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Sample records for evolution macroevolutionary pattern

  1. Molecular evolution tracks macroevolutionary transitions in Cetacea.

    PubMed

    McGowen, Michael R; Gatesy, John; Wildman, Derek E

    2014-06-01

    Cetacea (whales, dolphins, and porpoises) is a model group for investigating the molecular signature of macroevolutionary transitions. Recent research has begun to reveal the molecular underpinnings of the remarkable anatomical and behavioral transformation in this clade. This shift from terrestrial to aquatic environments is arguably the best-understood major morphological transition in vertebrate evolution. The ancestral body plan and physiology were extensively modified and, in many cases, these crucial changes are recorded in cetacean genomes. Recent studies have highlighted cetaceans as central to understanding adaptive molecular convergence and pseudogene formation. Here, we review current research in cetacean molecular evolution and the potential of Cetacea as a model for the study of other macroevolutionary transitions from a genomic perspective. PMID:24794916

  2. Modelling macroevolutionary patterns: An ecological perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solé, R. V.

    Complex ecosystems display well-defined macroscopic regularities suggesting that some generic dynamical rules operate at the ecosystem level where the relevance of the single-species features is rather weak. Most evolutionary theory deals with genes/species as the units of selection operating on populations. However, the role of ecological networks and external perturbations seems to be at least as important as microevolutionary events based on natural selection operating at the smalle st levels. Here we review some of the recent theoretical approximations to ecosystem evolution based on network dynamics. It is suggested that the evolutionary dynamics of ecological networks underlie fundamental laws of ecology-level dynamics which naturally decouple micro from macroevolutionary dynamics. Using simple models of macroevolution, most of the available statistical information obtained from the fossil record is remarkably well reproduced and explained within a new theoretical framework.

  3. Macroevolutionary patterns of salt tolerance in angiosperms

    PubMed Central

    Bromham, Lindell

    2015-01-01

    Background Halophytes are rare, with only 0·25 % of angiosperm species able to complete their life cycle in saline conditions. This could be interpreted as evidence that salt tolerance is difficult to evolve. However, consideration of the phylogenetic distribution of halophytes paints a different picture: salt tolerance has evolved independently in many different lineages, and halophytes are widely distributed across angiosperm families. In this Viewpoint, I will consider what phylogenetic analysis of halophytes can tell us about the macroevolution of salt tolerance. Hypothesis Phylogenetic analyses of salt tolerance have shown contrasting patterns in different families. In some families, such as chenopods, salt tolerance evolved early in the lineage and has been retained in many lineages. But in other families, including grasses, there have been a surprisingly large number of independent origins of salt tolerance, most of which are relatively recent and result in only one or a few salt-tolerant species. This pattern of many recent origins implies either a high transition rate (salt tolerance is gained and lost often) or a high extinction rate (salt-tolerant lineages do not tend to persist over macroevolutionary timescales). While salt tolerance can evolve in a wide range of genetic backgrounds, some lineages are more likely to produce halophytes than others. This may be due to enabling traits that act as stepping stones to developing salt tolerance. The ability to tolerate environmental salt may increase tolerance of other stresses or vice versa. Conclusions Phylogenetic analyses suggest that enabling traits and cross-tolerances may make some lineages more likely to adapt to increasing salinization, a finding that may prove useful in assessing the probable impact of rapid environmental change on vegetation communities, and in selecting taxa to develop for use in landscape rehabilitation and agriculture. PMID:25452251

  4. Toy models for macroevolutionary patterns and trends.

    PubMed

    Alicea, Bradly; Gordon, Richard

    2014-09-01

    Many models have been used to simplify and operationalize the subtle but complex mechanisms of biological evolution. Toy models are gross simplifications that nevertheless attempt to retain major essential features of evolution, bridging the gap between empirical reality and formal theoretical understanding. In this paper, we examine thirteen models which describe evolution that also qualify as such toy models, including the tree of life, branching processes, adaptive ratchets, fitness landscapes, and the role of nonlinear avalanches in evolutionary dynamics. Such toy models are intended to capture features such as evolutionary trends, coupled evolutionary dynamics of phenotype and genotype, adaptive change, branching, and evolutionary transience. The models discussed herein are applied to specific evolutionary contexts in various ways that simplify the complexity inherent in evolving populations. While toy models are overly simplistic, they also provide sufficient dynamics for capturing the fundamental mechanism(s) of evolution. Toy models might also be used to aid in high-throughput data analysis and the understanding of cultural evolutionary trends. This paper should serve as an introductory guide to the toy modeling of evolutionary complexity. PMID:25224014

  5. Macroevolutionary patterns of sexual size dimorphism in copepods.

    PubMed

    Hirst, Andrew G; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2014-09-22

    Major theories compete to explain the macroevolutionary trends observed in sexual size dimorphism (SSD) in animals. Quantitative genetic theory suggests that the sex under historically stronger directional selection will exhibit greater interspecific variance in size, with covariation between allometric slopes (male to female size) and the strength of SSD across clades. Rensch's rule (RR) also suggests a correlation, but one in which males are always the more size variant sex. Examining free-living pelagic and parasitic Copepoda, we test these competing predictions. Females are commonly the larger sex in copepod species. Comparing clades that vary by four orders of magnitude in their degree of dimorphism, we show that isometry is widespread. As such we find no support for either RR or for covariation between allometry and SSD. Our results suggest that selection on both sexes has been equally important. We next test the prediction that variation in the degree of SSD is related to the adult sex ratio. As males become relatively less abundant, it has been hypothesized that this will lead to a reduction in both inter-male competition and male size. However, the lack of such a correlation across diverse free-living pelagic families of copepods provides no support for this hypothesis. By comparison, in sea lice of the family Caligidae, there is some qualitative support of the hypothesis, males may suffer elevated mortality when they leave the host and rove for sedentary females, and their female-biased SSD is greater than in many free-living families. However, other parasitic copepods which do not appear to have obvious differences in sex-based mate searching risks also show similar or even more extreme SSD, therefore suggesting other factors can drive the observed extremes. PMID:25100692

  6. A phylogenetic analysis of macroevolutionary patterns in fermentative yeasts.

    PubMed

    Paleo-López, Rocío; Quintero-Galvis, Julian F; Solano-Iguaran, Jaiber J; Sanchez-Salazar, Angela M; Gaitan-Espitia, Juan D; Nespolo, Roberto F

    2016-06-01

    When novel sources of ecological opportunity are available, physiological innovations can trigger adaptive radiations. This could be the case of yeasts (Saccharomycotina), in which an evolutionary novelty is represented by the capacity to exploit simple sugars from fruits (fermentation). During adaptive radiations, diversification and morphological evolution are predicted to slow-down after early bursts of diversification. Here, we performed the first comparative phylogenetic analysis in yeasts, testing the "early burst" prediction on species diversification and also on traits of putative ecological relevance (cell-size and fermentation versatility). We found that speciation rates are constant during the time-range we considered (ca., 150 millions of years). Phylogenetic signal of both traits was significant (but lower for cell-size), suggesting that lineages resemble each other in trait-values. Disparity analysis suggested accelerated evolution (diversification in trait values above Brownian Motion expectations) in cell-size. We also found a significant phylogenetic regression between cell-size and fermentation versatility (R (2) = 0.10), which suggests correlated evolution between both traits. Overall, our results do not support the early burst prediction both in species and traits, but suggest a number of interesting evolutionary patterns, that warrant further exploration. For instance, we show that the Whole Genomic Duplication that affected a whole clade of yeasts, does not seems to have a statistically detectable phenotypic effect at our level of analysis. In this regard, further studies of fermentation under common-garden conditions combined with comparative analyses are warranted. PMID:27516851

  7. Impacts of Niche Breadth and Dispersal Ability on Macroevolutionary Patterns.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Huijie; Saupe, Erin E; Soberón, Jorge; Peterson, A Townsend; Myers, Corinne E

    2016-08-01

    We describe a spatially explicit simulation experiment designed to assess relative impacts of macroecological traits on patterns of biological diversification under changing environmental conditions. Using a simulation framework, we assessed impacts of species' niche breadth (i.e., the range of their abiotic tolerances) and dispersal ability on resulting patterns of speciation and extinction and evaluated how these traits, in conjunction with environmental change, shape biological diversification. Simulation results supported both niche breadth and dispersal ability as important drivers of diversification in the face of environmental change, and suggested that the rate of environmental change influences how species interact with the extrinsic environment to generate diversity. Niche breadth had greater effects on speciation and extinction than dispersal ability when climate changed rapidly, whereas dispersal ability effects were elevated when climate changed slowly. Our simulations provide a bottom-up perspective on the generation and maintenance of diversity under climate change, offering a better understanding of potential interactions between species' intrinsic macroecological characteristics and a dynamic extrinsic environment in the process of biological diversification. PMID:27420781

  8. Macroevolutionary patterns of ultraviolet floral pigmentation explained by geography and associated bioclimatic factors.

    PubMed

    Koski, Matthew H; Ashman, Tia-Lynn

    2016-07-01

    Selection driven by biotic interactions can generate variation in floral traits. Abiotic selection, however, also contributes to floral diversity, especially with respect to patterns of pigmentation. Combining comparative studies of floral pigmentation and geography can reveal the bioclimatic factors that may drive macroevolutionary patterns of floral color. We create a molecular phylogeny and measure ultraviolet (UV) floral pattern for 177 species in the Potentilleae tribe (Rosaceae). Species are similar in flower shape and visible color but vary in UV floral pattern. We use comparative approaches to determine whether UV pigmentation variation is associated with geography and/or bioclimatic features (UV-B, precipitation, temperature). Floral UV pattern was present in half of the species, while others were uniformly UV-absorbing. Phylogenetic signal was detected for presence/absence of pattern, but among patterned species, quantitative variation in UV-absorbing area was evolutionarily labile. Uniformly UV-absorbing species tended to experience higher UV-B irradiance. Patterned species occurring at higher altitudes had larger UV-absorbing petal areas, corresponding with low temperature and high UV exposure. This analysis expands our understanding of the covariation of UV-B irradiance and UV floral pigmentation from within species to that among species, and supports the view that abiotic selection is associated with floral diversification among species. PMID:26987355

  9. Microevolutionary, macroevolutionary, ecological and taxonomical implications of punctuational theories of adaptive evolution

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Punctuational theories of evolution suggest that adaptive evolution proceeds mostly, or even entirely, in the distinct periods of existence of a particular species. The mechanisms of this punctuated nature of evolution suggested by the various theories differ. Therefore the predictions of particular theories concerning various evolutionary phenomena also differ. Punctuational theories can be subdivided into five classes, which differ in their mechanism and their evolutionary and ecological implications. For example, the transilience model of Templeton (class III), genetic revolution model of Mayr (class IV) or the frozen plasticity theory of Flegr (class V), suggests that adaptive evolution in sexual species is operative shortly after the emergence of a species by peripatric speciation – while it is evolutionary plastic. To a major degree, i.e. throughout 98-99% of their existence, sexual species are evolutionarily frozen (class III) or elastic (class IV and V) on a microevolutionary time scale and evolutionarily frozen on a macroevolutionary time scale and can only wait for extinction, or the highly improbable return of a population segment to the plastic state due to peripatric speciation. The punctuational theories have many evolutionary and ecological implications. Most of these predictions could be tested empirically, and should be analyzed in greater depth theoretically. The punctuational theories offer many new predictions that need to be tested, but also provide explanations for a much broader spectrum of known biological phenomena than classical gradualistic evolutionary theories. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Claus Wilke, Pierre Pantarotti and David Penny (nominated by Anthony Poole). PMID:23324625

  10. Is geographic variation within species related to macroevolutionary patterns between species?

    PubMed

    Fisher-Reid, M C; Wiens, J J

    2015-08-01

    The relationship between microevolution and macroevolution is a central topic in evolutionary biology. An aspect of this relationship that remains very poorly studied in modern evolutionary biology is the relationship between within-species geographic variation and among-species patterns of trait variation. Here, we tested the relationship between climate and morphology among and within species in the salamander genus Plethodon. We focus on a discrete colour polymorphism (presence and absence of a red dorsal stripe) that appears to be related to climatic distributions in a common, wide-ranging species (Plethodon cinereus). We find that this trait has been variable among (and possibly within) species for >40 million years. Furthermore, we find a strong relationship among species between climatic variation and within-species morph frequencies. These between-species patterns are similar (but not identical) to those in the broadly distributed Plethodon cinereus. Surprisingly, there are no significant climate-morphology relationships within most other polymorphic species, despite the strong between-species patterns. Overall, our study provides an initial exploration of how within-species geographic variation and large-scale macroevolutionary patterns of trait variation may be related. PMID:26079479

  11. Macroevolutionary patterns of glucosinolate defense and tests of defense-escalation and resource availability hypotheses.

    PubMed

    Cacho, N Ivalú; Kliebenstein, Daniel J; Strauss, Sharon Y

    2015-11-01

    We explored macroevolutionary patterns of plant chemical defense in Streptanthus (Brassicaceae), tested for evolutionary escalation of defense, as predicted by Ehrlich and Raven's plant-herbivore coevolutionary arms-race hypothesis, and tested whether species inhabiting low-resource or harsh environments invest more in defense, as predicted by the resource availability hypothesis (RAH). We conducted phylogenetically explicit analyses using glucosinolate profiles, soil nutrient analyses, and microhabitat bareness estimates across 30 species of Streptanthus inhabiting varied environments and soils. We found weak to moderate phylogenetic signal in glucosinolate classes and no signal in total glucosinolate production; a trend toward evolutionary de-escalation in the numbers and diversity of glucosinolates, accompanied by an evolutionary increase in the proportion of aliphatic glucosinolates; some support for the RAH relative to soil macronutrients, but not relative to serpentine soil use; and that the number of glucosinolates increases with microhabitat bareness, which is associated with increased herbivory and drought. Weak phylogenetic signal in chemical defense has been observed in other plant systems. A more holistic approach incorporating other forms of defense might be necessary to confidently reject escalation of defense. That defense increases with microhabitat bareness supports the hypothesis that habitat bareness is an underappreciated selective force on plants in harsh environments. PMID:26192213

  12. Macroevolutionary speciation rates are decoupled from the evolution of intrinsic reproductive isolation in Drosophila and birds.

    PubMed

    Rabosky, Daniel L; Matute, Daniel R

    2013-09-17

    The rate at which speciation occurs varies greatly among different kinds of organisms and is frequently assumed to result from species- or clade-specific factors that influence the rate at which populations acquire reproductive isolation. This premise leads to a fundamental prediction that has never been tested: Organisms that quickly evolve prezygotic or postzygotic reproductive isolation should have faster rates of speciation than organisms that slowly acquire reproductive isolation. We combined phylogenetic estimates of speciation rates from Drosophila and birds with a method for analyzing interspecific hybridization data to test whether the rate at which individual lineages evolve reproductive isolation predicts their macroevolutionary rate of species formation. We find that some lineages evolve reproductive isolation much more quickly than others, but this variation is decoupled from rates of speciation as measured on phylogenetic trees. For the clades examined here, reproductive isolation--especially intrinsic, postzygotic isolation--does not seem to be the rate-limiting control on macroevolutionary diversification dynamics. These results suggest that factors associated with intrinsic reproductive isolation may have less to do with the tremendous variation in species diversity across the evolutionary tree of life than is generally assumed. PMID:24003144

  13. Macroevolutionary speciation rates are decoupled from the evolution of intrinsic reproductive isolation in Drosophila and birds

    PubMed Central

    Rabosky, Daniel L.; Matute, Daniel R.

    2013-01-01

    The rate at which speciation occurs varies greatly among different kinds of organisms and is frequently assumed to result from species- or clade-specific factors that influence the rate at which populations acquire reproductive isolation. This premise leads to a fundamental prediction that has never been tested: Organisms that quickly evolve prezygotic or postzygotic reproductive isolation should have faster rates of speciation than organisms that slowly acquire reproductive isolation. We combined phylogenetic estimates of speciation rates from Drosophila and birds with a method for analyzing interspecific hybridization data to test whether the rate at which individual lineages evolve reproductive isolation predicts their macroevolutionary rate of species formation. We find that some lineages evolve reproductive isolation much more quickly than others, but this variation is decoupled from rates of speciation as measured on phylogenetic trees. For the clades examined here, reproductive isolation—especially intrinsic, postzygotic isolation—does not seem to be the rate-limiting control on macroevolutionary diversification dynamics. These results suggest that factors associated with intrinsic reproductive isolation may have less to do with the tremendous variation in species diversity across the evolutionary tree of life than is generally assumed. PMID:24003144

  14. Macroevolutionary Patterns in the Aphidini Aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae): Diversification, Host Association, and Biogeographic Origins

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyojoong; Lee, Seunghwan; Jang, Yikweon

    2011-01-01

    Background Due to its biogeographic origins and rapid diversification, understanding the tribe Aphidini is key to understanding aphid evolution. Major questions about aphid evolution include origins of host alternation as well as age and patterns of diversification in relation to host plants. To address these questions, we reconstructed the phylogeny of the Aphidini which contains Aphis, the most diverse genus in the family. We used a combined dataset of one nuclear and four mitochondrial DNA regions. A molecular dating approach, calibrated with fossil records, was used to estimate divergence times of these taxa. Principal Findings Most generic divergences in Aphidini occurred in the Middle Tertiary, and species-level divergences occurred between the Middle and Late Tertiary. The ancestral state of host use for Aphidini was equivocal with respect to three states: monoecy on trees, heteroecy, and monoecy on grasses. The ancestral state of Rhopalosiphina likely included both heteroecy and monoecy, whereas that of Aphidina was most likely monoecy. The divergence times of aphid lineages at the generic or subgeneric levels are close to those of their primary hosts. The species-level divergences in aphids are consistent with the diversification of the secondary hosts, as a few examples suggest. The biogeographic origin of Aphidini as a whole was equivocal, but the major lineages within Aphidina likely separated into Nearctic, Western Palearctic, and Eastern Palearctic regions. Conclusions Most generic divergences in Aphidini occurred in the Middle Tertiary when primary hosts, mainly in the Rosaceae, were diverging, whereas species-level divergences were contemporaneous with diversification of the secondary hosts such as Poaceae in the Middle to Late Tertiary. Our results suggest that evolution of host alternation within Aphidini may have occurred during the Middle Tertiary (Oligocene) when the secondary hosts emerged. PMID:21935453

  15. Macroevolutionary patterns of bumblebee body size: detecting the interplay between natural and sexual selection

    PubMed Central

    del Castillo, Raúl Cueva; Fairbairn, Daphne J

    2012-01-01

    Bumblebees and other eusocial bees offer a unique opportunity to analyze the evolution of body size differences between sexes. The workers, being sterile females, are not subject to selection for reproductive function and thus provide a natural control for parsing the effects of selection on reproductive function (i.e., sexual and fecundity selection) from other natural selection. Using a phylogenetic comparative approach, we explored the allometric relationships among queens, males, and workers in 70 species of bumblebees (Bombus sp.). We found hyperallometry in thorax width for males relative to workers, indicating greater evolutionary divergence of body size in males than in sterile females. This is consistent with the hypothesis that selection for reproductive function, most probably sexual selection, has caused divergence in male size among species. The slope for males on workers was significantly steeper than that for queens on workers and the latter did not depart from isometry, providing further evidence of greater evolutionary divergence in male size than female size, and no evidence that reproductive selection has accelerated divergence of females. We did not detect significant hyperallometry when male size was regressed directly on queen size and our results thus add the genus Bombus to the increasing list of clades that have female-larger sexual size dimorphism and do not conform to Rensch's rule when analyzed according to standard methodology. Nevertheless, by using worker size as a common control, we were able to demonstrate that bumblee species do show the evolutionary pattern underlying Rensch's rule, that being correlated evolution of body size in males and females, but with greater evolutionary divergence in males. PMID:22408725

  16. Model for macroevolutionary dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Maruvka, Yosef E.; Shnerb, Nadav M.; Kessler, David A.; Ricklefs, Robert E.

    2013-01-01

    The highly skewed distribution of species among genera, although challenging to macroevolutionists, provides an opportunity to understand the dynamics of diversification, including species formation, extinction, and morphological evolution. Early models were based on either the work by Yule [Yule GU (1925) Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 213:21–87], which neglects extinction, or a simple birth–death (speciation–extinction) process. Here, we extend the more recent development of a generic, neutral speciation–extinction (of species)–origination (of genera; SEO) model for macroevolutionary dynamics of taxon diversification. Simulations show that deviations from the homogeneity assumptions in the model can be detected in species-per-genus distributions. The SEO model fits observed species-per-genus distributions well for class-to-kingdom–sized taxonomic groups. The model’s predictions for the appearance times (the time of the first existing species) of the taxonomic groups also approximately match estimates based on molecular inference and fossil records. Unlike estimates based on analyses of phylogenetic reconstruction, fitted extinction rates for large clades are close to speciation rates, consistent with high rates of species turnover and the relatively slow change in diversity observed in the fossil record. Finally, the SEO model generally supports the consistency of generic boundaries based on morphological differences between species and provides a comparator for rates of lineage splitting and morphological evolution. PMID:23781101

  17. Detecting Macroevolutionary Self-Destruction from Phylogenies.

    PubMed

    Bromham, Lindell; Hua, Xia; Cardillo, Marcel

    2016-01-01

    Phylogenetic analyses have lent support to the concept of lineage selection: that biological lineages can have heritable traits that influence their capacity to persist and diversify, and thereby affect their representation in biodiversity. While many discussions have focused on "positive" lineage selection, where stably heritable properties of lineages enhance their diversification rate, there are also intriguing examples that seem to represent "negative" lineage selection, where traits reduce the likelihood that a lineage will persist or speciate. In this article, we test whether a particular pattern of negative lineage selection is detectable from the distributions of the trait on a phylogeny. "Self-destructive" traits are those that arise often but then disappear again because they confer either a raised extinction rate or they are prone to a high rate of trait loss. For such a trait, the reconstructed origins will tend to be dispersed across the tips of the phylogeny, rather than defining large clades of related lineages that all share the trait. We examine the utility of four possible measures of "tippiness" as potential indicators of macroevolutionary self-destruction, applying them to phylogenies on which trait evolution has been simulated under different combinations of parameters for speciation, extinction, trait gain, and trait loss. We use an efficient simulation approach that starts with the required number of tips with and without the trait and uses a model to work "backwards" to construct different possible trees that result in that set of tips. We then apply these methods to a number of case studies: salt tolerance in grasses, color polymorphism in birds of prey, and selfing in nightshades. We find that the relative age of species, measured from tip length, can indicate a reduced speciation rate but does not identify traits that increase the extinction rate or the trait loss rate. We show that it is possible to detect cases of macroevolutionary self

  18. Omnivory in birds is a macroevolutionary sink.

    PubMed

    Burin, Gustavo; Kissling, W Daniel; Guimarães, Paulo R; Şekercioğlu, Çağan H; Quental, Tiago B

    2016-01-01

    Diet is commonly assumed to affect the evolution of species, but few studies have directly tested its effect at macroevolutionary scales. Here we use Bayesian models of trait-dependent diversification and a comprehensive dietary database of all birds worldwide to assess speciation and extinction dynamics of avian dietary guilds (carnivores, frugivores, granivores, herbivores, insectivores, nectarivores, omnivores and piscivores). Our results suggest that omnivory is associated with higher extinction rates and lower speciation rates than other guilds, and that overall net diversification is negative. Trait-dependent models, dietary similarity and network analyses show that transitions into omnivory occur at higher rates than into any other guild. We suggest that omnivory acts as macroevolutionary sink, where its ephemeral nature is retrieved through transitions from other guilds rather than from omnivore speciation. We propose that these dynamics result from competition within and among dietary guilds, influenced by the deep-time availability and predictability of food resources. PMID:27052750

  19. Omnivory in birds is a macroevolutionary sink

    PubMed Central

    Burin, Gustavo; Kissling, W. Daniel; Guimarães, Paulo R.; Şekercioğlu, Çağan H.; Quental, Tiago B.

    2016-01-01

    Diet is commonly assumed to affect the evolution of species, but few studies have directly tested its effect at macroevolutionary scales. Here we use Bayesian models of trait-dependent diversification and a comprehensive dietary database of all birds worldwide to assess speciation and extinction dynamics of avian dietary guilds (carnivores, frugivores, granivores, herbivores, insectivores, nectarivores, omnivores and piscivores). Our results suggest that omnivory is associated with higher extinction rates and lower speciation rates than other guilds, and that overall net diversification is negative. Trait-dependent models, dietary similarity and network analyses show that transitions into omnivory occur at higher rates than into any other guild. We suggest that omnivory acts as macroevolutionary sink, where its ephemeral nature is retrieved through transitions from other guilds rather than from omnivore speciation. We propose that these dynamics result from competition within and among dietary guilds, influenced by the deep-time availability and predictability of food resources. PMID:27052750

  20. Multi-level human evolution: ecological patterns in hominin phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Parravicini, Andrea; Pievani, Telmo

    2016-06-20

    Evolution is a process that occurs at many different levels, from genes to ecosystems. Genetic variations and ecological pressures are hence two sides of the same coin; but due both to fragmentary evidence and to the influence of a gene-centered and gradualistic approach to evolutionary phenomena, the field of paleoanthropology has been slow to take the role of macro-evolutionary patterns (i.e. ecological and biogeographical at large scale) seriously. However, several very recent findings in paleoanthropology stress both climate instability and ecological disturbance as key factors affecting the highly branching hominin phylogeny, from the earliest hominins to the appearance of cognitively modern humans. Allopatric speciation due to geographic displacement, turnover-pulses of species, adaptive radiation, mosaic evolution of traits in several coeval species, bursts of behavioral innovation, serial dispersals out of Africa, are just some of the macro-evolutionary patterns emerging from the field. The multilevel approach to evolution proposed by paleontologist Niles Eldredge is adopted here as interpretative tool, and has yielded a larger picture of human evolution that integrates different levels of evolutionary change, from local adaptations in limited ecological niches to dispersal phenotypes able to colonize an unprecedented range of ecosystems. Changes in global climate and Earth's surface most greatly affected human evolution. Precisely because it is cognitively hard for us to appreciate the long-term common destiny we share with the whole biosphere, it is particularly valuable to highlight the accumulating evidence that human evolution has been deeply affected by global ecological changes that transformed our African continent of origin. PMID:26829575

  1. Does Gene Tree Discordance Explain the Mismatch between Macroevolutionary Models and Empirical Patterns of Tree Shape and Branching Times?

    PubMed Central

    Stadler, Tanja; Degnan, James H.; Rosenberg, Noah A.

    2016-01-01

    Classic null models for speciation and extinction give rise to phylogenies that differ in distribution from empirical phylogenies. In particular, empirical phylogenies are less balanced and have branching times closer to the root compared to phylogenies predicted by common null models. This difference might be due to null models of the speciation and extinction process being too simplistic, or due to the empirical datasets not being representative of random phylogenies. A third possibility arises because phylogenetic reconstruction methods often infer gene trees rather than species trees, producing an incongruity between models that predict species tree patterns and empirical analyses that consider gene trees. We investigate the extent to which the difference between gene trees and species trees under a combined birth–death and multispecies coalescent model can explain the difference in empirical trees and birth–death species trees. We simulate gene trees embedded in simulated species trees and investigate their difference with respect to tree balance and branching times. We observe that the gene trees are less balanced and typically have branching times closer to the root than the species trees. Empirical trees from TreeBase are also less balanced than our simulated species trees, and model gene trees can explain an imbalance increase of up to 8% compared to species trees. However, we see a much larger imbalance increase in empirical trees, about 100%, meaning that additional features must also be causing imbalance in empirical trees. This simulation study highlights the necessity of revisiting the assumptions made in phylogenetic analyses, as these assumptions, such as equating the gene tree with the species tree, might lead to a biased conclusion. PMID:26968785

  2. Does Gene Tree Discordance Explain the Mismatch between Macroevolutionary Models and Empirical Patterns of Tree Shape and Branching Times?

    PubMed

    Stadler, Tanja; Degnan, James H; Rosenberg, Noah A

    2016-07-01

    Classic null models for speciation and extinction give rise to phylogenies that differ in distribution from empirical phylogenies. In particular, empirical phylogenies are less balanced and have branching times closer to the root compared to phylogenies predicted by common null models. This difference might be due to null models of the speciation and extinction process being too simplistic, or due to the empirical datasets not being representative of random phylogenies. A third possibility arises because phylogenetic reconstruction methods often infer gene trees rather than species trees, producing an incongruity between models that predict species tree patterns and empirical analyses that consider gene trees. We investigate the extent to which the difference between gene trees and species trees under a combined birth-death and multispecies coalescent model can explain the difference in empirical trees and birth-death species trees. We simulate gene trees embedded in simulated species trees and investigate their difference with respect to tree balance and branching times. We observe that the gene trees are less balanced and typically have branching times closer to the root than the species trees. Empirical trees from TreeBase are also less balanced than our simulated species trees, and model gene trees can explain an imbalance increase of up to 8% compared to species trees. However, we see a much larger imbalance increase in empirical trees, about 100%, meaning that additional features must also be causing imbalance in empirical trees. This simulation study highlights the necessity of revisiting the assumptions made in phylogenetic analyses, as these assumptions, such as equating the gene tree with the species tree, might lead to a biased conclusion. PMID:26968785

  3. Tooth patterning and evolution.

    PubMed

    Salazar-Ciudad, Isaac

    2012-12-01

    Teeth are a good system for studying development and evolution. Tooth development is largely independent of the rest of the body and teeth can be grown in culture to attain almost normal morphology. Their development is not affected by the patterns of movement or sensorial perception in the embryo. Teeth are hard and easily preserved. Thus, there is plenty of easily accessible information about the patterns of morphological variation occurring between and within species. This review summarises recent work and describes how tooth development can be understood as the coupling between a reaction-diffusion system and differential growth produced by diffusible growth factors: which growth factors are involved, how they affect each other's expression and how they affect the spatial patterns of proliferation that lead to final morphology. There are some aspects of tooth development, however, that do not conform to some common assumptions in many reaction-diffusion models. Those are discussed here since they provide clues about how reaction-diffusion systems may work in actual developmental systems. Mathematical models implementing what we know about tooth development are discussed. PMID:23266218

  4. A Macroevolutionary Perspective on Multiple Sexual Traits in the Phasianidae (Galliformes)

    PubMed Central

    Kimball, Rebecca T.; Mary, Colette M. St.; Braun, Edward L.

    2011-01-01

    Traits involved in sexual signaling are ubiquitous among animals. Although a single trait appears sufficient to convey information, many sexually dimorphic species exhibit multiple sexual signals, which may be costly to signalers and receivers. Given that one signal may be enough, there are many microevolutionary hypotheses to explain the evolution of multiple signals. Here we extend these hypotheses to a macroevolutionary scale and compare those predictions to the patterns of gains and losses of sexual dimorphism in pheasants and partridges. Among nine dimorphic characters, including six intersexual signals and three indicators of competitive ability, all exhibited both gains and losses of dimorphism within the group. Although theories of intersexual selection emphasize gain and elaboration, those six characters exhibited greater rates of loss than gain; in contrast, the competitive traits showed a slight bias towards gains. The available models, when examined in a macroevolutionary framework, did not yield unique predictions, making it difficult to distinguish among them. Even with this limitation, when the predictions of these alternative models were compared with the heterogeneous patterns of evolution of dimorphism in phasianids, it is clear that many different selective processes have been involved in the evolution of sexual signals in this group. PMID:21716735

  5. Macroevolutionary History of the Planktic Foraminifera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraass, Andrew J.; Kelly, D. Clay; Peters, Shanan E.

    2015-05-01

    Planktic foraminifera are an abundant component of deep-sea sediment and are critical to geohistorical research, primarily because as a biological and geochemical system they are sensitive to coupled bio-hydro-lithosphere interactions. They are also well sampled and studied throughout their evolutionary history. Here, we combine a synoptic global compilation of planktic foraminifera with a stochastic null model of taxonomic turnover to identify statistically significant increases in macroevolutionary rates. There are three taxonomic diversifications and two distinct extinctions in the history of the group. The well-known Cretaceous-Paleogene extinction is of unprecedented magnitude and abruptness and is linked to rapid environmental perturbations associated with bolide impact. The Eocene-Oligocene boundary extinction occurs due to a combination of factors related to a major reorganization of the global climate system. Changes in ocean stratification, seawater chemistry, and global climate recur as primary determinants of both macroevolutionary turnover in planktic foraminifera and spatiotemporal patterns of deep-sea sedimentation over the past 130 Myr.

  6. Species coexistence: macroevolutionary relationships and the contingency of historical interactions.

    PubMed

    Germain, Rachel M; Weir, Jason T; Gilbert, Benjamin

    2016-03-30

    Evolutionary biologists since Darwin have hypothesized that closely related species compete more intensely and are therefore less likely to coexist. However, recent theory posits that species diverge in two ways: either through the evolution of 'stabilizing differences' that promote coexistence by causing individuals to compete more strongly with conspecifics than individuals of other species, or through the evolution of 'fitness differences' that cause species to differ in competitive ability and lead to exclusion of the weaker competitor. We tested macroevolutionary patterns of divergence by competing pairs of annual plant species that differ in their phylogenetic relationships, and in whether they have historically occurred in the same region or different regions (sympatric versus allopatric occurrence). For sympatrically occurring species pairs, stabilizing differences rapidly increased with phylogenetic distance. However, fitness differences also increased with phylogenetic distance, resulting in coexistence outcomes that were unpredictable based on phylogenetic relationships. For allopatric species, stabilizing differences showed no trend with phylogenetic distance, whereas fitness differences increased, causing coexistence to become less likely among distant relatives. Our results illustrate the role of species' historical interactions in shaping how phylogenetic relationships structure competitive dynamics, and offer an explanation for the evolution of invasion potential of non-native species. PMID:27009226

  7. Macroevolutionary perspectives to environmental change.

    PubMed

    Condamine, Fabien L; Rolland, Jonathan; Morlon, Hélène

    2013-05-01

    Predicting how biodiversity will be affected and will respond to human-induced environmental changes is one of the most critical challenges facing ecologists today. Here, we put current environmental changes and their effects on biodiversity in a macroevolutionary perspective. We build on research in palaeontology and recent developments in phylogenetic approaches to ask how macroevolution can help us understand how environmental changes have affected biodiversity in the past, and how they will affect biodiversity in the future. More and more paleontological and phylogenetic data are accumulated, and we argue that much of the potential these data have for understanding environmental changes remains to be explored. PMID:23331627

  8. Rapid diversification associated with a macroevolutionary pulse of developmental plasticity.

    PubMed

    Susoy, Vladislav; Ragsdale, Erik J; Kanzaki, Natsumi; Sommer, Ralf J

    2015-01-01

    Developmental plasticity has been proposed to facilitate phenotypic diversification in plants and animals, but the macroevolutionary potential of plastic traits remains to be objectively tested. We studied the evolution of feeding structures in a group of 90 nematodes, including Caenorhabditis elegans, some species of which have evolved a mouthpart polyphenism, moveable teeth, and predatory feeding. Comparative analyses of shape and form, using geometric morphometrics, and of structural complexity revealed a rapid process of diversification associated with developmental plasticity. First, dimorphism was associated with a sharp increase in complexity and elevated evolutionary rates, represented by a radiation of feeding-forms with structural novelties. Second, the subsequent assimilation of a single phenotype coincided with a decrease in mouthpart complexity but an even stronger increase in evolutionary rates. Our results suggest that a macroevolutionary 'pulse' of plasticity promotes novelties and, even after the secondary fixation of phenotypes, permits sustained rapid exploration of morphospace. PMID:25650739

  9. Geologic constraints on the macroevolutionary history of marine animals

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Shanan E.

    2005-01-01

    The causes of mass extinctions and the nature of taxonomic radiations are central questions in paleobiology. Several episodes of taxonomic turnover in the fossil record, particularly the major mass extinctions, are generally thought to transcend known biases in the geologic record and are widely interpreted as distinct macroevolutionary phenomena that require unique forcing mechanisms. Here, by using a previously undescribed compilation of the durations of sedimentary rock sequences, I compare the rates of expansion and truncation of preserved marine sedimentary basins to rates of origination and extinction among Phanerozoic marine animal genera. Many features of the highly variable record of taxonomic first and last occurrences in the marine animal fossil record, including the major mass extinctions, the frequency distribution of genus longevities, and short- and long-term patterns of genus diversity, can be predicted on the basis of the temporal continuity and quantity of preserved sedimentary rock. Although these results suggest that geologically mediated sampling biases have distorted macroevolutionary patterns in the fossil record, preservation biases alone cannot easily explain the extent to which the sedimentary record duplicates paleobiological patterns. Instead, these results suggest that the processes responsible for producing variability in the sedimentary rock record, such as plate tectonics and sea-level change, may have been dominant and consistent macroevolutionary forces throughout the Phanerozoic. PMID:16105949

  10. Prolegomenon to patterns in evolution.

    PubMed

    Kauffman, Stuart A

    2014-09-01

    Despite Darwin, we remain children of Newton and dream of a grand theory that is epistemologically complete and would allow prediction of the evolution of the biosphere. The main purpose of this article is to show that this dream is false, and bears on studying patterns of evolution. To do so, I must justify the use of the word "function" in biology, when physics has only happenings. The concept of "function" lifts biology irreducibly above physics, for as we shall see, we cannot prestate the ever new biological functions that arise and constitute the very phase space of evolution. Hence, we cannot mathematize the detailed becoming of the biosphere, nor write differential equations for functional variables we do not know ahead of time, nor integrate those equations, so no laws "entail" evolution. The dream of a grand theory fails. In place of entailing laws, I propose a post-entailing law explanatory framework in which Actuals arise in evolution that constitute new boundary conditions that are enabling constraints that create new, typically unprestatable, adjacent possible opportunities for further evolution, in which new Actuals arise, in a persistent becoming. Evolution flows into a typically unprestatable succession of adjacent possibles. Given the concept of function, the concept of functional closure of an organism making a living in its world becomes central. Implications for patterns in evolution include historical reconstruction, and statistical laws such as the distribution of extinction events, or species per genus, and the use of formal cause, not efficient cause, laws. PMID:24704211

  11. Fossils and living taxa agree on patterns of body mass evolution: a case study with Afrotheria

    PubMed Central

    Puttick, Mark N.; Thomas, Gavin H.

