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1

[Prevention of postoperative wound infections. Evidence-based recommendations].  

PubMed

Among all hospitalized patients, surgical site infections (SSI) are the third most frequently hospital-acquired-infection. SSIs remain a substantial cause of morbidity and mortality among surgical patients. This may be partially explained by the emergence of antimicrobial-resistant pathogens and the increased numbers of patients who are elderly and/or have a wide variety of chronic, debilitating, or immunocompromising underlying diseases. This is why it is essential to implement SSI prevention measures. In April 1999 the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) presented the "Guideline for Prevention of Surgical Site Infection". The recommendations represent the consensus of the Hospital Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee (HICPAC) regarding strategies for the prevention of SSIs. Whenever possible, the recommendations are based on data from well-designed scientific studies. This guideline is a major step forward and is also essential to optimize the management of surgical patients in Germany. PMID:11253544

Geffers, C; Gastmeier, P; Daschner, F; Rüden, H

2001-02-01

2

Network Influences on Dissemination of Evidence-Based Guidelines in State Tobacco Control Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Little is known regarding the social network relationships that influence dissemination of evidence-based public health practices and policies. In public health, it is critical that evidence-based guidelines, such as the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's "Best Practices for Comprehensive Tobacco Control Programs," are…

Luke, Douglas A.; Wald, Lana M.; Carothers, Bobbi J.; Bach, Laura E.; Harris, Jenine K.

2013-01-01

3

Glycemic control in cardiac surgery: implementing an evidence-based insulin infusion protocol.  

PubMed

Background Acute hyperglycemia following cardiac surgery increases the risk of deep sternal wound infection, significant early morbidity, and mortality. Insulin infusion protocols that target tight glycemic control to treat hyperglycemia have been linked to hypoglycemia and increased mortality. Recently published studies examining glycemic control in critical illness and clinical practice guidelines from professional organizations support moderate glycemic control. Objectives To measure critical care nurses' knowledge of glycemic control in cardiac surgery before and after education. To evaluate the safety and effectiveness of an evidence-based insulin infusion protocol targeting moderate glycemic control in cardiac surgery patients. Methods This evidence-based practice change was implemented in the cardiovascular unit in a community teaching hospital. Nurses completed a self-developed questionnaire to measure knowledge of glycemic control. Blood glucose data, collected (retrospectively) from anesthesia end time through 11:59 PM on postoperative day 2, were compared from 2 months before to 2 months after the practice change. Results Nurses' knowledge (test scores) increased significantly after education (pretest mean = 53.10, SD = 11.75; posttest mean = 79.10, SD = 12.02; t54 = -8.18, P < .001). Mean blood glucose level after implementation was 148 mg/dL. The incidence of hypoglycemia, 2.09% before and 0.22% after the intervention, was significantly reduced ( $${\\hbox{ \\chi }}_{1}^{2}$$ [n = 29] = 13.9, P < .001). The percentage of blood glucose levels less than 180 mg/dL was 88.30%. Conclusions Increasing nurses' knowledge of glycemic control and implementing an insulin infusion protocol targeting moderate glycemic control were effective for treating acute hyperglycemia following cardiac surgery with decreased incidence of hypoglycemia. PMID:24786814

Hargraves, Joelle D

2014-05-01

4

Diffusion and Dissemination of Evidence-based Cancer Control Interventions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

What is the effectiveness of cancer control interventions (i.e., smoking cessation, healthy diet, mammography, cervical cancer screening, and control of cancer pain) to promote behavior uptake. What strategies have been evaluated to disseminate cancer con...

P. Ellis P. Raina

2003-01-01

5

When to start antiretroviral therapy: the need for an evidence base during early HIV infection  

PubMed Central

Background Strategies for use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) have traditionally focused on providing treatment to persons who stand to benefit immediately from initiating the therapy. There is global consensus that any HIV+ person with CD4 counts less than 350 cells/?l should initiate ART. However, it remains controversial whether ART is indicated in asymptomatic HIV-infected persons with CD4 counts above 350 cells/?l, or whether it is more advisable to defer initiation until the CD4 count has dropped to 350 cells/?l. The question of when the best time is to initiate ART during early HIV infection has always been vigorously debated. The lack of an evidence base from randomized trials, in conjunction with varying degrees of therapeutic aggressiveness and optimism tempered by the risks of drug resistance and side effects, has resulted in divided expert opinion and inconsistencies among treatment guidelines. Discussion On the basis of recent data showing that early ART initiation reduces heterosexual HIV transmission, some countries are considering adopting a strategy of universal treatment of all HIV+ persons irrespective of their CD4 count and whether ART is of benefit to the individual or not, in order to reduce onward HIV transmission. Since ART has been found to be associated with both short-term and long-term toxicity, defining the benefit:risk ratio is the critical missing link in the discussion on earlier use of ART. For early ART initiation to be justified, this ratio must favor benefit over risk. An unfavorable ratio would argue against using early ART. Summary There is currently no evidence from randomized controlled trials to suggest that a strategy of initiating ART when the CD4 count is above 350 cells/?l (versus deferring initiation to around 350 cells/?l) results in benefit to the HIV+ person and data from observational studies are inconsistent. Large, clinical endpoint-driven randomized studies to determine the individual health benefits versus risks of earlier ART initiation are sorely needed. The counter-argument to this debate topic can be freely accessed here: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/11/147.

2013-01-01

6

Building the evidence base for global tobacco control.  

PubMed

The tobacco control movement needs a global information system permitting routine monitoring of the tobacco trade, tobacco farming, the tobacco industry, the prevalence of tobacco use, associated mortality, and national resources for combating tobacco. The Tobacco Control Country Profiles database, a data collection initiative led by the American Cancer Society in collaboration with WHO and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, represents the first step in the development of such a system. Baseline data on several indicators of tobacco use were obtained from 191 Member States of WHO, two Associate Members, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of China (Hong Kong SAR), China (Province of Taiwan) and the West Bank and Gaza Strip. The methods used to compile the data are described in the present paper. Selected indicators from the database were analysed in order to demonstrate the potential utility and value of data derived from an information system devoted to tobacco control. The analyses covered gender-specific smoking prevalence by WHO Region, per capita cigarette consumption by Human Development Index (HDI) category, and average real annual percentage changes in cigarette prices between 1990 and 1999 for selected countries in each category. In 1998, men were almost four times more likely than women to be smokers. The prevalence of smoking among men was highest in the Western Pacific Region. The differential in gender-specific smoking prevalence was narrowest in the Region of the Americas and the European Region. It was wider in the South-East Asia Region and the Western Pacific Region. The lowest and highest per capita consumption of manufactured cigarettes occurred in the lowest and highest HDI categories respectively. In the medium HDI category, China's growing cigarette consumption after 1975 had a major bearing on the rise in per capita consumption. Cigarette price trends suggest that there is considerable scope for increasing taxes on tobacco products, particularly in low or medium HDI countries. The implications of the findings for future tobacco control efforts are discussed, as are issues surrounding the quality of available data, priorities for future data collection and the need to maintain and improve the information system in order to support such efforts. PMID:10994261

Corrao, M A; Guindon, G E; Cokkinides, V; Sharma, N

2000-01-01

7

Infection control.  

PubMed

Essential facts One in 16 people - 300,000 patients a year - who are treated in the NHS in England pick up an infection. These healthcare associated infections (HCAIs) include pneumonia and infections of the lower respiratory tract, urinary tract, and surgical sites. PMID:24844495

2014-05-21

8

The role of evidence-based media advocacy in the promotion of tobacco control policies.  

PubMed

This article discusses the role of evidence-based media advocacy in the promotion of tobacco control policies. Evidence is a driving force for campaigns seeking to implement a tobacco control policy. An effective campaign is based in evidence that demonstrates why a policy should be implemented, and what the potential benefits are. Media advocacy is the process of disseminating information through the communications media where the aim is to effect action, such as a change of policy, or to alter the public's view of an issue. Discussion focuses on: 1) the importance of, and methods for, collecting and communicating evidence and information to make it clear and usable for legislators, the media, and the public; and 2) the role of earned and paid media in advancing tobacco control issues. The discussion is made within the context of a specific advocacy example; in this case the 2010 campaign to increase the tobacco tax in Mexico. PMID:22689166

Lane, Ch'uyasonqo H; Carter, Marina I

2012-06-01

9

Assessing Awareness and Use of Evidence-Based Programs for Cancer Control in Puerto Rico  

PubMed Central

The Community Cancer Control Outreach Program (CCCOP) is a community-academic partnership aimed at developing and implementing a cancer control outreach, research, and training program in Puerto Rico. The CCCOP surveyed 56 partners to assess their awareness, training needs, and use of resources related to evidence-based programs (EBPs). Despite relatively high levels (70%) of confidence in adopting EBPs, there were low levels of awareness (37%) and use (25%) of existing EBPs resources. Respondents’ who had used EBPs resources were more likely to have positive beliefs about EBPs than nonusers (p<0.05). Training needs were high among respondents and no significant differences were found between those who had and had not used existing EBPs resources. These findings can guide the development of training tools and technical assistance to increase the use of EBPs for Latino audiences.

Calo, William A.; Fernandez, Maria E.; Rivera, Mirza; Diaz, Elba C.; Correa-Fernandez, Virmarie; Pattatucci, Angela; Wetter, David W.

2012-01-01

10

Cancer control planners' perceptions and use of evidence-based programs.  

PubMed

The Cancer Prevention and Control Research Network surveyed 282 cancer control planners to inform its efforts to increase the use of evidence-based cancer control programs (EBPs; programs that have been scientifically tested and have successfully changed behavior). Respondents included planners from organizations in state Comprehensive Cancer Control coalitions as well as other governmental and nongovernmental organizations and community-based coalitions. Respondents provided information about personal and organizational characteristics, their cancer control programs, their attitudes toward EBPs, and their awareness and use of Web-based resources for EBPs. Although findings showed strong preferences for cancer control programs that have been shown to work, less than half of respondents (48%) had ever used EBP resources. Regardless of whether they had used EBP resources, almost all respondents (97%) indicated that further training would help them and their organizations adopt and adapt EBPs for use in their communities. The most frequently endorsed training needs were finding and securing additional resources (such as funding and technical assistance), followed by adapting EBPs for cultural appropriateness. The Cancer Prevention and Control Research Network consortium is using these findings to develop a Web-based interactive training and decision support tool that is responsive to the needs identified by the survey respondents. PMID:20357600

Hannon, Peggy A; Fernandez, Maria E; Williams, Rebecca S; Mullen, Patricia Dolan; Escoffery, Cam; Kreuter, Matthew W; Pfeiffer, Debra; Kegler, Michelle C; Reese, LeRoy; Mistry, Ritesh; Bowen, Deborah J

2010-01-01

11

Evidence-based guidelines for treatment of bacterial respiratory tract infections in the era of antibiotic resistance.  

PubMed

Antimicrobial resistance in bacterial respiratory tract pathogens is a rapidly evolving and increasingly disconcerting problem. Major factors that have contributed to resistance are inappropriate prescribing of antibiotics for viral infections and the use of antibiotics with poor activity. The treatment of respiratory tract infections is significantly affected by resistance in organisms such as Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis. Resistance to beta-lactams, sulfonamides, and macrolides continues to rise. Evidence-based guidelines, founded on clinical and bacteriological outcomes, are imperative to treat patients effectively, to limit the spread of these pathogens, and to minimize further development of resistance. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters have recently been shown to correlate with clinical outcome, and offer a more rational approach to predicting antimicrobial efficacy and determining clinically relevant susceptibility breakpoints. PMID:11339025

Jacobs, M R; Weinberg, W

2001-04-01

12

A framework for developing an evidence-based, comprehensive tobacco control program  

PubMed Central

Background Tobacco control is an area where the translation of evidence into policy would seem to be straightforward, given the wealth of epidemiological, behavioural and other types of research available. Yet, even here challenges exist. These include information overload, concealment of key (industry-funded) evidence, contextualization, assessment of population impact, and the changing nature of the threat. Methods In the context of Israel's health targeting initiative, Healthy Israel 2020, we describe the steps taken to develop a comprehensive tobacco control strategy. We elaborate on the following: a) scientific issues influencing the choice of tobacco control strategies; b) organization of existing evidence of effectiveness of interventions into a manageable form, and c) consideration of relevant philosophical and political issues. We propose a framework for developing a plan and illustrate this process with a case study in Israel. Results Broad consensus exists regarding the effectiveness of most interventions, but current recommendations differ in the emphasis they place on different strategies. Scientific challenges include integration of complex and sometimes conflicting information from authoritative sources, and lack of estimates of population impact of interventions. Philosophical and political challenges include the use of evidence-based versus innovative policymaking, the importance of individual versus governmental responsibility, and whether and how interventions should be prioritized. The proposed framework includes: 1) compilation of a list of potential interventions 2) modification of that list based on local needs and political constraints; 3) streamlining the list by categorizing interventions into broad groupings of related interventions; together these groupings form the basis of a comprehensive plan; and 4) refinement of the plan by comparing it to existing comprehensive plans. Conclusions Development of a comprehensive tobacco control plan is a complex endeavour, involving crucial decisions regarding intervention components. "Off the shelf" plans, which need to be adapted to local settings, are available from a variety of sources, and a multitude of individual recommendations are available. The proposed framework for adapting existing approaches to the local social and political climate may assist others planning for smoke-free societies. Additionally, this experience has implications for development of evidence-based health plans addressing other risk factors.

2010-01-01

13

Pediatric herpes simplex virus infections: an evidence-based approach to treatment.  

PubMed

Herpes simplex virus is a common virus that causes a variety of clinical presentations ranging from mild to life-threatening. Orolabial and genital herpes are common disorders that can often be managed in an outpatient setting; however, some patients do present to the emergency department with those conditions, and emergency clinicians should be aware of possible complications in the pediatric population. Neonatal herpes is a rare disorder, but prompt recognition and initiation of antiviral therapy is imperative, as the morbidity and mortality of the disease is high. Herpes encephalitis is an emergency that also requires a high index of suspicion to diagnose. Herpes simplex virus is also responsible for a variety of other clinical presentations, including herpes gladiatorum, herpetic whitlow, eczema herpeticum, and ocular herpes. This issue reviews the common clinical presentations of the herpes simplex virus, the life-threatening infections that require expedient identification and management, and recommended treatment regimens. PMID:24649621

Sanders, Jennifer E; Garcia, Sylvia E

2014-01-01

14

Tobacco Control: Using evidence-based research to prevent, treat, and control tobacco use.  

Cancer.gov

Measures and Determinants of Smokeless Tobacco Use Prevention and Cessation Mark Parascandola, PhD, MPH Tobacco Control Research Branch Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences National Cancer Institute Purpose of the RFA • Understand

15

Building the Palliative Care Evidence Base: Lessons From a Randomized Controlled Trial of Oxygen vs Room Air for Refractory Dyspnea.  

PubMed

Palliative care is increasingly seen as a standard component of high-quality comprehensive cancer care. However, several challenges remain to its widespread integration into clinical oncology practice, including workforce problems, reimbursement concerns, and a fledgling evidence base. This article discusses issues surrounding evidence base development in palliative cancer care, using the example of a recently published randomized controlled trial of oxygen versus room air. The Oxygen Trial randomized patients with refractory dyspnea and adequate Pao2 to oxygen or room air, administered via nasal cannula. Both groups experienced improvements in self-rated dyspnea scores, but no statistical differences were seen between intervention arms. These results suggest that supplementary oxygen is often unnecessary in the palliative setting, and that room air is similarly efficacious. This example highlights the importance and need for ongoing development of the evidence base in palliative medicine. The Palliative Care Research Cooperative (PCRC) is a novel National Institute of Nursing Research-funded research infrastructure that seeks to expand the palliative care evidence base. Its first multisite trial was recently completed, assessing the pragmatic question of whether statin medications can be safely discontinued in end-of-life settings. The PCRC will be a vehicle through which a high-quality evidence base will continue to expand and develop. Such ongoing research efforts are needed to inform and improve palliative care practice. PMID:24994919

LeBlanc, Thomas W; Abernethy, Amy P

2014-07-01

16

An outreach intervention to implement evidence based practice in residential care: a randomized controlled trial [ISRCTN67855475  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The aim of this project was to assess whether outreach visits would improve the implementation of evidence based clinical practice in the area of falls reduction and stroke prevention in a residential care setting. METHODS: Twenty facilities took part in a randomized controlled trial with a seven month follow-up period. Two outreach visits were delivered by a pharmacist. At

Maria Crotty; Craig Whitehead; Debra Rowett; Julie Halbert; David Weller; Paul Finucane; Adrian Esterman

2004-01-01

17

Implementation of evidence-based antenatal care in Mozambique: a cluster randomized controlled trial: study protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Antenatal care (ANC) reduces maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality directly through the detection and treatment of pregnancy-related illnesses, and indirectly through the detection of women at increased risk of delivery complications. The potential benefits of quality antenatal care services are most significant in low-resource countries where morbidity and mortality levels among women of reproductive age and neonates are higher. WHO developed an ANC model that recommended the delivery of services scientifically proven to improve maternal, perinatal and neonatal outcomes. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of an intervention designed to increase the use of the package of evidence-based services included in the WHO ANC model in Mozambique. The primary hypothesis is that the intervention will increase the use of evidence-based practices during ANC visits in comparison to the standard dissemination channels currently used in the country. Methods This is a demonstration project to be developed through a facility-based cluster randomized controlled trial with a stepped wedge design. The intervention was tailored, based on formative research findings, to be readily applicable to local prenatal care services and acceptable to local pregnant women and health providers. The intervention includes four components: the provision of kits with all necessary medicines and laboratory supplies for ANC (medical and non-medical equipment), a storage system, a tracking system, and training sessions for health care providers. Ten clinics were selected and will start receiving the intervention in a random order. Outcomes will be computed at each time point when a new clinic starts the intervention. The primary outcomes are the delivery of selected health care practices to women attending the first ANC visit, and secondary outcomes are the delivery of selected health care practices to women attending second and higher ANC visits as well as the attitude of midwives in relation to adopting the practices. This demonstration project is pragmatic in orientation and will be conducted under routine conditions. Discussion There is an urgent need for effective and sustainable scaling-up approaches of health interventions in low-resource countries. This can only be accomplished by the engagement of the country’s health stakeholders at all levels. This project aims to achieve improvement in the quality of antenatal care in Mozambique through the implementation of a multifaceted intervention on three levels: policy, organizational and health care delivery levels. The implementation of the trial will probably require a change in accountability and behaviour of health care providers and we expect this change in ‘habits’ will contribute to obtaining reliable health indicators, not only related to research issues, but also to health care outcomes derived from the new health care model. At policy level, the results of this study may suggest a need for revision of the supply chain management system. Given that supply chain management is a major challenge for many low-resource countries, we envisage that important lessons on how to improve the supply chain in Mozambique and other similar settings, will be drawn from this study. Trial registration Pan African Clinical Trial Registry database. Identification number: PACTR201306000550192.

2014-01-01

18

Building the evidence base for effective tobacco control policies: the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project (the ITC Project).  

PubMed

The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) is a seminal event in tobacco control and in global health. Scientific evidence guided the creation of the FCTC, and as the treaty moves into its implementation phase, scientific evidence can be used to guide the formulation of evidence-based tobacco control policies. The International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project (ITC Project) is a transdisciplinary international collaboration of tobacco control researchers who have created research studies to evaluate and understand the psychosocial and behavioural impact of FCTC policies as they are implemented in participating ITC countries, which together are inhabited by over 45% of the world's smokers. This introduction to the ITC Project supplement of Tobacco Control presents a brief outline of the ITC Project, including a summary of key findings to date. The overall conceptual model and methodology of the ITC Project--involving representative national cohort surveys created from a common conceptual model, with common methods and measures across countries--may hold promise as a useful paradigm in efforts to evaluate and understand the impact of population-based interventions in other important domains of health, such as obesity. PMID:16754940

Fong, G T; Cummings, K M; Shopland, D R

2006-06-01

19

Tuberculosis and infection control.  

PubMed

Against a background of rising tuberculosis (TB) rates, increasing incidence of TB and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection, coupled with the emergence of multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) and extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB), the need for effective TB infection control has never been more vital (World Health Organization (WHO), 2009). TB infection control has been defined as 'a combination of measures aimed at minimizing the risk of TB transmission within populations' (WHO, 2009: p.ix). Health professionals are frequently confused about appropriate infection control measures when caring for patients affected by infectious respiratory tuberculosis (Mohandas and Cunniffe, 2009). This article aims to address the key infection control measures required to optimize patient care and reduce the risk of TB transmission within hospital and community settings. PMID:22067583

Karim, Kelvin

20

Evidence-based control of canine rabies: a critical review of population density reduction  

PubMed Central

Control measures for canine rabies include vaccination and reducing population density through culling or sterilization. Despite the evidence that culling fails to control canine rabies, efforts to reduce canine population density continue in many parts of the world. The rationale for reducing population density is that rabies transmission is density-dependent, with disease incidence increasing directly with host density. This may be based, in part, on an incomplete interpretation of historical field data for wildlife, with important implications for disease control in dog populations. Here, we examine historical and more recent field data, in the context of host ecology and epidemic theory, to understand better the role of density in rabies transmission and the reasons why culling fails to control rabies. We conclude that the relationship between host density, disease incidence and other factors is complex and may differ between species. This highlights the difficulties of interpreting field data and the constraints of extrapolations between species, particularly in terms of control policies. We also propose that the complex interactions between dogs and people may render culling of free-roaming dogs ineffective irrespective of the relationship between host density and disease incidence. We conclude that vaccination is the most effective means to control rabies in all species.

Morters, Michelle K; Restif, Olivier; Hampson, Katie; Cleaveland, Sarah; Wood, James L N; Conlan, Andrew J K

2013-01-01

21

A framework for developing an evidence-based, comprehensive tobacco control program  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Tobacco control is an area where the translation of evidence into policy would seem to be straightforward, given the wealth of epidemiological, behavioural and other types of research available. Yet, even here challenges exist. These include information overload, concealment of key (industry-funded) evidence, contextualization, assessment of population impact, and the changing nature of the threat. METHODS: In the context

Laura Rosen; Elliot Rosenberg; Martin McKee; Shosh Gan-Noy; Diane Levin; Elana Mayshar; Galia Shacham; John Borowski; Gabi Bin Nun; Boaz Lev

2010-01-01

22

The role of randomised controlled trials in developing an evidence-base for counselling and psychotherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Representatives of counselling and person-centred organisations indicate many of their members feel their profession and orientation is under threat, with counselling services being decommissioned in NHS settings. Aims: To understand the views of key figures in the psychological therapies field (policy makers, researchers and representatives of the counselling community) towards randomised controlled trials (RCTs), and their present and future

Mick Cooper; Andrew Reeves

2012-01-01

23

The role of randomized controlled trials in evidence-based urology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  To review the current and future role of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in urology.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A review of the urological literature was performed to assess the current role of RCTs in urology. These findings were put\\u000a in context of current practice, and methodologic limitations of observational study design were discussed.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  Several RCTs have improved treatment of urology patients. However, overall, few

Luke T. Lavallée; Dean Fergusson; Rodney H. Breau

2011-01-01

24

Evidence-based protocol: diagnosis and treatment of catheter-associated urinary tract infection within adult neurocritical care patient population.  

PubMed

Evidence exists that patients requiring neurologic ICU admission have concomitant immunosuppression that makes them more prone to acquiring nosocomial infections. The risk of infection is highest in the acute phase after stroke, which may be attributed to stroke-induced immunodepression syndrome. Significant numbers of patients are being diagnosed inappropriately with catheter-associated urinary tract infection, for which they receive treatment that is not recommended. Protocol-based care enables providers to translate evidence into practice. PMID:24485184

Dayts, Olga

2014-03-01

25

Infection Control and Prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Cancer center patients are frequently immune suppressed and are, therefore, at risk for a wide range of opportunistic pathogens\\u000a in addition to common nosocomial pathogens that are a problem for patients throughout the hospital. A good infection control\\u000a program is extremely important in this setting to reduce the risks of community- and hospital-acquired infections among patients.\\u000a In addition to protecting

Kerri Thom; Mary-Claire Roghmann

26

Developing the evidence-base for Safe Communities: a multi-level, partly randomised, controlled trial.  

PubMed

Safe Communities, representing a global activation of the public health logic, may be strengthened through theoretical, methodological and empirical support. In the spirit of this Special Issue that aims to analyse the achievements and challenges inherent to Safe Communities, we offer our contribution in the form of a methodology of a multi-country child safety, peace and health promotion study. The study, situated within an African-centred initiative called Ukuphepha - an isiZulu word meaning demonstrating African safety - is underpinned by four theoretical claims that frame injury and violence prevention as a multi-disciplinary issue to be addressed through a suite of interventions to family and extended social systems. The interventions, sensitive to the priorities of each participating country, have been informed by the literature on effective interventions and the authors' joint experiences of community development. The study is designed as a population-based, multi-level, multi-intervention partly randomised controlled trial, and there are potentially 24 participant communities representing South Africa, Mozambique, Egypt, Zambia, Uganda, Bangladesh, Malaysia and Australia - over three commencement phases. Whereas process evaluation will focus on community engagement, impact evaluation will consider risk and protective factors, and outcome evaluation will examine the overall effectiveness of the interventions. Notwithstanding the many challenges, the study will provide insights into the methodology and mechanisms of ecologically-oriented interventions that locate injury and violence prevention as an activity arising from safety, peace and health promotion. PMID:22873717

Seedat, M; McClure, R; Suffla, S; van Niekerk, A

2012-01-01

27

Computer-based teaching is as good as face to face lecture-based teaching of evidence based medicine: a randomised controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: At postgraduate level evidence based medicine (EBM) is currently taught through tutor based lectures. Computer based sessions fit around doctors' workloads, and standardise the quality of educational provision. There have been no randomized controlled trials comparing computer based sessions with traditional lectures at postgraduate level within medicine. METHODS: This was a randomised controlled trial involving six postgraduate education centres

James Davis; Evi Chryssafidou; Javier Zamora; David Davies; Khalid Khan; Arri Coomarasamy

2007-01-01

28

Infection control to avoid surgical site infection.  

PubMed

Infection control is a discipline that applies epidemiologic and scientific principles and statistical analysis to prevent or reduce rates of nosocomial infections. Effective infection control programs proved to reduce the rates of nosocomial infections and to be cost-effective. It is a key component of the broader discipline of hospital epidemiology. As an example, the anesthesia team acts every day in a highly complex and high risk environment for the transmission of pathogenic organisms and induction of infectious complication. In order to achieve the main goal of preventing or reducing the risk of hospital-acquired infections, a hospital epidemiology program should have the following oversight functions and responsibilities: Surveillance, either hospital-wide or targeted Education about prevention of infections. Outbreak investigations cleaning, disinfection and sterilization of equipments and disposal of infectious waste hospital employee health, specifically after exposure to either blood-borne or respiratory pathogens, Review of antibiotic utilization and its relationship to local antibiotic resistance patterns, Prevention of infections due to percutaneous intravascular devices. Development of infection control policies and procedures oversight on the use of new products that directly or indirectly relate to the risk of nosocomial infections. PMID:24260814

Abou-Hatab, Mostafa H; El-Bahnasawy, Mamdouh M

2013-08-01

29

Astragalus in the Prevention of Upper Respiratory Tract Infection in Children with Nephrotic Syndrome: Evidence-Based Clinical Practice  

PubMed Central

Aims. To explore whether Astragalus or its formulations could prevent upper respiratory infection in children with nephrotic syndrome and how best to use it. Methods. We transformed a common clinical question in practice to an answerable question according to the PICO principle. Databases, including the Cochrane Library (Issue 5, 2012), PUBMED (1966–2012.8), CBM (1978–2012.8), VIP (1989–2012.8), and CNKI (1979–2012.8), were searched to identify Cochrane systematic reviews and clinical trials. Then, the quality of and recommendations from the clinical evidence were evaluated using the GRADEpro software. Results. The search yielded 537 papers. Only two studies with high validity were included for synthesis calculations. The results showed that Astragalus granules could effectively reduce URTI in children with nephrotic syndrome compared with prednisone treatment alone (23.9% versus 42.9%; RR = 0.56 and 95% CI = 0.33–0.93). The dose of Astragalus granules was 2.25 gram (equivalent to 15 gram crude Astragalus) twice per day, at least for 3–6 months. The level of evidence quality was low, but we still recommended the evidence to the patient according to GRADEpro with the opinion of the expert. Followup showed the incidence of URTI in this child decreased significantly. Conclusions. Astragalus granules may reduce the incidence of URTI in children with nephrotic syndrome.

Zou, Chuan; Su, Guobin; Wu, Yuchi; Lu, Fuhua; Mao, Wei; Liu, Xusheng

2013-01-01

30

A Randomized Control Trial Examining the Effect of Acceptance and Commitment Training on Clinician Willingness to Use Evidence-Based Pharmacotherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated the effectiveness of acceptance and commitment training (ACT) for increasing drug and alcohol counselors' willingness to use evidence-based agonist and antagonist pharmacotherapy. Fifty-nine drug and alcohol counselors were randomly assigned to either a 1-day ACT workshop or a 1-day educational control workshop. Both groups then attended a 2-day workshop on empirically supported treatments for substance abuse. Measures

Alethea A. Varra; Steven C. Hayes; Nancy Roget; Gary Fisher

2008-01-01

31

Evidence-based prevention and surgical treatment of necrotizing enterocolitis-a review of randomized controlled trials.  

PubMed

Necrotizing enterocolitis remains a common cause of morbidity and mortality in the neonatal period. Despite many advances in the management of the critically ill neonate, the exact etiology, attempts at prevention and determining best treatment for NEC have been elusive. Unfortunately, the overall survival for this poorly understood and complex condition has not improved. NEC is a condition that can and should be studied with randomized prospective trials (RCTs). This chapter reviews the current evidence-based trials for this condition thus far performed. PMID:23611616

Raval, Mehul V; Hall, Nigel J; Pierro, Agostino; Moss, R Lawrence

2013-05-01

32

Infection Control in the United Kingdom  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most large acute hospitals have an infection control team, consisting of the infection control officier and nurse, which is responsible for day-to-day control of infection. The infection control officier is usually the medical microbiologist, a physician in charge of the microbiology laboratory, who is responsible to the Health Authority for control of infection. The team responsibilities usually include smaller hospitals,

G. A. J. Ayliffe

1988-01-01

33

Infection control through the ages.  

PubMed

To appreciate the current advances in the field of health care epidemiology, it is important to understand the history of hospital infection control. Available historical sources were reviewed for 4 different historical time periods: medieval, early modern, progressive, and post-World War II. Hospital settings for the time periods are described, with particular emphasis on the conditions related to hospital infections. PMID:21783278

Smith, Philip W; Watkins, Kristin; Hewlett, Angela

2012-02-01

34

Evidence-based dentistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

We live in an age of information, innovation and change. Clinical decision making based on good quality evidence should lead to more effective and efficient treatments. Each practitioner has a role in assesing this information. This paper outlines this role, together with the advantages and problems of introducing an evidence-based approach to dentistry.

D Richards; A Lawrence

1998-01-01

35

Infection Control in Dental Settings  

MedlinePLUS

... CDC.gov . Infection Control in Dental Settings Oral Health home School-Based Dental Sealant Programs Community Water Fluoridation Fluoridation Basics Benefits Guidelines Safety Infant Formula and Fluorosis Scientific Reviews ...

36

Day Care Infection Control Protocol.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This day care infection control manual was assembled to provide technical guidance for the prevention and control of communicable diseases to child day care facilities in Seattle and King County, Washington. For each disease, the manual provides background information, public health control recommendations, and letters that can be used to…

Seattle-King County Dept. of Public Health, Seattle, WA.

37

Glutathione S-Transferase Polymorphism Interactions with Smoking Status and HPV Infection in Cervical Cancer Risk: An Evidence-Based Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is considered the major cause of cervical cancer (CC), but a number of infected women do not develop invasive lesions, suggesting the role of genetic susceptibility and environmental co-factors for cancer outbreak. Glutathione S- transferases (GSTs) are multifunctional enzymes that play a key role in the detoxification of varieties of both endogenous products of oxidative stress and exogenous carcinogens. Methods MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases were searched. All studies evaluating the association between GSTM1 polymorphisms and cervical cancer were included. Pooled odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated using fixed-or random-effects model. Results A total of 23 case-control studies were included in the meta-analysis. The overall result showed that the association between GSTM1 null genotype and risk for cervical cancer was statistically significant (OR?=?1.56; 95%CI, 1.39–1.75). Subgroup analyses were performed based on ethnicity, smoking and HPV infection. Our results showed that smokers with null GSTM1 genotype had higher risk of cervical cancer (OR?=?2.27, 95%CI, 1.46–3.54). For the ethnicity stratification, significant increased risk of null GSTM1 genotype was found in Chinese and Indian population, but no increased risk in other population was found. Conclusions this meta-analysis provided strong evidence that the GSTM1 genotype is associated with CC development, especially in Chinese and Indian populations. Smoking and HPV infection modified the association between the null GSTM1 genotype and CC.

Zhen, Shuai; Hu, Chen-Ming; Bian, Li-Hong

2013-01-01

38

Clinician-led improvement in cancer care (CLICC) - testing a multifaceted implementation strategy to increase evidence-based prostate cancer care: phased randomised controlled trial - study protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Clinical practice guidelines have been widely developed and disseminated with the aim of improving healthcare processes and patient outcomes but the uptake of evidence-based practice remains haphazard. There is a need to develop effective implementation methods to achieve large-scale adoption of proven innovations and recommended care. Clinical networks are increasingly being viewed as a vehicle through which evidence-based care can be embedded into healthcare systems using a collegial approach to agree on and implement a range of strategies within hospitals. In Australia, the provision of evidence-based care for men with prostate cancer has been identified as a high priority. Clinical audits have shown that fewer than 10% of patients in New South Wales (NSW) Australia at high risk of recurrence after radical prostatectomy receive guideline recommended radiation treatment following surgery. This trial will test a clinical network-based intervention to improve uptake of guideline recommended care for men with high-risk prostate cancer. Methods/Design In Phase I, a phased randomised cluster trial will test a multifaceted intervention that harnesses the NSW Agency for Clinical Innovation (ACI) Urology Clinical Network to increase evidence-based care for men with high-risk prostate cancer following surgery. The intervention will be introduced in nine NSW hospitals over 10 months using a stepped wedge design. Outcome data (referral to radiation oncology for discussion of adjuvant radiotherapy in line with guideline recommended care or referral to a clinical trial of adjuvant versus salvage radiotherapy) will be collected through review of patient medical records. In Phase II, mixed methods will be used to identify mechanisms of provider and organisational change. Clinicians’ knowledge and attitudes will be assessed through surveys. Process outcome measures will be assessed through document review. Semi-structured interviews will be conducted to elucidate mechanisms of change. Discussion The study will be one of the first randomised controlled trials to test the effectiveness of clinical networks to lead changes in clinical practice in hospitals treating patients with high-risk cancer. It will additionally provide direction regarding implementation strategies that can be effectively employed to encourage widespread adoption of clinical practice guidelines. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR): ACTRN12611001251910.

2014-01-01

39

Standard principles for preventing and controlling infection.  

PubMed

Infection control is a priority for all nurses and healthcare staff. This article examines factors contributing to current healthcare-associated infection rates and outlines the main strategies for infection prevention, management and control. PMID:16514929

Chalmers, C; Straub, M

40

An evidence-based shared decision making programme on the prevention of myocardial infarction in type 2 diabetes: protocol of a randomised-controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Lack of patient involvement in decision making has been suggested as one reason for limited treatment success. Concepts such as shared decision making may contribute to high quality healthcare by supporting patients to make informed decisions together with their physicians. A multi-component shared decision making programme on the prevention of heart attack in type 2 diabetes has been developed. It aims at improving the quality of decision-making by providing evidence-based patient information, enhancing patients’ knowledge, and supporting them to actively participate in decision-making. In this study the efficacy of the programme is evaluated in the setting of a diabetes clinic. Methods/Design A single blinded randomised-controlled trial is conducted to compare the shared decision making programme with a control-intervention. The intervention consists of an evidence-based patient decision aid on the prevention of myocardial infarction and a corresponding counselling module provided by diabetes educators. Similar in duration and structure, the control-intervention targets nutrition, sports, and stress coping. A total of 154 patients between 40 and 69 years of age with type 2 diabetes and no previous diagnosis of ischaemic heart disease or stroke are enrolled and allocated either to the intervention or the control-intervention. Primary outcome measure is the patients’ knowledge on benefits and harms of heart attack prevention captured by a standardised knowledge test. Key secondary outcome measure is the achievement of treatment goals prioritised by the individual patient. Treatment goals refer to statin taking, HbA1c-, blood pressure levels and smoking status. Outcomes are assessed directly after the counselling and at 6 months follow-up. Analyses will be carried out on intention-to-treat basis. Concurrent qualitative methods are used to explore intervention fidelity and to gain insight into implementation processes. Discussion Interventions to facilitate evidence-based shared decision making represent an innovative approach in diabetes care. The results of this study will provide information on the efficacy of such a concept in the setting of a diabetes clinic in Germany. Trial registration ISRCTN84636255

2013-01-01

41

Evidence-based discussion increases childhood vaccination uptake: a randomised cluster controlled trial of knowledge translation in Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Background Childhood vaccination rates are low in Lasbela, one of the poorest districts in Pakistan's Balochistan province. This randomised cluster controlled trial tested the effect on uptake of informed discussion of vaccination costs and benefits, without relying on improved health services. Methods Following a baseline survey of randomly selected representative census enumeration areas, a computer generated random number sequence assigned 18 intervention and 14 control clusters. The intervention comprised three structured discussions separately with male and female groups in each cluster. The first discussion shared findings about vaccine uptake from the baseline study; the second focussed on the costs and benefits of childhood vaccination; the third focussed on local action plans. Field teams encouraged the group participants to spread the dialogue to households in their communities. Both intervention and control clusters received a district-wide health promotion programme emphasizing household hygiene. Interviewers in the household surveys were blind of intervention status of different clusters. A follow-up survey after one year measured impact of the intervention on uptake of measles and full DPT vaccinations of children aged 12-23 months, as reported by the mother or caregiver. Results In the follow-up survey, measles and DPT vaccination uptake among children aged 12-23 months (536 in intervention clusters, 422 in control clusters) was significantly higher in intervention than in control clusters, where uptake fell over the intervention period. Adjusting for baseline differences between intervention and control clusters with generalized estimating equations, the intervention doubled the odds of measles vaccination in the intervention communities (OR 2.20, 95% CI 1.24-3.88). It trebled the odds of full DPT vaccination (OR 3.36, 95% CI 2.03-5.56). Conclusion The relatively low cost knowledge translation intervention significantly increased vaccine uptake, without relying on improved services, in a poor district with limited access to services. This could have wide relevance in increasing coverage in developing countries. Trial registration ISRCTN12421731.

2009-01-01

42

Infection Control in Cystic Fibrosis  

PubMed Central

Over the past 20 years there has been a greater interest in infection control in cystic fibrosis (CF) as patient-to-patient transmission of pathogens has been increasingly demonstrated in this unique patient population. The CF Foundation sponsored a consensus conference to craft recommendations for infection control practices for CF care providers. This review provides a summary of the literature addressing infection control in CF. Burkholderia cepacia complex, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus have all been shown to spread between patients with CF. Standard precautions, transmission-based precautions including contact and droplet precautions, appropriate hand hygiene for health care workers, patients, and their families, and care of respiratory tract equipment to prevent the transmission of infectious agents serve as the foundations of infection control and prevent the acquisition of potential pathogens by patients with CF. The respiratory secretions of all CF patients potentially harbor clinically and epidemiologically important microorganisms, even if they have not yet been detected in cultures from the respiratory tract. CF patients should be educated to contain their secretions and maintain a distance of >3 ft from other CF patients to avoid the transmission of potential pathogens, even if culture results are unavailable or negative. To prevent the acquisition of pathogens from respiratory therapy equipment used in health care settings as well as in the home, such equipment should be cleaned and disinfected. It will be critical to measure the dissemination, implementation, and potential impact of these guidelines to monitor changes in practice and reduction in infections.

Saiman, Lisa; Siegel, Jane

2004-01-01

43

Towards Evidence-Based, Quality-Controlled Health Promotion: The Dutch Recognition System for Health Promotion Interventions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Registration or recognition systems for best-practice health promotion interventions may contribute to better quality assurance and control in health promotion practice. In the Netherlands, such a system has been developed and is being implemented aiming to provide policy makers and professionals with more information on the quality and…

Brug, Johannes; van Dale, Djoeke; Lanting, Loes; Kremers, Stef; Veenhof, Cindy; Leurs, Mariken; van Yperen, Tom; Kok, Gerjo

2010-01-01

44

The Role of Matched Controls in Building an Evidence Base for Hospital-Avoidance Schemes: A Retrospective Evaluation  

PubMed Central

Objective To test whether two hospital-avoidance interventions altered rates of hospital use: “intermediate care” and “integrated care teams.” Data Sources/Study Setting Linked administrative data for England covering the period 2004 to 2009. Study Design This study was commissioned after the interventions had been in place for several years. We developed a method based on retrospective analysis of person-level data comparing health care use of participants with that of prognostically matched controls. Data Collection/Extraction Methods Individuals were linked to administrative datasets through a trusted intermediary and a unique patient identifier. Principal Findings Participants who received the intermediate care intervention showed higher rates of unscheduled hospital admission than matched controls, whereas recipients of the integrated care team intervention showed no difference. Both intervention groups showed higher rates of mortality than did their matched controls. Conclusions These are potentially powerful techniques for assessing impacts on hospital activity. Neither intervention reduced admission rates. Although our analysis of hospital utilization controlled for a wide range of observable characteristics, the difference in mortality rates suggests that some residual confounding is likely. Evaluation is constrained when performed retrospectively, and careful interpretation is needed.

Steventon, Adam; Bardsley, Martin; Billings, John; Georghiou, Theo; Lewis, Geraint Hywel

2012-01-01

45

What are the Evidence Based Public Health Interventions for Prevention and Control of NCDs in Relation to India?  

PubMed

The accelerating epidemics of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) in India call for a comprehensive public health response which can effectively combat and control them before they peak and inflict severe damage in terms of unaffordable health, economic, and social costs. To synthesize and present recent evidences regarding the effectiveness of several types of public health interventions to reduce NCD burden. Interventions influencing behavioral risk factors (like unhealthy diet, physical inactivity, tobacco and alcohol consumption) through policy, public education, or a combination of both have been demonstrated to be effective in reducing the NCD risk in populations as well as in individuals. Policy interventions are also effective in reducing the levels of several major biological risk factors linked to NCDs (high blood pressure; overweight and obesity; diabetes and abnormal blood cholesterol). Secondary prevention along the lines of combination pills and ensuring evidenced based clinical care are also critical. Though the evidence for health promotion and primary prevention are weaker, policy interventions and secondary prevention when combined with these are likely to have a greater impact on reducing national NCD burden. A comprehensive and integrated response to NCDs control and prevention needs a "life course approach." Proven cost-effective interventions need to be integrated in a NCD prevention and control policy framework and implemented through coordinated mechanisms of regulation, environment modification, education, and health care responses. PMID:22628907

Singh, Kavita; Reddy, K Srinath; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj

2011-12-01

46

Vaccines are not associated with autism: An evidence-based meta-analysis of case-control and cohort studies.  

PubMed

There has been enormous debate regarding the possibility of a link between childhood vaccinations and the subsequent development of autism. This has in recent times become a major public health issue with vaccine preventable diseases increasing in the community due to the fear of a 'link' between vaccinations and autism. We performed a meta-analysis to summarise available evidence from case-control and cohort studies on this topic (MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, Google Scholar up to April, 2014). Eligible studies assessed the relationship between vaccine administration and the subsequent development of autism or autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Two reviewers extracted data on study characteristics, methods, and outcomes. Disagreement was resolved by consensus with another author. Five cohort studies involving 1,256,407 children, and five case-control studies involving 9,920 children were included in this analysis. The cohort data revealed no relationship between vaccination and autism (OR: 0.99; 95% CI: 0.92 to 1.06) or ASD (OR: 0.91; 95% CI: 0.68 to 1.20), nor was there a relationship between autism and MMR (OR: 0.84; 95% CI: 0.70 to 1.01), or thimerosal (OR: 1.00; 95% CI: 0.77 to 1.31), or mercury (Hg) (OR: 1.00; 95% CI: 0.93 to 1.07). Similarly the case-control data found no evidence for increased risk of developing autism or ASD following MMR, Hg, or thimerosal exposure when grouped by condition (OR: 0.90, 95% CI: 0.83 to 0.98; p=0.02) or grouped by exposure type (OR: 0.85, 95% CI: 0.76 to 0.95; p=0.01). Findings of this meta-analysis suggest that vaccinations are not associated with the development of autism or autism spectrum disorder. Furthermore, the components of the vaccines (thimerosal or mercury) or multiple vaccines (MMR) are not associated with the development of autism or autism spectrum disorder. PMID:24814559

Taylor, Luke E; Swerdfeger, Amy L; Eslick, Guy D

2014-06-17

47

Perioperative pain control after total knee arthroplasty: An evidence based review of the role of peripheral nerve blocks.  

PubMed

Over the last decades, the number of total knee arthroplasty procedures performed in the United States has been increasing dramatically. This very successful intervention, however, is associated with significant postoperative pain, and adequate postoperative analgesia is mandatory in order to allow for successful rehabilitation and recovery. The use of regional anesthesia and peripheral nerve blocks has facilitated and improved this goal. Many different approaches and techniques for peripheral nerve blockades, either landmark or, more recently, ultrasound guided have been described over the last decades. This includes but is not restricted to techniques discussed in this review. The introduction of ultrasound has improved many approaches to peripheral nerves either in success rate and/or time to block. Moreover, ultrasound has enhanced the safety of peripheral nerve blocks due to immediate needle visualization and as consequence needle guidance during the block. In contrast to patient controlled analgesia using opioids, patients with a regional anesthetic technique suffer from fewer adverse events and show higher patient satisfaction; this is important as hospital rankings and advertisement have become more common worldwide and many patients use these factors in order to choose a certain institution for a specific procedure. This review provides a short overview of currently used regional anesthetic and analgesic techniques focusing on related implications, considerations and outcomes. PMID:25035824

Danninger, Thomas; Opperer, Mathias; Memtsoudis, Stavros G

2014-07-18

48

Perioperative pain control after total knee arthroplasty: An evidence based review of the role of peripheral nerve blocks  

PubMed Central

Over the last decades, the number of total knee arthroplasty procedures performed in the United States has been increasing dramatically. This very successful intervention, however, is associated with significant postoperative pain, and adequate postoperative analgesia is mandatory in order to allow for successful rehabilitation and recovery. The use of regional anesthesia and peripheral nerve blocks has facilitated and improved this goal. Many different approaches and techniques for peripheral nerve blockades, either landmark or, more recently, ultrasound guided have been described over the last decades. This includes but is not restricted to techniques discussed in this review. The introduction of ultrasound has improved many approaches to peripheral nerves either in success rate and/or time to block. Moreover, ultrasound has enhanced the safety of peripheral nerve blocks due to immediate needle visualization and as consequence needle guidance during the block. In contrast to patient controlled analgesia using opioids, patients with a regional anesthetic technique suffer from fewer adverse events and show higher patient satisfaction; this is important as hospital rankings and advertisement have become more common worldwide and many patients use these factors in order to choose a certain institution for a specific procedure. This review provides a short overview of currently used regional anesthetic and analgesic techniques focusing on related implications, considerations and outcomes.

