN-? response might not guarantee good infection control, and therefore that additional properties should be considered for these candidates. PMID:24959669

  18. Efficacy and safety of nanohybrids comprising silver nanoparticles and silicate clay for controlling Salmonella infection

    PubMed Central

    Chiao, Shu-Her; Lin, Siou-Hong; Shen, Ching-I; Liao, Jiunn-Wang; Bau, I-Jiuan; Wei, Jiun-Chiou; Tseng, Li-Ping; Hsu, Shan-hui; Lai, Ping-Shan; Lin, Shinn-Zong; Lin, Jiang-Jen; Su, Hong-Lin

    2012-01-01

    Developing effective and safe drugs is imperative for replacing antibiotics and controlling multidrug-resistant microbes. Nanoscale silicate platelet (NSP) and its nanohybrid, silver nanoparticle/NSP (AgNP/NSP), have been developed, and the nanohybrids show a strong and general antibacterial activity in vitro. Here, their efficacy for protecting Salmonella-infected chicks from fatality and septicemia was evaluated. Both orally administrated NSP and AgNP/NSP, but not AgNPs alone, effectively reduced the systemic Salmonella infection and mortality. In addition, quantitative Ag analyses demonstrated that Ag deposition from AgNP/NSP in the intestines was less than that from conventional AgNPs, indicating that the presence of NSP for immobilizing AgNPs reduced Ag accumulation in tissue and improved the safety of AgNPs. These in vivo results illustrated that both NSP and AgNP/NSP nanohybrid represent potential agents for controlling enteric bacterial infections. PMID:22654516

  19. Costimulatory TNFR family members in control of viral infection: outstanding questions.

    PubMed

    Mbanwi, Achire N; Watts, Tania H

    2014-06-01

    Members of the TNFR family can play prominent roles in controlling the magnitude, duration and phenotype of the immune response to viruses. The importance of particular TNFRs in different viral infections and whether they contribute to viral control or pathology is dependent on the virus and the severity of the infection. TNFRs and their ligands are widely and differentially expressed on both adaptive and innate immune cell types. The cell types through which TNFRs exert their effects, the unique signals provided by each member of the family, and how these signals are ultimately integrated during an anti-viral immune response remain to be fully elucidated. Here we discuss the role of 4-1BB, OX40, CD27 and GITR and their ligands during viral infection and highlight some of the outstanding questions in the field. PMID:24910294

  20. Bacteriophage endolysins: A novel anti-infective to control Gram-positive pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Fischetti, Vincent A.

    2010-01-01

    Endolysins (or lysins) are highly evolved enzymes produced by bacteriophage (phage for short) to digest the bacterial cell wall for phage progeny release. In Gram-positive bacteria, small quantities of purified recombinant lysin added externally results in immediate lysis causing log-fold death of the target bacterium. Lysins have been used successfully in a variety of animal models to control pathogenic antibiotic-resistant bacteria found on mucosal surfaces and infected tissues. Their specificity for the pathogen without disturbing the normal flora, the low chance of bacterial resistance, and their ability to kill colonizing pathogens on mucosal surfaces, a capacity previously unavailable, make them ideal anti-infectives in an age of mounting resistance. Here we review the current literature showing the effectiveness of these enzymes in controlling a variety of infections. PMID:20452280