    2015-01-01

    Most of life is extinct, so incorporating some fossil evidence into analyses of macroevolution is typically seen as necessary to understand the diversification of life and patterns of morphological evolution. Here we test the effects of inclusion of fossils in a study of the body size evolution of afrotherian mammals, a clade that includes the elephants, sea cows and elephant shrews. We find that the inclusion of fossil tips has little impact on analyses of body mass evolution; from a small ancestral size (approx. 100 g), there is a shift in rate and an increase in mass leading to the larger-bodied Paenungulata and Tubulidentata, regardless of whether fossils are included or excluded from analyses. For Afrotheria, the inclusion of fossils and morphological character data affect phylogenetic topology, but these differences have little impact upon patterns of body mass evolution and these body mass evolutionary patterns are consistent with the fossil record. The largest differences between our analyses result from the evolutionary model, not the addition of fossils. For some clades, extant-only analyses may be reliable to reconstruct body mass evolution, but the addition of fossils and careful model selection is likely to increase confidence and accuracy of reconstructed macroevolutionary patterns. PMID:26674947

  12. Fossils and living taxa agree on patterns of body mass evolution: a case study with Afrotheria.

    PubMed

    Puttick, Mark N; Thomas, Gavin H

    2015-12-22

    Most of life is extinct, so incorporating some fossil evidence into analyses of macroevolution is typically seen as necessary to understand the diversification of life and patterns of morphological evolution. Here we test the effects of inclusion of fossils in a study of the body size evolution of afrotherian mammals, a clade that includes the elephants, sea cows and elephant shrews. We find that the inclusion of fossil tips has little impact on analyses of body mass evolution; from a small ancestral size (approx. 100 g), there is a shift in rate and an increase in mass leading to the larger-bodied Paenungulata and Tubulidentata, regardless of whether fossils are included or excluded from analyses. For Afrotheria, the inclusion of fossils and morphological character data affect phylogenetic topology, but these differences have little impact upon patterns of body mass evolution and these body mass evolutionary patterns are consistent with the fossil record. The largest differences between our analyses result from the evolutionary model, not the addition of fossils. For some clades, extant-only analyses may be reliable to reconstruct body mass evolution, but the addition of fossils and careful model selection is likely to increase confidence and accuracy of reconstructed macroevolutionary patterns. PMID:26674947

  13. Macroevolutionary developmental biology: Embryos, fossils, and phylogenies.

    PubMed

    Organ, Chris L; Cooper, Lisa Noelle; Hieronymus, Tobin L

    2015-10-01

    The field of evolutionary developmental biology is broadly focused on identifying the genetic and developmental mechanisms underlying morphological diversity. Connecting the genotype with the phenotype means that evo-devo research often considers a wide range of evidence, from genetics and morphology to fossils. In this commentary, we provide an overview and framework for integrating fossil ontogenetic data with developmental data using phylogenetic comparative methods to test macroevolutionary hypotheses. We survey the vertebrate fossil record of preserved embryos and discuss how phylogenetic comparative methods can integrate data from developmental genetics and paleontology. Fossil embryos provide limited, yet critical, developmental data from deep time. They help constrain when developmental innovations first appeared during the history of life and also reveal the order in which related morphologies evolved. Phylogenetic comparative methods provide a powerful statistical approach that allows evo-devo researchers to infer the presence of nonpreserved developmental traits in fossil species and to detect discordant evolutionary patterns and processes across levels of biological organization. PMID:26250386

  14. Patterns of maximum body size evolution in Cenozoic land mammals: eco-evolutionary processes and abiotic forcing

    PubMed Central

    Saarinen, Juha J.; Boyer, Alison G.; Brown, James H.; Costa, Daniel P.; Ernest, S. K. Morgan; Evans, Alistair R.; Fortelius, Mikael; Gittleman, John L.; Hamilton, Marcus J.; Harding, Larisa E.; Lintulaakso, Kari; Lyons, S. Kathleen; Okie, Jordan G.; Sibly, Richard M.; Stephens, Patrick R.; Theodor, Jessica; Uhen, Mark D.; Smith, Felisa A.

    2014-01-01

    There is accumulating evidence that macroevolutionary patterns of mammal evolution during the Cenozoic follow similar trajectories on different continents. This would suggest that such patterns are strongly determined by global abiotic factors, such as climate, or by basic eco-evolutionary processes such as filling of niches by specialization. The similarity of pattern would be expected to extend to the history of individual clades. Here, we investigate the temporal distribution of maximum size observed within individual orders globally and on separate continents. While the maximum size of individual orders of large land mammals show differences and comprise several families, the times at which orders reach their maximum size over time show strong congruence, peaking in the Middle Eocene, the Oligocene and the Plio-Pleistocene. The Eocene peak occurs when global temperature and land mammal diversity are high and is best explained as a result of niche expansion rather than abiotic forcing. Since the Eocene, there is a significant correlation between maximum size frequency and global temperature proxy. The Oligocene peak is not statistically significant and may in part be due to sampling issues. The peak in the Plio-Pleistocene occurs when global temperature and land mammal diversity are low, it is statistically the most robust one and it is best explained by global cooling. We conclude that the macroevolutionary patterns observed are a result of the interplay between eco-evolutionary processes and abiotic forcing. PMID:24741007

  15. Mosaic evolution and the pattern of transitions in the hominin lineage.

    PubMed

    Foley, Robert A

    2016-07-01

    Humans are uniquely unique, in terms of the extreme differences between them and other living organisms, and the impact they are having on the biosphere. The evolution of humans can be seen, as has been proposed, as one of the major transitions in evolution, on a par with the origins of multicellular organisms or the eukaryotic cell (Maynard Smith & Szathmáry 1997 Major transitions in evolution). Major transitions require the evolution of greater complexity and the emergence of new evolutionary levels or processes. Does human evolution meet these conditions? I explore the diversity of evidence on the nature of transitions in human evolution. Four levels of transition are proposed-baseline, novel taxa, novel adaptive zones and major transitions-and the pattern of human evolution considered in the light of these. The primary conclusions are that changes in human evolution occur continuously and cumulatively; that novel taxa and the appearance of new adaptations are not clustered very tightly in particular periods, although there are three broad transitional phases (Pliocene, Plio-Pleistocene and later Quaternary). Each phase is distinctive, with the first based on ranging and energetics, the second on technology and niche expansion, and the third on cognition and cultural processes. I discuss whether this constitutes a 'major transition' in the context of the evolutionary processes more broadly; the role of behaviour in evolution; and the opportunity provided by the rich genetic, phenotypic (fossil morphology) and behavioural (archaeological) record to examine in detail major transitions and the microevolutionary patterns underlying macroevolutionary change. It is suggested that the evolution of the hominin lineage is consistent with a mosaic pattern of change.This article is part of the themed issue 'Major transitions in human evolution'. PMID:27298474

  16. Tempo and mode in the macroevolutionary reconstruction of Darwinism.

    PubMed Central

    Gould, S J

    1994-01-01

    Among the several central meanings of Darwinism, his version of Lyellian uniformitarianism--the extrapolationist commitment to viewing causes of small-scale, observable change in modern populations as the complete source, by smooth extension through geological time, of all magnitudes and sequences in evolution--has most contributed to the causal hegemony of microevolution and the assumption that paleontology can document the contingent history of life but cannot act as a domain of novel evolutionary theory. G. G. Simpson tried to combat this view of paleontology as theoretically inert in his classic work, Tempo and Mode in Evolution (1944), with a brilliant argument that the two subjects of his title fall into a unique paleontological domain and that modes (processes and causes) can be inferred from the quantitative study of tempos (pattern). Nonetheless, Simpson did not cash out his insight to paleontology's theoretical benefit because he followed the strict doctrine of the Modern Synthesis. He studied his domain of potential theory and concluded that no actual theory could be found--and that a full account of causes could therefore be located in the microevolutionary realm after all. I argue that Simpson was unduly pessimistic and that modernism's belief in reductionistic unification (the conventional view of Western intellectuals from the 1920s to the 1950s) needs to be supplanted by a postmodernist commitment to pluralism and multiple levels of causation. Macro- and microevolution should not be viewed as opposed, but as truly complementary. I describe the two major domains where a helpful macroevolutionary theory may be sought--unsmooth causal boundaries between levels (as illustrated by punctuated equilibrium and mass extinction) and hierarchical expansion of the theory of natural selection to levels both below (gene and cell-line) and above organisms (demes, species, and clades). Problems remain in operationally defining selection at non-organismic levels

  17. Tempo and mode in the macroevolutionary reconstruction of Darwinism.

    PubMed

    Gould, S J

    1994-07-19

    Among the several central meanings of Darwinism, his version of Lyellian uniformitarianism--the extrapolationist commitment to viewing causes of small-scale, observable change in modern populations as the complete source, by smooth extension through geological time, of all magnitudes and sequences in evolution--has most contributed to the causal hegemony of microevolution and the assumption that paleontology can document the contingent history of life but cannot act as a domain of novel evolutionary theory. G. G. Simpson tried to combat this view of paleontology as theoretically inert in his classic work, Tempo and Mode in Evolution (1944), with a brilliant argument that the two subjects of his title fall into a unique paleontological domain and that modes (processes and causes) can be inferred from the quantitative study of tempos (pattern). Nonetheless, Simpson did not cash out his insight to paleontology's theoretical benefit because he followed the strict doctrine of the Modern Synthesis. He studied his domain of potential theory and concluded that no actual theory could be found--and that a full account of causes could therefore be located in the microevolutionary realm after all. I argue that Simpson was unduly pessimistic and that modernism's belief in reductionistic unification (the conventional view of Western intellectuals from the 1920s to the 1950s) needs to be supplanted by a postmodernist commitment to pluralism and multiple levels of causation. Macro- and microevolution should not be viewed as opposed, but as truly complementary. I describe the two major domains where a helpful macroevolutionary theory may be sought--unsmooth causal boundaries between levels (as illustrated by punctuated equilibrium and mass extinction) and hierarchical expansion of the theory of natural selection to levels both below (gene and cell-line) and above organisms (demes, species, and clades). Problems remain in operationally defining selection at non-organismic levels

  18. A universal driver of macroevolutionary change in the size of marine phytoplankton over the Cenozoic.

    PubMed

    Finkel, Z V; Sebbo, J; Feist-Burkhardt, S; Irwin, A J; Katz, M E; Schofield, O M E; Young, J R; Falkowski, P G

    2007-12-18

    The size structure of phytoplankton assemblages strongly influences energy transfer through the food web and carbon cycling in the ocean. We determined the macroevolutionary trajectory in the median size of dinoflagellate cysts to compare with the macroevolutionary size change in other plankton groups. We found the median size of the dinoflagellate cysts generally decreases through the Cenozoic. Diatoms exhibit an extremely similar pattern in their median size over time, even though species diversity of the two groups has opposing trends, indicating that the macroevolutionary size change is an active response to selection pressure rather than a passive response to changes in diversity. The changes in the median size of dinoflagellate cysts are highly correlated with both deep ocean temperatures and the thermal gradient between the surface and deep waters, indicating the magnitude and frequency of nutrient availability may have acted as a selective factor in the macroevolution of cell size in the plankton. Our results suggest that climate, because it affects stratification in the ocean, is a universal abiotic driver that has been responsible for macroevolutionary changes in the size structure of marine planktonic communities over the past 65 million years of Earth's history. PMID:18077334

  19. Patterns of Conceptual Change in Evolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demastes, Sherry S.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Investigates the patterns of students' conceptual restructuring within the theoretical framework of biologic evolution. Results indicate that many conceptions in this content are closely interwoven, so that a change in one conception requires a change in many others. Reports four patterns of conceptual change: cascade, wholesale, incremental, and…

  20. Convergence and Divergence in the Evolution of Cat Skulls: Temporal and Spatial Patterns of Morphological Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Sakamoto, Manabu; Ruta, Marcello

    2012-01-01

    Background Studies of biological shape evolution are greatly enhanced when framed in a phylogenetic perspective. Inclusion of fossils amplifies the scope of macroevolutionary research, offers a deep-time perspective on tempo and mode of radiations, and elucidates life-trait changes. We explore the evolution of skull shape in felids (cats) through morphometric analyses of linear variables, phylogenetic comparative methods, and a new cladistic study of saber-toothed cats. Methodology/Principal Findings A new phylogenetic analysis supports the monophyly of saber-toothed cats (Machairodontinae) exclusive of Felinae and some basal felids, but does not support the monophyly of various saber-toothed tribes and genera. We quantified skull shape variation in 34 extant and 18 extinct species using size-adjusted linear variables. These distinguish taxonomic group membership with high accuracy. Patterns of morphospace occupation are consistent with previous analyses, for example, in showing a size gradient along the primary axis of shape variation and a separation between large and small-medium cats. By combining the new phylogeny with a molecular tree of extant Felinae, we built a chronophylomorphospace (a phylogeny superimposed onto a two-dimensional morphospace through time). The evolutionary history of cats was characterized by two major episodes of morphological divergence, one marking the separation between saber-toothed and modern cats, the other marking the split between large and small-medium cats. Conclusions/Significance Ancestors of large cats in the ‘Panthera’ lineage tend to occupy, at a much later stage, morphospace regions previously occupied by saber-toothed cats. The latter radiated out into new morphospace regions peripheral to those of extant large cats. The separation between large and small-medium cats was marked by considerable morphologically divergent trajectories early in feline evolution. A chronophylomorphospace has wider applications in

  1. Macroevolutionary Immunology: A Role for Immunity in the Diversification of Animal life.

    PubMed

    Loker, Eric S

    2012-01-01

    An emerging picture of the nature of immune systems across animal phyla reveals both conservatism of some features and the appearance among and within phyla of novel, lineage-specific defense solutions. The latter collectively represent a major and underappreciated form of animal diversity. Factors influencing this macroevolutionary (above the species level) pattern of novelty are considered and include adoption of different life styles, life histories, and body plans; a general advantage of being distinctive with respect to immune defenses; and the responses required to cope with parasites, many of which afflict hosts in a lineage-specific manner. This large-scale pattern of novelty implies that immunological phenomena can affect microevolutionary processes (at the population level within species) that can eventually lead to macroevolutionary events such as speciation, radiations, or extinctions. Immunologically based phenomena play a role in favoring intraspecific diversification, specialization and host specificity of parasites, and mechanisms are discussed whereby this could lead to parasite speciation. Host switching - the acquisition of new host species by parasites - is a major mechanism that drives parasite diversity and is frequently involved in disease emergence. It is also one that can be favored by reductions in immune competence of new hosts. Mechanisms involving immune phenomena favoring intraspecific diversification and speciation of host species are also discussed. A macroevolutionary perspective on immunology is invaluable in today's world, including the need to study a broader range of species with distinctive immune systems. Many of these species are faced with extinction, another macroevolutionary process influenced by immune phenomena. PMID:22566909

  2. Macroevolutionary Immunology: A Role for Immunity in the Diversification of Animal life

    PubMed Central

    Loker, Eric S.

    2012-01-01

    An emerging picture of the nature of immune systems across animal phyla reveals both conservatism of some features and the appearance among and within phyla of novel, lineage-specific defense solutions. The latter collectively represent a major and underappreciated form of animal diversity. Factors influencing this macroevolutionary (above the species level) pattern of novelty are considered and include adoption of different life styles, life histories, and body plans; a general advantage of being distinctive with respect to immune defenses; and the responses required to cope with parasites, many of which afflict hosts in a lineage-specific manner. This large-scale pattern of novelty implies that immunological phenomena can affect microevolutionary processes (at the population level within species) that can eventually lead to macroevolutionary events such as speciation, radiations, or extinctions. Immunologically based phenomena play a role in favoring intraspecific diversification, specialization and host specificity of parasites, and mechanisms are discussed whereby this could lead to parasite speciation. Host switching – the acquisition of new host species by parasites – is a major mechanism that drives parasite diversity and is frequently involved in disease emergence. It is also one that can be favored by reductions in immune competence of new hosts. Mechanisms involving immune phenomena favoring intraspecific diversification and speciation of host species are also discussed. A macroevolutionary perspective on immunology is invaluable in today’s world, including the need to study a broader range of species with distinctive immune systems. Many of these species are faced with extinction, another macroevolutionary process influenced by immune phenomena. PMID:22566909

  3. Patterns and Processes of Vertebrate Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carroll, Robert Lynn

    1997-04-01

    This new text provides an integrated view of the forces that influence the patterns and rates of vertebrate evolution from the level of living populations and species to those that resulted in the origin of the major vertebrate groups. The evolutionary roles of behavior, development, continental drift, and mass extinctions are compared with the importance of variation and natural selection that were emphasized by Darwin. It is extensively illustrated, showing major transitions between fish and amphibians, dinosaurs and birds, and land mammals to whales. No book since Simpson's Major Features of Evolution has attempted such a broad study of the patterns and forces of evolutionary change. Undergraduate students taking a general or advanced course on evolution, and graduate students and professionals in evolutionary biology and paleontology will find the book of great interest.

  4. Predator-induced macroevolutionary trends in Mesozoic crinoids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorzelak, Przemysław; Salamon, Mariusz A.; Baumiller, Tomasz K.

    2012-05-01

    Sea urchins are a major component of recent marine communities where they exert a key role as grazers and benthic predators. However, their impact on past marine organisms, such as crinoids, is hard to infer in the fossil record. Analysis of bite mark frequencies on crinoid columnals and comprehensive genus-level diversity data provide unique insights into the importance of sea urchin predation through geologic time. These data show that over the Mesozoic, predation intensity on crinoids, as measured by bite mark frequencies on columnals, changed in step with diversity of sea urchins. Moreover, Mesozoic diversity changes in the predatory sea urchins show a positive correlation with diversity of motile crinoids and a negative correlation with diversity of sessile crinoids, consistent with a crinoid motility representing an effective escape strategy. We contend that the Mesozoic diversity history of crinoids likely represents a macroevolutionary response to changes in sea urchin predation pressure and that it may have set the stage for the recent pattern of crinoid diversity in which motile forms greatly predominate and sessile forms are restricted to deep-water refugia.

  5. Predator-induced macroevolutionary trends in Mesozoic crinoids

    PubMed Central

    Gorzelak, Przemysław; Salamon, Mariusz A.; Baumiller, Tomasz K.

    2012-01-01

    Sea urchins are a major component of recent marine communities where they exert a key role as grazers and benthic predators. However, their impact on past marine organisms, such as crinoids, is hard to infer in the fossil record. Analysis of bite mark frequencies on crinoid columnals and comprehensive genus-level diversity data provide unique insights into the importance of sea urchin predation through geologic time. These data show that over the Mesozoic, predation intensity on crinoids, as measured by bite mark frequencies on columnals, changed in step with diversity of sea urchins. Moreover, Mesozoic diversity changes in the predatory sea urchins show a positive correlation with diversity of motile crinoids and a negative correlation with diversity of sessile crinoids, consistent with a crinoid motility representing an effective escape strategy. We contend that the Mesozoic diversity history of crinoids likely represents a macroevolutionary response to changes in sea urchin predation pressure and that it may have set the stage for the recent pattern of crinoid diversity in which motile forms greatly predominate and sessile forms are restricted to deep-water refugia. PMID:22509040

  6. Evolution of bioconvective patterns in variable gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noever, David A.

    1991-01-01

    Measurements are reported of the evolution of bioconvective patterns in shallow, dense cultures of microorganisms subjected to varying gravity. Various statistical properties of this random, quasi-two-dimensional structure have been found: Aboav's law is obeyed, the average vertex angles follow predictions for regular polygons, and the area of a pattern varies linearly with its number of sides. As gravity varies between 1 g and 1.8 g, these statistical properties continue to hold despite a tripling of the number of polygons and a reduced average polygon dimension by a third. This work compares with experiments on soap foams, Langmuir monolayer foams, metal grains, and simulations.

  7. The Evolution of Trilobite Body Patterning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Nigel C.

    2007-05-01

    The good fossil record of trilobite exoskeletal anatomy and ontogeny, coupled with information on their nonbiomineralized tissues, permits analysis of how the trilobite body was organized and developed, and the various evolutionary modifications of such patterning within the group. In several respects trilobite development and form appears comparable with that which may have characterized the ancestor of most or all euarthropods, giving studies of trilobite body organization special relevance in the light of recent advances in the understanding of arthropod evolution and development. The Cambrian diversification of trilobites displayed modifications in the patterning of the trunk region comparable with those seen among the closest relatives of Trilobita. In contrast, the Ordovician diversification of trilobites, although contributing greatly to the overall diversity within the clade, did so within a narrower range of trunk conditions. Trilobite evolution is consistent with an increased premium on effective enrollment and protective strategies, and with an evolutionary trade-off between the flexibility to vary the number of trunk segments and the ability to regionalize portions of the trunk.

  8. Topology, divergence dates, and macroevolutionary inferences vary between different tip-dating approaches applied to fossil theropods (Dinosauria).

    PubMed

    Bapst, D W; Wright, A M; Matzke, N J; Lloyd, G T

    2016-07-01

    Dated phylogenies of fossil taxa allow palaeobiologists to estimate the timing of major divergences and placement of extinct lineages, and to test macroevolutionary hypotheses. Recently developed Bayesian 'tip-dating' methods simultaneously infer and date the branching relationships among fossil taxa, and infer putative ancestral relationships. Using a previously published dataset for extinct theropod dinosaurs, we contrast the dated relationships inferred by several tip-dating approaches and evaluate potential downstream effects on phylogenetic comparative methods. We also compare tip-dating analyses to maximum-parsimony trees time-scaled via alternative a posteriori approaches including via the probabilistic cal3 method. Among tip-dating analyses, we find opposing but strongly supported relationships, despite similarity in inferred ancestors. Overall, tip-dating methods infer divergence dates often millions (or tens of millions) of years older than the earliest stratigraphic appearance of that clade. Model-comparison analyses of the pattern of body-size evolution found that the support for evolutionary mode can vary across and between tree samples from cal3 and tip-dating approaches. These differences suggest that model and software choice in dating analyses can have a substantial impact on the dated phylogenies obtained and broader evolutionary inferences. PMID:27405380

  9. Chromosome differentiation patterns during cichlid fish evolution

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Cichlid fishes have been the subject of increasing scientific interest because of their rapid adaptive radiation which has led to an extensive ecological diversity and their enormous importance to tropical and subtropical aquaculture. To increase our understanding of chromosome evolution among cichlid species, karyotypes of one Asian, 22 African, and 30 South American cichlid species were investigated, and chromosomal data of the family was reviewed. Results Although there is extensive variation in the karyotypes of cichlid fishes (from 2n = 32 to 2n = 60 chromosomes), the modal chromosome number for South American species was 2n = 48 and the modal number for the African ones was 2n = 44. The only Asian species analyzed, Etroplus maculatus, was observed to have 46 chromosomes. The presence of one or two macro B chromosomes was detected in two African species. The cytogenetic mapping of 18S ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA) gene revealed a variable number of clusters among species varying from two to six. Conclusions The karyotype diversification of cichlids seems to have occurred through several chromosomal rearrangements involving fissions, fusions and inversions. It was possible to identify karyotype markers for the subfamilies Pseudocrenilabrinae (African) and Cichlinae (American). The karyotype analyses did not clarify the phylogenetic relationship among the Cichlinae tribes. On the other hand, the two major groups of Pseudocrenilabrinae (tilapiine and haplochromine) were clearly discriminated based on the characteristics of their karyotypes. The cytogenetic mapping of 18S ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA) gene did not follow the chromosome diversification in the family. The dynamic evolution of the repeated units of rRNA genes generates patterns of chromosomal distribution that do not help follows the phylogenetic relationships among taxa. The presence of B chromosomes in cichlids is of particular interest because they may not be represented in the reference genome

  10. Heterochronical patterns of evolution in the transitional stages of vertebrate classes.

    PubMed

    Schad, W

    1993-12-01

    Transitional forms of the recent classes of vertebrates are only known in paleontology. The well described examples are: Eusthenopteron foordi (Crossopterygii), Ichthyostega and Acanthostega (Labyrinthodontia) between Osteichthyes and Amphibia, Seymouria baylorensis (Amphibiosaria) between Amphibia and Reptilia, Archaeopteryx lithographica (Archaeornithes) between Reptilia and Aves, and the mammal-like reptiles Pelycosauria, Therapsida and Cynodontia between Reptilia and Aves, and the description of their phylogenetical heterochronies in terms of peramorphosis and paedomorphosis shows the progressive role of the motorial, especially the locomotorial organ systems and their functions in comparison with the retarded evolution of the axial system, especially the skull and central nervous system. The evolution of the Hominidae shows the same rule. The evaluation of these transitional forms in their fossil context reveals them as inhabitants of biotopes situated in the border areas of coastal and shore landscapes of marine, brackish or fresh water. These biotopes have obviously favoured the innovations on the high taxonimic level of macro-evolutionary characteristics. PMID:8191805

  11. PSEMA: An Algorithm for Pattern Stimulated Evolution of Music

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mavrogianni, A. N.; Vlachos, D. S.; Harvalias, G.

    2008-11-01

    An algorithm for pattern stimulating evolution of music is presented in this work (PSEMA). The system combines a pattern with a genetic algorithm for automatic music composition in order to create a musical phrase uniquely characterizing the pattern. As an example a musical portrait is presented. The initialization of the musical phrases is done with a Markov Chain process. The evolution is dominated by an arbitrary correspondence between the pattern (feature extraction of the pattern may be used in this step) and the esthetic result of the musical phrase.

  12. Effects of allometry, productivity and lifestyle on rates and limits of body size evolution

    PubMed Central

    Okie, Jordan G.; Boyer, Alison G.; Brown, James H.; Costa, Daniel P.; Ernest, S. K. Morgan; Evans, Alistair R.; Fortelius, Mikael; Gittleman, John L.; Hamilton, Marcus J.; Harding, Larisa E.; Lintulaakso, Kari; Lyons, S. Kathleen; Saarinen, Juha J.; Smith, Felisa A.; Stephens, Patrick R.; Theodor, Jessica; Uhen, Mark D.; Sibly, Richard M.

    2013-01-01

    Body size affects nearly all aspects of organismal biology, so it is important to understand the constraints and dynamics of body size evolution. Despite empirical work on the macroevolution and macroecology of minimum and maximum size, there is little general quantitative theory on rates and limits of body size evolution. We present a general theory that integrates individual productivity, the lifestyle component of the slow–fast life-history continuum, and the allometric scaling of generation time to predict a clade's evolutionary rate and asymptotic maximum body size, and the shape of macroevolutionary trajectories during diversifying phases of size evolution. We evaluate this theory using data on the evolution of clade maximum body sizes in mammals during the Cenozoic. As predicted, clade evolutionary rates and asymptotic maximum sizes are larger in more productive clades (e.g. baleen whales), which represent the fast end of the slow–fast lifestyle continuum, and smaller in less productive clades (e.g. primates). The allometric scaling exponent for generation time fundamentally alters the shape of evolutionary trajectories, so allometric effects should be accounted for in models of phenotypic evolution and interpretations of macroevolutionary body size patterns. This work highlights the intimate interplay between the macroecological and macroevolutionary dynamics underlying the generation and maintenance of morphological diversity. PMID:23760865

  13. Crack patterning effects in evolution of damage

    SciTech Connect

    Lacy, T.E.; McDowell, D.L.; Taireja, R.

    1995-12-31

    Recent micromechanically inspired phenomenological theories using internal state variable representations of damage have been used to predict the thermomechanical behavior of microcracking solids. These models do not, in an explicit manner, account for distributions of microcracks in a Representative Volume Element (RVE) and have been successfully used only to determine the effective moduli of damaged solids. It has been demonstrated that while the distribution. and interaction of damage entities within a RVE have a minor effect on the effective moduli, they have a significant effect on the evolution of damage and failure at the macroscale. Damage evolution rates cannot, in general, be adequately described by such theories because of their inability to account for interactions between damage entities in an arbitrary distribution. In the present work, finite element solutions to two-dimensional problems with growing microcracks are obtained for both uniform and non-uniform crack arrays. Effective moduli and RVE-averaged driving forces for non-uniformly distributed interacting crack systems are calculated across a range of microcrack distribution parameters. Results are compared to existing solutions. Damage evolution is studied by allowing incremental advance under specified growth criteria of different crack systems within a RVE. Concepts for the inclusion of discrete sub-RVE length scales in the specific Helmholtz free energy and dissipation potentials are outlined. Use of multivariate distribution functions to characterize damage is discussed.

  14. Extreme Postnatal Scaling in Bat Feeding Performance: A View of Ecomorphology from Ontogenetic and Macroevolutionary Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Santana, Sharlene E; Miller, Kimberly E

    2016-09-01

    Ecomorphology studies focus on understanding how anatomical and behavioral diversity result in differences in performance, ecology, and fitness. In mammals, the determinate growth of the skeleton entails that bite performance should change throughout ontogeny until the feeding apparatus attains its adult size and morphology. Then, interspecific differences in adult phenotypes are expected to drive food resource partitioning and patterns of lineage diversification. However, Formal tests of these predictions are lacking for the majority of mammal groups, and thus our understanding of mammalian ecomorphology remains incomplete. By focusing on a fundamental measure of feeding performance, bite force, and capitalizing on the extraordinary morphological and dietary diversity of bats, we discuss how the intersection of ontogenetic and macroevolutionary changes in feeding performance may impact ecological diversity in these mammals. We integrate data on cranial morphology and bite force gathered through longitudinal studies of captive animals and comparative studies of free-ranging individuals. We demonstrate that ontogenetic trajectories and evolutionary changes in bite force are highly dependent on changes in body and head size, and that bats exhibit dramatic, allometric increases in bite force during ontogeny. Interspecific variation in bite force is highly dependent on differences in cranial morphology and function, highlighting selection for ecological specialization. While more research is needed to determine how ontogenetic changes in size and bite force specifically impact food resource use and fitness in bats, interspecific diversity in cranial morphology and bite performance seem to closely match functional differences in diet. Altogether, these results suggest direct ecomorphological relationships at ontogenetic and macroevolutionary scales in bats. PMID:27371380

  15. Shared rules of development predict patterns of evolution in vertebrate segmentation.

    PubMed

    Young, Nathan M; Winslow, Benjamin; Takkellapati, Sowmya; Kavanagh, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    Phenotypic diversity is not uniformly distributed, but how biased patterns of evolutionary variation are generated and whether common developmental mechanisms are responsible remains debatable. High-level 'rules' of self-organization and assembly are increasingly used to model organismal development, even when the underlying cellular or molecular players are unknown. One such rule, the inhibitory cascade, predicts that proportions of segmental series derive from the relative strengths of activating and inhibitory interactions acting on both local and global scales. Here we show that this developmental design rule explains population-level variation in segment proportions, their response to artificial selection and experimental blockade of putative signals and macroevolutionary diversity in limbs, digits and somites. Together with evidence from teeth, these results indicate that segmentation across independent developmental modules shares a common regulatory 'logic', which has a predictable impact on both their short and long-term evolvability. PMID:25827599

  16. Patterns of iron use in societal evolution.

    PubMed

    Müller, Daniel B; Wang, Tao; Duval, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    A dynamic material flow model was used to analyze the patterns of iron stocks in use for six industrialized countries. The contemporary iron stock in the remaining countries was estimated assuming that they follow a similar pattern of iron stock per economic activity. Iron stocks have reached a plateau of about 8-12 tons per capita in the United States, France, and the United Kingdom, but not yet in Japan, Canada, and Australia. The global average iron stock was determined to be 2.7 tons per capita. An increase to a level of 10 tons over the next decades would deplete about the currently identified reserves. A subsequent saturation would open a long-term potential to dramatically shift resource use from primary to secondary sources. The observed saturation pattern implies that developing countries with rapidly growing stocks have a lower potential for recycling domestic scrap and hence for greenhouse gas emissions saving than industrialized countries, a fact that has not been addressed sufficiently in the climate change debate. PMID:21121663

  17. Pattern evolution during ion beam sputtering; reductionistic view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J.-H.; Kim, J.-S.

    2016-09-01

    The development of the ripple pattern during the ion beam sputtering (IBS) is expounded via the evolution of its constituent ripples. For that purpose, we perform numerical simulation of the ripple evolution that is based on Bradley-Harper model and its non-linear extension. The ripples are found to evolve via various well-defined processes such as ripening, averaging, bifurcation and their combinations, depending on their neighboring ripples. Those information on the growth kinetics of each ripple allow the detailed description of the pattern development in real space that the instability argument and the diffraction study both made in k-space cannot provide.

  18. Analysis and visualization of complex macroevolutionary dynamics: an example from Australian scincid lizards.

    PubMed

    Rabosky, Daniel L; Donnellan, Stephen C; Grundler, Michael; Lovette, Irby J

    2014-07-01

    The correlation between species diversification and morphological evolution has long been of interest in evolutionary biology. We investigated the relationship between these processes during the radiation of 250+scincid lizards that constitute Australia's most species-rich clade of terrestrial vertebrates. We generated a time-calibrated phylogenetic tree for the group that was more than 85% complete at the species level and collected multivariate morphometric data for 183 species. We reconstructed the dynamics of species diversification and trait evolution using a Bayesian statistical framework (BAMM) that simultaneously accounts for variation in evolutionary rates through time and among lineages. We extended the BAMM model to accommodate time-dependent phenotypic evolution, and we describe several new methods for summarizing and visualizing macroevolutionary rate heterogeneity on phylogenetic trees. Two major clades (Lerista, Ctenotus; >90 spp. each) are associated with high rates of species diversification relative to the background rate across Australian sphenomorphine skinks. The Lerista clade is characterized by relatively high lability of body form and has undergone repeated instances of limb reduction, but Ctenotus is characterized by an extreme deceleration in the rate of body shape evolution. We estimate that rates of phenotypic evolution decreased by more than an order of magnitude in the common ancestor of the Ctenotus clade. These results provide evidence for a modal shift in phenotypic evolutionary dynamics and demonstrate that major axes of morphological variation can be decoupled from species diversification. More generally, the Bayesian framework described here can be used to identify and characterize complex mixtures of dynamic processes on phylogenetic trees. [Bayesian; diversification; evolvability; lizard; macroevolution, punctuated equilibrium, speciation.]. PMID:24682412

  19. Transcriptome-wide patterns of divergence during allopatric evolution.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Ricardo J; Barreto, Felipe S; Pierce, N Tessa; Carneiro, Miguel; Burton, Ronald S

    2016-04-01

    Recent studies have revealed repeated patterns of genomic divergence associated with species formation. Such patterns suggest that natural selection tends to target a set of available genes, but is also indicative that closely related taxa share evolutionary constraints that limit genetic variability. Studying patterns of genomic divergence among populations within the same species may shed light on the underlying evolutionary processes. Here, we examine transcriptome-wide divergence and polymorphism in the marine copepod Tigriopus californicus, a species where allopatric evolution has led to replicate sets of populations with varying degrees of divergence and hybrid incompatibility. Our analyses suggest that relatively small effective population sizes have resulted in an exponential decline of shared polymorphisms during population divergence and also facilitated the fixation of slightly deleterious mutations within allopatric populations. Five interpopulation comparisons at three different stages of divergence show that nonsynonymous mutations tend to accumulate in a specific set of proteins. These include proteins with central roles in cellular metabolism, such as those encoded in mtDNA, but also include an additional set of proteins that repeatedly show signatures of positive selection during allopatric divergence. Although our results are consistent with a contribution of nonadaptive processes, such as genetic drift and gene expression levels, generating repeatable patterns of genomic divergence in closely related taxa, they also indicate that adaptive evolution targeting a specific set of genes contributes to this pattern. Our results yield insights into the predictability of evolution at the gene level. PMID:26859844

  20. Tempo and Mode of the Evolution of Venom and Poison in Tetrapods

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Richard J.; Arbuckle, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Toxic weaponry in the form of venom and poison has evolved in most groups of animals, including all four major lineages of tetrapods. Moreover, the evolution of such traits has been linked to several key aspects of the biology of toxic animals including life-history and diversification. Despite this, attempts to investigate the macroevolutionary patterns underlying such weaponry are lacking. In this study we analyse patterns of venom and poison evolution across reptiles, amphibians, mammals, and birds using a suite of phylogenetic comparative methods. We find that each major lineage has a characteristic pattern of trait evolution, but mammals and reptiles evolve under a surprisingly similar regime, whilst that of amphibians appears to be particularly distinct and highly contrasting compared to other groups. Our results also suggest that the mechanism of toxin acquisition may be an important distinction in such evolutionary patterns; the evolution of biosynthesis is far less dynamic than that of sequestration of toxins from the diet. Finally, contrary to the situation in amphibians, other tetrapod groups show an association between the evolution of toxic weaponry and higher diversification rates. Taken together, our study provides the first broad-scale analysis of macroevolutionary patterns of venom and poison throughout tetrapods. PMID:27348001

  1. Tempo and Mode of the Evolution of Venom and Poison in Tetrapods.

    PubMed

    Harris, Richard J; Arbuckle, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Toxic weaponry in the form of venom and poison has evolved in most groups of animals, including all four major lineages of tetrapods. Moreover, the evolution of such traits has been linked to several key aspects of the biology of toxic animals including life-history and diversification. Despite this, attempts to investigate the macroevolutionary patterns underlying such weaponry are lacking. In this study we analyse patterns of venom and poison evolution across reptiles, amphibians, mammals, and birds using a suite of phylogenetic comparative methods. We find that each major lineage has a characteristic pattern of trait evolution, but mammals and reptiles evolve under a surprisingly similar regime, whilst that of amphibians appears to be particularly distinct and highly contrasting compared to other groups. Our results also suggest that the mechanism of toxin acquisition may be an important distinction in such evolutionary patterns; the evolution of biosynthesis is far less dynamic than that of sequestration of toxins from the diet. Finally, contrary to the situation in amphibians, other tetrapod groups show an association between the evolution of toxic weaponry and higher diversification rates. Taken together, our study provides the first broad-scale analysis of macroevolutionary patterns of venom and poison throughout tetrapods. PMID:27348001

  2. Evolution of central pattern generators and rhythmic behaviours.

    PubMed

    Katz, Paul S

    2016-01-01

    Comparisons of rhythmic movements and the central pattern generators (CPGs) that control them uncover principles about the evolution of behaviour and neural circuits. Over the course of evolutionary history, gradual evolution of behaviours and their neural circuitry within any lineage of animals has been a predominant occurrence. Small changes in gene regulation can lead to divergence of circuit organization and corresponding changes in behaviour. However, some behavioural divergence has resulted from large-scale rewiring of the neural network. Divergence of CPG circuits has also occurred without a corresponding change in behaviour. When analogous rhythmic behaviours have evolved independently, it has generally been with different neural mechanisms. Repeated evolution of particular rhythmic behaviours has occurred within some lineages due to parallel evolution or latent CPGs. Particular motor pattern generating mechanisms have also evolved independently in separate lineages. The evolution of CPGs and rhythmic behaviours shows that although most behaviours and neural circuits are highly conserved, the nature of the behaviour does not dictate the neural mechanism and that the presence of homologous neural components does not determine the behaviour. This suggests that although behaviour is generated by neural circuits, natural selection can act separately on these two levels of biological organization. PMID:26598733

  3. The fossil record and macroevolutionary history of the beetles

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Dena M.; Marcot, Jonathan D.

    2015-01-01

    Coleoptera (beetles) is the most species-rich metazoan order, with approximately 380 000 species. To understand how they came to be such a diverse group, we compile a database of global fossil beetle occurrences to study their macroevolutionary history. Our database includes 5553 beetle occurrences from 221 fossil localities. Amber and lacustrine deposits preserve most of the beetle diversity and abundance. All four extant suborders are found in the fossil record, with 69% of all beetle families and 63% of extant beetle families preserved. Considerable focus has been placed on beetle diversification overall, however, for much of their evolutionary history it is the clade Polyphaga that is most responsible for their taxonomic richness. Polyphaga had an increase in diversification rate in the Early Cretaceous, but instead of being due to the radiation of the angiosperms, this was probably due to the first occurrences of beetle-bearing amber deposits in the record. Perhaps, most significant is that polyphagan beetles had a family-level extinction rate of zero for most of their evolutionary history, including across the Cretaceous–Palaeogene boundary. Therefore, focusing on the factors that have inhibited beetle extinction, as opposed to solely studying mechanisms that may promote speciation, should be examined as important determinants of their great diversity today. PMID:25788597

  4. The fossil record and macroevolutionary history of the beetles.

    PubMed

    Smith, Dena M; Marcot, Jonathan D

    2015-04-22

    Coleoptera (beetles) is the most species-rich metazoan order, with approximately 380 000 species. To understand how they came to be such a diverse group, we compile a database of global fossil beetle occurrences to study their macroevolutionary history. Our database includes 5553 beetle occurrences from 221 fossil localities. Amber and lacustrine deposits preserve most of the beetle diversity and abundance. All four extant suborders are found in the fossil record, with 69% of all beetle families and 63% of extant beetle families preserved. Considerable focus has been placed on beetle diversification overall, however, for much of their evolutionary history it is the clade Polyphaga that is most responsible for their taxonomic richness. Polyphaga had an increase in diversification rate in the Early Cretaceous, but instead of being due to the radiation of the angiosperms, this was probably due to the first occurrences of beetle-bearing amber deposits in the record. Perhaps, most significant is that polyphagan beetles had a family-level extinction rate of zero for most of their evolutionary history, including across the Cretaceous-Palaeogene boundary. Therefore, focusing on the factors that have inhibited beetle extinction, as opposed to solely studying mechanisms that may promote speciation, should be examined as important determinants of their great diversity today. PMID:25788597

  5. Instabilities and pattern evolution in a vertically heated annulus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, BoFu; Guo, ZhiWei; Ma, DongJun; Sun, DeJun

    2013-02-01

    The convection in an annular container with heated bottom, cooled top and insulated side walls are studied by both linear instability analysis and direct numerical simulation. The onset of convection is investigated by linear stability analysis and corresponding pattern selection mechanisms are discussed. The nonlinear evolution of different flow patterns and the convective heat transfer are simulated. The transition to oscillatory flow is also given by stability analysis where the base flow is a steady three dimensional flow. The stability predictions are in good agreement with the numerical simulations, including both the growth rate and the dimensionless frequency.