Danninger, Thomas; Opperer, Mathias; Memtsoudis, Stavros G

2014-01-01

49

Effectiveness of evidence-based medicine training for undergraduate students at a Chinese Military Medical University: a self-controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background To evaluate the effect of the integration of evidence-based medicine (EBM) into medical curriculum by measuring undergraduate medical students’ EBM knowledge, attitudes, personal application, and anticipated future use. Methods A self-controlled trial was conducted with 251 undergraduate students at a Chinese Military Medical University, using a validated questionnaire regarding the students’ evidence-based practice (EBP) about knowledge (EBP-K), attitude (EBP-A), personal application (EBP-P), and future anticipated use (EBP-F). The educational intervention was a 20-hour EBM course formally included in the university’s medical curriculum, combining lectures with small group discussion and student-teacher exchange sessions. Data were analyzed using paired t-tests to test the significance of the difference between a before and after comparison. Results The difference between the pre- and post-training scores were statistically significant for EBP-K, EBP-A, EBP-P, and EBP-F. The scores for EBP-P showed the most pronounced percentage change after EBM training (48.97?±?8.6%), followed by EBP-A (20.83?±?2.1%), EBP-K (19.21?±?3.2%), and EBP-F (17.82?±?5.7%). Stratified analyses by gender, and program subtypes did not result in any significant changes to the results. Conclusions The integration of EBM into the medical curriculum improved undergraduate medical students’ EBM knowledge, attitudes, personal application, and anticipated future use. A well-designed EBM training course and objective outcome measurements are necessary to ensure the optimum learning opportunity for students.

2014-01-01

50

A KT intervention including the evidence alert system to improve clinician's evidence-based practice behavior--a cluster randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background It is difficult to foster research utilization among allied health professionals (AHPs). Tailored, multifaceted knowledge translation (KT) strategies are now recommended but are resource intensive to implement. Employers need effective KT solutions but little is known about; the impact and viability of multifaceted KT strategies using an online KT tool, their effectiveness with AHPs and their effect on evidence-based practice (EBP) decision-making behavior. The study aim was to measure the effectiveness of a multifaceted KT intervention including a customized KT tool, to change EBP behavior, knowledge, and attitudes of AHPs. Methods This is an evaluator-blinded, cluster randomized controlled trial conducted in an Australian community-based cerebral palsy service. 135 AHPs (physiotherapists, occupational therapists, speech pathologists, psychologists and social workers) from four regions were cluster randomized (n?=?4), to either the KT intervention group (n?=?73 AHPs) or the control group (n?=?62 AHPs), using computer-generated random numbers, concealed in opaque envelopes, by an independent officer. The KT intervention included three-day skills training workshop and multifaceted workplace supports to redress barriers (paid EBP time, mentoring, system changes and access to an online research synthesis tool). Primary outcome (self- and peer-rated EBP behavior) was measured using the Goal Attainment Scale (individual level). Secondary outcomes (knowledge and attitudes) were measured using exams and the Evidence Based Practice Attitude Scale. Results The intervention group’s primary outcome scores improved relative to the control group, however when clustering was taken into account, the findings were non-significant: self-rated EBP behavior [effect size 4.97 (95% CI -10.47, 20.41) (p?=?0.52)]; peer-rated EBP behavior [effect size 5.86 (95% CI -17.77, 29.50) (p?=?0.62)]. Statistically significant improvements in EBP knowledge were detected [effect size 2.97 (95% CI 1.97, 3.97 (p?

2013-01-01

51

IMPLEmenting a clinical practice guideline for acute low back pain evidence-based manageMENT in general practice (IMPLEMENT): Cluster randomised controlled trial study protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Evidence generated from reliable research is not frequently implemented into clinical practice. Evidence-based clinical practice guidelines are a potential vehicle to achieve this. A recent systematic review of implementation strategies of guideline dissemination concluded that there was a lack of evidence regarding effective strategies to promote the uptake of guidelines. Recommendations from this review, and other studies, have suggested the use of interventions that are theoretically based because these may be more effective than those that are not. An evidence-based clinical practice guideline for the management of acute low back pain was recently developed in Australia. This provides an opportunity to develop and test a theory-based implementation intervention for a condition which is common, has a high burden, and for which there is an evidence-practice gap in the primary care setting. Aim This study aims to test the effectiveness of a theory-based intervention for implementing a clinical practice guideline for acute low back pain in general practice in Victoria, Australia. Specifically, our primary objectives are to establish if the intervention is effective in reducing the percentage of patients who are referred for a plain x-ray, and improving mean level of disability for patients three months post-consultation. Methods/Design This study protocol describes the details of a cluster randomised controlled trial. Ninety-two general practices (clusters), which include at least one consenting general practitioner, will be randomised to an intervention or control arm using restricted randomisation. Patients aged 18 years or older who visit a participating practitioner for acute non-specific low back pain of less than three months duration will be eligible for inclusion. An average of twenty-five patients per general practice will be recruited, providing a total of 2,300 patient participants. General practitioners in the control arm will receive access to the guideline using the existing dissemination strategy. Practitioners in the intervention arm will be invited to participate in facilitated face-to-face workshops that have been underpinned by behavioural theory. Investigators (not involved in the delivery of the intervention), patients, outcome assessors and the study statistician will be blinded to group allocation. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN012606000098538 (date registered 14/03/2006).

McKenzie, Joanne E; French, Simon D; O'Connor, Denise A; Grimshaw, Jeremy M; Mortimer, Duncan; Michie, Susan; Francis, Jill; Spike, Neil; Schattner, Peter; Kent, Peter M; Buchbinder, Rachelle; Green, Sally E

2008-01-01

52

Infection control in fixed prosthodontics.  

PubMed

The breadth and depth of our knowledge of infection control continues to increase in dramatic proportions. The literature is already massive and there is nothing to suggest an abatement of this situation. In truth, we can expect the very opposite; an escalation in attention at every level of concern, from the effectiveness of the chemical agents as actually used in the dental environment, to our methods of delivery, as well as the effects on the materials, equipment, and even the personnel in the dental setting. This trend undoubtedly will continue as our understanding of disease processes and the mechanisms of disease transmission increases. This will, in part, directly impact the scope and direction of future study of infection control practices in dentistry. PMID:1397436

Naylor, W P

1992-07-01

53

Evidence-based management.  

PubMed

For the most part, managers looking to cure their organizational ills rely on obsolete knowledge they picked up in school, long-standing but never proven traditions, patterns gleaned from experience, methods they happen to be skilled in applying, and information from vendors. They could learn a thing or two from practitioners of evidence-based medicine, a movement that has taken the medical establishment by storm over the past decade. A growing number of physicians are eschewing the usual, flawed resources and are instead identifying, disseminating, and applying research that is soundly conducted and clinically relevant. It's time for managers to do the same. The challenge is, quite simply, to ground decisions in the latest and best knowledge of what actually works. In some ways, that's more difficult to do in business than in medicine. The evidence is weaker in business; almost anyone can (and many people do) claim to be a management expert; and a motley crew of sources--Shakespeare, Billy Graham,Jack Welch, Attila the Hunare used to generate management advice. Still, it makes sense that when managers act on better logic and strong evidence, their companies will beat the competition. Like medicine, management is learned through practice and experience. Yet managers (like doctors) can practice their craft more effectively if they relentlessly seek new knowledge and insight, from both inside and outside their companies, so they can keep updating their assumptions, skills, and knowledge. PMID:16447370

Pfeffer, Jeffrey; Sutton, Robert I

2006-01-01

54

Aztreonam (for inhalation solution) for the treatment of chronic lung infections in patients with cystic fibrosis: an evidence-based review.  

PubMed

Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a genetic disease caused by abnormal chloride transport across cellular membranes. In the respiratory tract, this molecular defect causes obstruction of the airways by mucus and chronic endobronchial infection. The majority of patients suffer early death from chronic respiratory disease. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the predominant chronic airway pathogen in older children and adults with CF and is associated with worse outcomes. However, overall survival in CF has been greatly improved in recent decades due in large part to the aggressive treatment of chronic infections such as P. aeruginosa. While intravenous and oral antibiotics are commonly used in the management of CF respiratory infections, inhaled anti-infective therapies offer the benefit of delivering the drug directly to the site of infection and avoiding potential toxicities associated with systemic absorption. Aztreonam lysine (AZLI) has recently been developed as an inhaled antibiotic for chronic use in CF patients with endobronchial P. aeruginosa infection. This paper reviews background data and the clinical studies which contributed to AZLI's formal FDA approval and growing role in the management of CF pulmonary disease. PMID:22022288

Kirkby, Stephen; Novak, Kimberly; McCoy, Karen

2011-01-01

55

Expanding primary care capacity to treat hepatitis C virus infection through an evidence-based care model--Arizona and Utah, 2012-2014.  

PubMed

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is the leading reason for liver transplantation and a common cause of hepatocellular carcinoma, the most rapidly increasing cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States. Of the approximately 3 million persons living with HCV infection in the United States, an estimated 38% are linked to care, 11% are treated, and 6% achieve cure. Recent development of highly effective and well-tolerated medications, such as sofosbuvir and simeprevir, to treat chronic HCV infection shows promise in curbing rising HCV-related morbidity and mortality, with the potential to cure >90% of patients. To fully benefit from these new treatments, improvement in linkage to care and treatment is urgently needed.* Lack of provider expertise in HCV treatment and limited access to specialists are well-documented barriers to HCV treatment. In September 2012, CDC funded programs in Utah and Arizona to improve access to primary care providers with the capacity to manage and treat HCV infection. Both programs were modeled on the Extension for Community Healthcare Outcomes (Project ECHO), developed by the University of New Mexico's Health Sciences Center in 2003 to build primary care capacity to treat diseases among rural, underserved populations through videoconferencing and case-based learning in "teleECHO" clinics. To assess the effectiveness of these programs in improving primary care provider capacity and increasing the number of patients initiating treatment, process and patient outcome data for each state program were analyzed. In both states, Project ECHO was successfully implemented, training 66 primary care clinicians, predominantly from rural settings. Nearly all (93%) of the clinicians had no prior experience in care and treatment of HCV infection. In both states combined, 129 (46%) of HCV-infected patients seen in teleECHO clinics received antiviral treatment, more than doubling the proportion of patients expected to receive treatment. These findings demonstrate Project ECHO's ability to expand primary care capacity to treat HCV infection, notably among underserved populations. PMID:24807237

Mitruka, Kiren; Thornton, Karla; Cusick, Susanne; Orme, Christina; Moore, Ann; Manch, Richard A; Box, Terry; Carroll, Christie; Holtzman, Deborah; Ward, John W

2014-05-01

56

Evidence-based decision-making in infectious diseases epidemiology, prevention and control: matching research questions to study designs and quality appraisal tools  

PubMed Central

Background The Project on a Framework for Rating Evidence in Public Health (PRECEPT) was initiated and is being funded by the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) to define a methodology for evaluating and grading evidence and strength of recommendations in the field of public health, with emphasis on infectious disease epidemiology, prevention and control. One of the first steps was to review existing quality appraisal tools (QATs) for individual research studies of various designs relevant to this area, using a question-based approach. Methods Through team discussions and expert consultations, we identified 20 relevant types of public health questions, which were grouped into six domains, i.e. characteristics of the pathogen, burden of disease, diagnosis, risk factors, intervention, and implementation of intervention. Previously published systematic reviews were used and supplemented by expert consultation to identify suitable QATs. Finally, a matrix was constructed for matching questions to study designs suitable to address them and respective QATs. Key features of each of the included QATs were then analyzed, in particular in respect to its intended use, types of questions and answers, presence/absence of a quality score, and if a validation was performed. Results In total we identified 21 QATs and 26 study designs, and matched them. Four QATs were suitable for experimental quantitative study designs, eleven for observational quantitative studies, two for qualitative studies, three for economic studies, one for diagnostic test accuracy studies, and one for animal studies. Included QATs consisted of six to 28 items. Six of the QATs had a summary quality score. Fourteen QATs had undergone at least one validation procedure. Conclusions The results of this methodological study can be used as an inventory of potentially relevant questions, appropriate study designs and QATs for researchers and authorities engaged with evidence-based decision-making in infectious disease epidemiology, prevention and control.

2014-01-01

57

Ceftazidime-avibactam: an evidence-based review of its pharmacology and potential use in the treatment of Gram-negative bacterial infections  

PubMed Central

Avibactam (NXL104, AVE1330A) is a semi-synthetic, non-?-lactam, ?-lactamase inhibitor that is active against Ambler class A, class C, and some class D serine ?-lactamases. In this review, we summarize the in vitro data, pharmacology, mechanisms of action and resistance, and clinical trial data relating to the use of this agent combined with ceftazidime for the treatment of Gram-negative bacterial infections. The addition of avibactam to ceftazidime improves its in vitro activity against Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Avibactam does not improve the activity of ceftazidime against Acinetobacter spp., Burkholderia spp., or most anaerobic Gram-negative rods. Pharmacodynamic data indicate that ceftazidime—avibactam is bactericidal at concentrations achievable in human serum. Animal studies demonstrate that ceftazidime–avibactam is effective in ceftazidime-resistant Gram-negative septicemia, meningitis, pyelonephritis, and pneumonia. Limited clinical trials published to date have reported that ceftazidime–avibactam is as effective as therapy with a carbapenem in complicated urinary tract infection and complicated intra-abdominal infection (combined with metronidazole) including infection caused by cephalosporin-resistant Gram-negative isolates. Safety and tolerability of ceftazidime–avibactam in clinical trials has been excellent, with few serious drug-related adverse events reported. Given the abundant clinical experience with ceftazidime and the significant improvement that avibactam provides in its activity against contemporary ?-lactamase-producing Gram-negative pathogens, it is likely this new combination agent will play a role in the empiric treatment of complicated urinary tract infections (monotherapy) and complicated intra-abdominal infections (in combination with metronidazole) caused or suspected to be caused by antimicrobial-resistant pathogens (eg, extended spectrum beta-lactamase-, AmpC-, or Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae and multidrug-resistant P. aeruginosa). Potential future uses also include hospital-acquired pneumonia (in combination with antistaphylococcal and antipneumococcal agents) or treatment of skin and soft tissue infections caused by antimicrobial-resistant Gram-negative pathogens (eg, diabetic foot infections), but further clinical trials are required.

Lagace-Wiens, Philippe; Walkty, Andrew; Karlowsky, James A

2014-01-01

58

Evidence-Based Language Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this paper was to examine evidence-based procedures in medicine and to demonstrate that the same protocols can be used in English language instruction. In the evidence-based methodology, studies are divided into those that address specific language problems. Integrated studies are presented as a systematic overview, meta-analysis,…

Pollock, Eric J.

2005-01-01

59

Policy Manual - Infection Control Policies - References  

Cancer.gov

 CCR Home   About CCR   CCR Intranet        Laboratory of Pathology LP Home Clinical Services Basic Sciences Training LP Staff Accessibility of Web Site Policy Manual Main Page LP Forms and Checklists Infection Control Policies General Infection Policies Categorization

60

Evaluation of a tailored, multi-component intervention for implementation of evidence-based clinical practice guidelines in primary care physical therapy: a non-randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Clinical practice guidelines are important for transmitting research findings into practice and facilitating the application of evidence-based practice (EBP). There is a paucity of knowledge about the impact of guideline implementation strategies in primary care physical therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a guideline implementation intervention in primary care physical therapy in western Sweden. Methods An implementation strategy based on theory and current evidence was developed. A tailored, multi-component implementation intervention, addressing earlier identified determinants, was carried out in three areas comprising 28 physical therapy practices including 277 physical therapists (PTs) (intervention group). In two adjacent areas, 171 PTs at 32 practices received no intervention (control group). The core component of the intervention was an implementation seminar with group discussions. Among other components were a website and email reminders. Data were collected at baseline and follow-up with a web-based questionnaire. Primary outcomes were the self-reported awareness of, knowledge of, access to, and use of guidelines. Secondary outcomes were self-reported attitudes toward EBP and guidelines. Analyses were performed using Pearson’s ?2 test and approximative z-test. Results 168 PTs (60.6%) in the intervention group and 88 PTs (51.5%) in the control group responded to the follow-up questionnaire. 186/277 PTs (67.1%) participated in the implementation seminars, of which 97 (52.2%) responded. The proportions of PTs reporting awareness of (absolute difference in change 20.6%, p?=?0.023), knowledge where to find (20.4%, p?=?0.007), access to (21.7%, p?control group. The proportion of PTs reporting frequent guideline use after participation in the implementation seminar was 15.2% (p?=?0.043) higher than the proportion in the control group. A higher proportion considered EBP helpful in decision making (p?=?0.018). There were no other significant differences in secondary outcomes. Conclusions A tailored, theory- and evidence-informed, multi-component intervention for the implementation of clinical practice guidelines had a modest, positive effect on awareness of, knowledge of, access to, and use of guidelines, among PTs in primary care in western Sweden. In general, attitudes to EBP and guidelines were not affected.

2014-01-01

61

Evidence-based new service package vs. routine service package for smoking cessation to prevent high risk patients from cardiovascular diseases (CVD): study protocol for randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Smoking cessation is a high-priority intervention to prevent CVD events and deaths in developing countries. While several interventions to stop smoking have been proved successful, the question of how to increase their effectiveness and practicality in developing countries remains. In this study, a newly devised evidence-based smoking cessation service package will be compared with the existing service in a randomized controlled trial within the community setting of Thailand. Method/Design This randomized control trial will recruit 440 current smokers at CVD risk because of being diabetic and/or hypertensive. Informed, consented participants will be randomly allocated into the new service-package arm and the routine service arm. The study will take place in the non-communicable disease clinics of the Maetha District Hospital, Lampang, northern Thailand. The new smoking-cessation service-package comprises (1) regular patient motivation and coaching from the same primary care nurse over a 3-month period; (2) monthly application of piCO?+?smokerlyzer to sustain motivation of smoker’s quitting attempt and provide positive feedback over a 3-month period; (3) assistance by an assigned family member; (4) nicotine replacement chewing gum to relieve withdrawal symptoms. This new service will be compared with the traditional routine service comprising the 5A approach in a 1-year follow-up. Participants who consent to participate in the study but refuse to attempt quitting smoking will be allocated to the non-randomized arm, where they will be just followed up and monitored. Primary outcome of the study is smoking cessation rate at 1-year follow-up proven by breath analysis measuring carbomonoxide in parts per million in expired air. Secondary outcomes are smoking cessation rate at the 6-month follow-up, blood pressure and heart rate, CVD risk according to the Framingham general cardiovascular risk score, CVD events and deaths at the 12-month follow-up, and the cost-effectiveness of the health service packages. Intention-to-treat analysis will be followed. Factors influencing smoking cessation will be analyzed by the structure equation model. Discussion This multicomponent intervention, accessible at primary healthcare clinics, and focusing on the individual as well as the family and social environment, is unique and expected to work effectively. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN89315117

2013-01-01

62

Effectiveness of strategies to encourage general practitioners to accept an offer of free access to online evidence-based information: a randomised controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: This study examined the effectiveness of seven different interventions designed to increase the proportion of general practitioners (GPs) accepting an offer of free access to an online evidence-based resource. METHODS: Australian GPs (n = 14,000) were randomly selected and assigned to seven intervention groups, with each receiving a different letter. Seven different strategies were used to encourage GPs to

Heather Buchan; Emma Lourey; Catherine D'Este; Rob Sanson-Fisher

2009-01-01

63

Bilingual Language Control and General Purpose Cognitive Control among Individuals with Bilingual Aphasia: Evidence Based on Negative Priming and Flanker Tasks  

PubMed Central

Background. Bilingualism results in an added advantage with respect to cognitive control. The interaction between bilingual language control and general purpose cognitive control systems can also be understood by studying executive control among individuals with bilingual aphasia. Objectives. The current study examined the subcomponents of cognitive control in bilingual aphasia. A case study approach was used to investigate whether cognitive control and language control are two separate systems and how factors related to bilingualism interact with control processes. Methods. Four individuals with bilingual aphasia performed a language background questionnaire, picture description task, and two experimental tasks (nonlinguistic negative priming task and linguistic and nonlinguistic versions of flanker task). Results. A descriptive approach was used to analyse the data using reaction time and accuracy measures. The cumulative distribution function plots were used to visualize the variations in performance across conditions. The results highlight the distinction between general purpose cognitive control and bilingual language control mechanisms. Conclusion. All participants showed predominant use of the reactive control mechanism to compensate for the limited resources system. Independent yet interactive systems for bilingual language control and general purpose cognitive control were postulated based on the experimental data derived from individuals with bilingual aphasia.

Dash, Tanya; Kar, Bhoomika R.

2014-01-01

64

Effects of student participation in hand hygiene monitoring on knowledge and perception of infection control practices.  

PubMed

Studies report that students in health care professions do not retain knowledge of infection control and demonstrate poor hand hygiene compliance. This study describes the effect of a multifaceted approach (education, skills training, and monitoring) on nursing students' knowledge of infection control principles, opinions, hand hygiene practices, and value of nursing research in evidence-based practice. Students participated in hand hygiene monitoring of health care workers with 900 observations. Students demonstrated strong knowledge of hand hygiene principles: 63% reported that hand hygiene monitoring positively influenced their own compliance. Although posters have been identified as effective prompts, students did not perceive poster reminders as effective in prompting handwashing. Students reported that hand hygiene activities helped them value the role of the nurse in research and evidence-based practice. This study may help educators clarify misconceptions that result in student noncompliance in hand hygiene practices. PMID:21366164

Waltman, Patricia A; Schenk, Laura K; Martin, Tina M; Walker, Jean

2011-04-01

65

Controversies in infection: infection control or antibiotic stewardship to control healthcare-acquired infection?  

PubMed

Despite record resource being devoted to the control of healthcare-acquired infection (HCAI), rates have never been higher. Although the discovery of the contagiousness of puerperal sepsis by Alexander Gordon heralded the golden era of bacteriology and antibiotics, this led to a belief that infection was beaten. This in its turn may well have led us into a false sense of security and an over-reliance on antibiotics. Modern medicine has built many of its advances on a need for antibiotics, but their very success has led to huge over-use and resulting problems of resistance. Compounded by the absence of a good antibiotic pipeline we are now being forced to address the paradox of antibiotics; namely that they may actually be causing many HCAIs. Not only Clostridium difficile infection, but many others such as those caused by meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, are more or less completely contingent on antibiotic prescribing. Control of prescribing would probably be just as effective a measure in our fight against HCAI as conventional infection control measures. Arguably, traditional infection control is akin to fire-fighting and antibiotic stewardship to prevention. PMID:19596494

Gould, I M

2009-12-01

66

From evidence based bioethics to evidence based social policies. [Commentary  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this issue, Norwegian authors demonstrate that causes of early expulsion out the workforce are rooted in childhood. They reconstruct individual biographies in administrative databases linked by an unique national identification number, looking forward 15 years in early adulthood and looking back 20 years till birth with close to negligible loss to follow up. Evidence based bioethics suggest that it

L. G. A. Bonneux

2007-01-01

67

Broadening the Evidence Base for Evidence-Based Guidelines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence-based evaluations of clinical preventive services help define priorities for research in prevention as part of primary health care. In this article, we draw on our experiences with the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) to outline some major areas where research is needed to define the appropriate use of specific screening tests, counseling interventions, immunizations, and chemoprophylaxis. Areas of

David Atkins; Carolyn G. DiGuiseppi

1998-01-01

68

Infection control in severely burned patients  

PubMed Central

In the last two decades, much progress has been made in the control of burn wound infection and nasocomial infections (NI) in severely burned patients. The continiually changing epidemiology is partially related to greater understanding of and improved techniques for burn patient management as well as effective hospital infection control measures. With the advent of antimicrobial chemotherapeutic agents, infection of the wound site is now not as common as, for example, urinary and blood stream infections. Universal application of early excision of burned tissues has made a substantial improvement in the control of wound-related infections in burns. Additionally, the development of new technologies in wound care have helped to decrease morbidity and mortality in severe burn victims. Many examples can be given of the successful control of wound infection, such as the application of an appropriate antibiotic solution to invasive wound infection sites with simultaneous vacuum-assisted closure, optimal preservation of viable tissues with waterjet debridement systems, edema and exudate controlling dressings impregnated with Ag (Silvercel, Aquacell-Ag). The burned patient is at high risk for NI. Invasive interventions including intravenous and urinary chateterization, and entubation pose a further risk of NIs. The use of newly designed antimicrobial impregnated chateters or silicone devices may help the control of infection in these immunocomprimised patients. Strict infection control practices (physical isolation in a private room, use of gloves and gowns during patient contact) and appropriate empirical antimicrobial therapy guided by laboratory surveillance culture as well as routine microbial burn wound culture are essential to help reduce the incidance of infections due to antibiotic resistant microorganisms.

Coban, Yusuf Kenan

2012-01-01

69

Mixed Infections and their Control.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The necessity for treating all components of mixed infections has now been adequately documented in both experimental and clinical studies. The importance of synergistic antimicrobial therapy that will be effective against both aerobic and anaerobic bacte...

I. Brook

1983-01-01

70

Behavioral Activation Is an Evidence-Based Treatment for Depression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent reviews of evidence-based treatment for depression did not identify behavioral activation as an evidence-based practice. Therefore, this article conducted a systematic review of behavioral activation treatment of depression, which identified three meta-analyses, one recent randomized controlled trial and one recent follow-up of an earlier…

Sturmey, Peter

2009-01-01

71

Challenges to evidence-based medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background The practice of evidence-based medicine depends on the availability of clinically relevant research, yet questions have been raised about the generalizability of findings from randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Objectives The aim of this study was to quantify differences between RCT patients and treatments and those in day-to-day clinical practice. Research Design Data from published reports of two key RCTs

Deborah A. Zarin; Julia L. Young; Joyce C. West

2005-01-01

72

Evidence-based librarianship: an overview  

PubMed Central

Objective: To demonstrate how the core characteristics of both evidence-based medicine (EBM) and evidence-based health care (EBHC) can be adapted to health sciences librarianship. Method: Narrative review essay involving development of a conceptual framework. The author describes the central features of EBM and EBHC. Following each description of a central feature, the author then suggests ways that this feature applies to health sciences librarianship. Results: First, the decision-making processes of EBM and EBHC are compatible with health sciences librarianship. Second, the EBM and EBHC values of favoring rigorously produced scientific evidence in decision making are congruent with the core values of librarianship. Third, the hierarchical levels of evidence can be applied to librarianship with some modifications. Library researchers currently favor descriptive-survey and case-study methods over systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials, or other higher levels of evidence. The library literature nevertheless contains diverse examples of randomized controlled trials, controlled-comparison studies, and cohort studies conducted by health sciences librarians. Conclusions: Health sciences librarians are confronted with making many practical decisions. Evidence-based librarianship offers a decision-making framework, which integrates the best available research evidence. By employing this framework and the higher levels of research evidence it promotes, health sciences librarians can lay the foundation for more collaborative and scientific endeavors.

Eldredge, Jonathan D.

2000-01-01

73

Adaptation of an Evidence-Based Intervention Targeting HIV-Infected Prisoners Transitioning to the Community: The Process and Outcome of Formative Research for the Positive Living Using Safety (PLUS) Intervention  

PubMed Central

Abstract No evidence-based interventions (EBIs) have been designed for implementation during the critical period when HIV-infected prisoners are being transitioned from prison to the community. We therefore conducted formative research aimed at systematically selecting and adapting an EBI that integrates HIV risk reduction and adherence to antiretroviral therapy to implement among HIV-infected prisoners transitioning back to the community. Our formative research involved a critical examination of established EBIs and associated published reports complemented by data elicited through structured interviews with key stakeholders in community and correctional settings and members of the target population. Between September 2006 and February 2007, structured one-on-one interviews were conducted with key stakeholders in the target organizations (n?=?19) and with members of the target population (n?=?26) in Hartford and New Haven, Connecticut. Based on the formative research, we abbreviated and adapted the Holistic Health Recovery Program targeting people living with HIV (HHRP+), an EBI, to consist of four 45-minute sessions that cover a range of prespecified topics so that participants may individually apply intervention content as needed to their own HIV risk profile and antiretroviral adherence issues. The EBI was adapted so that it could be provided in an individual or group format and delivered in either consecutive or weekly sessions and so that it could be provided within the prison system and delivered just prior to release, or in a community-based setting where it could be delivered immediately after release. This study provides a comprehensive exemplar of the process of selecting and adapting an EBI taking into account both empirical evidence and input from target organization stakeholders and target population members in real-world settings where high-risk populations are concentrated.

Chowdhury, Sutopa; Altice, Frederick L.

2009-01-01

74

Adaptation of an evidence-based intervention targeting HIV-infected prisoners transitioning to the community: the process and outcome of formative research for the Positive Living Using Safety (PLUS) intervention.  

PubMed

No evidence-based interventions (EBIs) have been designed for implementation during the critical period when HIV-infected prisoners are being transitioned from prison to the community. We therefore conducted formative research aimed at systematically selecting and adapting an EBI that integrates HIV risk reduction and adherence to antiretroviral therapy to implement among HIV-infected prisoners transitioning back to the community. Our formative research involved a critical examination of established EBIs and associated published reports complemented by data elicited through structured interviews with key stakeholders in community and correctional settings and members of the target population. Between September 2006 and February 2007, structured one-on-one interviews were conducted with key stakeholders in the target organizations (n = 19) and with members of the target population (n = 26) in Hartford and New Haven, Connecticut. Based on the formative research, we abbreviated and adapted the Holistic Health Recovery Program targeting people living with HIV (HHRP+), an EBI, to consist of four 45-minute sessions that cover a range of prespecified topics so that participants may individually apply intervention content as needed to their own HIV risk profile and antiretroviral adherence issues. The EBI was adapted so that it could be provided in an individual or group format and delivered in either consecutive or weekly sessions and so that it could be provided within the prison system and delivered just prior to release, or in a community-based setting where it could be delivered immediately after release. This study provides a comprehensive exemplar of the process of selecting and adapting an EBI taking into account both empirical evidence and input from target organization stakeholders and target population members in real-world settings where high-risk populations are concentrated. PMID:19260773

Copenhaver, Michael; Chowdhury, Sutopa; Altice, Frederick L

2009-04-01

75

Practical risk-adjusted quality control charts for infection control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:Control chart methodology has been widely touted for monitoring and improving quality in the health care setting. P charts and U charts are frequently recommended for rate and ratio statistics, but their practical value in infection control may be limited because they (1) are not risk-adjusted, and (2) perform poorly with small denominators. The Standardized Infection Ratio is a statistic

Tracy L. Gustafson

2000-01-01

76

INFECTION CONTROL IN ALTERNATIVE HEALTHCARE SETTINGS  

PubMed Central

SYNOPSIS With the changing healthcare delivery, patients receive care at various settings including acute care hospitals, skilled nursing facilities, outpatient primary care and specialty clinics, as well as at home, exposing them to pathogens in various settings. Various healthcare settings face unique challenges requiring individualized infection control programs. Infection control programs in skilled nursing facilities should address: surveillance for infections and antimicrobial resistance, outbreak investigation and control plan for epidemics, isolation precautions, hand hygiene, staff education, and employee and resident health programs. Infection control programs in ambulatory clinics should address: Triage and standard – transmission based precautions, cleaning, disinfection and sterilization principles, surveillance in surgical clinics, safe injection practices, and bioterrorism and disaster planning for ambulatory clinics.

Flanagan, Elaine; Chopra, Teena; Mody, Lona

2011-01-01

77

The role of the infection control doctor.  

PubMed

The ideal infection control doctor would be a combination of an infectious disease specialist, microbiologist, epidemiologist, social worker, psychologist, teacher, researcher, antibiotic therapy specialist, policeman, priest, supervisor for housekeeping, architect, partner for the infection control nurse, and who should combine the qualities of Mary Poppins, Sherlock Holmes, Francis von Assisi and Margaret Thatcher. A new role is that of a specialist in environmental pollution by detergents, disinfectants and certain disposables. PMID:2896740

Daschner, F D

1988-02-01

78

Evidence-based guideline recommendations.  

PubMed

Cancer survivorship is expected to increase in coming years. Survivors include recipients of hematopoietic stem cell transplantations, signaling the necessity for evidence-based guidelines that focus on long-term follow-up needs. Studies have shown that evidence-based care can improve cancer survivors' quality of life and long-term outcomes. The implication is that early identification and intervention in chronic health problems such as graft-versus-host disease result in improved outcomes and a higher quality of survivorship. These discoveries signal a need to provide specific care management with appropriate and timely screening and preventive services. Recommendations for long-term follow-up post-hematopoietic stem cell transplantation are an important guide to direct clinical practice with this patient population and optimize their outcomes. PMID:24080061

Burkhart, Mary C; Wade, John; Lesperance, Virginia

2013-10-01

79

A randomized controlled dismantling trial of post-workshop consultation strategies to increase effectiveness and fidelity to an evidence-based psychotherapy for Posttraumatic stress disorder  

PubMed Central

Background Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is a serious mental health condition with substantial costs to individuals and society. Among military veterans, the lifetime prevalence of PTSD has been estimated to be as high as 20%. Numerous research studies have demonstrated that short-term cognitive-behavioral psychotherapies, such as Cognitive Processing Therapy (CPT), lead to substantial and sustained improvements in PTSD symptoms. Despite known benefits, only a minority of clinicians provide these therapies. Transferring this research knowledge into clinical settings remains one of the largest hurdles to improving the health of veterans with PTSD. Attending a workshop alone is insufficient to promote adequate knowledge transfer and sustained skill; however, relatively little research has been conducted to identify effective post-training support strategies. Methods The current study investigates whether clinicians receiving post-workshop support (six-month duration) will deliver CPT with greater fidelity (i.e., psychotherapy adherence and competence) and have improved patient outcomes compared with clinicians receiving no formal post-workshop support. The study conditions are: technology-enhanced group tele-consultation; standard group tele-consultation; and fidelity assessment with no consultation. The primary outcome is independent assessment (via audio-recordings) of the clinicians’ adherence and competence in delivering CPT. The secondary outcome is observed changes in patient symptoms during and following treatment as a function of clinician fidelity. Post-consultation interviews with clinicians will help identify facilitators and barriers to psychotherapy skill acquisition. The study results will inform how best to implement and transfer evidence-based psychotherapy (e.g., CPT) to clinical settings to attain comparable outcomes to those observed in research settings. Discussion Findings will deepen our understanding of how much and what type of support is needed following a workshop to help clinicians become proficient in delivering a new protocol. Several influences on clinician learning and patient outcomes will be discussed. An evidence-based model of clinical consultation will be developed, with the ultimate goal of informing policy and influencing best practice in clinical consultation. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01861769

2013-01-01

80

Progress in evidence based reproductive surgery  

PubMed Central

The Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) was introduced in 1996 to improve the methodological quality of published reports of randomised controlled trials. By doing a systematic review of randomised controlled trials on reproductive surgery, our group can demonstrate that the overall quality of the published reports of randomised studies on reproductive surgical interventions has improved after CONSORT. Nevertheless, some problems still ­remain. By discussing the benefits and pitfalls of randomised trials in reproductive surgery, our opinion paper aims to stimulate the reader’s further interest in evidence-based practice in reproductive surgery.

Bosteels, J.; Weyers, S.; Siristatidis, C.; Bhattacharya, S.; D'Hooghe, T.

2011-01-01

81

Ensuring tuberculosis infection control to support greater involvement of people living with HIV in health care.  

PubMed

Health care workers (HCWs) in high TB burden countries bear significant risks of being infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and developing TB disease through their work. In recent years, an increasing number of people living with HIV (PLHIV) are taking part in delivering HIV and other health services in resource-limited settings with high TB burden. The greater involvement of PLHIV in health service delivery has many beneficial consequences on individuals and health systems, however, the involvement creates considerable opportunities for them to be exposed to patients with infectious TB disease. Due to their immunodeficiency, PLHIV are far more likely to develop active TB following the infection. Available evidence and recently revised WHO policy guidance on TB infection control suggest simple, predominantly administrative control measures are feasible and effective in reducing the infection. Nevertheless, many countries are still at the early stage of developing infection control policies. We call for evidence-based infection control measures in order to ensure a safe working environment for PLHIV in support of their greater involvement in health care. More research is needed to strengthen knowledge on TB infection risks amongst PLHIV through involvement in service delivery, and optimal interventions to reduce it. PMID:24038493

Kato, Masaya; Osuga, Katsunori; Fujita, Masami; Jimba, Masamine

2011-12-01

82

Discourse of 'transformational leadership' in infection control.  

PubMed

The article explores the impact of the ;transformational leadership' style in the role of modern matron with regards to infection control practices. Policy and guidance on the modern matron role suggest that it is distinctive in its combination of management and clinical components, and in its reliance on transformational leadership. Senior nurses are therefore expected to motivate staff by creating high expectations, modelling appropriate behaviour, and providing personal attention to followers by giving respect and responsibility. In this article, we draw on policy documents and interview data to explore the potential impact of this new management style on infection control practices. Combining the techniques of discourse analysis and corpus linguistics, we identify examples where matrons appear to disassociate themselves from the role of ;an empowered manager' who has control over human and financial resources to resolve problems in infection control efficiently. PMID:18818276

Koteyko, Nelya; Carter, Ronald

2008-10-01

83

Policy Manual - General Infection Control Policies  

Cancer.gov

Employees receive basic instruction about tuberculosis exposure and use of barrier protection devices. All specimens with a potentially airborne route of transmission must be manipulated in a biological safety hood. Departmental control measures are reviewed on an annual basis and modifications made as necessary. Structural renovations that may assist in infection prevention and control are instituted.

84

Giardia Infection Prevention and Control  

MedlinePLUS

... Preventing Illness While Traveling Back To Top Prevent contact and contamination with feces (poop) during sex. Use ... Email page link Print page Get email updates Contact Us: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 1600 ...

85

Human Computation as a New Method for Evidence-Based Knowledge Transfer in Web-Based Guideline Development Groups: Proof of Concept Randomized Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

Background Guideline developers use different consensus methods to develop evidence-based clinical practice guidelines. Previous research suggests that existing guideline development techniques are subject to methodological problems and are logistically demanding. Guideline developers welcome new methods that facilitate a methodologically sound decision-making process. Systems that aggregate knowledge while participants play a game are one class of human computation applications. Researchers have already proven that these games with a purpose are effective in building common sense knowledge databases. Objective We aimed to evaluate the feasibility of a new consensus method based on human computation techniques compared to an informal face-to-face consensus method. Methods We set up a randomized design to study 2 different methods for guideline development within a group of advanced students completing a master of nursing and obstetrics. Students who participated in the trial were enrolled in an evidence-based health care course. We compared the Web-based method of human-based computation (HC) with an informal face-to-face consensus method (IC). We used 4 clinical scenarios of lower back pain as the subject of the consensus process. These scenarios concerned the following topics: (1) medical imaging, (2) therapeutic options, (3) drugs use, and (4) sick leave. Outcomes were expressed as the amount of group (dis)agreement and the concordance of answers with clinical evidence. We estimated within-group and between-group effect sizes by calculating Cohen’s d. We calculated within-group effect sizes as the absolute difference between the outcome value at round 3 and the baseline outcome value, divided by the pooled standard deviation. We calculated between-group effect sizes as the absolute difference between the mean change in outcome value across rounds in HC and the mean change in outcome value across rounds in IC, divided by the pooled standard deviation. We analyzed statistical significance of within-group changes between round 1 and round 3 using the Wilcoxon signed rank test. We assessed the differences between the HC and IC groups using Mann-Whitney U tests. We used a Bonferroni adjusted alpha level of .025 in all statistical tests. We performed a thematic analysis to explore participants’ arguments during group discussion. Participants completed a satisfaction survey at the end of the consensus process. Results Of the 135 students completing a master of nursing and obstetrics, 120 participated in the experiment. We formed 8 HC groups (n=64) and 7 IC groups (n=56). The between-group comparison demonstrated that the human computation groups obtained a greater improvement in evidence scores compared to the IC groups, although the difference was not statistically significant. The between-group effect size was 0.56 (P=.30) for the medical imaging scenario, 0.07 (P=.97) for the therapeutic options scenario, and 0.89 (P=.11) for the drug use scenario. We found no significant differences in improvement in the degree of agreement between HC and IC groups. Between-group comparisons revealed that the HC groups showed greater improvement in degree of agreement for the medical imaging scenario (d=0.46, P=.37) and the drug use scenario (d=0.31, P=.59). Very few evidence arguments (6%) were quoted during informal group discussions. Conclusions Overall, the use of the IC method was appropriate as long as the evidence supported participants’ beliefs or usual practice, or when the availability of the evidence was sparse. However, when some controversy about the evidence existed, the HC method outperformed the IC method. The findings of our study illustrate the importance of the choice of the consensus method in guideline development. Human computation could be an acceptable methodology for guideline development specifically for scenarios in which the evidence shows no resonance with participants’ beliefs. Future research is needed to confirm the results of this study and to establish practical significance i

Aertgeerts, Bert; Donceel, Peter; Van de Velde, Stijn; Vanbrabant, Peter; Ramaekers, Dirk

2013-01-01

86

Snapshots: Chromatin Control of Viral Infection  

PubMed Central

Like their cellular host counterparts, many invading viral pathogens must contend with, modulate, and utilize the host cell’s chromatin machinery to promote efficient lytic infection or control persistent-latent states. While not intended to be comprehensive, this review represents a compilation of conceptual snapshots of the dynamic interplay of viruses with the chromatin environment. Contributions focus on chromatin dynamics during infection, viral circumvention of cellular chromatin repression, chromatin organization of large DNA viruses, tethering and persistence, viral interactions with cellular chromatin modulation machinery, and control of viral latency-reactivation cycles.

Knipe, David M.; Lieberman, Paul M.; Jung, Jae U.; McBride, Alison A.; Morris, Kevin V.; Ott, Melanie; Margolis, David; Nieto, Amelia; Nevels, Michael; Parks, Robin J.; Kristie, Thomas M.

2012-01-01

87

Hospital infection control practices for tuberculosis.  

PubMed

Although completely eliminating the risk for transmission of M. tuberculosis in all health-care facilities may not be possible, adherence to the principles outlined in the CDC guidelines should reduce the risk to persons in such settings. The guidelines are designed to help health-care facilities develop an infection-control plan tailored to the individual circumstances and risk in each facility. The key to maintaining an effective TB infection control plan is periodic evaluation of the plan, with reassessment of risk and revision of the plan accordingly. PMID:9098608

Davis, Y M; McCray, E; Simone, P M

1997-03-01

88

Evidence-based intrapartum care.  

PubMed

Routine care in normal labour may range from supportive care at home to intensive monitoring and multiple interventions in hospital. Good evidence of effectiveness is necessary to justify interventions in the normal process of labour. Inadequate evidence is available to support perineal shaving, routine enemas, starvation in labour and excluding the choice for home births. Evidence supports continuity of care led by midwives, companionship in labour, restricting the use of episiotomy, and active management of the third stage of labour, including routine use of 10 units of oxytocin. Both benefits and risks are associated with routine amniotomy, continuous electronic fetal heart rate monitoring, epidural analgesia, and oxytocin-ergometrine to prevent postpartum haemorrhage. More evidence is needed regarding the emotional consequences of labour interventions, home births, vaginal cleansing, opioid use, the partograph, second-stage labour techniques, misoprostol for primary prevention of postpartum haemorrhage, and strategies to promote evidence-based care in labour. PMID:15749069

Hofmeyr, G J

2005-02-01

89

Evidence-based Science Communication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This presentation will describe a concrete strategy for bridging the gap between the *science* of science communication and the practice of it. In recent years, social scientists have made substantial progress in identifying the psychological influences that shape public receptivity to scientific information relating to climate change and other public policy issues. That work, however, has consisted nearly entirely of laboratory experiments and public opinion surveys; these methods identify general mechanisms of information processing but do not yield concrete prescriptions for communication in field settings. In order to integrate the findings of the science of science communication with the practice of it, field communication must now be made into a meaningful site of science communication research. "Evidence-based science communication" will involve collaborative work between social scientists and practitioners aimed at formulating and testing scientifically informed communication strategies in real-world contexts.

Kahan, D.

2012-12-01

90

Infection control: behavioural issues for healthcare workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this research is to explore healthcare workers' infection control practices from a behavioural viewpoint. Major behavioural theories are explored. Findings from a study which drew heavily from the PRECEDE theoretical framework are presented. The main purpose of this quasi-experimental study was to observe health care workers' behavioural compliance with hand hygiene guidelines during patient care

Sile A. Creedon

2006-01-01

91

Correlates of infection control practices in dentistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Studies conducted in the first decade of the AIDS epidemic indicated that, in general, dentists had suboptimal levels of compliance with standard infection control practices, including work practices designed to reduce exposure to bloodborne pathogens. This study was designed to assess current rates of compliance with these practices in a population of Maryland dentists and to identify correlates of

Robyn R. M. Gershon; Christine Karkashian; David Vlahov; Martha Grimes; Elizabeth Spannhake

1998-01-01

92

Infections Control in North American Dental Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Results from 1982 and 1987 surveys of dental schools concerning infection control issues found greater recent emphasis on instrument sterilization and barrier use, but some inconsistency and confusion concerning hepatitis B and HIV virus carrier patients and personnel. The information was used to develop guidelines for school policy formation.…

Sampson, Elise; Dhuru, Virendra B.

1989-01-01

93

Obstetric infection control in a developing country.  