  6. Movement Patterns, Social Dynamics, and the Evolution of Cooperation

    PubMed Central

    Smaldino, Paul E.; Schank, Jeffrey C.

    2012-01-01

    The structure of social interactions influences many aspects of social life, including the spread of information and behavior, and the evolution of social phenotypes. After dispersal, organisms move around throughout their lives, and the patterns of their movement influence their social encounters over the course of their lifespan. Though both space and mobility are known to influence social evolution, there is little analysis of the influence of specific movement patterns on evolutionary dynamics. We explored the effects of random movement strategies on the evolution of cooperation using an agent-based prisoner’s dilemma model with mobile agents. This is the first systematic analysis of a model in which cooperators and defectors can use different random movement strategies, which we chose to fall on a spectrum between highly exploratory and highly restricted in their search tendencies. Because limited dispersal and restrictions to local neighborhood size are known to influence the ability of cooperators to effectively assort, we also assessed the robustness of our findings with respect to dispersal and local capacity constraints. We show that differences in patterns of movement can dramatically influence the likelihood of cooperator success, and that the effects of different movement patterns are sensitive to environmental assumptions about offspring dispersal and local space constraints. Since local interactions implicitly generate dynamic social interaction networks, we also measured the average number of unique and total interactions over a lifetime and considered how these emergent network dynamics helped explain the results. This work extends what is known about mobility and the evolution of cooperation, and also has general implications for social models with randomly moving agents. PMID:22838026

  7. Evolution and convergence of the patterns of international scientific collaboration.

    PubMed

    Coccia, Mario; Wang, Lili

    2016-02-23

    International research collaboration plays an important role in the social construction and evolution of science. Studies of science increasingly analyze international collaboration across multiple organizations for its impetus in improving research quality, advancing efficiency of the scientific production, and fostering breakthroughs in a shorter time. However, long-run patterns of international research collaboration across scientific fields and their structural changes over time are hardly known. Here we show the convergence of international scientific collaboration across research fields over time. Our study uses a dataset by the National Science Foundation and computes the fraction of papers that have international institutional coauthorships for various fields of science. We compare our results with pioneering studies carried out in the 1970s and 1990s by applying a standardization method that transforms all fractions of internationally coauthored papers into a comparable framework. We find, over 1973-2012, that the evolution of collaboration patterns across scientific disciplines seems to generate a convergence between applied and basic sciences. We also show that the general architecture of international scientific collaboration, based on the ranking of fractions of international coauthorships for different scientific fields per year, has tended to be unchanged over time, at least until now. Overall, this study shows, to our knowledge for the first time, the evolution of the patterns of international scientific collaboration starting from initial results described by literature in the 1970s and 1990s. We find a convergence of these long-run collaboration patterns between the applied and basic sciences. This convergence might be one of contributing factors that supports the evolution of modern scientific fields. PMID:26831098

  8. Evolution and convergence of the patterns of international scientific collaboration

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lili

    2016-01-01

    International research collaboration plays an important role in the social construction and evolution of science. Studies of science increasingly analyze international collaboration across multiple organizations for its impetus in improving research quality, advancing efficiency of the scientific production, and fostering breakthroughs in a shorter time. However, long-run patterns of international research collaboration across scientific fields and their structural changes over time are hardly known. Here we show the convergence of international scientific collaboration across research fields over time. Our study uses a dataset by the National Science Foundation and computes the fraction of papers that have international institutional coauthorships for various fields of science. We compare our results with pioneering studies carried out in the 1970s and 1990s by applying a standardization method that transforms all fractions of internationally coauthored papers into a comparable framework. We find, over 1973–2012, that the evolution of collaboration patterns across scientific disciplines seems to generate a convergence between applied and basic sciences. We also show that the general architecture of international scientific collaboration, based on the ranking of fractions of international coauthorships for different scientific fields per year, has tended to be unchanged over time, at least until now. Overall, this study shows, to our knowledge for the first time, the evolution of the patterns of international scientific collaboration starting from initial results described by literature in the 1970s and 1990s. We find a convergence of these long-run collaboration patterns between the applied and basic sciences. This convergence might be one of contributing factors that supports the evolution of modern scientific fields. PMID:26831098

  9. Ecological interactions on macroevolutionary time scales: clams and brachiopods are more than ships that pass in the night.

    PubMed

    Liow, Lee Hsiang; Reitan, Trond; Harnik, Paul G

    2015-10-01

    Competition among organisms has ecological and evolutionary consequences. However, whether the consequences of competition are manifested and measureable on macroevolutionary time scales is equivocal. Marine bivalves and brachiopods have overlapping niches such that competition for food and space may occur. Moreover, there is a long-standing debate over whether bivalves outcompeted brachiopods evolutionarily, because brachiopod diversity declined through time while bivalve diversity increased. To answer this question, we estimate the origination and extinction dynamics of fossil marine bivalve and brachiopod genera from the Ordovician through to the Recent while simultaneously accounting for incomplete sampling. Then, using stochastic differential equations, we assess statistical relationships among diversification and sampling dynamics of brachiopods and bivalves and five paleoenvironmental proxies. None of these potential environmental drivers had any detectable influence on brachiopod or bivalve diversification. In contrast, elevated bivalve extinction rates causally increased brachiopod origination rates, suggesting that bivalves have suppressed brachiopod evolution. PMID:26293753

  10. Building the backbone: the development and evolution of vertebral patterning.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Angeleen; Kishida, Marcia G; Kimmel, Charles B; Keynes, Roger J

    2015-05-15

    The segmented vertebral column comprises a repeat series of vertebrae, each consisting of two key components: the vertebral body (or centrum) and the vertebral arches. Despite being a defining feature of the vertebrates, much remains to be understood about vertebral development and evolution. Particular controversy surrounds whether vertebral component structures are homologous across vertebrates, how somite and vertebral patterning are connected, and the developmental origin of vertebral bone-mineralizing cells. Here, we assemble evidence from ichthyologists, palaeontologists and developmental biologists to consider these issues. Vertebral arch elements were present in early stem vertebrates, whereas centra arose later. We argue that centra are homologous among jawed vertebrates, and review evidence in teleosts that the notochord plays an instructive role in segmental patterning, alongside the somites, and contributes to mineralization. By clarifying the evolutionary relationship between centra and arches, and their varying modes of skeletal mineralization, we can better appreciate the detailed mechanisms that regulate and diversify vertebral patterning. PMID:25968309

  11. Flow-pattern evolution of the last British Ice Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Anna L. C.; Clark, Chris D.; Jordan, Colm J.

    2014-04-01

    We present a 10-stage reconstruction of the evolution in ice-flow patterns of the last British Ice Sheet from build-up to demise derived from geomorphological evidence. 100 flowsets identified in the subglacial bedform record (drumlins, mega-scale glacial lineations, and ribbed moraine) are combined with ancillary evidence (erratic-transport paths, absolute dates and a semi-independently reconstructed retreat pattern) to define flow patterns, ice divides and ice-sheet margins during build-up, maximum glaciation and retreat. Overprinting and cross-cutting of landform assemblages are used to define the relative chronology of flow patterns and a tentative absolute chronology is presented based on a collation of available dates for ice advance and retreat. The ice-flow configuration of the last British Ice Sheet was not static. Some ice divides were remarkably stable, persisting through multiple stages of the ice-sheet evolution, whereas others were transient features existing for a short time and/or shifting in position 10s km. The 10 reconstructed stages of ice-sheet geometry capture two main modes of operation; first as an integrated ice sheet with a broadly N-S orientated ice divide, and second as a multi-domed ice sheet orientated parallel with the shelf edge. A thick integrated ice sheet developed as ice expanded out of source areas in Scotland to envelop southerly ice caps in northern England and Wales, and connect with the Irish Ice Sheet to the west and the Scandinavian Ice Sheet across the North Sea. Following break-up of ice over the North Sea, ice streaming probably drove mass loss and ice-sheet thinning to create a more complex divide structure, where ice-flow patterns were largely controlled by the form of the underlying topography. Ice surface lowering occurred before separation of, and retreat to, multiple ice centres centred over high ground. We consider this 10-stage reconstruction of the evolution in ice-sheet configuration to be the simplest palaeo

  12. Adaptive evolution of facial colour patterns in Neotropical primates

    PubMed Central

    Santana, Sharlene E.; Lynch Alfaro, Jessica; Alfaro, Michael E.

    2012-01-01

    The rich diversity of primate faces has interested naturalists for over a century. Researchers have long proposed that social behaviours have shaped the evolution of primate facial diversity. However, the primate face constitutes a unique structure where the diverse and potentially competing functions of communication, ecology and physiology intersect, and the major determinants of facial diversity remain poorly understood. Here, we provide the first evidence for an adaptive role of facial colour patterns and pigmentation within Neotropical primates. Consistent with the hypothesis that facial patterns function in communication and species recognition, we find that species living in smaller groups and in sympatry with a higher number of congener species have evolved more complex patterns of facial colour. The evolution of facial pigmentation and hair length is linked to ecological factors, and ecogeographical rules related to UV radiation and thermoregulation are met by some facial regions. Our results demonstrate the interaction of behavioural and ecological factors in shaping one of the most outstanding facial diversities of any mammalian lineage. PMID:22237906

  13. Evolution: Bioluminescent Courtship as an Engine of Diversity.

    PubMed

    Alfaro, Michael E

    2016-07-25

    A new study finds that the evolution of bioluminescent sexual displays drives high species richness across animal lineages, providing a crucial link between microevolutionary and macroevolutionary explanations of biodiversity. PMID:27458910

  14. Environmental changes define ecological limits to species richness and reveal the mode of macroevolutionary competition.

    PubMed

    Ezard, Thomas H G; Purvis, Andy

    2016-08-01

    Co-dependent geological and climatic changes obscure how species interact in deep time. The interplay between these environmental factors makes it hard to discern whether ecological competition exerts an upper limit on species richness. Here, using the exceptional fossil record of Cenozoic Era macroperforate planktonic foraminifera, we assess the evidence for alternative modes of macroevolutionary competition. Our models support an environmentally dependent macroevolutionary form of contest competition that yields finite upper bounds on species richness. Models of biotic competition assuming unchanging environmental conditions were overwhelmingly rejected. In the best-supported model, temperature affects the per-lineage diversification rate, while both temperature and an environmental driver of sediment accumulation defines the upper limit. The support for contest competition implies that incumbency constrains species richness by restricting niche availability, and that the number of macroevolutionary niches varies as a function of environmental changes. PMID:27278857

  15. Evolution of Patterning Systems and Circuit Elements for Locomotion

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Heekyung; Dasen, Jeremy S.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Evolutionary modifications in nervous systems enabled organisms to adapt to their specific environments and underlie the remarkable diversity of behaviors expressed by animals. Resolving the pathways that shaped and modified neural circuits during evolution remains a significant challenge. Comparative studies have revealed a surprising conservation in the intrinsic signaling systems involved in early patterning of bilaterian nervous systems, but also raise the question of how neural circuit compositions and architectures evolved within specific animal lineages. In this Review we discuss the mechanisms that contributed to the emergence and diversity of animal nervous systems, focusing on the circuits governing vertebrate locomotion. PMID:25710528

  16. Macroevolutionary persistence of heritable endosymbionts: acquisition, retention and expression of adaptive phenotypes in Spiroplasma.

    PubMed

    Haselkorn, Tamara S; Jaenike, John

    2015-07-01

    The phylogenetic incongruence between insects and their facultative maternally transmitted endosymbionts indicates that these infections are generally short-lived evolutionarily. Therefore, long-term persistence of many endosymbionts must depend on their ability to colonize and spread within new host species. At least 17 species of Drosophila are infected with endosymbiotic Spiroplasma that have various phenotypic effects. We transinfected five strains of Spiroplasma from three divergent clades into Drosophila neotestacea to test their capacity to spread in a novel host. A strain that causes male killing in Drosophila melanogaster (its native host) also does so in D. neotestacea, even though these host species diverged 40-60 mya. A strain native to D. neotestacea (designated sNeo) and the two other strains of the poulsonii clade of Spiroplasma confer resistance to wasp parasitism, suggesting that this trait may be ancestral within this clade of Spiroplasma. Conversely, no strain other than sNeo conferred resistance to the sterilizing effects of nematode parasitism, suggesting that nematode resistance is a recently derived condition. The apparent addition of nematode resistance to a Spiroplasma lineage that already confers resistance to wasp parasitism suggests endosymbionts can increase the repertoire of traits conducive to their spread. The capacity of an endosymbiont to undergo maternal transmission and express adaptive phenotypes in novel hosts, without requiring a period of host-symbiont co-evolution, enables the spread of such symbionts immediately after the colonization of a new host. This could be critical for the macroevolutionary persistence of facultative endosymbionts whose sojourn times within individual host species are relatively brief. PMID:26053523

  17. Macroevolutionary Dynamics and Historical Biogeography of Primate Diversification Inferred from a Species Supermatrix

    PubMed Central

    Springer, Mark S.; Meredith, Robert W.; Gatesy, John; Emerling, Christopher A.; Park, Jong; Rabosky, Daniel L.; Stadler, Tanja; Steiner, Cynthia; Ryder, Oliver A.; Janečka, Jan E.; Fisher, Colleen A.; Murphy, William J.

    2012-01-01

    Phylogenetic relationships, divergence times, and patterns of biogeographic descent among primate species are both complex and contentious. Here, we generate a robust molecular phylogeny for 70 primate genera and 367 primate species based on a concatenation of 69 nuclear gene segments and ten mitochondrial gene sequences, most of which were extracted from GenBank. Relaxed clock analyses of divergence times with 14 fossil-calibrated nodes suggest that living Primates last shared a common ancestor 71–63 Ma, and that divergences within both Strepsirrhini and Haplorhini are entirely post-Cretaceous. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that the Cretaceous-Paleogene mass extinction of non-avian dinosaurs played an important role in the diversification of placental mammals. Previous queries into primate historical biogeography have suggested Africa, Asia, Europe, or North America as the ancestral area of crown primates, but were based on methods that were coopted from phylogeny reconstruction. By contrast, we analyzed our molecular phylogeny with two methods that were developed explicitly for ancestral area reconstruction, and find support for the hypothesis that the most recent common ancestor of living Primates resided in Asia. Analyses of primate macroevolutionary dynamics provide support for a diversification rate increase in the late Miocene, possibly in response to elevated global mean temperatures, and are consistent with the fossil record. By contrast, diversification analyses failed to detect evidence for rate-shift changes near the Eocene-Oligocene boundary even though the fossil record provides clear evidence for a major turnover event (“Grande Coupure”) at this time. Our results highlight the power and limitations of inferring diversification dynamics from molecular phylogenies, as well as the sensitivity of diversification analyses to different species concepts. PMID:23166696

  18. Is evolution finished?

    PubMed

    Davison, John A

    2004-01-01

    Since speciation seems to be no longer in progress, one is compelled to conclude that sexual reproduction is incompetent as a macroevolutionary device. I propose that the reason some might insist that evolution is still in progress stems primarily from the influence of two authorities, the geologist Charles Lyell, with his doctrine of uniformitarianism and Gregor Mendel, the discoverer of sexually mediated transmission genetics. William Bateson, the father of modern genetics, clearly foresaw the failure of Mendelism to explain macroevolutionary change, a perspective with which I am in full agreement. PMID:15648214

  19. The evolution of isochore patterns in vertebrate genomes

    PubMed Central

    Costantini, Maria; Cammarano, Rosalia; Bernardi, Giorgio

    2009-01-01

    Background Previous work from our laboratory showed that (i) vertebrate genomes are mosaics of isochores, typically megabase-size DNA segments that are fairly homogeneous in base composition; (ii) isochores belong to a small number of families (five in the human genome) characterized by different GC levels; (iii) isochore family patterns are different in fishes/amphibians and mammals/birds, the latter showing GC-rich isochore families that are absent or very scarce in the former; (iv) there are two modes of genome evolution, a conservative one in which isochore patterns basically do not change (e.g., among mammalian orders), and a transitional one, in which they do change (e.g., between amphibians and mammals); and (v) isochores are tightly linked to a number of basic biological properties, such as gene density, gene expression, replication timing and recombination. Results The present availability of a number of fully sequenced genomes ranging from fishes to mammals allowed us to carry out investigations that (i) more precisely quantified our previous conclusions; (ii) showed that the different isochore families of vertebrate genomes are largely conserved in GC levels and dinucleotide frequencies, as well as in isochore size; and (iii) isochore family patterns can be either conserved or change within both warm- and cold-blooded vertebrates. Conclusion On the basis of the results presented, we propose that (i) the large conservation of GC levels and dinucleotide frequencies may reflect the conservation of chromatin structures; (ii) the conservation of isochore size may be linked to the role played by isochores in chromosome structure and replication; (iii) the formation, the maintainance and the changes of isochore patterns are due to natural selection. PMID:19344507

  20. Segment formation in Annelids: patterns, processes and evolution.

    PubMed

    Balavoine, Guillaume

    2014-01-01

    The debate on the origin of segmentation is a central question in the study of body plan evolution in metazoans. Annelids are the most conspicuously metameric animals as most of the trunk is formed of identical anatomical units. In this paper, I summarize the various patterns of evolution of the metameric body plan in annelids, showing the remarkable evolvability of this trait, similar to what is also found in arthropods. I then review the different modes of segment formation in the annelid tree, taking into account the various processes taking place in the life histories of these animals, including embryogenesis, post-embryonic development, regeneration and asexual reproduction. As an example of the variations that occur at the cellular and genetic level in annelid segment formation, I discuss the processes of teloblastic growth or posterior addition in key groups in the annelid tree. I propose a comprehensive definition for the teloblasts, stem cells that are responsible for sequential segment addition. There are a diversity of different mechanisms used in annelids to produce segments depending on the species, the developmental time and also the life history processes of the worm. A major goal for the future will be to reconstitute an ancestral process (or several ancestral processes) in the ancestor of the whole clade. This in turn will provide key insights in the current debate on ancestral bilaterian segmentation. PMID:25690963

  1. Herbivorous ecomorphology and specialization patterns in theropod dinosaur evolution.

    PubMed

    Zanno, Lindsay E; Makovicky, Peter J

    2011-01-01

    Interpreting key ecological parameters, such as diet, of extinct organisms without the benefit of direct observation or explicit fossil evidence poses a formidable challenge for paleobiological studies. To date, dietary categorizations of extinct taxa are largely generated by means of modern analogs; however, for many species the method is subject to considerable ambiguity. Here we present a refined approach for assessing trophic habits in fossil taxa and apply the method to coelurosaurian dinosaurs--a clade for which diet is particularly controversial. Our findings detect 21 morphological features that exhibit statistically significant correlations with extrinsic fossil evidence of coelurosaurian herbivory, such as stomach contents and a gastric mill. These traits represent quantitative, extrinsically founded proxies for identifying herbivorous ecomorphology in fossils and are robust despite uncertainty in phylogenetic relationships among major coelurosaurian subclades. The distribution of these features suggests that herbivory was widespread among coelurosaurians, with six major subclades displaying morphological evidence of the diet, and that contrary to previous thought, hypercarnivory was relatively rare and potentially secondarily derived. Given the potential for repeated, independent evolution of herbivory in Coelurosauria, we also test for repetitive patterns in the appearance of herbivorous traits within sublineages using rank concordance analysis. We find evidence for a common succession of increasing specialization to herbivory in the subclades Ornithomimosauria and Oviraptorosauria, perhaps underlain by intrinsic functional and/or developmental constraints, as well as evidence indicating that the early evolution of a beak in coelurosaurians correlates with an herbivorous diet. PMID:21173263

  2. 2D pattern evolution constrained by complex network dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Rocha, L. E. C.; Costa, L. da F.

    2007-03-01

    Complex networks have established themselves in recent years as being particularly suitable and flexible for representing and modelling several complex natural and artificial systems. In the same time in which the structural intricacies of such networks are being revealed and understood, efforts have also been directed at investigating how such connectivity properties define and constrain the dynamics of systems unfolding on such structures. However, less attention has been focused on hybrid systems, i.e. involving more than one type of network and/or dynamics. Several real systems present such an organization, e.g. the dynamics of a disease coexisting with the dynamics of the immune system. The current paper investigates a specific system involving diffusive (linear and nonlinear) dynamics taking place in a regular network while interacting with a complex network of defensive agents following Erdös Rényi (ER) and Barabási Albert (BA) graph models with moveable nodes. More specifically, the complex network is expected to control, and if possible, to extinguish the diffusion of some given unwanted process (e.g. fire, oil spilling, pest dissemination, and virus or bacteria reproduction during an infection). Two types of pattern evolution are considered: Fick and Gray Scott. The nodes of the defensive network then interact with the diffusing patterns and communicate between themselves in order to control the diffusion. The main findings include the identification of higher efficiency for the BA control networks and the presence of relapses in the case of the ER model.

  3. A simple model for research interest evolution patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Tao; Wang, Dashun; Szymanski, Boleslaw

    Sir Isaac Newton supposedly remarked that in his scientific career he was like ``...a boy playing on the sea-shore ...finding a smoother pebble or a prettier shell than ordinary''. His remarkable modesty and famous understatement motivate us to seek regularities in how scientists shift their research focus as the career develops. Indeed, despite intensive investigations on how microscopic factors, such as incentives and risks, would influence a scientist's choice of research agenda, little is known on the macroscopic patterns in the research interest change undertaken by individual scientists throughout their careers. Here we make use of over 14,000 authors' publication records in physics. By quantifying statistical characteristics in the interest evolution, we model scientific research as a random walk, which reproduces patterns in individuals' careers observed empirically. Despite myriad of factors that shape and influence individual choices of research subjects, we identified regularities in this dynamical process that are well captured by a simple statistical model. The results advance our understanding of scientists' behaviors during their careers and open up avenues for future studies in the science of science.

  4. Histone modification pattern evolution after yeast gene duplication

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Gene duplication and subsequent functional divergence especially expression divergence have been widely considered as main sources for evolutionary innovations. Many studies evidenced that genetic regulatory network evolved rapidly shortly after gene duplication, thus leading to accelerated expression divergence and diversification. However, little is known whether epigenetic factors have mediated the evolution of expression regulation since gene duplication. In this study, we conducted detailed analyses on yeast histone modification (HM), the major epigenetics type in this organism, as well as other available functional genomics data to address this issue. Results Duplicate genes, on average, share more common HM-code patterns than random singleton pairs in their promoters and open reading frames (ORF). Though HM-code divergence between duplicates in both promoter and ORF regions increase with their sequence divergence, the HM-code in ORF region evolves slower than that in promoter region, probably owing to the functional constraints imposed on protein sequences. After excluding the confounding effect of sequence divergence (or evolutionary time), we found the evidence supporting the notion that in yeast, the HM-code may co-evolve with cis- and trans-regulatory factors. Moreover, we observed that deletion of some yeast HM-related enzymes increases the expression divergence between duplicate genes, yet the effect is lower than the case of transcription factor (TF) deletion or environmental stresses. Conclusions Our analyses demonstrate that after gene duplication, yeast histone modification profile between duplicates diverged with evolutionary time, similar to genetic regulatory elements. Moreover, we found the evidence of the co-evolution between genetic and epigenetic elements since gene duplication, together contributing to the expression divergence between duplicate genes. PMID:22776110

  5. The evolution of egg colour and patterning in birds.

    PubMed

    Kilner, R M

    2006-08-01

    Avian eggs differ so much in their colour and patterning from species to species that any attempt to account for this diversity might initially seem doomed to failure. Here I present a critical review of the literature which, when combined with the results of some comparative analyses, suggests that just a few selective agents can explain much of the variation in egg appearance. Ancestrally, bird eggs were probably white and immaculate. Ancient diversification in nest location, and hence in the clutch's vulnerability to attack by predators, can explain basic differences between bird families in egg appearance. The ancestral white egg has been retained by species whose nests are safe from attack by predators, while those that have moved to a more vulnerable nest site are now more likely to lay brown eggs, covered in speckles, just as Wallace hypothesized more than a century ago. Even blue eggs might be cryptic in a subset of nests built in vegetation. It is possible that some species have subsequently turned these ancient adaptations to new functions, for example to signal female quality, to protect eggs from damaging solar radiation, or to add structural strength to shells when calcium is in short supply. The threat of predation, together with the use of varying nest sites, appears to have increased the diversity of egg colouring seen among species within families, and among clutches within species. Brood parasites and their hosts have probably secondarily influenced the diversity of egg appearance. Each drives the evolution of the other's egg colour and patterning, as hosts attempt to avoid exploitation by rejecting odd-looking eggs from their nests, and parasites attempt to outwit their hosts by laying eggs that will escape detection. This co-evolutionary arms race has increased variation in egg appearance both within and between species, in parasites and in hosts, sometimes resulting in the evolution of egg colour polymorphisms. It has also reduced variation in

  6. Phylostratigraphic Bias Creates Spurious Patterns of Genome Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Moyers, Bryan A.; Zhang, Jianzhi

    2015-01-01

    Phylostratigraphy is a method for dating the evolutionary emergence of a gene or gene family by identifying its homologs across the tree of life, typically by using BLAST searches. Applying this method to all genes in a species, or genomic phylostratigraphy, allows investigation of genome-wide patterns in new gene origination at different evolutionary times and thus has been extensively used. However, gene age estimation depends on the challenging task of detecting distant homologs via sequence similarity, which is expected to have differential accuracies for different genes. Here, we evaluate the accuracy of phylostratigraphy by realistic computer simulation with parameters estimated from genomic data, and investigate the impact of its error on findings of genome evolution. We show that 1) phylostratigraphy substantially underestimates gene age for a considerable fraction of genes, 2) the error is especially serious when the protein evolves rapidly, is short, and/or its most conserved block of sites is small, and 3) these errors create spurious nonuniform distributions of various gene properties among age groups, many of which cannot be predicted a priori. Given the high likelihood that conclusions about gene age are faulty, we advocate the use of realistic simulation to determine if observations from phylostratigraphy are explainable, at least qualitatively, by a null model of biased measurement, and in all cases, critical evaluation of results. PMID:25312911

  7. Macroevolutionary assembly of ant/plant symbioses: Pseudomyrmex ants and their ant-housing plants in the Neotropics.

    PubMed

    Chomicki, Guillaume; Ward, Philip S; Renner, Susanne S

    2015-11-22

    Symbioses include some of the clearest cases of coevolution, but their origin, loss or reassembly with different partners can rarely be inferred. Here we use ant/plant symbioses involving three plant clades to investigate the evolution of symbioses. We generated phylogenies for the big-eyed arboreal ants (Pseudomyrmecinae), including 72% of their 286 species, as well as for five of their plant host groups, in each case sampling more than 61% of the species. We show that the ant-housing Vachellia (Mimosoideae) clade and its ants co-diversified for the past 5 Ma, with some species additionally colonized by younger plant-nesting ant species, some parasitic. An apparent co-radiation of ants and Tachigali (Caesalpinioideae) was followed by waves of colonization by the same ant clade, and subsequent occupation by a younger ant group. Wide crown and stem age differences between the ant-housing genus Triplaris (Polygonaceae) and its obligate ant inhabitants, and stochastic trait mapping, indicate that its domatium evolved earlier than the ants now occupying it, suggesting previous symbioses that dissolved. Parasitic ant species evolved from generalists, not from mutualists, and are younger than the mutualistic systems they parasitize. Our study illuminates the macroevolutionary assembly of ant/plant symbioses, which has been highly dynamic, even in very specialized systems. PMID:26582029

  8. A systems-analytical approach to macro-evolutionary phenomena.

    PubMed

    Riedl, R

    1977-12-01

    Two sets of evolutionary phenomena find no explanation through current theory. For the static phenomena (such as homology, homonomy, systematic weight, and "Type") there is no causal base, although these principles are responsible for all phenomena of predictable order in the living world. The dynamic phenomena (such as homodynamy, coadaptation, parallel evolution, orthogenesis, Cartesian transformation, typostrophy, hetermorphosis, systemic mutation, and spontaneous atavism) have no causal explanation, although they are responsible for all directed phenomena in macroevolution. These phenomena share one unifying principle which can be explained by a system theory of evolution based on, but extending, the current synthetic theory. This system theory envisages feedback conditions between genotype and phenotype by which the chances of successful adaptation increase if the genetic units, by insertion of superimposed genes, copy the functional dependencies of those phene structures for which they code. This positive feedback of the adaptive speed (or probability) within a single adaptive direction is compensated by negative feedback in most of the alternative directions. The negative feedback operates as selection not be environmental but by systemic conditions developed by the organization of the organism. The consequences are an imitatively organized system of gene interractions, the rehabilitation of classical systematics, the reality of the "natural system," and, in general, the resolution of the contradiction between neodarwinists and their critics, between reductionists and holists, between "a priori" and "a posteriori" views, between idealism and materialism, and between the notions of freedom and of purpose in evolution. PMID:343152

  9. Influence of continental history on the ecological specialization and macroevolutionary processes in the mammalian assemblage of South America: Differences between small and large mammals

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    mammalian evolution. Nevertheless, deviations from the expectations indicate the importance of differences in reproductive traits and paleobiogeographic history for the macroevolutionary processes involved. In the case of South American mammals, the Pliocene Great American Biotic Interchange strongly influences the ecological characteristics of this assemblage. Furthermore, the Andes have acted as a fertile ground for speciation in environments prone to vicariance. Finally, the micromammals appear as more prone to biomic specialization than larger species. These factors are responsible for some of the differences found between South America and Africa in the studied pattern. For example, the extensive South American mountain ranges favour a higher number of combinations of inhabited biomes in comparison with Africa. PMID:18366786

  10. The evolution of pattern camouflage strategies in waterfowl and game birds.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Kate L A; Gluckman, Thanh-Lan

    2015-05-01

    Visual patterns are common in animals. A broad survey of the literature has revealed that different patterns have distinct functions. Irregular patterns (e.g., stipples) typically function in static camouflage, whereas regular patterns (e.g., stripes) have a dual function in both motion camouflage and communication. Moreover, irregular and regular patterns located on different body regions ("bimodal" patterning) can provide an effective compromise between camouflage and communication and/or enhanced concealment via both static and motion camouflage. Here, we compared the frequency of these three pattern types and traced their evolutionary history using Bayesian comparative modeling in aquatic waterfowl (Anseriformes: 118 spp.), which typically escape predators by flight, and terrestrial game birds (Galliformes: 170 spp.), which mainly use a "sit and hide" strategy to avoid predation. Given these life histories, we predicted that selection would favor regular patterning in Anseriformes and irregular or bimodal patterning in Galliformes and that pattern function complexity should increase over the course of evolution. Regular patterns were predominant in Anseriformes whereas regular and bimodal patterns were most frequent in Galliformes, suggesting that patterns with multiple functions are broadly favored by selection over patterns with a single function in static camouflage. We found that the first patterns to evolve were either regular or bimodal in Anseriformes and either irregular or regular in Galliformes. In both orders, irregular patterns could evolve into regular patterns but not the reverse. Our hypothesis of increasing complexity in pattern camouflage function was supported in Galliformes but not in Anseriformes. These results reveal a trajectory of pattern evolution linked to increasing function complexity in Galliformes although not in Anseriformes, suggesting that both ecology and function complexity can have a profound influence on pattern evolution

  11. The evolution of pattern camouflage strategies in waterfowl and game birds

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Kate L A; Gluckman, Thanh-Lan

    2015-01-01

    Visual patterns are common in animals. A broad survey of the literature has revealed that different patterns have distinct functions. Irregular patterns (e.g., stipples) typically function in static camouflage, whereas regular patterns (e.g., stripes) have a dual function in both motion camouflage and communication. Moreover, irregular and regular patterns located on different body regions (“bimodal” patterning) can provide an effective compromise between camouflage and communication and/or enhanced concealment via both static and motion camouflage. Here, we compared the frequency of these three pattern types and traced their evolutionary history using Bayesian comparative modeling in aquatic waterfowl (Anseriformes: 118 spp.), which typically escape predators by flight, and terrestrial game birds (Galliformes: 170 spp.), which mainly use a “sit and hide” strategy to avoid predation. Given these life histories, we predicted that selection would favor regular patterning in Anseriformes and irregular or bimodal patterning in Galliformes and that pattern function complexity should increase over the course of evolution. Regular patterns were predominant in Anseriformes whereas regular and bimodal patterns were most frequent in Galliformes, suggesting that patterns with multiple functions are broadly favored by selection over patterns with a single function in static camouflage. We found that the first patterns to evolve were either regular or bimodal in Anseriformes and either irregular or regular in Galliformes. In both orders, irregular patterns could evolve into regular patterns but not the reverse. Our hypothesis of increasing complexity in pattern camouflage function was supported in Galliformes but not in Anseriformes. These results reveal a trajectory of pattern evolution linked to increasing function complexity in Galliformes although not in Anseriformes, suggesting that both ecology and function complexity can have a profound influence on pattern

  12. Pigment cell interactions and differential xanthophore recruitment underlying zebrafish stripe reiteration and Danio pattern evolution

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, Larissa B.; Bain, Emily J.; Parichy, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Fishes have diverse pigment patterns, yet mechanisms of pattern evolution remain poorly understood. In zebrafish, Danio rerio, pigment-cell autonomous interactions generate dark stripes of melanophores that alternate with light interstripes of xanthophores and iridophores. Here, we identify mechanisms underlying the evolution of a uniform pattern in D. albolineatus in which all three pigment cell classes are intermingled. We show that in this species xanthophores differentiate precociously over a wider area, and that cis regulatory evolution has increased expression of xanthogenic Colony Stimulating Factor-1 (Csf1). Expressing Csf1 similarly in D. rerio has cascading effects, driving the intermingling of all three pigment cell classes and resulting in the loss of stripes, as in D. albolineatus. Our results identify novel mechanisms of pattern development and illustrate how pattern diversity can be generated when a core network of pigment-cell autonomous interactions is coupled with changes in pigment cell differentiation. PMID:25374113

  13. Three crocodilian genomes reveal ancestral patterns of evolution among archosaurs

    PubMed Central

    Green, Richard E; Braun, Edward L; Armstrong, Joel; Earl, Dent; Nguyen, Ngan; Hickey, Glenn; Vandewege, Michael W; St John, John A; Capella-Gutiérrez, Salvador; Castoe, Todd A; Kern, Colin; Fujita, Matthew K; Opazo, Juan C; Jurka, Jerzy; Kojima, Kenji K; Caballero, Juan; Hubley, Robert M; Smit, Arian F; Platt, Roy N; Lavoie, Christine A; Ramakodi, Meganathan P; Finger, John W; Suh, Alexander; Isberg, Sally R; Miles, Lee; Chong, Amanda Y; Jaratlerdsiri, Weerachai; Gongora, Jaime; Moran, Christopher; Iriarte, Andrés; McCormack, John; Burgess, Shane C; Edwards, Scott V; Lyons, Eric; Williams, Christina; Breen, Matthew; Howard, Jason T; Gresham, Cathy R; Peterson, Daniel G; Schmitz, Jürgen; Pollock, David D; Haussler, David; Triplett, Eric W; Zhang, Guojie; Irie, Naoki; Jarvis, Erich D; Brochu, Christopher A; Schmidt, Carl J; McCarthy, Fiona M; Faircloth, Brant C; Hoffmann, Federico G; Glenn, Travis C; Gabaldón, Toni; Paten, Benedict; Ray, David A

    2015-01-01

    To provide context for the diversifications of archosaurs, the group that includes crocodilians, dinosaurs and birds, we generated draft genomes of three crocodilians, Alligator mississippiensis (the American alligator), Crocodylus porosus (the saltwater crocodile), and Gavialis gangeticus (the Indian gharial). We observed an exceptionally slow rate of genome evolution within crocodilians at all levels, including nucleotide substitutions, indels, transposable element content and movement, gene family evolution, and chromosomal synteny. When placed within the context of related taxa including birds and turtles, this suggests that the common ancestor of all of these taxa also exhibited slow genome evolution and that the relatively rapid evolution of bird genomes represents an autapomorphy within that clade. The data also provided the opportunity to analyze heterozygosity in crocodilians, which indicates a likely reduction in population size for all three taxa through the Pleistocene. Finally, these new data combined with newly published bird genomes allowed us to reconstruct the partial genome of the common ancestor of archosaurs providing a tool to investigate the genetic starting material of crocodilians, birds, and dinosaurs. PMID:25504731

  14. Three crocodilian genomes reveal ancestral patterns of evolution among archosaurs.

    PubMed

    Green, Richard E; Braun, Edward L; Armstrong, Joel; Earl, Dent; Nguyen, Ngan; Hickey, Glenn; Vandewege, Michael W; St John, John A; Capella-Gutiérrez, Salvador; Castoe, Todd A; Kern, Colin; Fujita, Matthew K; Opazo, Juan C; Jurka, Jerzy; Kojima, Kenji K; Caballero, Juan; Hubley, Robert M; Smit, Arian F; Platt, Roy N; Lavoie, Christine A; Ramakodi, Meganathan P; Finger, John W; Suh, Alexander; Isberg, Sally R; Miles, Lee; Chong, Amanda Y; Jaratlerdsiri, Weerachai; Gongora, Jaime; Moran, Christopher; Iriarte, Andrés; McCormack, John; Burgess, Shane C; Edwards, Scott V; Lyons, Eric; Williams, Christina; Breen, Matthew; Howard, Jason T; Gresham, Cathy R; Peterson, Daniel G; Schmitz, Jürgen; Pollock, David D; Haussler, David; Triplett, Eric W; Zhang, Guojie; Irie, Naoki; Jarvis, Erich D; Brochu, Christopher A; Schmidt, Carl J; McCarthy, Fiona M; Faircloth, Brant C; Hoffmann, Federico G; Glenn, Travis C; Gabaldón, Toni; Paten, Benedict; Ray, David A

    2014-12-12

    To provide context for the diversification of archosaurs--the group that includes crocodilians, dinosaurs, and birds--we generated draft genomes of three crocodilians: Alligator mississippiensis (the American alligator), Crocodylus porosus (the saltwater crocodile), and Gavialis gangeticus (the Indian gharial). We observed an exceptionally slow rate of genome evolution within crocodilians at all levels, including nucleotide substitutions, indels, transposable element content and movement, gene family evolution, and chromosomal synteny. When placed within the context of related taxa including birds and turtles, this suggests that the common ancestor of all of these taxa also exhibited slow genome evolution and that the comparatively rapid evolution is derived in birds. The data also provided the opportunity to analyze heterozygosity in crocodilians, which indicates a likely reduction in population size for all three taxa through the Pleistocene. Finally, these data combined with newly published bird genomes allowed us to reconstruct the partial genome of the common ancestor of archosaurs, thereby providing a tool to investigate the genetic starting material of crocodilians, birds, and dinosaurs. PMID:25504731

  15. Evolution of Fractal Patterns during a Classical-Quantum Transition

    SciTech Connect

    Micolich, A. P.; Taylor, R. P.; Davies, A. G.; Bird, J. P.; Newbury, R.; Fromhold, T. M.; Ehlert, A.; Linke, H.; Macks, L. D.; Tribe, W. R.