PubMed

In Ghana, infection has been identified as a major cause of birth-related mortality. Results of a 2-month observation of infection control practices among Ghanaian obstetric nurses and midwives indicated that most personnel did not practice basic rules of asepsis. Problems included frequent breaks in technique, inadequate sterilization and disinfection, and repeated exposure to large amounts of blood and vaginal secretions. Supplies were limited and, even when available, not always used appropriately. The situation in developing countries is different from that in the United States. Therefore, an observational needs assessment is essential to plan relevant and practical measures for change. PMID:8478737

Cronin, W A; Quansah, M G; Larson, E

1993-01-01

94

Improving preventive service delivery at adult complete health check-ups: the Preventive health Evidence-based Recommendation Form (PERFORM) cluster randomized controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: To determine the effectiveness of a single checklist reminder form to improve the delivery of preventive health services at adult health check-ups in a family practice setting. METHODS: A prospective cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted at four urban family practice clinics among 38 primary care physicians affiliated with the University of Toronto. Preventive Care Checklist Forms© were created

Vinita Dubey; Roy Mathew; Karl Iglar; Rahim Moineddin; Richard Glazier

2006-01-01

95

National Guidelines Controlling a Substance Hazardous to Health, Using an Evidence-based, Multi-disciplinary, Risk Assessment Approach in Accumulating Evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dust, a Substance Hazardous to Health comes under the Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations (COSHH) 2002. Numerous Health care workers are exposed to human nail dust - e.g. chi- ropodists, podiatrists, podologists, and beauticians. This paper outlines UK guidelines, reducing exposure to adverse health effects of exposure to human nail dust. A microbiological risk assessment method was under-

Burrow JG; McLarnon NA

2005-01-01

96

Management of cutaneous warts: an evidence-based approach.  

PubMed

Cutaneous warts are benign epidermal proliferations caused by human papillomavirus infection. Treatment aims to cure the patient's physical and psychological discomfort, and to prevent the spread of infection by contact with other body areas or with other individuals. Among the available medical and destructive therapeutic options for cutaneous warts, none is uniformly effective or virucidal. Moreover, in most cases the safety and efficacy of these treatment options has not been assessed in randomized controlled trials, so that the reproducibility of many of the listed treatments is difficult to evaluate and a possible placebo effect cannot be ruled out. This article provides indications for the management of patients with cutaneous warts through an evidence-based approach, considering a first-, second-, and third-line therapy for each clinical form. The first line includes medical treatments useful to cure single, or few, and/or small common warts of short duration (<1 year). If these treatments have failed or are contraindicated, cryotherapy may be considered as second-line therapy. For recurrent or difficult-to-treat lesions, a third-line of therapy includes a variety of alternative therapeutic options that are in clinical use but are not necessarily approved by the US FDA, and their use may be further limited by adverse effects. PMID:15554732

Micali, Giuseppe; Dall'Oglio, Federica; Nasca, Maria R; Tedeschi, Aurora

2004-01-01

97

Evidence-Based Integrative Dermatology  

PubMed Central

American recognition for medical pluralism arrived in 1991. The National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine was established under the National Institutes of Health in 1998. Following this, patients and researchers began exploring use of integrative medicine. Terence Ryan with Gerry Bodeker in Europe, Brian Berman in America, and the Indian council of Medical Research advocated traditional medicine and integrative medicine. The Institute of Applied Dermatology (IAD), Kerala has developed integrated allopathic (biomedical) and ayurvedic therapies to treat Lymphatic Filariasis, Lichen planus, and Vitiligo. Studies conducted at the IAD have created a framework for evidence-based and integrative dermatology (ID). This paper gives an overview of advances in ID with an example of Lichen Planus, which was examined jointly by dermatologists and Ayurveda doctors. The clinical presentation in these patients was listed in a vikruthi table of comparable biomedical terms. A vikruthi table was used for drug selection in ayurvedic dermatology. A total of 19 patients were treated with ayurvedic prescriptions to normalize the vatha-kapha for 3 months. All patients responded and no side effects were recorded. In spite of advancing knowledge on ID, several challenges remain for its use on difficult to treat chronic skin diseases. The formation of new integrative groups and financial support are essential for the growth of ID in India.

Narahari, Saravu R; Prasanna, Kodimoole S; Sushma, Kandathu V

2013-01-01

98

[Sexually transmitted infections: epidemiology and control].  

PubMed

Sexually transmitted infections (STI) include a group of diseases of diverse infectious etiology in which sexual transmission is relevant. The burden of disease that STI represent globally is unknown for several reasons. Firstly, asymptomatic infections are common in many STI; secondly, diagnostic techniques are not available in some of the most affected countries; finally, surveillance systems are inexistent or very deficient in many areas of the world. The Word Health Organization has estimated that in 1999 there were 340 million new cases of syphilis, gonorrhoea, chlamydia infection and trichomoniasis. An increasing trend in the incidence of gonorrhoea and syphilis has been noticed in the last years in the European Union, including Spain. Co-infection with other STI, especially HIV, should be ruled out in all STI patients. Chlamydia screening is also of particular importance since this is the most common STI in Europe and frequently goes unnoticed. STI prevention and control should be based on health education, early diagnosis and treatment, screening for asymptomatic infections, contact investigation and vaccination for those diseases for which a vaccine is available. PMID:21750856

Díez, M; Díaz, A

2011-01-01

99

Effectiveness of a multifaceted implementation strategy on physicians' referral behavior to an evidence-based psychosocial intervention in dementia: a cluster randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background To evaluate the effectiveness of a multifaceted implementation strategy on physicians’ referral rate to and knowledge on the community occupational therapy in dementia program (COTiD program). Methods A cluster randomized controlled trial with 28 experimental and 17 control clusters was conducted. Cluster included a minimum of one physician, one manager, and two occupational therapists. In the control group physicians and managers received no interventions and occupational therapists received a postgraduate course. In the experimental group physicians and managers had access to a website, received newsletters, and were approached by telephone. In addition, physicians were offered one outreach visit. In the experimental group occupational therapists received the postgraduate course, training days, outreach visits, regional meetings, and access to a reporting system. Main outcome measure was the number of COTiD referrals received by each cluster which was assessed at 6 and 12 months after the start of the intervention. Referrals were included from both participating physicians (enrolled in the study and received either the control or experimental intervention) and non-participating physicians (not enrolled but of whom referrals were received by participating occupational therapists). Mixed model analyses were used to analyze the data. All analyses were based on the principle of intention-to-treat. Results At 12 months experimental clusters received significantly more referrals with an average of 5,24 referrals (SD 5,75) to the COTiD program compared to 2,07 referrals in the control group (SD 5,14). The effect size at 12 months was 0.58. Although no difference in referral rate was found for the physicians participating in the study, the number of referrals from non-participating physicians (t ?2,55 / 43 / 0,02) differed significantly at 12 months. Conclusion Passive dissemination strategies are less likely to result in changes in professional behavior. The amount of physicians exposed to active strategies was limited. In spite of this we found a significant difference in the number of referrals which was accounted for by more referrals of non-participating physicians in the experimental clusters. We hypothesize that the increase in referrals was caused by an increase in occupational therapists’ efforts to promote their services within their network. Trial registration NCT01117285

2013-01-01

100

The national database of hospital-based cancer registries: a nationwide infrastructure to support evidence-based cancer care and cancer control policy in Japan.  

PubMed

Monitoring the current status of cancer care is essential for effective cancer control and high-quality cancer care. To address the information needs of patients and physicians in Japan, hospital-based cancer registries are operated in 397 hospitals designated as cancer care hospitals by the national government. These hospitals collect information on all cancer cases encountered in each hospital according to precisely defined coding rules. The Center for Cancer Control and Information Services at the National Cancer Center supports the management of the hospital-based cancer registry by providing training for tumor registrars and by developing and maintaining the standard software and continuing communication, which includes mailing lists, a customizable web site and site visits. Data from the cancer care hospitals are submitted annually to the Center, compiled, and distributed as the National Cancer Statistics Report. The report reveals the national profiles of patient characteristics, route to discovery, stage distribution, and first-course treatments of the five major cancers in Japan. A system designed to follow up on patient survival will soon be established. Findings from the analyses will reveal characteristics of designated cancer care hospitals nationwide and will show how characteristics of patients with cancer in Japan differ from those of patients with cancer in other countries. The database will provide an infrastructure for future clinical and health services research and will support quality measurement and improvement of cancer care. Researchers and policy-makers in Japan are encouraged to take advantage of this powerful tool to enhance cancer control and their clinical practice. PMID:23448800

Higashi, Takahiro; Nakamura, Fumiaki; Shibata, Akiko; Emori, Yoshiko; Nishimoto, Hiroshi

2014-01-01

101

Evidence-based pharmacological treatment of dementia.  

PubMed

The current literature on the pharmacological treatment of dementia was reviewed and the strength of evidence for the efficacy of each drug was categorized using an evidence-based approach. Acetylcholinesterase-inhibitors represent the only category of drugs with consistently demonstrable efficacy in well-designed studies of Alzheimer's disease, although the effect is not large. There is a lack of prospective, controlled, randomized studies for most of the nootropics. Epidemiological evidence suggests prophylactic effects of oestrogens and anti-inflammatory agents, and a single large-scale trial suggests that long-term administration of vitamin E or selegiline may be associated with improved outcome in patients with Alzheimer's disease. A number of drugs were reported to be effective in the treatment of non-cognitive symptoms of dementia including classical and atypical neuroleptics, antidepressants and anticonvulsants. The evidence for efficacy, however, is not strong for the majority of these compounds. PMID:10886307

Emre, M; Hana?asi, H A

2000-05-01

102

Chronic hepatitis E infection: risks and controls.  

PubMed

Very recently, an unusual clinical presentation with an altered natural history associated with hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection has emerged in high-income industrialized nations. Although HEV infection does not develop into chronicity in general, viremia can persist for long periods of time in immunocompromised solid organ, bone marrow and stem cell transplant patients. Conceivably, the atypical clinical and virological outcomes in these cases could be related to immunosuppressive chemotherapy, resulting in suboptimal HEV-specific immune responses. In the absence of travel to endemic regions, foodborne autochthonous HEV infection due to viral genotypes 3 and 4 has been implicated in the chronic cases. Presently, pegIFN-?-2a and ribavirin, the commonly used drugs to treat chronic viral hepatitis, are proving very promising in hepatitis E patients. Nevertheless, the most-awaited HEV vaccine could be protective in naïve travelers or high-risk group populations. The mechanisms of establishing chronic HEV infection and the disease severity have hitherto not been clearly understood. Therefore, a comprehensive clinical, virological and molecular study is needed to understand and control the disease. PMID:23689166

Parvez, Mohammad Khalid

2013-01-01

103

Evidence-Based Clearinghouses in Social Work  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: The purpose of this article is to describe several evidence-based clearinghouses focused on social work and related intervention outcomes, placing them in the context of how such clearinghouses can contribute to research dissemination to foster effective, evidence-based practice. Method: The study employed an analysis of data provided…

Soydan, Haluk; Mullen, Edward J.; Alexandra, Laine; Rehnman, Jenny; Li, You-Ping

2010-01-01

104

Evidence-Based Practice in Psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article focuses on the 2005 American Psychological Association Presidential Task Force on Evidence-Based Practice in Psychology. After describing the rationale and results of this task force, the authors review the literature that has appeared following the approval of the Policy Statement on Evidence-Based Practice in Psychology by the American Psychological Association Council of Representatives, with reference to the implications

Ronald F. Levant; Nadia T. Hasan

2008-01-01

105

An evidence-based business planning process.  

PubMed

Using a systematic, evidence-based approach for developing a business plan allows nurse executives to forecast the needs of the organization, involve nursing staff at all levels, evaluate the direction of the profession, and present a plan with clear, concise goals. The authors describe 4 steps necessary in developing an effective evidence-based business plan. PMID:19955962

Brandt, Julie A; Reed Edwards, Donna; Cox Sullivan, Sheila; Zehler, Jean K; Grinder, Sandra; Scott, Karen J; Cook, Judy H; Roper, Debra; Dickey, Aurora; Maddox, Kathleen L

2009-12-01

106

Evidence-based practice and orthopaedic nursing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence-based practice has become part of the language of health care. This article illustrates the professional implications for orthopaedic nurses and the challenges it raises for current and future practice development. The article suggests steps for developing an evidence-based approach to orthopaedic practice, the necessary skills nurses need to develop, and the benefits of a multidisciplinary view in developing practice.

Julia Kneale

2000-01-01

107

Making Evidence-based Practice Educational.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines David Hargreaves' ideas about the nature of evidence-based practice and the future direction for educational research. States that one major theme is that current discourse about evidence-based teaching is uninformed by an articulate educational theory, therefore excluding thoughtful consideration of implications of such a theory for…

Elliott, John

2001-01-01

108

Implementing Evidence-Based Social Work Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recently, social work has been influenced by new forms of practice that hold promise for bringing practice and research together to strengthen the scientific knowledge base supporting social work intervention. The most recent new practice framework is evidence-based practice. However, although evidence-based practice has many qualities that might…

Mullen, Edward J.; Bledsoe, Sarah E.; Bellamy, Jennifer L.

2008-01-01

109

Fuzzy Modeling and Control of HIV Infection  

PubMed Central

The present study proposes a fuzzy mathematical model of HIV infection consisting of a linear fuzzy differential equations (FDEs) system describing the ambiguous immune cells level and the viral load which are due to the intrinsic fuzziness of the immune system's strength in HIV-infected patients. The immune cells in question are considered CD4+ T-cells and cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTLs). The dynamic behavior of the immune cells level and the viral load within the three groups of patients with weak, moderate, and strong immune systems are analyzed and compared. Moreover, the approximate explicit solutions of the proposed model are derived using a fitting-based method. In particular, a fuzzy control function indicating the drug dosage is incorporated into the proposed model and a fuzzy optimal control problem (FOCP) minimizing both the viral load and the drug costs is constructed. An optimality condition is achieved as a fuzzy boundary value problem (FBVP). In addition, the optimal fuzzy control function is completely characterized and a numerical solution for the optimality system is computed.

Zarei, Hassan; Kamyad, Ali Vahidian; Heydari, Ali Akbar

2012-01-01

110

Fuzzy modeling and control of HIV infection.  

PubMed

The present study proposes a fuzzy mathematical model of HIV infection consisting of a linear fuzzy differential equations (FDEs) system describing the ambiguous immune cells level and the viral load which are due to the intrinsic fuzziness of the immune system's strength in HIV-infected patients. The immune cells in question are considered CD4+ T-cells and cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTLs). The dynamic behavior of the immune cells level and the viral load within the three groups of patients with weak, moderate, and strong immune systems are analyzed and compared. Moreover, the approximate explicit solutions of the proposed model are derived using a fitting-based method. In particular, a fuzzy control function indicating the drug dosage is incorporated into the proposed model and a fuzzy optimal control problem (FOCP) minimizing both the viral load and the drug costs is constructed. An optimality condition is achieved as a fuzzy boundary value problem (FBVP). In addition, the optimal fuzzy control function is completely characterized and a numerical solution for the optimality system is computed. PMID:22536298

Zarei, Hassan; Kamyad, Ali Vahidian; Heydari, Ali Akbar

2012-01-01

111

The role of environmental cleaning in the control of hospital-acquired infection.  

PubMed

Increasing numbers of hospital-acquired infections have generated much attention over the last decade. The public has linked the so-called 'superbugs' with their experience of dirty hospitals but the precise role of environmental cleaning in the control of these organisms remains unknown. Until cleaning becomes an evidence-based science, with established methods for assessment, the importance of a clean environment is likely to remain speculative. This review will examine the links between the hospital environment and various pathogens, including meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin-resistant enterococci, norovirus, Clostridium difficile and acinetobacter. These organisms may be able to survive in healthcare environments but there is evidence to support their vulnerability to the cleaning process. Removal with, or without, disinfectants, appears to be associated with reduced infection rates for patients. Unfortunately, cleaning is often delivered as part of an overall infection control package in response to an outbreak and the importance of cleaning as a single intervention remains controversial. Recent work has shown that hand-touch sites are habitually contaminated by hospital pathogens, which are then delivered to patients on hands. It is possible that prioritising the cleaning of these sites might offer a useful adjunct to the current preoccupation with hand hygiene, since hand-touch sites comprise the less well-studied side of the hand-touch site equation. In addition, using proposed standards for hospital hygiene could provide further evidence that cleaning is a cost-effective intervention for controlling hospital-acquired infection. PMID:19726106

Dancer, S J

2009-12-01

112

Infection control in the patient with AIDS.  

PubMed

In this discussion of infection control in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), attention is directed to nursing. Due to the fact that the majority of individuals who suffer with AIDS will be homosexual, intravenous drug users, or both, it is essential that the nurse historian be aware of his/her own feelings about the lifestyles of these patients. History-taking should be done in a nonjudgmental manner. A major pitfall to be avoided when taking a history is making assumptions about an individual's sexual preferences or activities based on the response to a simple question about marital status. It is important to note whether or not the person has a monogamous relationship or leads a polyandrous lifestyle. Another area that should be tactfully but explicitly explored when interviewing an individual who is homosexual or bisexual is the number of different sexual partners that he/she has been involved with on a weekly or monthly basis. Whether the patient has a history of sexually transmitted diseases should be determined. The use of recreational drugs should be explored. When taking the history of a client who uses intravenous drugs, it is important for the nurse to record the agents and sites of injection as well as to note whether the individual uses his/her own equipment. When reviewing the major body systems and the presence or absence of related symptoms, the nurse should note whether the client has experienced skin rashes/lesions, swollen lymph nodes, fever, extreme fatigue, weight loss, shortness of breath, changes in bowel habits, cuts or bruises that do not heal, and headaches, dizziness, blurred vision, or stiff neck. The physical examination of the individual with AIDS and an opportunistic infection usually will reveal positive findings in the central nervous system, respiratory system, gastrointestinal system, and/or the integumentary system, as well as the lymphatic system. As the leading cause of morbidity in the compromised host is infection, infection prevention should be regarded as a pragmatic necessity. 2 major things that nurses can do in the acute care setting to control infection are to limit the frequency of invasive or traumatic procedures and to reduce the acquisition of new potential pathogens. PMID:6084677

Ungvarski, P J

1984-12-01

113

Infection Control Procedures in Commercial Dental Laboratories in Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The risk of cross-infection in dental clinics and laboratories has attracted the attention of practitioners for the past few years, yet several medical centers have discarded compliance with infection control guidelines, resulting in a non-safe environ- ment for research and medical care. In Jordan, there is lack of known standard infection control programs that are conducted by the Jordanian Dental

Ziad Nawaf Al-Dwairi

114

Nanoparticles and the control of oral infections.  

PubMed

The potential of antimicrobial nanoparticles to control oral infections is reviewed. Such particles can be classified as having a size no greater than 100 nm and are produced using traditional or more novel techniques. Exploitation of the toxic properties of nanoparticles to bacteria, fungi and viruses, in particular metals and metal oxides, as well as their incorporation into polymeric materials have increased markedly over the past decade. The potential of nanoparticles to control the formation of biofilms within the oral cavity, as a function of their biocidal, anti-adhesive and delivery capabilities, is now receiving close attention. Latest insights into the application of nanoparticles within this field, including their use in photodynamic therapy, will be reviewed. Possible approaches to alter biocompatibility and desired function will also be covered. PMID:24388116

Allaker, Robert P; Memarzadeh, Kaveh

2014-02-01

115

Disinfection of the Access Orifice in NOTES: Evaluation of the Evidence Base  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Appropriate prevention of infection is a key area of research in natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery (NOTES), as identified by the Natural Orifice Surgery Consortium for Assessment and Research (NOSCAR). Methods. A review of the literature was conducted evaluating the evidence base for access orifice preparation/treatment in NOTES procedures in the context of infectious complications. Recommendations based on the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine guidelines were made. Results. The most robust evidence includes several experimental randomised controlled trials assessing infectious complications in the transgastric approach to NOTES. Transvaginal procedures are long established for accessing the peritoneal cavity following disinfection with antiseptic. Only experimental case series for transcolonic and transvesical approaches are described. Conclusion. Grade C recommendation requiring no preoperative preparation can be made for the transgastric approach. Antiseptic irrigation is recommended for transvaginal (grade C) NOTES access, as is current practice. Further human trials need to be conducted to corroborate the current evidence base for transgastric closure. It is important that future trials are conducted in a methodologically robust fashion, with emphasis on clinical outcomes and standardisation of enterotomy closure and postoperative therapy.

Sodergren, Mikael H.; Pucher, Philip; Clark, James; James, David R. C.; Sockett, Jenny; Matar, Nagy; Teare, Julian; Yang, Guang-Zhong; Darzi, Ara

2011-01-01

116

Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology  

MedlinePLUS

... contribute to the field of infection prevention and epidemiology by submitting a presentation proposal for consideration. Read ... the Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, and The Joint Commission. The 2014 release updates ...

117

Algorithm for neuropathic pain treatment: An evidence based proposal  

Microsoft Academic Search

New studies of the treatment of neuropathic pain have increased the need for an updated review of randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials to support an evidence based algorithm to treat neuropathic pain conditions. Available studies were identified using a MEDLINE and EMBASE search. One hundred and five studies were included. Numbers needed to treat (NNT) and numbers needed to harm (NNH)

N. B. Finnerup; M. Otto; H. J. McQuay; T. S. Jensen; S. H. Sindrup

2005-01-01

118

An expert system for culture-based infection control surveillance.  

PubMed Central

Hospital-acquired infections represent a significant cause of prolonged inpatient days and additional hospital charges. We describe an expert system, called GERMWATCHER, which applies the Centers for Disease Control's National Nosocomial Infection Surveillance culture-based criteria for detecting nosocomial infections. GERMWATCHER has been deployed at Barnes Hospital, a large tertiary-care teaching hospital, since February 1993. We describe the Barnes Hospital infection control environment, the expert system design, and a predeployment performance evaluation. We then compare our system to other efforts in computer-based infection control.

Kahn, M. G.; Steib, S. A.; Fraser, V. J.; Dunagan, W. C.

1993-01-01

119

Evidence-based practice in acute ophthalmology  

Microsoft Academic Search

AimTo study the overall level of evidence-based practice in an accident and emergency eye unit in the UK and evaluate the extent of evidence-based practice by ophthalmologists and nurse practitioners (NPs).MethodsThe case notes of all new patients attending our accident and emergency department for a period of 1 week were reviewed prospectively. For each case, the diagnosis at presentation and

R Bhatt; S Sandramouli

2007-01-01

120

Infection control in a developing world.  

PubMed

The global HIV and tuberculosis (TB) epidemics have placed enormous burdens upon already overstretched healthcare workers and poorly resourced healthcare facilities in sub-Saharan Africa. The rapid emergence of multi-drug resistant TB, and its association with hospital-based outbreaks, have highlighted the role that healthcare facilities inadvertently may play in maintaining TB transmission, and the vital importance of attaining good TB infection control. James Elston, a specialist physician in infectious diseases and general internal medicine, who recently returned from a second stint in Swaziland, says many of the region's healthcare facilities are outdated, poorly ventilated, and were not designed for their current purpose. Here he describes how U.K.-based architects and healthcare engineers responded to an urgent call for assistance and, via close collaboration, and using novel design software, empowered healthcare workers to dramatically and rapidly improve their TB inpatient facilities, and protect the health of patients and staff. PMID:24397225

Elston, James; Hinitt, Ian; Batson, Steve; Noakes, Cath; Wright, John; Walley, John; Humphreys, Clare

2013-11-01

121

A Third-Generation Evidence Base for Human Spaceflight Risks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Human Research Program seeks to understand and mitigate risks to crew health and performance in exploration missions center dot HRP's evidence base consists of an Evidence Report for each HRP risk center dot Three generations of Evidence Reports 1) Review articles + Good content - Limited authorship, infrequent updates 2) Wikipedia articles + Viewed often, very open to contributions - Summary of reviews, very few contributions 3) HRP-controlled wiki articles + Incremental additions to review articles with editorial control

Kundrot, Craig E.; Lumpkins, Sarah; Steil, Jennifer; Pellis, Neal; Charles, John

2014-01-01

122

Isoniazid preventive therapy for tuberculosis in South Africa: an assessment of the local evidence base.  

PubMed

Worldwide, South Africa (SA) has the worst tuberculosis (TB) epidemic. In SA, there are > 6.1 million people living with HIV (PLWH) and the country now has the largest antiretroviral treatment programme with > 2 million people receiving combination therapy. While there has been a marked recent decline in HIV-associated deaths, > 50% of TB cases still continue to be diagnosed in PWLH. The current TB control strategy based on passive case finding, chemotherapy of childhood TB contacts and directly observed therapy has clearly failed to control endemic TB in SA. Two recent meta-analyses have shown a > 60% reduction in TB in HIV-infected adults after isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT). SA has implemented the World Health Organization policy and IPT is now recommended for HIV-positive people for up to 36 months. Originally, there was only one SA study included in the evidence base supporting this policy, but subsequently four randomised controlled trials have been conducted in SA populations. These studies, together with local observational studies, are the subject of this local, evidence-based review. PMID:24897817

Wood, R; Bekker, L-G

2014-03-01

123

Systematic review of adherence to infection control guidelines in dentistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the knowledge and attitudes of dental health care workers (DHCWs) towards infection control procedures, to examine DHCWs’ practising behaviour in respect of infection control, and to determine whether a relationship exists between knowledge, attitudes and behaviour.Methods:Within this systematic review, study quality was assessed in line with selection criteria relating to study

B. L Gordon; F. J. T Burke; J Bagg; H. S Marlborough; E. S McHugh

2001-01-01

124

Comparison of an interactive with a didactic educational intervention for improving the evidence-based practice knowledge of occupational therapists in the public health sector in South Africa: a randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Despite efforts to identify effective interventions to implement evidence-based practice (EBP), uncertainty remains. Few existing studies involve occupational therapists or resource-constrained contexts. This study aimed to determine whether an interactive educational intervention (IE) was more effective than a didactic educational intervention (DE) in improving EBP knowledge, attitudes and behaviour at 12 weeks. Methods A matched pairs design, randomised controlled trial was conducted in the Western Cape of South Africa. Occupational therapists employed by the Department of Health were randomised using matched-pair stratification by type (clinician or manager) and knowledge score. Allocation to an IE or a DE was by coin-tossing. A self-report questionnaire (measuring objective knowledge and subjective attitudes) and audit checklist (measuring objective behaviour) were completed at baseline and 12 weeks. The primary outcome was EBP knowledge at 12 weeks while secondary outcomes were attitudes and behaviour at 12 weeks. Data collection occurred at participants’ places of employment. Audit raters were blinded, but participants and the provider could not be blinded. Results Twenty-one of 28 pairs reported outcomes, but due to incomplete data for two participants, 19 pairs were included in the analysis. There was a median increase of 1.0 points (95% CI?=?-4.0, 1.0) in the IE for the primary outcome (knowledge) compared with the DE, but this difference was not significant (P?=?0.098). There were no significant differences on any of the attitude subscale scores. The median 12-week audit score was 8.6 points higher in the IE (95% CI?=?-7.7, 27.0) but this was not significant (P?=?0.196). Within-group analyses showed significant increases in knowledge in both groups (IE: T?=?4.0, P <0.001; DE: T?=?12.0, P?=?0.002) but no significant differences in attitudes or behaviour. Conclusions The results suggest that the interventions had similar outcomes at 12 weeks and that the interactive component had little additional effect. Trial registration Pan African Controlled Trials Register PACTR201201000346141, registered 31 January 2012. Clinical Trials NCT01512823, registered 1 February 2012. South African National Clinical Trial Register DOH2710093067, registered 27 October 2009. The first participants were randomly assigned on 16 July 2008.

2014-01-01

125

Implementing evidence-based recommended practices for the management of patients with mild traumatic brain injuries in Australian emergency care departments: study protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Mild head injuries commonly present to emergency departments. The challenges facing clinicians in emergency departments include identifying which patients have traumatic brain injury, and which patients can safely be sent home. Traumatic brain injuries may exist with subtle symptoms or signs, but can still lead to adverse outcomes. Despite the existence of several high quality clinical practice guidelines, internationally and in Australia, research shows inconsistent implementation of these recommendations. The aim of this trial is to test the effectiveness of a targeted, theory- and evidence-informed implementation intervention to increase the uptake of three key clinical recommendations regarding the emergency department management of adult patients (18 years of age or older) who present following mild head injuries (concussion), compared with passive dissemination of these recommendations. The primary objective is to establish whether the intervention is effective in increasing the percentage of patients for which appropriate post-traumatic amnesia screening is performed. Methods/design The design of this study is a cluster randomised trial. We aim to include 34 Australian 24-hour emergency departments, which will be randomised to an intervention or control group. Control group departments will receive a copy of the most recent Australian evidence-based clinical practice guideline on the acute management of patients with mild head injuries. The intervention group will receive an implementation intervention based on an analysis of influencing factors, which include local stakeholder meetings, identification of nursing and medical opinion leaders in each site, a train-the-trainer day and standardised education and interactive workshops delivered by the opinion leaders during a 3 month period of time. Clinical practice outcomes will be collected retrospectively from medical records by independent chart auditors over the 2 month period following intervention delivery (patient level outcomes). In consenting hospitals, eligible patients will be recruited for a follow-up telephone interview conducted by trained researchers. A cost-effectiveness analysis and process evaluation using mixed-methods will be conducted. Sample size calculations are based on including 30 patients on average per department. Outcome assessors will be blinded to group allocation. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12612001286831 (date registered 12 December 2012).

2014-01-01

126

Evidence-Based Practice: Promoting Evidence-Based Interventions in School Psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an overview of issues related to evidence-based practice and the role that the school psychology profession can play in developing and disseminating evidence-based interventions (EBIs). Historical problems relating to and the recurring debate about the integration of research into practice are presented as a context for the current challenges faced by those engaged in the EBI movement in

Thomas R. Kratochwill; Elisa Steele Shernoff

2003-01-01

127

Evidence-based management of sepsis.  

PubMed

Sepsis is a potential life-threatening oncologic emergency. Early recognition and prompt intervention can decrease the morbidity and mortality associated with sepsis. The Surviving Sepsis Campaign Guidelines Committee updated its recommendations in 2012, outlining specific evidence-based interventions to manage sepsis. PMID:24867108

O'Leary, Colleen

2014-06-01

128

Evidence-Based Practices and Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interventions for autism are increasing being held to standards such as "evidence-based practice" in psychology and "scientifically-based research" in education. When these concepts emerged in the context of adult psychotherapy and regular education, they caused considerable controversy. Application of the concepts to autism treatments and special…

Mesibov, Gary B.; Shea, Victoria

2011-01-01

129

Evidence Based Education Request Desk. EBE #555  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Evidence Based Education (EBE) Request seeks to provide an overview of recent research regarding school improvement and reform with special concentration on turning around chronically low-performing schools. The response is divided into four main sections: Research on Effective Methods for Turning Around Low-Performing Schools, Frameworks for…

Regional Educational Laboratory Southeast, 2009

2009-01-01

130

Finding Evidence-Based Practice Information  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Locating sources that are rich in evidence-based practice information can be more difficult for physical as well as occupational therapists in practice settings in which there is not direct access to a health sciences library. In addition, once information has been found, there may not be an easy way to access the data. This commentary will…

Childs, Gary M.

2009-01-01

131

Evidence-Based Practice and Social Work  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential features of contemporary evidence-based practice (EBP) are outlined, with specific reference to the applications of this model to various areas of social work, micro through macro. EBP is seen as a welcome addition to our field, representing a fuller and more comprehensive development of earlier and related positions such as empirical clinical practice within social work, and the

C. Aaron McNeece; Bruce A. Thyer

2004-01-01

132

Evidence Based Research: Implications for Counselor Educators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For the past decade, the practice of evidence based research (EBR) in treatment decisions has been a standard in the medical field, and is quickly becoming a standard of practice in other human service fields. Counselor educators are faced with the necessity to begin to implement EBR into their teaching and scholarship, but have limited knowledge…

Bartley, Amy E.; Biles, Kathy E.; Low, Lori L.; Nakazawa-Hewitt, M.; Windish, Bonnie L.

133

Evidence-Based Practice Implementation in Kansas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last 8 years, Kansas has been successful in the implementation of evidence-based practices. This paper describes\\u000a the strategies used at multiple levels of the mental health system including: state policy, provider agency management, fidelity\\u000a and outcome monitoring, supervisor training and support, and practitioner training. The challenges going forth are described.

Charles A. RappRichard; Richard J. Goscha; Linda S. Carlson

2010-01-01

134

An introduction to evidence-based practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence-based practice (EBP) is a process in which scientific evidence is evaluated to determine underlying trends and principles of health\\/health care. This information is then translated into information about best clinical practices. EBP affords a systematic way to improve healthcare, improve patient outcomes, and evaluate resources needed. The Star Model of EBP provides a mechanism to transform large collections of

Kathleen R. Stevens

2001-01-01

135

Evidence-based practice implementation in Kansas.  

PubMed

Over the last 8 years, Kansas has been successful in the implementation of evidence-based practices. This paper describes the strategies used at multiple levels of the mental health system including: state policy, provider agency management, fidelity and outcome monitoring, supervisor training and support, and practitioner training. The challenges going forth are described. PMID:20414722

Rapp, Charles A; Goscha, Richard J; Carlson, Linda S

2010-10-01

136

Evidence-based integrative pain medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Integrative medicine is already, consciously or unconsciously, widely practised in pain medicine. However, a large part of practised pain medicine is not evidence-based.In this article, the evidence for different forms of conventional pain therapy (pharmacological, psychological, physical and interventional) as well as CAM for the pain conditions cancer pain, neuropathic pain, low back pain, and fibromyalgia syndrome is reviewed. The

Benno Rehberg

2010-01-01

137

Purity, Conversion and the Evidence Based Movements  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores parallels between some aspects of the history of Judaeo Christianity and recent writing promoting evidence based medicine (EBM). Taking as a starting point Kristeva’s and Douglas’ investigations of Old Testament dietary regulation, it proposes that rigorous attention to research intake fulfils a similar symbolic function within these EBM texts as the strict dietary laws of Leviticus. It

Michael Traynor

2000-01-01

138

Evidence Based Education Request Desk. EBE #510  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Evidence Based Education (EBE) request focused on research-supported vocabulary interventions for middle elementary students. Limited vocabulary is an important factor in underachievement of children in disadvantaged homes. Children with larger vocabularies find reading easier, read more widely, and do better in school (Lubliner & Smetana,…

Regional Educational Laboratory Southeast, 2009

2009-01-01

139

Evidence Based Education Request Desk. EBE #798  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evidence Based Education (EBE) #555 was in response to the request "Is there any new compelling research for turning around low-performing schools?" The articles included in that document are on target, but include articles through 2009. This EBE Request seeks to provide an updated review of recent research (2009-present) regarding school…

Regional Educational Laboratory Southeast, 2011

2011-01-01

140

Finding an Evidence-Based Program  

Cancer.gov

Know how to use your needs assessment and program goals and objectives to help you select your program. Be able to find evidence-based program resources. Know how to use search options to narrow your program choices and find out what programs will and will not work with your community.

141

Towards evidence based emergency medicine: best BETs from the Manchester Royal Infirmary. BET 3: Use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs to provide symptomatic relief in uncomplicated urinary tract infection.  

PubMed

A short-cut review was carried out to establish whether the addition of a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) to antibiotics is of benefit to patients with uncomplicated urinary tract infections (UTI). A total of 80 papers was found using the reported search, of which four represented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The author, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes, results and study weaknesses of these best papers are tabulated. The clinical bottom line is that the level of evidence is limited and that there is no clear indication of benefit in this group of patients. PMID:23413307

Lewith, Henry

2013-03-01

142

Asymptomatic Leishmania infection: a new challenge for Leishmania control.  

PubMed

Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a serious parasitic disease, causing high morbidity and mortality in the developing world. The pathogenesis of VL is complex, and the clinical presentation ranges from asymptomatic infection to severe and fatal disease. Despite a wealth of research on the full-blown "clinical VL" syndrome, asymptomatic leishmania infections remain poorly understood. Asymptomatic infection could present a major challenge for control programs if its infectiousness is confirmed. In this viewpoint, we highlight the crucial knowledge gaps as well as the obstacles in research on asymptomatic leishmanial infection. Research in this area is essential for the development of more-effective VL control strategies. PMID:24585564

Singh, Om Prakash; Hasker, Epco; Sacks, David; Boelaert, Marleen; Sundar, Shyam

2014-05-01

143

Healthcare workers and prevention of hepatitis C virus transmission: exploring knowledge, attitudes and evidence-based practices in hemodialysis units in Italy  

PubMed Central

Background Evidence exists regarding the full prevention of HCV transmission to hemodialysis patients by implementing universal precaution. However, little information is available regarding the frequency with which hospitals have adopted evidence-based practices for preventing HCV infection among hemodialysis patients. A cross-sectional survey has been conducted among nurses in Calabria region (Italy) in order to acquire information about the level of knowledge, the attitudes and the frequencies of evidence-based practices that prevent hospital transmission of HCV. Methods All 37 hemodialysis units (HDU) of Calabria were included in the study and all nurses were invited to participate in the study and to fill in a self-administered questionnaire. Results 90% of the nurses working in HDU participated in the study. Correct answers about HCV pattern of transmission ranged from 73.7% to 99.3% and were significantly higher in respondents who knew that isolation of HCV-infected patients is not recommended and among those who knew that previous bloodstream infections should be included in medical record and among nurses with fewer years of practice. Most correctly thought that evidence-based infection control measures provide adequate protection against transmission of bloodborne pathogens among healthcare workers. Positive attitude was significantly higher among more knowledgeable nurses. Self-reporting of appropriate handwashing procedures were significantly more likely in nurses who were aware that transmission of bloodborne pathogens among healthcare workers may be prevented through adoption of evidence-based practices and with a correct knowledge about HCV transmission patterns. Conclusions Behavior changes should be aimed at abandoning outdated practices and adopting and maintaining evidence-based practices. Initiatives focused at enabling and reinforcing adherence to effective prevention practices among nurses in HDU are strongly needed.

2013-01-01

144

Infection Control and Prevention: A Review of Hospital-Acquired Infections and the Economic Implications  

PubMed Central

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that 2 million patients suffer from hospital-acquired infections every year and nearly 100,000 of them die. Most of these medical errors are preventable. Hospital-acquired infections result in up to $4.5 billion in additional healthcare expenses annually. The U.S. government has responded to this financial loss by focusing on healthcare quality report cards and by taking strong action to curb healthcare spending. The Medicare Program has proposed changes to the Hospital Inpatient Prospective Payment System and Fiscal Year Rates: Proposed Rule CMS 1488-P-Healthcare-associated infection. Payment will be linked to performance. Under the new rule, payment will be withheld from hospitals for care associated with treating certain catheter-associated urinary tract infections, vascular catheter-associated infections, and mediastinitis after coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Infection-prevention strategies are essential. In the healthcare setting, the infection control department is categorized as non-revenue-producing. Funds dedicated to resources such as staff, educational programs, and prevention measures are vastly limited. Hospital leaders will need to balance the upfront cost needed to prevent hospital-related infections with the non-reimbursed expense accrued secondary to potentially preventable infections. The purpose of this paper is to present case studies and cost analysis of hospital-acquired infections and present strategies that reduce infections and cost.

Reed, Deoine; Kemmerly, Sandra A.

2009-01-01

145

Evidence Based Medicine - New Approaches and Challenges  

PubMed Central

CONFLICT OF INTEREST: NONE DECLARED Evidence based medicine (EBM) is the conscientious, explicit, judicious and reasonable use of modern, best evidence in making decisions about the care of individual patients. EBM integrates clinical experience and patient values with the best available research information. It is a movement which aims to increase the use of high quality clinical research in clinical decision making. EBM requires new skills of the clinician, including efficient literature-searching, and the application of formal rules of evidence in evaluating the clinical literature. The practice of evidence-based medicine is a process of lifelong, self-directed, problem-based learning in which caring for one’s own patients creates the need for clinically important information about diagnosis, prognosis, therapy and other clinical and health care issues. It is not “cookbook” with recipes, but its good application brings cost-effective and better health care. The key difference between evidence-based medicine and traditional medicine is not that EBM considers the evidence while the latter does not. Both take evidence into account; however, EBM demands better evidence than has traditionally been used. One of the greatest achievements of evidence-based medicine has been the development of systematic reviews and meta-analyses, methods by which researchers identify multiple studies on a topic, separate the best ones and then critically analyze them to come up with a summary of the best available evidence. The EBM-oriented clinicians of tomorrow have three tasks: a) to use evidence summaries in clinical practice; b) to help develop and update selected systematic reviews or evidence-based guidelines in their area of expertise; and c) to enrol patients in studies of treatment, diagnosis and prognosis on which medical practice is based.

Masic, Izet; Miokovic, Milan; Muhamedagic, Belma

2008-01-01

146

Policy Manual - Infection Control Policies - Department Procedures  

Cancer.gov

During the autopsy, full barrier protection is utilized. The autopsy assistants and medical staff performing the autopsy wear surgical scrub suits, disposable gowns, shoe covers, plastic aprons, and double surgical gloves at all times. Masks, goggles, double gloves, and wrap-around-disposable converters are used in cases of known infection with mycobacteria, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), hepatitis, HIV, or severe viral and bacterial infections. All of these materials are disposed of before leaving the autopsy room.

147

Framework for controlling infection through isolation precautions in Japan.  

PubMed

In Japan, nurses certified in infection control face organizational and structural challenges to the implementation of the recommended isolation precautions. In this study, we developed a conceptual framework for the problem-solving process of certified nurses in infection control when implementing appropriate isolation-precaution measures. We conducted a qualitative, descriptive study using directed content analysis. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 40 nurses who had over five?years' experience in infection control. Factors assessing the risk of infection in patients were identified, including microorganism characteristics, patient characteristics, and risk of infection to the entire unit. The nurses also assessed the risk of infection in institutions from the following perspectives: organizational culture, infection control system, human resources, environment surrounding the facility, ethical issues, and external factors. Individual characteristics, such as attributes, knowledge, expertise, and job function, were identified as major influencing factors in the problem-solving process. These findings could be useful for newly-certified nurses in infection control and provide recommendations on implementing isolation-precaution measures. PMID:24635895

Kawakami, Kazumi; Misao, Hanako

2014-03-01

148

Infections and cancer: debate about using vaccines as a cancer control tool  

PubMed Central

In 2012, Infectious Agents and Cancer commissioned a thematic series collection of articles on Prevention of HPV related cancer. The articles have attracted wide interest and stimulated debate, including about the utility of vaccines in cancer control. The application of vaccines to cancer control fulfills a promise envisioned at the turn of the 20th century when remarkable experiments showed that some cancers were caused by infections. This suggested the possibility of applying infection-control strategies to cancer control. Vaccines represent the most practical cost-effective technology to prevent wide human suffering and death from many acute infectious diseases, such as small pox or polio. Hitherto applied to control of acute fatal infections, vaccines, if developed, might provide a potent way to control cancer. The articles in the HPV thematic series show success in developing and applying a vaccine against human papilloma virus (HPV). A vaccine is also available against hepatitis B virus (HBV), which causes liver cancer. These vaccines augment the tools available to control the associated cancers. Scientific endeavor continues for six other cancer-associated infections, mostly viruses. Not surprisingly, debate about the safety of vaccines targeting cancer has been triggered in the scientific community. Questions about safety have been raised for those populations where other means to control these cancers may be available. Although it is difficult to quantify risk from vaccines in individuals where other cancer control services exist, it is likely to be low. Vaccines are much safer today than before. Technological advancement in vaccine development and manufacture and improved regulatory review and efficient distribution have minimized substantially the risk for harm from vaccines. Formal and informal debate about the pros and cons of applying vaccines as a cancer control tools is ongoing in scientific journals and on the web. Infectious Agents and Cancer encourages evidence-based discussion to clarify understanding of the role of vaccines in cancer control. In a similar vein, the journal will not consider anecdotal reports and rhetorical arguments because they are unlikely to inform policy, regulation, or the public.

2013-01-01

149

Best evidence-based practices: a historic perspective.  

PubMed

Neonatologists, neonatal nurses, and others who care for critically ill newborns hope that the care they provide will improve the health and the neurodevelopmental outcome of these neonates. In this progressive era of neonatal medicine, we must pause to look backward even as we look forward, taking full advantage of the opportunity to reflect on our short history and to review several important events in neonatal medicine that have contributed in a meaningful way to the evolution of evidence-based neonatal care. Six interventions highlight why randomized controlled trials are necessary to understand the risks and benefits of our interventions with premature and critically ill infants. We hope this history of the evolving practice of evidence-based neonatal care will enable the reader to have a greater appreciation for the consideration of each and every intervention that we take on behalf of the infants in our care. PMID:12240454

Merenstein, Gerald B; Glicken, Anita D

2002-08-01

150

Ethical issues in infection control in home care  

Microsoft Academic Search

The history of infection control is ancient and inextricably bound to the histories of disease, medicine, and nursing. This history reveals the beliefs about the cause of infectious disease through time and the remedies enacted in response. Implicit in this history is an ethical history reflecting the relationship of the infected individual to the group and the power of the

Marlene M. Wellman Schmid; Joan Liaschenko

1999-01-01

151

ICMR programme on Antibiotic Stewardship, Prevention of Infection & Control (ASPIC)  

PubMed Central

Antimicrobial resistance and hospital infections have increased alarmingly in India. Antibiotic stewardship and hospital infection control are two broad strategies which have been employed globally to contain the problems of resistance and infections. For this to succeed, it is important to bring on board the various stakeholders in hospitals, especially the clinical pharmacologists. The discipline of clinical pharmacology needs to be involved in themes such as antimicrobial resistance and hospital infection which truly impact patient care. Clinical pharmacologists need to collaborate with faculty in other disciplines such as microbiology to achieve good outcomes for optimal patient care in the hospital setting. The ASPIC programme was initiated by the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) in response to the above need and was designed to bring together faculty from clinical pharmacology, microbiology and other disciplines to collaborate on initiating and improving antibiotic stewardship and concurrently curbing hospital infections through feasible infection control practices. This programme involves the participation of 20 centres per year throughout the country which come together for a training workshop. Topics pertaining to the above areas are discussed in addition to planning a project which helps to improve antibiotic stewardship and infection control practices in the various centres. It is hoped that this programme would empower hospitals and institutions throughout the country to improve antibiotic stewardship and infection control and ultimately contain antimicrobial resistance.

Chandy, Sujith J.; Michael, Joy Sarojini; Veeraraghavan, Balaji; Abraham, O.C.; Bachhav, Sagar S.; Kshirsagar, Nilima A.

2014-01-01

152

ICMR programme on Antibiotic Stewardship, Prevention of Infection & Control (ASPIC).  

PubMed

Antimicrobial resistance and hospital infections have increased alarmingly in India. Antibiotic stewardship and hospital infection control are two broad strategies which have been employed globally to contain the problems of resistance and infections. For this to succeed, it is important to bring on board the various stakeholders in hospitals, especially the clinical pharmacologists. The discipline of clinical pharmacology needs to be involved in themes such as antimicrobial resistance and hospital infection which truly impact patient care. Clinical pharmacologists need to collaborate with faculty in other disciplines such as microbiology to achieve good outcomes for optimal patient care in the hospital setting. The ASPIC programme was initiated by the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) in response to the above need and was designed to bring together faculty from clinical pharmacology, microbiology and other disciplines to collaborate on initiating and improving antibiotic stewardship and concurrently curbing hospital infections through feasible infection control practices. This programme involves the participation of 20 centres per year throughout the country which come together for a training workshop. Topics pertaining to the above areas are discussed in addition to planning a project which helps to improve antibiotic stewardship and infection control practices in the various centres. It is hoped that this programme would empower hospitals and institutions throughout the country to improve antibiotic stewardship and infection control and ultimately contain antimicrobial resistance. PMID:24718396

Chandy, Sujith J; Michael, Joy Sarojini; Veeraraghavan, Balaji; Abraham, O C; Bachhav, Sagar S; Kshirsagar, Nilima A

2014-02-01

153

Continence for women: evidence-based practice.  

PubMed

Approximately 20% of women ages 25-64 years experience urinary incontinence. The symptoms increase during perimenopause, when 31% of women report that they experience incontinent episodes at least once per month. Bladder training and pelvic muscle exercise are the recommended initial treatment and can be taught effectively in the ambulatory care setting. Bladder training enables women to accommodate greater volumes of urine and extend between-voiding intervals. Pelvic muscle exercise increases muscle strength and reduces unwanted urine leakage. Accumulated research results provide evidence-based guidelines for nursing practice. The Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses has identified continence for women as the focus of its third research utilization project. This article presents the rationale, evidence base, and educational strategies compiled by the Research Utilization 3 Nurse Scientist Team. Nurses can enable women to incorporate these noninvasive techniques into self-care. PMID:10608494

Sampselle, C M; Burns, P A; Dougherty, M C; Newman, D K; Thomas, K K; Wyman, J F

1999-01-01

154

Continence for women: evidence-based practice.  

PubMed

Approximately 20% of women ages 25-64 years experience urinary incontinence. The symptoms increase during perimenopause, when 31% of women report that they experience incontinent episodes at least once per month. Bladder training and pelvic muscle exercise are the recommended initial treatment and can be taught effectively in the ambulatory care setting. Bladder training enables women to accommodate greater volumes of urine and extend between-voiding intervals. Pelvic muscle exercise increases muscle strength and reduces unwanted urine leakage. Accumulated research results provide evidence-based guidelines for nursing practice. The Association of Women's Health, Obstetric, and Neonatal Nurses has identified continence for women as the focus of its third research utilization project. This article presents the rationale, evidence base, and educational strategies compiled by the Research Utilization 3 Nurse Scientist Team. Nurses can enable women to incorporate these noninvasive techniques into self-care. PMID:9252885

Sampselle, C M; Burns, P A; Dougherty, M C; Newman, D K; Thomas, K K; Wyman, J F

1997-01-01

155

The Evidence-Based Policing Matrix  

Microsoft Academic Search

The next phase of evidence-based policing requires both scholars and practitioners to move from lists of specific studies\\u000a about “what works” to using that information strategically. This requires developing generalizations or principles on the\\u000a nature of effective police strategies and translating the field of police evaluation research into digestible forms that can\\u000a be used to alter police tactics, strategies, accountability

Cynthia Lum; Christopher S. Koper; Cody W. Telep

2011-01-01

156

Evidence-based medicine in otolaryngology journals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: We set out to assess, within the context of evidence-based medicine, the levels of supporting evidence for therapeutic recommendations made in leading otolaryngology journals. Design: We used a cross-sectional survey of clinical research articles published in 1999 in 4 high-circulation otolaryngology journals. Outcome Measures: We used study design methodology and level of evidence for clinical research articles with therapeutic

Boris L. Bentsianov; Marina Boruk; Richard M. Rosenfeld

2002-01-01

157

Evidence-Based Diagnosis of Lyme Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to make an evidence-based comparison of four commercial enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) (Serion Classics,\\u000a Sigma Diagnostics, Cambridge Biotech and ICN Diagnostics) and an in-house enzyme immunoassay (EIA) in order to select the\\u000a most appropriate screening assay for diagnosis of Lyme disease. Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto cultured in BSK-H medium was used to develop the in-house

M. M. Davidson; C. L. Ling; S. M. Chisholm; A. D. Wiseman; A. W. L. Joss; D. O. Ho-Yen

1999-01-01

158

Evidence Based Psychosocial Interventions in Substance Use  

PubMed Central

In recent years, there has been significant progress and expansion in the development of evidence-based psychosocial treatments for substance abuse and dependence. A literature review was undertaken using the several electronic databases (PubMed, Cochrane Database of systemic reviews and specific journals, which pertain to psychosocial issues in addictive disorders and guidelines on this topic). Overall psychosocial interventions have been found to be effective. Some interventions, such as cognitive behavior therapy, motivational interviewing and relapse prevention, appear to be effective across many drugs of abuse. Psychological treatment is more effective when prescribed with substitute prescribing than when medication or psychological treatment is used alone, particularly for opiate users. The evidence base for psychological treatment needs to be expanded and should also include research on optimal combinations of psychological therapies and any particular matching effects, if any. Psychological interventions are an essential part of the treatment regimen and efforts should be made to integrate evidence-based interventions in all substance use disorder treatment programs.

Jhanjee, Sonali

2014-01-01

159

Infection Control: The Use and Handling of Toothbrushes  

MedlinePLUS

... CDC.gov . Infection Control in Dental Settings Oral Health home School-Based Dental Sealant Programs Community Water Fluoridation Fluoridation Basics Benefits Guidelines Safety Infant Formula and Fluorosis Scientific Reviews ...

160

42 CFR 485.725 - Condition of participation: Infection control.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Clinics, Rehabilitation Agencies, and Public Health Agencies as Providers of Outpatient Physical Therapy and Speech-Language Pathology Services § 485.725 Condition of participation: Infection control. The organization that provides...

2013-10-01

161

A current review of infection control for childhood tuberculosis.  

PubMed

Tuberculosis (TB) infection control recommendations in healthcare settings were developed to decrease nosocomial transmission from adults. In the absence of pediatric-specific guidelines, these infection control recommendations have been incorporated, in almost unmodified format, for childhood TB. We will review the evidence concerning the contagiousness of TB in children, scenarios in which transmission is more likely, review United States national recommendations, and consider the family unit, as opposed to the patient, to be the transmission unit for childhood TB. PMID:22079589

Cruz, Andrea T; Starke, Jeffrey R

2011-12-01

162

Implementing GermWatcher, an enterprise infection control application.  

PubMed

Automated surveillance tools can provide significant advantages to infection control practitioners. When stored in a relational database, the data collected can also be used to support numerous research and quality improvement opportunities. A previously described electronic infection control surveillance system was remodeled to provide multi-hospital support, an XML based rule set, and interoperability with an enterprise terminology server. This paper describes the new architecture being used at hospitals across BJC HealthCare. PMID:17238333

Doherty, Joshua; Noirot, Laura A; Mayfield, Jennie; Ramiah, Sridhar; Huang, Christine; Dunagan, Wm Claiborne; Bailey, Thomas C

2006-01-01

163

Acute helminth infection enhances early macrophage mediated control of mycobacterial infection.  

PubMed

Co-infection with mycobacteria and helminths is widespread in developing countries, but how this alters host immunological control of each pathogen is not comprehensively understood. In this study, we demonstrate that acute Nippostrongylus brasiliensis (Nb) murine infection reduce early pulmonary mycobacterial colonization. This Nb-associated reduction in pulmonary Mycobacterium tuberculosis colony-forming units was associated with early and increased activation of pulmonary CD4 T cells and increased T helper type 1 (Th1) and Th2 cytokine secretion. An accelerated and transient augmentation of neutrophils and alveolar macrophages (AMs) was also observed in co-infected animals. AMs displayed markers of both classical and alternative activation. Intranasal transfer of pulmonary macrophages obtained from donor mice 5 days after Nb infection significantly reduced pulmonary Mycobacterium bovis Bacille Calmette-Guérin clearance in recipient mice. These data demonstrate that early stage Nb infection elicits a macrophage response, which is protective during the early stages of subsequent mycobacterial infection. PMID:23250274

du Plessis, N; Kleynhans, L; Thiart, L; van Helden, P D; Brombacher, F; Horsnell, W G C; Walzl, G

2013-09-01

164

Russian healthcare workers' knowledge of tuberculosis and infection control  

PubMed Central

Summary Background Lack of knowledge may contribute to a higher risk of nosocomial tuberculosis (TB) among Russian TB healthcare workers (HCWs). Design Community-based participatory study. Russian TB HCWs at five TB facilities (n=96) surveyed to assess knowledge specific to TB/infection control. Results Scores overall were low. Analysis of variance showed a significant difference in knowledge by job category. Physicians scored significantly higher than nurses, lab staff and support staff. Nurses and laboratorians scored significantly higher than support staff. The biggest area of knowledge deficit was infection control. Conclusion Knowledge level of TB HCWs could influence the prevalence of nosocomial TB infection.

Woith, Wendy Mann; Volchenkov, Grigory; Larson, Janet L.

2013-01-01

165

Postdoctoral nursing education in infection control: program description.  

PubMed

The need to identify and evaluate those clinical practices that are efficacious in reducing risk of nosocomial infection is clear. A model of large-scale programmatic evaluation is the Study of the Efficacy of Nosocomial Infection Control. Other important clinical studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of practices such as closed urinary drainage and management of intravascular lines and the ineffectiveness of such practices as double bagging and routine gowning in the newborn nursery. Clearly, research is one essential way to direct practice in infection control. It is our goal that the Johnson & Johnson/SURGIKOS Postdoctoral Nursing Fellows in Infection Control will make a significant contribution to the knowledge base in the specialty. The need for collaboration by government, industry, and academia in addressing health care research needs has been recently emphasized. We also believe that this Program can serve as one model for such a collaborative effort. PMID:3207209

Larson, E; Butz, A; Korniewicz, D

1988-12-01

166

Dengue Infection and Miscarriage: A Prospective Case Control Study  

PubMed Central

Background Dengue is the most prevalent mosquito borne infection worldwide. Vertical transmissions after maternal dengue infection to the fetus and pregnancy losses in relation to dengue illness have been reported. The relationship of dengue to miscarriage is not known. Method We aimed to establish the relationship of recent dengue infection and miscarriage. Women who presented with miscarriage (up to 22 weeks gestation) to our hospital were approached to participate in the study. For each case of miscarriage, we recruited 3 controls with viable pregnancies at a similar gestation. A brief questionnaire on recent febrile illness and prior dengue infection was answered. Blood was drawn from participants, processed and the frozen serum was stored. Stored sera were thawed and then tested in batches with dengue specific IgM capture ELISA, dengue non-structural protein 1 (NS1) antigen and dengue specific IgG ELISA tests. Controls remained in the analysis if their pregnancies continued beyond 22 weeks gestation. Tests were run on 116 case and 341 control sera. One case (a misdiagnosed viable early pregnancy) plus 45 controls (39 lost to follow up and six subsequent late miscarriages) were excluded from analysis. Findings Dengue specific IgM or dengue NS1 antigen (indicating recent dengue infection) was positive in 6/115 (5·2%) cases and 5/296 (1·7%) controls RR 3·1 (95% CI 1·0–10) P?=?0·047. Maternal age, gestational age, parity and ethnicity were dissimilar between cases and controls. After adjustments for these factors, recent dengue infection remained significantly more frequently detected in cases than controls (AOR 4·2 95% CI 1·2–14 P?=?0·023). Interpretation Recent dengue infections were more frequently detected in women presenting with miscarriage than in controls whose pregnancies were viable. After adjustments for confounders, the positive association remained.

Tan, Peng Chiong; Soe, May Zaw; Si Lay, Khaing; Wang, Seok Mui; Sekaran, Shamala Devi; Omar, Siti Zawiah

2012-01-01

167

Queer challenges to evidence-based practice.  

PubMed

This paper aims to queer evidence-based practice by troubling the concepts of evidence, knowledge and mental illness. The evidence-based narrative that emerged within biomedicine has dominated health care. The biomedical notion of 'evidence' has been critiqued extensively and is seen as exclusive and limiting, and even though the social constructionist paradigm attempts to challenge the authority of biomedicine to legitimate what constitutes acceptable evidence or knowledge for those experiencing mental illness, biomedical notions of evidence appear to remain relatively intact. Queer theory offers theoretical tools to disrupt biomedical norms and challenges biomedical normativity to indicate how marginalisation occurs when normative truths about mental health classify those who differ from the norm as 'ill' or 'disordered'. Queer theory's emphasis on normativity serves the political aim to subvert marginalisation and bring about radical social and material change. Reference will be made to mental health subjects within each discourse by indicating how the body acts as a vehicle for knowing. Deleuzian notions of the rhizome are used as metaphor to suggest a relational approach to knowledge that does away with either/or positions in either biomedical, or queer knowledge to arrive at a both/and position where the biomedical, constructionist and queer are interrelated and entangled in needing the other for their own evolution. However, queer does not ask for assimilation but celebrates difference by remaining outside to disrupt that which is easily overlooked, assumed to be natural or represented as the norm. The task of queer knowledge is to do justice to the lives lived in the name of evidence-based practice and demands that we consider the relations of power where knowledge is produced. This pursuit creates different knowledge spaces where we identify new intersections that allow for socially just understandings of knowing or evidence to emerge. PMID:23738815

Zeeman, Laetitia; Aranda, Kay; Grant, Alec

2014-06-01

168

Observation, Sherlock Holmes, and Evidence Based Medicine.  

PubMed

Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, the creator of the fictional detective Sherlock Holmes, studied medicine at the University of Edinburgh between 1876 and 1881 under Doctor Joseph Bell who emphasised in his teaching the importance of observation, deduction and evidence. Sherlock Holmes was modelled on Joseph Bell. The modern notions of Evidence Based Medicine (EBM) are not new. A very brief indication of some of the history of EBM is presented including a discussion of the important and usually overlooked contribution of statisticians to the Popperian philosophy of EBM. PMID:14509997

Osborn, John

2002-01-01

169

Staffing and structure of infection prevention and control programs  

PubMed Central

Background The nature of infection prevention and control is changing; however, little is known about current staffing and structure of infection prevention and control programs. Methods Our objectives were to provide a snapshot of the staffing and structure of hospital-based infection prevention and control programs in the United States. A Web-based survey was sent to 441 hospitals that participate in the National Healthcare Safety Network. Results The response rate was 66% (n = 289); data were examined on 821 professionals. Infection preventionist (IP) staffing was significantly negatively related to bed size, with higher staffing in smaller hospitals (P < .001). Median staffing was 1 IP per 167 beds. Forty-seven percent of IPs were certified, and 24 percent had less than 2 years of experience. Most directors or hospital epidemiologists were reported to have authority to close beds for outbreaks always or most of the time (n = 225, 78%). Only 32% (n = 92) reported using an electronic surveillance system to track infections. Conclusion This study is the first to provide a comprehensive description of current infection prevention and control staffing, organization, and support in a select group of hospitals across the nation. Further research is needed to identify effective staffing levels for various hospital types as well as examine how the IP role is changing over time.

Stone, Patricia W.; Dick, Andrew; Pogorzelska, Monika; Horan, Teresa C.; Furuya, E. Yoko; Larson, Elaine

2009-01-01

170

The Coalition for Evidence-Based Policy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Coalition for Evidence-Based Policy's aim is to increase government effectiveness by using evidence of what works based on rigorous policy analysis. On the "Mission & Activities" tab near the top of any page, visitors can read of the ineffective policies the Coalition targets. For example, the site details government-funded social programs that have failed to make progress in the areas they are supposed to help, such as "poverty reduction", "K-12 education", and "economic mobility." Further down the page is a list of programs that have been deemed effective by the Coalition - "Nurse-Family Partnership," "Career Academies," and "Success for All in Grades K-2." The "Publications" tab lists the five types of publications of the Coalition, including "Rigorous Evidence," their monthly e-newsletter that can be subscribed to for free for anyone interested in evidence-based policy. Some of the other publications include "Published Op-Eds/Letters to the Editor" and "Coalition Policy Proposals," which have covered, among other things, "Technology Development," "Crime/Substance Abuse," and "Health Care."

171

Evidence-Based Chinese Medicine for Hypertension  

PubMed Central

Hypertension is an important worldwide public -health challenge with high mortality and disability. Due to the limitations and concerns with current available hypertension treatments, many hypertensive patients, especially in Asia, have turned to Chinese medicine (CM). Although hypertension is not a CM term, physicians who practice CM in China attempt to treat the disease using CM principles. A variety of approaches for treating hypertension have been taken in CM. For seeking the best evidence of CM in making decisions for hypertensive patients, a number of clinical studies have been conducted in China, which has paved the evidence-based way. After literature searching and analyzing, it appeared that CM was effective for hypertension in clinical use, such as Chinese herbal medicine, acupuncture, moxibustion, cupping, qigong, and Tai Chi. However, due to the poor quality of primary studies, clinical evidence is still weak. The potential benefits and safety of CM for hypertension still need to be confirmed in the future with well-designed RCTs of more persuasive primary endpoints and high-quality SRs. Evidence-based Chinese medicine for hypertension still has a long way to go.

Wang, Jie; Xiong, Xingjiang

2013-01-01

172

Evidence-based practice: balloon catheter dilation in rhinology.  

PubMed

Balloon catheter dilation (BCD) is a treatment paradigm for surgical management of paranasal sinus inflammatory disease. There are few robust clinical trials evaluating the efficacy of balloon technology in chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). The available database largely comprises retrospective, uncontrolled studies with insufficiently characterized patient cohorts and a lack of comparator groups. Thus, the current evidence base is unable to elucidate the role and indications for BCD in the management of medically refractory CRS. Future studies should include selected control groups, preferably with randomization and validated outcome measures, to determine the efficacy of balloon technology compared with endoscopic sinus surgery. PMID:22980680

Batra, Pete S

2012-10-01

173

Sphincter of Oddi dysfunction: an evidence-based review.  

PubMed

Sphincter of Oddi dysfunction is a painful syndrome that presents as recurrent episodes of right upper quadrant biliary pain, or recurrent idiopathic pancreatitis. It is a disease process that has been a subject of controversy, in part because its natural history, disease course and treatment outcomes have not been clearly defined in large controlled studies with long-term follow-up. This review is aimed at clarifying the state-of-the-art with an evidence-based summary of the current diagnostic and therapeutic approaches and modalities for sphincter of Oddi dysfunction. PMID:24161134

Rehman, Abdul; Affronti, John; Rao, Satish

2013-11-01

174

Factsheets, Evidence-Based Reviews and Outside Reports  

Cancer.gov

Factsheets, Evidence-Based Reviews & Reports View All  |  Tab View Factsheets Evidence-Based Reviews Reports Please see: NCI Fact Sheets: Diet and Nutrition These documents are issued by the Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine

175

A Partnership that Empowers Community Hospitals To Succeed: Duke Infection Control Outreach  

Microsoft Academic Search

ISSUE: Many community hospitals struggle to meet infection control (IC) standards without the guidance of an infectious disease physician or an experienced infection control practitioner (ICP). In many community hospitals, nurses assume the role of ICP without proper training and physician support, and\\/or infection control is an assigned duty for personnel with other responsibilities.PROJECT: Duke Infection Control Outreach (DICON) was

C. Clark; D. Boyette

2004-01-01

176

Evidence-based guidelines for universal counselling and offering of HIV testing in pregnancy in Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To provide Canadian health care workers with evidence-based guide- lines for universal counselling about HIV testing and the offering of such testing to all pregnant women. Options: Universal counselling and offering of HIV testing to all pregnant women versus targeted testing of only pregnant women at high risk for HIV infection. Antiretroviral treatment protocols for HIV-positive mothers and their

Lindy Samson; Susan King

1998-01-01

177

Osteoporosis treatment: an evidence-based approach.  

PubMed

Osteoporosis is a disease that results in decreased bone mass and quality of bone, which may lead to fracture. Clinicians need to counsel individuals on appropriate intake of calcium and vitamin D, increasing weight-bearing exercise, limiting alcohol and caffeine, and avoiding smoking. A variety of nonhormonal pharmacological options are available for prevention and treatment of osteoporosis, including bisphosphonates, calcitonin (Miacalcin®), raloxifene (Evista®), teriparatide (Forteo®), and denosumab (Prolia®). The National Osteoporosis Foundation and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists have recently published new guidelines, and it is important for clinicians to be familiar with the evidence behind each of these treatment modalities. It is paramount for nurses to make evidence-based, cost-effective decisions about pharmacological therapy based on individual patient-specific factors. PMID:21667891

Ragucci, Kelly R; Shrader, Sarah P

2011-07-01

178

[Evidence-based psychotherapy of schizophrenic psychoses].  

PubMed

On the basis of the scientific state of knowledge it is outlined that psychotherapy is an important part of an efficacious and guideline-compliant treatment of schizophrenia. Firstly, aspects of the methodologically sound British National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) guidelines regarding the field of psychosis psychotherapy are presented in which cognitive behavioral therapy and family interventions are recommended without restrictions. Afterwards, empirically substantiated starting points for psychosis psychotherapy are described, taking particular account of the cognitive model of delusions. Furthermore, disorder-specific strategies of building the therapeutic relationship are identified, which take account of symptoms, such as mistrust or affective flattening. Finally, the evidence-based therapeutic strategies for relapse prevention and symptom reduction are delineated. In conclusion, psychosis psychotherapy does not have an evidence problem but an implementation problem. PMID:22733380

Klingberg, S; Wittorf, A

2012-07-01

179

[What else is Evidence-based Medicine?].  

PubMed

The practice of evidence-based medicine means integrating individual clinical expertise with the best available external clinical evidence. Strange enough, scientific discussion focuses on external evidence from systematic research, but neglects its counterpart, i.e., individual clinical expertise. Apart from a lack of appropriate intellectual tools for approaching the latter, this might be due to the mutual concealment of thought and action, of sensor and motor activity (Viktor von Weizsaecker's principle of the revolving door). Behind this, and incommensurably different from each other, lie the world of physics and the world of biology with an ego animal, that is, the dilemma of the self-conscious subject in a world of objects. When practicing medicine, this dilemma of self-reference is being resolved but only through a holistic approach combining rational and external evidence with biographical, spiritual, emotional and pre-rational elements represented in the physician's individual clinical expertise. PMID:21129698

Hauswaldt, Johannes

2010-01-01

180

Evidence-based practice. The role of staff development.  

PubMed

Knowledge and use of evidence-based practice are essential to ensure best practices and safe patient outcomes. Staff development specialists must be leaders in this initiative to support clinical nurses toward improved practice outcomes. This article describes the background for understanding the historical evolution from research utilization to evidence-based practice, defines some key concepts related to evidence-based practice, and suggests essential components for building evidence-based practice programs in healthcare institutions. PMID:15027342

Krugman, Mary

2003-01-01

181

Glycerin-Based Hydrogel for Infection Control  

PubMed Central

Problem Infection is a major problem in the health and wellbeing of patients in hospitals, nursing homes, and other medical facilities as well as the homecare patients and the general public. According to Scientia Advisors, wound care costs the healthcare system over $7 billion in 2009. After adding the cost associated with potential complications such as infections, extended physician care, and lengthy hospital stays, the annual wound care expenditures well exceeded over $20 billion.1 There are 20 million reported cases of diabetes per year and more every day. Because of the fact that leg ulcers are the number one health problem of men coupled with the rise in drug resistance of infections, the importance of providing the professional and the public with relatively simple and affordable wound care is of extreme importance. Often the wounds can become chronic wounds, which then result in long-term nursing expense in time and supplies or, worse yet, can result in expensive amputations ranging from $5000 to $40,000 per patient. Solution There are many dressing options now available for treating wounds with components such as glycerin, honey, salt, and many other natural products, with some dressings being more appropriate than others. In 1988, a patented glycerin-based dressing was introduced to the market, called Elasto-Gel™.2 New Technology Elasto-Gel™ is a glycerin-based gel sheet (65%) combined with a hydrophilic polymer that causes the sheet to absorb the exudate from the wound and simultaneously release the glycerin from the gel, which adds many benefits to the wound for excellent healing outcomes. The gel sheet is 1/8th of an inch thick with a four-way stretch backing. It has the ability to absorb 3–4 times its own weight of fluids. The dressing will not dry out or allow the exudate to dry out, thus keeping the dressing from becoming bonded to the wound or the surrounding tissue. It does not have adhesive properties and, therefore, will not cause damage to the wound bed or periwound area upon dressing removal. Because of the thickness, the product provides excellent cushion and padding support. It has been also proven to be bacteriostatic/fungistatic. (Bacteriostatic is the ability to restrain the development or reproduction of bacteria.3) Product Technology Glycerin is a huamectant by definition and has been recognized by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Humectants attract, bind, and hold moisture to the site of application. The actual concentration of glycerin in a wound dressing is indicative of the ability to absorb excess moisture. Exudate management is an important function of topical treatment. The ability to absorb drainage and prevent pooling of exudate in the wound or on the surrounding skin are attributes specific to high glycerin content. Perhaps, the most significant advantage of the glycerin-based hydrogel sheet is its impact on wound bioburden and pathogenic organisms.4 Glycerin is a simple three-carbon tri-alcohol and is a natural humectant. It is used as a carrier in many medicines and as plasticizer in gelatin gel capsules. Glycerin is a component of cosmetics, conditioners, soaps, foods, and other common products. It is a component of mono-, di-, and triglycerides naturally occurring in the body. These glycerides and glycerin are constantly reacted with each other by the natural enzymes and reversed with the natural metabolic processes already present in the body. Any glycerin that may be absorbed into the body fluid is rapidly diluted in these fluids and is no longer toxic but is metabolized as another component of the food chain. It is well known that glycerin in high concentration will exhibit dehydrating effect on many systems including living cells by the commonly known process of osmosis. (Osmosis: the flow or diffusion that takes place through a semipermable membrane, as of living cell, typically separating a solvent such as water, thus bringing about equilibrium conditions.5) It has been shown that glycerin at high concentration will be cytotoxic to all cel

Stout, Edward I.; McKessor, Angie

2012-01-01

182

The ABCs of Evidence-Based Practice for Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is critical teachers adhere to federal policies regarding evidence-based practices. Quickly identifying and effectively using evidence-based programs and practices is particularly important for special educators, because students in special education often already have academic or behavioral deficits. Using evidence-based practices with…

Kretlow, Allison G.; Blatz, Sharon L.

2011-01-01

183

Evidence-Based Medicine in the Education of Psychiatrists  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Evidence-based medicine has an important place in the teaching and practice of psychiatry. Attempts to teach evidence-based medicine skills can be weakened by conceptual confusions feeding a false polarization between traditional clinical skills and evidence-based medicine. Methods: The author develops a broader conception of clinical…

Srihari, Vinod

2008-01-01

184

OX40 Facilitates Control of a Persistent Virus Infection  

PubMed Central

During acute viral infections, clearance of the pathogen is followed by the contraction of the anti-viral T cell compartment. In contrast, T cell responses need to be maintained over a longer period of time during chronic viral infections in order to control viral replication and to avoid viral spreading. Much is known about inhibitory signals such as through PD-1 that limit T cell activity during chronic viral infection, but little is known about the stimulatory signals that allow maintenance of anti-viral T cells. Here, we show that the co-stimulatory molecule OX40 (CD134) is critically required in the context of persistent LCMV clone 13 infection. Anti-viral T cells express high levels of OX40 in the presence of their cognate antigen and T cells lacking the OX40 receptor fail to accumulate sufficiently. Moreover, the emergence of T cell dependent germinal center responses and LCMV-specific antibodies are severely impaired. Consequently, OX40-deficient mice fail to control LCMV clone 13 infection over time, highlighting the importance of this signaling pathway during persistent viral infection.

Cheng, Yang; Heeg, Maximilian; Salek-Ardakani, Shahram; Crotty, Shane; Croft, Michael; von Herrath, Matthias G.

2012-01-01

185

Evidence that hepatitis C virus genome partly controls infection outcome  

PubMed Central

Infection by hepatitis C virus (HCV) leads to one of two outcomes; either the infection resolves within approximately 6 months or the virus can persist indefinitely. Host genetics are known to affect the likelihood of clearance or persistence. By contrast, the importance of the virus genotype in determining infection outcome is unknown, as quantifying this effect traditionally requires well-characterized transmission networks, which are rare. Extending phylogenetic approaches previously developed to estimate the virus control over set-point viral load in HIV-1 infections, we simulate inheritance of a binary trait along a phylogenetic tree, use this data to quantify how infection outcomes cluster and ascertain the effect of virus genotype on these. We apply our method to the Hepatitis C Incidence and Transmission Study in prisons (HITS-p) data set from Australia, as this cohort prospectively identified incident cases including viraemic subjects who ultimately clear the virus, thus providing us with a unique collection of sequences from clearing infections. We detect significant correlations between infection outcome and virus distance in the phylogeny for viruses of Genotype 1, with estimates lying at around 67%. No statistically significant estimates were obtained for viruses of Genotype 3a.

Hartfield, Matthew; Bull, Rowena; White, Peter A; Lloyd, Andrew; Luciani, Fabio; Alizon, Samuel

2014-01-01

186

Evidence that hepatitis C virus genome partly controls infection outcome.  

PubMed

Infection by hepatitis C virus (HCV) leads to one of two outcomes; either the infection resolves within approximately 6 months or the virus can persist indefinitely. Host genetics are known to affect the likelihood of clearance or persistence. By contrast, the importance of the virus genotype in determining infection outcome is unknown, as quantifying this effect traditionally requires well-characterized transmission networks, which are rare. Extending phylogenetic approaches previously developed to estimate the virus control over set-point viral load in HIV-1 infections, we simulate inheritance of a binary trait along a phylogenetic tree, use this data to quantify how infection outcomes cluster and ascertain the effect of virus genotype on these. We apply our method to the Hepatitis C Incidence and Transmission Study in prisons (HITS-p) data set from Australia, as this cohort prospectively identified incident cases including viraemic subjects who ultimately clear the virus, thus providing us with a unique collection of sequences from clearing infections. We detect significant correlations between infection outcome and virus distance in the phylogeny for viruses of Genotype 1, with estimates lying at around 67%. No statistically significant estimates were obtained for viruses of Genotype 3a. PMID:24944567

Hartfield, Matthew; Bull, Rowena; White, Peter A; Lloyd, Andrew; Luciani, Fabio; Alizon, Samuel

2014-05-01

187

Controlling healthcare-associated infections in the NHS.  

PubMed

The prevention and control of healthcare-associated infection (HCAI) is a priority for the NHS. The delivery of national targets for reducing methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemias and Clostridium difficile infection are supported by enhanced mandatory surveillance through the Health Protection Agency and a Department of Health improvement programme that promotes policies and protocols for enhancing clinical procedures and places infection prevention and control at the centre of clinical and corporate governance. The Health Act 2006 Code of Practice makes such policies and protocols a legal requirement and compliance will be assessed by the Healthcare Commission. Clinicians must recognise their responsibilities for patient safety and take a lead role in ensuring good practice to reduce HCAI. PMID:18478854

Duerden, Brian

2008-04-01

188

Therapeutic depletion of natural killer cells controls persistent infection.  

PubMed

Persistent viral infections are associated with host and viral factors that impair effective antiviral immunity. Natural killer (NK) cells contribute to establishment of persistent lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) infection in mice through suppression of virus-specific T cell responses during the first few days of infection, but NK cell depletion during those early time points can enable severe T cell-mediated immune pathology and death of the host. Here we show that long after their peak in cytolytic activation, NK cells continue to support viral persistence at later times of infection. Delayed depletion of NK cells, 2 to 3 weeks after infection, enhanced virus-specific T cell responses and viral control. This enhancing effect of delayed NK cell depletion on antiviral immunity, in contrast to early NK cell depletion, was not associated with increased morbidity and mortality, and mice quickly regained weight after treatment. The efficacy of the depletion depended in part upon the size of the original virus inoculum, the viral load at the time of depletion, and the presence of CD4 T cells. Each of these factors is an important contributor to the degree of CD8 T cell dysfunction during viral persistence. Thus, NK cells may continuously contribute to exhaustion of virus-specific T cells during chronic infection, possibly by depleting CD4 T cells. Targeting of NK cells could thus be considered in combination with blockade of other immunosuppressive pathways, such as the interleukin-10 (IL-10) and programmed death 1 (PD-1) pathways, as a therapy to cure chronic human infections, including those with HIV or hepatitis C virus. IMPORTANCE Persistent virus infections are a major threat to global human health. The capacity of viruses, including HIV and hepatitis C virus, to overwhelm or subvert host immune responses contributes to a prolonged state of dampened antiviral immune functionality, which in turn facilitates viral persistence. Recent efforts have focused on therapeutics that can restore the effector functions of these functionally exhausted virus-specific T cells in order to expedite viral clearance. Here we establish that natural killer (NK) cells actively contribute to immune dysfunction and viral persistence at later stages of infection. This previously undescribed mechanism of immune suppression during chronic infection provides a vital clue for the design of novel therapeutic strategies targeting NK cell immunosuppressive activity in order to restore immune function and enhance viral control in chronically infected individuals. PMID:24284324

Waggoner, Stephen N; Daniels, Keith A; Welsh, Raymond M

2014-02-01

189

Fusobacterium necrophorum infections: virulence factors, pathogenic mechanism and control measures.  

PubMed

Fusobacterium necrophorum, a Gram-negative, non-spore-forming anaerobe, is a normal inhabitant of the alimentary tract of animals and humans. Two types of F. necrophorum, subspecies necrophorum (biotype A) and funduliforme (biotype B), have been recognized, which differ morphologically, biochemically, and biologically. The organism is an opportunistic pathogen that causes numerous necrotic conditions (necrobacillosis) such as bovine hepatic abscesses, ruminant foot abscesses and human oral infections. The pathogenic mechanism of F. necrophorum is complex and not well defined. Several toxins, such as leukotoxin, endotoxin, haemolysin, haemagglutinin and adhesin, have been implicated as virulence factors. Among these, leukotoxin and endotoxin are believed to be more important than other toxins in overcoming the host's defence mechanisms to establish the infection. F. necrophorum is encountered frequently in mixed infections and, therefore, synergisms between F. necrophorum and other pathogens may play an important role in infection. Several investigators have attempted to induce protective immunity against F. necrophorum using bacterins, toxoids, and other cytoplasmic components. Generally, none of the immunogens has afforded satisfactory protection against Fusobacterium infections. Because of the unavailability of suitable immunoprophylaxis, the control of F. necrophorum infection has depended mainly on the use of antimicrobial compounds. PMID:8711893

Tan, Z L; Nagaraja, T G; Chengappa, M M

1996-01-01

190

Control of Acute Dengue Virus Infection by Natural Killer Cells  

PubMed Central

Dengue fever is the most important arthropod-borne viral disease worldwide, affecting 50–100 million individuals annually. The clinical picture associated with acute dengue virus (DENV) infections ranges from classical febrile illness to life-threatening disease. The innate immunity is the first line of defense in the control of viral replication. This review will examine the particular role of natural killer (NK) cells in DENV infection. Over recent years, our understanding of the interplay between NK cells and viral pathogenesis has improved significantly. NK cells express an array of inhibitory and activating receptors that enable them to detect infected targets while sparing normal cells, and to recruit adaptive immune cells. To date, the exact mechanism by which NK cells may contribute to the control of DENV infection remains elusive. Importantly, DENV has acquired mechanisms to evade NK cell responses, further underlining the relevance of these cells in pathophysiology. Hence, understanding how NK cells affect the outcome of DENV infection could benefit the management of this acute disease.

Petitdemange, Caroline; Wauquier, Nadia; Rey, Juliana; Hervier, Baptiste; Leroy, Eric; Vieillard, Vincent

2014-01-01

191

Evidence-Based Management of Anticoagulant Therapy  

PubMed Central

Background: High-quality anticoagulation management is required to keep these narrow therapeutic index medications as effective and safe as possible. This article focuses on the common important management questions for which, at a minimum, low-quality published evidence is available to guide best practices. Methods: The methods of this guideline follow those described in Methodology for the Development of Antithrombotic Therapy and Prevention of Thrombosis Guidelines: Antithrombotic Therapy and Prevention of Thrombosis, 9th ed: American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines in this supplement. Results: Most practical clinical questions regarding the management of anticoagulation, both oral and parenteral, have not been adequately addressed by randomized trials. We found sufficient evidence for summaries of recommendations for 23 questions, of which only two are strong rather than weak recommendations. Strong recommendations include targeting an international normalized ratio of 2.0 to 3.0 for patients on vitamin K antagonist therapy (Grade 1B) and not routinely using pharmacogenetic testing for guiding doses of vitamin K antagonist (Grade 1B). Weak recommendations deal with such issues as loading doses, initiation overlap, monitoring frequency, vitamin K supplementation, patient self-management, weight and renal function adjustment of doses, dosing decision support, drug interactions to avoid, and prevention and management of bleeding complications. We also address anticoagulation management services and intensive patient education. Conclusions: We offer guidance for many common anticoagulation-related management problems. Most anticoagulation management questions have not been adequately studied.

Schulman, Sam; Witt, Daniel M.; Vandvik, Per Olav; Fish, Jason; Kovacs, Michael J.; Svensson, Peter J.; Veenstra, David L.; Crowther, Mark; Guyatt, Gordon H.

2012-01-01

192

Evidence-based medicine for orthopedic practice.  

PubMed

Evidence-based medicine (EBM) is regarded as a new paradigm in medical practice, equal in enormity to the human genome project. However, there is still much confusion and misunderstanding about the concept and content of EBM. It is often limited to searching the literature and reading papers, serving cost cutters, and suppressing clinical freedom. Some believe that the use of clinical guidelines or the managed care system intimidates doctors' discretion during clinical practice and that EBM is a fashionable tendency of a group of medical academics armed with epidemiological and statistical jargon. Medical practice is a lifelong, continuous process of self-learning, and it requires clinicians to keep up to date on various developments. EBM is our practice for integrating individual clinical expertise with the best available evidence when making decisions about our care for each patient. EBM is one answer for making it possible to cover most of our activities as orthopedic surgeons, from the daily practice of patient care to writing and reading scientific papers. PMID:12486483

Akai, Masami

2002-01-01

193

Evidence-Based Gallbladder Cancer Staging  

PubMed Central

Background: A recent revision of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) staging for gallbladder cancer (6th Edition) involved some major changes. Most notably, T2N0M0 tumors were moved from stage II to stage IB; T3N1M0 disease was moved from stage III to stage IIB; and T4NxM0 (x = any) tumors were moved from stage IVA to stage III. Methods: In order to determine if these changes were justified by data, an analysis of the 10,705 cases of gallbladder cancer collected between 1989 and 1996 in the NCDB was performed. All patients had >5 year follow-up. Results: The staging according to the 6th Edition provided no discrimination between stage III and IV. Five-year survivals for stage IIA, IIB, III, and IV (6th Edition) were 7%, 9%, 3%, 2% respectively. The data from the National Cancer Database (NCDB) were used to derive a proposed new staging system that builds upon Edition 5 and had improved discrimination of stage groups over previous editions. Conclusions: Changes in staging systems should be justified by data. Multicenter databases, including the NCDB, represent important resources for verification of evidence-based staging systems.

Fong, Yuman; Wagman, Lawrence; Gonen, Mithat; Crawford, James; Reed, William; Swanson, Richard; Pan, Charlie; Ritchey, Jamie; Stewart, Andrew; Choti, Michael

2006-01-01

194

[Searching for evidence-based data].  

PubMed

The foundation of evidence-based medicine is critical analysis and synthesis of the best data available concerning a given health problem. These factual data are accessible because of the availability on the Internet of web tools specialized in research for scientific publications. A bibliographic database is a collection of bibliographic references describing the documents indexed. Such a reference includes at least the title, summary (or abstract), a set of keywords, and the type of publication. To conduct a strategically effective search, it is necessary to formulate the question - clinical, diagnostic, prognostic, or related to treatment or prevention - in a form understandable by the research engine. Moreover, it is necessary to choose the specific database or databases, which may have particular specificity, and to analyze the results rapidly to refine the strategy. The search for information is facilitated by the knowledge of the standardized terms commonly used to describe the desired information. These come from a specific thesaurus devoted to document indexing. The most frequently used is MeSH (Medical Subject Heading). The principal bibliographic database whose references include a set of describers from the MeSH thesaurus is Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (Medline), which has in turn become a subpart of a still more vast bibliography called PubMed, which indexes an additional 1.4 million references. Numerous other databases are maintained by national or international entities. These include the Cochrane Library, Embase, and the PASCAL and FRANCIS databases. PMID:19775689

Dufour, J-C; Mancini, J; Fieschi, M

2009-08-01

195

Minimally invasive treatment of Peyronie's disease: evidence-based progress.  

PubMed

Peyronie's disease (PD) is often physically and psychologically devastating for patients, and the goal of treatment is to improve symptoms and sexual function without adding treatment-related morbidity. The potential for treatment-related morbidity after more invasive interventions, e.g. surgery, creates a need for effective minimally invasive treatments. We critically examined the available literature using levels of evidence to determine the reported support for each treatment. Most available minimally invasive treatments lack critical support for effectiveness due to the absence of randomised, placebo-controlled trials (RCTs) or non-significant results after RCTs. Iontophoresis, oral therapies (vitamin E, potassium para-aminobenzoate, tamoxifen, carnitine, and colchicine), extracorporeal shockwave therapy, and intralesional injection with verapamil or nicardipine have shown mixed or negative results. Treatments that have decreased penile curvature deformity in Level 1 or Level 2 evidence-based, placebo-controlled studies include intralesional injection with interferon ?-2b or collagenase clostridium histolyticum. PMID:24447536

Jordan, Gerald H; Carson, Culley C; Lipshultz, Larry I

2014-07-01

196

Increasing capacity for evidence-based practice through the evidence-based practice academy.  

PubMed

Although mentoring is an important aspect of implementing evidence-based practice (EBP), few models exist for EBP education. The EBP Academy is an innovative, 6-month educational program designed to develop clinical staff as EBP nurse mentors. Sessions provide protected time for participants to work on their EBP projects with assigned mentors who have EBP expertise and similar clinical or research interests. Participants develop EBP projects focused on improving care in their clinical areas. Evaluation of the EBP Academy is based on a four-level model, including participant feedback about the program, perception of meeting program objectives, ability to apply knowledge to practice through EBP projects, and outcome data measured as a result of implementing the EBP changes. By developing EBP mentors, capacity to move nursing practice to a stronger evidence-based foundation can be enhanced. Positive, professional nursing and patient outcomes have been demonstrated when structured EBP education is provided. PMID:24494661

Green, Angela; Jeffs, Debra; Huett, Amy; Jones, Luann R; Schmid, Barbara; Scott, Angela R; Walker, Liz

2014-02-01

197

Format IIA Model Infection Control Program for Commissioning an Ambulatory Surgery Center  

Microsoft Academic Search

ISSUE: Construction-related infection control guidelines for healthcare facilities are primarily directed toward preventing healthcare-associated fungal infection (e.g., Aspergillus species) in occupied buildings. There are, however, no generally accepted standards for infection control commissioning of a newly constructed ambulatory surgery center. A model infection control program for commissioning such a building is presented.PROJECT: To develop an infection control-commissioning program for a

L. Lee; N. Whittington; D. Villaflor-Camagong; L. Bui; A. Streifel; B. Cookson; E. Whimbey

2004-01-01

198

An overview of infection control in dental practice.  

PubMed

Although it is not possible to cover all of the ramifications of infection control in prosthodontics, currently available information may be summarized as follows: 1. All dental disciplines must be concerned with the dangers involved in the spread of certain infectious diseases. 2. Prosthodontists and their ancillary personnel may be exposed to certain diseases predominantly found in adult patients, such as hepatitis B and tuberculosis. 3. Dentists must ensure that at least six basic infection control procedures are observed when treating patients. 4. Additional control procedures should be observed in the fabrication and handling of impressions and dental prosthesis. 5. Dental offices and commercial laboratories should work closely together to coordinate control of potential cross-infection between the two disciplines. The control of infectious diseases in prosthodontics is not difficult. It requires the expenditure of a little time, a little money, and most important, a great deal of discipline. The rewards are well worth the additional effort and could even be lifesaving. PMID:3290458

Runnells, R R

1988-05-01

199

Slaving and release in co-infection control  

PubMed Central

Background Animal and human infection with multiple parasite species is the norm rather than the exception, and empirical studies and animal models have provided evidence for a diverse range of interactions among parasites. We demonstrate how an optimal control strategy should be tailored to the pathogen community and tempered by species-level knowledge of drug sensitivity with use of a simple epidemiological model of gastro-intestinal nematodes. Methods We construct a fully mechanistic model of macroparasite co-infection and use it to explore a range of control scenarios involving chemotherapy as well as improvements to sanitation. Results Scenarios are presented whereby control not only releases a more resistant parasite from antagonistic interactions, but risks increasing co-infection rates, exacerbating the burden of disease. In contrast, synergisms between species result in their becoming epidemiologically slaved within hosts, presenting a novel opportunity for controlling drug resistant parasites by targeting co-circulating species. Conclusions Understanding the effects on control of multi-parasite species interactions, and vice versa, is of increasing urgency in the advent of integrated mass intervention programmes.

2013-01-01

200

Human gastrointestinal nematode infections: are new control methods required?  

PubMed Central

Gastrointestinal (GI) nematode infections affect 50% of the human population worldwide, and cause great morbidity as well as hundreds of thousands of deaths. Despite modern medical practices, the proportion of the population infected with GI nematodes is not falling. This is due to a number of factors, the most important being the lack of good healthcare, sanitation and health education in many developing countries. A relatively new problem is the development of resistance to the small number of drugs available to treat GI nematode infections. Here we review the most important parasitic GI nematodes and the methods available to control them. In addition, we discuss the current status of new anthelmintic treatments, particularly the plant cysteine proteinases from various sources of latex-bearing plants and fruits.