    2001-07-16

    We investigate how fractals evolve into nonfractal behavior as the generation process is gradually suppressed. Fractals observed in the conductance of semiconductor billiards are of particular interest because the generation process is semiclassical and can be suppressed by transitions towards either fully classical or fully quantum-mechanical conduction. Investigating a range of billiards, we identify a ''universal'' behavior in the changeover from fractal to nonfractal conductance, which is described by a smooth evolution rather than deterioration in the fractal scaling properties.

  16. Convergent evolution in locomotory patterns of flying and swimming animals.

    PubMed

    Gleiss, Adrian C; Jorgensen, Salvador J; Liebsch, Nikolai; Sala, Juan E; Norman, Brad; Hays, Graeme C; Quintana, Flavio; Grundy, Edward; Campagna, Claudio; Trites, Andrew W; Block, Barbara A; Wilson, Rory P

    2011-01-01

    Locomotion is one of the major energetic costs faced by animals and various strategies have evolved to reduce its cost. Birds use interspersed periods of flapping and gliding to reduce the mechanical requirements of level flight while undergoing cyclical changes in flight altitude, known as undulating flight. Here we equipped free-ranging marine vertebrates with accelerometers and demonstrate that gait patterns resembling undulating flight occur in four marine vertebrate species comprising sharks and pinnipeds. Both sharks and pinnipeds display intermittent gliding interspersed with powered locomotion. We suggest, that the convergent use of similar gait patterns by distinct groups of animals points to universal physical and physiological principles that operate beyond taxonomic limits and shape common solutions to increase energetic efficiency. Energetically expensive large-scale migrations performed by many vertebrates provide common selection pressure for efficient locomotion, with potential for the convergence of locomotory strategies by a wide variety of species. PMID:21673673

  17. Phenotypic Evolution in Fossil Species: Pattern and Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, Gene; Rabosky, Daniel L.

    2014-05-01

    Since Darwin, scientists have looked to the fossil record with the hope of using it to document how the phenotypes of species change over substantial periods of time. How best to interpret this record has been controversial, but empirical and methodological advances have resolved at least two issues about pattern: (a) directional transformations are seldom sustained over geological timescales, and (b) net rates of morphological change in fossil species are usually quite slow. Considerable uncertainty remains, however, about the processes responsible for these patterns, but most fruitful explanations use the framework of adaptive landscapes to consider the role of natural selection and other processes. An additional, unresolved issue is the claim that most phenotypic change is associated with speciation. A variety of methods, using data from both fossil and extant species, have supported such a link, at least in some clades and traits, but its prevalence and underlying mechanism remain unresolved.

  18. The evolution of embryonic patterning mechanisms in animals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wray, G. A.

    2000-01-01

    Animals exhibit an enormous diversity of life cycles and larval morphologies. The developmental basis for this diversity is not well understood. It is clear, however, that mechanisms of pattern formation in early embryos differ significantly among and within groups of animals. These differences show surprisingly little correlation with phylogenetic relationships; instead, many are correlated with ecological factors, such as changes in life histories. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  19. Quantitative patterns of stylistic influence in the evolution of literature

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, James M.; Foti, Nicholas J.; Krakauer, David C.; Rockmore, Daniel N.

    2012-01-01

    Literature is a form of expression whose temporal structure, both in content and style, provides a historical record of the evolution of culture. In this work we take on a quantitative analysis of literary style and conduct the first large-scale temporal stylometric study of literature by using the vast holdings in the Project Gutenberg Digital Library corpus. We find temporal stylistic localization among authors through the analysis of the similarity structure in feature vectors derived from content-free word usage, nonhomogeneous decay rates of stylistic influence, and an accelerating rate of decay of influence among modern authors. Within a given time period we also find evidence for stylistic coherence with a given literary topic, such that writers in different fields adopt different literary styles. This study gives quantitative support to the notion of a literary “style of a time” with a strong trend toward increasingly contemporaneous stylistic influence. PMID:22547796

  20. Quantitative patterns of stylistic influence in the evolution of literature.

    PubMed

    Hughes, James M; Foti, Nicholas J; Krakauer, David C; Rockmore, Daniel N

    2012-05-15

    Literature is a form of expression whose temporal structure, both in content and style, provides a historical record of the evolution of culture. In this work we take on a quantitative analysis of literary style and conduct the first large-scale temporal stylometric study of literature by using the vast holdings in the Project Gutenberg Digital Library corpus. We find temporal stylistic localization among authors through the analysis of the similarity structure in feature vectors derived from content-free word usage, nonhomogeneous decay rates of stylistic influence, and an accelerating rate of decay of influence among modern authors. Within a given time period we also find evidence for stylistic coherence with a given literary topic, such that writers in different fields adopt different literary styles. This study gives quantitative support to the notion of a literary "style of a time" with a strong trend toward increasingly contemporaneous stylistic influence. PMID:22547796

  1. Neotectonics, flooding patterns and landscape evolution in southern Amazonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lombardo, U.

    2014-12-01

    The paper examines the role of neotectonic activity in the evolution of the landscape in southern Amazonia during the Holocene. It uses both new and published data based on the analysis of remote sensing imagery and extensive field work in the Llanos de Moxos, Bolivian Amazon. The study of the region's modern and palaeorivers, ria lakes, palaeosols and topography provides a strong case in favour of the thesis that the northern part of the Llanos de Moxos constitutes the southern margin of the Fitzcarrald Arch and that it has experienced uplift during the Holocene. The paper assesses the extent and timing of the neotectonic activity in light of the new data and reconstructs the evolution of the landscape since the late Pleistocene. The evidence suggests that at least two uplift events took place: a first uplift in the late Pleistocene, which caused the formation of Lake Oceano, and a second uplift during the mid-Holocene, which formed Lake Rogaguado. These two uplifts appear to be linked to the knickpoints observed close to the towns of Guayaramerín and Puerto Siles respectively. The backwater effect due to these uplifts transformed the region's major rivers in seasonal ria lakes, causing the deposition of thick organic clay layers along the Beni, Mamoré and Madre de Dios river banks. I argue that neotectonic episodes could have dramatically changed the drainage of the Llanos de Moxos, determining its flooding regime, soil properties and forest-savannah ecotone. These results stress the need for geomorphologists, palaeo-ecologists and archaeologists to take into account neotectonics when reconstructing the region's past.

  2. Neotectonics, flooding patterns and landscape evolution in southern Amazonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lombardo, U.

    2014-07-01

    The paper examines the role of neotectonic activity in the evolution of the landscape in southern Amazonia during the Holocene. It uses both new and published data based on the analysis of remote sensing imagery and extensive field work in the Llanos de Moxos, Bolivian Amazon. The study of the region's modern and paleo rivers, ria lakes, paleosols and topography provides a strong case in favour of the thesis that the northern part of the Llanos de Moxos constitutes the southern margin of the Fitzcarrald arch and that it has experienced uplift during the Holocene. The paper assesses the extent and timing of the neotectonic activity in light of the new data and reconstructs the evolution of the landscape since the late Pleistocene. The evidence suggests that at least two uplift events took place: a first uplift in the late Pleistocene, which caused the formation of Lake Oceano, and a second uplift during the mid-Holocene, which formed Lake Rogaguado. These two uplifts appear to be linked to the knickpoints observed close to the towns of Guayaramerín and Puerto Siles respectively. The backwater effect due to these uplifts transformed the region's major rivers in seasonal ria lakes, causing the deposition of thick organic clay layers along the Beni, Mamoré and Madre de Dios river banks. I argue that neotectonic episodes could have dramatically changed the drainage of the Llanos, determining its flooding regime, soil properties and forest-savannah ecotone. These results stress the need for geomorphologists, paleoecologists and archaeologists to take into account neotectonics when reconstructing the region's past.

  3. Dental patterning in the earliest sharks: Implications for tooth evolution.

    PubMed

    Maisey, John G; Turner, Susan; Naylor, Gavin J P; Miller, Randall F

    2014-05-01

    Doliodus problematicus is the oldest known fossil shark-like fish with an almost intact dentition (Emsian, Lower Devonian, c. 397Ma). We provide a detailed description of the teeth and dentition in D. problematicus, based on tomographic analysis of NBMG 10127 (New Brunswick Museum, Canada). Comparisons with modern shark dentitions suggest that Doliodus was a ram-feeding predator with a dentition adapted to seizing and disabling prey. Doliodus provides several clues about the early evolution of the "shark-like" dentition in chondrichthyans and also raises new questions about the evolution of oral teeth in jawed vertebrates. As in modern sharks, teeth in Doliodus were replaced in a linguo-labial sequence within tooth families at fixed positions along the jaws (12-14 tooth families per jaw quadrant in NBMG 10127). Doliodus teeth were replaced much more slowly than in modern sharks. Nevertheless, its tooth formation was apparently as highly organized as in modern elasmobranchs, in which future tooth positions are indicated by synchronized expression of shh at fixed loci within the dental epithelium. Comparable dental arrays are absent in osteichthyans, placoderms, and many "acanthodians"; a "shark-like" dentition, therefore, may be a synapomorphy of chondrichthyans and gnathostomes such as Ptomacanthus. The upper anterior teeth in Doliodus were not attached to the palatoquadrates, but were instead supported by the ethmoid region of the prechordal basicranium, as in some other Paleozoic taxa (e.g., Triodus, Ptomacanthus). This suggests that the chondrichthyan dental lamina was originally associated with prechordal basicranial cartilage as well as jaw cartilage, and that the modern elasmobranch condition (in which the oral dentition is confined to the jaws) is phylogenetically advanced. Thus, oral tooth development in modern elasmobranchs does not provide a complete developmental model for chondrichthyans or gnathostomes. PMID:24347366

  4. Similar patterns of cortical expansion during human development and evolution

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Jason; Inder, Terrie; Neil, Jeffrey; Dierker, Donna; Harwell, John; Van Essen, David

    2010-01-01

    The cerebral cortex of the human infant at term is complexly folded in a similar fashion to adult cortex but has only one third the total surface area. By comparing 12 healthy infants born at term with 12 healthy young adults, we demonstrate that postnatal cortical expansion is strikingly nonuniform: regions of lateral temporal, parietal, and frontal cortex expand nearly twice as much as other regions in the insular and medial occipital cortex. This differential postnatal expansion may reflect regional differences in the maturity of dendritic and synaptic architecture at birth and/or in the complexity of dendritic and synaptic architecture in adults. This expression may also be associated with differential sensitivity of cortical circuits to childhood experience and insults. By comparing human and macaque monkey cerebral cortex, we infer that the pattern of human evolutionary expansion is remarkably similar to the pattern of human postnatal expansion. To account for this correspondence, we hypothesize that it is beneficial for regions of recent evolutionary expansion to remain less mature at birth, perhaps to increase the influence of postnatal experience on the development of these regions or to focus prenatal resources on regions most important for early survival. PMID:20624964

  5. Are the metabolomic responses to folivory of closely related plant species linked to macroevolutionary and plant-folivore coevolutionary processes?

    PubMed

    Rivas-Ubach, Albert; Hódar, José A; Sardans, Jordi; Kyle, Jennifer E; Kim, Young-Mo; Oravec, Michal; Urban, Otmar; Guenther, Alex; Peñuelas, Josep

    2016-07-01

    The debate whether the coevolution of plants and insects or macroevolutionary processes (phylogeny) is the main driver determining the arsenal of molecular defensive compounds of plants remains unresolved. Attacks by herbivorous insects affect not only the composition of defensive compounds in plants but also the entire metabolome. Metabolomes are the final products of genotypes and are constrained by macroevolutionary processes, so closely related species should have similar metabolomic compositions and may respond in similar ways to attacks by folivores. We analyzed the elemental compositions and metabolomes of needles from three closely related Pinus species with distant coevolutionary histories with the caterpillar of the processionary moth respond similarly to its attack. All pines had different metabolomes and metabolic responses to herbivorous attack. The metabolomic variation among the species and the responses to folivory reflected their macroevolutionary relationships, with P. pinaster having the most divergent metabolome. The concentrations of terpenes were in the attacked trees supporting the hypothesis that herbivores avoid plant individuals with higher concentrations. Our results suggest that macroevolutionary history plays important roles in the metabolomic responses of these pine species to folivory, but plant-insect coevolution probably constrains those responses. Combinations of different evolutionary factors and trade-offs are likely responsible for the different responses of each species to folivory, which is not necessarily exclusively linked to plant-insect coevolution. PMID:27386082

  6. Not just black and white: pigment pattern development and evolution in vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Margaret G.; Patterson, Larissa B.

    2009-01-01

    Animals display diverse colors and patterns that vary within and between species. Similar phenotypes appear in both closely related and widely divergent taxa. Pigment patterns thus provide an opportunity to explore how development is altered to produce differences in form and whether similar phenotypes share a common genetic basis. Understanding the development and evolution of pigment patterns requires knowledge of the cellular interactions and signaling pathways that produce those patterns. These complex traits provide unparalleled opportunities for integrating studies from ecology and behavior to molecular biology and biophysics. PMID:19073271

  7. Temporal evolution of the chemical structure during the pattern transfer by ion-beam sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha, N.-B.; Jeong, S.; Yu, S.; Ihm, H.-I.; Kim, J.-S.

    2015-01-01

    Ru films patterned by ion-beam sputtering (IBS) serve as sacrificial masks for the transfer of the patterns to Si(1 0 0) and metallic glass substrates by continued IBS. Under the same sputter condition, however, both bare substrates remain featureless. Chemical analyses of the individual nano structures simultaneously with the investigation of their morphological evolution reveal that the pattern transfer, despite its apparent success, suffers from premature degradation before the mask is fully removed by IBS. Moreover, the residue of the mask or Ru atoms stubbornly remains near the surface, resulting in unintended doping or alloying of both patterned substrates.

  8. Dorsoventral Patterning in Hemichordates: Insights into Early Chordate Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, Christopher J; Terasaki, Mark; Wu, Michael; Freeman, Robert M; Runft, Linda; Kwan, Kristen; Haigo, Saori; Aronowicz, Jochanan; Lander, Eric; Gruber, Chris; Smith, Mark; Kirschner, Marc; Gerhart, John

    2006-01-01

    We have compared the dorsoventral development of hemichordates and chordates to deduce the organization of their common ancestor, and hence to identify the evolutionary modifications of the chordate body axis after the lineages split. In the hemichordate embryo, genes encoding bone morphogenetic proteins (Bmp) 2/4 and 5/8, as well as several genes for modulators of Bmp activity, are expressed in a thin stripe of ectoderm on one midline, historically called “dorsal.” On the opposite midline, the genes encoding Chordin and Anti-dorsalizing morphogenetic protein (Admp) are expressed. Thus, we find a Bmp-Chordin developmental axis preceding and underlying the anatomical dorsoventral axis of hemichordates, adding to the evidence from Drosophila and chordates that this axis may be at least as ancient as the first bilateral animals. Numerous genes encoding transcription factors and signaling ligands are expressed in the three germ layers of hemichordate embryos in distinct dorsoventral domains, such as pox neuro, pituitary homeobox, distalless, and tbx2/3 on the Bmp side and netrin, mnx, mox, and single-minded on the Chordin-Admp side. When we expose the embryo to excess Bmp protein, or when we deplete endogenous Bmp by small interfering RNA injections, these expression domains expand or contract, reflecting their activation or repression by Bmp, and the embryos develop as dorsalized or ventralized limit forms. Dorsoventral patterning is independent of anterior/posterior patterning, as in Drosophila but not chordates. Unlike both chordates and Drosophila, neural gene expression in hemichordates is not repressed by high Bmp levels, consistent with their development of a diffuse rather than centralized nervous system. We suggest that the common ancestor of hemichordates and chordates did not use its Bmp-Chordin axis to segregate epidermal and neural ectoderm but to pattern many other dorsoventral aspects of the germ layers, including neural cell fates within a diffuse

  9. Patterning and evolution of floral structures - marking time.

    PubMed

    McKim, Sarah; Hay, Angela

    2010-08-01

    The diversity of flowering structures dazzles the eye, dominates the landscape, and invites evolutionary questions regarding the development of such variety. Comparative work in a number of genetically tractable plant species has addressed how diverse floral architectures develop, and started to reveal the balance between conservation and divergence of the patterning mechanisms responsible for when and where flowers form on a plant. We highlight findings from Petunia where conserved LFY/UFO function is under species-specific regulation, and a novel mechanism involving WOX homeodomain proteins for modulating cyme development in diverse nightshades. We also draw attention to recent findings in Arabidopsis of miRNA and chromatin-based timing mechanisms controlling floral development, and illustrate how genetic studies in Arabidopsis relatives can reveal how evolutionary changes in such mechanisms generate diversity in form. PMID:20452201

  10. Dynamic pattern evolution on scale-free networks

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Haijun; Lipowsky, Reinhard

    2005-01-01

    A general class of dynamic models on scale-free networks is studied by analytical methods and computer simulations. Each network consists of N vertices and is characterized by its degree distribution, P(k), which represents the probability that a randomly chosen vertex is connected to k nearest neighbors. Each vertex can attain two internal states described by binary variables or Ising-like spins that evolve in time according to local majority rules. Scale-free networks, for which the degree distribution has a power law tail P(k) ∼ k-γ, are shown to exhibit qualitatively different dynamic behavior for γ < 5/2 and γ > 5/2, shedding light on the empirical observation that many real-world networks are scale-free with 2 < γ < 5/2. For 2 < γ < 5/2, strongly disordered patterns decay within a finite decay time even in the limit of infinite networks. For γ > 5/2, on the other hand, this decay time diverges as ln(N) with the network size N. An analogous distinction is found for a variety of more complex models including Hopfield models for associative memory networks. In the latter case, the storage capacity is found, within mean field theory, to be independent of N in the limit of large N for γ > 5/2 but to grow as Nα with α = (5 - 2γ)/(γ - 1) for 2 < γ < 5/2. PMID:16006533

  11. The pattern of phylogenomic evolution of the Canidae.

    PubMed

    Nash, W G; Menninger, J C; Wienberg, J; Padilla-Nash, H M; O'Brien, S J

    2001-01-01

    Canidae species fall into two categories with respect to their chromosome composition: those with high numbered largely acrocentric karyotypes and others with a low numbered principally metacentric karyotype. Those species with low numbered metacentric karyotypes are derived from multiple independent fusions of chromosome segments found as acrocentric chromosomes in the high numbered species. Extensive chromosome homology is apparent among acrocentric chromosome arms within Canidae species; however, little chromosome arm homology exists between Canidae species and those from other Carnivore families. Here we use Zoo-FISH (fluorescent in situ hybridization, also called chromosomal painting) probes from flow-sorted chromosomes of the Japanese raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) to examine two phylogenetically divergent canids, the arctic fox (Alopex lagopus) and the crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous). The results affirm intra-canid chromosome homologies, also implicated by G-banding. In addition, painting probes from domestic cat (Felis catus), representative of the ancestral carnivore karyotype (ACK), and giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) were used to define primitive homologous segments apparent between canids and other carnivore families. Canid chromosomes seem unique among carnivores in that many canid chromosome arms are mosaics of two to four homology segments of the ACK chromosome arms. The mosaic pattern apparently preceded the divergence of modern canid species since conserved homology segments among different canid species are common, even though those segments are rearranged relative to the ancestral carnivore genome arrangement. The results indicate an ancestral episode of extensive centric fission leading to an ancestral canid genome organization that was subsequently reorganized by multiple chromosome fusion events in some but not all Canidae lineages. PMID:12063402

  12. Evolution patterns and parameter regimes in edge localized modes on the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, D. R.; Fonck, R. J.; McKee, G. R.; Diallo, A.; Kaye, S. M.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Sabbagh, S. A.

    2016-04-01

    We implement unsupervised machine learning techniques to identify characteristic evolution patterns and associated parameter regimes in edge localized mode (ELM) events observed on the National Spherical Torus Experiment. Multi-channel, localized measurements spanning the pedestal region capture the complex evolution patterns of ELM events on Alfvén timescales. Some ELM events are active for less than 100 μs, but others persist for up to 1 ms. Also, some ELM events exhibit a single dominant perturbation, but others are oscillatory. Clustering calculations with time-series similarity metrics indicate the ELM database contains at least two and possibly three groups of ELMs with similar evolution patterns. The identified ELM groups trigger similar stored energy loss, but the groups occupy distinct parameter regimes for ELM-relevant quantities like plasma current, triangularity, and pedestal height. Notably, the pedestal electron pressure gradient is not an effective parameter for distinguishing the ELM groups, but the ELM groups segregate in terms of electron density gradient and electron temperature gradient. The ELM evolution patterns and corresponding parameter regimes can shape the formulation or validation of nonlinear ELM models. Finally, the techniques and results demonstrate an application of unsupervised machine learning at a data-rich fusion facility.

  13. Evolution patterns and parameter regimes in edge localized modes on the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, David R.; Fonck, R. J.; McKee, G. R.; Diallo, A.; Kaye, S. M.; Leblanc, B. P.

    2015-11-01

    We implement unsupervised machine learning techniques to identify characteristic evolution patterns and associated parameter regimes in edge localized mode (ELM) events observed on the National Spherical Torus Experiment. Multi-channel, localized measurements spanning the pedestal region capture the complex evolution patterns of ELM events on Alfven timescales. Some ELM events are active for less than 100 micro-s, but others persist for up to 1 ms. Also, some ELM events exhibit a single dominant perturbation, but others are oscillatory. Clustering calculations with time-series similarity metrics indicate the ELM database contains at least two and possibly three groups of ELMs with similar evolution patterns. The identified ELM groups trigger similar stored energy loss, but the groups occupy distinct parameter regimes for ELM-relevant quantities like plasma current, triangularity, and pedestal height. Notably, the pedestal electron pressure gradient is not an effective parameter for distinguishing the ELM groups, but the ELM groups segregate in terms of electron density gradient and electron temperature gradient. The ELM evolution patterns and corresponding parameter regimes can shape the formulation or validation of nonlinear ELM models. Finally, the techniques and results demonstrate an application of unsupervised machine learning at a data-rich fusion facility. Supported by the US Dept. of Energy.

  14. Host resistance influences patterns of experimental viral adaptation and virulence evolution

    PubMed Central

    Kubinak, Jason L; Potts, Wayne K

    2013-01-01

    Infectious diseases are major threats to all living systems, so understanding the forces of selection that limit the evolution of more virulent pathogens is of fundamental importance; this includes the practical application of identifying possible mitigation strategies for at-risk host populations. The evolution of more virulent pathogens has been classically understood to be limited by the tradeoff between within-host growth rate and transmissibility. Importantly, heterogeneity among hosts can influence both of these factors. However, despite our substantial understanding of how the immune system operates to control pathogen replication during infection, we have only a limited appreciation of how variability in intrinsic (i.e., genetically determined) levels of host resistance influences patterns of pathogen adaptation and virulence evolution. Here, we describe results from experimental evolution studies using a model host–pathogen (virus–mammal) system; we demonstrate that variability in intrinsic levels of resistance among host genotypes can have significant effects on patterns of pathogen adaptation and virulence evolution during serial passage. Both the magnitude of adaptive response as well as the degree of pathogen specialization was positively correlated with host resistance, while mean overall virulence of post-passage virus was negatively correlated with host resistance. These results are consistent with a model whereby resistant host genotypes impose stronger selection on adapting pathogen populations, which in turn leads to the evolution of more specialized pathogen variants whose overall (i.e., mean) virulence across host genotypes is reduced. PMID:23645287

  15. a Quantitative Study of Pattern Evolution and Time Dependence in Rayleigh Benard Convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heutmaker, Michael Steven

    In a thin fluid layer, Rayleigh-Benard convection patterns typi- cally adapt to the geometry of the sidewalls through the formation of bent rolls and defects. Instead of a single wavenumber q, the two-dimensional wavevector field (')q((')r) must be used in order to quantitatively specify the structure of these textured patterns. Changes in the Rayleigh number R influence the form and stability of the flow. Quantitative measurements of the flow structure are needed to characterize stable and time-dependent regimes of pattern evolu- tion. In this investigation, digital image analysis was utilized to measure the wavevector field (')q((')r) from shadowgraph images. The local magnitude and direction of (')q were found from the spacing and orientation of roll boundaries. We found three regimes of pattern evolution. The stability of patterns in these regimes can be roughly predicted from a com- parison between the distribution of wavenumbers P(q) within the patterns and the band of stable wavenumbers predicted by non- linear stability theory. (1) Surprisingly, for R sufficiently close to the onset of convection (in the approximate range (epsilon) < 0.2, where (epsilon) = (R-R(,c))/R(,c)), flows are persistently and non-periodically time-dependent. (2) In an intermediate range 0.2 < (epsilon) < 3.5, textured patterns are stable. (3) Sufficiently far from onset, for (epsilon) > 3.5, patterns are non-periodically time-dependent. In the time-dependent regimes (1) and (3), P(q) exceeds the threshold of secondary instabilities that limit the stable wavenumber band. The presence of unstable wavenumbers provides a possible explanation for persistent time dependence close to onset, but stability theory alone cannot explain the variations of P(q) with (epsilon). We also compare transient evolution (regime (2) above) to the predictions of the Swift-Hohenberg model. In this model, pattern evolution minimizes a Lyapunov functional F, analogous to the mini- mization of the free energy

  16. Patterns of evolution of research strands in the hydrologic sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, F. W.; Fang, Y. C.; Parthasarathy, S.

    2005-03-01

    This paper examines issues of impact and innovation in groundwater research by using bibliometric data and citation analysis.The analysis is based on 3120 papers from the journal Water Resources Research with full contents and their citation data from the ISI Web of Science. The research is designed to develop a better understanding of the way citation numbers can be interpreted by scientists. Not surprisingly, the most highly cited papers appear to be pioneers in the field with papers departing significantly from what has come before and to be effective in creating similar, follow-on papers. Papers that are early contributions to a new research strand that is highly influential will be on average highly cited. However, the importance of a research strand as measured by citations seems to fall with time. The citation patterns of some classic papers show that the activity in the topical area and impact of follow-on papers gradually decline with time, which has similarities with Kuhn's ideas of revolutionary and normal science. The results of this study reinforce the importance of being a pioneer in a research strand, strategically shifting research strands, adopting strategies that can facilitate really major research breakthroughs. L'article examine les problèmes d'impact et d'innovation dans la recherche des eaux souterraines en utilisant les données bibliométriques et l'analyse des citations. L'analyse a été faite sur 3120 articles parus dans Water Resources Research en tenant compte de leur texte complet et de toutes citations parues dans l' ISI Web de la Science. Le but de la recherche a été de mieux comprendre comment le nombre des citations peut être interprété par les scientifiques. Ce n'est pas une surprise que les plus cités articles soient les articles-pionniers dans leurs domaines, qui s'écartent d'une manière significative de ce qui a été écrit auparavant et qui ont été suivi par des nouveaux articles. Les articles qui présentent une

  17. Patterns of evolution of research strands in the hydrologic sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, F. W.; Fang, Y. C.; Parthasarathy, S.

    2005-03-01

    This paper examines issues of impact and innovation in groundwater research by using bibliometric data and citation analysis.The analysis is based on 3120 papers from the journal Water Resources Research with full contents and their citation data from the ISI Web of Science. The research is designed to develop a better understanding of the way citation numbers can be interpreted by scientists. Not surprisingly, the most highly cited papers appear to be pioneers in the field with papers departing significantly from what has come before and to be effective in creating similar, follow-on papers. Papers that are early contributions to a new research strand that is highly influential will be on average highly cited. However, the importance of a research strand as measured by citations seems to fall with time. The citation patterns of some classic papers show that the activity in the topical area and impact of follow-on papers gradually decline with time, which has similarities with Kuhn's ideas of revolutionary and normal science. The results of this study reinforce the importance of being a pioneer in a research strand, strategically shifting research strands, adopting strategies that can facilitate really major research breakthroughs. L'article examine les problèmes d'impact et d'innovation dans la recherche des eaux souterraines en utilisant les données bibliométriques et l'analyse des citations. L'analyse a été faite sur 3120 articles parus dans Water Resources Research en tenant compte de leur texte complet et de toutes citations parues dans l' ISI Web de la Science. Le but de la recherche a été de mieux comprendre comment le nombre des citations peut être interprété par les scientifiques. Ce n'est pas une surprise que les plus cités articles soient les articles-pionniers dans leurs domaines, qui s'écartent d'une manière significative de ce qui a été écrit auparavant et qui ont été suivi par des nouveaux articles. Les articles qui présentent une

  18. Why colour in subterranean vertebrates? Exploring the evolution of colour patterns in caecilian amphibians.

    PubMed

    Wollenberg, K C; Measey, C John

    2009-05-01

    The proximate functions of animal skin colour are difficult to assign as they can result from natural selection, sexual selection or neutral evolution under genetic drift. Most often colour patterns are thought to signal visual stimuli; so,their presence in subterranean taxa is perplexing. We evaluate the adaptive nature of colour patterns in nearly a third of all known species of caecilians, an order of amphibians most of which live in tropical soils and leaf litter. We found that certain colour pattern elements in caecilians can be explained based on characteristics concerning above-ground movement. Our study implies that certain caecilian colour patterns have convergently evolved under selection and we hypothesize their function most likely to be a synergy of aposematism and crypsis, related to periods when individuals move overground. In a wider context, our results suggest that very little exposure to daylight is required to evolve and maintain a varied array of colour patterns in animal skin. PMID:21462404

  19. Cellular pattern evolution in gaseous detonation diffraction in a 90-degree-branched channel

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Changming; Wang, Changjian; Xu, Shengli; Zhang, Hanhong

    2007-02-15

    This paper presents recent results of an experimental investigation on gaseous detonation diffraction in a 90-degree-branched channel. The entire process of diffraction is demonstrated by cellular patterns and the analysis is mainly based on their evolution. Detonation pressure history and velocity are measured and the corresponding cellular patterns are recorded on soot foils around the branched segment. Results show that detonation propagation is notably disturbed by the branched wall geometry and that a complex wave configuration appears in both channels. Cellular patterns show that an expansion fan appears at the T-junction area with a Mach reflection taking place in the horizontal channel, while regular reflection takes place in the vertical channel. Subsequently, it appears that there is a transition from a regular reflection to a Mach reflection in the vertical channel. Details of the cellular pattern indicate that from the early stage to the end of diffraction, the detonation wave sequentially experiences attenuation, front decoupling, and degradation into deflagration, reinitiation, and recuperation. According to cellular pattern evolution and velocity measurement, a recuperated detonation with nearly the same velocity as the undisturbed incoming wave finally develops downstream in both channels, at a distance of about four times the channel height (160 mm). The mechanism of diffraction is explored based on the ZND (Zel'dovich-von Neumann-Doering) model, and the soot foils in both channels show a pattern consistent with air shock-wave diffraction in a 90-degree-branched channel. (author)

  20. What explains patterns of species richness? The relative importance of climatic-niche evolution, morphological evolution, and ecological limits in salamanders.

    PubMed

    Kozak, Kenneth H; Wiens, John J

    2016-08-01

    A major goal of evolutionary biology and ecology is to understand why species richness varies among clades. Previous studies have suggested that variation in richness among clades might be related to variation in rates of morphological evolution among clades (e.g., body size and shape). Other studies have suggested that richness patterns might be related to variation in rates of climatic-niche evolution. However, few studies, if any, have tested the relative importance of these variables in explaining patterns of richness among clades. Here, we test their relative importance among major clades of Plethodontidae, the most species-rich family of salamanders. Earlier studies have suggested that climatic-niche evolution explains patterns of diversification among plethodontid clades, whereas rates of morphological evolution do not. A subsequent study stated that rates of morphological evolution instead explained patterns of species richness among plethodontid clades (along with "ecological limits" on richness of clades, leading to saturation of clades with species, given limited resources). However, they did not consider climatic-niche evolution. Using phylogenetic multiple regression, we show that rates of climatic-niche evolution explain most variation in richness among plethodontid clades, whereas rates of morphological evolution do not. We find little evidence that ecological limits explain patterns of richness among plethodontid clades. We also test whether rates of morphological and climatic-niche evolution are correlated, and find that they are not. Overall, our results help explain richness patterns in a major amphibian group and provide possibly the first test of the relative importance of climatic niches and morphological evolution in explaining diversity patterns. PMID:27547367

  1. Derivation of a Differential Equation Exhibiting Replicative Time-Evolution Patterns by Inverse Ultra-Discretization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Hiroshi; Nakajima, Asumi; Nishiyama, Akinobu; Tokihiro, Tetsuji

    2009-03-01

    A differential equation exhibiting replicative time-evolution patterns is derived by inverse ultradiscretizatrion of Fredkin’s game, which is one of the simplest replicative cellular automaton (CA) in two dimensions. This is achieved by employing a certain filter and a clock function in the equation. These techniques are applicable to the inverse ultra-discretization (IUD) of other CA and stabilize the time-evolution of the obtained differential equation. Application to the game of life, another CA in two dimensions, is also presented.

  2. The macroevolutionary consequences of phenotypic integration: from development to deep time

    PubMed Central

    Goswami, A.; Smaers, J. B.; Soligo, C.; Polly, P. D.

    2014-01-01

    Phenotypic integration is a pervasive characteristic of organisms. Numerous analyses have demonstrated that patterns of phenotypic integration are conserved across large clades, but that significant variation also exists. For example, heterochronic shifts related to different mammalian reproductive strategies are reflected in postcranial skeletal integration and in coordination of bone ossification. Phenotypic integration and modularity have been hypothesized to shape morphological evolution, and we extended simulations to confirm that trait integration can influence both the trajectory and magnitude of response to selection. We further demonstrate that phenotypic integration can produce both more and less disparate organisms than would be expected under random walk models by repartitioning variance in preferred directions. This effect can also be expected to favour homoplasy and convergent evolution. New empirical analyses of the carnivoran cranium show that rates of evolution, in contrast, are not strongly influenced by phenotypic integration and show little relationship to morphological disparity, suggesting that phenotypic integration may shape the direction of evolutionary change, but not necessarily the speed of it. Nonetheless, phenotypic integration is problematic for morphological clocks and should be incorporated more widely into models that seek to accurately reconstruct both trait and organismal evolution. PMID:25002699

  3. Characteristics of pattern formation and evolution in approximations of Physarum transport networks.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jeff

    2010-01-01

    Most studies of pattern formation place particular emphasis on its role in the development of complex multicellular body plans. In simpler organisms, however, pattern formation is intrinsic to growth and behavior. Inspired by one such organism, the true slime mold Physarum polycephalum, we present examples of complex emergent pattern formation and evolution formed by a population of simple particle-like agents. Using simple local behaviors based on chemotaxis, the mobile agent population spontaneously forms complex and dynamic transport networks. By adjusting simple model parameters, maps of characteristic patterning are obtained. Certain areas of the parameter mapping yield particularly complex long term behaviors, including the circular contraction of network lacunae and bifurcation of network paths to maintain network connectivity. We demonstrate the formation of irregular spots and labyrinthine and reticulated patterns by chemoattraction. Other Turing-like patterning schemes were obtained by using chemorepulsion behaviors, including the self-organization of regular periodic arrays of spots, and striped patterns. We show that complex pattern types can be produced without resorting to the hierarchical coupling of reaction-diffusion mechanisms. We also present network behaviors arising from simple pre-patterning cues, giving simple examples of how the emergent pattern formation processes evolve into networks with functional and quasi-physical properties including tensionlike effects, network minimization behavior, and repair to network damage. The results are interpreted in relation to classical theories of biological pattern formation in natural systems, and we suggest mechanisms by which emergent pattern formation processes may be used as a method for spatially represented unconventional computation. PMID:20067403

  4. Time Curves: Folding Time to Visualize Patterns of Temporal Evolution in Data.

    PubMed

    Bach, Benjamin; Shi, Conglei; Heulot, Nicolas; Madhyastha, Tara; Grabowski, Tom; Dragicevic, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    We introduce time curves as a general approach for visualizing patterns of evolution in temporal data. Examples of such patterns include slow and regular progressions, large sudden changes, and reversals to previous states. These patterns can be of interest in a range of domains, such as collaborative document editing, dynamic network analysis, and video analysis. Time curves employ the metaphor of folding a timeline visualization into itself so as to bring similar time points close to each other. This metaphor can be applied to any dataset where a similarity metric between temporal snapshots can be defined, thus it is largely datatype-agnostic. We illustrate how time curves can visually reveal informative patterns in a range of different datasets. PMID:26529718

  5. Decoupled temporal patterns of evolution and ecology in two post-Paleozoic clades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKinney, F. K.; Lidgard, S.; Sepkoski, J. J. Jr; Taylor, P. D.

    1998-01-01

    Counts of taxonomic diversity are the prevailing standards for documenting large-scale patterns of evolution in the fossil record. However, the secular pattern of relative ecological importance between the bryozoan clades Cyclostomata and Cheilostomata is not reflected fully in compilations of generic diversity or within-fauna species richness, and the delayed ecological recovery of the Cheilostomata after the mass extinction at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary is missed entirely. These observations demonstrate that evolutionary success and ecological dominance can be decoupled and profoundly different, even over tens of millions of years.

  6. Phylomemetic patterns in science evolution--the rise and fall of scientific fields.

    PubMed

    Chavalarias, David; Cointet, Jean-Philippe

    2013-01-01

    We introduce an automated method for the bottom-up reconstruction of the cognitive evolution of science, based on big-data issued from digital libraries, and modeled as lineage relationships between scientific fields. We refer to these dynamic structures as phylomemetic networks or phylomemies, by analogy with biological evolution; and we show that they exhibit strong regularities, with clearly identifiable phylomemetic patterns. Some structural properties of the scientific fields - in particular their density -, which are defined independently of the phylomemy reconstruction, are clearly correlated with their status and their fate in the phylomemy (like their age or their short term survival). Within the framework of a quantitative epistemology, this approach raises the question of predictibility for science evolution, and sketches a prototypical life cycle of the scientific fields: an increase of their cohesion after their emergence, the renewal of their conceptual background through branching or merging events, before decaying when their density is getting too low. PMID:23408947

  7. Antigenic Patterns and Evolution of the Human Influenza A (H1N1) Virus

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Mi; Zhao, Xiang; Hua, Sha; Du, Xiangjun; Peng, Yousong; Li, Xiyan; Lan, Yu; Wang, Dayan; Wu, Aiping; Shu, Yuelong; Jiang, Taijiao

    2015-01-01

    The influenza A (H1N1) virus causes seasonal epidemics that result in severe illnesses and deaths almost every year. A deep understanding of the antigenic patterns and evolution of human influenza A (H1N1) virus is extremely important for its effective surveillance and prevention. Through development of antigenicity inference method for human influenza A (H1N1), named PREDAC-H1, we systematically mapped the antigenic patterns and evolution of the human influenza A (H1N1) virus. Eight dominant antigenic clusters have been inferred for seasonal H1N1 viruses since 1977, which demonstrated sequential replacements over time with a similar pattern in Asia, Europe and North America. Among them, six clusters emerged first in Asia. As for China, three of the eight antigenic clusters were detected in South China earlier than in North China, indicating the leading role of South China in H1N1 transmission. The comprehensive view of the antigenic evolution of human influenza A (H1N1) virus can help formulate better strategy for its prevention and control. PMID:26412348

  8. Critically evaluating the theory and performance of Bayesian analysis of macroevolutionary mixtures

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Brian R.; Höhna, Sebastian; May, Michael R.; Rannala, Bruce; Huelsenbeck, John P.

    2016-01-01

    Bayesian analysis of macroevolutionary mixtures (BAMM) has recently taken the study of lineage diversification by storm. BAMM estimates the diversification-rate parameters (speciation and extinction) for every branch of a study phylogeny and infers the number and location of diversification-rate shifts across branches of a tree. Our evaluation of BAMM reveals two major theoretical errors: (i) the likelihood function (which estimates the model parameters from the data) is incorrect, and (ii) the compound Poisson process prior model (which describes the prior distribution of diversification-rate shifts across branches) is incoherent. Using simulation, we demonstrate that these theoretical issues cause statistical pathologies; posterior estimates of the number of diversification-rate shifts are strongly influenced by the assumed prior, and estimates of diversification-rate parameters are unreliable. Moreover, the inability to correctly compute the likelihood or to correctly specify the prior for rate-variable trees precludes the use of Bayesian approaches for testing hypotheses regarding the number and location of diversification-rate shifts using BAMM. PMID:27512038

  9. Critically evaluating the theory and performance of Bayesian analysis of macroevolutionary mixtures.

    PubMed

    Moore, Brian R; Höhna, Sebastian; May, Michael R; Rannala, Bruce; Huelsenbeck, John P

    2016-08-23

    Bayesian analysis of macroevolutionary mixtures (BAMM) has recently taken the study of lineage diversification by storm. BAMM estimates the diversification-rate parameters (speciation and extinction) for every branch of a study phylogeny and infers the number and location of diversification-rate shifts across branches of a tree. Our evaluation of BAMM reveals two major theoretical errors: (i) the likelihood function (which estimates the model parameters from the data) is incorrect, and (ii) the compound Poisson process prior model (which describes the prior distribution of diversification-rate shifts across branches) is incoherent. Using simulation, we demonstrate that these theoretical issues cause statistical pathologies; posterior estimates of the number of diversification-rate shifts are strongly influenced by the assumed prior, and estimates of diversification-rate parameters are unreliable. Moreover, the inability to correctly compute the likelihood or to correctly specify the prior for rate-variable trees precludes the use of Bayesian approaches for testing hypotheses regarding the number and location of diversification-rate shifts using BAMM. PMID:27512038

  10. Complex and changing patterns of natural selection explain the evolution of the human hip.

    PubMed

    Grabowski, Mark; Roseman, Charles C

    2015-08-01

    Causal explanations for the dramatic changes that occurred during the evolution of the human hip focus largely on selection for bipedal function and locomotor efficiency. These hypotheses rest on two critical assumptions. The first-that these anatomical changes served functional roles in bipedalism-has been supported in numerous analyses showing how postcranial changes likely affected locomotion. The second-that morphological changes that did play functional roles in bipedalism were the result of selection for that behavior-has not been previously explored and represents a major gap in our understanding of hominin hip evolution. Here we use evolutionary quantitative genetic models to test the hypothesis that strong directional selection on many individual aspects of morphology was responsible for the large differences observed across a sample of fossil hominin hips spanning the Plio-Pleistocene. Our approach uses covariance among traits and the differences between relatively complete fossils to estimate the net selection pressures that drove the major transitions in hominin hip evolution. Our findings show a complex and changing pattern of natural selection drove hominin hip evolution, and that many, but not all, traits hypothesized to play functional roles in bipedalism evolved as a direct result of natural selection. While the rate of evolutionary change for all transitions explored here does not exceed the amount expected if evolution was occurring solely through neutral processes, it was far above rates of evolution for morphological traits in other mammalian groups. Given that stasis is the norm in the mammalian fossil record, our results suggest that large shifts in the adaptive landscape drove hominin evolution. PMID:26164108

  11. An Ecological Drill: Biogeomorphic Pattern Evolution in a Low-Relief Carbonate Landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, M. J.; Quintero, C.; Ward, N. D.; Raines, E.; Brown, A.; Martin, J. B.; Bianchi, T. S.; Mclaughlin, D. L.; Osborne, T.; Heffernan, J. B.; Watts, A.

    2015-12-01

    Feedbacks between hydrology, ecosystem metabolism, and mineral weathering are proposed to explain the striking geometric patterning of wetland basins in the low-relief carbonate landscape of Big Cypress (BICY) National Preserve in southwest Florida. In contrast to critical zone evolution in systems dominated by siliciclastic rocks, our conceptual model for this and other carbonate landscapes highlights the importance of congruent mineral weathering, which alters both the depth and geometry of the critical zone, and invokes metabolism as a core control on landscape morphology via impacts to CO2 acidity. In the case of BICY, our motivation is to understand the origins of visually compelling, and geostatistically regular, landscape patterning. Using preliminary evidence from archival data synthesis, lidar-derived elevations, field surveys of sediment thickness and vegetation biomass, characterization of deep sediment cores, and high temporal resolution measurements of water levels, solute concentrations, and gas fluxes we offer support for a conceptual model that invokes critical zone processes as the basis for Holocene pattern emergence. Of particular interest is our invocation of episodic landscape hydrologic connectivity as integral to pattern emergence. While our findings are specific to the unique features of this extremely flat eogenetic karst landscape where a clay confining unit precludes deep drainage feature evolution, we posit that the feedbacks between hydrology, ecosystem metabolism and carbonate weathering are general to critical zone processes in karst areas globally.

  12. Electrodeposition modeling and optimization to improve thin film patterning with orchestrated structure evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbasi, Shaghayegh; Kitayaporn, Sathana; Siedlik, Michael J.; Schwartz, Daniel T.; Böhringer, Karl F.

    2012-08-01

    Orchestrated structure evolution is an alternative nanomanufacturing approach that combines the advantages of top-down patterning and bottom-up self-organizing growth. It relies upon tool-directed patterning to create ‘seed’ locations on a surface from which a subsequent deposition process produces the final, merged film. Despite its demonstrated ability to reduce patterning time by orders of magnitude, our prior reliance on mass transfer limited deposition and square seed arrays resulted in extraneous film growth along pattern edges, thereby limiting the pattern quality of the final film. Here, quality improvements are demonstrated by modeling and tuning the growth mechanism of the deposition step to include charge transfer effects. In addition, a seed positioning optimization technique derived from simulated annealing is introduced as a method for relocating the seeds to minimize film overgrowth at the pattern edges. These improvements enable OSE to maintain geometric quality while substantially reducing the time and cost compared to traditional direct-write manufacturing methods.

  13. Patterns of philopatry and longevity contribute to the evolution of post-reproductive lifespan in mammals

    PubMed Central

    Zecherle, L.; Arbuckle, K.

    2016-01-01

    While menopause has long been known as a characteristic trait of human reproduction, evidence for post-reproductive lifespan (PRLS) has recently been found in other mammals. Adaptive and non-adaptive hypotheses have been proposed to explain the evolution of PRLS, but formal tests of these are rare. We use a phylogenetic approach to evaluate hypotheses for the evolution of PRLS among mammals. In contrast to theoretical models predicting that PRLS may be promoted by male philopatry (which increases relatedness between a female and her group in old age), we find little evidence that male philopatry led to the evolution of a post-reproductive period. However, the proportion of life spent post-reproductive was related to lifespan and patterns of philopatry, suggesting that the duration of PRLS may be impacted by both non-adaptive and adaptive processes. Finally, the proportion of females experiencing PRLS was higher in species with male philopaty and larger groups, in accordance with adaptive models of PRLS. We suggest that the origin of PRLS primarily follows the non-adaptive ‘mismatch’ scenario, but that patterns of philopatry may subsequently confer adaptive benefits of late-life helping. PMID:26888915

  14. Evolution of the insect terminal patterning system--insights from the milkweed bug, Oncopeltus fasciatus.

    PubMed

    Weisbrod, Anat; Cohen, Mira; Chipman, Ariel D

    2013-08-01

    The anterior and posterior ends of the insect embryo are patterned through the terminal patterning system, which is best known from the fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster. In Drosophila, the RTK receptor Torso and its presumed co-activator Torso-like initiate a signaling cascade, which activates two terminal gap genes, tailless and huckebein. These in turn interact with various patterning genes to define terminal structures. Work on other insect species has shown that this system is poorly conserved, and not all of its components have been found in all cases studied. We place the variability of the system within a broader phylogenetic framework. We describe the expression and knock-down phenotypes of the homologues of terminal patterning genes in the hemimetabolous Oncopeltus fasciatus. We have examined the interactions among these genes and between them and other patterning genes. We demonstrate that all of these genes have different roles in Oncopeltus relative to Drosophila; torso-like is expressed in follicle cells during oogenesis and is involved in the invagination of the blastoderm to form the germ band, and possibly also in defining the growth zone; tailless is regulated by orthodenticle and has a role only in anterior determination; huckebein is expressed only in the middle of the blastoderm; finally, torso was not found in Oncopeltus and its role in terminal patterning seems novel within holometabolous insects. We then use our data, together with published data on other insects, to reconstruct the evolution of the terminal patterning gene network in insects. We suggest that the Drosophila terminal patterning network evolved recently in the lineage leading to the Diptera, and represents an example of evolutionary "tinkering", where pre-existing pathways are co-opted for a new function. PMID:23665175

  15. Distinctive Patterns of Evolution of the δ-Globin Gene (HBD) in Primates

    PubMed Central

    Moleirinho, Ana; Lopes, Alexandra M.; Seixas, Susana; Morales-Hojas, Ramiro; Prata, Maria J.; Amorim, António

    2015-01-01

    In most vertebrates, hemoglobin (Hb) is a heterotetramer composed of two dissimilar globin chains, which change during development according to the patterns of expression of α- and β-globin family members. In placental mammals, the β-globin cluster includes three early-expressed genes, ε(HBE)-γ(HBG)-ψβ(HBBP1), and the late expressed genes, δ (HBD) and β (HBB). While HBB encodes the major adult β-globin chain, HBD is weakly expressed or totally silent. Paradoxically, in human populations HBD shows high levels of conservation typical of genes under strong evolutionary constraints, possibly due to a regulatory role in the fetal-to-adult switch unique of Anthropoid primates. In this study, we have performed a comprehensive phylogenetic and comparative analysis of the two adult β-like globin genes in a set of diverse mammalian taxa, focusing on the evolution and functional divergence of HBD in primates. Our analysis revealed that anthropoids are an exception to a general pattern of concerted evolution in placental mammals, showing a high level of sequence conservation at HBD, less frequent and shorter gene conversion events. Moreover, this lineage is unique in the retention of a functional GATA-1 motif, known to be involved in the control of the developmental expression of the β-like globin genes. We further show that not only the mode but also the rate of evolution of the δ-globin gene in higher primates are strictly associated with the fetal/adult β-cluster developmental switch. To gain further insight into the possible functional constraints that have been shaping the evolutionary history of HBD in primates, we calculated dN/dS (ω) ratios under alternative models of gene evolution. Although our results indicate that HBD might have experienced different selective pressures throughout primate evolution, as shown by different ω values between apes and Old World Monkeys + New World Monkeys (0.06 versus 0.43, respectively), these estimates corroborated a

  16. Evolution of oropharyngeal patterning mechanisms involving Dlx and endothelins in vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Kuraku, Shigehiro; Takio, Yoko; Sugahara, Fumiaki; Takechi, Masaki; Kuratani, Shigeru

    2010-05-01

    In jawed vertebrates, the Dlx code, or nested expression patterns of Dlx genes, specify the dorsoventral polarity of pharyngeal arches, downstream of endothelin-1 (Edn-1) and its effectors, Bapx1 (Nkx3.2) and dHand (Hand2). To elucidate the evolution of the specification mechanism of the oropharyngeal skeletal system, lamprey homologs of Dlx, Edn, endothelin receptor (Ednr), Bapx1, and dHand were identified. Our analysis suggested that the Edn gene family emerged at the advent of vertebrates, and that gene duplications leading to the different Edn gnathostome subtypes (Edn1-3) occurred before the cyclostome-gnathostome split. This timing of gene duplications, giving rise to multiple subtypes, was also implied for Dlx, Ednr, Hand, and Bapx. In lamprey embryos, nested expressions of Dlx genes were not observed in pharyngeal arches, nor was any focal expression of Bapx1, known in gnathostomes to specify the jaw joint. The dHand homolog, however, was expressed more intensively ventrally, as in gnathostomes. Lamprey homologs of Edn-1 and EdnrA were also shown to be expressed as described in mice, indicating involvement of this signaling pathway in the craniofacial patterning early in vertebrate evolution. These results suggest that the last common ancestor of all the extant vertebrates would have possessed basic gene repertoires involved in oropharyngeal patterning in gnathostomes, but the elaborate genetic program leading to the Dlx code is likely to have been acquired uniquely in gnathostomes. PMID:20171204

  17. Genome evolution and speciation: toward quantitative descriptions of pattern and process.

    PubMed

    Nosil, Patrik; Feder, Jeffrey L

    2013-09-01

    Studies of patterns of differentiation across genomes are accumulating, yet integrative work that combines approaches and fully capitalizes on new technologies to test explicit hypotheses is still rare. Thus, debates persist about the rate, magnitude, and causes of genomic change. This special section is devoted to helping resolve these debates. The eight studies contained within demonstrate how we can begin to move away from vague metaphors toward quantitative and more precise descriptors of patterns of genetic architecture and divergence. However, a particular genomic pattern can often arise via different combinations of various processes such as selection, gene flow, recombination, mutation, genetic drift, and demographic variability. Thus, substantial challenges remain in elucidating which evolutionary processes generated observed genomic patterns. Nonetheless, the studies in this section demonstrate ways forward toward bridging pattern and process, including experimental work, genetic mapping, increased knowledge of natural history and demography, and comparative studies spanning taxa at different points in the speciation continuum. Such collective work will lead to more powerful hypothesis testing. Future work can also help better integrate the contributions of ecology, genome structure (e.g., inversions and translocations), and genetic conflict to genome evolution. PMID:24033160

  18. Evolution-development congruence in pattern formation dynamics: Bifurcations in gene expression and regulation of networks structures.

    PubMed

    Kohsokabe, Takahiro; Kaneko, Kunihiko

    2016-01-01

    Search for possible relationships between phylogeny and ontogeny is important in evolutionary-developmental biology. Here we uncover such relationships by numerical evolution and unveil their origin in terms of dynamical systems theory. By representing developmental dynamics of spatially located cells with gene expression dynamics with cell-to-cell interaction under external morphogen gradient, gene regulation networks are evolved under mutation and selection with the fitness to approach a prescribed spatial pattern of expressed genes. For most numerical evolution experiments, evolution of pattern over generations and development of pattern by an evolved network exhibit remarkable congruence. Both in the evolution and development pattern changes consist of several epochs where stripes are formed in a short time, while for other temporal regimes, pattern hardly changes. In evolution, these quasi-stationary regimes are generations needed to hit relevant mutations, while in development, they are due to some gene expression that varies slowly and controls the pattern change. The morphogenesis is regulated by combinations of feedback or feedforward regulations, where the upstream feedforward network reads the external morphogen gradient, and generates a pattern used as a boundary condition for the later patterns. The ordering from up to downstream is common in evolution and development, while the successive epochal changes in development and evolution are represented as common bifurcations in dynamical-systems theory, which lead to the evolution-development congruence. Mechanism of exceptional violation of the congruence is also unveiled. Our results provide a new look on developmental stages, punctuated equilibrium, developmental bottlenecks, and evolutionary acquisition of novelty in morphogenesis. PMID:26678220

  19. Nuclear Architecture and Patterns of Molecular Evolution Are Correlated in the Ciliate Chilodonella uncinata.

    PubMed

    Maurer-Alcalá, Xyrus X; Katz, Laura A

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between nuclear architecture and patterns of molecular evolution in lineages across the eukaryotic tree of life is not well understood, partly because molecular evolution is traditionally explored as changes in base pairs along a linear sequence without considering the context of nuclear position of chromosomes. The ciliate Chilodonella uncinata is an ideal system to address the relationship between nuclear architecture and patterns of molecular evolution as the somatic macronucleus of this ciliate is composed of a peripheral DNA-rich area (orthomere) and a DNA-poor central region (paramere) to form a "heteromeric" macronucleus. Moreover, because the somatic chromosomes of C. uncinata are highly processed into "gene-sized" chromosomes (i.e., nanochromosomes), we can assess fine-scale relationships between location and sequence evolution. By combining fluorescence microscopy and analyses of transcriptome data from C. uncinata, we find that highly expressed genes have the greatest codon usage bias and are enriched in DNA-poor regions. In contrast, genes with less biased sequences tend to be concentrated in DNA abundant areas, at least during vegetative growth. Our analyses are consistent with recent work in plants and animals where nuclear architecture plays a role in gene expression. At the same time, the unusual localization of nanochromosomes suggests that the highly structured nucleus in C. uncinata may create a "gene bank" that facilitates rapid changes in expression of genes required only in specific life history stages. By using "nonmodel" organisms like C. uncinata, we can explore the universality of eukaryotic features while also providing examples of novel properties (i.e., the presence of a gene bank) that build from these features. PMID:27189988

  20. Nuclear Architecture and Patterns of Molecular Evolution Are Correlated in the Ciliate Chilodonella uncinata

    PubMed Central

    Maurer-Alcalá, Xyrus X.; Katz, Laura A.

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between nuclear architecture and patterns of molecular evolution in lineages across the eukaryotic tree of life is not well understood, partly because molecular evolution is traditionally explored as changes in base pairs along a linear sequence without considering the context of nuclear position of chromosomes. The ciliate Chilodonella uncinata is an ideal system to address the relationship between nuclear architecture and patterns of molecular evolution as the somatic macronucleus of this ciliate is composed of a peripheral DNA-rich area (orthomere) and a DNA-poor central region (paramere) to form a “heteromeric” macronucleus. Moreover, because the somatic chromosomes of C. uncinata are highly processed into “gene-sized” chromosomes (i.e., nanochromosomes), we can assess fine-scale relationships between location and sequence evolution. By combining fluorescence microscopy and analyses of transcriptome data from C. uncinata, we find that highly expressed genes have the greatest codon usage bias and are enriched in DNA-poor regions. In contrast, genes with less biased sequences tend to be concentrated in DNA abundant areas, at least during vegetative growth. Our analyses are consistent with recent work in plants and animals where nuclear architecture plays a role in gene expression. At the same time, the unusual localization of nanochromosomes suggests that the highly structured nucleus in C. uncinata may create a “gene bank” that facilitates rapid changes in expression of genes required only in specific life history stages. By using “nonmodel” organisms like C. uncinata, we can explore the universality of eukaryotic features while also providing examples of novel properties (i.e., the presence of a gene bank) that build from these features. PMID:27189988

  1. The Repeat Pattern Toolkit (RPT): Analyzing the structure and evolution of the C. elegans genome

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwal, P.; States, D.J.

    1994-12-31

    Over 3.6 million bases of DNA sequence from chromosome III of the C. elegans have been determined. The availability of this extended region of contiguous sequence has allowed us to analyze the nature and prevalence of repetitive sequences in the genome of a eukaryotic organism with a high gene density. We have assembled a Repeat Pattern Toolkit (RPT) to analyze the patterns of repeats occurring in DNA. The tools include identifying significant local alignments (utilizing both two-way and three-way alignments), dividing the set of alignments into connected components (signifying repeat families), computing evolutionary distance between repeat family members, constructing minimum spanning trees from the connected components, and visualizing the evolution of the repeat families. Over 7000 families of repetitive sequences were identified. The size of the families ranged from isolated pairs to over 1600 segments of similar sequence. Approximately 12.3% of the analyzed sequence participates in a repeat element.

  2. Exploring the patterns and evolution of self-organized urban street networks through modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rui, Yikang; Ban, Yifang; Wang, Jiechen; Haas, Jan

    2013-03-01

    As one of the most important subsystems in cities, urban street networks have recently been well studied by using the approach of complex networks. This paper proposes a growing model for self-organized urban street networks. The model involves a competition among new centers with different values of attraction radius and a local optimal principle of both geometrical and topological factors. We find that with the model growth, the local optimization in the connection process and appropriate probability for the loop construction well reflect the evolution strategy in real-world cities. Moreover, different values of attraction radius in centers competition process lead to morphological change in patterns including urban network, polycentric and monocentric structures. The model succeeds in reproducing a large diversity of road network patterns by varying parameters. The similarity between the properties of our model and empirical results implies that a simple universal growth mechanism exists in self-organized cities.

  3. Phylogeographic patterns and evolution of the mitochondrial DNA control region in two neotropical cats (Mammalia, felidae).

    PubMed

    Eizirik, E; Bonatto, S L; Johnson, W E; Crawshaw, P G; Vié, J C; Brousset, D M; O'Brien, S J; Salzano, F M

    1998-11-01

    The ocelot (Leopardus pardalis) and margay (L. wiedii) are sister-species of Neotropical cats which evolved from a lineage that migrated into South America during the formation of the Panamanian land bridge 3-5 million years ago. Patterns of population genetic divergence of each species were studied by phylogenetic analyses of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region sequences in individuals sampled across the distribution of these taxa. Abundant genetic diversity and remarkably concordant phylogeographic partitions for both species were observed, identifying parallel geographic regions which likely reflect historical faunal barriers. Inferred aspects of phylogeography, population genetic structure, and demographic history were used to formulate conservation recommendations for these species. In addition, observed patterns of sequence variation provided insight into the molecular evolution of the mtDNA control region in closely related felids. PMID:9797412

  4. The maximum rate of mammal evolution.

    PubMed

    Evans, Alistair R; Jones, David; Boyer, Alison G; Brown, James H; Costa, Daniel P; Ernest, S K Morgan; Fitzgerald, Erich M G; Fortelius, Mikael; Gittleman, John L; Hamilton, Marcus J; Harding, Larisa E; Lintulaakso, Kari; Lyons, S Kathleen; Okie, Jordan G; Saarinen, Juha J; Sibly, Richard M; Smith, Felisa A; Stephens, Patrick R; Theodor, Jessica M; Uhen, Mark D

    2012-03-13

    How fast can a mammal evolve from the size of a mouse to the size of an elephant? Achieving such a large transformation calls for major biological reorganization. Thus, the speed at which this occurs has important implications for extensive faunal changes, including adaptive radiations and recovery from mass extinctions. To quantify the pace of large-scale evolution we developed a metric, clade maximum rate, which represents the maximum evolutionary rate of a trait within a clade. We applied this metric to body mass evolution in mammals over the last 70 million years, during which multiple large evolutionary transitions occurred in oceans and on continents and islands. Our computations suggest that it took a minimum of 1.6, 5.1, and 10 million generations for terrestrial mammal mass to increase 100-, and 1,000-, and 5,000-fold, respectively. Values for whales were down to half the length (i.e., 1.1, 3, and 5 million generations), perhaps due to the reduced mechanical constraints of living in an aquatic environment. When differences in generation time are considered, we find an exponential increase in maximum mammal body mass during the 35 million years following the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) extinction event. Our results also indicate a basic asymmetry in macroevolution: very large decreases (such as extreme insular dwarfism) can happen at more than 10 times the rate of increases. Our findings allow more rigorous comparisons of microevolutionary and macroevolutionary patterns and processes. PMID:22308461

  5. The maximum rate of mammal evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Alistair R.; Jones, David; Boyer, Alison G.; Brown, James H.; Costa, Daniel P.; Ernest, S. K. Morgan; Fitzgerald, Erich M. G.; Fortelius, Mikael; Gittleman, John L.; Hamilton, Marcus J.; Harding, Larisa E.; Lintulaakso, Kari; Lyons, S. Kathleen; Okie, Jordan G.; Saarinen, Juha J.; Sibly, Richard M.; Smith, Felisa A.; Stephens, Patrick R.; Theodor, Jessica M.; Uhen, Mark D.

    2012-03-01

    How fast can a mammal evolve from the size of a mouse to the size of an elephant? Achieving such a large transformation calls for major biological reorganization. Thus, the speed at which this occurs has important implications for extensive faunal changes, including adaptive radiations and recovery from mass extinctions. To quantify the pace of large-scale evolution we developed a metric, clade maximum rate, which represents the maximum evolutionary rate of a trait within a clade. We applied this metric to body mass evolution in mammals over the last 70 million years, during which multiple large evolutionary transitions occurred in oceans and on continents and islands. Our computations suggest that it took a minimum of 1.6, 5.1, and 10 million generations for terrestrial mammal mass to increase 100-, and 1,000-, and 5,000-fold, respectively. Values for whales were down to half the length (i.e., 1.1, 3, and 5 million generations), perhaps due to the reduced mechanical constraints of living in an aquatic environment. When differences in generation time are considered, we find an exponential increase in maximum mammal body mass during the 35 million years following the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) extinction event. Our results also indicate a basic asymmetry in macroevolution: very large decreases (such as extreme insular dwarfism) can happen at more than 10 times the rate of increases. Our findings allow more rigorous comparisons of microevolutionary and macroevolutionary patterns and processes.

  6. The relation between recombination rate and patterns of molecular evolution and variation in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Campos, José L; Halligan, Daniel L; Haddrill, Penelope R; Charlesworth, Brian

    2014-04-01

    Genetic recombination associated with sexual reproduction increases the efficiency of natural selection by reducing the strength of Hill-Robertson interference. Such interference can be caused either by selective sweeps of positively selected alleles or by background selection (BGS) against deleterious mutations. Its consequences can be studied by comparing patterns of molecular evolution and variation in genomic regions with different rates of crossing over. We carried out a comprehensive study of the benefits of recombination in Drosophila melanogaster, both by contrasting five independent genomic regions that lack crossing over with the rest of the genome and by comparing regions with different rates of crossing over, using data on DNA sequence polymorphisms from an African population that is geographically close to the putatively ancestral population for the species, and on sequence divergence from a related species. We observed reductions in sequence diversity in noncrossover (NC) regions that are inconsistent with the effects of hard selective sweeps in the absence of recombination. Overall, the observed patterns suggest that the recombination rate experienced by a gene is positively related to an increase in the efficiency of both positive and purifying selection. The results are consistent with a BGS model with interference among selected sites in NC regions, and joint effects of BGS, selective sweeps, and a past population expansion on variability in regions of the genome that experience crossing over. In such crossover regions, the X chromosome exhibits a higher rate of adaptive protein sequence evolution than the autosomes, implying a Faster-X effect. PMID:24489114

  7. Analysis of codon usage pattern evolution in avian rotaviruses and their preferred host.

    PubMed

    Kattoor, Jobin Jose; Malik, Yashpal Singh; Sasidharan, Aravind; Rajan, Vishnuraj Mangalathu; Dhama, Kuldeep; Ghosh, Souvik; Bányai, Krisztián; Kobayashi, Nobumichi; Singh, Raj Kumar

    2015-08-01

    Rotavirus infection is a worldwide problem, with occurrence of highly divergent viruses classified in 8 species (A-H). We report here the evolution assessment of codon usage patterns in virus-host system in avian rotavirus (AvRV) of species RVA, RVD, RVF and RVG (preferentially affecting birds). The nucleotide contents, codon usage bias (CUB), relative synonymous codon usage (RSCU), and effective number of codons (ENCs) values were investigated targeting overexpressing major inner capsid viral protein (VP6) of these AvRV species. The results confirm that the evolutionary characteristics influences the rotavirus (RV) genetic diversity and impact of host's natural selection on the AvRVs codons. Synonymous codon usage patterns were evaluated following multivariate statistical procedures on all available AvRV coding gene sequences. RSCU trees accommodated all AvRV species and preferred host sequences in one topology confirming greater imminence of AvRVs with the host chicken cell genes. Similarly, the codon adaptation index (CAI) results also displayed a higher adaptation of AvRVs to its chicken host. The codon preference analysis of RVs revealed that VP6 gene express more proficiently in the yeast system, whereas, codon optimization might be required for the effectual expression in Escherichia coli and Homo sapiens. The findings provide basic evidence on the dynamics of AvRV evolution and its host adaptation, which could be exploited for additional research on avian species in future. PMID:26086995

  8. Unique expression patterns of multiple key genes associated with the evolution of mammalian flight

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhe; Dai, Mengyao; Wang, Yao; Cooper, Kimberly L.; Zhu, Tengteng; Dong, Dong; Zhang, Junpeng; Zhang, Shuyi

    2014-01-01

    Bats are the only mammals capable of true flight. Critical adaptations for flight include a pair of dramatically elongated hands with broad wing membranes. To study the molecular mechanisms of bat wing evolution, we perform genomewide mRNA sequencing and in situ hybridization for embryonic bat limbs. We identify seven key genes that display unique expression patterns in embryonic bat wings and feet, compared with mouse fore- and hindlimbs. The expression of all 5′HoxD genes (Hoxd9–13) and Tbx3, six known crucial transcription factors for limb and digit development, is extremely high and prolonged in the elongating wing area. The expression of Fam5c, a tumour suppressor, in bat limbs is bat-specific and significantly high in all short digit regions (the thumb and foot digits). These results suggest multiple genetic changes occurred independently during the evolution of bat wings to elongate the hand digits, promote membrane growth and keep other digits short. Our findings also indicate that the evolution of limb morphology depends on the complex integration of multiple gene regulatory networks and biological processes that control digit formation and identity, chondrogenesis, and interdigital regression or retention. PMID:24695426

  9. Holocene denudation pattern across the South-Eastern Australian Escarpment and implications for its evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godard, Vincent; Dosseto, Anthony; Bellier, Olivier; Bourlès, Didier; Fleury, Jules; Aster Team

    2016-04-01

    Developing a process based understanding of continental relief evolution requires to quantify rates of denudation and to compare their distribution with the evolution of geomorphic parameters. The analysis of denudation and exhumation spatial patterns based from cosmogenic nuclides and low temperature thermochronology are routinely used to document the processes associated with the geomorphic evolution of continental relief over various timescales. Passive margin escarpments are among some of the most salient continental geomorphic features outside of orogenic areas. Their evolution have been studied intensively over the long-term (several Ma to tens of Ma), using for example low-temperature thermochronology. However, datasets documenting their shorter-term (1-10 ka) dynamics are scarcer, and only a limited number of case studies have used quantitative techniques such as cosmogenic nuclides to document the denudation pattern across such escarpments. The South Eastern Australian Escarpment is such a place where cosmogenic nuclides have been intensively used over the last two decades to constrain processes of landscape evolution over short wavelength, with, for example the calibration of the soil production function. Such existing data and constraints provide an ideal setting to carry on further long-wavelength exploration of the dynamics of the whole escarpment. We have sampled 17 catchments across the South Eastern Australian Escarpment, starting from the coastal plain and moving westward up to the low relief plateau surface. The observed landscape denudation rates are 10-20 mm/ka in the coastal area and progressively increases up to ~60 mm/ka toward the edge of the escarpment. In the low-relief areas located west of the continental drainage divide denudation rates fall back to 10-20 mm/ka. This nearly four-fold contrast in denudation across the divide is characteristic of a major disequilibrium in the dynamics of the river network associated with a progressive

  10. Evolution of large amplitude 3D fold patterns: A FEM study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmid, D. W.; Dabrowski, M.; Krotkiewski, M.

    2008-12-01

    The numerical study of three-dimensional (3D) fold patterns formation in randomly perturbed layers requires large numbers of degrees of freedom (≥100,000,000). We have developed BILAMIN, an unstructured (geometry fitted) mesh implementation of the finite element method for incompressible Stokes flow that is capable of solving such systems. All repetitive and computationally intensive steps are fully parallelized. One of the main components is the iterative solver. We chose the minimum residual method (MINRES) because it allows operating directly on the indefinite systems resulting from the incompressibility condition. We use BILAMIN in a case study of fold pattern evolution. Folds are ubiquitous in nature, and contain both mechanical and kinematic information that can be deciphered with appropriate tools. Our results show that there is a relationship between fold aspect ratio and in-plane loading conditions. We propose that this finding can be used to determine the complete parameter set potentially contained in the geometry of three-dimensional folds: mechanical properties of natural rocks, maximum strain, and relative strength of the in-plane far-field load components. Furthermore, we show how folds in 3D amplify and that there is a second deformation mode, besides continuous amplification, where compression leads to a lateral rearrangement of blocks of folds. Finally, we demonstrate that the textbook prediction of egg carton-shaped dome and basin structures resulting from folding instabilities in constriction is largely oversimplified. The fold patterns resulting in this setting are curved, elongated folds with random orientation.

  11. Evolution of Muscle Activity Patterns Driving Motions of the Jaw and Hyoid during Chewing in Gnathostomes

    PubMed Central

    Konow, Nicolai; Herrel, Anthony; Ross, Callum F.; Williams, Susan H.; German, Rebecca Z.; Sanford, Christopher P. J.; Gintof, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Although chewing has been suggested to be a basal gnathostome trait retained in most major vertebrate lineages, it has not been studied broadly and comparatively across vertebrates. To redress this imbalance, we recorded EMG from muscles powering anteroposterior movement of the hyoid, and dorsoventral movement of the mandibular jaw during chewing. We compared muscle activity patterns (MAP) during chewing in jawed vertebrate taxa belonging to unrelated groups of basal bony fishes and artiodactyl mammals. Our aim was to outline the evolution of coordination in MAP. Comparisons of activity in muscles of the jaw and hyoid that power chewing in closely related artiodactyls using cross-correlation analyses identified reorganizations of jaw and hyoid MAP between herbivores and omnivores. EMG data from basal bony fishes revealed a tighter coordination of jaw and hyoid MAP during chewing than seen in artiodactyls. Across this broad phylogenetic range, there have been major structural reorganizations, including a reduction of the bony hyoid suspension, which is robust in fishes, to the acquisition in a mammalian ancestor of a muscle sling suspending the hyoid. These changes appear to be reflected in a shift in chewing MAP that occurred in an unidentified anamniote stem-lineage. This shift matches observations that, when compared with fishes, the pattern of hyoid motion in tetrapods is reversed and also time-shifted relative to the pattern of jaw movement. PMID:21705368

  12. Climate change, body size evolution, and Cope's Rule in deep-sea ostracodes.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Gene; Roy, Kaustuv

    2006-01-31

    Causes of macroevolutionary trends in body size, such as Cope's Rule, the tendency of body size to increase over time, remain poorly understood. We used size measurements from Cenozoic populations of the ostracode genus Poseidonamicus, in conjunction with phylogeny and paleotemperature estimates, to show that climatic cooling leads to significant increases in body size, both overall and within individual lineages. The magnitude of size increase due to Cenozoic cooling is consistent with temperature-size relationships in geographically separated modern populations (Bergmann's Rule). Thus population-level phenotypic evolution in response to climate change can be an important determinant of macroevolutionary trends in body size. PMID:16432187

  13. Latitudinal patterns in plant defense: evolution of cardenolides, their toxicity and induction following herbivory.

    PubMed

    Rasmann, Sergio; Agrawal, Anurag A

    2011-05-01

    Attempts over the past 50 years to explain variation in the abundance, distribution and diversity of plant secondary compounds gave rise to theories of plant defense. Remarkably, few phylogenetically robust tests of these long-standing theories have been conducted. Using >50 species of milkweed (Asclepias spp.), we show that variation among plant species in the induction of toxic cardenolides is explained by latitude, with higher inducibility evolving more frequently at lower latitudes. We also found that: (1) the production of cardenolides showed positive-correlated evolution with the diversity of cardenolides, (2) greater cardenolide investment by a species is accompanied by an increase in an estimate of toxicity (measured as chemical polarity) and (3) instead of trading off, constitutive and induced cardenolides were positively correlated. Analyses of root and shoot cardenolides showed concordant patterns. Thus, milkweed species from lower latitudes are better defended with higher inducibility, greater diversity and added toxicity of cardenolides. PMID:21371232

  14. Microstructural evolution of Al-Cu thin-film conducting lines during post-pattern annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, S. H.; Morris, J. W., Jr.

    1997-07-01

    This work reports a statistical analysis of the evolution of polygranular segment lengths during high-temperature annealing of Al(Cu) thin-film interconnects with quasi-bamboo microstructures. To create samples of Al(Cu) lines that could be imaged by transmission electron microscopy without breaking or thinning, the lines were deposited on electron-transparent silicon nitride films (the "silicon nitride window" technique). The microstructures of the lines were studied as a function of annealing time and temperature. In particular, the distribution of polygranular segment lengths was measured. The results show that the longer polyglranular segments are preferentially eliminated during post-pattern annealing. As a consequence, the segment-length distribution narrows monotonically during annealing, and changes in shape. The preferential loss of the longest polygranular segments leads to a dramatic increase in resistance to electromigration failure.

  15. Identifying heterogeneity in rates of morphological evolution: discrete character change in the evolution of lungfish (Sarcopterygii; Dipnoi).

    PubMed

    Lloyd, Graeme T; Wang, Steve C; Brusatte, Stephen L

    2012-02-01

    Quantifying rates of morphological evolution is important in many macroevolutionary studies, and critical when assessing possible adaptive radiations and episodes of punctuated equilibrium in the fossil record. However, studies of morphological rates of change have lagged behind those on taxonomic diversification, and most authors have focused on continuous characters and quantifying patterns of morphological rates over time. Here, we provide a phylogenetic approach, using discrete characters and three statistical tests to determine points on a cladogram (branches or entire clades) that are characterized by significantly high or low rates of change. These methods include a randomization approach that identifies branches with significantly high rates and likelihood ratio tests that pinpoint either branches or clades that have significantly higher or lower rates than the pooled rate of the remainder of the tree. As a test case for these methods, we analyze a discrete character dataset of lungfish, which have long been regarded as "living fossils" due to an apparent slowdown in rates since the Devonian. We find that morphological rates are highly heterogeneous across the phylogeny and recover a general pattern of decreasing rates along the phylogenetic backbone toward living taxa, from the Devonian until the present. Compared with previous work, we are able to report a more nuanced picture of lungfish evolution using these new methods. PMID:22276532

  16. Pattern evolution caused by dynamic coupling between wetting and phase separation in binary liquid mixture containing glass particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Hajime; Lovinger, Andew J.; Davis, Don D.

    1994-04-01

    We demonstrate here that the pattern evolution in a binary liquid mixture containing glass spheres is strongly affected by the dynamic coupling between phase separation and wetting. Because of the difference in the wettability to glass between the two phases, the glass particles are preferentially included in the more wettable phase. The resulting pattern is strongly dependent on whether the spheres are mobile or immobile. For a high density of mobile particles, we find that an initially random pattern of spheres transforms into an ordered pattern because of geometrical confinement of particles into the more wettable phase.

  17. Evolution of osmoregulatory patterns and gill ion transport mechanisms in the decapod Crustacea: a review.

    PubMed

    McNamara, John Campbell; Faria, Samuel Coelho

    2012-12-01

    Decapod crustaceans exhibit a wide range of osmoregulatory patterns and capabilities from marine osmoconformers to brackish and freshwater hyperregulators to terrestrial hyporegulators. The principal gill salt transport mechanisms proposed to underlie the ability of the better-known taxa to occupy these specific habitats are examined here. Traditional thinking suggests that a graduated series of successively stronger adaptive mechanisms may have driven the occupation of ever more dilute osmotic niches, culminating in the conquest of freshwater and dry land. However, when habitat and osmoregulatory parameters are analyzed quantitatively against the phylogenies of the taxa examined, as illustrated here using a palaemonid shrimp clade, their association becomes questionable and may hold true only in specific cases. We also propose a putative evolution for gill epithelial ion pump and transporter arrangement in a eubrachyuran crab clade whose lineages occupy distinct osmotic niches. By including the systematics of these selected groups, this review incorporates the notion of a protracted time scale, here termed 'phylophysiology', into decapod osmoregulation, allowing the examination of putative physiological transformations and their underlying evolutionary processes. This approach assumes that species are temporally linked, a factor that can impart phylogenetic structuring, which must be considered in comparative studies. Future experimental models in decapod osmoregulatory physiology should contemplate the phylogenetic relationships among the taxa chosen to better allow comprehension of the transformations arising during their evolution. PMID:22534792

  18. Inferring directions of evolution from patterns of variation: The legacy of Sergei Meyen

    PubMed Central

    Sharov, Alexei A.; Igamberdiev, Abir U.