Stepek, Gillian; Buttle, David J; Duce, Ian R; Behnke, Jerzy M

2006-01-01

201

Therapeutic Depletion of Natural Killer Cells Controls Persistent Infection  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Persistent viral infections are associated with host and viral factors that impair effective antiviral immunity. Natural killer (NK) cells contribute to establishment of persistent lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) infection in mice through suppression of virus-specific T cell responses during the first few days of infection, but NK cell depletion during those early time points can enable severe T cell-mediated immune pathology and death of the host. Here we show that long after their peak in cytolytic activation, NK cells continue to support viral persistence at later times of infection. Delayed depletion of NK cells, 2 to 3 weeks after infection, enhanced virus-specific T cell responses and viral control. This enhancing effect of delayed NK cell depletion on antiviral immunity, in contrast to early NK cell depletion, was not associated with increased morbidity and mortality, and mice quickly regained weight after treatment. The efficacy of the depletion depended in part upon the size of the original virus inoculum, the viral load at the time of depletion, and the presence of CD4 T cells. Each of these factors is an important contributor to the degree of CD8 T cell dysfunction during viral persistence. Thus, NK cells may continuously contribute to exhaustion of virus-specific T cells during chronic infection, possibly by depleting CD4 T cells. Targeting of NK cells could thus be considered in combination with blockade of other immunosuppressive pathways, such as the interleukin-10 (IL-10) and programmed death 1 (PD-1) pathways, as a therapy to cure chronic human infections, including those with HIV or hepatitis C virus. IMPORTANCE

Daniels, Keith A.; Welsh, Raymond M.

2014-01-01

202

Infection control procedures used in conjunction with computed dental radiography.  

PubMed

Infection control guidelines for dental radiography have been modified since 1986, when the American Dental Association and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention supported the concept of "universal blood and body fluid precautions." With the introduction of computed digital radiography, hardware manufacturers recommend that alternative infection control techniques are necessary to prevent potential damage to the digital x-ray sensors placed inside the patient's mouth. Thirty first-year dental hygiene students were asked to insert and remove a Schick CDR number 2 size intraoral digital x-ray sensor into modified Rinn XCP bitewing bite blocks and a modified Rinn Snap-a-ray five times with each of the recommended infection control covers. Reduced rates of cross contamination are possible if the plastic barrier envelope has an additional latex finger cot stretched over it and the x-ray sensor. Sole usage of a latex finger cot will result in a reduced incidence of contamination, but still not to acceptable levels. However, a plastic barrier envelope placed over the x-ray sensor and over the modified XCP bite block together or a covered sensor in a Snap-a-ray under normal conditions does not result in a perforation and is least likely to result in cross contamination. PMID:11410973

Hubar, J S; Gardiner, D M

2000-10-01

203

T cells home to the thymus and control infection  

PubMed Central

The thymus is a target of multiple pathogens. How the immune system responds to thymic infection is largely unknown. Despite being considered an immune privileged organ, we detect a mycobacteria-specific T cell response in the thymus following dissemination of Mycobacterium avium or Mycobacterium tuberculosis. This response includes pro-inflammatory cytokine production by mycobacteria-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, which stimulates infected cells and controls bacterial growth in the thymus. Importantly, the responding T cells are mature peripheral T cells that recirculate back to the thymus. The recruitment of these cells is associated with an increased expression of Th1 chemokines and an enrichment of CXCR3+ mycobacteria-specific T cells in the thymus. Finally, we demonstrate it is the mature T cells that home to the thymus that most efficiently control mycobacterial infection. Although the presence of mature T cells in the thymus has been recognized for some time, these data are the first to show that T cell recirculation from the periphery to the thymus is a mechanism that allows the immune system to respond to thymic infection. Maintaining a functional thymic environment is essential to maintain T cell differentiation and prevent the emergence of central tolerance to the invading pathogens.

Nobrega, Claudia; Nunes-Alves, Claudio; Cerqueira-Rodrigues, Bruno; Roque, Susana; Barreira-Silva, Palmira; Behar, Samuel M.; Correia-Neves, Margarida

2012-01-01

204

Evidence-based practice improvement: merging 2 paradigms.  

PubMed

This article presents a new model, Evidence-Based Practice Improvement, for improving patient care. The model merges 2 extant paradigms currently used for quality improvement initiatives-evidence-based practice and practice or performance improvement. The literature expounds on the virtues of each of these approaches, yet no authors have moved beyond parallel play between them. The merged model, Evidence-Based Practice Improvement, may provide a more effective and practical approach to reach our quality goals. PMID:19680149

Levin, Rona F; Keefer, Jeffrey M; Marren, Joan; Vetter, MaryJo; Lauder, Bonnie; Sobolewski, Sally

2010-01-01

205

Clinical governance and infection control in the United Kingdom.  

PubMed

The recent organizational changes in the NHS have at their core the concept of clinical governance. Although initially poorly defined and understood this term has now taken on a clear identity, placing quality alongside fiscal probity and corporate governance at the top of NHS priorities. Integral to clinical governance are the basic elements of clear national standards for services and treatments that are to be locally delivered through assured, monitored, high quality healthcare. It is within this framework that workers in infection control must develop their own methods of applying clinical governance. This review explores the implications that the strategy of clinical governance holds for the speciality of infection control, emphasizing the benefits its active adoption can bring and highlighting the key relevance of clinical risk management in this setting. It illustrates clinical governance as a tool to engage colleagues on a multi-disciplinary front, most particularly the crucial link to senior Trust management. PMID:11281117

Masterson, R G; Teare, E L

2001-01-01

206

Vaccine to Control the Viral Infection of Fish.  

DOEpatents

Subunit vaccines and their use for immunizing fish against infection by viruses are disclosed. In particular, plasmid pG8 is constructed by joining, with the plasmid pUC8, DNA which encodes the glycoprotein of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV). E. coli cells are transformed by pG8, whereby pure viral antigen is produced to provide a vaccine for the control of IHNV in fish. 10 figs.

Leong, JoAnn Ching

1994-10-11

207

Vaccine to control the viral infection of fish  

DOEpatents

Subunit vaccines and their use for immunizing fish against infection by viruses are disclosed. In particular, plasmid pG8 is constructed by joining, with the plasmid pUC8, DNA which encodes the glycoprotein of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV). E. coli cells are transformed by pG8, whereby pure viral antigen is produced to provide a vaccine for the control of IHNV in fish.

Leong, Jo-Ann C. (Albany, OR)

1994-10-11

208

Effectiveness of an evidence-based chiropractic continuing education workshop on participant knowledge of evidence-based health care  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Chiropractors must continue to learn, develop themselves professionally throughout their careers, and become self-directed and lifelong learners. Using an evidence-based approach increases the probability of optimal patient outcomes. But most chiropractors lack knowledge and interest in evidence-based approaches. The purpose of this study was to develop and measure the effectiveness of evidence-based training for chiropractic practitioners in a continuing

Ronald J Feise; Jaroslaw P Grod; Anne Taylor-Vaisey

2006-01-01

209

Management of fibromyalgia syndrome - an interdisciplinary evidence-based guideline  

PubMed Central

The prevalence of fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) of 1–2% in the general population associated with high disease-related costs and the conflicting data on treatment effectiveness had led to the development of evidence-based guidelines designed to provide patients and physicians guidance in selecting among the alternatives. Until now no evidence-based interdisciplinary (including patients) guideline for the management of FMS was available in Europe. Therefore a guideline for the management of fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) was developed by 13 German medical and psychological associations and two patient self-help organisations. The task was coordinated by two German scientific umbrella organisations, the Association of the Scientific Medical Societies in Germany AWMF and the German Interdisciplinary Association of Pain Therapy DIVS. A systematic search of the literature including all controlled studies, systematic reviews and meta-analyses of pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments of FMS was performed in the Cochrane Library (1993–12/2006), Medline (1980–12/2006), PsychInfo (1966–12/2006) and Scopus (1980–12/ 2006). Levels of evidence were assigned according to the classification system of the Oxford-Centre for Evidence Based Medicine. Grading of the strengths of recommendations was done according to the German program for disease management guidelines. Standardized procedures were used to reach a consensus on recommendations. The guideline was reviewed and finally approved by the boards of the societies involved and published online by the AWMF on april 25, 2008: http://www.uni-duesseldorf.de/AWMF/ll/041-004.htm. A short version of the guideline for patients is available as well: http://www.uni-duesseldorf.de/AWMF/ll/041-004p.htm. The following procedures in the management of FMS were strongly recommended: information on diagnosis and therapeutic options and patient-centered communication, aerobic exercise, cognitive and operant behavioural therapy, multicomponent treatment and amitriptyline. Based on expert opinion, a stepwise FMS-management was proposed. Step 1 comprises confirming the diagnosis and patient education and treatment of physical or mental comorbidities or aerobic exercise or cognitive behavioural therapy or amitriptyline. Step 2 includes multicomponent treatment. Step 3 comprises no further treatment or self-management (aerobic exercise, stress management) and/or booster multicomponent therapy and/or pharmacological therapy (duloxetine or fluoxetine or paroxetine or pregabalin or tramadol/aminoacetophen) and/or psychotherapy (hypnotherapy or written emotional disclosure) and/or physical therapy (balneotherapy or whole body heat therapy) and/or complementary therapies (homoeopathy or vegetarian diet). The choice of treatment options should be based on informed decision-making and respect of the patients’ preferences.

Hauser, Winfried; Arnold, Bernhard; Eich, Wolfgang; Felde, Eva; Flugge, Christl; Henningsen, Peter; Herrmann, Markus; Kollner, Volker; Kuhn, Edeltraud; Nutzinger, Detlev; Offenbacher, Martin; Schiltenwolf, Marcus; Sommer, Claudia; Thieme, Kati; Kopp, Ina

2008-01-01

210

Proton pump inhibitors in cirrhosis: Tradition or evidence based practice?  

PubMed Central

Proton Pump Inhibitors (PPI) are very effective in inhibiting acid secretion and are extensively used in many acid related diseases. They are also often used in patients with cirrhosis sometimes in the absence of a specific acid related disease, with the aim of preventing peptic complications in patients with variceal or hypertensive gastropathic bleeding receiving multidrug treatment. Contradicting reports support their use in cirrhosis and evidence of their efficacy in this condition is poor. Moreover there are convincing papers suggesting that acid secretion is reduced in patients with liver cirrhosis. With regard to Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) infection, its prevalence in patients with cirrhosis is largely variable among different studies, and it seems that H pylori eradication does not prevent gastro-duodenal ulcer formation and bleeding. With regard to the prevention and treatment of oesophageal complications after banding or sclerotherapy of oesophageal varices, there is little evidence for a protective role of PPI. Moreover, due to liver metabolism of PPI, the dose of most available PPIs should be reduced in cirrhotics. In conclusion, the use of this class of drugs seems more habit related than evidence-based eventually leading to an increase in health costs.

Lodato, Francesca; Azzaroli, Francesco; Girolamo, Maria Di; Feletti, Valentina; Cecinato, Paolo; Lisotti, Andrea; Festi, Davide; Roda, Enrico; Mazzella, Giuseppe

2008-01-01

211

Evidence-based therapy for cutaneous sarcoidosis.  

PubMed

Although healthcare providers have arrived at a relatively comfortable zone of accepted clinical practice in the management of cutaneous sarcoidosis, virtually every treatment is based on minimal evidence-based data and relies almost exclusively on anecdotal information. Although it would be convenient to blame this state of affairs on the lack of certainty about disease aetiology, the unavoidable fact is that little has been executed, even in the realm of well designed comparative trials. Nonetheless, worldwide accepted standard therapies for sarcoidosis include the administration of corticosteroids, antimalarials and methotrexate. A stepwise approach to patient care is appropriate, and potent topical corticosteroids (e.g. clobetasol) or repeated intralesional injections of triamcinolone (3-10 mg/mL) may be all that is needed in mild skin-limited disease. In patients requiring systemic therapy for recalcitrant or deforming skin lesions (or for widespread disease), corticosteroids (e.g. prednisone 40-80 mg/day, tapered accordingly) used alone or in combination with antimalarials or methotrexate may be indicated. Antimalarials and methotrexate are considered second-line interventions and may be used as monotherapy for steroid-resistant sarcoidosis or in patients unable to tolerate steroids. Given the concern regarding ocular toxicity, the maximum dosages of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine should not exceed 3.5 and 6.5 mg/kg/day, respectively. Methotrexate is given in weekly doses of 10-30 mg, with the caveat that haematological, gastrointestinal, pulmonary and hepatic toxicities are possible. Despite universal acceptance as standard care, the aforementioned treatments often result in an incomplete clinical response or unacceptable adverse events. In such situations, more innovative treatment options may be used. Treatments that may well gain widespread future use include the tumour necrosis factor-alpha inhibitors infliximab and adalimumab. Experience is limited, but early reports are promising. Infliximab is administered via intravenous infusion at doses of 3-10 mg/kg at 0, 2 and 6 weeks and as indicated thereafter, whereas adalimumab is injected subcutaneously at doses of 40 mg either weekly or every 2 weeks. Because adalimumab is not approved for the management of sarcoidosis, the optimum dose administration interval is uncertain. However, it has been given in both weekly and every other week regimens. Isotretinoin, 0.5-2 mg/kg/day, has been used successfully in a handful of reported cases. However, the teratogenic potential of isotretinoin is often prohibitive considering that the primary demographic group likely to develop sarcoidosis is women of childbearing potential. Thalidomide at dosages of 50 to >400 mg/day has limited, albeit promising, supporting data. However, access is restricted in many countries because of a deserved pregnancy category X rating. Melatonin (20 mg/day) and allopurinol (100-300 mg/day) are not well studied in cutaneous sarcoidosis, and the clinical experience with tetracycline derivatives has been mixed. That said, there are compelling reports of therapeutic benefit with both doxycycline and minocycline. Because neither of these agents is associated with the severe toxicity of cytotoxic drugs, they may serve as effective therapy in some patients. Pentoxifylline (400 mg three times daily) has been of use in a small number of reported cases of pulmonary sarcoidosis, but there are no reports on its use in patients with primarily cutaneous disease. Both ciclosporin and chlorambucil have been largely abandoned given their associated toxicity and disappointingly unreliable efficacy. Finally, laser therapy is a newer modality that may provide patients with a quick and non-invasive treatment option for cutaneous sarcoidosis. PMID:18578557

Doherty, Christy B; Rosen, Ted

2008-01-01

212

Survey of infection control practices in hemodialysis units: preventing vascular access-associated bloodstream infections.  

PubMed

Objective.?Despite surveillance, the Quebec Healthcare-Associated Infections Surveillance Program saw no improvement in vascular access-associated bloodstream infections in hemodialysis (HD). We aimed to determine the infection control measures recommended and implemented in Quebec's HD units, compliance of local protocols to infection control practice guidelines, and reasons behind the low prevalence of arteriovenous fistulas. Methods.?An online survey was elaborated on the basis of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and National Kidney Foundation Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative guidelines. The questionnaire was validated (construct, content, face validity, and reliability) and sent to all HD units in Quebec (n = 40). Results were analyzed using descriptive statistics, linear regression, and Poisson regression. Results.?Thirty-seven (93%) of 40 HD units participated. Thirty (94%) of the 32 centers where central catheters are inserted have written insertion protocols. Compliance with practice guidelines is good, except for full-body draping during catheter insertion (79%) and ointment use at insertion site (3%). Prevention measures for catheter maintenance are in accordance with guidelines, except for skin disinfection with at least 0.5% chlorhexidine and 70% alcohol (67% compliance) and regular antiseptic ointment use at the insertion site (3%). Before fistula cannulation, skin preparation is suboptimal; forearm hygiene is performed in only 61% of cases. Several factors explain the low rate of fistulas, including patient preference (69%) and lack of surgical resources (39%; P = .01). Conclusions.?Improvement in standardization of care according to practice guidelines is necessary. Fistula rate could be increased by improving access to surgical resources and patient education. Strategies are now being elaborated to address these findings. PMID:24915211

Trépanier, Pascale; Quach, Caroline; Gonzales, Milagros; Fortin, Elise; Kaouache, Mohammed; Desmeules, Simon; Rocher, Isabelle; Ngenda-Muadi, Muleka; Frenette, Charles; Tremblay, Claude

2014-07-01

213

The Perfidious Effect of Topical Placebo: Calibration of Staphylococcus aureus Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia Incidence within Selective Digestive Decontamination Studies versus the Broader Evidence Base  

PubMed Central

Among various methods for preventing ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), the evidence base for selective digestive decontamination (SDD) appears most compelling. However, the extent of Staphylococcus aureus emergence with SDD use remains uncertain. Groups from 37 observational studies and component (control and intervention) groups from 58 studies of SDD and other methods of VAP prevention were sourced exclusively from 10 systematic reviews. S. aureus as a proportion of VAP isolates (S. aureus isolate proportion [S. aureus IP]) among component groups was calibrated versus that among observational groups (the benchmark). The influence of topical placebo used for blinding purposes and other group-level factors was estimated using generalized estimating equation methods (GEE). The mean S. aureus IP is 22% (95% confidence interval [CI], 19 to 25) for 37 observational groups versus 32% (24 to 41) and 20% (15 to 25) for 22 control groups from the SDD evidence base which did versus did not receive topical placebo, respectively. In GEE models including all 148 observational and component groups, membership of a control (P = 0.03) or intervention (P < 0.001) group of an SDD study that used topical placebo was associated with higher S. aureus IP, whereas, in contrast, membership of these groups was without effect on Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Topical placebo is implicated as a vehicle for selective cross-infection with S. aureus within the specific context of the SDD evidence base. This effect of topical placebo is perfidious; it could contribute to the higher VAP incidence and inflate the apparent “effectiveness” of SDD. The SDD evidence base requires reappraisal.

2013-01-01

214

Diminazene aceturate in the control of Trypanosoma evansi infection in cats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of diminazene aceturate in the control of the infection by Trypanosoma evansi in cats. Fourteen animals were infected with 108 trypomastigote forms each and six were used as negative control (group A). Seven of the infected cats were used as positive control (group B) and seven were treated with diminazene

A. S. Da Silva; R. A. Zanette; P. Wolkmer; M. M. Costa; H. A. Garcia; S. T. A. Lopes; J. M. Santurio; M. M. G. Teixeira; S. G. Monteiro

2009-01-01

215

Evidence-Based Practice and the Culture of Adolescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence-based practice requires attention to the client context, including client culture. We propose that the developmental period of adolescence is characterized by a unique culture that has important implications for evidence-based practice. Specifically, this paper explores three features of adolescent culture (importance of technology, centrality of peers, and the ongoing challenge of identity formation and individuation) that may be especially

Timothy D. Nelson; Jennifer Mize Nelson

2010-01-01

216

The Evidence-Based Manifesto for School Librarians  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School Library Journal's 2007 Leadership Summit, "Where's the Evidence? Understanding the Impact of School Libraries," focused on the topic of evidence-based practice. Evidence-based school librarianship is a systematic approach that engages research-derived evidence, school librarian-observed evidence, and user-reported evidence in the processes…

Todd, Ross

2008-01-01

217

Addressing Key Challenges in Evidence-Based Practice in Psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

With its promise of enhancing the effectiveness of services, evidence-based practice in psychology (EBPP) appears to offer much to psychologists, patients, and policymakers. The purpose of this article is to examine some of the key challenges facing psychologists who wish to provide evidence-based treatment services, including how research evidence is used in EBPP, whether the results of the treatment research

John Hunsley

2007-01-01

218

Evidence-Based Treatment and Stuttering--Historical Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To illustrate the way in which both fluency shaping (FS) and stuttering management (SM) treatments for developmental stuttering in adults are evidence based. Method: A brief review of the history and development of FS and SM is provided. It illustrates that both can be justified as evidence-based treatments, each treatment seeking…

Prins, David; Ingham, Roger J.

2009-01-01

219

Problems of Evidence Based Practice in Community Based Services  

Microsoft Academic Search

An emerging orthodoxy regarding the definition and role of evidence based practice is identified and subjected to a constructive critique with particular reference to social and community health services for people who are intellectually (learning) disabled. It is argued that the orthodox approach to evidence based practice falters at every step, from the production of evidence to its use by

Mark Burton; Melanie J. Chapman

2004-01-01

220

Evidence-Based Guidelines in Laboratory Medicine: Principles and Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Guidelines are commonly used tools for supporting medical decisions. Formulating evidence- based recommendations has become a leading principle in guideline development. Aim: This narrative review integrates the most recent methods of evidence-based guideline development and adapts those to the field of laboratory medicine. Summary: We present a 10-step process and a list of criteria for the development of laboratory

Wytze P. Oosterhuis; David E. Bruns; Joseph Watine; Sverre Sandberg; Andrea R. Horvath

2004-01-01

221

Creating Evidence-Based Research in Adapted Physical Activity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Professional practice guided by the best research evidence is a usually referred to as evidence-based practice. The aim of the present paper is to describe five fundamental beliefs of adapted physical activity practices that should be considered in an 8-step research model to create evidence-based research in adapted physical activity. The five…

Reid, Greg; Bouffard, Marcel; MacDonald, Catherine

2012-01-01

222

Evidence-Based Practice in Education. Conducting Educational Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The book begins with an explication of evidence-based practice. Some of the ideas of its proponents are discussed, including the Campbell Collaboration, and the application to education of Cochrane-style reviews and meta-analyses. The thinking behind evidence-based practice has been the subject of much criticism, particularly in education, and…

Pring, Richard; Thomas, Gary

2004-01-01

223

Evidence-Based Practice: Integrating Classroom Curriculum and Field Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the use of problem-based learning to teach the scope and consequences of evidence-based practices in mental health through an innovative assignment that integrates classroom and field learning. The authors illustrate the planning and implementation of the Evidence-Based Practice: Integrating Classroom Curriculum and Field…

Tuchman, Ellen; Lalane, Monique

2011-01-01

224

Evidence-based Assessment of Cognitive Functioning in Pediatric Psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To review the evidence base for measures of cognitive functioning frequently used within the field of pediatric psychology. Methods From a list of 47 measures identified by the Society of Pediatric Psychology (Division 54) Evidence-Based Assessment Task Force Workgroup, 27 measures were included in the review. Measures were organized, reviewed, and evaluated according to general domains of functioning (e.g.,

Jonathan M. Campbell; Ronald T. Brown; Sarah E. Cavanagh; Sarah F. Vess; Mathew J. Segall

2008-01-01

225

Evidence-Based Practice in Rehabilitation Counseling: Perceptions and Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study describes certified rehabilitation counselors' attitudes (n=163) about evidence based practice, knowledge and skills related to obtaining and evaluating evidence, use of literature in practice, availability of information, and perceived barriers to evidence-based practice. Responses related to knowledge and skills were mixed with strong…

Bezyak, Jill L.; Kubota, Coleen; Rosenthal, David

2010-01-01

226

[Forensic evidence-based medicine in computer communication networks].  

PubMed

As an important component of judicial expertise, forensic science is broad and highly specialized. With development of network technology, increasement of information resources, and improvement of people's legal consciousness, forensic scientists encounter many new problems, and have been required to meet higher evidentiary standards in litigation. In view of this, evidence-based concept should be established in forensic medicine. We should find the most suitable method in forensic science field and other related area to solve specific problems in the evidence-based mode. Evidence-based practice can solve the problems in legal medical field, and it will play a great role in promoting the progress and development of forensic science. This article reviews the basic theory of evidence-based medicine and its effect, way, method, and evaluation in the forensic medicine in order to discuss the application value of forensic evidence-based medicine in computer communication networks. PMID:24665620

Qiu, Yun-Liang; Peng, Ming-Qi

2013-12-01

227

Ethical issues in infection control in home care.  

PubMed

The history of infection control is ancient and inextricably bound to the histories of disease, medicine, and nursing. This history reveals the beliefs about the cause of infectious disease through time and the remedies enacted in response. Implicit in this history is an ethical history reflecting the relationship of the infected individual to the group and the power of the state to institute protective measures. In the Middle Ages, for example, a requiem mass or mass for the dead was held for lepers in which the church was draped in black and dirt thrown on the lepers' head. Afterward, they were lead to the leprosaria and given a rattle they were required to use to warn others of their approach. PMID:10222928

Schmid, M M; Liaschenko, J

1999-02-01

228

JAMA Patient Page: Evidence-Based Medicine  

MedlinePLUS

... Systematic reviews of the medical literature, large randomized controlled trials (the best way to assess the efficacy of a treatment), and large prospective studies (followed up over time) are types of ...

229

Impact of implementation of evidence-based strategies to reduce door-to-balloon time in patients presenting with STEMI: continuous data analysis and feedback using a statistical process control plot  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundStrategies to reduce DTB (door-to-balloon) time have been previously described. However, there is no well-established data-monitoring system that can be used for prompt feedback. The aims of this study were to use statistical process control (SPC) methodology to measure current processes, to provide real-time feedback on the impact of a change in service delivery and to identify individual outliers for

Babu Kunadian; Robert Morley; Anthony P Roberts; Zulfiquar Adam; Darragh Twomey; James A Hall; Robert A Wright; Andrew G C Sutton; Douglas F Muir; Mark A de Belder

2010-01-01

230

Genetic control of resistance to Mycobacterium intracellulare infection in mice.  

PubMed Central

The susceptibilities of various strains of mice to a highly pathogenic strain of Mycobacterium intracellulare, the Mino strain, were determined by intravenous injection of 5 X 10(6) bacteria. CFU were counted on days 1 and 21 of infection. Among 10 strains of mice, C57BL/6, C57BL/10, BALB/c, B10.BR, B10.A, and B10.D2 were susceptible, whereas DBA/2, A/J, CBA, and C3H/He were resistant. In the susceptible mouse strains, the number of bacteria increased during 21 days of infection, whereas no bacterial growth was observed in the resistant strains. Susceptible mice showed weak but positive delayed-type hypersensitivity to M. intracellulare purified protein derivative 20 days after injection of bacteria. Resistant mice developed no delayed-type hypersensitivity. Histological examination showed severe granulomatous lesions in livers or spleens of the susceptible mice after M. intracellulare injection. Analysis of F1 hybrids of susceptible and resistant strains and of F2 and backcross mice showed that the resistance to M. intracellulare seems to be controlled genetically by a single dominant gene. The pattern of distribution of resistance to M. intracellulare among the mouse strains was consistent with that of natural resistance to Mycobacterium bovis to BCG. Thus, resistance to M. intracellulare infection may be regulated by a gene linked to the Bcg gene on chromosome 1.

Goto, Y; Nakamura, R M; Takahashi, H; Tokunaga, T

1984-01-01

231

Cluster headaches—evidence-based guidance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data sources Medline, Cochrane Database of Clinical Trials and bibliographies of identified articles.Study selection Only English-language papers that clearly stated the defined diagnostic criteria were included. For the management section, controlled trials were used if available.Data abstraction and synthesis A qualitative synthesis of included studies was carried out.Findings Cluster headache is rare (lifetime prevalence of 0.07%). Smoking appears to increase

Richard Ohrbach

2003-01-01

232

Implementation of infection control best practice in intensive care units throughout Europe: a mixed-method evaluation study  

PubMed Central

Background The implementation of evidence-based infection control practices is essential, yet challenging for healthcare institutions worldwide. Although acknowledged that implementation success varies with contextual factors, little is known regarding the most critical specific conditions within the complex cultural milieu of varying economic, political, and healthcare systems. Given the increasing reliance on unified global schemes to improve patient safety and healthcare effectiveness, research on this topic is needed and timely. The ‘InDepth’ work package of the European FP7 Prevention of Hospital Infections by Intervention and Training (PROHIBIT) consortium aims to assess barriers and facilitators to the successful implementation of catheter-related bloodstream infection (CRBSI) prevention in intensive care units (ICU) across several European countries. Methods We use a qualitative case study approach in the ICUs of six purposefully selected acute care hospitals among the 15 participants in the PROHIBIT CRBSI intervention study. For sensitizing schemes we apply the theory of diffusion of innovation, published implementation frameworks, sensemaking, and new institutionalism. We conduct interviews with hospital health providers/agents at different organizational levels and ethnographic observations, and conduct rich artifact collection, and photography during two rounds of on-site visits, once before and once one year into the intervention. Data analysis is based on grounded theory. Given the challenge of different languages and cultures, we enlist the help of local interpreters, allot two days for site visits, and perform triangulation across multiple data sources. Qualitative measures of implementation success will consider the longitudinal interaction between the initiative and the institutional context. Quantitative outcomes on catheter-related bloodstream infections and performance indicators from another work package of the consortium will produce a final mixed-methods report. Conclusion A mixed-methods study of this scale with longitudinal follow-up is unique in the field of infection control. It highlights the ‘Why’ and ‘How’ of best practice implementation, revealing key factors that determine success of a uniform intervention in the context of several varying cultural, economic, political, and medical systems across Europe. These new insights will guide future implementation of more tailored and hence more successful infection control programs. Trial registration Trial number: PROHIBIT-241928 (FP7 reference number)

2013-01-01

233

Prospective antiretroviral treatment of asymptomatic, HIV-1 infected controllers.  

PubMed

The study of HIV-infected "controllers" who are able to maintain low levels of plasma HIV RNA in the absence of antiretroviral therapy (ART) may provide insights for HIV cure and vaccine strategies. Despite maintaining very low levels of plasma viremia, controllers have elevated immune activation and accelerated atherosclerosis. However, the degree to which low-level replication contributes to these phenomena is not known. Sixteen asymptomatic controllers were prospectively treated with ART for 24 weeks. Controllers had a statistically significant decrease in ultrasensitive plasma and rectal HIV RNA levels with ART. Markers of T cell activation/dysfunction in blood and gut mucosa also decreased substantially with ART. Similar reductions were observed in the subset of "elite" controllers with pre-ART plasma HIV RNA levels below conventional assays (<40 copies/mL). These data confirm that HIV replication persists in controllers and contributes to a chronic inflammatory state. ART should be considered for these individuals (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01025427). PMID:24130489

Hatano, Hiroyu; Yukl, Steven A; Ferre, April L; Graf, Erin H; Somsouk, Ma; Sinclair, Elizabeth; Abdel-Mohsen, Mohamed; Liegler, Teri; Harvill, Kara; Hoh, Rebecca; Palmer, Sarah; Bacchetti, Peter; Hunt, Peter W; Martin, Jeffrey N; McCune, Joseph M; Tracy, Russell P; Busch, Michael P; O'Doherty, Una; Shacklett, Barbara L; Wong, Joseph K; Deeks, Steven G

2013-01-01

234

NCLEX-RN success: evidence-based strategies.  

PubMed

Evidence-based nursing requires that students think reflectively and use clinical inquiry to develop clinical reasoning and decision-making skills. Likewise, nursing students need a strategy to be successful in passing the NCLEX-RN. The authors identify strategies based on nursing research to facilitate student success. While learning the evidence-based nursing process, the student must begin to think like a nurse while answering clinical practice questions. Using the skills taught for evidence-based nursing can be a powerful tool to approach the NCLEX-RN and succeed. PMID:22024676

Thomas, Marie H; Baker, Susan Scott

2011-01-01

235

Implementing Evidence-Based Practices for People With Schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Over the last decade, a consensus has emerged regarding a set of evidence-based practices for schizophrenia that address symptom management and psychosocial functioning. Yet, surveys suggest that the great majority of the population of individuals with schizophrenia do not receive evidence-based care. In this article, we review the empirical literature on implementation of evidence-based practices for schizophrenia patients. We first examine lessons learned from implementation studies in general medicine. We then summarize the implementation literature specific to schizophrenia, including medication practices, psychosocial interventions, information technology, and state- and federal-level interventions. We conclude with recommendations for future directions.

Drake, Robert E.; Bond, Gary R.; Essock, Susan M.

2009-01-01

236

Updated Evidence-Based Treatment Algorithm in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension  

PubMed Central

Uncontrolled and controlled clinical trials with different compounds and procedures are reviewed to define the risk-benefit profiles for therapeutic options in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). A grading system for the level of evidence of treatments based on the controlled clinical trials performed with each compound is used to propose an evidence-based treatment algorithm. The algorithm includes drugs approved by regulatory agencies for the treatment of PAH and/or drugs available for other indications. The different treatments have been evaluated mainly in idiopathic PAH, heritable PAH, and in PAH associated with the scleroderma spectrum of diseases or with anorexigen use. Extrapolation of these recommendations to other PAH subgroups should be done with caution. Oral anticoagulation is proposed for most patients; diuretic treatment and supplemental oxygen are indicated in cases of fluid retention and hypoxemia, respectively. High doses of calcium channel blockers are indicated only in the minority of patients who respond to acute vasoreactivity testing. Nonresponders to acute vasoreactivity testing, or responders who remain in World Health Organization (WHO) functional class III, should be considered candidates for treatment with either an oral phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor or an oral endothelin-receptor antagonist. Continuous intravenous administration of epoprostenol remains the treatment of choice in WHO functional class IV patients. Combination therapy is recommended for patients treated with PAH monotherapy who remain in New York Heart Association functional class III. Atrial septostomy and lung transplantation are indicated for refractory patients or where medical treatment is unavailable.

Barst, Robyn J.; Gibbs, J. Simon; Ghofrani, Hossein A.; Hoeper, Marius M.; McLaughlin, Vallerie V.; Rubin, Lewis J.; Sitbon, Olivier; Tapson, Victor; Galie, Nazzareno

2009-01-01

237

Evidence-Based Treatment of Delirium in Patients With Cancer  

PubMed Central

Delirium is the most common neuropsychiatric complication seen in patients with cancer, and it is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Increased health care costs, prolonged hospital stays, and long-term cognitive decline are other well-recognized adverse outcomes of delirium. Improved recognition of delirium and early treatment are important in diminishing such morbidity. There has been an increasing number of studies published in the literature over the last 10 years regarding delirium treatment as well as prevention. Antipsychotics, cholinesterase inhibitors, and alpha-2 agonists are the three groups of medications that have been studied in randomized controlled trials in different patient populations. In patients with cancer, the evidence is most clearly supportive of short-term, low-dose use of antipsychotics for controlling the symptoms of delirium, with close monitoring for possible adverse effects, especially in older patients with multiple medical comorbidities. Nonpharmacologic interventions also appear to have a beneficial role in the treatment of patients with cancer who have or are at risk for delirium. This article presents evidence-based recommendations based on the results of pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic studies of the treatment and prevention of delirium.

Breitbart, William; Alici, Yesne

2012-01-01

238

The Conceptualization, Integration, and Support of Evidence-Based Interventions in the Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The studies in this issue break the mold of the traditional stage model of the development and testing of evidence-based interventions (EBIs) within the confines of highly controlled studies (Onken, Blaine, & Battjes, 1997). Although this approach has merits, the need for EBIs in school settings has outpaced their deployment. The authors of these…

Becker, Kimberly D.; Domitrovich, Celene E.

2011-01-01

239

Improving Dissemination of Evidence-Based Programs through Researcher-Practitioner Collaboration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prevention field has achieved major advances in developing, implementing, and testing the efficacy of preventive interventions in controlled settings. Nevertheless, there is still a gap in translating the success of programs in efficacy trials into real-life settings. Dissemination of evidence-based programs is a major challenge. The authors argue…

Özdemir, Metin; Giannotta, Fabrizia

2014-01-01

240

Providers' Perceptions of and Receptivity toward Evidence-Based HIV Prevention Interventions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since 1999, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have trained over 10,000 service providers from more than 5,000 agencies to implement evidence-based HIV prevention interventions through its Diffusion of Effective Behavioral Interventions DEBI) program. Based on in-depth, semistructured interviews with a convenience sample of 22 HIV…

Owczarzak, Jill; Dickson-Gomez, Julia

2011-01-01

241

Towards evidence-based practice in language intervention for bilingual children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence-based practice requires that clinical decisions be based on evidence from rigorously controlled research studies. At this time, very few studies have directly examined the efficacy of clinical intervention methods for bilingual children. Clinical decisions for this population cannot, therefore, be based on the strongest forms of research evidence, but must be inferred from other sources. This article reviews the

Elin Thordardottir

2010-01-01

242

Treatment of restless legs syndrome: An evidence-based review and implications for clinical practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Only in the last three decades, the restless legs syndrome (RLS) has been examined in randomized controlled trials. The Movement Disorder Society (MDS) commissioned a task force to perform an evidence-based review of the med- ical literature on treatment modalities used to manage patients with RLS. The task force performed a search of the published literature using electronic databases. The

Claudia Trenkwalder; Wayne A. Hening; Pasquale Montagna; Wolfgang H. Oertel; Richard P. Allen; Arthur S. Walters; Joao Costa; Karin Stiasny-Kolster; Cristina Sampaio

2008-01-01

243

Vancomycin-resistant enterococci: consequences for therapy and infection control.  

PubMed

Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) have emerged as important nosocomial pathogens, initially in the USA, but now also in Europe, where hospital outbreaks are being reported with increasing frequency, although the incidence of VRE infections remains extremely low in most European countries. The recently demonstrated in-human transmission of vancomycin resistance from VRE to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in two American patients underscores the potential danger of a coexisting reservoir of both pathogens. As MRSA is already endemic in many European hospital settings, prevention of endemicity with VRE seems relevant, but should be balanced against the costs associated with the implementation of effective strategies. The presence of a large community reservoir of VRE in Europe could hamper the feasibility of infection control strategies. Although the prevalence of colonisation amongst healthy subjects has apparently decreased after the ban on avoparcin use in the agricultural industry, a large proportion of admitted patients are still potential sources of VRE transmission. With no risk profile available to identify these carriers, effective screening, followed by barrier precautions for carriers, seems to be impossible. Recent studies, however, have suggested that hospital outbreaks are almost exclusively caused by specific genogroups of VRE that can be characterised phenotypically and genotypically (e.g., co-resistance to ampicillin and the presence of the variant esp gene). Based on our own experience, we propose that VRE infection control programmes should be restricted to patients colonised with these VRE strains. If such a strain is cultured from a clinical sample, surveillance amongst contact patients is recommended and barrier precautions should be implemented in the case of documented spread. PMID:15953021

Mascini, E M; Bonten, M J M

2005-07-01

244

An Interdisciplinary Infection Control Education Intervention: Necessary But Not Sufficient  

PubMed Central

Background Patient care environments are struggling to eradicate health care associated infections and studies of undergraduate and graduate medical trainees have revealed significant gaps in their performance of proper hand hygiene and aseptic technique (HH/AT), suggesting the need for improved curriculum. High-reliability industries have provided a model using standardization of approach and interprofessional training, and both are particularly suited to the teaching and assessment of these life-saving skills. The Infection Control Education project is a grant-funded, multi-institutional pilot launched to improve the teaching and assessment of HH/AT in our community. Methods An interprofessional team of leaders and educators from 2 local hospital systems and 3 health colleges developed a 9-component “ICE PACK,” which includes a unanimously endorsed, detailed HH/AT checklist. This teaching and assessment module was delivered to nursing/medical student and postgraduate year 1 resident/nurse intern pairs. Retention of checklist skills was retested 2 to 5 months after participation in the module. Results Learner pairs participating in the 2-hour module mastered the HH/AT checklist and rated the experience highly. Retention after several weeks was disappointingly low in 2 of the 3 participant groups. Conclusions A community-wide HH/AT checklist was developed and an ICE PACK of materials created that is portable, standardizes the teaching and assessment of HH/AT skills, and is designed for interprofessional pairs of learners. Retention of checklist steps was disappointing in most of participant groups. Multiple, simultaneous strategies for improving compliance with infection control mandates appear necessary.

P. Wagner, Dianne; J. Parker, Carol; E. Mavis, Brian; Smith, Mary Kay

2011-01-01

245

[Building an evidence-based practice culture: incorporating evidence-based nursing in the clinical ladder system].  

PubMed

Evidence-based practice has become a dominant trend in the healthcare with the objective of providing efficient, high quality health care, and policy making. Traditional problem-solving methods may not adequately address consumer needs in the rapidly changing modern healthcare system. In order to make correct decisions, a systematic and scientific approach to the collection, assessment, and interpretation of clinical information is essential for the health care provider. Creating an evidence-based practice nursing culture is the most fundamental way for nurses to recognize the importance of evidence-based nursing and, subsequently, adapt to solving clinical problems. This paper elaborates the strategy for incorporating evidence-based nursing into the clinical ladder system used at the authors' affiliated medical center. Three strategies are introduced. These are: (1) including the EBN concept in newcomer in-service training; (2) adopting evidence-based nursing practice competence as a criterion in the clinical ladder system, with various evidence-based, ladder-related reports required for promotion; and (3) providing support to nurses through centralized and decentralized education as well as individual consultation. The proposed strategy is provided as a practical reference for educators and policy makers working to foster evidence-based practice nursing cultures. PMID:21455895

Kuo, Hsueh-Ming; Lin, Chen-Hsiu; Lee, Hsiu-Hsien; Chang, Mei-Jen; Fan, Sheng-Hsin; Chang, Ying-Ju

2011-04-01

246

Evidence-based guideline update: Plasmapheresis in neurologic disorders  

PubMed Central

Objective: To reassess the role of plasmapheresis in the treatment of neurologic disorders. Methods: We evaluated the available evidence based on a structured literature review for relevant articles from 1995 through September 2009. In addition, due to revision of the definitions of classification of evidence since the publication of the previous American Academy of Neurology assessment in 1996, the evidence cited in that manuscript was reviewed and reclassified. Results and Recommendations: Plasmapheresis is established as effective and should be offered in severe acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (AIDP)/Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and in the short-term management of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (Class I studies, Level A). Plasmapheresis is established as ineffective and should not be offered for chronic or secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (MS) (Class I studies, Level A). Plasmapheresis is probably effective and should be considered for mild AIDP/GBS, as second-line treatment of steroid-resistant exacerbations in relapsing forms of MS, and for neuropathy associated with immunoglobulin A or immunoglobulin G gammopathy, based on at least one Class I or 2 Class II studies (Level B). Plasmapheresis is probably not effective and should not be considered for neuropathy associated with immunoglobulin M gammopathy, based on one Class I study (Level B). Plasmapheresis is possibly effective and may be considered for acute fulminant demyelinating CNS disease (Level C). There is insufficient evidence to support or refute the use of plasmapheresis for myasthenia gravis, pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcus infection, and Sydenham chorea (Class III evidence, Level U).

Cortese, I.; Chaudhry, V.; So, Y.T.; Cantor, F.; Cornblath, D.R.; Rae-Grant, A.

2011-01-01

247

The art of inconsistency: evidence-based practice my way.  

PubMed

Inconsistency of care in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit is a common complaint amongst caregivers. This paper discusses evidence-based medicine and standards of care in relation to personal preference where care-giving choices are concerned. It is suggested that moral distress may be diminished by consistently applying evidence-based practice, adhering to standards of care and optimizing the team dynamic by engaging in consensus-based collaboration. PMID:19710655

Golec, L

2009-09-01

248

Evidence Based Medicine in Pediatric Practice: Brief Review  

PubMed Central

Practicing medicine according to the best evidence is gaining popularity in the medical societies. Although this concept, which is usually called Evidence Based Medicine (EBM) has been explained in many resources, it has not been addressed enough in pediatrics. In this review, we briefly explained Evidence Based Medicine approach and its applications in pediatrics in order to help the pediatricians to efficiently integrate EBM into their daily practice.

Kianifar, Hamid-Reza; Akhondian, Javad; Najafi-Sani, Mehri; Sadeghi, Ramin

2010-01-01

249

Evidence-Based Resources for Public Health Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction\\u000aEvidence-Based Medicine (EBM) for clinical medicine involves using the best evidence to care for individual patients. Evidence-based public health (EBPH) involves using the best evidence to develop public health policies and intervention programs. There are various EBM resources available to help clinicians sort through the vast amount of medical literature to find the best evidence for their practice needs,

E. Hatheway Simpson; Elaine Russo Martin; Sharon Telleen; Roger S. Luckmann

2003-01-01

250

Evidence based practice profiles: Differences among allied health professions  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Most previous studies of allied health professionals' evidence based practice (EBP) attitudes, knowledge and behaviours have been conducted with profession specific questionnaires of variable psychometric strength. This study compared the self-report EBP profiles of allied health professionals\\/trainees in an Australian university. METHODS: The Evidence-Based Practice Profile (EBP2) questionnaire assessed five domains (Relevance, Terminology, Practice, Confidence, Sympathy) in 918 subjects

Maureen P McEvoy; Marie T Williams; Timothy S Olds

2010-01-01

251

Evidence-Based Public Health: Origins, Assumptions, and Cautions  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter presents the origins and assumptions of evidence-based medicine as rooted in the philosophy of science called\\u000a positivism. The basic principles of the positivist approach to science, empiricism, exclusivity, universality, and autonomy\\u000a are explained and identified in reproductive and perinatal health outcomes related studies from the systematic reviews of\\u000a the Cochrane Library, the premier database on evidence-based medicine. A

Luis A. Avilés; Dani Filc

252

Evidence-Based Practice Knowledge and Utilization among Social Workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study the researchers examined the knowledge, skills, and use of Evidence-Based Practice in a sample of social workers from different practice settings. Using an electronic survey, data were collected from a group of social work practitioners (N = 200). Participants in their 30s and 40s demonstrated the most knowledge and use of Evidence-Based Practice. In addition, a high

Natalie D. Pope; Latrice Rollins; Josphine Chaumba; Ed Risler

2011-01-01

253

Evidence based practice: a survey of physiotherapists' current practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Backgound and Purpose. Evidence-based practice is the explicit use of current best evidence in making decisions about the care of individual patients and is a concept of growing importance for physiotherapy. The aim of the present study was to investigate Australian physiotherapists' self-reported practice, skills and knowledge of evidence-based practice and to examine differences between recent and experienced grad- uates,

Ross Iles; Megan Davidson

2006-01-01

254

Evidence-based werken in de jeugd-ggz  

Microsoft Academic Search

samenvatting  Middels een vragenlijst, interviews en expertmeeting onderzocht het Trimbos-instituut in welke mate managers en hulpverleners\\u000a uit de jeugd-ggz bekend zijn met evidence-based interventies en deze ook toepassen. Het werken met evidence-based interventies\\u000a gebeurt steeds meer en de respondenten vinden dit een positieve ontwikkeling. Knelpunten betreffende de implementatie, financiering,\\u000a databanken en kwaliteitsbewaking worden besproken. Aanbevelingen: 1) meer afstemming tussen de databanken

Ireen de Graaf; Debbie van der Linden; Simone Onrust

2011-01-01

255

Evidence-based cognitive rehabilitation: Recommendations for clinical practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cicerone KD, Dahlberg C, Kalmar K, Langenbahn DM, Malec JF, Bergquist TF, Felicetti T, Giacino JT, Harley JP, Harrington DE, Herzog J, Kneipp S, Laatsch L, Morse PA. Evidence-based cognitive rehabilitation: recommendations for clinical practice. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2000;81:1596-615. Objective: To establish evidence-based recommendations for the clinical practice of cognitive rehabilitation, derived from a methodical review of the scientific

Keith D. Cicerone; Cynthia Dahlberg; Kathleen Kalmar; Donna M. Langenbahn; James F. Malec; Thomas F. Bergquist; Thomas Felicetti; Joseph T. Giacino; J. Preston Harley; Douglas E. Harrington; Jean Herzog; Sally Kneipp; Linda Laatsch; Philip A. Morse

2000-01-01

256

Preparing Future Generations of Evidence-Based Endocrinologists  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is much to recommend an increased emphasis on evidence-based medicine (EBM) training in medical education. Evidence-based\\u000a practice has emerged as a national priority in efforts to improve health care quality (1). Physicians are encouraged to identify, appraise, and apply the best evidence in their decision making for individual patients.\\u000a However, this ideal remains far from realization. Physicians leave the

Michael L. Green

257

Infection control and prevention strategies in the ICU  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although only 5–10% of all hospitalized patients are treated in ICUs, they account for approximately 25% of all nosocomial infections, and the incidence of nosocomial infections in ICUs is 5–10 times higher than that observed in general hospital wards. Systemic and respiratory infections are far more common than in general wards, and most epidemics originate, in ICUs. Nosocomial infections are

A. F. Widmer

1994-01-01

258

Evidence-based recommendation on toothpaste use.  