    2014-01-01

    In the era of the Extended Evolutionary Synthesis, which no longer considers natural selection as the only leading factor of evolution, it is meaningful to revisit the legacy of biologists who discussed the role of alternative factors. Here we analyze the evolutionary views of Sergei Meyen (1935-1987), a paleobotanist who argued that the theory of evolution should incorporate a “nomothetical” approach which infers the laws of morphogenesis (i.e., form generation) from the observed patterns of variation in living organisms and in the fossil records. Meyen developed a theory of “repeated polymorphic sets” (RPSs), which he applied consistently to describe inter-organism variation in populations, intra-organism variation of metameric organs, variation of abnormalities, heterotopy, changes during embryo development, and inter-species variation within evolutionary lineages. The notion of RPS assumes the active nature of organisms that possess hidden morphogenic and behavioural capacities. Meyen's theory is compatible with Darwin's natural selection; however Meyen emphasized the importance of other forms of selection (e.g., selection of developmental trajectories, habitats, and behaviours) in choosing specific elements from the RPS. Finally, Meyen developed a new typological concept of time, where time represents variability (i.e., change) of real objects such as living organisms or geological formations. PMID:25072709

  19. Amphioxus and lamprey AP-2 genes: implications for neural crest evolution and migration patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meulemans, Daniel; Bronner-Fraser, Marianne

    2002-01-01

    The neural crest is a uniquely vertebrate cell type present in the most basal vertebrates, but not in cephalochordates. We have studied differences in regulation of the neural crest marker AP-2 across two evolutionary transitions: invertebrate to vertebrate, and agnathan to gnathostome. Isolation and comparison of amphioxus, lamprey and axolotl AP-2 reveals its extensive expansion in the vertebrate dorsal neural tube and pharyngeal arches, implying co-option of AP-2 genes by neural crest cells early in vertebrate evolution. Expression in non-neural ectoderm is a conserved feature in amphioxus and vertebrates, suggesting an ancient role for AP-2 genes in this tissue. There is also common expression in subsets of ventrolateral neurons in the anterior neural tube, consistent with a primitive role in brain development. Comparison of AP-2 expression in axolotl and lamprey suggests an elaboration of cranial neural crest patterning in gnathostomes. However, migration of AP-2-expressing neural crest cells medial to the pharyngeal arch mesoderm appears to be a primitive feature retained in all vertebrates. Because AP-2 has essential roles in cranial neural crest differentiation and proliferation, the co-option of AP-2 by neural crest cells in the vertebrate lineage was a potentially crucial event in vertebrate evolution.

  20. The development and evolution of insect mouthparts as revealed by the expression patterns of gnathocephalic genes.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Bryan T; Peterson, Michael D; Kaufman, Thomas C

    2002-01-01

    To understand better both the development and evolution of insect mouthparts, we have compared the expression pattern of several developmentally important genes in insects with either mandibulate or stylate-haustellate mouthparts. Specifically, we examined the expression of the proboscipedia (pb) and Distal-less (Dll) gene products as well as three regulators of pb, Sex combs reduced (Scr), Deformed (Dfd), and cap 'n' collar (cnc). These genes are known to control the identity of cells in the gnathal segments of Drosophila melanogaster and would appear to have similar conserved functions in other insects. Together we have made an atlas of gene expression in the heads of three insects: Thermobia domestica and Acheta domestica, which likely exemplify the mandibulate mouthparts present in the common insect ancestor, and Oncopeltus fasciatus, which has piercing-sucking mouth parts that are typical of the Hemiptera. At the earliest stages of embryogenesis, only the expression of pb was found to differ dramatically between Oncopeltus and the other insects examined, although significant differences were observed later in development. This difference in pb expression reflects an apparent divergence in the specification of gnathal identity between mandibulate and stylate-haustellate mouthparts, which may result from a "phylogenetic homeosis" that occurred during the evolution of the Hemiptera. PMID:12004967

  1. Distinct patterns of gene-specific methylation in mammalian placentas: implications for placental evolution and function.

    PubMed

    Ng, H K; Novakovic, B; Hiendleder, S; Craig, J M; Roberts, C T; Saffery, R

    2010-04-01

    The placenta has arisen relatively recently and is among the most rapidly evolving tissues in mammals. Several different placental barrier and structure types appear to have independently evolved common functional features. Specific patterns of gene expression that determine placental development in humans are predicted to be accompanied by specific profiles of epigenetic modification. However, the stratification of epigenetic modifications into those involved in conserved aspects of placental function, versus those involved in divergent placental features, has yet to begin. As a first step towards this goal, we have investigated the methylation status of a small number of gene-specific methylation events recently identified in human placenta, in a panel of placental tissue from baboon, marmoset, cow, cat, guinea pig and mouse. These represent disparate placental barrier types and structures. In this study we hypothesized that specific epigenetic markings may be associated with placental barrier type or function, independent of phylogeny. However, in contrast to our predictions, the majority of gene-specific methylation appears to track with phylogeny, independent of placental barrier type or other structural features. This suggests that despite the likelihood of epigenetic modification playing a role in the functioning and evolution of different placental subtypes, there is no evidence for an involvement of the gene-specific methylation profiles we have identified, in specifying these differences. Further studies, examining larger numbers of epigenetic modifications across phylogeny, are required to define the role of specific epigenetic modifications in the evolution of distinct placental structures. PMID:20167366

  2. Inferring directions of evolution from patterns of variation: the legacy of Sergei Meyen.

    PubMed

    Sharov, Alexei A; Igamberdiev, Abir U

    2014-09-01

    In the era of the extended evolutionary synthesis, which no longer considers natural selection as the only leading factor of evolution, it is meaningful to revisit the legacy of biologists who discussed the role of alternative factors. Here we analyze the evolutionary views of Sergei Meyen (1935-1987), a paleobotanist who argued that the theory of evolution should incorporate a "nomothetical" approach which infers the laws of morphogenesis (i.e., form generation) from the observed patterns of variation in living organisms and in the fossil records. Meyen developed a theory of "repeated polymorphic sets" (RPSs), which he applied consistently to describe inter-organism variation in populations, intra-organism variation of metameric organs, variation of abnormalities, heterotopy, changes during embryo development, and inter-species variation within evolutionary lineages. The notion of RPS assumes the active nature of organisms that possess hidden morphogenic and behavioral capacities. Meyen's theory is compatible with Darwin's natural selection; however, Meyen emphasized the importance of other forms of selection (e.g., selection of developmental trajectories, habitats, and behaviors) in choosing specific elements from the RPS. Finally, Meyen developed a new typological concept of time, where time represents variability (i.e., change) of real objects such as living organisms or geological formations. PMID:25072709

  3. Experimental Evolution under Fluctuating Thermal Conditions Does Not Reproduce Patterns of Adaptive Clinal Differentiation in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Kellermann, Vanessa; Hoffmann, Ary A; Kristensen, Torsten Nygaard; Moghadam, Neda Nasiri; Loeschcke, Volker

    2015-11-01

    Experimental evolution can be a useful tool for testing the impact of environmental factors on adaptive changes in populations, and this approach is being increasingly used to understand the potential for evolutionary responses in populations under changing climates. However, selective factors will often be more complex in natural populations than in laboratory environments and produce different patterns of adaptive differentiation. Here we test the ability of laboratory experimental evolution under different temperature cycles to reproduce well-known patterns of clinal variation in Drosophila melanogaster. Six fluctuating thermal regimes mimicking the natural temperature conditions along the east coast of Australia were initiated. Contrary to expectations, on the basis of field patterns there was no evidence for adaptation to thermal regimes as reflected by changes in cold and heat resistance after 1-3 years of laboratory natural selection. While laboratory evolution led to changes in starvation resistance, development time, and body size, patterns were not consistent with those seen in natural populations. These findings highlight the complexity of factors affecting trait evolution in natural populations and indicate that caution is required when inferring likely evolutionary responses from the outcome of experimental evolution studies. PMID:26655772

  4. Controllable synthesis of Cu2O petalody octahedral microcrystals and multi-patterned evolution.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yanbo; Ge, Dengteng; Yang, Lili; Li, Zhenyu; Xin, Wuhong; Li, Yao; Wu, Xiaohong; Zhao, Jiupeng

    2013-02-15

    The fabrication of cuprous oxide (Cu(2)O) with various morphologies has attracted extensive interest due to its applications in solar energy conversion, electrode materials, sensors, and catalysts. Herein, we report a facile controllable route for Cu(2)O microcrystals with various architectures via a hydrothermal method without using templates or surfactants. Six types of Cu(2)O microcrystals including petalody octahedral, concave truncated octahedron, truncated octahedron, octahedron, sphere-like, and sphere are obtained accompanying with Cu precipitation or urchin-like CuO particles due to the modifying of pH values. The petalody octahedral pattern of Cu(2)O is for the first time found here under the condition of pH 7-8. Additionally, possible growth mechanism for multi-patterned Cu(2)O and compositional evolution is discussed via preferential growths induced by selective absorption of acrylic acid and decomposition of lactic acid in the present reaction system. These experimental results prove a versatile and facile strategy for Cu(2)O microcrystals with special and complex architectures, which may highlights their potential applications due to the improved surface activity, catalytic, or photoelectric performance. PMID:23127874

  5. Aging and fertility patterns in wild chimpanzees provide insights into the evolution of menopause

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Melissa Emery; Jones, James H.; Pusey, Anne E.; Brewer-Marsden, Stella; Goodall, Jane; Marsden, David; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro; Nishida, Toshisada; Reynolds, Vernon; Sugiyama, Yukimaru; Wrangham, Richard W.

    2008-01-01

    Summary Human menopause is remarkable in that reproductive senescence is markedly accelerated relative to somatic aging, leaving an extended post-reproductive period for a large proportion of women [1, 2]. Functional explanations for this are debated [4-11], in part because comparative data from closely-related species are inadequate. Existing studies of chimpanzees are based on very small samples and have not provided clear conclusions about the reproductive function of aging females [12-19]. These studies have not examined whether reproductive senescence in chimpanzees exceeds the pace of general aging, as in humans, or occurs in parallel with declines in overall health, as in many other animals [20, 21]. In order to remedy these problems, we examined fertility and mortality patterns in 6 free-living chimpanzee populations. Chimpanzee and human birth rates show similar patterns of decline beginning in the 4th decade, suggesting that the physiology of reproductive senescence was relatively conserved in human evolution. However, in contrast to humans, chimpanzee fertility declines are consistent with declines in survivorship, and healthy females maintain high birth rates late into life. Thus, in contrast to recent claims [16], we find no evidence that menopause is a typical characteristic of chimpanzee life histories. PMID:18083515

  6. Evolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayr, Ernst

    1978-01-01

    Traces the history of evolution theory from Lamarck and Darwin to the present. Discusses natural selection in detail. Suggests that, besides biological evolution, there is also a cultural evolution which is more rapid than the former. (MA)

  7. Molecular evolution of rbcL in three gymnosperm families: identifying adaptive and coevolutionary patterns

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    forward the conclusion that this evolutionary scenario has been possible through a complex interplay between adaptive mutations, often structurally destabilizing, and compensatory mutations. Our results unearth patterns of evolution that have likely optimized the Rubisco activity and uncover mutational dynamics useful in the molecular engineering of enzymatic activities. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Prof. Christian Blouin (nominated by Dr W Ford Doolittle), Dr Endre Barta (nominated by Dr Sandor Pongor), and Dr Nicolas Galtier. PMID:21639885

  8. Dynamical patterning modules: physico-genetic determinants of morphological development and evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, Stuart A.; Bhat, Ramray

    2008-03-01

    The shapes and forms of multicellular organisms arise by the generation of new cell states and types and changes in the numbers and rearrangements of the various kinds of cells. While morphogenesis and pattern formation in all animal species are widely recognized to be mediated by the gene products of an evolutionarily conserved 'developmental-genetic toolkit', the link between these molecular players and the physics underlying these processes has been generally ignored. This paper introduces the concept of 'dynamical patterning modules' (DPMs), units consisting of one or more products of the 'toolkit' genes that mobilize physical processes characteristic of chemically and mechanically excitable meso- to macroscopic systems such as cell aggregates: cohesion, viscoelasticity, diffusion, spatiotemporal heterogeneity based on lateral inhibition and multistable and oscillatory dynamics. We suggest that ancient toolkit gene products, most predating the emergence of multicellularity, assumed novel morphogenetic functions due to change in the scale and context inherent to multicellularity. We show that DPMs, acting individually and in concert with each other, constitute a 'pattern language' capable of generating all metazoan body plans and organ forms. The physical dimension of developmental causation implies that multicellular forms during the explosive radiation of animal body plans in the middle Cambrian, approximately 530 million years ago, could have explored an extensive morphospace without concomitant genotypic change or selection for adaptation. The morphologically plastic body plans and organ forms generated by DPMs, and their ontogenetic trajectories, would subsequently have been stabilized and consolidated by natural selection and genetic drift. This perspective also solves the apparent 'molecular homology-analogy paradox', whereby widely divergent modern animal types utilize the same molecular toolkit during development by proposing, in contrast to the Neo

  9. Ecology and evolution of mammalian biodiversity

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Kate E.; Safi, Kamran

    2011-01-01

    Mammals have incredible biological diversity, showing extreme flexibility in eco-morphology, physiology, life history and behaviour across their evolutionary history. Undoubtedly, mammals play an important role in ecosystems by providing essential services such as regulating insect populations, seed dispersal and pollination and act as indicators of general ecosystem health. However, the macroecological and macroevolutionary processes underpinning past and present biodiversity patterns are only beginning to be explored on a global scale. It is also particularly important, in the face of the global extinction crisis, to understand these processes in order to be able to use this knowledge to prevent future biodiversity loss and loss of ecosystem services. Unfortunately, efforts to understand mammalian biodiversity have been hampered by a lack of data. New data compilations on current species' distributions, ecologies and evolutionary histories now allow an integrated approach to understand this biodiversity. We review and synthesize these new studies, exploring the past and present ecology and evolution of mammalian biodiversity, and use these findings to speculate about the mammals of our future. PMID:21807728

  10. The Evolution of Tropical Precipitation Patterns During ENSO Events Using 21+ Years of GPCP Merged Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curtis, Scott; Adler, Robert

    2000-01-01

    The ENSO phenomenon is characterized by fluctuations in the climate system of the tropical Pacific. Quantifying changes in the precipitation component of this system is important in understanding the distribution of heating in the atmosphere which drives the large-scale circulation and affects the weather patterns in the mid-latitudes. Monitoring precipitation anomalies in the Pacific is also an important component for tracking the evolution of ENSO. The most timely and complete observations of the earth come from satellite instruments. In this study, the state of the art satellite-gauge merged monthly precipitation data set from the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) is used to depict tropical rainfall patterns during ENSO events over the past two decades and quantify these patterns using indices. This analysis will be complemented by daily precipitation data which can resolve the Madden-Julian Oscillation and westerly wind burst events. The 1997-98 El Nino and 1998-2000 La Nina were the best observed ENSO cycle in the historic record. Prior to the El Nino (in terms of anomalous warming of the east Pacific) dry anomalies over the Maritime Continent were observed in February 1997 as a westerly wind burst advected convection to the east. The largest SST anomalies occurred around November-December 1997, which were followed by the largest precipitation anomalies in the beginning of 1998. The largest precipitation departures from normal were not colocated with the SST anomalies, but were further west, In the spring of 1998 negative precipitation anomalies to the north of the equator intensified, signaling the mature phase of the El Nino. A rapid increase in the precipitation-based La Nina index from December-January 1998 to March-April 1998 signaled the coming La Nina. The 1982-1983 El Nino was comparable in strength (according to several indices) and the precipitation patterns evolved in a similar fashion. For the 1998-2000 La Nina, the coldest anomalies

  11. Patterns of Chromosomal Evolution in Sigmodon, Evidence from Whole Chromosome Paints

    PubMed Central

    Swier, V.J.; Bradley, R.D.; Rens, W.; Elder, F.F.B.; Baker, R.J.

    2009-01-01

    Of the superfamily Muroidea (31 genera, 1578 species), the Sigmodontinae (74 genera, 377 species) is the second largest subfamily in number of species and represents a significant radiation of rodent biodiversity. Only 2 of the 74 genera are found in both North and South America (Sigmodon and Oryzomys) and the remainder are exclusively from South America. In recent molecular studies, the genus Sigmodon (Cricetidae, Sigmodontinae) has been considered sister to many other South American Sigmodontines [Steppan et al., 2004]. We examine the chromosomal evolution of 9 species of Sigmodon utilizing chromosomal paints isolated from S. hispidus, proposed to be similar to the ancestral karyotype [Elder, 1980]. Utilizing a phylogenetic hypothesis of a molecular phylogeny of Sigmodon [Henson and Bradley, 2009], we mapped shared chromosomal rearrangements of taxa on a molecular tree to estimate the evolutionary position of each rearrangement. For several species (S. hirsutus, S. leucotis, S. ochrognathus, S. peruanus, and S. toltecus), the karyotype accumulated few or no changes, but in three species (S. arizonae, S. fulviventer, and S. mascotensis) numerous karyotype rearrangements were observed. These rearrangements involved heterochromatic additions, centric fusions, tandem fusions, pericentric inversions, as well as the addition of interstitial DNA not identified by chromosome paints or C-banding. The hypothesis that the ancestral karyotype for this complex had a diploid number of 52, a fundamental number of 52, and a G-band pattern of which most, if not all are similar to that present in modern day S. hispidus fails to be rejected. This hypothesis remains viable as an explanation of chromosomal evolution in Sigmodontine rodents. PMID:19617697

  12. [Spatial pattern evolution of carbon emission intensity from energy consumption in China].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yun-Tai; Huang, Xian-Jin; Zhong, Tai-Yang; Peng, Jia-Wen

    2011-11-01

    Using Theil index and spatial autocorrelation analysis methods, the characteristics, regional disparity and spatial pattern evolution of carbon emission intensity from energy consumption were analyzed on national, regional and provincial level from 1999 to 2007 in China. The results indicate that: (1) total energy carbon emission in China has increased from 0.91Gt in 1999 to 1.83Gt in 2007, while carbon emission intensity has decreased from 0.83 t x (10(4) yuan) (-1) to 0.79 t x (10(4) yuan) (-1); (2) carbon emission intensity of eight major economic blocks showed the trend of three-level differentiation, with that of northeast regions, the middle reaches of Yellow River regions and northwest regions above 1.0 t x (10(4) yuan)(-1); northern coastal regions, the middle reaches of Yangtze River regions and southwest regions 0.7-1.0 t x (10(4) yuan) (-1); eastern and northern regions 0.32-0.51 t x (10(4) yuan) (-1); (3) Theil index analysis indicates that the within-region carbon emission intensities were similar, and the expanding total disparity of carbon emission intensity was primarily due to between-region inequalities. (4) spatial autocorrelation analysis shows that Global Moran's I has increased from 0.19 to 0.25, indicating that there were positive spatial correlations among provincial regions in China, and regions of similar carbon emission intensity agglomerated in space. The "cold spot" areas of carbon emission intensity were relatively stable, while the "hot spot" areas has gradually shifted from northwest regions to the middle reaches of Yellow River regions and northeast regions. (5) spatial disparity of carbon emission intensity is closely related to factors such as regional resources endowment, economic development, industrial structure and energy utilization efficiency. The study of regional disparity and spatial autocorrelation provides insight into spatial heterogeneity and spatial pattern evolution of carbon emission intensity in China, and also

  13. Modeling the Shape Evolution of Enclosed Water Bodies: Pattern Formation from Emergent Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, A. B.; Littlewood, R.; Ashton, A. D.

    2006-12-01

    randomly varying wind directions, some shoreline segments experience wave climates dominated by high-angle waves. As finite- amplitude features develop in these areas, they affect the fetches felt by other shoreline segments. Thus, the pattern evolution on opposite shores becomes coupled. The fetch-limitation interactions lead to new modes of emergent interactions and highly entertaining shape evolutions. If the initial water body is sufficiently elongated, merging of shoreline features extending from opposite shores will ultimately segment it into multiple water bodies.

  14. Phylogenomic analyses reveal convergent patterns of adaptive evolution in elephant and human ancestries.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Morris; Sterner, Kirstin N; Islam, Munirul; Uddin, Monica; Sherwood, Chet C; Hof, Patrick R; Hou, Zhuo-Cheng; Lipovich, Leonard; Jia, Hui; Grossman, Lawrence I; Wildman, Derek E

    2009-12-01

    Specific sets of brain-expressed genes, such as aerobic energy metabolism genes, evolved adaptively in the ancestry of humans and may have evolved adaptively in the ancestry of other large-brained mammals. The recent addition of genomes from two afrotherians (elephant and tenrec) to the expanding set of publically available sequenced mammalian genomes provided an opportunity to test this hypothesis. Elephants resemble humans by having large brains and long life spans; tenrecs, in contrast, have small brains and short life spans. Thus, we investigated whether the phylogenomic patterns of adaptive evolution are more similar between elephant and human than between either elephant and tenrec lineages or human and mouse lineages, and whether aerobic energy metabolism genes are especially well represented in the elephant and human patterns. Our analyses encompassed approximately 6,000 genes in each of these lineages with each gene yielding extensive coding sequence matches in interordinal comparisons. Each gene's nonsynonymous and synonymous nucleotide substitution rates and dN/dS ratios were determined. Then, from gene ontology information on genes with the higher dN/dS ratios, we identified the more prevalent sets of genes that belong to specific functional categories and that evolved adaptively. Elephant and human lineages showed much slower nucleotide substitution rates than tenrec and mouse lineages but more adaptively evolved genes. In correlation with absolute brain size and brain oxygen consumption being largest in elephants and next largest in humans, adaptively evolved aerobic energy metabolism genes were most evident in the elephant lineage and next most evident in the human lineage. PMID:19926857

  15. Development and Evolution of Dentition Pattern and Tooth Order in the Skates And Rays (Batoidea; Chondrichthyes)

    PubMed Central

    Underwood, Charlie J.; Johanson, Zerina; Welten, Monique; Metscher, Brian; Rasch, Liam J.; Fraser, Gareth J.; Smith, Moya Meredith

    2015-01-01

    Shark and ray (elasmobranch) dentitions are well known for their multiple generations of teeth, with isolated teeth being common in the fossil record. However, how the diverse dentitions characteristic of elasmobranchs form is still poorly understood. Data on the development and maintenance of the dental patterning in this major vertebrate group will allow comparisons to other morphologically diverse taxa, including the bony fishes, in order to identify shared pattern characters for the vertebrate dentition as a whole. Data is especially lacking from the Batoidea (skates and rays), hence our objective is to compile data on embryonic and adult batoid tooth development contributing to ordering of the dentition, from cleared and stained specimens and micro-CT scans, with 3D rendered models. We selected species (adult and embryonic) spanning phylogenetically significant batoid clades, such that our observations may raise questions about relationships within the batoids, particularly with respect to current molecular-based analyses. We include developmental data from embryos of recent model organisms Leucoraja erinacea and Raja clavata to evaluate the earliest establishment of the dentition. Characters of the batoid dentition investigated include alternate addition of teeth as offset successional tooth rows (versus single separate files), presence of a symphyseal initiator region (symphyseal tooth present, or absent, but with two parasymphyseal teeth) and a restriction to tooth addition along each jaw reducing the number of tooth families, relative to addition of successor teeth within each family. Our ultimate aim is to understand the shared characters of the batoids, and whether or not these dental characters are shared more broadly within elasmobranchs, by comparing these to dentitions in shark outgroups. These developmental morphological analyses will provide a solid basis to better understand dental evolution in these important vertebrate groups as well as the

  16. Patterns of Protein Evolution in Cytochrome c Oxidase 1 (COI) from the Class Arachnida

    PubMed Central

    Young, Monica R; Hebert, Paul D. N.

    2015-01-01

    Because sequence information is now available for the 648bp barcode region of cytochrome c oxidase 1 (COI) from more than 400,000 animal species, this gene segment can be used to probe patterns of mitochondrial evolution. The present study examines levels of amino acid substitution and the frequency of indels in COI from 4177 species of arachnids, including representatives from all 16 orders and 43% of its families (267/625). It examines divergences at three taxonomic levels—among members of each order to an outgroup, among families in each order and among BINs, a species proxy, in each family. Order Distances vary fourfold (0.10–0.39), while the mean of the Family Distances for the ten orders ranges fivefold (0.07–0.35). BIN Distances show great variation, ranging from 0.01 or less in 12 families to more than 0.25 in eight families. Patterns of amino acid substitution in COI are generally congruent with previously reported variation in nucleotide substitution rates in arachnids, but provide some new insights, such as clear rate acceleration in the Opiliones. By revealing a strong association between elevated rates of nucleotide and amino acid substitution, this study builds evidence for the selective importance of the rate variation among arachnid lineages. Moreover, it establishes that groups whose COI genes have elevated levels of amino acid substitution also regularly possess indels, a dramatic form of protein reconfiguration. Overall, this study suggests that the mitochondrial genome of some arachnid groups is dynamic with high rates of amino acid substitution and frequent indels, while it is ‘locked down’ in others. Dynamic genomes are most prevalent in arachnids with short generation times, but the possible impact of breeding system deserves investigation since many of the rapidly evolving lineages reproduce by haplodiploidy, a mode of reproduction absent in ‘locked down’ taxa. PMID:26308206

  17. Rates of dinosaur limb evolution provide evidence for exceptional radiation in Mesozoic birds.

    PubMed

    Benson, Roger B J; Choiniere, Jonah N

    2013-10-01

    Birds are the most diverse living tetrapod group and are a model of large-scale adaptive radiation. Neontological studies suggest a radiation within the avian crown group, long after the origin of flight. However, deep time patterns of bird evolution remain obscure because only limited fossil data have been considered. We analyse cladogenesis and limb evolution on the entire tree of Mesozoic theropods, documenting the dinosaur-bird transition and immediate origins of powered flight. Mesozoic birds inherited constraints on forelimb evolution from non-flying ancestors, and species diversification rates did not accelerate in the earliest flying taxa. However, Early Cretaceous short-tailed birds exhibit both phenotypic release of the hindlimb and increased diversification rates, unparalleled in magnitude at any other time in the first 155 Myr of theropod evolution. Thus, a Cretaceous adaptive radiation of stem-group birds was enabled by restructuring of the terrestrial locomotor module, which represents a key innovation. Our results suggest two phases of radiation in Avialae: with the Cretaceous diversification overwritten by extinctions of stem-group birds at the Cretaceous-Palaeogene boundary, and subsequent diversification of the crown group. Our findings illustrate the importance of fossil data for understanding the macroevolutionary processes generating modern biodiversity. PMID:23945695

  18. Rates of dinosaur limb evolution provide evidence for exceptional radiation in Mesozoic birds

    PubMed Central

    Benson, Roger B. J.; Choiniere, Jonah N.

    2013-01-01

    Birds are the most diverse living tetrapod group and are a model of large-scale adaptive radiation. Neontological studies suggest a radiation within the avian crown group, long after the origin of flight. However, deep time patterns of bird evolution remain obscure because only limited fossil data have been considered. We analyse cladogenesis and limb evolution on the entire tree of Mesozoic theropods, documenting the dinosaur–bird transition and immediate origins of powered flight. Mesozoic birds inherited constraints on forelimb evolution from non-flying ancestors, and species diversification rates did not accelerate in the earliest flying taxa. However, Early Cretaceous short-tailed birds exhibit both phenotypic release of the hindlimb and increased diversification rates, unparalleled in magnitude at any other time in the first 155 Myr of theropod evolution. Thus, a Cretaceous adaptive radiation of stem-group birds was enabled by restructuring of the terrestrial locomotor module, which represents a key innovation. Our results suggest two phases of radiation in Avialae: with the Cretaceous diversification overwritten by extinctions of stem-group birds at the Cretaceous–Palaeogene boundary, and subsequent diversification of the crown group. Our findings illustrate the importance of fossil data for understanding the macroevolutionary processes generating modern biodiversity. PMID:23945695

  19. Skeletal development in sloths and the evolution of mammalian vertebral patterning.

    PubMed

    Hautier, Lionel; Weisbecker, Vera; Sánchez-Villagra, Marcelo R; Goswami, Anjali; Asher, Robert J

    2010-11-01

    Mammals show a very low level of variation in vertebral count, particularly in the neck. Phenotypes exhibited at various stages during the development of the axial skeleton may play a key role in testing mechanisms recently proposed to explain this conservatism. Here, we provide osteogenetic data that identify developmental criteria with which to recognize cervical vs. noncervical vertebrae in mammals. Except for sloths, all mammals show the late ossification of the caudal-most centra in the neck after other centra and neural arches. In sloths with 8-10 ribless neck vertebrae, the caudal-most neck centra ossify early, matching the pattern observed in cranial thoracic vertebrae of other mammals. Accordingly, we interpret the ribless neck vertebrae of three-toed sloths caudal to V7 as thoracic based on our developmental criterion. Applied to the unusual vertebral phenotype of long-necked sloths, these data support the interpretation that elements of the axial skeleton with origins from distinct mesodermal tissues have repatterned over the course of evolution. PMID:20956304

  20. Skeletal development in sloths and the evolution of mammalian vertebral patterning

    PubMed Central

    Hautier, Lionel; Weisbecker, Vera; Sánchez-Villagra, Marcelo R.; Goswami, Anjali; Asher, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Mammals show a very low level of variation in vertebral count, particularly in the neck. Phenotypes exhibited at various stages during the development of the axial skeleton may play a key role in testing mechanisms recently proposed to explain this conservatism. Here, we provide osteogenetic data that identify developmental criteria with which to recognize cervical vs. noncervical vertebrae in mammals. Except for sloths, all mammals show the late ossification of the caudal-most centra in the neck after other centra and neural arches. In sloths with 8–10 ribless neck vertebrae, the caudal-most neck centra ossify early, matching the pattern observed in cranial thoracic vertebrae of other mammals. Accordingly, we interpret the ribless neck vertebrae of three-toed sloths caudal to V7 as thoracic based on our developmental criterion. Applied to the unusual vertebral phenotype of long-necked sloths, these data support the interpretation that elements of the axial skeleton with origins from distinct mesodermal tissues have repatterned over the course of evolution. PMID:20956304

  1. Patterns of Evolutionary Conservation of Microsatellites (SSRs) Suggest a Faster Rate of Genome Evolution in Hymenoptera Than in Diptera

    PubMed Central

    Stolle, Eckart; Kidner, Jonathan H.; Moritz, Robin F.A.

    2013-01-01

    Microsatellites, or simple sequence repeats (SSRs), are common and widespread DNA elements in genomes of many organisms. However, their dynamics in genome evolution is unclear, whereby they are thought to evolve neutrally. More available genome sequences along with dated phylogenies allowed for studying the evolution of these repetitive DNA elements along evolutionary time scales. This could be used to compare rates of genome evolution. We show that SSRs in insects can be retained for several hundred million years. Different types of microsatellites seem to be retained longer than others. By comparing Dipteran with Hymenopteran species, we found very similar patterns of SSR loss during their evolution, but both taxa differ profoundly in the rate. Relative to divergence time, Diptera lost SSRs twice as fast as Hymenoptera. The loss of SSRs on the Drosophila melanogaster X-chromosome was higher than on the other chromosomes. However, accounting for generation time, the Diptera show an 8.5-fold slower rate of SSR loss than the Hymenoptera, which, in contrast to previous studies, suggests a faster genome evolution in the latter. This shows that generation time differences can have a profound effect. A faster genome evolution in these insects could be facilitated by several factors very different to Diptera, which is discussed in light of our results on the haplodiploid D. melanogaster X-chromosome. Furthermore, large numbers of SSRs can be found to be in synteny and thus could be exploited as a tool to investigate genome structure and evolution. PMID:23292136

  2. ChIP-Seq-Annotated Heliconius erato Genome Highlights Patterns of cis-Regulatory Evolution in Lepidoptera.

    PubMed

    Lewis, James J; van der Burg, Karin R L; Mazo-Vargas, Anyi; Reed, Robert D

    2016-09-13

    Uncovering phylogenetic patterns of cis-regulatory evolution remains a fundamental goal for evolutionary and developmental biology. Here, we characterize the evolution of regulatory loci in butterflies and moths using chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-seq) annotation of regulatory elements across three stages of head development. In the process we provide a high-quality, functionally annotated genome assembly for the butterfly, Heliconius erato. Comparing cis-regulatory element conservation across six lepidopteran genomes, we find that regulatory sequences evolve at a pace similar to that of protein-coding regions. We also observe that elements active at multiple developmental stages are markedly more conserved than elements with stage-specific activity. Surprisingly, we also find that stage-specific proximal and distal regulatory elements evolve at nearly identical rates. Our study provides a benchmark for genome-wide patterns of regulatory element evolution in insects, and it shows that developmental timing of activity strongly predicts patterns of regulatory sequence evolution. PMID:27626657

  3. Macroevolutionary consequences of profound climate change on niche evolution in marine molluscs over the past three million years

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saupe, E.E.; Hendricks, J.R.; Portell, R.W.; Dowsett, Harry J.; Haywood, A. M.; Hunter, S.J.; Lieberman, B.S.

    2014-01-01

    In order to predict the fate of biodiversity in a rapidly changing world, we must first understand how species adapt to new environmental conditions. The long-term evolutionary dynamics of species' physiological tolerances to differing climatic regimes remain obscure. Here, we unite palaeontological and neontological data to analyse whether species' environmental tolerances remain stable across 3 Myr of profound climatic changes using 10 phylogenetically, ecologically and developmentally diverse mollusc species from the Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plains, USA. We additionally investigate whether these species' upper and lower thermal tolerances are constrained across this interval. We find that these species' environmental preferences are stable across the duration of their lifetimes, even when faced with significant environmental perturbations. The results suggest that species will respond to current and future warming either by altering distributions to track suitable habitat or, if the pace of change is too rapid, by going extinct. Our findings also support methods that project species' present-day environmental requirements to future climatic landscapes to assess conservation risks.

  4. Macroevolutionary consequences of profound climate change on niche evolution in marine molluscs over the past three million years.

    PubMed

    Saupe, E E; Hendricks, J R; Portell, R W; Dowsett, H J; Haywood, A; Hunter, S J; Lieberman, B S

    2014-11-22

    In order to predict the fate of biodiversity in a rapidly changing world, we must first understand how species adapt to new environmental conditions. The long-term evolutionary dynamics of species' physiological tolerances to differing climatic regimes remain obscure. Here, we unite palaeontological and neontological data to analyse whether species' environmental tolerances remain stable across 3 Myr of profound climatic changes using 10 phylogenetically, ecologically and developmentally diverse mollusc species from the Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plains, USA. We additionally investigate whether these species' upper and lower thermal tolerances are constrained across this interval. We find that these species' environmental preferences are stable across the duration of their lifetimes, even when faced with significant environmental perturbations. The results suggest that species will respond to current and future warming either by altering distributions to track suitable habitat or, if the pace of change is too rapid, by going extinct. Our findings also support methods that project species' present-day environmental requirements to future climatic landscapes to assess conservation risks. PMID:25297868

  5. Macroevolutionary consequences of profound climate change on niche evolution in marine molluscs over the past three million years

    PubMed Central

    Saupe, E. E.; Hendricks, J. R.; Portell, R. W.; Dowsett, H. J.; Haywood, A.; Hunter, S. J.; Lieberman, B. S.

    2014-01-01

    In order to predict the fate of biodiversity in a rapidly changing world, we must first understand how species adapt to new environmental conditions. The long-term evolutionary dynamics of species' physiological tolerances to differing climatic regimes remain obscure. Here, we unite palaeontological and neontological data to analyse whether species' environmental tolerances remain stable across 3 Myr of profound climatic changes using 10 phylogenetically, ecologically and developmentally diverse mollusc species from the Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plains, USA. We additionally investigate whether these species' upper and lower thermal tolerances are constrained across this interval. We find that these species' environmental preferences are stable across the duration of their lifetimes, even when faced with significant environmental perturbations. The results suggest that species will respond to current and future warming either by altering distributions to track suitable habitat or, if the pace of change is too rapid, by going extinct. Our findings also support methods that project species' present-day environmental requirements to future climatic landscapes to assess conservation risks. PMID:25297868

  6. Handling and Use of Oxygen by Pancrustaceans: Conserved Patterns and the Evolution of Respiratory Structures.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Jon F

    2015-11-01

    The handling and use of oxygen are central to physiological function of all pancrustaceans. Throughout the Pancrustacea, ventilation is controlled by a central oxygen-sensitive pattern generator. The ancestral condition was likely to achieve ventilation of the gills via leg-associated or mouth-associated muscles, but in insects and some air-breathing crustaceans, new muscles were recruited for this purpose, including intersegmental muscles likely used previously for posture and locomotion. Many aspects of the sensing of oxygen and the occurrence of responses to hypoxia (increased ventilation, depressed growth and metabolic rate, developmental changes that enhance the delivery of oxygen) appear common across most pancrustaceans, but there is tremendous variation across species. Some of this can be explained by habitat (e.g., ventilation of the internal medium occurs in terrestrial species and of the external medium in aquatic species; rearing under hypoxia induces tracheal proliferation in terrestrial insects and hemocyanin production in aquatic crustaceans); some plausibly by evolutionary origin of some responses to hypoxia within the Pancrustacea (the most basal arthropods may lack a ventilatory response to hypoxia); and some by the availability of environmental oxygen (animals adapted to survive hypoxia turn on the response to hypoxia at a lower PO2). On average, crustaceans and insects have similar tolerances to prolonged anoxia, but species or life stages from habitats with a danger of being trapped in hypoxia can tolerate longer durations of anoxia. Lactate is the primary anaerobic end-product in crustaceans but some insects have evolved a more diverse array of anaerobic end-products, including ethanol, alanine, succinate, and acetate. Most clades of Pancrustacea are small and lack obvious respiratory structures. Gilled stem-pancrustaceans likely evolved in the Cambrian, and gills persist in large Ostracoda, Malacostraca, and Branchiopoda. Based on currently

  7. SWS2 visual pigment evolution as a test of historically contingent patterns of plumage color evolution in warblers.

    PubMed

    Bloch, Natasha I; Morrow, James M; Chang, Belinda S W; Price, Trevor D

    2015-02-01

    Distantly related clades that occupy similar environments may differ due to the lasting imprint of their ancestors-historical contingency. The New World warblers (Parulidae) and Old World warblers (Phylloscopidae) are ecologically similar clades that differ strikingly in plumage coloration. We studied genetic and functional evolution of the short-wavelength-sensitive visual pigments (SWS2 and SWS1) to ask if altered color perception could contribute to the plumage color differences between clades. We show SWS2 is short-wavelength shifted in birds that occupy open environments, such as finches, compared to those in closed environments, including warblers. Phylogenetic reconstructions indicate New World warblers were derived from a finch-like form that colonized from the Old World 15-20 Ma. During this process, the SWS2 gene accumulated six substitutions in branches leading to New World warblers, inviting the hypothesis that passage through a finch-like ancestor resulted in SWS2 evolution. In fact, we show spectral tuning remained similar across warblers as well as the finch ancestor. Results reject the hypothesis of historical contingency based on opsin spectral tuning, but point to evolution of other aspects of visual pigment function. Using the approach outlined here, historical contingency becomes a generally testable theory in systems where genotype and phenotype can be connected. PMID:25496318

  8. SWS2 visual pigment evolution as a test of historically contingent patterns of plumage color evolution in Warblers

    PubMed Central

    Bloch, Natasha I.; Morrow, James M.; Chang, Belinda S.W.; Price, Trevor D.