PubMed

Toothpaste can be used as a vehicle for substances to improve the oral health of individuals and populations. Therefore, it should be recommended based on the best scientific evidence available, and not on the opinion of authorities or specialists. Fluoride is the most important therapeutic substance used in toothpastes, adding to the effect of mechanical toothbrushing on dental caries control. The use of fluoride toothpaste to reduce caries in children and adults is strongly based on evidence, and is dependent on the concentration (minimum of 1000 ppm F) and frequency of fluoride toothpaste use (2'/day or higher). The risk of dental fluorosis due to toothpaste ingestion by children has been overestimated, since there is no evidence that: 1) fluoride toothpaste use should be postponed until the age of 3-4 or older, 2) low-fluoride toothpaste avoids fluorosis and 3) fluorosis has a detrimental effect on the quality of life of individuals exposed to fluoridated water and toothpaste. Among other therapeutic substances used in toothpastes, there is evidence that triclosan/copolymer reduce dental biofilm, gingivitis, periodontitis, calculus and halitosis, and that toothpastes containing stannous fluoride reduce biofilm and gingivitis. PMID:24554097

Cury, Jaime Aparecido; Tenuta, Livia Maria Andalo

2014-02-12

259

Evidence Based Dental Care: Integrating Clinical Expertise with Systematic Research  

PubMed Central

Clinical dentistry is becoming increasingly complex and our patients more knowledgeable. Evidence-based care is now regarded as the “gold standard” in health care delivery worldwide. The basis of evidence based dentistry is the published reports of research projects. They are, brought together and analyzed systematically in meta analysis, the source for evidence based decisions. Activities in the field of evidence-based dentistry has increased tremendously in the 21st century, more and more practitioners are joining the train, more education on the subject is being provided to elucidate the knotty areas and there is increasing advocacy for the emergence of the field into a specialty discipline. Evidence-Based Dentistry (EBD), if endorsed by the dental profession, including the research community, may well- influence the extent to which society values dental research. Hence, dental researchers should understand the precepts of EBD, and should also recognize the challenges it presents to the research community to strengthen the available evidence and improve the processes of summarizing the evidence and translating it into practice This paper examines the concept of evidence-based dentistry (EBD), including some of the barriers and will discuss about clinical practice guidelines.

Kishore, Mallika; Panat, Sunil R.; Aggarwal, Ashish; Agarwal, Nupur; Upadhyay, Nitin; Alok, Abhijeet

2014-01-01

260

Evidence-based pharmacotherapy of schizophrenia.  

PubMed

We describe the pharmacological treatment of schizophrenia and have arranged the manuscript as a simple algorithm which starts from the choice of an antipsychotic drug for an acutely ill patient and concludes with the most important questions about maintenance treatment. In acutely ill patients the choice of drug is mainly based on pragmatic criteria. Among many strategies used for agitated patients, haloperidol plus promethazine is the best examined one. In case of persistent depression or negative symptoms treatment includes antidepressants, and some second-generation antipsychotic drugs (SGAs) have been found somewhat superior to first-generation antipsychotic drugs (FGAs) in these domains. If an antipsychotic is suspected to be ineffective, several factors need to be checked before action is taken. Few trials have addressed strategies such as switching the drug or increasing the dose in case of non-response. Clozapine remains the gold-standard for treatment-refractory patients, while none of the numerous augmentation strategies that have been examined by randomized controlled trials can be generally recommended. Maintenance treatment with antipsychotic drugs effectively reduces relapse rates. Small, not definitive, studies have shown that withdrawing antipsychotics from patients who have been stable for up to 6 yr leads to more relapses than continuing medication. In effect, continuous treatment is more effective than intermittent strategies. The identification of optimum doses for relapse prevention with FGAs has proven difficult, and there is little randomized data on SGAs. Although the randomized evidence on a superiority of depot compared to oral treatment is not ideal, this approach suggests obvious advantages in assuring compliance. PMID:21208500

Leucht, Stefan; Heres, Stephan; Kissling, Werner; Davis, John M

2011-03-01

261

[Internet: an infrastructure of evidence-based medicine in neurology].  

PubMed

EBM is a cyclic process. Medical evidences are created in clinical trials, which are published in medical literatures. The medical literatures are converted to literature database, from which clinical practice guidelines are made. They are provided to the clinicians, from whom a new clinical research is born again. Information technology, especially the use of internet has deeply related to every process of EBM, which is shown above. In clinical trials, data are accumulated through internet and the process is controlled by a coordinator using internet. In Japan, University Hospital Medical Information System (UMIN) has successfully provided such a tool to the clinical researchers. For the literature search. IT is mandatory and clinical practice guidelines are created on the base of various secondary information database, which are edited using advanced information technology Clinical practice guidelines are provided to hospitals through internet and they reach to the clinicians using a function of hospital information system, especially electronic medical record. In recent days, IT is an indispensable tool for daily practice of evidence-based medicine. However, in Japan the evidence has not been accumulated in national level, and for the future, the creation of national database of medical data should be explored. PMID:12784699

Kaihara, Shigekoto

2002-11-01

262

Evidence-based guideline: Treatment of painful diabetic neuropathy  

PubMed Central

Objective: To develop a scientifically sound and clinically relevant evidence-based guideline for the treatment of painful diabetic neuropathy (PDN). Methods: We performed a systematic review of the literature from 1960 to August 2008 and classified the studies according to the American Academy of Neurology classification of evidence scheme for a therapeutic article, and recommendations were linked to the strength of the evidence. The basic question asked was: “What is the efficacy of a given treatment (pharmacologic: anticonvulsants, antidepressants, opioids, others; and nonpharmacologic: electrical stimulation, magnetic field treatment, low-intensity laser treatment, Reiki massage, others) to reduce pain and improve physical function and quality of life (QOL) in patients with PDN?” Results and Recommendations: Pregabalin is established as effective and should be offered for relief of PDN (Level A). Venlafaxine, duloxetine, amitriptyline, gabapentin, valproate, opioids (morphine sulfate, tramadol, and oxycodone controlled-release), and capsaicin are probably effective and should be considered for treatment of PDN (Level B). Other treatments have less robust evidence or the evidence is negative. Effective treatments for PDN are available, but many have side effects that limit their usefulness, and few studies have sufficient information on treatment effects on function and QOL.

Bril, V.; England, J.; Franklin, G.M.; Backonja, M.; Cohen, J.; Del Toro, D.; Feldman, E.; Iverson, D.J.; Perkins, B.; Russell, J.W.; Zochodne, D.

2011-01-01

263

Evidence-based treatment strategies in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.  

PubMed

Recently updated guidelines have provided revised recommendations, based on the GRADE criteria, for the diagnosis and pharmacological and non-pharmacological management of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Cochrane reviews are also a highly respected and reliable source of evidence-based information that identify and analyse all available data of overall treatment effects from appropriate studies. A recent update of one Cochrane review failed to identify any new evidence supporting the use of corticosteroids in IPF. Another review of data from 15 randomised controlled studies of non-steroid agents for the treatment of IPF identified two trials of interferon-?-1b suitable for analysis. However, the pooled analysis revealed no treatment effect in terms of survival. A further meta-analysis of three phase III studies of pirfenidone treatment in IPF patients suggested a significant increase in progression-free survival. The interpretation of recent international and national European guideline updates and treatment recommendations, available clinical data from published and ongoing trials investigating potential pharmacological agents, and the individual patient's preferences, must be considered in the clinical management of this disease. PMID:23728871

Behr, Jürgen

2013-06-01

264

[Evidence-based practice for perioperative patient safety: preface and comments].  

PubMed

Various kinds of evidence-based checklists and guidelines aimed at patient safety in the perioperative period are becoming popular in the clinical setting. These include WHO guidelines on surgical patient safety, surgical-crisis checklists, checklist for preventing major complications associated with cesarean delivery, NICE guidelines for surgical site infection, guidelines for the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of pulmonary thromboembolism and deep vein thrombosis, appropriateness criteria for stress echocardiography and so on. Better knowledge of evidence of these guidelines and check lists for acute care in the perioperative period helps us provide high-quality care for surgical patients. When we use the guidelines and checklists correctly, we could see what is happening in a patient and what to do next for the patient leading us to correct diagnosis and appropriate treatment. Thus, evidence-based practice will be established in the near future in the perioperative period. PMID:24724432

Kawamata, Mikito

2014-03-01

265

Information Technology and Evidence-based Practices: A Commentary on “Evidence-Based Implementation Strategies: Results of a Qualitative Study”  

Microsoft Academic Search

Congratulations to Rapp and his colleagues (2008) for a helpful explication of important factors in the implementation of evidence-based practices in Kansas. This article is the latest to appear from the National Evidence-based Practices Project (http:\\/\\/www.mentalhealthpractices.com). The steady flow of articles from that project will significantly expand the field’s empirical knowledge regarding the implementation of effective psychosocial interventions in mental

Robert E. Drake; Gary R. Bond

2008-01-01

266

Evidence based development of bedside clinical drug rules for surgical patients.  

PubMed

Background Surgical adverse events constitute a considerable problem. More than half of in-hospital adverse events are related to a surgical procedure. Medication related events are frequent and partly preventable. Due to the complexity and multidisciplinary nature of the surgical process, patients are at risk for drug related problems. Consistent drug management throughout the process is needed. Objective The aim of this study was to develop an evidence-based bedside tool for drug management decisions during the pre- and postoperative phase of the surgical pathway. Setting Tool development study performed in an academic medical centre in the Netherlands involving an expert panel consisting of a surgeon, a clinical pharmacist and a pharmacologist, all experienced in quality improvement. Method Relevant medication related problems and critical pharmacotherapeutic decision steps in the surgical process were identified and prioritised by a team of experts. The final selection comprised undesirable effects or unintended outcomes related to surgery (e.g. pain, infection) and comorbidity related hazards (e.g. diabetes, cardiovascular diseases). To guide patient management, a list of bedside surgical drug rules was developed using international evidence-based guidelines. Main outcome measure 55 bedside drug rules on 6 drug categories, specifically important for surgical practice, were developed: pain, respiration, infection, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and anticoagulation. Results A total of 29 evidence-based guidelines were used to develop the Bedside Surgical Drug Rules tool. This tool consist of practical tables covering management regarding (1) the most commonly used drug categories during surgery, (2) comorbidities that require dosing adjustments and, (3) contra-indicated drugs in the perioperative period. Conclusion An evidence-based approach provides a practical basis for the development of a bedside tool to alert and assist the care providers in their drug management decisions along the surgical pathway. PMID:24748507

Ramrattan, Maya A; Boeker, Eveline B; Ram, Kim; Burgers, Desiree M T; de Boer, Monica; Lie-A-Huen, Loraine; Mulder, Wilhelmina M C; Boermeester, Marja A

2014-06-01

267

Infection control considerations during construction activities: land excavation and demolition.  

PubMed

Because current trends in hospital restructuring in North America, amalgamations and mergers, and the aging of health care facilities, the need to restructure physical buildings has become greater. Hospital construction carries with it risks to patients. One key concern is the risk of aspergillosis associated with hospital construction. Infection control practitioners must consider some key factors when addressing land excavation and building demolition, which differ in some ways from construction that occurs within a health care facility. The key factors to consider are project concept, risk assessment of patients, procedures and environment, air quality, routes of entry and egress, soil management, conducting inspections, contingency planning, housekeeping, and lines of cooperation and communication with various stakeholders. Considering these areas will help ensure that health care facility personnel and the workers have exercised diligence in patient care. PMID:11584259

Cheng, S M; Streifel, A J

2001-10-01

268

Disease Progression in HIV-1-Infected Viremic Controllers  

PubMed Central

Background The mechanism of CD4+ T-cell decline in HIV-1 infection is unclear, but the association with plasma viral RNA load suggests viral replication is involved. Indeed, viremic controller patients with low viral RNA loads typically maintain high CD4+ T-cell counts. Within a local cohort of 86 viremic controllers, we identify a subgroup (18 “discord controllers”) with low CD4+ T-cell counts that present clinical uncertainty. The underlying mechanism accounting for CD4+ T-cell decline in the face of low or undetectable plasma (RNA) viral load remains unresolved. The objective of this study was to investigate the viral and host immune system dynamics in discord controllers by measuring cellular HIV-1 DNA load, T-cell populations, and T-cell activation markers. Methods We compared discord controllers (viral RNA load <2000 copies/mL, <450 CD4+ T-cells/mm3) with typical controllers (viral RNA load <2000 copies/mL, >450 CD4+ T-cells/mm3) and progressors (viral RNA load >10,000 copies/mL, <450 CD4+ T-cells/mm3). We quantified CD4+/CD8+ naive/central memory/effector memory subsets (CD45RA/RO ± CD62L), activation levels (CD38+HLA-DR+), and HIV-1 DNA load. Results Discord controllers resembled progressors showing high viral DNA load, depletion of naive CD4+ T-cells, and higher activation in all CD4+ T-cell subsets, compared with typical controllers. They were similar to typical controllers with lower CD8+ T-cell activation compared with progressors. Conclusions Our data are consistent with a relationship between CD4+ T-cell activation and disease progression. HIV-1 DNA load may be a better marker of viral replication and disease progression than viral RNA load. Lower level CD8+ T-cell activation correlates with low viral RNA load but not with disease progression or viral DNA load.

Groves, Katherine C.; Bibby, David F.; Clark, Duncan A.; Isaksen, Are; Deayton, Jane R.; Anderson, Jane; Orkin, Chloe; Stagg, Andrew J.; McKnight, Aine

2013-01-01

269

Single-subject designs as a tool for evidence-based clinical practice: Are they unrecognised and undervalued?  

Microsoft Academic Search

One could be forgiven for thinking that the only road to evidence-based clinical practice is the application of results from randomised controlled trials (or systematic reviews of such). By contrast, single-subject designs in the context of evidence-based clinical practice are believed by many to be strange bedfellows. In this paper, we argue that single-subject designs play an important role in

Michael Perdices; Robyn L. Tate

2009-01-01

270

An Evidence Base for Human Spaceflight Risks in Wikipedia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Human Research Program (HRP) is focused on understanding and mitigating thirty two risks to crew health and performance in exploration missions beyond low Earth orbit. The HRP has developed an evidence report for each of the risks. Most evidence reports are a brief review article describing the evidence related to a specified risk, written at a level appropriate for the scientifically educated, non-specialist reader. Each evidence report captured the current state of knowledge from both research and operations. Two limitations of the evidence reports have become apparent: 1) they are updated infrequently and 2) they do not take full advantage of the expertise available in other space agencies and in related fields of terrestrial research. Therefore, the HRP is experimenting with the use of Wikipedia articles as a repository for evidence. Wikipedia's accessibility to the international space flight community and researchers in related terrestrial fields creates the opportunity to generate a more timely and comprehensive evidence base. Initial Wikipedia articles were populated for seven risks using a subset of the information in the HRP-approved evidence reports: Fatigue and Sleep Loss, Treating An Ill or Injured Crew Member, Radiation Carcinogenesis, Visual Impairment and Intracranial Pressure, Renal Stone Formation, Team Cohesion, and Intervertebral Disc Damage. Since the initial articles were created, there have been additions to these Wikipedia articles, including content from sources outside the HRP, and editorial changes to the pages. We will report on the nature of the contributions made after the initial articles were created, the comprehensiveness of the resulting Wikipedia articles, and the effort required to maintain quality control of the content. The Wikipedia approach will also be compared to wiki efforts that exert more traditional editorial control of content prior to posting.

Kundrot, Craig; Steil, Jennifer; Lumpkins, Sarah; Pellis, Neal

2013-01-01

271

Tuberculosis control in hospitals. Technical Panel on Infections within Hospitals, American Hospital Association.  

PubMed

Below is a Technical Briefing on Tuberculosis Control in Hospitals elaborated by the Technical Panel on Infections within Hospitals, in January 1992. Several hospital outbreaks of multiple drug-resistant tuberculosis among HIV-infected persons underscore the need for immediate attention to TB infection control measures to prevent transmission in hospitals. This Technical Briefing recommends specific TB control measures that should be implemented in all hospitals. PMID:10128751

1992-01-01

272

Food safety measures for the control of foodborne trematode infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

With over 40 million persons affected throughout the world and more than 10% of the world population being at risk of infection, foodborne trematode infections are a major public health problem. Furthermore some species cause devastating economic losses in livestock. There are indications that these infections have been steadily increasing in recent years. This may be due, among other factors,

M. Abdussalam; F. K. Käferstein; K. E. Mott

1995-01-01

273

Risk factors for graft infection in India: a case-control study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim: To study the demographic, clinical, and microbiological profile and the risk factors for graft infection following penetrating keratoplasty.Methods: 50 eyes of 50 consecutive patients with graft infection after an optical penetrating keratoplasty were included as cases; 50 eyes of 50 patients with no graft infection were included as controls. The main variables evaluated in this study included the clinical

R B Vajpayee; S K Boral; T Dada; G V S Murthy; R M Pandey; G Satpathy

2002-01-01

274

In vitro biological control of infective larvae of Ancylostoma ceylanicum.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the predatory activity of the fungus Duddingtonia flagrans (AC001) on infective larvae of Ancylostoma ceylanicum after gastrointestinal transit in hamsters. Twenty animals were used in the experiment, divided into two groups: a treated group (10 animals) and a control group (10 animals). In the group treated with D. flagrans, each animal received mycelium from the AC001 isolate, at an oral dose of 5 mg/25 g of live weight. To evaluate the predatory activity of the fungus, fecal samples were collected from the animals in both groups, at the times of 6, 8, 12, 24 and 36 hours after the treatment. Then, subsamples of 2 g of feces were placed in Petri dishes containing 2% water-agar (2% WA) culture medium and 1000 L3 of A. ceylanicum. Over the study period, the following percentage reductions were observed: 43.2% (6 hours), 30.8% (8 hours), 25.8% (12 hours), 30% (24 hours) and 11% (36 hours). The fungus D. flagrans presented predatory activity on the L3 of A. ceylanicum, after passing through the hamsters' gastrointestinal tract. It was therefore concluded that the fungus D. flagrans may be an alternative for biological control of the L3 of A. ceylanicum. PMID:23070440

Fernandes, Fernanda Mara; Araújo, Jackson Victor; Braga, Fabio Ribeiro; Gazzinelli-Guimarães, Pedro Henrique; Araujo, Juliana Milani; Ferreira, Sebastião Rodrigo; Carvalho, Rogério Oliva; de Mello, Ingrid Ney Kramer; Fujiwara, Ricardo Toshio

2012-01-01

275

Translating evidence-based interventions for implementation: Experiences from Project HEAL in African American churches  

PubMed Central

Background Community-based approaches have been increasing in the effort to raise awareness and early detection for cancer and other chronic disease. However, many times, such interventions are tested in randomized trials, become evidence-based, and then fail to reach further use in the community. Project HEAL (Health through Early Awareness and Learning) is an implementation trial that aims to compare two strategies of implementing evidence-based cancer communication interventions in African American faith-based organizations. Method This article describes the community-engaged process of transforming three evidence-based cancer communication interventions into a coherent, branded strategy for training community health advisors with two delivery mechanisms. Peer community health advisors receive training through either a traditional classroom approach (with high technical assistance/support) or a web-based training portal (with low technical assistance/support). Results We describe the process, outline the intervention components, report on the pilot test, and conclude with lessons learned from each of these phases. Though the pilot phase showed feasibility, it resulted in modifications to data collection protocols and team and community member roles and expectations. Conclusions Project HEAL offers a promising strategy to implement evidence-based interventions in community settings through the use of technology. There could be wider implications for chronic disease prevention and control.

2014-01-01

276

Moving an evidence-based intervention into routine mental health care: a multifaceted case example.  

PubMed

Many evidence-based interventions fail to translate into routine care for individuals experiencing significant mental health disorders. Moving the evidence-based intervention from the controlled research settings to the broader mental health systems is an ongoing challenge for administrators and practitioners in the mental health delivery network. In the United States, the movement to bring evidence-based mental health interventions into the public mental health system to enhance consumer recovery and improve outcomes has been a major thrust of federal and state efforts over the past 10 years (IOM, 2006; New Freedom Commission on Mental Health, 2003; Michigan Mental Health Commission, 2004; U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 1999). Using a multifaceted case example, this article will address one state's efforts to implement an evidence-based intervention, Family Group Psychoeducation (FPE), into routine care for individuals living with schizophrenia and their families. The Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR) (Damshcroder et al., 2009) guides the discussion of the dissemination efforts. This CFIR framework involves examining five major domains: intervention characteristics, outer setting, inner setting, characteristics of the individuals involved, and the process of implementation. PMID:22251392

Ruffolo, Mary C; Capobianco, Jeff

2012-01-01

277

Ensuring that education, certification, and practice are evidence based.  

PubMed

The occupational therapy profession has put forth a vision for evidence-based practice. Although many practitioners express a commitment to the provision of services informed by evidence, the reality that tradition still determines much of our education, certification, and practice cannot be ignored. In this article, we highlight the disconnect between the profession's aspirations and actual practices using neurophysiological models as an example. We describe actions to actualize the shift from traditional interventions to evidence-based approaches. We challenge readers to become agents of change and facilitate a culture shift to a profession informed by evidence. It is our hope that this article will provoke critical discourse among educators, practitioners, authors, and editors about why a reluctance to let go of unsubstantiated traditions and a hesitancy to embrace scientific evidence exist. A shift to providing evidence-based occupational therapy will enable us to meet the objectives of the Centennial Vision. PMID:23597695

Fleming-Castaldy, Rita P; Gillen, Glen

2013-01-01

278

Evidence-based reproductive medicine: a critical appraisal  

PubMed Central

Evidence-based medicine has become the golden standard of good medical practice. I analysed meta-analyses and systematic reviews, the cornerstones of evidence-based medicine, pertaining to two important problems in in vitro fertilization: failed implantation and poor ovarian response to ovarian stimulation. Numerous interventions and procedures have been tried to facilitate implantation and to enhance the ovarian response to stimulation. Notwithstanding the fact that many clinical trials have been performed, very few procedures can as yet stand the critical test of evidence-based medicine. A plea is made for co-ordination between clinicians and reviewers and co-operation between infertility centres to combine their efforts to set up sufficiently powered clinical trials to arrive at more solid evidence for a number of interventions in in vitro fertilization programmes.

Dhont, M.

2013-01-01

279

Outbreak of hepatitis C virus infections at an outpatient hemodialysis facility: the importance of infection control competencies.  

PubMed

In the United States, the prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection among patients treated in hemodialysis facilities is five times higher than among the general population. This study investigated eight new hepatitis C virus infections among patients treated at an outpatient hemodialysis facility. Epidemiologic investigation and viral sequencing demonstrated that transmission likely occurred between patients typically treated during the same or consecutive shifts at the same or a nearby station. Several infection control breaches were observed including lapses involving the preparation, handling, and administration of parenteral medications. Improved infection control education and training for all hemodialysis facility staff is an important component of assuring adherence to appropriate procedures and preventing future outbreaks. PMID:23785746

Rao, Agam K; Luckman, Emily; Wise, Matthew E; MacCannell, Taranisia; Blythe, David; Lin, Yulin; Xia, Guoliang; Drobeniuc, Jan; Noble-Wang, Judith; Arduino, Matthew J; Thompson, Nicola D; Patel, Priti R; Wilson, Lucy E

2013-01-01

280

Case control study of epidural catheter infections in a district general hospital.  

PubMed

Ten infections associated with the use of epidural catheters for post-operative pain relief were identified in patients of a district general hospital in 1997 and 1998. A case control study showed that the infections were commoner in the summer months and associated with analgesia infused by syringes rather than pumps. Infection rates and risk factors can be analysed regularly if pain teams maintain a database of epidural catheters inserted, which includes information about infections. PMID:11280266

Dawson, S J; Small, H; Logan, M N; Geringer, S

2000-12-01

281

Infections  

MedlinePLUS

... Infections Warts West Nile Virus What Is "PANS"? Whooping Cough (Pertussis) Yersiniosis Ear Infections Can Chronic Ear Infections Cause ... Immunizations: Chickenpox Vaccine Your Child's Immunizations: Diphtheria, Tetanus & Pertussis Vaccine (DTaP) Your Child's Immunizations: Hepatitis A Vaccine ( ...

282

A constructivist model for teaching evidence-based practice.  

PubMed

The Institute of Medicine has reported that it takes roughly 17 years for evidence generated through research to move into clinical practice. Bridging that gap is an urgent need and will require educators to rethink how nurses are prepared for evidence-based practice. The constructivist theory for learning--in which it is assumed that students construct knowledge and meaning for themselves as they learn--may provide a framework for a redesigned baccalaureate curriculum, one that supports evidence-based practice throughout a nursing student's education. PMID:21086866

Rolloff, Mary

2010-01-01

283

Disruptive innovations for designing and diffusing evidence-based interventions.  

PubMed

Evidence-based therapeutic and preventive intervention programs (EBIs) have been growing exponentially. Yet EBIs have not been broadly adopted in the United States. In order for our EBI science to significantly reduce disease burden, we need to critically reexamine our scientific conventions and norms. Innovation may be spurred by reexamining the traditional biomedical model for validating, implementing, and diffusing EBI products and science. The model of disruptive innovations suggests that we reengineer EBIs on the basis of their most robust features in order to serve more people in less time and at lower cost. A disruptive innovation provides a simpler and less expensive alternative that meets the essential needs for the majority of consumers and is more accessible, scalable, replicable, and sustainable. Examples of disruptive innovations from other fields include minute clinics embedded in retail chain drug stores, $2 generic eyeglasses, automated teller machines, and telemedicine. Four new research approaches will be required to support disruptive innovations in EBI science: synthesize common elements across EBIs; experiment with new delivery formats (e.g., consumer controlled, self-directed, brief, paraprofessional, coaching, and technology and media strategies); adopt market strategies to promote and diffuse EBI science, knowledge, and products; and adopt continuous quality improvement as a research paradigm for systematically improving EBIs, based on ongoing monitoring data and feedback. EBI science can have more impact if it can better leverage what we know from existing EBIs in order to inspire, engage, inform, and support families and children to adopt and sustain healthy daily routines and lifestyles. PMID:22545596

Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Swendeman, Dallas; Chorpita, Bruce F

2012-09-01

284

Adopting an Evidence-Based Lifestyle Physical Activity Program: Dissemination Study Design and Methods.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: There is a scarcity of research studies that have examined academic-commercial partnerships to disseminate evidence-based physical activity programs. Understanding this approach to dissemination is essential because academic-commercial partnerships are increasingly common. Private companies have used dissemination channels and strategies to a degree that academicians have not, and declining resources require academicians to explore these partnerships. PURPOSE: This paper describes a retrospective case-control study design including the methods, demographics, organizational decision-making, implementation rates, and marketing strategy for Active Living Every Day (ALED), an evidence-based lifestyle physical activity program that has been commercially available since 2001. Evidence-based public health promotion programs rely on organizations and targeted sectors to disseminate these programs although relatively little is known about organizational-level and sector-level influences that lead to their adoption and implementation. METHODS: Cases (n=154) were eligible if they had signed an ALED license agreement with Human Kinetics (HK), publisher of the program's textbooks and facilitator manuals, between 2001 and 2008. Two types of controls were matched (2:2:1) and stratified by sector and region. Active controls (Control 1; n=319) were organizations that contacted HK to consider adopting ALED. Passive controls (Control 2; n=328) were organizations that received unsolicited marketing materials and did not initiate contact with HK. We used Diffusion of Innovations Theory (DIT) constructs as the basis for developing the survey of cases and controls. RESULTS: Using the multi-method strategy recommended by Dillman, a total of n=801 cases and controls were surveyed. Most organizations were from the fitness sector followed by medical, nongovernmental, governmental, educational, worksite and other sectors with significantly higher response rates from government, educational and medical sectors compared with fitness and other sectors, (p=0.02). More cases reported being involved in the decision to adopt ALED (p<0.0001). Data indicate that a low percentage of controls had ever heard of ALED despite repeated marketing and offering other types of physical activity programs and services. Finally, slightly over half of the adopters reported they had actually implemented the ALED program. CONCLUSION: Dissemination research requires new perspectives and designs to produce valid insights about the results of dissemination efforts. This study design, survey methods and theoretically-based questions can serve as a useful model for other evidence-based public health interventions that are marketed by commercial publishers to better understand key issues related to adoption and implementation of evidence-based programs. PMID:23181147

Dunn, Andrea L; Buller, David B; Dearing, James W; Cutter, Gary; Guerra, Michele; Wilcox, Sara; Bettinghaus, Erwin P

2012-06-01

285

International Symposium on Genetic Control of Host Resistance to Infection and Malignancy (2nd).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Topics discussed at the symposia included: Strategies of Genetic Analysis of Host Resistance; Genetic Control of Resistance to Viral Infections; Hybrid Resistance and Susceptibility to Tumor Transplants; Genetic Control of Resistance to Bacterial Infectio...

S. M. Reichard

1985-01-01

286

Cell Wall Degrading Enzymes: An Approach to the Control of Fungal Infection of Human Burns.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The increased occurence of invasive fungal infections in burn wounds is probably a direct result of the more effective bacterial control measures recently introduced. Systemic and topical chemotherapy have failed to control zygomycetes in burns, and frequ...

D. E. Eveleigh R. P. Tewari R. L. Monaghan G. L. Cuffari R. D. Baker

1973-01-01

287

A new challenge for malaria control in Brazil: asymptomatic Plasmodium infection - a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evolution of malaria in Brazil, its morbidity, the malaria control programs, and the new challenges for these programs in the light of the emergence of asymptomatic infection in the Amazon region of Brazil were reviewed. At least six Brazilian research groups have demonstrated that asymptomatic infection by Plasmodium is an important impediment to malaria control, among mineral prospectors in

José Rodrigues Coura; Martha Suárez-Mutis; Simone Ladeia-Andrade

2006-01-01

288

The habitus of hygiene: Discourses of cleanliness and infection control in nursing workq  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports upon a qualitative interview study of 22 matrons, infection control staff and operating theatre staff who were questioned about their working lives and the role they played in the control of healthcare acquired infections such as MRSA virus in the UK. A theoretical framework drawing upon the work of Bourdieu is deployed as his notion of habitus

Brian Brown; Paul Crawford; Brigitte Nerlich; Nelya Koteyko

289

Control of immune response of HIV infection model by gradual reduction of drug dose  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is known that HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) infection that causes AIDS is a dynamic process that can be modeled mathematically. By changing the drug effect in the model, which can be regarded as the control input, the control goal of this paper is to drive any initial state into an equilibrium called the 'non-progressor,' where the symptom of infected

H. J. Chang; H. Shim; J. H. Seo

2004-01-01

290

Compliance with Infection Control Programs in Private Dental Clinics in Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to assess the compliance of general dental practitioners (GDPs) in the private sector in North Jordan with infection control measures. A pilot-tested questionnaire about infection control measures was distributed in March 2004 to 120 private practices. The response rate was 91.66 percent. About 77 percent of dentists usually ask their patients about medical history,

Mohammad Ahmad Al-Omari; Ziad Nawaf Al-Dwairi

291

Evidence-Based Practices and Implementation Science in Special Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Establishing a process for identifying evidence-based practices (EBPs) in special education has been a significant advance for the field because it has the potential for generating more effective educational programs and producing more positive outcomes for students with disabilities. However, the potential benefit of EBPs is bounded by the…

Cook, Bryan G.; Odom, Samuel L.

2013-01-01

292

What Is "Evidence-Based Practice" in Geography Education?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educationalists developed the concept of "evidence-based practice" during the 1990s because of concern about the relevance of educational research to practitioners and about its impact on their practice. This article outlines the different kinds of research evidence related to geographical education, which might inform practice. It then discusses…

Roberts, Margaret

2010-01-01

293

Evidence-Based Practice among Speech-Language Pathologists  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A total of 240 speech-language pathologists responded to a questionnaire examining attitudes toward and use of research and evidence-based practice (EBP). Perceived barriers to EBP were also explored. Positive attitudes toward research and EBP were reported. Attitudes were predicted by exposure to research and EBP practice during graduate training…

Zipoli, Richard P., Jr.; Kennedy, Marianne

2005-01-01

294

Disseminating Evidence-Based Practices in Secondary Transition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As educators move into a new era of educational reform, it becomes imperative that teachers use evidence-based instructional practices shown to be effective for students with disabilities. One area that plays a role in this process is secondary transition. The National Secondary Transition Technical Assistance Center has identified 63…

Mustian, April; Mazzotti, Valerie L.; Test, David W.

2013-01-01

295

Toward an Evidence-Based Assessment of Pediatric Bipolar Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article outlines a provisional evidence-based approach to the assessment of pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD). Public attention to PBD and the rate of diagnosis have both increased substantially in the past decade. Accurate diagnosis is crucial to avoid harm due to mislabeling or unnecessary medication exposure. Because there are no proven…

Youngstrom, Eric A.; Findling, Robert L.; Kogos Youngstrom, Jen; Calabrese, Joseph R.

2005-01-01

296

Psychosocial Factors and Diabetes Mellitus: Evidence-Based Treatment Guidelines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this project was to develop evidence-based guidelines regarding psychosocial aspects of diabetes mellitus in an effort to help the clinician bridge the gap between research and practice. Recommendations address the following topics: patient education, behavioural medicine, and psychiatric disorders of particular relevance to diabetes: depression, anxiety disorders, eating disorders, and dependence on alcohol and nicotine. The present

Frank Petrak; Stephan Herpertz; Christian Albus; Axel Hirsch; Bernhard Kulzer; Johannes Kruse

2005-01-01

297

Single-Subject Experimental Design for Evidence-Based Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Single-subject experimental designs (SSEDs) represent an important tool in the development and implementation of evidence-based practice in communication sciences and disorders. The purpose of this article is to review the strategies and tactics of SSEDs and their application in speech-language pathology research. Method: The authors…

Byiers, Breanne J.; Reichle, Joe; Symons, Frank J.

2012-01-01

298

Evidence-Based Practice and Evaluation: From Insight to Impact  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the growing emphasis on accountability and evidence-based practice, evaluation has become increasingly important in the contexts in which educational psychologists (EPs) practice. This paper describes a Target Monitoring and Evaluation (TME) system, derived from Goal Attainment Scaling (GAS) which was developed to evaluate outcomes of a wide…

Dunsmuir, Sandra; Brown, Emma; Iyadurai, Suzi; Monsen, Jeremy

2009-01-01

299

Nurses' skill level and access to evidence-based practice.  

PubMed

Integrating evidence-based practice into the culture of an acute care hospital requires assessment, planning, and intervention by nursing leadership. The authors discuss a statewide study that assessed the skill level of nurses in obtaining evidence for their nursing practice, using computers and databases, as well as evaluating the perceived availability of resources in their hospitals to access evidence. PMID:18997555

Cadmus, Edna; Van Wynen, Elizabeth A; Chamberlain, Barbara; Steingall, Patricia; Kilgallen, Mary Ellen; Holly, Cheryl; Gallagher-Ford, Lynn

2008-11-01

300

Evidence-Based Practice in Stuttering: Some Questions to Consider  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A recent forum in "JFD" (28/3, 2003) evaluated the status of evidence-based practice in fluency disorders, and offered recommendations for improvement. This article re-evaluates the level of support available for some popular approaches to stuttering therapy and questions the relative value placed on some types of programs endorsed by the forum.…

Ratner, Nan Bernstein

2005-01-01

301

Evidence-Based Practice in Communication Disorders: Progress Not Perfection  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This commentary is written in response to a companion paper by Nan Bernstein Ratner ("Evidence-Based Practice: An Examination of its Ramifications for the Practice of Speech-Language Pathology"). Method: The comments reflect my experience as Vice President for Research and Technology of the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association…

Kent, Ray D.

2006-01-01

302

Evidence-Based Practice and Policy: Choices Ahead  

Microsoft Academic Search

Choices about how to view evidence-based practice (EBP) are being made by educators, practitioners, agency administrators, and staff in a variety of organizations designed to promote integration of research and practice such as clearinghouses on EBP. Choices range from narrow views of EBP such as use of empirically based guidelines and treatment manuals to the broad philosophy and evolving process

Eileen Gambrill

2006-01-01

303

Evidence-Based Practices Project for Suicide Prevention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suicide continues to be a serious public health problem. In response to this problem, a myriad of suicide prevention programs have been developed and employed across the United States. Unfortunately, the effectiveness of many of these programs is unknown because they have not been evaluated using rigorous methods. The Evidence-Based Practices…

Rodgers, Philip L.; Sudak, Howard S.; Silverman, Morton M.; Litts, David A.

2007-01-01

304

Need to Address Evidence-Based Practice in Educational Administration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This article presents a case for addressing evidence-based practice (EBP) in educational administration. Content is arranged around four objectives: (a) summarizing the status of educational administration as a profession, (b) defining evidence and the model, (c) explaining EBP's social and professional merit, and (d) identifying barriers…

Kowalski, Theodore

2009-01-01

305

Evidence-Based Youth Psychotherapy in the Mental Health Ecosystem  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Five decades of randomized trials research have produced dozens of evidence-based psychotherapies (EBPs) for youths. The EBPs produce respectable effects in traditional efficacy trials, but the effects shrink markedly when EBPs are tested in practice contexts with clinically referred youths and compared to usual clinical care. We considered why…

Weisz, John R.; Ugueto, Ana M.; Cheron, Daniel M.; Herren, Jenny

2013-01-01

306

An Evidence-Based Course in Complementary Medicines  

PubMed Central

Objective. To evaluate the impact of an evidence-based course in complementary medicines on the attitudes, knowledge, and professional practice behavior of undergraduate pharmacy students. Design. A required 12-week evidence-based complementary medicine course was designed and introduced into the third-year undergraduate pharmacy curriculum. The course included a combination of traditional lectures, interactive tutorial sessions, and a range of formal assessments. Assessment. Pre- and post-course survey instruments were administered to assess changes in students’ attitudes, perceptions, knowledge, and the likelihood they would recommend the use of complementary medicines in a pharmacy practice environment. Conclusion. Completion of a required evidence-based complementary medicines course resulted in a positive change in pharmacy students’ perceptions of the value of various complementary medicines as well as in their willingness to recommend them, and provided students with the required knowledge to make patient-centered recommendations for use of complementary medicines in a professional pharmacy practice setting. These findings support the need for greater evidence-based complementary medicine education within pharmacy curricula to meet consumer demand and to align with pharmacists’ professional responsibilities.

Hughes, Jeff

2012-01-01

307

Evidence-Based Practices in Outpatient Treatment for Eating Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the current issues relevant to implementing evidence-based practices in the context of outpatient treatment for eating disorders. The study also examined the effectiveness of an outpatient treatment program for eating disorders among a group of 196 patients presenting with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, or eating disorder…

Schaffner, Angela D.; Buchanan, Linda Paulk

2010-01-01

308

Pharmacologic management of neuropathic pain: Evidence-based recommendations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patients with neuropathic pain (NP) are challenging to manage and evidence-based clinical recommendations for pharmacologic management are needed. Systematic literature reviews, randomized clinical trials, and existing guidelines were evaluated at a consensus meeting. Medications were considered for recommendation if their efficacy was supported by at least one methodologically-sound, randomized clinical trial (RCT) demonstrating superiority to placebo or a relevant comparison

Robert H. Dworkin; Alec B. O’Connor; Miroslav Backonja; John T. Farrar; Nanna B. Finnerup; Troels S. Jensen; Eija A. Kalso; John D. Loeser; Christine Miaskowski; Turo J. Nurmikko; Russell K. Portenoy; Andrew S. C. Rice; Brett R. Stacey; Rolf-Detlef Treede; Dennis C. Turk; Mark S. Wallace

2007-01-01

309

Making the Case for Evidence-Based Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evidence-based practice is the collection, interpretation, and use of data, such as collection statistics or assessment results, that measure the effectiveness of a library media program. In this article, the authors will present various forms of evidence and show that any library media specialist can use data to make informed decisions that…

Bates, Joanne; McClure, Janelle; Spinks, Andy

2010-01-01

310

Organizing mental health services: an evidence-based approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Aims. Health policy makers and program developers seek evidence-based guidance on how to organize and finance mental health services. The Swedish Council on Technology Assessment in Health Care (SBU) commissioned a conceptual framework for thinking about health care services as a medical technology. The following framework was developed, citing empirical research from mental health services research as the

Howard H. Goldman; Sten Thelander

2000-01-01

311

Overcoming Challenges to Using Evidence-Based Interventions in Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Center for School Mental Health Assistance at the University of Maryland recently completed a review of evidence-based prevention and treatment programs that can be used by school mental health clinicians. Based on the review, a school-based program operating in 22 Baltimore City schools has purchased and trained clinicians in a number of…

Schaeffer, Cindy M.; Bruns, Eric; Weist, Mark; Stephan, Sharon Hoover; Goldstein, Julie; Simpson, Yolanda

2005-01-01

312

Evidence-based Practice for Medical Radiation Technologists  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent revisions to the competency profiles for the four Canadian Association of Medical Radiation Technologists medical radiation technology (MRT) disciplines highlight the need for practitioners to understand and apply the principles of evidence-based practice (EBP). Adoption of EBP is important if MRT is to be recognized and advance professionally.This review article will introduce the principles of EBP and use a

Cindy N. Murphy; Roberta L. Sharp

2009-01-01

313

An introduction to evidence-based practice for hand therapists  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence-based practice (EBP) is a methodologic approach to clinical practice in which evidence is used to reach an informed decision when making a diagnosis, selecting a diagnostic test, picking an intervention, or determining a prognosis. Finding the best evidence through searching and critical appraisal of the methodologic quality of clinical evidence are essential steps. Matching clinical recommendations to the level

Joy C. MacDermid

2004-01-01

314

Evidence-Based Practice: Critical Appraisal of Qualitative Evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the key steps of evidence-based practice is to critically appraise evidence to best answer a clinical question. Mental health clinicians need to understand the importance of qualitative evidence to their practice, including levels of qualitative evidence, qualitative inquiry methods, and criteria used to appraise qualitative evidence to determine how implementing the best qualitative evidence into their practice will

Kathleen M. Williamson

2009-01-01

315

Practicing Psychologists’ Reflections on Evidence-Based Practice in Psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

An American Psychological Association (APA) policy definition of evidence-based practice in psychology (EBPP) states that practice based on evidence must consider the best available research, use clinical expertise, and consider client contextual variables (APA Presidential Task Force, 2006). The researchers qualitatively examined clinical and counseling psychologists’ attitudes toward EBPP using grounded theory. The study explored the extent to which the

Jennifer L. Wilson; Erin Armoutliev; Elena Yakunina; James L. Werth

2009-01-01

316

Evidence-Based Psychosocial Treatments for Child and Adolescent Depression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The evidence-base of psychosocial treatment outcome studies for depressed youth conducted since 1998 is examined. All studies for depressed children meet Nathan and Gorman's (2002) criteria for Type 2 studies whereas the adolescent protocols meet criteria for both Type 1 and Type 2 studies. Based on the Task Force on the Promotion and…

David-Ferdon, Corinne; Kaslow, Nadine J.

2008-01-01

317

Evidence-based assessment: no more pride or prejudice.  

PubMed

Evidence-based practice is an important force in healthcare today. Its impact on the practice of the advanced practice nurse (APN) is becoming more apparent with the development of practice guidelines and protocols. The phrase, "That's the way I've always done it," is being replaced by, "This practice is evidence based." The philosophy of supporting practice with scientific evidence is not new but has been revitalized and emphasized as protocols have been developed to "mold" practice to achieve successful outcomes. This revolution is being applied to all areas of healthcare practice. Assessment of the patient is usually the first contact the APN has with the patient. It is an important time to gather information from the patient interview, physical examination, laboratory data, and test interpretation. Scientific evidence, properly interpreted, is applied in this step of assessment. The APN will then use clinical judgment and the knowledge gained from graduate education to assist with the formulation of a diagnosis. The APN has a unique opportunity to promote an evidence-based practice model at the grass roots level and persuade the bedside nurse to integrate this process into his or her practice. Ultimately, patients will receive better care and outcomes will be improved using evidence-based assessment. PMID:15586152

Munro, Nancy

2004-01-01

318

Evidence-Based Interprofessional Practice: Learning and Behaviour  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this journal article is to investigate evidence-based practice (EBP) or He Ritenga Whaimohio, as one of the seven principles outlined in the "Resource Teacher: Learning and Behaviour (RTLB) Toolkit" (2011) that guides RTLB practice; and to critique the principle of EBP through practical reflection. (Contains 2 tables and 2…

Littek, Celeste

2013-01-01

319

Evidence-Based Practice for Conduct Disorder Symptoms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Patients exhibiting symptoms associated with conduct disorder present challenges in assessment and treatment. The difficulties are not only the complexities of correct identification and appropriate intervention, but also that the knowledge is rapidly growing. Evidence-based practice (EBP) provides a useful framework for dealing with these issues.…

Thomas, Christopher R.

2006-01-01

320

Application of evidence-based practice through a float project.  

PubMed

Evidence-based practice must become a common, acceptable process for the bedside nurse. This paper demonstrates a process for engaging nurses in the use of evidence for direct practice. An example using the revision of a float policy is provided as a model for staff nurses to incorporate evidence in a mechanism to elicit change. PMID:18715345

Boswell, Carol; Gatson, Zassar; Baker, Diana; Vaughn, Gary; Lyons, Beverly; Chapman, Patty; Cannon, Sharon

2008-01-01

321

Marketing evidence-based practice: what a CROC™!  

PubMed

Nurses should be engaged in evidence-based practice (EBP) to ensure that nursing care is efficient and effective. This article describes one cancer center's use of the Marketing Mix framework to educate staff nurses with the CROC™: Clinging Rigidly to Outdated Care campaign. As a result of the campaign, five EBP projects have been initiated in the cancer center. PMID:20880823

Boyington, Alice R; Ferrall, Sheila M; Sylvanus, Terry

2010-10-01

322

Evidence-Based Recognition of 3-D Objects  

Microsoft Academic Search

An evidence-based recognition technique is defined that identifies 3-D objects by looking for their notable features. This technique makes use of an evidence rule base, which is a set of salient or evidence conditions with corresponding evidence weights for various objects in the database. A measure of similarity between the set of observed features and the set of evidence conditions

Anil K. Jain; Richard Hoffman

1988-01-01

323

Teaching Evidence-Based Medicine: A Regional Dissemination Model.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described and evaluated an interactive course designed to create a cadre of medical school faculty in New York who could integrate evidence-based medicine into their training programs. Findings for representatives of 30 internal medicine residency programs show the usefulness of the regional dissemination model used. (SLD)

Leipzig, Rosanne M.; Wallace, Eleanor Z.; Smith, Lawrence G.; Sullivant, Jean; Dunn, Kathel; McGinn, Thomas

2003-01-01

324

Evaluating Evidence-Based Interventions in School Psychology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The tactics adopted by the Task Force on Evidence-Based Interventions in School Psychology have advantages in terms of literature coverage and providing data on multiple dimensions. Two suggestions to improve Task Force efforts are offered in terms of the specification of key outcomes and the use of effect sizes to gauge the impact and value of…

Durlak, Joseph A.

2002-01-01

325

Evidence-Based Parent Consultation with School-Related Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, 18 studies using parent consultation to effect a change in children's school-related behavior were evaluated according to guidelines set forth by the APA's Task Force on Evidence-Based Interventions in School Psychology. Results indicate that parent consultation is an effective method of intervention delivery for a variety of…

Guli, Laura A.

2005-01-01

326

Reflections on the Teaching of Evidence-Based Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As the process of evidence-based practice (EBP) gains a foothold in the curricula of schools of social work and the various helping professions, instructors have been encountering a unique set of challenges. On one hand, educators must develop new curricula to convey material that is often complex and is, even in its most advanced state, still in…

Shlonsky, Aron; Stern, Susan B.

2007-01-01

327

Evidence-Based Practice in Adapted Physical Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although implementation of evidence-based practice (EBP) has been strongly advocated by federal legislation as well as school districts in recent years, the concept has not been well accepted in adapted physical education (APE), perhaps due to a lack of understanding of the central notion of EBP. The purpose of this article is to discuss how APE…

Jin, Jooyeon; Yun, Joonkoo

2010-01-01

328

Organizing for Evidence-Based Decision Making and Improvement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In today's accountability climate, regional accrediting bodies are requiring colleges and universities to develop and sustain a culture of evidence-based decision making and improvement. But two-thirds of college presidents in a 2011 "Inside Higher Ed" survey said their institutions are not particularly strong at using data for making decisions.…

Leimer, Christina

2012-01-01

329

Evidence-Based Diagnosis: Incorporating Diagnostic Instruments into Clinical Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article is intended to serve as a practical guide for practitioners interested in incorporating evidence-based diagnosis (EBD) instruments into their clinical practices to refine the diagnostic process. Three measures are used to illustrate this process, the DISC-IV (Shaffer et al., 2000), the Schedule for Affective Disorders and…

Doss, Amanda Jensen

2005-01-01

330

Governing welfare reform symbolically: evidence based or iconic policy?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports findings from an ethnographic study of welfare reform in which the discursive negotiation of policy implementation at the local level was key to understanding the phenomenon of unintended consequences. Using policy give-aways or ‘freebies’ as a primary source of data, the article demonstrates how, despite the rhetoric of evidence based policy and practice, the meanings of policy

Pam Carter

2011-01-01

331

Evidence-Based Family-School Interventions with Preschool Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fifteen studies of family-school interventions with preschool children conducted between 1980 and 2002, and published in peer-reviewed journals, were reviewed and evaluated according to the criteria developed by the Task Force on Evidence-Based Intervention in School Psychology (Division 16 and Society for the Study of School Psychology Task…

Bates, Stacey L.

2005-01-01

332

Using Family Paradigms to Improve Evidence-Based Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Evidence-based practice (EBP) describes clinical decision making using research, clinical experience, and client values. For family-centered practices, the client's family is integral to this process. This article proposes that using family paradigms, a family science framework, may help elicit and understand client/family values within…

Hidecker, Mary Jo Cooley; Jones, Rebecca S.; Imig, David R.; Villarruel, Francisco A.

2009-01-01

333

An evidence-based approach to earlier initiation of dialysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective was to review evidence addressing the optimal time to initiate dialysis treatment. The database was derived from an evidence-based review of the medical literature and from the Canada-United States peritoneal dialysis study. The publications were divided into (1) those addressing the clinical impact of early versus late referral to a dialysis program; (2) those evaluating the association between

David N. Churchill

1997-01-01

334

Evidence based practice: are critical care nurses ready for it?  

PubMed

In the emergence of the evidence based practice movement, critical care nurses have struggled to identify scientific evidence on which to base their clinical practice. While the lack of critical care nursing research is a major concern, other important issues have significantly stalled the implementation of evidence even when it is available. A descriptive study of 274 critical care nurses was undertaken to examine nursing research activity in Victorian critical care units. The study aimed to identify critical care nurses' research skills, the barriers encountered in participation and implementation and the current availability of resources. Results revealed that 42 per cent of the nurses who participated in the study believed that they were not prepared adequately to evaluate research, and less than a third believed they were sufficiently skilled to conduct valid scientific studies. An association was found between nurses' ability to confidently perform research activities and higher academic qualifications. The study found that there is a lack of organisational support and management commitment for the development of evidence based nursing. In order to facilitate the implementation of evidence based practice, clinicians must be made aware of the available resources, be educated and mentored when carrying out and using clinical research, and be supported in professional initiatives that promote evidence based practice. It is argued that this will have positive implications for patient outcomes in the critical care environment. PMID:11899640

Bucknall, T; Copnell, B; Shannon, K; McKinley, D

2001-08-01

335

Evidence-Based Secondary Transition Practices for Enhancing School Completion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Approximately 28% of students with disabilities do not complete high school (National Longitudinal Transition Study-2, 2005). This increases the likelihood that these students will experience low wages, high rates of incarceration, and limited access to postsecondary education. This article reviews evidence-based secondary transition practices…

Test, David W.; Fowler, Catherine H.; White, James; Richter, Sharon; Walker, Allison

2009-01-01

336

Evidence-Based Quality Improvement: The State Of The  

Microsoft Academic Search

Routine practice fails to incorporate research evidence in a timely and reliable fashion. Many quality improvement (QI) efforts aim to close these gaps between clinical re- search and practice. However, in sharp contrast to the paradigm of evidence-based medi- cine, these efforts often proceed on the basis of intuition and anecdotal accounts of suc- cessful strategies for changing provider behavior

Kaveh G. Shojania; Jeremy M. Grimshaw

337

EVIDENCE - BASED MEDICINE/PRACTICE IN SPORTS PHYSICAL THERAPY  

PubMed Central

A push for the use of evidence?based medicine and evidence?based practice patterns has permeated most health care disciplines. The use of evidence?based practice in sports physical therapy may improve health care quality, reduce medical errors, help balance known benefits and risks, challenge views based on beliefs rather than evidence, and help to integrate patient preferences into decision?making. In this era of health care utilization sports physical therapists are expected to integrate clinical experience with conscientious, explicit, and judicious use of research evidence in order to make clearly informed decisions in order to help maximize and optimize patient well?being. One of the more common reasons for not using evidence in clinical practice is the perceived lack of skills and knowledge when searching for or appraising research. This clinical commentary was developed to educate the readership on what constitutes evidence?based practice, and strategies used to seek evidence in the daily clinical practice of sports physical therapy.

Lehecka, B.J.

2012-01-01

338

The Concept of Evidence in Evidence-Based Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There exists a vast literature on evidence-based practice (EBP) in education. The debate branches out in several directions, for example, what EBP entails for the nature of educational practice, what it entails for the teaching profession, what counts as use and abuse of evidence, and what educational research could or should contribute to a what…

Kvernbekk, Tone

2011-01-01

339

Dissemination of Evidence-Based Standards of Care  

PubMed Central

Standards of care pertain to crafting and implementing patient-centered treatment interventions. Standards of care must take into consideration the patient's gender, ethnicity, medical and dental history, insurance coverage (or socioeconomic level, if a private patient), and the timeliness of the targeted scientific evidence. This resolves into a process by which clinical decision-making about the optimal patient-centered treatment relies on the best available research evidence, and all other necessary inputs and factors to provide the best possible treatment. Standards of care must be evidence-based, and not merely based on the evidence – the dichotomy being critical in contemporary health services research and practice. Evidence-based standards of care must rest on the best available evidence that emerges from a concerted hypothesis-driven process of research synthesis and meta-analysis. Health information technology needs to become an every-day reality in health services research and practice to ensure evidence-based standards of care. Current trends indicate that user-friendly methodologies, for the dissemination of evidence-based standards of care, must be developed, tested and distributed. They should include approaches for the quantification and analysis of the textual content of systematic reviews and of their summaries in the form of critical reviews and lay-language summaries.

Barkhordarian, Andre; Hacker, Brett; Chiappelli, Francesco

2011-01-01

340

Evidence-based Assessment in Pediatric Psychology: Family Measures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To provide a review of the evidence base of family measures relevant to pediatric psychology. Method Twenty-nine family measures were selected based upon endorsement by Division 54 listserv members, expert judgment, and literature review. Spanning observational and self-report methods, the measures fell into three broad assessment categories: Family functioning, Dyadic family relationships, and Family functioning in the context of

Melissa A. Alderfer; Barbara H. Fiese; Jeffrey I. Gold; J. J. Cutuli; Grayson N. Holmbeck; Lutz Goldbeck; Christine T. Chambers; Mona Abad; Dante Spetter; Joan Patterson

2008-01-01

341

Urticaria: an evidence-based update. Conference report.  

PubMed

Summary Evidence-based update meetings are held annually by the Centre of Evidence Based Dermatology, University of Nottingham. Topics are chosen by delegates at the previous year's conference and in the past have included blistering disorders, psoriasis, hair disorders and skin cancers. Once the topic is identified, a trials database search is undertaken with the aim of including speakers who are actively involved in trials that address the subject in question. This year, the eighth Evidence Based Update meeting focused on urticaria and took place in Loughborough University on 14 May 2009. The latest data on the diagnosis and management of acute and chronic urticaria, including cold and solar urticaria, and the impact of food intolerance on chronic urticaria, were presented by an international panel of renowned speakers, who sometimes expressed different viewpoints. The highlights of the meeting included an informal atmosphere, an international perspective, and a practical question and answer session. Over 70% of the delegates stated that they would be changing their clinical practice following on from the meeting. The evidence-based update meeting in 2010 will be devoted to eczema. PMID:20666769

Alexandroff, A B; Harman, K E

2010-08-01

342

Strengths and limitations of evidence-based dermatology.  

PubMed

The need for understanding and reflecting on evidence-based dermatology (EBD) has never been greater given the exponential growth of new external evidence to inform clinical practice. Like any other branch of medicine, dermatologists need to acquire new skills in constructing answerable questions, efficiently searching electronic bibliographic databases, and critically appraising different types of studies. Secondary summaries of evidence in the form of systematic reviews (SR), that is, reviews that are conducted in a systematic, unbiased and explicit manner, reside at the top of the evidence hierarchy, because they are less prone to bias than traditional expert reviews. In addition to providing summaries of the best external evidence, systematic reviews and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are also powerful ways of identifying research gaps and ultimately setting the agenda of future clinical research in dermatology. But like any paradigm, EBD can have its limitations. Wrong application, misuse and overuse of EBD can have serious consequences. For example, mindless pooling together of data from dissimilar studies in a meta-analysis may render it a form of reductionism that does not make any sense. Similarly, even highly protocolised study designs such as SRs and RCTs are still susceptible to some degree of dishonesty and bias. Over-reliance on randomized controlled trials (RCT) may be inappropriate, as RCTs are not a good source for picking up rare but important adverse effects such as lupus syndrome with minocycline. A common criticism leveled against SRs is that these frequently conclude that there is lack of sufficient evidence to inform current clinical practice, but arguably, such a perception is grounded more on the interpretation of the SRs than anything else. The apparent absence of evidence should not paralyze the dermatologist to adopt a state of therapeutic nihilism. Poor primary data and an SR based on evidence that is not up-to-date are also limitations that can only improve with better primary studies and updated reviews such as those done by the Cochrane Collaboration. Most dermatologists are interested in integrating the best external evidence with the care of individual patients and have been practicing good EBD without realizing it. PMID:24700929

Williams, Hywel C

2014-03-01

343

IL-21 is required to control chronic viral infection.  

PubMed

CD4+ and CD8+ T cell functions are rapidly aborted during chronic infection, preventing viral clearance. CD4+ T cell help is required throughout chronic infection so as to sustain CD8+ T cell responses; however, the necessary factor(s) provided by CD4+ T cells are currently unknown. Using a mouse model of chronic viral infection, we demonstrated that interleukin-21 (IL-21) is an essential component of CD4+ T cell help. In the absence of IL-21 signaling, despite elevated CD4+ T cell responses, CD8+ T cell responses are severely impaired. CD8+ T cells directly require IL-21 to avoid deletion, maintain immunity, and resolve persistent infection. Thus, IL-21 specifically sustains CD8+ T cell effector activity and provides a mechanism of CD4+ T cell help during chronic viral infection. PMID:19423777

Elsaesser, Heidi; Sauer, Karsten; Brooks, David G

2009-06-19

344

IL-21 Is Required to Control Chronic Viral Infection  

PubMed Central

CD4+ and CD8+ T cell functions are rapidly aborted during chronic infection, preventing viral clearance. CD4+ T cell help is required throughout chronic infection so as to sustain CD8+ T cell responses; however, the necessary factor(s) provided by CD4+ T cells are currently unknown. Using a mouse model of chronic viral infection, we demonstrated that interleukin-21 (IL-21) is an essential component of CD4+ T cell help. In the absence of IL-21 signaling, despite elevated CD4+ T cell responses, CD8+ T cell responses are severely impaired. CD8+ T cells directly require IL-21 to avoid deletion, maintain immunity, and resolve persistent infection. Thus, IL-21 specifically sustains CD8+ T cell effector activity and provides a mechanism of CD4+ T cell help during chronic viral infection.

Elsaesser, Heidi; Sauer, Karsten; Brooks, David G.

2010-01-01

345

Mixed-Strain Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infections and the Implications for Tuberculosis Treatment and Control  

PubMed Central

Summary: Numerous studies have reported that individuals can simultaneously harbor multiple distinct strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. To date, there has been limited discussion of the consequences for the individual or the epidemiological importance of mixed infections. Here, we review studies that documented mixed infections, highlight challenges associated with the detection of mixed infections, and discuss possible implications of mixed infections for the diagnosis and treatment of patients and for the community impact of tuberculosis control strategies. We conclude by highlighting questions that should be resolved in order to improve our understanding of the importance of mixed-strain M. tuberculosis infections.

van Helden, Paul D.; Wilson, Douglas; Colijn, Caroline; McLaughlin, Megan M.; Abubakar, Ibrahim; Warren, Robin M.

2012-01-01

346

The relationship between fifth grade students' Understandings about Evidence-Based Explanations and their Abilities to Develop Evidence-Based Explanations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to investigate how fifth grade students' abilities to develop evidence-based explanations are related to their understandings about evidence-based explanations. A total of 97 fifth graders' understandings about evidence-based explanations and their abilities to develop evidence-based explanations were examined by two open-ended questionnaires and follow-up interviews. The Understandings about Evidence-Based Explanations (UEBE) and the Abilities to Develop Evidence-Based Explanations (ADEE) were developed by the researcher and content validity and face validity were established. Data analysis involved a systematic process consistent with analytic induction as well as a statistical analysis. The patterns from students' understandings about evidence-based explanations and abilities to develop evidence-based explanations were explored and the relationship between understandings and abilities were examined by Fisher's Exact test at the .05 level of significance. Results indicated that there was no relationship between students' understandings about evidence-based explanations and their abilities to develop evidence-based explanations (p>.05). The results of this study do not support the appealing assumption held by many science educators that students' inquiry skills reflect their understandings about scientific inquiry. Instead, the findings suggest that students' understandings about evidence-based explanations should be assessed separately and students' abilities to develop evidence-based explanations should not be inferred by their understandings about evidence-based explanations. Overall, students' understandings about evidence-based explanations were not well developed compared to their abilities to develop evidence-based explanations. Therefore, it is necessary for science educators to teach both understandings about evidence-based explanations and abilities to develop evidence-based explanations.

Ko, Eun Kyung

347

Evidence-Based Practice: Promoting Evidence-Based Interventions in School Psychology. WCER Working Paper No. 2003-13  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Evidence-Based Intervention (EBI) movement has gained tremendous momentum in the past few years with developments in psychology, medicine (e.g., psychiatry), education, and prevention science. The purpose of this paper is to present some of the issues relating to the adoption of EBIs in practice and, specifically, the multiple roles…

Kratochwill, Thomas R.; Shernoff, Elisa Steele

2003-01-01

348

Combining Biofilm-Controlling Compounds and Antibiotics as a Promising New Way to Control Biofilm Infections  

PubMed Central

Many bacteria grow on surfaces forming biofilms. In this structure, they are well protected and often high dosages of antibiotics cannot clear infectious biofilms. The formation and stabilization of biofilms are mediated by diffusible autoinducers (e.g. N-acyl homoserine lactones, small peptides, furanosyl borate diester). Metabolites interfering with this process have been identified in plants, animals and microbes, and synthetic analogues are known. Additionally, this seems to be not the only way to control biofilms. Enzymes capable of cleaving essential components of the biofilm matrix, e.g. polysaccharides or extracellular DNA, and thus weakening the biofilm architecture have been identified. Bacteria also have mechanisms to dissolve their biofilms and return to planktonic lifestyle. Only a few compounds responsible for the signalling of these processes are known, but they may open a completely novel line of biofilm control. All these approaches lead to the destruction of the biofilm but not the killing of the pathogens. Therefore, a combination of biofilm-destroying compounds and antibiotics to handle biofilm infections is proposed. In this article, different approaches to combine biofilm-controlling compounds and antibiotics to fight biofilm infections are discussed, as well as the balance between biofilm formation and virulence.

Estrela, Andreia Bergamo; Abraham, Wolf-Rainer

2010-01-01

349

Evidence-Based Selection of Candidates for the Levonorgestrel Intrauterine Device (IUD)  

PubMed Central

Background Recent evidence-based guidelines expanded the definition of appropriate candidates for the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS). We investigated correlates of evidence-based selection of candidates for the LNG-IUS by physicians who offer insertion. Methods We conducted a mixed-mode (online and mail) survey of practicing family physicians and obstetrician-gynecologists in Seattle. Results A total of 269 physicians responded to the survey (44% response rate). Of the 217 respondents who inserted intrauterine devices, half or fewer routinely recommended the LNG-IUS to women who are nulliparous, younger than 20 years old, or have a history of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). In multivariable analyses, training/resident status was positively associated with recommending the LNG-IUS to women <20 years old (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 3.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.6–8.0) and women with history of STI (aOR, 3.7; 95% CI, 1.6–8.4). Perceived risk of infection or infertility was negatively associated with recommending the LNG-IUS to nulliparous women (aOR, 0.2; 95% CI, 0.1–0.5) and women with a history of STI (aOR, 0.3; 95% CI, 0.1–0.8). Conclusions Many family physicians and obstetrician-gynecologists who insert the LNG-IUS are overly restrictive in selecting candidates, although those who train residents are more likely to follow evidence-based guidelines. Interventions that address negative bias and perceptions of risks, in addition to improving knowledge, are needed to promote wider use of the LNG-IUS.

Callegari, Lisa S.; Darney, Blair G.; Godfrey, Emily M.; Sementi, Olivia; Dunsmoor-Su, Rebecca; Prager, Sarah W.

2014-01-01

350

Integrating evidence-based clinical and community strategies to improve health.  

PubMed

Multiple and diverse preventive strategies in clinical and community settings are necessary to improve health. This paper (1) introduces evidence-based recommendations from the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force sponsored by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality and the Community Task Force sponsored by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, (2) examines, using a social-ecologic model, the evidence-based strategies for use in clinical and community settings to address preventable health-related problems such as tobacco use and obesity, and (3) advocates for prioritization and integration of clinical and community preventive strategies in the planning of programs and policy development, calling for additional research to develop the strategies and systems needed to integrate them. PMID:17296474

Ockene, Judith K; Edgerton, Elizabeth A; Teutsch, Steven M; Marion, Lucy N; Miller, Therese; Genevro, Janice L; Loveland-Cherry, Carol J; Fielding, Jonathan E; Briss, Peter A

2007-03-01

351

Translating Evidence-Based Depression Management Services to Community-Based Primary Care Practices  

PubMed Central

Randomized controlled trials have demonstrated the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of using treatment models for major depression in primary care settings. Nonetheless, translating these models into enduring changes in routine primary care has proved difficult. Various health system and organizational barriers prevent the integration of these models into primary care settings. This article discusses barriers to introducing and sustaining evidence-based depression management services in community-based primary care practices and suggests organizational and financial solutions based on the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Depression in Primary Care Program. It focuses on strategies to improve depression care in medical settings based on adaptations of the chronic care model and discusses the challenges of implementing evidence-based depression care given the structural, financial, and cultural separation between mental health and general medical care.

Kilbourne, Amy M; Schulberg, Herbert C; Post, Edward P; Rollman, Bruce L; Belnap, Bea Herbeck; Pincus, Harold Alan

2004-01-01

352

42 CFR 494.30 - Condition: Infection control.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Infections Among Chronic Hemodialysis Patientsâ), concerning isolation rooms...sufficiently serve the needs of patients in the geographic area, a...Artery Catheters, in Adult and Pediatric Patients,â Morbidity and...

2013-10-01

353

Plant RNA binding proteins for control of RNA virus infection  

PubMed Central

Plant RNA viruses have effective strategies to infect host plants through either direct or indirect interactions with various host proteins, thus suppressing the host immune system. When plant RNA viruses enter host cells exposed RNAs of viruses are recognized by the host immune system through processes such as siRNA-dependent silencing. Interestingly, some host RNA binding proteins have been involved in the inhibition of RNA virus replication, movement, and translation through RNA-specific binding. Host plants intensively use RNA binding proteins for defense against viral infections in nature. In this mini review, we will summarize the function of some host RNA binding proteins which act in a sequence-specific binding manner to the infecting virus RNA. It is important to understand how plants effectively suppress RNA virus infections via RNA binding proteins, and this defense system can be potentially developed as a synthetic virus defense strategy for use in crop engineering.

Huh, Sung Un; Paek, Kyung-Hee

2013-01-01

354

Pathogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus infection and prospects for control.  

PubMed Central

In just six years after the initial description of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, much has been learned about the etiologic agent, the human immunodeficiency virus. The pathogenic mechanisms utilized by this virus to infect selectively and persistently T4+ lymphocytes and monocyte/macrophages, leading to immunodeficiency and neurologic dysfunction, are slowly becoming clear. Better understanding of the pathogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus infection is essential for the rational design of therapeutic and preventive strategies to combat this deadly virus.

Ho, D. D.; Kaplan, J. C.

1987-01-01

355

TLR signaling controls lethal encephalitis in WNV-infected brain.  

PubMed

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are known to be activated in Central Nervous System (CNS) viral infections and are recognized to be a critical component in innate immunity. Several reports state a role for particular TLRs in various CNS viral infections. However, excessive TLR activation was previously reported by us in correlation with a pathogenic, rather than a protective, outcome, in a model of SIV encephalitis. Here we aimed at understanding the impact of TLR-mediated pathways by evaluating the early course of pathogenesis in the total absence of TLR signaling during CNS viral infections. We utilized a mouse model of sublethal West Nile virus (WNV) infection. WNV is an emerging neurotropic flavivirus, and a significant global cause of viral encephalitis. The virus was peripherally injected into animals that simultaneously lacked two key adapter molecules of TLR signaling, MyD88 and TRIF. On day 2 pi (post infection), MyD88/Trif-/- mice showed an increased susceptibility to WNV infection, and revealed an impairment in innate immune cytokines, when compared to wild type mice (WT). By day 6 pi, there was an increase in viral burden and robust expression of inflammatory cytokines as well as higher cell infiltration into the CNS in MyD88/Trif-/-, when compared to infected WT. A drastic increase in microglia activation, astrogliosis, and inflammatory trafficking were also observed on day 6 pi in MyD88/Trif-/-. Our observations show a protective role for TLR signaling pathways in preventing lethal encephalitis at early stages of WNV infection. PMID:24928618

Sabouri, Amir H; Marcondes, Maria Cecilia Garibaldi; Flynn, Claudia; Berger, Michael; Xiao, Nengming; Fox, Howard S; Sarvetnick, Nora E

2014-07-29

356

Evidence-Based Behavioral Interventions for Repetitive Behaviors in Autism  

PubMed Central

Restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) are a core symptom of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). There has been an increased research emphasis on repetitive behaviors; however, this research primarily has focused on phenomenology and mechanisms. Thus, the knowledge base on interventions is lagging behind other areas of research. The literature suggests there are evidence-based practices to treat “lower order” RRBs in ASD (e.g., stereotypies); yet, there is a lack of a focused program of intervention research for “higher order” behaviors (e.g., insistence on sameness). This paper will (a) discuss barriers to intervention development for RRBs; (b) review evidence-based interventions to treat RRBs in ASD, with a focus on higher order behaviors; and (c) conclude with recommendations for practice and research.

McDonough, Stephen G.; Bodfish, James W.

2013-01-01

357

Family-centered, evidence-based phototherapy delivery.  

PubMed

Jaundice develops in most newborn infants and is one of the most common reasons infants are rehospitalized after birth. American Academy of Pediatrics clinical practice guidelines strongly support the recommendation that clinicians promote and support breastfeeding. Recognizing that the disruptions associated with phototherapy interfere with breastfeeding, the challenge often faced by clinicians is how to provide effective phototherapy while supporting evidence-based practices, such as rooming-in, skin-to-skin contact, and breastfeeding. We report here on a case that reflects a common clinical scenario in newborn medicine in order to describe a technique for providing phototherapy while maintaining evidence-based practices. This approach will assist clinicians in providing best-practices and family-centered care. PMID:23669526

Szucs, Kinga A; Rosenman, Marc B

2013-06-01

358

Evidence-based behavioral interventions for repetitive behaviors in autism.  

PubMed

Restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) are a core symptom of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). There has been an increased research emphasis on repetitive behaviors; however, this research primarily has focused on phenomenology and mechanisms. Thus, the knowledge base on interventions is lagging behind other areas of research. The literature suggests there are evidence-based practices to treat "lower order" RRBs in ASD (e.g., stereotypies); yet, there is a lack of a focused program of intervention research for "higher order" behaviors (e.g., insistence on sameness). This paper will (a) discuss barriers to intervention development for RRBs; (b) review evidence-based interventions to treat RRBs in ASD, with a focus on higher order behaviors; and (c) conclude with recommendations for practice and research. PMID:21584849

Boyd, Brian A; McDonough, Stephen G; Bodfish, James W

2012-06-01

359

Evidence-Based Staff Training: A Guide for Practitioners  

PubMed Central

Behavior analysts in human service agencies are commonly expected to train support staff as one of their job duties. Traditional staff training is usually didactic in nature and generally has not proven particularly effective. We describe an alternative, evidence-based approach for training performance skills to human service staff. The description includes a specific means of conducting a behavioral skills training session with a group of staff followed by on-the-job training requirements. A brief case demonstration then illustrates application of the training approach and its apparent effectiveness for training staff in two distinct skill sets: use of most-to-least prompting within teaching procedures and use of manual signs. Practical issues associated with applying evidence-based behavioral training are presented with a focus on providing training that is effective, efficient, and acceptable to staff trainees.

Parsons, Marsha B.; Rollyson, Jeannia H.; Reid, Dennis H.

2012-01-01

360

Creating the evidence base for quality improvement collaboratives.  

PubMed

Intensive efforts are under way to improve health care quality and safety throughout the United States and abroad. Many of these efforts use the quality improvement collaborative method, an approach emphasizing collaborative learning and exchange of insights and support among a set of health care organizations. Unfortunately, the widespread acceptance and reliance on this approach are based not on solid evidence but on shared beliefs and anecdotal affirmations that may overstate the actual effectiveness of the method. More effective use of the collaborative method will require a commitment by users, researchers, and other stakeholders to rigorous, objective evaluation and the creation of a valid, useful knowledge and evidence base. Development of this evidence base will require improved conceptions of the nature of quality problems, quality improvement processes, and the types of research needed to elucidate these processes. Researchers, journal editors, and funding agencies must also cooperate to ensure that published evaluations are relevant, comprehensive, and cumulative. PMID:15172904

Mittman, Brian S

2004-06-01

361

A framework for disseminating evidence-based health promotion practices.  

PubMed

Wider adoption of evidence-based, health promotion practices depends on developing and testing effective dissemination approaches. To assist in developing these approaches, we created a practical framework drawn from the literature on dissemination and our experiences disseminating evidence-based practices. The main elements of our framework are 1) a close partnership between researchers and a disseminating organization that takes ownership of the dissemination process and 2) use of social marketing principles to work closely with potential user organizations. We present 2 examples illustrating the framework: EnhanceFitness, for physical activity among older adults, and American Cancer Society Workplace Solutions, for chronic disease prevention among workers. We also discuss 7 practical roles that researchers play in dissemination and related research: sorting through the evidence, conducting formative research, assessing readiness of user organizations, balancing fidelity and reinvention, monitoring and evaluating, influencing the outer context, and testing dissemination approaches. PMID:22172189

Harris, Jeffrey R; Cheadle, Allen; Hannon, Peggy A; Forehand, Mark; Lichiello, Patricia; Mahoney, Eustacia; Snyder, Susan; Yarrow, Judith

2012-01-01

362

Infection control education: how to make an impact--tools for the job.  

PubMed

Infection control education is difficult and time consuming, but there is persuasive evidence to demonstrate its effectiveness. When Infection Control practitioners are educating and influencing healthcare workers, compliance with the well-established guidance on implementation of health service research is advisable, and thus educative efforts must be repeated and administered as part of a concerted and multifaceted approach. Infection Control education must be specifically designed for and targeted at the groups of staff concerned, and medical staff pose especial problems. Recruitment of clinical champions from peer groups, and direct approaches from medical members of the Infection Control team are usually needed. Familiarity with only a limited range of published evidence is needed to answer the majority of clinicians who challenge Infection Control practices, and referral to higher medical and managerial authority is required very infrequently and as a last resort. Some recent initiatives in the NHS in England may make Infection Control education more difficult, and these are reviewed. New sanctions have been made available to hospitals and Infection control teams in the UK with the passing of the Health Act in 2006, and the effects of these allied to educative interventions on benchmarks such as hospitals' MRSA bacteraemia rates will be observed with interest. PMID:17540256

Farrington, Mark

2007-06-01

363

Evidence-Based Treatments for Children with Chronic Illnesses  

Microsoft Academic Search

A discussion of the use of evidence-based treatments (EBTs) in children with chronic illnesses presents a problematic but well-known dilemma. Many of the treatments for psychological distress in these children have historically been modified from better-known and validated treatments in children without chronic illness. In other words, what works in children who are not ill has been taken and modified

T. David Elkin; Laura Stoppelbein

364

The pros and cons of evidence-based surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Evidence-based medicine (EBM) has been proposed as a new paradigm of practising medicine. However, an unproductive polarisation\\u000a between supporters and opponents can make its unbiased assessment difficult. This review gives an overview of the arguments\\u000a and discusses their surgeon-specific importance. Discussion: As EBM claims a position in the centre of medicine, it borders with other highly debated topics as,

Stefan Sauerland; Rolf Lefering; Edmund A. M. Neugebauer

1999-01-01

365

Meniere's disease: an evidence based approach to assessment and management.  

PubMed

Menière's disease (MD) is frequently over-diagnosed in both primary and secondary care. This is unfortunate given the significant medical and social implications of such a diagnosis. Difficulties may arise in differentiating the patient with true MD from those individuals with less clearly defined disorders of cochleo-vestibular function. In this review, we suggest a practical evidence based approach to assessment and management of the patient with MD. PMID:22257041

Syed, I; Aldren, C

2012-02-01

366

Implementing evidence-based practice: Walking the talk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Russworm and Larrabee’s (1999) six-step model for evidence-based practice (EBP) was used by 10 nursing teams to seek answers to clinical questions. These teams, primarily composed of staff nurses, participated in a health region-wide EBP program over 1 year. Overall, the model served as a useful mechanism for examining practice-derived questions. However, additional strategies needed to be incorporated by the

Norma E. Thurston; Kathryn M. King

2004-01-01

367

Evaluating Competency to Stand Trial with Evidence-Based Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evaluations for competency to stand trial are distinguished from other areas of forensic consultation by their long history of standardized assessment beginning in the 1970s. As part of a special issue of the Journal on evidence- based forensic practice, this article examines three published competency measures: the MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool-Criminal Adjudication (MacCAT-CA), the Evaluation of Competency to Stand Trial-Revised

Richard Rogers; Jill Johansson-Love

368

Evidence-Based Approaches to Crime Prevention in Developing Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to review the present state of the evidence base on the effectiveness of crime prevention programmes\\u000a and practices in developing countries and to consider the prospects for its improvement. The paper summarises the findings\\u000a from a scoping review of the literature and develops some suggestions about how the void it finds might be filled.

Roger Bowles; Joseph Akpokodje; Emmanuel Tigere

2005-01-01

369

[Vegetarian diets and cardiovascular health: evidence-based and pondering].  

PubMed

The correlation between vegetarian diets and cardiovascular health is always one of the hotspots. Many scholars have performed so many clinical researches all over the world, providing evidence-based medicine (EBM) reference for clarifying their correlation. In this paper, we raise ideas and expectation on the basis of a Meta-analysis about vegetarian diets and blood pressure (published on JAMA Internal Medicine in Feb 2014) in combination of main clinical research literature in this field in recent 20 years. PMID:25046943

Chen, Keji; Liu, Yue

2014-06-01

370

Barriers to achieving evidence-based stroke rehabilitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine the perceived barriers to evidence-based practice by health professionals working within the field of stroke rehabilitation.Design: Focus groups were carried out to identify the perceived barriers; these were followed by a postal questionnaire that asked stroke rehabilitation professionals to rate their agreement with the perceived barriers.Subjects: One hundred and five stroke rehabilitation professionals participated in the focus

Alexandra S Pollock; Lynn Legg; Peter Langhorne; Cameron Sellars

2000-01-01

371

Evidence-Based Quality Improvement: The State Of The Science  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT: Routine practice fails to incorporate research evidence in a timely and reliable fashion. Many quality improvement,(QI) efforts aim to close these gaps between,clinical re- search and practice. However, in sharp contrast to the paradigm of evidence-based medi- cine, these efforts often proceed on the basis of intuition and anecdotal accounts of suc- cessful strategies for changing,provider behavior or achieving

Kaveh G. Shojania; Jeremy M. Grimshaw

2005-01-01

372

Evidence-based practice across the health professions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence-based practice continues to be a growing influence in health education. It’s a powerful tool which can lead to more effective practice, promote communication and interdisciplinary healthcare, and improve the clinician’s knowledge and clinical reasoning skills. It’s the integration of clinical expertise and practice, with the best available research and evidence for the improvement of patient outcomes. The volume, diversity

Tammy Hoffman; Sally Bennett; Chris Del Mar

2009-01-01

373

Protecting generalism: moving on from evidence-based medicine?  

PubMed Central

Quality of decision making in modern health care is defined with reference to evidence-based medicine. There are concerns that this approach is insufficient for, and may thus threaten the future of, generalist primary care. We urgently need to extend our account of quality of knowledge use and decision making in order to protect and develop the discipline. Interpretive medicine describes an alternative framework for use in generalist care. Priorities for clinical practice and research are identified.

Reeve, Joanne

2010-01-01

374

Evidence-Based Special Education and Professional Wisdom: Putting It All Together  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There has been an increasing focus on evidence-based practices in special education with efforts underway to authoritatively identify those practices that are evidence based. However, the identification of evidence-based practices is only the beginning of the process of implementing evidence-based special education. The professional wisdom of…

Cook, Bryan G.; Tankersley, Melody; Harjusola-Webb, Sanna

2008-01-01

375

Evidence-based practice and the professionalization of dental hygiene.  

PubMed

The application of knowledge is fundamental to human problem solving. In health disciplines, knowledge utilization commonly manifests through evidence-based decision making in practice. The purpose of this paper is to explore the development of the evidence-based practice (EBP) movement in health professions in general, and dental hygiene in particular, and to examine its relationship to the professionalization agenda of dental hygiene in Canada. EBP means integrating practitioner expertise with the best available external evidence from research. Proponents of EBP believe that it holds promise for reducing a research-practice gap by encouraging clinicians to seek current research results. Both the Canadian and American Dental Hygienists Associations support practice based on current research evidence, yet recent studies show variation in practice. Professionalization refers to the developmental stages through which an organized occupation passes as it develops traits that characterize it as a profession. The status conferred by professionalization privileges a group to make and monitor its own decisions relative to practice. Dental hygiene's success in acquiring attributes of a profession suggests that transformation to a profession is occurring. This paper compares the assumptions and challenges of both movements, and argues the need for a principal focus on the development of a culture of evidence-based dental hygiene practice. PMID:16451489

Cobban, Sandra J

2004-11-01

376

Infection control in delivery care units, Gujarat state, India: A needs assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Increasingly, women in India attend health facilities for childbirth, partly due to incentives paid under government programs.\\u000a Increased use of health facilities can alleviate the risks of infections contracted in unhygienic home deliveries, but poor\\u000a infection control practices in labour and delivery units also cause puerperal sepsis and other infections of childbirth. A\\u000a needs assessment was conducted to provide information

Rajesh Mehta; Dileep V Mavalankar; KV Ramani; Sheetal Sharma; Julia Hussein

2011-01-01

377

Osteopenia in patients infected by the human immunodeficiency virus. A case control study  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the last few years, the use of highly active antiretroviral therapy has radically modified the prognosis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Osteonecrosis and osteoporosis are among the bone complications recently described in HIV-infected patients. We report a preliminary study comparing 47 HIV-infected patients (31 men and 16 women) to 47 age- and sex-matched controls. Bone mineral density was

S Loiseau-Pérès; C Delaunay; S Poupon; E Lespessailles; N Ballouche; P Arsac; C. L Benhamou

2002-01-01

378

Nlrp-3-Driven Interleukin 17 Production by ??T Cells Controls Infection Outcomes during Staphylococcus aureus Surgical Site Infection  

PubMed Central

Recent work has identified T cells and the cytokines they produce as important correlates of immune protection during Staphylococcus aureus infections through the ability of these T cells to regulate local neutrophil responses. However, the specific T-cell subsets that are involved in coordinating protection at distinct sites of infection remains to be established. In this study, we identify for the first time an important role for ??T cells in controlling S. aureus surgical site infection (SSI). ??T cells are recruited to the wound site following S. aureus challenge, where they represent the primary source of interleukin 17 (IL-17), with a small contribution from other non-??T cells. The IL-17 response is entirely dependent upon IL-1 receptor signaling. Using IL-17 receptor-deficient mice, we demonstrate that IL-17 is required to control bacterial clearance during S. aureus SSI. However, we demonstrate a strain-dependent requirement for ??T cells in this process due to the differential abilities of individual strains to activate IL-1? production. IL-1? processing relies upon activation of the Nlrp3 inflammasome complex, and we demonstrate that Nlrp3-deficient and IL-1 receptor-deficient mice have an impaired ability to control S. aureus SSI due to reduced production of IL-17 by ??T cells at the site of infection. Given that IL-17 has been identified as an important correlate of immune protection during S. aureus infection, it is vital that the unique cellular sources of this cytokine and mechanisms inducing its activation are identified at distinct sites of infection. Our study demonstrates that while IL-17 may be critically important for mediating immune protection during S. aureus SSI, the relative contribution of ??T cells to these protective effects may be strain dependent.

Maher, Belinda M.; Mulcahy, Michelle E.; Murphy, Alison G.; Wilk, Mieszko; O'Keeffe, Kate M.; Geoghegan, Joan A.; Lavelle, Ed C.

2013-01-01

379

Infection control considerations in critical care unit design and construction: a systematic risk assessment.  

PubMed

When contemplating major renovation or new construction of a critical care unit (CCU), the use of systematic infection control risk assessment (ICRA) provides guidance to limit infectious perils for patients and to reduce occupational hazards for employees in this environment. The nursing representative and other members of the multidisciplinary planning and design team must routinely address infection control factors throughout the project and assist administration in understanding the rationale for the floor plan, equipment, and furnishings required to support sound infection control practices. Collaborative team skills, articulate communication techniques, and frequent rounds are integral throughout the construction. PMID:11858557

Bartley, J; Bjerke, N B

2001-11-01

380

Blockade of chronic type I interferon signaling to control persistent LCMV infection.  

PubMed

Type I interferons (IFN-I) are critical for antiviral immunity; however, chronic IFN-I signaling is associated with hyperimmune activation and disease progression in persistent infections. We demonstrated in mice that blockade of IFN-I signaling diminished chronic immune activation and immune suppression, restored lymphoid tissue architecture, and increased immune parameters associated with control of virus replication, ultimately facilitating clearance of the persistent infection. The accelerated control of persistent infection induced by blocking IFN-I signaling required CD4 T cells and was associated with enhanced IFN-? production. Thus, we demonstrated that interfering with chronic IFN-I signaling during persistent infection redirects the immune environment to enable control of infection. PMID:23580528

Wilson, Elizabeth B; Yamada, Douglas H; Elsaesser, Heidi; Herskovitz, Jonathan; Deng, Jane; Cheng, Genhong; Aronow, Bruce J; Karp, Christopher L; Brooks, David G

2013-04-12

381

Blockade of Chronic Type I Interferon Signaling to Control Persistent LCMV Infection  

PubMed Central

Type I interferons (IFN-I) are critical for antiviral immunity; however, chronic IFN-I signaling is associated with hyperimmune activation and disease progression in persistent infections. We demonstrated in mice that blockade of IFN-I signaling diminished chronic immune activation and immune suppression, restored lymphoid tissue architecture, and increased immune parameters associated with control of virus replication, ultimately facilitating clearance of the persistent infection. The accelerated control of persistent infection induced by blocking IFN-I signaling required CD4 T cells and was associated with enhanced IFN-? production. Thus, we demonstrated that interfering with chronic IFN-I signaling during persistent infection redirects the immune environment to enable control of infection.

Wilson, Elizabeth B.; Yamada, Douglas H.; Elsaesser, Heidi; Herskovitz, Jonathan; Deng, Jane; Cheng, Genhong; Aronow, Bruce J.; Karp, Christopher L.; Brooks, David G.

2013-01-01

382

Azithromycin is able to control Toxoplasma gondii infection in human villous explants  

PubMed Central

Background Although Toxoplasma gondii infection is normally asymptomatic, severe cases of toxoplasmosis may occur in immunosuppressed patients or congenitally infected newborns. When a fetal infection is established, the recommended treatment is a combination of pyrimethamine, sulfadiazine and folinic acid (PSA). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of azithromycin to control T. gondii infection in human villous explants. Methods Cultures of third trimester human villous explants were infected with T. gondii and simultaneously treated with either PSA or azithromycin. Proliferation of T. gondii, as well as production of cytokines and hormones by chorionic villous explants, was analyzed. Results Treatment with either azithromycin or PSA was able to control T. gondii infection in villous explants. After azithromycin or PSA treatment, TNF-?, IL-17A or TGF-?1 levels secreted by infected villous explants did not present significant differences. However, PSA-treated villous explants had decreased levels of IL-10 and increased IL-12 levels, while treatment with azithromycin increased production of IL-6. Additionally, T. gondii-infected villous explants increased secretion of estradiol, progesterone and HCG?+??, while treatments with azithromycin or PSA reduced secretion of these hormones concurrently with decrease of parasite load. Conclusions In conclusion, these results suggest that azithromycin may be defined as an effective alternative drug to control T. gondii infection at the fetal-maternal interface.

2014-01-01

383

Infection Control Practice in the Operating Room: Staff Adherence to Existing Policies in a Developing Country  

PubMed Central

Context: Infection control interventions are important for containing surgery-related infections. For this reason, the modern operating room (OR) should have well-developed infection control policies. The efficacy of these policies depends on how well the OR staff adhere to them. There is a lack of available data documenting adherence to infection control policies. Objective: To evaluate OR staff adherence to existing infection control policies in Jamaica. Methods: We administered a questionnaire to all OR staff to assess their training, knowledge of local infection control protocols, and practice with regard to 8 randomly selected guidelines. Adherence to each guideline was rated with fixed-choice items on a 4-point Likert scale. The sum of points determined the adherence score. Two respondent groups were defined: adherent (score > 26) and nonadherent (score ? 26). We evaluated the relationship between respondent group and age, sex, occupational rank, and time since completion of basic medical training. We used ?2 and Fisher exact tests to assess associations and t tests to compare means between variables of interest. Results: The sample comprised 132 participants (90 physicians and 42 nurses) with a mean age of 36 (standard deviation ± 9.5) years. Overall, 40.1% were adherent to existing protocols. There was no significant association between the distribution of adherence scores and sex (p = 0.319), time since completion of basic training (p = 0.595), occupational rank (p = 0.461), or age (p = 0.949). Overall, 19% felt their knowledge of infection control practices was inadequate. Those with working knowledge of infection control practices attained it mostly through informal communication (80.4%) and self-directed research (62.6%). Conclusion: New approaches to the problem of nonadherence to infection control guidelines are needed in the Caribbean. Several unique cultural, financial, and environmental factors influence adherence in this region, in contrast to conditions in developed countries.

Cawich, Shamir O; Tennant, Ingrid A; McGaw, Clarence D; Harding, Hyacinth; Walters, Christine A; Crandon, Ivor W

2013-01-01

384

[Ten years' German Protection against Infection Act. Evaluation of the implementation of infection control visits in the ambulatory medical setting].  