    2014-01-01

    Distantly related clades that occupy similar environments may differ due to the lasting imprint of their ancestors – historical contingency. The New World warblers (Parulidae) and Old World warblers (Phylloscopidae) are ecologically similar clades that differ strikingly in plumage coloration. We studied genetic and functional evolution of the short-wavelength sensitive visual pigments (SWS2 and SWS1) to ask if altered color perception could contribute to the plumage color differences between clades. We show SWS2 is short-wavelength shifted in birds that occupy open environments, such as finches, compared to those in closed environments, including warblers. Phylogenetic reconstructions indicate New World warblers were derived from a finch-like form that colonized from the Old World 15-20Ma. During this process the SWS2 gene accumulated 6 substitutions in branches leading to New World warblers, inviting the hypothesis that passage through a finch-like ancestor resulted in SWS2 evolution. In fact, we show spectral tuning remained similar across warblers as well as the finch ancestor. Results reject the hypothesis of historical contingency based on opsin spectral tuning, but point to evolution of other aspects of visual pigment function. Using the approach outlined here, historical contingency becomes a generally testable theory in systems where genotype and phenotype can be connected. PMID:25496318

  9. Patterns and Implications of Gene Gain and Loss in the Evolution of Prochlorococcus

    SciTech Connect

    Lapidus, Alla; Kettler, Gregory C.; Martiny, Adam C.; Huang, Katherine; Zucker, Jeremy; Coleman, Maureen L.; Rodrigue, Sebastien; Chen, Feng; Lapidus, Alla; Ferriera, Steven; Johnson, Justin; Steglich, Claudia; Church, George M.; Richardson, Paul; Chisholm, Sallie W.

    2007-07-30

    Prochlorococcus is a marine cyanobacterium that numerically dominates the mid-latitude oceans and is the smallest known oxygenic phototroph. Numerous isolatesfrom diverse areas of the world's oceans have been studied and shown to be physiologically and genetically distinct. All isolates described thus far can be assigned to either a tightly clustered high-light (HL)-adapted clade, or a more divergent low-light (LL)-adapted group. The 16S rRNA sequences of the entire Prochlorococcus group differ by at most 3percent, and the four initially published genomes revealed patterns of genetic differentiation that help explain physiological differences among the isolates. Here we describe the genomes of eight newly sequenced isolates and combine them with the first four genomes for a comprehensive analysis of the core (shared by all isolates) and flexible genes of the Prochlorococcus group, and the patterns of loss and gain of the flexible genes over the course of evolution. There are 1,273 genes that represent the core shared by all 12 genomes. They are apparently sufficient, according to metabolic reconstruction, to encode a functional cell. We describe a phylogeny for all 12 isolates by subjecting their complete proteomes to three different phylogenetic analyses. For each non-core gene, we used a maximum parsimony method to estimate which ancestor likely first acquired or lost each gene. Many of the genetic differences among isolates, especially for genes involved in outer membrane synthesis and nutrient transport, are found within the same clade. Nevertheless, we identified some genes defining HL and LL ecotypes, and clades within these broad ecotypes, helping to demonstrate the basis of HL and LL adaptations in Prochlorococcus. Furthermore, our estimates of gene gain events allow us to identify highly variable genomic islands that are not apparent through simple pairwise comparisons. These results emphasize the functional roles, especially those connected to outer

  10. Patterns and implications of gene gain and loss in the evolution of Prochlorococcus.

    PubMed

    Kettler, Gregory C; Martiny, Adam C; Huang, Katherine; Zucker, Jeremy; Coleman, Maureen L; Rodrigue, Sebastien; Chen, Feng; Lapidus, Alla; Ferriera, Steven; Johnson, Justin; Steglich, Claudia; Church, George M; Richardson, Paul; Chisholm, Sallie W

    2007-12-01

    Prochlorococcus is a marine cyanobacterium that numerically dominates the mid-latitude oceans and is the smallest known oxygenic phototroph. Numerous isolates from diverse areas of the world's oceans have been studied and shown to be physiologically and genetically distinct. All isolates described thus far can be assigned to either a tightly clustered high-light (HL)-adapted clade, or a more divergent low-light (LL)-adapted group. The 16S rRNA sequences of the entire Prochlorococcus group differ by at most 3%, and the four initially published genomes revealed patterns of genetic differentiation that help explain physiological differences among the isolates. Here we describe the genomes of eight newly sequenced isolates and combine them with the first four genomes for a comprehensive analysis of the core (shared by all isolates) and flexible genes of the Prochlorococcus group, and the patterns of loss and gain of the flexible genes over the course of evolution. There are 1,273 genes that represent the core shared by all 12 genomes. They are apparently sufficient, according to metabolic reconstruction, to encode a functional cell. We describe a phylogeny for all 12 isolates by subjecting their complete proteomes to three different phylogenetic analyses. For each non-core gene, we used a maximum parsimony method to estimate which ancestor likely first acquired or lost each gene. Many of the genetic differences among isolates, especially for genes involved in outer membrane synthesis and nutrient transport, are found within the same clade. Nevertheless, we identified some genes defining HL and LL ecotypes, and clades within these broad ecotypes, helping to demonstrate the basis of HL and LL adaptations in Prochlorococcus. Furthermore, our estimates of gene gain events allow us to identify highly variable genomic islands that are not apparent through simple pairwise comparisons. These results emphasize the functional roles, especially those connected to outer membrane

  11. Peritumoral Brain Edema after Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Asymptomatic Intracranial Meningiomas: Risks and Pattern of Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Hoe, Yeon; Choi, Young Jae; Kim, Jeong Hoon; Kwon, Do Hoon; Kim, Chang Jin

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the risks and pattern of evolution of peritumoral brain edema (PTE) after stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for asymptomatic intracranial meningiomas. Methods A retrospective study was conducted on 320 patients (median age 56 years, range 24-87 years) who underwent primary Gamma Knife radiosurgery for asymptomatic meningiomas between 1998 and 2012. The median tumor volume was 2.7 cc (range 0.2-10.5 cc) and the median follow-up was 48 months (range 24-168 months). Volumetric data sets for tumors and PTE on serial MRIs were analyzed. The edema index (EI) was defined as the ratio of the volume of PTE including tumor to the tumor volume, and the relative edema indices (rEIs) were calculated from serial EIs normalized against the baseline EI. Risk factors for PTE were analyzed using logistic regression. Results Newly developed or increased PTE was noted in 49 patients (15.3%), among whom it was symptomatic in 28 patients (8.8%). Tumor volume larger than 4.2 cc (p<0.001), hemispheric tumor location (p=0.005), and pre-treatment PTE (p<0.001) were associated with an increased risk of PTE. rEI reached its maximum value at 11 months after SRS and decreased thereafter, and symptoms resolved within 24 months in most patients (85.7%). Conclusion Caution should be exercised in decision-making on SRS for asymptomatic meningiomas of large volume (>4.2 cc), of hemispheric location, or with pre-treatment PTE. PTE usually develops within months, reaches its maximum degree until a year, and resolves within 2 years after SRS. PMID:26587194

  12. Patterns of molecular evolution of RNAi genes in social and socially parasitic bumblebees.

    PubMed

    Helbing, Sophie; Lattorff, H Michael G

    2016-08-01

    The high frequency of interactions amongst closely related individuals in social insect colonies enhances pathogen transmission. Group-mediated behavior supporting immune defenses tends to decrease selection acting on immune genes. Along with low effective population sizes this might result in relaxed constraint and rapid evolution of immune system genes. Here, we show that antiviral siRNA genes show high rates of molecular evolution with argonaute 2, armitage and maelstrom evolving faster in social bumblebees compared to their socially parasitic cuckoo bumblebees that lack a worker caste. RNAi genes show frequent positive selection at the codon level additionally supported by the occurrence of parallel evolution. Their evolutionary rate is linked to their pathway specific position with genes directly interacting with viruses showing the highest rates of molecular evolution. We suggest that higher pathogen load in social insects indeed drives the molecular evolution of immune genes including antiviral siRNA, if not compensated by behavior. PMID:27117935

  13. Larval body patterning and apical organs are conserved in animal evolution

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Planktonic ciliated larvae are characteristic for the life cycle of marine invertebrates. Their most prominent feature is the apical organ harboring sensory cells and neurons of largely undetermined function. An elucidation of the relationships between various forms of primary larvae and apical organs is key to understanding the evolution of animal life cycles. These relationships have remained enigmatic due to the scarcity of comparative molecular data. Results To compare apical organs and larval body patterning, we have studied regionalization of the episphere, the upper hemisphere of the trochophore larva of the marine annelid Platynereis dumerilii. We examined the spatial distribution of transcription factors and of Wnt signaling components previously implicated in anterior neural development. Pharmacological activation of Wnt signaling with Gsk3β antagonists abolishes expression of apical markers, consistent with a repressive role of Wnt signaling in the specification of apical tissue. We refer to this Wnt-sensitive, six3- and foxq2-expressing part of the episphere as the ‘apical plate’. We also unraveled a molecular signature of the apical organ - devoid of six3 but expressing foxj, irx, nkx3 and hox - that is shared with other marine phyla including cnidarians. Finally, we characterized the cell types that form part of the apical organ by profiling by image registration, which allows parallel expression profiling of multiple cells. Besides the hox-expressing apical tuft cells, this revealed the presence of putative light- and mechanosensory as well as multiple peptidergic cell types that we compared to apical organ cell types of other animal phyla. Conclusions The similar formation of a six3+, foxq2+ apical plate, sensitive to Wnt activity and with an apical tuft in its six3-free center, is most parsimoniously explained by evolutionary conservation. We propose that a simple apical organ - comprising an apical tuft and a basal plexus

  14. Shape evolution and finite deformation pattern in analog experiments of lithosphere necking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nestola, Yago; Storti, Fabrizio; Bedogni, Enrico; Cavozzi, Cristian

    2013-10-01

    necking evolution determines the 3-D architecture of crustal and upper mantle thinning and related basins, and the heat flow distribution in rifted regions. Despite a large number of studies, lithosphere necking evolution is still a matter of debate. We present the result from lithospheric-scale analog models designed for investigating the necking shape during extension and the vertical distribution of finite deformation in the mechanical lithosphere. In our experiments, lithosphere necking is asymmetric and, in particular, the 3-D distribution of thinning is cylindrical in the crust and very heterogeneous in the mantle. Overall, the evolution of rifting and necking progresses from delocalized to localized deformation.

  15. Temporal evolution and alternation of mechanisms of electric-field-induced patterns at ultralow-frequency driving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Éber, Nándor; Palomares, Laura O.; Salamon, Péter; Krekhov, Alexei; Buka, Ágnes

    2012-08-01

    The temporal evolution of patterns within the driving period of the ac voltage was studied in the 10-mHz-250-Hz frequency range. It was shown that the stationary electroconvection pattern of the conductive regime transforms into a flashing one at ultralow frequencies, existing only in narrow time windows within the period. Furthermore a transition between electroconvection and flexoelectric domains was detected which is repeating in each half period. The two patterns are well separated in time and in Fourier space. Simultaneous current measurements uncovered that the electric properties of the polyimide orienting layers influence the redistribution of the applied voltage. The experimental findings are in good qualitative agreement with the theoretical predictions based on an extended standard model including flexoelectricity.

  16. Herbivory Promotes Dental Disparification and Macroevolutionary Dynamics in Grunters (Teleostei: Terapontidae), a Freshwater Adaptive Radiation.

    PubMed

    Davis, Aaron M; Unmack, Peter J; Vari, Richard P; Betancur-R, Ricardo

    2016-03-01

    Trophic shifts into new adaptive zones have played major (although often conflicting) roles in reshaping the evolutionary trajectories of many lineages. We analyze data on diet, tooth, and oral morphology and relate these traits to phenotypic disparification and lineage diversification rates across the ecologically diverse Terapontidae, a family of Australasian fishes. In contrast to carnivores and most omnivores, which have retained relatively simple, ancestral caniniform tooth shapes, herbivorous terapontids appear to have evolved a variety of novel tooth shapes at significantly faster rates to meet the demands of plant-based diets. The evolution of herbivory prompted major disparification, significantly expanding the terapontid adaptive phenotypic continuum into an entirely novel functional morphospace. There was minimal support for our hypothesis of faster overall rates of integrated tooth shape, spacing, and jaw biomechanical evolution in herbivorous terapontids in their entirety, compared with other trophic strategies. There was, however, considerable support for accelerated disparification within a diverse freshwater clade containing a range of specialized freshwater herbivores. While the evolutionary transition to herbivorous diets has played a central role in terapontid phenotypic diversification by pushing herbivores toward novel fitness peaks, there was little support for herbivory driving significantly higher lineage diversification compared with background rates across the family. PMID:26913945

  17. The Population Genomics of Sunflowers and Genomic Determinants of Protein Evolution Revealed by RNAseq

    PubMed Central

    Renaut, Sébastien; Grassa, Christopher J.; Moyers, Brook T.; Kane, Nolan C.; Rieseberg, Loren H.

    2012-01-01

    Few studies have investigated the causes of evolutionary rate variation among plant nuclear genes, especially in recently diverged species still capable of hybridizing in the wild. The recent advent of Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) permits investigation of genome wide rates of protein evolution and the role of selection in generating and maintaining divergence. Here, we use individual whole-transcriptome sequencing (RNAseq) to refine our understanding of the population genomics of wild species of sunflowers (Helianthus spp.) and the factors that affect rates of protein evolution. We aligned 35 GB of transcriptome sequencing data and identified 433,257 polymorphic sites (SNPs) in a reference transcriptome comprising 16,312 genes. Using SNP markers, we identified strong population clustering largely corresponding to the three species analyzed here (Helianthus annuus, H. petiolaris, H. debilis), with one distinct early generation hybrid. Then, we calculated the proportions of adaptive substitution fixed by selection (alpha) and identified gene ontology categories with elevated values of alpha. The “response to biotic stimulus” category had the highest mean alpha across the three interspecific comparisons, implying that natural selection imposed by other organisms plays an important role in driving protein evolution in wild sunflowers. Finally, we examined the relationship between protein evolution (dN/dS ratio) and several genomic factors predicted to co-vary with protein evolution (gene expression level, divergence and specificity, genetic divergence [FST], and nucleotide diversity pi). We find that variation in rates of protein divergence was correlated with gene expression level and specificity, consistent with results from a broad range of taxa and timescales. This would in turn imply that these factors govern protein evolution both at a microevolutionary and macroevolutionary timescale. Our results contribute to a general understanding of the determinants

  18. Development and evolution of the unique cetacean dentition

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Zhengui; Bajpai, Sunil; Vinyard, Christopher J.; Thewissen, JGM

    2013-01-01

    The evolutionary success of mammals is rooted in their high metabolic rate. A high metabolic rate is sustainable thanks to efficient food processing and that in turn is facilitated by precise occlusion of the teeth and the acquisition of rhythmic mastication. These major evolutionary innovations characterize most members of the Class Mammalia. Cetaceans are one of the few groups of mammals in which precise occlusion has been secondarily lost. Most toothed whales have an increased number of simple crowned teeth that are similar along the tooth row. Evolution toward these specializations began immediately after the time cetaceans transitioned from terrestrial-to-marine environments. The fossil record documents the critical aspects of occlusal evolution of cetaceans, and allows us to pinpoint the evolutionary timing of the macroevolutionary events leading to their unusual dental morphology among mammals. The developmental controls of tooth differentiation and tooth number have been studied in a few mammalian clades, but nothing is known about how these controls differ between cetaceans and mammals that retain functional occlusion. Here we show that pigs, a cetacean relative with regionalized tooth morphology and complex tooth crowns, retain the typical mammalian gene expression patterns that control early tooth differentiation, expressing Bmp4 in the rostral (mesial, anterior) domain of the jaw, and Fgf8 caudally (distal, posterior). By contrast, dolphins have lost these regional differences in dental morphology and the Bmp4 domain is extended into the caudal region of the developing jaw. We hypothesize that the functional constraints underlying mammalian occlusion have been released in cetaceans, facilitating changes in the genetic control of early dental development. Such major developmental changes drive morphological evolution and are correlated with major shifts in diet and food processing during cetacean evolution. PMID:23638359

  19. Temporal and phylogenetic evolution of the sauropod dinosaur body plan

    PubMed Central

    Bates, Karl T.; Mannion, Philip D.; Falkingham, Peter L.; Brusatte, Stephen L.; Hutchinson, John R.; Otero, Alejandro; Sellers, William I.; Sullivan, Corwin; Stevens, Kent A.; Allen, Vivian

    2016-01-01

    The colossal size and body plan of sauropod dinosaurs are unparalleled in terrestrial vertebrates. However, to date, there have been only limited attempts to examine temporal and phylogenetic patterns in the sauropod bauplan. Here, we combine three-dimensional computational models with phylogenetic reconstructions to quantify the evolution of whole-body shape and body segment properties across the sauropod radiation. Limitations associated with the absence of soft tissue preservation in fossils result in large error bars about mean absolute body shape predictions. However, applying any consistent skeleton : body volume ratio to all taxa does yield changes in body shape that appear concurrent with major macroevolutionary events in sauropod history. A caudad shift in centre-of-mass (CoM) in Middle Triassic Saurischia, associated with the evolution of bipedalism in various dinosaur lineages, was reversed in Late Triassic sauropodomorphs. A craniad CoM shift coincided with the evolution of quadrupedalism in the Late Triassic, followed by a more striking craniad shift in Late Jurassic–Cretaceous titanosauriforms, which included the largest sauropods. These craniad CoM shifts are strongly correlated with neck enlargement, a key innovation in sauropod evolution and pivotal to their gigantism. By creating a much larger feeding envelope, neck elongation is thought to have increased feeding efficiency and opened up trophic niches that were inaccessible to other herbivores. However, we find that relative neck size and CoM position are not strongly correlated with inferred feeding habits. Instead the craniad CoM positions of titanosauriforms appear closely linked with locomotion and environmental distributions, potentially contributing to the continued success of this group until the end-Cretaceous, with all other sauropods having gone extinct by the early Late Cretaceous. PMID:27069652

  20. Temporal and phylogenetic evolution of the sauropod dinosaur body plan.

    PubMed

    Bates, Karl T; Mannion, Philip D; Falkingham, Peter L; Brusatte, Stephen L; Hutchinson, John R; Otero, Alejandro; Sellers, William I; Sullivan, Corwin; Stevens, Kent A; Allen, Vivian

    2016-03-01

    The colossal size and body plan of sauropod dinosaurs are unparalleled in terrestrial vertebrates. However, to date, there have been only limited attempts to examine temporal and phylogenetic patterns in the sauropod bauplan. Here, we combine three-dimensional computational models with phylogenetic reconstructions to quantify the evolution of whole-body shape and body segment properties across the sauropod radiation. Limitations associated with the absence of soft tissue preservation in fossils result in large error bars about mean absolute body shape predictions. However, applying any consistent skeleton : body volume ratio to all taxa does yield changes in body shape that appear concurrent with major macroevolutionary events in sauropod history. A caudad shift in centre-of-mass (CoM) in Middle Triassic Saurischia, associated with the evolution of bipedalism in various dinosaur lineages, was reversed in Late Triassic sauropodomorphs. A craniad CoM shift coincided with the evolution of quadrupedalism in the Late Triassic, followed by a more striking craniad shift in Late Jurassic-Cretaceous titanosauriforms, which included the largest sauropods. These craniad CoM shifts are strongly correlated with neck enlargement, a key innovation in sauropod evolution and pivotal to their gigantism. By creating a much larger feeding envelope, neck elongation is thought to have increased feeding efficiency and opened up trophic niches that were inaccessible to other herbivores. However, we find that relative neck size and CoM position are not strongly correlated with inferred feeding habits. Instead the craniad CoM positions of titanosauriforms appear closely linked with locomotion and environmental distributions, potentially contributing to the continued success of this group until the end-Cretaceous, with all other sauropods having gone extinct by the early Late Cretaceous. PMID:27069652

  1. The repeated evolution of large seeds on islands

    PubMed Central

    Kavanagh, Patrick H.; Burns, Kevin C.

    2014-01-01

    Several plant traits are known to evolve in predictable ways on islands. For example, herbaceous species often evolve to become woody and species frequently evolve larger leaves, regardless of growth form. However, our understanding of how seed sizes might evolve on islands lags far behind other plant traits. Here, we conduct the first test for macroevolutionary patterns of seed size on islands. We tested for differences in seed size between 40 island–mainland taxonomic pairings from four island groups surrounding New Zealand. Seed size data were collected in the field and then augmented by published seed descriptions to produce a more comprehensive dataset. Seed sizes of insular plants were consistently larger than mainland relatives, even after accounting for differences in growth form, dispersal mode and evolutionary history. Selection may favour seed size increases on islands to reduce dispersibility, as long-distance dispersal may result in propagule mortality at sea. Alternatively, larger seeds tend to generate larger seedlings, which are more likely to establish and outcompete neighbours. Our results indicate there is a general tendency for the evolution of large seeds on islands, but the mechanisms responsible for this evolutionary pathway have yet to be fully resolved. PMID:24850930

  2. From Central Pattern Generator to Sensory Template in the Evolution of Birdsong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konishi, Masakazu

    2010-01-01

    Central nervous networks, be they a part of the human brain or a group of neurons in a snail, may be designed to produce distinct patterns of movement. Central pattern generators can account for the development and production of normal vocal signals without auditory feedback in non-songbirds. Songbirds need auditory feedback to develop and…

  3. Riparian vegetation patterns in relation to fluvial landforms and channel evolution along selected rivers of Tuscany (Central Italy)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hupp, C.R.; Rinaldi, M.

    2007-01-01

    Riparian vegetation distribution patterns and diversity relative to various fluvial geomorphic channel patterns, landforms, and processes are described and interpreted for selected rivers of Tuscany, Central Italy; with emphasis on channel evolution following human impacts. Field surveys were conducted along thirteen gauged reaches for species presence, fluvial landforms, and the type and amount of channel/riparian zone change. Inundation frequency of different geomorphic surfaces was determined, and vegetation data were analyzed using BDA (binary discriminate analysis) and DCA (detrended correspondence analysis) and related to hydrogeomorphology. Multivariate analyses revealed distinct quantitative vegetation patterns relative to six major fluvial geomorphic surfaces. DCA of the vegetation data also showed distinct associations of plants to processes of adjustment that are related to stage of channel evolution, and clearly separated plants along disturbance/landform/soil moisture gradients. Species richness increases from the channel bed to the terrace and on heterogeneous riparian areas, whereas species richness decreases from moderate to intense incision and from low to intense narrowing. ?? 2007 by Association of American Geographers.

  4. The Evolution of Brachiopoda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, Sandra J.

    2016-06-01

    Brachiopods are (perhaps all too) familiar to any geology student who has taken an invertebrate paleontology course; they may well be less familiar to biology students. Even though brachiopods are among the most significant components of the marine fossil record by virtue of their considerable diversity, abundance, and long evolutionary history, fewer than 500 species are extant. Reconciling the geological and biological perspectives is necessary in order to test hypotheses, not only about phylogenetic relationships among brachiopods but also about their spectacular decline in diversity in the end-Permian mass extinction, which permanently reset their evolutionary trajectory. Studying brachiopod ontogeny and development, population genetics, ecology, physiology, and biogeography, as well as molecular systematics and phylogenomics, enables us to better understand the context of evolutionary processes over the short term. Investigating brachiopod morphological, taxonomic, and stratigraphic records over the Phanerozoic Eon reveals historical patterns of long-term macroevolutionary change, patterns that are simply unknowable from a biological perspective alone.

  5. A shift in the long-term mode of foraminiferan size evolution caused by the end-Permian mass extinction.

    PubMed

    Payne, Jonathan L; Jost, Adam B; Wang, Steve C; Skotheim, Jan M

    2013-03-01

    Size is among the most important traits of any organism, yet the factors that control its evolution remain poorly understood. In this study, we investigate controls on the evolution of organismal size using a newly compiled database of nearly 25,000 foraminiferan species and subspecies spanning the past 400 million years. We find a transition in the pattern of foraminiferan size evolution from correlation with atmospheric pO2 during the Paleozoic (400-250 million years ago) to long-term stasis during the post-Paleozoic (250 million years ago to present). Thus, a dramatic shift in the evolutionary mode coincides with the most severe biotic catastrophe of the Phanerozoic (543 million years ago to present). Paleozoic tracking of pO2 was confined to Order Fusulinida, whereas Paleozoic lagenides, miliolids, and textulariids were best described by the stasis model. Stasis continued to best describe miliolids and textulariids during post-Paleozoic time, whereas random walk was the best supported mode for the other diverse orders. The shift in evolutionary dynamics thus appears to have resulted primarily from the selective elimination of fusulinids at the end of the Permian Period. These findings illustrate the potential for mass extinction to alter macroevolutionary dynamics for hundreds of millions of years. PMID:23461330

  6. Patterns of Genome Evolution among the Microsporidian Parasites Encephalitozoon cuniculi, Antonospora locustae and Enterocytozoon bieneusi

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Hilary G.; Feng, Xiaochuan; Weiss, Louis M.; Tzipori, Saul; Keeling, Patrick J.

    2007-01-01

    Background Microsporidia are intracellular parasites that are highly-derived relatives of fungi. They have compacted genomes and, despite a high rate of sequence evolution, distantly related species can share high levels of gene order conservation. To date, only two species have been analysed in detail, and data from one of these largely consists of short genomic fragments. It is therefore difficult to determine how conservation has been maintained through microsporidian evolution, and impossible to identify whether certain regions are more prone to genomic stasis. Principal Findings Here, we analyse three large fragments of the Enterocytozoon bieneusi genome (in total 429 kbp), a species of medical significance. A total of 296 ORFs were identified, annotated and their context compared with Encephalitozoon cuniculi and Antonospora locustae. Overall, a high degree of conservation was found between all three species, and interestingly the level of conservation was similar in all three pairwise comparisons, despite the fact that A. locustae is more distantly related to E. cuniculi and E. bieneusi than either are to each other. Conclusions/Significance Any two genes that are found together in any pair of genomes are more likely to be conserved in the third genome as well, suggesting that a core of genes tends to be conserved across the entire group. The mechanisms of rearrangments identified among microsporidian genomes were consistent with a very slow evolution of their architecture, as opposed to the very rapid sequence evolution reported for these parasites. PMID:18060071

  7. Experimental evolution alters the rate and temporal pattern of population growth in Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, a lethal fungal pathogen of amphibians.

    PubMed

    Voyles, Jamie; Johnson, Leah R; Briggs, Cheryl J; Cashins, Scott D; Alford, Ross A; Berger, Lee; Skerratt, Lee F; Speare, Rick; Rosenblum, Erica Bree

    2014-09-01

    Virulence of infectious pathogens can be unstable and evolve rapidly depending on the evolutionary dynamics of the organism. Experimental evolution can be used to characterize pathogen evolution, often with the underlying objective of understanding evolution of virulence. We used experimental evolution techniques (serial transfer experiments) to investigate differential growth and virulence of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), a fungal pathogen that causes amphibian chytridiomycosis. We tested two lineages of Bd that were derived from a single cryo-archived isolate; one lineage (P10) was passaged 10 times, whereas the second lineage (P50) was passaged 50 times. We quantified time to zoospore release, maximum zoospore densities, and timing of zoospore activity and then modeled population growth rates. We also conducted exposure experiments with a susceptible amphibian species, the common green tree frog (Litoria caerulea) to test the differential pathogenicity. We found that the P50 lineage had shorter time to zoospore production (T min ), faster rate of sporangia death (d s ), and an overall greater intrinsic population growth rate (λ). These patterns of population growth in vitro corresponded with higher prevalence and intensities of infection in exposed Litoria caerulea, although the differences were not significant. Our results corroborate studies that suggest that Bd may be able to evolve relatively rapidly. Our findings also challenge the general assumption that pathogens will always attenuate in culture because shifts in Bd virulence may depend on laboratory culturing practices. These findings have practical implications for the laboratory maintenance of Bd isolates and underscore the importance of understanding the evolution of virulence in amphibian chytridiomycosis. PMID:25478154

  8. Experimental evolution alters the rate and temporal pattern of population growth in Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, a lethal fungal pathogen of amphibians

    PubMed Central

    Voyles, Jamie; Johnson, Leah R; Briggs, Cheryl J; Cashins, Scott D; Alford, Ross A; Berger, Lee; Skerratt, Lee F; Speare, Rick; Rosenblum, Erica Bree

    2014-01-01

    Virulence of infectious pathogens can be unstable and evolve rapidly depending on the evolutionary dynamics of the organism. Experimental evolution can be used to characterize pathogen evolution, often with the underlying objective of understanding evolution of virulence. We used experimental evolution techniques (serial transfer experiments) to investigate differential growth and virulence of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), a fungal pathogen that causes amphibian chytridiomycosis. We tested two lineages of Bd that were derived from a single cryo-archived isolate; one lineage (P10) was passaged 10 times, whereas the second lineage (P50) was passaged 50 times. We quantified time to zoospore release, maximum zoospore densities, and timing of zoospore activity and then modeled population growth rates. We also conducted exposure experiments with a susceptible amphibian species, the common green tree frog (Litoria caerulea) to test the differential pathogenicity. We found that the P50 lineage had shorter time to zoospore production (Tmin), faster rate of sporangia death (ds), and an overall greater intrinsic population growth rate (λ). These patterns of population growth in vitro corresponded with higher prevalence and intensities of infection in exposed Litoria caerulea, although the differences were not significant. Our results corroborate studies that suggest that Bd may be able to evolve relatively rapidly. Our findings also challenge the general assumption that pathogens will always attenuate in culture because shifts in Bd virulence may depend on laboratory culturing practices. These findings have practical implications for the laboratory maintenance of Bd isolates and underscore the importance of understanding the evolution of virulence in amphibian chytridiomycosis. PMID:25478154

  9. Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peter, Ulmschneider

    When we are looking for intelligent life outside the Earth, there is a fundamental question: Assuming that life has formed on an extraterrestrial planet, will it also develop toward intelligence? As this is hotly debated, we will now describe the development of life on Earth in more detail in order to show that there are good reasons why evolution should culminate in intelligent beings.

  10. The evolution of colour pattern complexity: selection for conspicuousness favours contrasting within-body colour combinations in lizards.

    PubMed

    Pérez I de Lanuza, G; Font, E

    2016-05-01

    Many animals display complex colour patterns that comprise several adjacent, often contrasting colour patches. Combining patches of complementary colours increases the overall conspicuousness of the complex pattern, enhancing signal detection. Therefore, selection for conspicuousness may act not only on the design of single colour patches, but also on their combination. Contrasting long- and short-wavelength colour patches are located on the ventral and lateral surfaces of many lacertid lizards. As the combination of long- and short-wavelength-based colours generates local chromatic contrast, we hypothesized that selection may favour the co-occurrence of lateral and ventral contrasting patches, resulting in complex colour patterns that maximize the overall conspicuousness of the signal. To test this hypothesis, we performed a comparative phylogenetic study using a categorical colour classification based on spectral data and descriptive information on lacertid coloration collected from the literature. Our results demonstrate that conspicuous ventral (long-wavelength-based) and lateral (short-wavelength-based) colour patches co-occur throughout the lacertid phylogeny more often than expected by chance, especially in the subfamily Lacertini. These results suggest that selection promotes the evolution of the complex pattern rather than the acquisition of a single conspicuous colour patch, possibly due to the increased conspicuousness caused by the combination of colours with contrasting spectral properties. PMID:26801820

  11. Modeling bivalve diversification: the effect of interaction on a macroevolutionary system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, A. I.; Sepkoski, J. J. Jr; Sepkoski JJ, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1988-01-01

    The global diversification of the class Bivalvia has historically received two conflicting interpretations. One is that a major upturn in diversification was associated with, and a consequence of, the Lake Permian mass extinction. The other is that mass extinctions have had little influence and that bivalves have experienced slow but nearly steady exponential diversification through most of their history, unaffected by interactions with other clades. We find that the most likely explanation lies between these two interpretations. Through most of the Phanerozoic, the diversity of bivalves did indeed exhibit slow growth, which was not substantially altered by mass extinctions. However, the presence of "hyperexponential bursts" in diversification during the initial Ordovician radiation and following the Late Permian and Late Cretaceous mass extinctions suggests a more complex history in which a higher characteristic diversification rate was dampened through most of the Phanerozoic. The observed pattern can be accounted for with a two-phase coupled (i.e., interactive) logistic model, where one phase is treated as the "bivalves" and the other phase is treated as a hypothetical group of clades with which the "bivalves" might have interacted. Results of this analysis suggest that interactions with other taxa have substantially affected bivalve global diversity through the Phanerozoic.

  12. Onshore–offshore gradient in metacommunity turnover emerges only over macroevolutionary time-scales

    PubMed Central

    Tomašových, Adam; Dominici, Stefano; Zuschin, Martin; Merle, Didier

    2014-01-01

    Invertebrate lineages tend to originate and become extinct at a higher rate in onshore than in offshore habitats over long temporal durations (more than 10 Myr), but it remains unclear whether this pattern scales down to durations of stages (less than 5 Myr) or even sequences (less than 0.5 Myr). We assess whether onshore–offshore gradients in long-term turnover between the tropical Eocene and the warm-temperate Plio-Pleistocene can be extrapolated from gradients in short-term turnover, using abundances of molluscan species from bulk samples in the northeast Atlantic Province. We find that temporal turnover of metacommunities does not significantly decline with depth over short durations (less than 5 Myr), but significantly declines with depth between the Eocene and Plio-Pleistocene (approx. 50 Myr). This decline is determined by a higher onshore extinction of Eocene genera and families, by a higher onshore variability in abundances of genera and families, and by an onshore expansion of genera and families that were frequent offshore in the Eocene. Onshore–offshore decline in turnover thus emerges only over long temporal durations. We suggest that this emergence is triggered by abrupt and spatially extensive climatic or oceanographic perturbations that occurred between the Eocene and Plio-Pleistocene. Plio-Pleistocene metacommunities show a high proportion of bathymetric generalists, in contrast to Eocene metacommunities. Accordingly, the net cooling and weaker thermal gradients may have allowed offshore specialists to expand into onshore habitats and maintain their presence in offshore habitats. PMID:25297863

  13. Bees, birds and yellow flowers: pollinator-dependent convergent evolution of UV patterns.

    PubMed

    Papiorek, S; Junker, R R; Alves-Dos-Santos, I; Melo, G A R; Amaral-Neto, L P; Sazima, M; Wolowski, M; Freitas, L; Lunau, K

    2016-01-01

    Colour is one of the most obvious advertisements of flowers, and occurs in a huge diversity among the angiosperms. Flower colour is responsible for attraction from a distance, whereas contrasting colour patterns within flowers aid orientation of flower visitors after approaching the flowers. Due to the striking differences in colour vision systems and neural processing across animal taxa, flower colours evoke specific behavioural responses by different flower visitors. We tested whether and how yellow flowers differ in their spectral reflectance depending on the main pollinator. We focused on bees and birds and examined whether the presence or absence of the widespread UV reflectance pattern of yellow flowers predicts the main pollinator. Most bee-pollinated flowers displayed a pattern with UV-absorbing centres and UV-reflecting peripheries, whereas the majority of bird-pollinated flowers are entirely UV- absorbing. In choice experiments we found that bees did not show consistent preferences for any colour or pattern types. However, all tested bee species made their first antennal contact preferably at the UV-absorbing area of the artificial flower, irrespective of its spatial position within the flower. The appearance of UV patterns within flowers is the main difference in spectral reflectance between yellow bee- and bird-pollinated flowers, and affects the foraging behaviour of flower visitors. The results support the hypothesis that flower colours and the visual capabilities of their efficient pollinators are adapted to each other. PMID:25703147

  14. Evolution of Courtship Songs in Xenopus : Vocal Pattern Generation and Sound Production.

    PubMed

    Leininger, Elizabeth C; Kelley, Darcy B

    2015-01-01

    The extant species of African clawed frogs (Xenopus and Silurana) provide an opportunity to link the evolution of vocal characters to changes in the responsible cellular and molecular mechanisms. In this review, we integrate several robust lines of research: evolutionary trajectories of Xenopus vocalizations, cellular and circuit-level mechanisms of vocalization in selected Xenopus model species, and Xenopus evolutionary history and speciation mechanisms. Integrating recent findings allows us to generate and test specific hypotheses about the evolution of Xenopus vocal circuits. We propose that reduced vocal sex differences in some Xenopus species result from species-specific losses of sexually differentiated neural and neuromuscular features. Modification of sex-hormone-regulated developmental mechanisms is a strong candidate mechanism for reduced vocal sex differences. PMID:26138673

  15. Widespread Recurrent Patterns of Rapid Repeat Evolution in the Kinetochore Scaffold KNL1

    PubMed Central

    Tromer, Eelco; Snel, Berend; Kops, Geert J.P.L.

    2015-01-01

    The outer kinetochore protein scaffold KNL1 is essential for error-free chromosome segregation during mitosis and meiosis. A critical feature of KNL1 is an array of repeats containing MELT-like motifs. When phosphorylated, these motifs form docking sites for the BUB1–BUB3 dimer that regulates chromosome biorientation and the spindle assembly checkpoint. KNL1 homologs are strikingly different in both the amount and sequence of repeats they harbor. We used sensitive repeat discovery and evolutionary reconstruction to show that the KNL1 repeat arrays have undergone extensive, often species-specific array reorganization through iterative cycles of higher order multiplication in conjunction with rapid sequence diversification. The number of repeats per array ranges from none in flowering plants up to approximately 35–40 in drosophilids. Remarkably, closely related drosophilid species have independently expanded specific repeats, indicating near complete array replacement after only approximately 25–40 Myr of evolution. We further show that repeat sequences were altered by the parallel emergence/loss of various short linear motifs, including phosphosites, which supplement the MELT-like motif, signifying modular repeat evolution. These observations point to widespread recurrent episodes of concerted KNL1 repeat evolution in all eukaryotic supergroups. We discuss our findings in the light of the conserved function of KNL1 repeats in localizing the BUB1–BUB3 dimer and its role in chromosome segregation. PMID:26254484

  16. Patterns and Evolution of Nucleotide Landscapes in Seed Plants[W

    PubMed Central

    Serres-Giardi, Laurana; Belkhir, Khalid; David, Jacques; Glémin, Sylvain

    2012-01-01

    Nucleotide landscapes, which are the way base composition is distributed along a genome, strongly vary among species. The underlying causes of these variations have been much debated. Though mutational bias and selection were initially invoked, GC-biased gene conversion (gBGC), a recombination-associated process favoring the G and C over A and T bases, is increasingly recognized as a major factor. As opposed to vertebrates, evolution of GC content is less well known in plants. Most studies have focused on the GC-poor and homogeneous Arabidopsis thaliana genome and the much more GC-rich and heterogeneous rice (Oryza sativa) genome and have often been generalized as a dicot/monocot dichotomy. This vision is clearly phylogenetically biased and does not allow understanding the mechanisms involved in GC content evolution in plants. To tackle these issues, we used EST data from more than 200 species and provided the most comprehensive description of gene GC content across the seed plant phylogeny so far available. As opposed to the classically assumed dicot/monocot dichotomy, we found continuous variations in GC content from the probably ancestral GC-poor and homogeneous genomes to the more derived GC-rich and highly heterogeneous ones, with several independent enrichment episodes. Our results suggest that gBGC could play a significant role in the evolution of GC content in plant genomes. PMID:22492812

  17. Multi-Input Single Output SSSC based damping controller design by a hybrid Improved Differential Evolution-Pattern Search approach.