PubMed

In 2001, the German Protection against Infection Act came into force, implementing a variety of new regulations. For the first time, obligatory infection control visits of the public health departments in surgical ambulatory practices were implemented, as well as optional infection control visits in all medical, dental and paramedical practices using invasive methods. Based on the data of the public health department of the city of Frankfurt am Main, Germany, an evaluation of this new regulation is given in this paper. First, prioritization of these new tasks was mandatory. First priority was given to the obligatory visits in surgical practices, second priority to the hygiene visits in practices performing endoscopy in gastroenterology as well as in urology and in practices of traditional healers, and third priority was given to all other doctors' practices. After receiving preliminary information and further training of the doctors etc., the control visits were performed by members of the public health department, using a checklist based on the guidelines of the German Commission on Hospital Infection Prevention ("Kommission für Krankenhaushygiene und Infektionsprävention"). Since 2001, more than 1100 infection control visits in medical practices in Frankfurt am Main were documented. Not only in surgical, but also in gastroenterological and urological practices great improvement could be achieved, regarding not only hand hygiene and reprocessing surface areas, but especially in reprocessing medical devices. In practices for internal medicine and those of general practitioners, errors in hand hygiene, skin antiseptic and surface disinfection also decreased. According to our results, especially regarding the improved quality of structure as well as quality of process and with regard to the public discussion on this hygiene topic, our evaluation is absolutely positive. The new regulation proved worthwhile. PMID:23322151

Heudorf, U; Eikmann, T; Exner, M

2013-03-01

385

Pathogenicity and control of Eimeria mitis infections in broiler chickens.  

PubMed

The pathogenicity of two strains (B4 and C2) of Eimeria mitis was studied using young broiler chickens. Both strains of coccidia were pathogenic, and C2 strain was more virulent than B4. Growth of the broilers was depressed as early as day 3 postinoculation (PI), but the depression was greatest during days 5 and 6 PI. Feed conversion and shank skin pigment of the young broiler chickens were concomitantly affected by infections of E. mitis. Infection subsided by day 7 or 8 PI and was accompanied by a compensatory growth. The drugs effective against the infections were halofuginone, lasalocid, monensin, and nicarbazin. The least efficacious were zoalene and amprolium plus ethopabate. PMID:1567309

Fitz-Coy, S H; Edgar, S A

1992-01-01

386

Innate Immune Control of West Nile Virus Infection  

PubMed Central

West Nile virus (WNV), from the Flaviviridae family, is a re-emerging zoonotic pathogen of medical importance. In humans, WNV infection may cause life-threatening meningoencephalitis or long-term neurologic sequelae. WNV is transmitted by Culex spp mosquitoes and both the arthropod vector and the mammalian host are equipped with antiviral innate immune mechanisms sharing a common phylogeny. As far as the current evidence is able to demonstrate, mosquitoes primarily rely on RNA interference, Toll, Imd and JAK-STAT signaling pathways for limiting viral infection, while mammals are provided with these and other more complex antiviral mechanisms involving antiviral effectors, inflammatory mediators, and cellular responses triggered by highly specialized pathogen detection mechanisms that often resemble their invertebrate ancestry. This mini-review summarizes our current understanding of how the innate immune systems of the vector and the mammalian host react to WNV infection and shape its pathogenesis.

Arjona, Alvaro; Wang, Penghua; Montgomery, Ruth R.; Fikrig, Erol

2011-01-01

387

Emerging Patterns of HIV Infection and Control in the Philippines  

PubMed Central

A total of 50 carriers of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), 46 of them female prostitutes, have been detected through seroprevalence surveys by the Department of Health, Manila. Infection rates are highest in two small cities near foreign military bases and in the tourist district of MetroManila. Nine patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) who contracted the disease outside the country have been reported, with opportunistic infections being the major clinical feature. Public information measures heavily utilize the mass media, and there is anecdotal evidence that awareness of the disease among the urban population is increasing. The National AIDS Committee foresees that a large proportion of the cases seen in the Philippines over the next few years will be returning nationals who were infected abroad. Images

Dayrit, Manuel M.; Monzon, Ofelia T.; Basaca-Sevilla, Virginia; Hayes, Curtis G.

1987-01-01

388

Nosocomial infections in burn patients: etiology, antimicrobial resistance, means to control  

PubMed Central

Summary The aim of our study was to determine the etiology of nosocomial infections, their changes over a period of five years (2007-2011), and the measures for control of infections and antimicrobial resistance in the Burns Clinic of the N.I. Pirogov University Multi-Profile Hospital for Active Treatment and Emergency Medicine, Sofia, Bulgaria. The medical records for all the patients and the database of the “Clinical Microbiology and Surveillance of Infections” National Information System were reviewed and analyzed to identify the microbial pathogens isolated in our burns Clinic. The three most frequent nosocomial pathogens were S. aureus, A. baumannii and P. aeruginosa. In order to control effectively nosocomial infections, a system of anti-infective and anti- microbial resistance measures has been developed and routinely implemented in our Clinic since 2008. Since 2009, thanks to this system, there has been a significant decrease in the rates of multi-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains. Although at present the incidence of the nosocomial infections in our burns clinic is lower than in neighboring countries, several important infection control issues still need to be solved. We mainly rely on updating and strengthening the existing anti-infective system in order to control the spread of multi-drug resistant organisms, such as A. baumannii, extended spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae, and carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa.

Leseva, M.; Arguirova, M.; Nashev, D.; Zamfirova, E.; Hadzhyiski, O.

2013-01-01

389

Appraisal of recommended respiratory infection control practices in primary care and emergency department  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) epidemic and concern about pandemic influenza prompted the Cen- ters for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to develop guidelines to prevent the transmission of all respiratory infections in health care settings during first contact with a potentially infected person. The extent to which health care workers and institutions use these CDC recommended practices

Wayne Turnberg; William Daniell; Noah Seixas; Terri Simpson; Jude Van Buren; Edward Lipkin; Jeffery Duchin

390

Nosocomial infections in burn patients: etiology, antimicrobial resistance, means to control.  

PubMed

The aim of our study was to determine the etiology of nosocomial infections, their changes over a period of five years (2007-2011), and the measures for control of infections and antimicrobial resistance in the Burns Clinic of the N.I. Pirogov University Multi-Profile Hospital for Active Treatment and Emergency Medicine, Sofia, Bulgaria. The medical records for all the patients and the database of the "Clinical Microbiology and Surveillance of Infections" National Information System were reviewed and analyzed to identify the microbial pathogens isolated in our burns Clinic. The three most frequent nosocomial pathogens were S. aureus, A. baumannii and P. aeruginosa. In order to control effectively nosocomial infections, a system of anti-infective and anti- microbial resistance measures has been developed and routinely implemented in our Clinic since 2008. Since 2009, thanks to this system, there has been a significant decrease in the rates of multi-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains. Although at present the incidence of the nosocomial infections in our burns clinic is lower than in neighboring countries, several important infection control issues still need to be solved. We mainly rely on updating and strengthening the existing anti-infective system in order to control the spread of multi-drug resistant organisms, such as A. baumannii, extended spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae, and carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa. PMID:23966892

Leseva, M; Arguirova, M; Nashev, D; Zamfirova, E; Hadzhyiski, O

2013-03-31

391

Randomised controlled trial of intrapleural streptokinase in community acquired pleural infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Standard treatment for pleural infection includes catheter drainage and antibiotics. Tube drainage often fails if the fluid is loculated by fibrinous adhesions when surgical drainage is needed. Streptokinase may aid the process of pleural drainage, but there have been no controlled trials to assess its efficacy. METHODS: Twenty four patients with infected community acquired parapneumonic effusions were studied. All

R. J. Davies; Z. C. Traill; F. V. Gleeson

1997-01-01

392

An Evidence-Based Template for Implementation of Multidisciplinary Evidence-Based Practices in a Tertiary Hospital Setting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Public demand for higher quality and lower cost, evolving pay-for-performance initiatives from payors, and the growing volume of quality “report cards” are driving health care organizations to develop evidence-based practice (EBP) guidelines. Hospitals will be expected to provide the infrastructure and resources needed to support these care processes. Published best practices for implementing EBPs are rooted in organizational and behavioral

Mark R. Kresse; Maria A. Kuklinski; Joseph G. Cacchione

2007-01-01

393

Providers' Perceptions of and Receptivity toward Evidence-Based HIV Prevention Interventions  

PubMed Central

Since 1999, the Centers for Disease Control have trained over 10,000 service providers from more than 5,000 agencies to implement evidence-based HIV prevention interventions through its Diffusion of Effective Behavioral Interventions (DEBI) program. Based on in-depth, semi-structured interviews with a convenience sample of 22 HIV prevention service providers from 8 agencies in Wisconsin who participated in DEBI training, this article explores providers’ motivations for attending DEBI training, perceptions of the utility and value of the DEBI program, and criticisms of the program. Providers indicated that they attended training as part of general skill-building efforts, as a way to improve services through the adoption of evidence-based interventions, and to better meet client needs. DEBI training participants were critical of the program's “top down” approach, perceived lack of fit between the DEBI and their target populations, and what they perceived as a lack of evidence that the interventions would work with their particular populations. These results suggest that in order for the DEBI program to be more widely accepted, the experiences and expertise of providers need to be more fully integrated into the processes of developing, disseminating, and adapting evidence-based HIV prevention interventions.

Owczarzak, Jill; Dickson-Gomez, Julia

2014-01-01

394

Assessment of oral mucositis in adult and pediatric oncology patients: an evidence-based approach.  

PubMed

Oral mucositis is a frequent side effect of cancer treatment and can lead to delayed treatment, reduced treatment dosage, altered nutrition, dehydration, infections, xerostomia, pain, and higher healthcare costs. Mucositis is defined as "inflammatory lesions of the oral and/or gastrointestinal tract caused by high-dose cancer therapies. Alimentary tract mucositis refers to the expression of mucosal injury across the continuum of oral and gastrointestinal mucosa, from the mouth to the anus" (Peterson, Bensadoun, & Roila, 2008, p. ii122). Evidence demonstrates that oral mucositis is quite distressing for patients. In addition, the majority of oncology nurses are unaware of available guidelines related to the care of oral mucositis. A multidisciplinary Oral Mucositis Committee was formed by the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics to develop evidence-based prevention and treatment strategies for adult and pediatric oncology patients experiencing oral mucositis. The first step was implementing an evidence-based nursing oral assessment. The Iowa Model was used to guide this evidence-based practice initiative. The Oral Assessment Guide (OAG) is reliable and valid, feasible, and sensitive to changing conditions. The OAG was piloted on an Adult Leukemia and Bone Marrow Transplant Unit leading to modification and adaptation. The pilot evaluation found 87% of patients had an abnormal oral assessment involving all categories in the tool. Nursing questionnaires showed that staff (8/23; 35% response) felt they were able to identify at risk patients using the OAG (3.3; 1-4 scale), and the tool accurately identifies mucosal changes (2.9; 1-4 scale). A knowledge assessment found nurses correctly identified OAG components 63% of the time. Unlike results from a national survey, most University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics nurses (63%) were aware of national guidelines for prevention and treatment of oral mucositis. Developing an evidence-based nursing policy and updating documentation systems was done before implementation occurred. Computer-based and printed educational materials were developed for nursing staff caring for oncology patients. Team members were responsible for facilitating adoption in clinical areas. After organizational roll out, the nursing assessment was documented in all patients 87% of the time, and 99% for inpatients. The highest risk population, head and neck cancer patients receiving radiation, had documentation in 88% of audited visits. Other clinics required further work. Changing the system to the electronic medical record created an additional need for integration of the evidence-based practice with housewide documentation of oral assessment being completed 60.9% of the time. Use of an evidence-based assessment is the first step in a comprehensive program to reduce a common and highly distressing side effect of cancer treatment. Nursing documentation of oral assessment is well integrated on inpatient units. Opportunities for improvement remain in ambulatory care. Multidisciplinary team collaborations to expand evidence-based assessment and research questions generated from this work will be shared. PMID:20863028

Farrington, Michele; Cullen, Laura; Dawson, Cindy

2010-01-01

395

Control of Surface Wound Infection: Skin Versus Synthetic Grafts  

PubMed Central

Auto-, iso-, or xenografts of skin and synthetics placed on surface wounds freshly contaminated with Pseudomonas aeruginosa stabilizes the wound bacterial population in rats over a 24-h period. When these wounds contained a bacterial contamination established for 24 h prior to grafting, only skin and the synthetic polyhydroxyethylmethacrylate were effective in lowering the initial bacterial concentration. Polyurethane foam and nylon velour were not effective in the established infection model. Skin placed on a contaminated wound for 2 h or longer appeared to equilibrate with the underlying muscle so that the bacterial count per milligram of skin was similar to that of the muscle. It was suggested that this preparation would be useful to obtain an estimate of surface contamination without biopsy of the infected muscle. Skin grafts in place for 2 h significantly lowered the bacterial count in a wound with an established infection. A second decrease occurred between 4 and 24 h after grafting. Histological studies of contaminated and exposed panniculus muscle showed that leukocytes tend to migrate from the muscle surface to its base. Skin grafts and polyhydroxyethylmethacrylate appear to reverse the white cell migration so that the cells move toward the surface of the muscle with preservation of normal staining characteristics in the muscle. It is suggested that this alteration in cell movement after graft application might modify the white cell function and result in a greater bactericidal activity. Apparently, grafts lower bacterial levels in an established infection by modifying the host response to the surface contamination. Images

Saymen, Dennis G.; Nathan, Paul; Holder, Ian Alan; Hill, Edward O.; Macmillan, Bruce G.

1973-01-01

396

Infection control for SARS in a tertiary neonatal centre  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) is a newly discovered infectious disease caused by a novel coronavirus, which can readily spread in the healthcare setting. A recent community outbreak in Hong Kong infected a significant number of pregnant women who subsequently required emergency caesarean section for deteriorating maternal condition and respiratory failure. As no neonatal clinician has any experience in

P C Ng; K W So; T F Leung; F W T Cheng; D J Lyon; W Wong; K L Cheung; K S C Fung; C H Lee; A M Li; K L E Hon; C K Li; T F Fok

2003-01-01

397

Infection Control in the Long Term Care Facility.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet is intended to increase the awareness of persons working in long-term care facilities regarding the danger of infectious disease and the ways in which it can be spread. Materials in this booklet include: (1) a brief discussion of historical events in the study of microorganisms; (2) information about how microorganisms cause infection

Morris, Sara

398

A novel experience in the use of control charts for the detection of nosocomial infection outbreaks  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to compare different control charts to monitor the nosocomial infection rate per 1,000 patient-days. METHODS: The control charts considered in this study were the traditional Shewhart chart and a variation of this, the Cumulative Sum and Exponentially Weighted Moving Average charts. RESULTS: We evaluated 238 nosocomial infections that were registered in the intensive care unit and were detected by the Committee for Nosocomial Infection Control in a university hospital in Belo Horizonte, Brazil, in 2004 and 2005. The results showed that the traditional Shewhart chart was the most appropriate method for monitoring periods with large deviations, while the Exponentially Weighted Moving Average and Cumulative Sum charts were better for monitoring periods with smaller deviations of the mean infection rate. CONCLUSION: The ability to detect nosocomial outbreaks was improved by using the information provided by all three different control charts.

Gomes, Isabel Cristina; Mingoti, Sueli Aparecida; Di Lorenzo Oliveira, Claudia

2011-01-01

399

Association Rules and Data Mining in Hospital Infection Control and Public Health Surveillance  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesThe authors consider the problem of identifying new, unexpected, and interesting patterns in hospital infection control and public health surveillance data and present a new data analysis process and system based on association rules to address this problem.DesignThe authors first illustrate the need for automated pattern discovery and data mining in hospital infection control and public health surveillance. Next, they

Stephen E Brossette; Alan P Sprague; J Michael Hardin; Ken B Waites; Warren T Jones; Stephen A Moser

1998-01-01

400

Recent advances in understanding the biology, epidemiology and control of chlamydial infections in koalas.  

PubMed

The koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) is recognised as a threatened wildlife species in various parts of Australia. A major contributing factor to the decline and long-term viability of affected populations is disease caused by the obligate intracellular bacteria, Chlamydia. Two chlamydial species infect the koala, Chlamydia pecorum and Chlamydia pneumoniae, and have been reported in nearly all mainland koala populations. Chlamydial infections of koalas are associated with ocular infections leading to blindness and genital tract infections linked to infertility, among other serious clinical manifestations. Diagnosis can be based on clinical presentation alone, however, it is complicated by the observation that many koala chlamydial infections occur with no overt signs of clinical disease. Instead, accurate diagnosis requires detailed clinical assessment and confirmatory testing by a range of PCR-based assays. Antibiotic treatment for koala chlamydial infection is possible, however, results on its success are mixed. A more practical solution for the protection of diseased populations is the application of a koala Chlamydia vaccine, with recent trials indicating promising results. Interestingly, molecular epidemiology studies of koala C. pecorum infections and recent comparative genomic analyses of koala C. pneumoniae have revealed potential differences in their origin that will have wider ramifications for our understanding of human chlamydial infections and host adaptation of the chlamydiae. This review summarises changes to the taxonomy of koala chlamydial infections and recent advances in our understanding of the epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment, control and evolution of Chlamydia infections in this iconic wildlife species. PMID:23523170

Polkinghorne, Adam; Hanger, Jon; Timms, Peter

2013-08-30

401

The effect of triclosan coated sutures on rate of Surgical Site Infection after hip and knee replacement: a protocol for a double-blind randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background 187,000 hip and knee joint replacements are performed every year in the National Health Service (NHS). One of the commonest complications is surgical site infection (SSI), and this represents a significant burden in terms of patient morbidity, mortality and cost to health services around the world. The aim of this randomised controlled trial (RCT) is to determine if the addition of triclosan coated sutures to a standard regimen can reduce the rate of SSI after total knee replacement (TKR) and total hip replacement (THR). Methods 2400 patients due to undergo a total hip or knee replacement are being recruited into this two-centre RCT. Participants are recruited before surgery and randomised to either standard care or intervention group. Participants, outcome assessors and statistician are blind to treatment allocation throughout the study. The intervention consists of triclosan coated sutures vs. standard non-coated sutures. The primary outcome is the Health protection Agency (HPA) defined superficial surgical site infection at 30 days. Secondary outcomes include HPA defined deep surgical site infection at 12 months, length of hospital stay, critical care stay, and payer costs. Discussion To date there are no orthopaedic randomised controlled trials on this scale assessing the effectiveness of a surgical intervention, particularly those that can be translated across the surgical specialities. The results from this trial will inform evidence-based recommendations for suture selection in the management of patients undergoing total hip or knee replacement. If triclosan coated sutures are found to be an effective intervention, implementation into clinical practice could improve long-term outcomes for patients undergoing hip and knee replacement. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN 17807356.

2014-01-01

402

Lithium Therapy and Hyperparathyroidism: An Evidence-Based Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Prolonged therapeutic exposure to lithium compounds can have adverse consequences on calcium homeostasis. A unique form of\\u000a hyperparathyroidism appears to be causally linked to chronic lithium exposure. We provide a comprehensive review of relevant\\u000a literature using a structured, evidence-based approach.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Published data were identified from systematic electronic literature searches. References are assigned a level of evidence\\u000a according to a validated

Brian D. Saunders; Erika F. H. Saunders; Paul G. Gauger

2009-01-01

403

Evidence-based practice: A matrix for predicting phonological generalization  

PubMed Central

This paper describes a matrix for clinical use in the selection of phonological treatment targets to induce generalization, and in the identification of probe sounds to monitor during the course of intervention. The matrix appeals to a set of factors that have been shown to promote phonological generalization in the research literature, including the nature of error patterns, implicational universals, developmental norms, and stimulability. A case study of a child with a phonological disorder is presented to illustrate how the matrix may be utilized in evidence-based practice. The matrix serves as a demonstration of how the translation of research to practice may be accomplished.

GIERUT, JUDITH A.; HULSE, LAUREN E.

2010-01-01

404

Developing an evidence-based list of journals for nursing  

PubMed Central

The Nursing and Allied Health Resources Section (NAHRS) of the Medical Library Association created the 2012 NAHRS Selected List of Nursing Journals to assist librarians with collection development and to provide nurses and librarians with data on nursing and interdisciplinary journals to assist their decisions about where to submit articles for publication. This list is a continuation and expansion of a list initially known as the Key Nursing Journals list. It compares database coverage and full-text options for each title and includes an analysis of the number of evidence-based, research, and continuing education articles.

Sherwill-Navarro, Pamela; Kennedy, Joy C.; Allen, Margaret (Peg)

2014-01-01

405

NLM Evidence-based Information at Your Fingertips - NBNA  

SciTech Connect

The workshop titled, National Library of Medicine: Evidence-based Information At Your Fingertips, is a computer training class designed to meet the needs of nurses who require access to information on specific medical topics and on the adverse health effects of exposure to hazardous substances. The Specialized Information Services Division of the National Library of Medicine (NLM) is sponsoring this workshop for the National Black Nurses Association to increase the awareness of health professionals of the availability and value of the free NLM medical, environmental health, and toxicology databases.

Womble, R.

2010-08-06

406

Mapping evidence-based guidelines to standardized nursing terminologies.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to explore how evidence-based practice recommendations for adults with depression were represented in two standardized nursing terminologies. A qualitative concept analysis was used to answer the research question. Concepts were extracted from the recommendations and matched to two standardized nursing terminologies through lexical and semantic concept mapping techniques. Study findings included variability in the lexical mapping to the standardized terminologies. The ability to map semantically was greater than lexical mapping, but the majority of these were partial matches. Findings also raised concerns about the potential for ambiguity of data retrieved when using standardized terminology. PMID:21825974

Dontje, Katherine; Coenen, Amy

2011-12-01

407

Developing an evidence-based list of journals for nursing.  

PubMed

The Nursing and Allied Health Resources Section (NAHRS) of the Medical Library Association created the 2012 NAHRS Selected List of Nursing Journals to assist librarians with collection development and to provide nurses and librarians with data on nursing and interdisciplinary journals to assist their decisions about where to submit articles for publication. This list is a continuation and expansion of a list initially known as the Key Nursing Journals list. It compares database coverage and full-text options for each title and includes an analysis of the number of evidence-based, research, and continuing education articles. PMID:24860267

Sherwill-Navarro, Pamela; Kennedy, Joy C; Allen, Margaret Peg

2014-04-01

408

Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a neonatal intensive care unit: molecular epidemiology and infection control measures  

PubMed Central

Background Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a non-fermentative, gram-negative rod, is responsible for a wide variety of clinical syndromes in NICU patients, including sepsis, pneumonia, meningitis, diarrhea, conjunctivitis and skin infections. An increased number of infections and colonisations by P. aeruginosa has been observed in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) of our university hospital between 2005 and 2007. Methods Hand disinfection compliance before and after an educational programme on hand hygiene was evaluated. Identification of microrganisms was performed using conventional methods. Antibiotic susceptibility was evaluated by MIC microdilution. Genotyping was performed by PFGE analysis. Results The molecular epidemiology of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the NICU of the Federico II University hospital (Naples, Italy) and the infection control measures adopted to stop the spreading of P. aeruginosa in the ward were described. From July 2005 to June 2007, P. aeruginosa was isolated from 135 neonates and caused severe infections in 11 of them. Macrorestriction analysis of clinical isolates from 90 neonates identified 20 distinct genotypes, one major PFGE type (A) being isolated from 48 patients and responsible for 4 infections in 4 of them, four other distinct recurrent genotypes being isolated in 6 to 4 patients. Seven environmental strains were isolated from the hand of a nurse and from three sinks on two occasions, two of these showing PFGE profiles A and G identical to two clinical isolates responsible for infection. The successful control of the outbreak was achieved through implementation of active surveillance of healthcare-associated infections in the ward together with environmental microbiological sampling and an intense educational programme on hand disinfection among the staff members. Conclusion P. aeruginosa infections in the NICU were caused by the cross-transmission of an epidemic clone in 4 neonates, and by the selection of sporadic clones in 7 others. An infection control programme that included active surveillance and strict adherence to hand disinfection policies was effective in controlling NICU-acquired infections and colonisations caused by P. aeruginosa.

2009-01-01

409

Geography and plumbing control the T cell response to infection  

PubMed Central

The orchestrated movement of cells of the immune system is essential to generation of productive responses leading to protective memory development. Recent advances have allowed the direct microscopic visualization of lymphocyte and antigen-presenting cell migration and interaction during immune response initiation and progression. These studies have defined important characteristics of the microanatomy of lymphocyte movement, particularly in the lymph node. Moreover, the ability to track endogenous antigen-specific T cells has revealed a coordinated pathway of CD8 T cell movement in the spleen following primary and secondary infection. As a consequence, the local anatomy of secondary lymphoid tissues during infection has emerged as a critical regulator of immunity. While some of the factors responsible for the migratory cues instructing immune cell movement have been identified, much remains to be learned. Here, we provide a brief overview of our studies examining CD8 T cell localization during the immune response to infection in the context of our current understanding of immune system structure.

Khanna, Kamal M; Lefrancois, Leo

2011-01-01

410

MAFF statutory incident reports in surveillance, prevention, and control of human Salmonella typhimurium infection.  

PubMed

We surveyed consultants in communicable disease control (CCDCs) for their views on the current and potential value of Statutory Incident Reports--Salmonella in Animals, Birds and their Products received from the Ministry of Agriculture Fisheries and Food (MAFF), in the surveillance, prevention, and control of Salmonella typhimurium infections in humans. CCDCs from 103 (83%) of 124 district health authorities responded. Most CCDCs in rural areas used the reports either to cross reference information about animal and human isolates or to discuss with environmental health officers. Many believed that the reports' relevance to human infection could be improved if they were sent more quickly. Some CCDCs suggested that it would be useful to cross reference laboratory reports of animal and human infection at regional level and to have personal contact with local veterinary officers of MAFF. Close cooperation between public health doctors and MAFF and a coordinated approach is needed to prevent and control associations between animal and human zoonotic infections. PMID:8935423

Fone, D L; Barker, R M

1996-04-26

411

HIV-Infected Adolescent, Young Adult and Pregnant Smokers: Important Targets for Effective Tobacco Control Programs  

PubMed Central

Tobacco use is inextricably linked to a number of health risks both in the general and HIV-infected populations. There is, however, a dearth of research on effective tobacco control programs among people living with HIV, and especially among adolescents, young adults and pregnant women, groups with heightened or increased vulnerability secondary to tobacco use. Adolescents and young adults constitute a growing population of persons living with HIV infection. Early and continued tobacco use in this population living with a disease characterized by premature onset multimorbidity and chronic inflammation is of concern. Additionally, there is an increased acuity for tobacco control among HIV-infected pregnant women to reduce pregnancy morbidity and improve fetal outcome. This review will provide an important summary of current knowledge of tobacco use among HIV-infected adolescents, young adults and pregnant women. The effects of tobacco use in these specific populations will be presented and the current state of tobacco control within these populations, assessed.

Escota, Gerome; Onen, Nur

2013-01-01

412

Evidence-based Medicine Search: a customizable federated search engine  

PubMed Central

Purpose: This paper reports on the development of a tool by the Arizona Health Sciences Library (AHSL) for searching clinical evidence that can be customized for different user groups. Brief Description: The AHSL provides services to the University of Arizona's (UA's) health sciences programs and to the University Medical Center. Librarians at AHSL collaborated with UA College of Medicine faculty to create an innovative search engine, Evidence-based Medicine (EBM) Search, that provides users with a simple search interface to EBM resources and presents results organized according to an evidence pyramid. EBM Search was developed with a web-based configuration component that allows the tool to be customized for different specialties. Outcomes/Conclusion: Informal and anecdotal feedback from physicians indicates that EBM Search is a useful tool with potential in teaching evidence-based decision making. While formal evaluation is still being planned, a tool such as EBM Search, which can be configured for specific user populations, may help lower barriers to information resources in an academic health sciences center.

Bracke, Paul J.; Howse, David K.; Keim, Samuel M.

2008-01-01

413

The Evidence Base for the Evaluation and Management of Dizziness  

PubMed Central

Objective Dizziness presentations pose many clinical challenges. The objective of this study is to broadly summarize the evidence base that supports clinical decisions in dizziness presentations. Methods MEDLINE (1966 to September 2007), Web of Science, and The Cochrane Library were searched for articles with clinical relevance on topics concerning dizziness. Additional sources were also searched for clinical practice guidelines. The following information was abstracted from each article: year of publication, journal type, type of article, and the topics of the article. Results Of nearly 3000 articles identified, 1244 articles met the inclusion criteria. The most common article type was a case report or case series, followed by expert opinion or review articles, studies of medical tests, and clinical trials. Meta-analyses and systematic reviews were found on benign paroxysmal positional vertigo and Meniere’s disease, but only a few other topics. No clinical practice guidelines were found that focus specifically on dizziness. Conclusions The evidence base for the evaluation and management of dizziness seems to be weak. Future work to establish or summarize evidence in clinically meaningful ways could contribute to efforts to optimize patient care and healthcare utilization for one of the most common presenting symptoms.

Kerber, Kevin A.; Fendrick, A. Mark

2009-01-01

414

Evidence-based Assessment of Cognitive Functioning in Pediatric Psychology  

PubMed Central

Objective To review the evidence base for measures of cognitive functioning frequently used within the field of pediatric psychology. Methods From a list of 47 measures identified by the Society of Pediatric Psychology (Division 54) Evidence-Based Assessment Task Force Workgroup, 27 measures were included in the review. Measures were organized, reviewed, and evaluated according to general domains of functioning (e.g., attention/executive functioning, memory). Results Twenty-two of 27 measures reviewed demonstrated psychometric properties that met “Well-established” criteria as set forth by the Assessment Task Force. Psychometric properties were strongest for measures of general cognitive ability and weakest for measures of visual-motor functioning and attention. Conclusions We report use of “Well-established” measures of overall cognitive functioning, nonverbal intelligence, academic achievement, language, and memory and learning. For several specific tests in the domains of visual-motor functioning and attention, additional psychometric data are needed for measures to meet criteria as “Well established.”

Brown, Ronald T.; Cavanagh, Sarah E.; Vess, Sarah F.; Segall, Mathew J.

2008-01-01

415

A Systematic Review of the Evidence Base for Telehospice  

PubMed Central

Abstract The use of telehealth technologies to overcome the geographic distances in the delivery of hospice care has been termed telehospice. Although telehospice research has been conducted over the last 10 years, little is known about the comprehensive findings within the field. The purpose of this systematic article was to focus on available research and answer the question, What is the state of the evidence related to telehospice services? The article was limited to studies that had been published in the English language and indexed between January 1, 2000 and March 23, 2010. Indexed databases included PubMed and PsycINFO and contained specified key words. Only research published in peer review journals and reporting empirical data, rather than opinion or editorials, were included. A two-part scoring framework was modified and applied to assess the methodological rigor and pertinence of each study. Scoring criteria allowed the evaluation of both quantitative and qualitative methodologies. Twenty-six studies were identified with the search strategy. Although limited in number and in strength, studies have evaluated the use of a variety of technologies, attitudes toward use by providers and consumers, clinical outcomes, barriers, readiness, and cost. A small evidence base for telehospice has emerged over the last 10 years. Although the evidence is of medium strength, its pertinence is strong. The evidence base could be strengthened with randomized trials and additional clinical-outcome-focused research in larger randomized samples and in qualitative studies with better-described samples.

Demiris, George; Wittenberg-Lyles, Elaine; Washington, Karla; Day, Tami; Novak, Hannah

2012-01-01

416

An evidence-based combining classifier for brain signal analysis.  

PubMed

Nowadays, brain signals are employed in various scientific and practical fields such as Medical Science, Cognitive Science, Neuroscience, and Brain Computer Interfaces. Hence, the need for robust signal analysis methods with adequate accuracy and generalizability is inevitable. The brain signal analysis is faced with complex challenges including small sample size, high dimensionality and noisy signals. Moreover, because of the non-stationarity of brain signals and the impacts of mental states on brain function, the brain signals are associated with an inherent uncertainty. In this paper, an evidence-based combining classifiers method is proposed for brain signal analysis. This method exploits the power of combining classifiers for solving complex problems and the ability of evidence theory to model as well as to reduce the existing uncertainty. The proposed method models the uncertainty in the labels of training samples in each feature space by assigning soft and crisp labels to them. Then, some classifiers are employed to approximate the belief function corresponding to each feature space. By combining the evidence raised from each classifier through the evidence theory, more confident decisions about testing samples can be made. The obtained results by the proposed method compared to some other evidence-based and fixed rule combining methods on artificial and real datasets exhibit the ability of the proposed method in dealing with complex and uncertain classification problems. PMID:24392125

Kheradpisheh, Saeed Reza; Nowzari-Dalini, Abbas; Ebrahimpour, Reza; Ganjtabesh, Mohammad

2014-01-01

417

Evidence-based Assessment in Pediatric Psychology: Family Measures  

PubMed Central

Objective?To provide a review of the evidence base of family measures relevant to pediatric psychology.?Method?Twenty-nine family measures were selected based upon endorsement by Division 54 listserv members, expert judgment, and literature review. Spanning observational and self-report methods, the measures fell into three broad assessment categories: Family functioning, Dyadic family relationships, and Family functioning in the context of childhood chronic health conditions. Measures were categorized as: “Well-established”, “Approaching well-established”, or “Promising.”?Results?Nineteen measures met “well-established” criteria and the remaining ten were “approaching well-established.” “Well-established” measures were documented for each of the broad assessment categories named above.?Conclusions?Many measures deemed “well-established” in the general population are proving to be reliable and useful in pediatric samples. More evidence of the validity of family measures is needed in this context. This review should prove helpful to clinicians and researchers as they strive to make evidence-based decisions regarding family measures.

Fiese, Barbara H.; Gold, Jeffrey I.; Cutuli, J. J.; Holmbeck, Grayson N.; Goldbeck, Lutz; Chambers, Christine T.; Abad, Mona; Spetter, Dante; Patterson, Joan

2008-01-01

418

Evidence-based health promotion: an emerging field.  

PubMed

There is much debate around the use of evidence in health promotion practice. This article aims to sharpen our understanding of this matter by reviewing and analyzing the 26 case studies presented in this special issue. These case studies suggest that health promotion practitioners are using a wide range of research evidence in interventions for high-risk individuals, entire populations, and vulnerable groups according to all five strategies for action described in the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion. In nearly every case, practitioners had to mediate and adapt research evidence for their case. Eight key levers helped practitioners embed research evidence into practice: local and cultural relevance of the evidence, community capacity-building, sustained dialogue from the outset with all stakeholders, established academic-supported partnerships, communication that responds to organizational and political readiness, acknowledgement and awareness of gaps between evidence and practice, advocacy, and adequate earmarked resources. These case studies provide some evidence that there is an evidence-based health promotion, that this evidence base is broad, and that practitioners use different strategies to adapt it for their case. PMID:21721308

Juneau, Carl-Etienne; Jones, Catherine M; McQueen, David V; Potvin, Louise

2011-03-01

419

Evidence based practice profiles: Differences among allied health professions  

PubMed Central

Background Most previous studies of allied health professionals' evidence based practice (EBP) attitudes, knowledge and behaviours have been conducted with profession specific questionnaires of variable psychometric strength. This study compared the self-report EBP profiles of allied health professionals/trainees in an Australian university. Methods The Evidence-Based Practice Profile (EBP2) questionnaire assessed five domains (Relevance, Terminology, Practice, Confidence, Sympathy) in 918 subjects from five professional disciplines. One and 2-way factorial analysis of variance (ANOVA) and t-tests analysed differences based on prior exposure to EBP, stage of training, professional discipline, age and gender. Results There were significant differences between stages of training (p < 0.001) for all domains and between EBP exposure groups for all but one domain (Sympathy). Professional discipline groups differed for Relevance, Terminology, Practice (p < 0.001) and Confidence (p = 0.006). Males scored higher for Confidence (p = 0.002) and females for Sympathy (p = 0.04), older subjects (> 24 years) scored higher for all domains (p < 0.05). Age and exposure affected all domains (p < 0.02). Differences in stages of training largely explained age-related differences in Confidence and Practice (p ? 0.001) and exposure-related differences in Confidence, Practice and Sympathy (p ? 0.023). Conclusions Across five allied health professions, self-report EBP characteristics varied with EBP exposure, across stages of training, with profession and with age.

2010-01-01

420

Management of the infertile couple: an evidence-based protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Infertility is defined as inability of a couple to conceive naturally after one year of regular unprotected sexual intercourse. It remains a major clinical and social problem, affecting perhaps one couple in six. Evaluation usually starts after 12 months; however it may be indicated earlier. The most common causes of infertility are: male factor such as sperm abnormalities, female factor such as ovulation dysfunction and tubal pathology, combined male and female factors and unexplained infertility. Objectives The aim of this study is to provide the healthcare professionals an evidence-based management protocol for infertile couples away from medical information overload. Methods A comprehensive review where the literature was searched for "Management of infertility and/or infertile couples" at library website of University of Bristol (MetaLib) by using a cross-search of different medical databases besides the relevant printed medical journals and periodicals. Guidelines and recommendations were retrieved from the best evidence reviews such as that from the American College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (ACOG), American Society for Reproductive Medicine (ASRM), Canadian Fertility and Andrology Society (CFAS), and Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (RCOG). Results A simple guide for the clinicians to manage the infertile couples. Conclusions The study deploys a new strategy to translate the research findings and evidence-base recommendations into a simplified focused guide to be applied on routine daily practice. It is an approach to disseminate the recommended medical care for infertile couple to the practicing clinicians.

2010-01-01

421

Cross-presenting dendritic cells are required for control of Leishmania major infection.  

PubMed

Leishmania major infection induces self-healing cutaneous lesions in C57BL/6 mice. Both IL-12 and IFN-? are essential for the control of infection. We infected Jun dimerization protein p21SNFT (Batf3(-/-) ) mice (C57BL/6 background) that lack the major IL-12 producing and cross-presenting CD8?(+) and CD103(+) DC subsets. Batf3(-/-) mice displayed enhanced susceptibility with larger lesions and higher parasite burden. Additionally, cells from draining lymph nodes of infected Batf3(-/-) mice secreted less IFN-?, but more Th2- and Th17-type cytokines, mirrored by increased serum IgE and Leishmania-specific immunoglobulin 1 (Th2 indicating). Importantly, CD8?(+) DCs isolated from lymph nodes of L. major-infected mice induced significantly more IFN-? secretion by L. major-stimulated immune T cells than CD103(+) DCs. We next developed CD11c-diptheria toxin receptor: Batf3(-/-) mixed bone marrow chimeras to determine when the DCs are important for the control of infection. Mice depleted of Batf-3-dependent DCs from day 17 or wild-type mice depleted of cross-presenting DCs from 17-19 days after infection maintained significantly larger lesions similar to mice whose Batf-3-dependent DCs were depleted from the onset of infection. Thus, we have identified a crucial role for Batf-3-dependent DCs in protection against L. major. PMID:24643576

Ashok, Devika; Schuster, Steffen; Ronet, Catherine; Rosa, Muriel; Mack, Vanessa; Lavanchy, Christine; Marraco, Silvia F; Fasel, Nicolas; Murphy, Kenneth M; Tacchini-Cottier, Fabienne; Acha-Orbea, Hans

2014-05-01

422

[Tuberculosis infection control practice in hospitals from the viewpoint of occupational health].  

PubMed

Several outbreaks of tuberculosis (TB) among health care workers were reported recently in Japan. To assess the current situation of TB infection control practice in hospitals in Japan from the viewpoint of occupational health, we carried out a cross sectional survey by mail-questionnaires. The questionnaires with closed and open-ended questions to ask situation of TB infection control program in hospital were mailed to 542 hospital chiefs in and around Tokyo, Kantoh district. 269 replies were received. We analyzed them especially focussing on the prevention of TB among health care workers. Out of 269 hospitals replied, 39 of them had wards and/or beds designated for tuberculosis patients, 223 did not have, and 7 were unknown. 102 (38.9%) had set written tuberculosis infection control programs or guidelines, only 21 (53.8%) have set them even in hospitals with TB beds. 110 (42.0%) hospitals had triage system for identifying patients with active TB in the outpatient setting. Although, most health care workers underwent annual health check programs including chest X-rays, only 67 (25.6%) of the hospitals provide tuberculin skin test to their new recruits. 165 (63.0%) of hospitals admit that undiagnosed patients with respiratory symptoms may stay with immuno-compromised patients in the same room. Since administrative management, staff education, environmental control in work place, personal infection control and individual health care should be carried out from the viewpoint of occupational health, we showed concrete steps of these in this paper. We recommend that a TB infection control manager in each hospital should be designated, and that TB infection control program and/or guideline should be made. Environmental control in work place to prevent infection should be more prioritized in Japan. PMID:10355228

Suzuki, K; Onozaki, I; Shimura, A

1999-04-01

423

Hypothermia does not increase the risk of infection: a case control study  

PubMed Central

Introduction Hypothermia may improve outcome in patients after traumatic brain injury, especially when hypothermia is maintained for more than 48 hours. In the acute phase, patients with severe brain injury are more vulnerable to infections. Prolonged hypothermic treatment may further enhance the risk of infection. Selective decontamination of the digestive tract (SDD) reduces the risk of respiratory tract infections. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of infections in patients treated with hypothermia and normothermia while receiving SDD. Methods In this retrospective case control study 35 patients treated with prolonged hypothermia (cases) were identified and 169 patients with severe brain injury were included (controls). Propensity score matching was performed to correct for differences in baseline characteristics and clinical parameters. Primary outcome was the incidence of infection. The secondary endpoints were the micro-organisms found in the surveillance cultures and infection. In addition, a number of clinical characteristics were assessed. Results The demographic and clinical data indicated that the cases and controls were well matched. The overall risk of infection during ICU stay was 20% in the hypothermia groups versus 34.4% in the normothermia group (P = 0.388). Pneumonia was diagnosed in 11.4% of patients in both groups (P = 1.000). The incidence of meningitis, wound infection, bacteremia, and urinary tract infection was low and comparable between the groups. SDD surveillance cultures indicated a higher colonization with gram-negative bacteria in the rectal samples of the hypothermia patients. Conclusions Hypothermia does not increase the risk of infection in patients treated with SDD.

2011-01-01

424

An essential role of antibodies in the control of Chikungunya virus infection.  

PubMed

In recent years, Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) was responsible for epidemic outbreaks in intertropical regions. Although acquired immunity has been shown to be crucial during CHIKV infection in both humans and mice, their exact role in the control of CHIKV infection remains unclear. In this study, wild-type (WT), CD4(-/-), and B cell (?MT) knockout mice were infected with CHIKV. Sera were taken at different days postinfection and measured for anti-CHIKV Ab levels. Isotype and neutralizing capacity of these Abs were assessed in vitro, and specific linear epitopes were mapped. Viremia in CHIKV-infected ?MT mice persisted for more than a year, indicating a direct role for B cells in mediating CHIKV clearance. These animals exhibited a more severe disease than WT mice during the acute phase. Characterization of CHIKV-specific Abs revealed that anti-CHIKV Abs were elicited early and targeted epitopes mainly at the C terminus of the virus E2 glycoprotein. Furthermore, CD4(-/-) mice could still control CHIKV infection despite having lower anti-CHIKV Ab levels with reduced neutralizing capacity. Lastly, pre-existing natural Abs in the sera of normal WT mice recognized CHIKV and were able to partially inhibit CHIKV. Taken together, natural and CHIKV infection-induced specific Abs are essential for controlling CHIKV infections. PMID:23670192

Lum, Fok-Moon; Teo, Teck-Hui; Lee, Wendy W L; Kam, Yiu-Wing; Rénia, Laurent; Ng, Lisa F P

2013-06-15

425

Proof of concept for the role of glycemic control in the early detection of infections in diabetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship of infections and glycemic control in diabetes has been previously investigated but no solid findings have been described. Meanwhile, the detection of any infection at the early stages of disease progression, i.e. during the incubation period, is critical. In order to study this topic, we used the infection evidence and the daily glycemic control data of 248 type-2

Taxiarchis Botsis; Albert M. Lai; Walter Palmas; Justin B. Starren; Gunnar Hartvigsen; George Hripcsak

2012-01-01

426

Knowledge of norovirus prevention and control among infection preventionists.  

PubMed

A Web-based survey was administered to infection preventionists (IPs) (N = 941) to characterize awareness and knowledge of norovirus (NoV). Only 44% of respondents correctly identified NoV as one of the 3 most common foodborne pathogens in the United States, and 5% correctly identified the 3 most common settings for NoV outbreaks. Several gaps in IPs' knowledge of NoV were identified; specifically, IPs could benefit from learning more about the natural history of NoV, modes of transmission, and cleaning and disinfection processes. PMID:24837119

Kosa, Katherine M; Cates, Sheryl C; Hall, Aron J; Brophy, Jenna E; Frasier, Angela

2014-06-01

427

Osteoimmunopathology in HIV/AIDS: A Translational Evidence-Based Perspective  

PubMed Central

Infection with the human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV) and the resulting acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) alter not only cellular immune regulation but also the bone metabolism. Since cellular immunity and bone metabolism are intimately intertwined in the osteoimmune network, it is to be expected that bone metabolism is also affected in patients with HIV/AIDS. The concerted evidence points convincingly toward impaired activity of osteoblasts and increased activity of osteoclasts in patients with HIV/AIDS, leading to a significant increase in the prevalence of osteoporosis. Research attributes these outcomes in part at least to the ART, PI, and HAART therapies endured by these patients. We review and discuss these lines of evidence from the perspective of translational clinically relevant complex systematic reviews for comparative effectiveness analysis and evidence-based intervention on a global scale.

Barkhordarian, Andre; Ajaj, Reem; Ramchandani, Manisha H.; Demerjian, Gary; Cayabyab, Riana; Danaie, Sohrab; Ghodousi, Nora; Iyer, Natasha; Mahanian, Nicole; Phi, Linda; Giroux, Amy; Manfrini, Ercolano; Neagos, Negoita; Siddiqui, Muniza; Cajulis, Olivia S.; Brant, Xenia M. C.; Shapshak, Paul; Chiappelli, Francesco

2011-01-01

428

Failure to control an outbreak of qnrA1-positive multidrug-resistant Enterobacter cloacae infection despite adequate implementation of recommended infection control measures.  

PubMed

A large outbreak with an aminoglycoside-resistant Enterobacter cloacae (AREC) clone occurred at the University Medical Center Utrecht beginning in 2001 and continued up through the time that this study was completed. This clone (genotype I) contains a conjugative R plasmid carrying the qnrA1, bla(CTX-M-9), and aadB genes, encoding resistance to quinolones, extended-spectrum beta-lactamases, and aminoglycosides, respectively. The aim of this study was to determine whether this clone was more transmissible than other AREC strains. Therefore, the dissemination of this genotype and of other E. cloacae strains was studied. In addition, infection control measures taken were evaluated. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis divided the 191 AREC strains into 42 different genotypes, of which 5 (12%) involved at least three patients. Aside from this outbreak (133 patients), only two other small outbreaks occurred, showing that the infection control measures were successful for all strains but one. Among 324 aminoglycoside-susceptible E. cloacae strains, 34/166 (20%) genotypes were identified from at least three patients, but only 4 involved small outbreaks. The outbreak strain was also detected in 11 of 15 other Dutch hospitals and caused outbreaks in at least 4. Evaluation of infection control measures showed that the outbreak strain dissemina