    PubMed

    Panda, Sidhartha; Yegireddy, Narendra Kumar

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, a hybrid Improved Differential Evolution and Pattern Search (hIDEPS) approach is proposed for the design of a PI-Type Multi-Input Single Output (MISO) Static Synchronous Series Compensator (SSSC) based damping controller. The improvement in Differential Evolution (DE) algorithm is introduced by a simple but effective scheme of changing two of its most important control parameters i.e. step size and crossover probability with an objective of achieving improved performance. Pattern Search (PS) is subsequently employed to fine tune the best solution provided by modified DE algorithm. The superiority of a proposed hIDEPS technique over DE and improved DE has also been demonstrated. At the outset, this concept is applied to a SSSC connected in a Single Machine Infinite Bus (SMIB) power system and then extended to a multi-machine power system. To show the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed design approach, simulation results are presented and compared with DE and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) optimized Single Input Single Output (SISO) SSSC based damping controllers. It is observed that the proposed approach yield superior damping performance compared to some approaches available in the literature. PMID:25864132

  18. Mountain uplift explains differences in Palaeogene patterns of mammalian evolution and extinction between North America and Europe

    PubMed Central

    Eronen, Jussi T.; Janis, Christine M.; Chamberlain, C. Page; Mulch, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Patterns of late Palaeogene mammalian evolution appear to be very different between Eurasia and North America. Around the Eocene–Oligocene (EO) transition global temperatures in the Northern Hemisphere plummet: following this, European mammal faunas undergo a profound extinction event (the Grande Coupure), while in North America they appear to pass through this temperature event unscathed. Here, we investigate the role of surface uplift to environmental change and mammalian evolution through the Palaeogene (66–23 Ma). Palaeogene regional surface uplift in North America caused large-scale reorganization of precipitation patterns, particularly in the continental interior, in accord with our combined stable isotope and ecometric data. Changes in mammalian faunas reflect that these were dry and high-elevation palaeoenvironments. The scenario of Middle to Late Eocene (50–37 Ma) surface uplift, together with decreasing precipitation in higher-altitude regions of western North America, explains the enigma of the apparent lack of the large-scale mammal faunal change around the EO transition that characterized western Europe. We suggest that North American mammalian faunas were already pre-adapted to cooler and drier conditions preceding the EO boundary, resulting from the effects of a protracted history of surface uplift. PMID:26041349

  19. Mosaic patterns of diversification dynamics following the colonization of Melanesian islands.

    PubMed

    Toussaint, Emmanuel F A; Hendrich, Lars; Shaverdo, Helena; Balke, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The fate of newly settled dispersers on freshly colonized oceanic islands is a central theme of island biogeography. The emergence of increasingly sophisticated methods of macroevolutionary pattern inference paves the way for a deeper understanding of the mechanisms governing these diversification patterns on lineages following their colonization of oceanic islands. Here we infer a comprehensive molecular phylogeny for Melanesian Exocelina diving beetles. Recent methods in historical biogeography and diversification rate inference were then used to investigate the evolution of these insects in space and time. An Australian origin in the mid-Miocene was followed by independent colonization events towards New Guinea and New Caledonia in the late Miocene. One colonization of New Guinea led to a large radiation of >150 species and 3 independent colonizations of New Caledonia gave rise to about 40 species. The comparably late colonizations of Vanuatu, Hawaii and China left only one or two species in each region. The contrasting diversification trajectories of these insects on Melanesian islands are likely accounted for by island size, age and availability of ecological opportunities during the colonization stage. PMID:26526041

  20. Mosaic patterns of diversification dynamics following the colonization of Melanesian islands

    PubMed Central

    Toussaint, Emmanuel F. A.; Hendrich, Lars; Shaverdo, Helena; Balke, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The fate of newly settled dispersers on freshly colonized oceanic islands is a central theme of island biogeography. The emergence of increasingly sophisticated methods of macroevolutionary pattern inference paves the way for a deeper understanding of the mechanisms governing these diversification patterns on lineages following their colonization of oceanic islands. Here we infer a comprehensive molecular phylogeny for Melanesian Exocelina diving beetles. Recent methods in historical biogeography and diversification rate inference were then used to investigate the evolution of these insects in space and time. An Australian origin in the mid-Miocene was followed by independent colonization events towards New Guinea and New Caledonia in the late Miocene. One colonization of New Guinea led to a large radiation of >150 species and 3 independent colonizations of New Caledonia gave rise to about 40 species. The comparably late colonizations of Vanuatu, Hawaii and China left only one or two species in each region. The contrasting diversification trajectories of these insects on Melanesian islands are likely accounted for by island size, age and availability of ecological opportunities during the colonization stage. PMID:26526041

  1. Evolution of pattern complexity in the Cahn-Hilliard theory of phase separation

    SciTech Connect

    Gameiro, Marcio; Mischaikow, Konstantin; Wanner, Thomas . E-mail: wanner@math.gmu.edu

    2005-02-01

    Phase separation processes in compound materials can produce intriguing and complicated patterns. Yet, characterizing the geometry of these patterns quantitatively can be quite challenging. In this paper we propose the use of computational algebraic topology to obtain such a characterization. Our method is illustrated for the complex microstructures observed during spinodal decomposition and early coarsening in both the deterministic Cahn-Hilliard theory, as well as in the stochastic Cahn-Hilliard-Cook model. While both models produce microstructures that are qualitatively similar to the ones observed experimentally, our topological characterization points to significant differences. One particular aspect of our method is its ability to quantify boundary effects in finite size systems.

  2. Domestication and the Mitochondrial Genome: Comparing Patterns and Rates of Molecular Evolution in Domesticated Mammals and Birds and Their Wild Relatives

    PubMed Central

    Moray, Camile; Lanfear, Robert; Bromham, Lindell

    2014-01-01

    Studies of domesticated animals have led to the suggestion that domestication could have significant effects on patterns of molecular evolution. In particular, analyses of mitochondrial genome sequences from domestic dogs and yaks have yielded higher ratios of non-synonymous to synonymous substitutions in the domesticated lineages than in their wild relatives. These results are important because they imply that changes to selection or population size operating over a short timescale can cause significant changes to the patterns of mitochondrial molecular evolution. In this study, our aim is to test whether the impact on mitochondrial genome evolution is a general feature of domestication or whether it is specific to particular examples. We test whether domesticated mammals and birds have consistently different patterns of molecular evolution than their wild relatives for 16 phylogenetically independent comparisons of mitochondrial genome sequences. We find no consistent difference in branch lengths or dN/dS between domesticated and wild lineages. We also find no evidence that our failure to detect a consistent pattern is due to the short timescales involved or low genetic distance between domesticated lineages and their wild relatives. However, removing comparisons where the wild relative may also have undergone a bottleneck does reveal a pattern consistent with reduced effective population size in domesticated lineages. Our results suggest that, although some domesticated lineages may have undergone changes to selective regime or effective population size that could have affected mitochondrial evolution, it is not possible to generalize these patterns over all domesticated mammals and birds. PMID:24459286

  3. Clinicopathogenomic analysis of mismatch repair proficient colorectal adenocarcinoma uncovers novel prognostic subgroups with differing patterns of genetic evolution.

    PubMed

    Braxton, David R; Zhang, Ray; Morrissette, Jennifer D; Loaiza-Bonilla, Arturo; Furth, Emma E

    2016-10-01

    Cancer somatic genetic evolution is a direct contributor to heterogeneity at the clonal and molecular level in colorectal adenocarcinoma (COAD). We sought to determine the extent to which genetic evolution may be detected in COAD in routinely obtained single clinical specimens and establish clinical significance with regard to clinicopathologic and outcome data. One hundred and twenty three cases of routinely collected mismatch repair proficient COAD were sequenced on the Illumina Truseq Amplicon assay. Measures of intratumoral heterogeneity and the preferential timing of mutational events were assessed and compared to clinicopathologic data. Survival subanalysis was performed on 55 patients. Patient age (p = 0.013) and specimen percent tumor (p = 0.033) was associated with clonal diversity, and biopsy (p = 0.044) and metastasis (p = 0.044) returned fewer mutations per case. APC and TP53 mutations preferentially occurred early while alterations in FBXW7, FLT3, SMAD4, GNAS and PTEN preferentially occurred as late events. Temporal heterogeneity was evident in KRAS and PIK3CA mutations. Hierarchical clustering revealed a TP53 mutant subtype and a MAPK-PIK3CA subtype with differing patterns of late mutational events. Survival subanalysis showed a decreased median progression free survival for the MAPK-PIK3CA subtype (8 months vs. 13 months; univariate logrank p = 0.0380, cox model p= 0.018). Neoadjuvant therapy associated mutations were found for ERBB2 (p = 0.0481) and FBXW7 (p = 0.015). Our data indicate novel molecular subtypes of mismatch repair proficient COAD display differing patterns of genetic evolution which correlate with clinical outcomes. Furthermore, we report treatment acquired and/or selected mutations in ERBB2 and FBXW7. PMID:27194209

  4. Oxygen and evolutionary patterns in the sea: onshore/offshore trends and recent recruitment of deep-sea faunas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobs, D. K.; Lindberg, D. R.

    1998-01-01

    Over the last 15 years a striking pattern of diversification has been documented in the fossil record of benthic marine invertebrates. Higher taxa (orders) tend to originate onshore, diversify offshore, and retreat into deep-water environments. Previous studies attribute this macroevolutionary pattern to a variety of causes, foremost among them the role of nearshore disturbance in providing opportunities for the evolution of novel forms accorded ordinal rank. Our analysis of the post-Paleozoic record of ordinal first appearances indicates that the onshore preference of ordinal origination occurred only in the Mesozoic prior to the Turonian stage of the Cretaceous, a period characterized by relatively frequent anoxic/dysoxic bottom conditions in deeper marine environments. Later, in the Cretaceous and Cenozoic, ordinal origination of benthic organisms did not occur exclusively, or even preferentially, in onshore environments. This change in environmental pattern of ordinal origination roughly correlates with Late Cretaceous: (i) decline in anoxia/dysoxia in offshore benthic environments; (ii) extinction of faunas associated with dysoxic conditions; (iii) increase in bioturbation with the expansion of deep burrowing forms into offshore environments; and (iv) offshore expansion of bryozoan diversity. We also advance a separate argument that the Cenomanian/Turonian and latest Paleocene global events eliminated much of the deep-water benthos. This requires a more recent origin of modern vent and deep-sea faunas, from shallower water refugia, than the Paleozoic or early Mesozoic origin of these faunas suggested by other workers.

  5. Oxygen and evolutionary patterns in the sea: Onshore/offshore trends and recent recruitment of deep-sea faunas

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, David K.; Lindberg, David R.

    1998-01-01

    Over the last 15 years a striking pattern of diversification has been documented in the fossil record of benthic marine invertebrates. Higher taxa (orders) tend to originate onshore, diversify offshore, and retreat into deep-water environments. Previous studies attribute this macroevolutionary pattern to a variety of causes, foremost among them the role of nearshore disturbance in providing opportunities for the evolution of novel forms accorded ordinal rank. Our analysis of the post-Paleozoic record of ordinal first appearances indicates that the onshore preference of ordinal origination occurred only in the Mesozoic prior to the Turonian stage of the Cretaceous, a period characterized by relatively frequent anoxic/dysoxic bottom conditions in deeper marine environments. Later, in the Cretaceous and Cenozoic, ordinal origination of benthic organisms did not occur exclusively, or even preferentially, in onshore environments. This change in environmental pattern of ordinal origination roughly correlates with Late Cretaceous: (i) decline in anoxia/dysoxia in offshore benthic environments; (ii) extinction of faunas associated with dysoxic conditions; (iii) increase in bioturbation with the expansion of deep burrowing forms into offshore environments; and (iv) offshore expansion of bryozoan diversity. We also advance a separate argument that the Cenomanian/Turonian and latest Paleocene global events eliminated much of the deep-water benthos. This requires a more recent origin of modern vent and deep-sea faunas, from shallower water refugia, than the Paleozoic or early Mesozoic origin of these faunas suggested by other workers. PMID:11541238

  6. Evolution of stationary wave patterns in mesospheric water vapor due to climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demirhan Barı, Deniz; Gabriel, Axel; Sezginer Ünal, Yurdanur

    2016-07-01

    The variability in the observed stationary wave patterns of the mesospheric water vapor (H2O) is investigated using CMIP5 RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 projections. The change in the vertical and meridional wave structure at northern mid- and polar latitudes associated to the zonal and meridional eddy heat fluxes is discussed by analyzing the advection of H2O due to residual wind components. The alteration in the characteristics of the stationary wave-1 pattern of the lower mesospheric H2O (up to about 75km) related to change in the projected radiative forcing is observed for the years from 2006 to 2100. Additionally the remarkable effect of the increase in global temperature on the zonal asymmetries in small-scale transient waves and parameterized gravity waves, which largely contribute to the observed stationary wave patterns of H2O in the upper mesosphere, is analyzed. For validation purposes, the derived stratospheric patterns are verified against the eddy heat fluxes and residual advection terms derived from Aura/MLS satellite data between 2004-2010 and the reference period of the CMIP5 MPI dataset (1976-2005) providing confidence in the applied method.

  7. The pattern of hominin postcranial evolution reconsidered in light of size-related shape variation of the distal humerus.

    PubMed

    Lague, Michael R

    2014-10-01

    Previous research suggests that some hominin postcranial features do not follow a linear path of increasing modernization through geological time. With respect to the distal humerus, in particular, the earliest known hominin specimens are reportedly among the most modern in morphology, while some later humeri appear further removed from the average modern human shape. Although Plio-Pleistocene humeri vary widely in size, previous studies have failed to account for size-related shape variation when making morphometric comparisons. This study reexamines hominin postcranial evolution in light of distal humeral allometry. Using two-dimensional landmark data, the relationship between specimen size and shape among modern humans is quantified using multivariate regression and principal components analysis of size-shape space. Fossils are compared with modern human shapes expected at a given size, as well as with the overall average human shape. The null hypothesis of humeral isometry in modern humans is rejected. Subsequently, if one takes allometry into account, the apparent pattern of hominin humeral evolution does not resemble the pattern described above. All 14 of the Plio-Pleistocene hominin fossils examined here share a similar pattern of shape differences from equivalently-sized modern humans, though they vary in the extent to which these differences are expressed. The oldest specimen in the sample (KNM-KP 271; Australopithecus anamensis) exhibits the least human-like elbow morphology. Similarly primitive morphology characterizes all younger species of Australopithecus as well as Paranthropus robustus. After 2 Ma, a subtly more human-like elbow morphology is apparent among specimens attributed to early Homo, as well as among isolated specimens that may represent either Homo or Paranthropus boisei. This study emphasizes the need to consider size-related shape variation when individual fossil specimens are compared with the average shape of a comparative group

  8. Evolution of the F-Box Gene Family in Euarchontoglires: Gene Number Variation and Selection Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ailan; Fu, Mingchuan; Jiang, Xiaoqian; Mao, Yuanhui; Li, Xiangchen; Tao, Shiheng

    2014-01-01

    F-box proteins are substrate adaptors used by the SKP1–CUL1–F-box protein (SCF) complex, a type of E3 ubiquitin ligase complex in the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS). SCF-mediated ubiquitylation regulates proteolysis of hundreds of cellular proteins involved in key signaling and disease systems. However, our knowledge of the evolution of the F-box gene family in Euarchontoglires is limited. In the present study, 559 F-box genes and nine related pseudogenes were identified in eight genomes. Lineage-specific gene gain and loss events occurred during the evolution of Euarchontoglires, resulting in varying F-box gene numbers ranging from 66 to 81 among the eight species. Both tandem duplication and retrotransposition were found to have contributed to the increase of F-box gene number, whereas mutation in the F-box domain was the main mechanism responsible for reduction in the number of F-box genes, resulting in a balance of expansion and contraction in the F-box gene family. Thus, the Euarchontoglire F-box gene family evolved under a birth-and-death model. Signatures of positive selection were detected in substrate-recognizing domains of multiple F-box proteins, and adaptive changes played a role in evolution of the Euarchontoglire F-box gene family. In addition, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) distributions were found to be highly non-random among different regions of F-box genes in 1092 human individuals, with domain regions having a significantly lower number of non-synonymous SNPs. PMID:24727786

  9. Patterns of molecular evolution of an avian neo-sex chromosome.

    PubMed

    Pala, Irene; Hasselquist, Dennis; Bensch, Staffan; Hansson, Bengt

    2012-12-01

    Newer parts of sex chromosomes, neo-sex chromosomes, offer unique possibilities for studying gene degeneration and sequence evolution in response to loss of recombination and population size decrease. We have recently described a neo-sex chromosome system in Sylvioidea passerines that has resulted from a fusion between the first half (10 Mb) of chromosome 4a and the ancestral sex chromosomes. In this study, we report the results of molecular analyses of neo-Z and neo-W gametologs and intronic parts of neo-Z and autosomal genes on the second half of chromosome 4a in three species within different Sylvioidea lineages (Acrocephalidea, Timaliidae, and Alaudidae). In line with hypotheses of neo-sex chromosome evolution, we observe 1) lower genetic diversity of neo-Z genes compared with autosomal genes, 2) moderate synonymous and weak nonsynonymous sequence divergence between neo-Z and neo-W gametologs, and 3) lower GC content on neo-W than neo-Z gametologs. Phylogenetic reconstruction of eight neo-Z and neo-W gametologs suggests that recombination continued after the split of Alaudidae from the rest of the Sylvioidea lineages (i.e., after ~42.2 Ma) and with some exceptions also after the split of Acrocephalidea and Timaliidae (i.e., after ~39.4 Ma). The Sylvioidea neo-sex chromosome shares classical evolutionary features with the ancestral sex chromosomes but, as expected from its more recent origin, shows weaker divergence between gametologs. PMID:22826461

  10. Large-scale pattern of mantle evolution through rifting in hyper-extended margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picazo, Suzanne; Müntener, Othmar; Manatschal, Gianreto; Bauville, Arthur

    2016-04-01

    New ideas and concepts have been developed to understand and be able to give a simplified large-scale view of the evolution of the mantle lithosphere in hyper-extended magma-poor rifted margins based on the ancient Alpine Tethys rifted margin. In contrast to the classical assumption assuming a simple, isotropic mantle lithosphere, these new models integrate observations from exposed and drilled mantle rocks and propose that the mantle lithosphere evolved and was modified during an extensional cycle from post-orogenic collapse through several periods of rifting to embryonic oceanic (ultra-) slow seafloor spreading. But it is, at present, unclear how far these ideas can be generalized at Atlantic type rifted margins. In our presentation, we review the available mantle data from dredged samples in the North Atlantic and from ophiolite massifs and xenoliths in preserved and reactivated passive margins i.e. the Alpine Tethys, the Pyrenean domain, and the Dinarides and Hellenides. We revisit the available terminology concerning mantle massifs and xenoliths and compile the available data to identify different mantle domains. We define chemical and petrological characteristics of mantle domains based on clinopyroxene and spinel compositions and compile them on present-day and paleo-geographic maps of Western Europe. Finally we link the observed distribution of mantle domains to the post-Variscan extensional cycle and link domains to processes related to the late post-Variscan extension, the rift evolution and refertilization associated to hyper-extension and the development of embryonic oceanic domains.

  11. Origins of adult pigmentation: diversity in pigment stem cell lineages and implications for pattern evolution

    PubMed Central

    Spiewak, Jessica E.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Teleosts comprise about half of all vertebrate species and exhibit an extraordinary diversity of adult pigment patterns that function in shoaling, camouflage and mate choice and have played important roles in speciation. Here, we review recent studies that have identified several distinct neural crest lineages, with distinct genetic requirements, that give rise to adult pigment cells in fishes. These lineages include post-embryonic, peripheral nerve associated stem cells that generate black melanophores and iridescent iridophores, cells derived directly from embryonic neural crest cells that generate yellow-orange xanthophores, and bipotent stem cells that generate both melanophores and xanthophores. This complexity in adult chromatophore lineages has implications for our understanding of adult traits, melanoma, and the evolutionary diversification of pigment cell lineages and patterns. PMID:25421288

  12. Unraveling a generic growth pattern in structure evolution of thiolate-protected gold nanoclusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Wen Wu; Li, Yadong; Gao, Yi; Zeng, Xiao Cheng

    2016-03-01

    Precise control of the growth of thiolate-protected gold nanoclusters is a prerequisite for their applications in catalysis and bioengineering. Here, we bring to bear a new series of thiolate-protected nanoclusters with a unique growth pattern, i.e., Au20(SR)16, Au28(SR)20, Au36(SR)24, Au44(SR)28, and Au52(SR)32. These nanoclusters can be viewed as resulting from the stepwise addition of a common structural motif [Au8(SR)4]. The highly negative values of the nucleus-independent chemical shift (NICS) in the center of the tetrahedral Au4 units suggest that the overall stabilities of these clusters stem from the local stability of each tetrahedral Au4 unit. Generalization of this growth-pattern rule to large-sized nanoclusters allows us to identify the structures of three new thiolate-protected nanoclusters, namely, Au60(SR)36, Au68(SR)40, and Au76(SR)44. Remarkably, all three large-sized nanoclusters possess relatively large HOMO-LUMO gaps and negative NICS values, suggesting their high chemical stability. Further extension of the growth-pattern rule to the infinitely long nanowire limit results in a one-dimensional (1D) thiolate-protected gold nanowire (RS-AuNW) with a band gap of 0.78 eV. Such a unique growth-pattern rule offers a guide for precise synthesis of a new class of large-sized thiolate-protected gold nanoclusters or even RS-AuNW which, to our knowledge, has not been reported in the literature.Precise control of the growth of thiolate-protected gold nanoclusters is a prerequisite for their applications in catalysis and bioengineering. Here, we bring to bear a new series of thiolate-protected nanoclusters with a unique growth pattern, i.e., Au20(SR)16, Au28(SR)20, Au36(SR)24, Au44(SR)28, and Au52(SR)32. These nanoclusters can be viewed as resulting from the stepwise addition of a common structural motif [Au8(SR)4]. The highly negative values of the nucleus-independent chemical shift (NICS) in the center of the tetrahedral Au4 units suggest that the overall

  13. Chromosomal rearrangements and evolution of recombination: comparison of chiasma distribution patterns in standard and robertsonian populations of the house mouse.

    PubMed Central

    Dumas, David; Britton-Davidian, Janice

    2002-01-01

    The effects of chromosomal rearrangements on recombination rates were tested by the analysis of chiasma distribution patterns in wild house mice. Males and females of two chromosomal races from Tunisia differing by nine pairs of Robertsonian (Rb) fusions (standard all-acrocentric, 2N = 40 and 2N = 22) were studied. A significant decrease in chiasma number (CN) was observed in Rb mice compared to standard ones for both sexes. The difference in CN was due to a reduction in the number of proximal chiasmata and was associated with an overall more distal redistribution. These features were related to distance of chiasmata to the centromere, suggesting that the centromere effect was more pronounced in Rb fusions than in acrocentric chromosomes. These modifications were interpreted in terms of structural meiotic constraints, although genic factors were likely involved in patterning the observed differences between sexes within races. Thus, the change in chromosomal structure in Rb mice was associated with a generalized decrease in recombination due to a reduction in diploid number, a lower CN, and a decrease in the efficiency of recombination. The effects of such modifications on patterns of genic diversity are discussed in the light of models of evolution of recombination. PMID:12454079

  14. Structural patterns, evolution, and seismic expression of Montague County, Texas - Implications concerning past discoveries and future exploration

    SciTech Connect

    Font, R.G. )

    1990-02-01

    North Texas is a mature province that has yielded abundant hydrocarbons. Opportunities still exist for discovering large reserves by applying new technology and developing innovative concepts for frontier type plays. Montague County can be used to illustrate this point. Analysis of seismic and petrologic data reveals a fascinating scenario concerning structural patterns and tectonic evolution. The Proterozoic and early Paleozoic history is related to the development of the Wichita aulacogen. Similar structural architecture is found on the southern side of the Wichita-Amarillo uplift from the Hardeman basin to Montague County. The early history reflects rifting. Subsequent tectonism relates to the Hercynian orogeny, plate convergence, and collision. Fault patterns mapped from seismic and subsurface data may be explained through reorientation of the principal stresses. Of the major patterns mapped, the northwest-trending system is dominant. Normal faults formed during rifting were selectively reactivated as upthrusts during convergence. Past discoveries are almost invariably related to seismic expression. New Carboniferous reserves will be discovered in subtle traps. State-of-the-art seismic and seismic stratigraphy will equate to exploratory success. New play concepts involve the petroleum potential of the deep Ellenburger, similar to the deep pay found in Oklahoma. Recent deep wells drilled in the county affirm the presence of structure and reservoir, but fail to find the indigenous source potential present north of the Red River. Best opportunities for deep Ellenburger discoveries in Texas lie where faulting juxtaposes Carboniferous source rocks to the Cambrian-Ordovician reservoirs.

  15. The impact of shifts in marine biodiversity hotspots on patterns of range evolution: Evidence from the Holocentridae (squirrelfishes and soldierfishes).

    PubMed

    Dornburg, Alex; Moore, Jon; Beaulieu, Jeremy M; Eytan, Ron I; Near, Thomas J

    2015-01-01

    One of the most striking biodiversity patterns is the uneven distribution of marine species richness, with species diversity in the Indo-Australian Archipelago (IAA) exceeding all other areas. However, the IAA formed fairly recently, and marine biodiversity hotspots have shifted across nearly half the globe since the Paleogene. Understanding how lineages have responded to shifting biodiversity hotspots represents a necessary historic perspective on the formation and maintenance of global marine biodiversity. Such evolutionary inferences are often challenged by a lack of fossil evidence that provide insights into historic patterns of abundance and diversity. The greatest diversity of squirrelfishes and soldierfishes (Holocentridae) is in the IAA, yet these fishes also represent some of the most numerous fossil taxa in deposits of the former West Tethyan biodiversity hotspot. We reconstruct the pattern of holocentrid range evolution using time-calibrated phylogenies that include most living species and several fossil lineages, demonstrating the importance of including fossil species as terminal taxa in ancestral area reconstructions. Holocentrids exhibit increased range fragmentation following the West Tethyan hotspot collapse. However, rather than originating within the emerging IAA hotspot, the IAA has acted as a reservoir for holocentrid diversity that originated in adjacent regions over deep evolutionary time scales. PMID:25407924

  16. Design of Spiking Central Pattern Generators for Multiple Locomotion Gaits in Hexapod Robots by Christiansen Grammar Evolution.

    PubMed

    Espinal, Andres; Rostro-Gonzalez, Horacio; Carpio, Martin; Guerra-Hernandez, Erick I; Ornelas-Rodriguez, Manuel; Sotelo-Figueroa, Marco

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a method to design Spiking Central Pattern Generators (SCPGs) to achieve locomotion at different frequencies on legged robots. It is validated through embedding its designs into a Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) and implemented on a real hexapod robot. The SCPGs are automatically designed by means of a Christiansen Grammar Evolution (CGE)-based methodology. The CGE performs a solution for the configuration (synaptic weights and connections) for each neuron in the SCPG. This is carried out through the indirect representation of candidate solutions that evolve to replicate a specific spike train according to a locomotion pattern (gait) by measuring the similarity between the spike trains and the SPIKE distance to lead the search to a correct configuration. By using this evolutionary approach, several SCPG design specifications can be explicitly added into the SPIKE distance-based fitness function, such as looking for Spiking Neural Networks (SNNs) with minimal connectivity or a Central Pattern Generator (CPG) able to generate different locomotion gaits only by changing the initial input stimuli. The SCPG designs have been successfully implemented on a Spartan 6 FPGA board and a real time validation on a 12 Degrees Of Freedom (DOFs) hexapod robot is presented. PMID:27516737

  17. Design of Spiking Central Pattern Generators for Multiple Locomotion Gaits in Hexapod Robots by Christiansen Grammar Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Espinal, Andres; Rostro-Gonzalez, Horacio; Carpio, Martin; Guerra-Hernandez, Erick I.; Ornelas-Rodriguez, Manuel; Sotelo-Figueroa, Marco

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a method to design Spiking Central Pattern Generators (SCPGs) to achieve locomotion at different frequencies on legged robots. It is validated through embedding its designs into a Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) and implemented on a real hexapod robot. The SCPGs are automatically designed by means of a Christiansen Grammar Evolution (CGE)-based methodology. The CGE performs a solution for the configuration (synaptic weights and connections) for each neuron in the SCPG. This is carried out through the indirect representation of candidate solutions that evolve to replicate a specific spike train according to a locomotion pattern (gait) by measuring the similarity between the spike trains and the SPIKE distance to lead the search to a correct configuration. By using this evolutionary approach, several SCPG design specifications can be explicitly added into the SPIKE distance-based fitness function, such as looking for Spiking Neural Networks (SNNs) with minimal connectivity or a Central Pattern Generator (CPG) able to generate different locomotion gaits only by changing the initial input stimuli. The SCPG designs have been successfully implemented on a Spartan 6 FPGA board and a real time validation on a 12 Degrees Of Freedom (DOFs) hexapod robot is presented. PMID:27516737

  18. Evolution of Canada’s Boreal Forest Spatial Patterns as Seen from Space

    PubMed Central

    Pickell, Paul D.; Coops, Nicholas C.; Gergel, Sarah E.; Andison, David W.; Marshall, Peter L.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the development of landscape patterns over broad spatial and temporal scales is a major contribution to ecological sciences and is a critical area of research for forested land management. Boreal forests represent an excellent case study for such research because these forests have undergone significant changes over recent decades. We analyzed the temporal trends of four widely-used landscape pattern indices for boreal forests of Canada: forest cover, largest forest patch index, forest edge density, and core (interior) forest cover. The indices were computed over landscape extents ranging from 5,000 ha (n = 18,185) to 50,000 ha (n = 1,662) and across nine major ecozones of Canada. We used 26 years of Landsat satellite imagery to derive annualized trends of the landscape pattern indices. The largest declines in forest cover, largest forest patch index, and core forest cover were observed in the Boreal Shield, Boreal Plain, and Boreal Cordillera ecozones. Forest edge density increased at all landscape extents for all ecozones. Rapidly changing landscapes, defined as the 90th percentile of forest cover change, were among the most forested initially and were characterized by four times greater decrease in largest forest patch index, three times greater increase in forest edge density, and four times greater decrease in core forest cover compared with all 50,000 ha landscapes. Moreover, approximately 18% of all 50,000 ha landscapes did not change due to a lack of disturbance. The pattern database results provide important context for forest management agencies committed to implementing ecosystem-based management strategies. PMID:27383055

  19. Evolution and functional significance of derived sternal ossification patterns in ornithothoracine birds.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, J K; Zheng, X-T; Sullivan, C; Chuong, C-M; Wang, X-L; Li, A; Wang, Y; Zhang, X-M; Zhou, Z-H

    2015-08-01

    The midline pattern of sternal ossification characteristic of the Cretaceous enantiornithine birds is unique among the Ornithodira, the group containing birds, nonavian dinosaurs and pterosaurs. This has been suggested to indicate that Enantiornithes is not the sister group of Ornithuromorpha, the clade that includes living birds and their close relatives, which would imply rampant convergence in many nonsternal features between enantiornithines and ornithuromorphs. However, detailed comparisons reveal greater similarity between neornithine (i.e. crown group bird) and enantiornithine modes of sternal ossification than previously recognized. Furthermore, a new subadult enantiornithine specimen demonstrates that sternal ossification followed a more typically ornithodiran pattern in basal members of the clade. This new specimen, referable to the Pengornithidae, indicates that the unique ossification pattern observed in other juvenile enantiornithines is derived within Enantiornithes. A similar but clearly distinct pattern appears to have evolved in parallel in the ornithuromorph lineage. The atypical mode of sternal ossification in some derived enantiornithines should be regarded as an autapomorphic condition rather than an indication that enantiornithines are not close relatives of ornithuromorphs. Based on what is known about molecular mechanisms for morphogenesis and the possible selective advantages, the parallel shifts to midline ossification that took place in derived enantiornithines and living neognathous birds appear to have been related to the development of a large ventral keel, which is only present in ornithuromorphs and enantiornithines. Midline ossification can serve to medially reinforce the sternum at a relatively early ontogenetic stage, which would have been especially beneficial during the protracted development of the superprecocial Cretaceous enantiornithines. PMID:26079847

  20. Evolution of Canada's Boreal Forest Spatial Patterns as Seen from Space.

    PubMed

    Pickell, Paul D; Coops, Nicholas C; Gergel, Sarah E; Andison, David W; Marshall, Peter L

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the development of landscape patterns over broad spatial and temporal scales is a major contribution to ecological sciences and is a critical area of research for forested land management. Boreal forests represent an excellent case study for such research because these forests have undergone significant changes over recent decades. We analyzed the temporal trends of four widely-used landscape pattern indices for boreal forests of Canada: forest cover, largest forest patch index, forest edge density, and core (interior) forest cover. The indices were computed over landscape extents ranging from 5,000 ha (n = 18,185) to 50,000 ha (n = 1,662) and across nine major ecozones of Canada. We used 26 years of Landsat satellite imagery to derive annualized trends of the landscape pattern indices. The largest declines in forest cover, largest forest patch index, and core forest cover were observed in the Boreal Shield, Boreal Plain, and Boreal Cordillera ecozones. Forest edge density increased at all landscape extents for all ecozones. Rapidly changing landscapes, defined as the 90th percentile of forest cover change, were among the most forested initially and were characterized by four times greater decrease in largest forest patch index, three times greater increase in forest edge density, and four times greater decrease in core forest cover compared with all 50,000 ha landscapes. Moreover, approximately 18% of all 50,000 ha landscapes did not change due to a lack of disturbance. The pattern database results provide important context for forest management agencies committed to implementing ecosystem-based management strategies. PMID:27383055

  1. Evolution of self-organized two-dimensional patterns of nanoclusters through demixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhuri, Madhumita; Iyengar, A. N. Sekar; Datta, Alokmay; Janaki, M. S.

    2015-09-01

    A mixture of dodecanethiol-capped Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) and the amphiphilic fatty acid, stearic acid, spread as a monomolecular layer on water surface, is observed with Brewster angle microscopy (BAM) to form a two-dimensional network of AuNP clusters through demixing, at concentration of AuNPs by weight (ρ ¯)>10 % and the surface pressure (π )≥10 mN m-1 . For π =15 mN m-1 , the number of nodes (n ) remains unchanged till ˜2 hours and then changes over to a lower n state, where the pattern consists of almost perfect circles with greater in-plane thickness of the AuNP lamellae. For the higher n state the mean-square fluctuation of BAM intensity remains flat and then decays as f (ξ ) =ξ2 α with α ˜0.6 (correlated fluctuations) over the length scales of 400 μ m -6 μ m and below 6 μ m , respectively. For the lower n state the fluctuation decays almost over the entire length scale with α =0.3 , indicating emergence of aperiodicity from quasiperiodicity and a changeover to anticorrelated fluctuations. These patterns can be looked at as two distinct chaotic trajectories in the I -I' phase space of the system (I being the scattered light intensity at any position of the pattern and I' its gradient) with characteristic Lyapunov exponents.

  2. Interface dynamics under nonequilibrium conditions: from a self-propelled droplet to dynamic pattern evolution.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y-J; Yoshikawa, K

    2011-04-01

    In this article, we describe the instability of a contact line under nonequilibrium conditions mainly based on the results of our recent studies. Two experimental examples are presented: the self-propelled motion of a liquid droplet and spontaneous dynamic pattern formation. For the self-propelled motion of a droplet, we introduce an experiment in which a droplet of aniline sitting on an aqueous layer moves spontaneously at an air-water interface. The spontaneous symmetry breaking of Marangoni-driven spreading causes regular motion. In a circular Petri dish, the droplet exhibits either beeline motion or circular motion. On the other hand, we show the emergence of a dynamic labyrinthine pattern caused by dewetting of a metastable thin film from the air-water interface. The contact line between the organic phase and the aqueous phase forms a unique spatio-temporal pattern characterized as a dynamic labyrinth. Motion of the contact line is controlled by diffusion processes. We propose a theoretical model to interpret essential aspects of the observed dynamic behavior. PMID:21509663

  3. Patterns of recurrent evolution and geographic parthenogenesis within apomictic polyploid Easter daises (Townsendia hookeri).

    PubMed

    Thompson, Stacey Lee; Whitton, Jeannette

    2006-10-01

    Geographic patterns of parthenogenesis and the number of transitions from sexual diploidy to asexual (apomictic) autopolyploidy were examined for 40 populations of the Easter daisy, Townsendia hookeri. Analyses of pollen diameter and stainability characterized 15 sexual diploid and 25 apomictic polyploid populations from throughout the plant's western North American range. Sexual diploids were restricted to two Wisconsin refugia: Colorado/Wyoming, south of the ice sheets, and northern Yukon/Beringia. Chloroplast DNA sequencing uncovered 17 polymorphisms within the ndhF gene and trnK intron, yielding 10 haplotypes. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that five exclusively polyploid haplotypes were derived from four haplotypes that are shared among ploidies, conservatively inferring a minimum of four origins of apomictic polyploidy. Three of these apomictic polyploid origins were derived from southern sexual diploids, while the fourth origin was derived from northern sexual diploids. Analyses of regional diversity were suggestive of a formerly broad distribution for sexual diploids that has become subsequently fragmented, possibly due to the last round of glaciation. As sexual diploids were exclusively found north and south of the glacial maximum, while formerly glaciated areas were exclusively inhabited by asexual polyploids derived from both northern and southern sexual lineages, it is more likely that patterns of glaciation, as opposed to a particular latitudinal trend, played a causal role in the establishment of the observed pattern of geographic parthenogenesis in Easter daisies. PMID:16968277

  4. Dynamic distribution patterns of ribosomal DNA and chromosomal evolution in Paphiopedilum, a lady's slipper orchid

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Paphiopedilum is a horticulturally and ecologically important genus of ca. 80 species of lady's slipper orchids native to Southeast Asia. These plants have long been of interest regarding their chromosomal evolution, which involves a progressive aneuploid series based on either fission or fusion of centromeres. Chromosome number is positively correlated with genome size, so rearrangement processes must include either insertion or deletion of DNA segments. We have conducted Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) studies using 5S and 25S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) probes to survey for rearrangements, duplications, and phylogenetically-correlated variation within Paphiopedilum. We further studied sequence variation of the non-transcribed spacers of 5S rDNA (5S-NTS) to examine their complex duplication history, including the possibility that concerted evolutionary forces may homogenize diversity. Results 5S and 25S rDNA loci among Paphiopedilum species, representing all key phylogenetic lineages, exhibit a considerable diversity that correlates well with recognized evolutionary groups. 25S rDNA signals range from 2 (representing 1 locus) to 9, the latter representing hemizygosity. 5S loci display extensive structural variation, and show from 2 specific signals to many, both major and minor and highly dispersed. The dispersed signals mainly occur at centromeric and subtelomeric positions, which are hotspots for chromosomal breakpoints. Phylogenetic analysis of cloned 5S rDNA non-transcribed spacer (5S-NTS) sequences showed evidence for both ancient and recent post-speciation duplication events, as well as interlocus and intralocus diversity. Conclusions Paphiopedilum species display many chromosomal rearrangements - for example, duplications, translocations, and inversions - but only weak concerted evolutionary forces among highly duplicated 5S arrays, which suggests that double-strand break repair processes are dynamic and ongoing. These results make the genus

  5. Tracking pattern evolution through extended center manifold reduction and singular perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sewalt, L.; Doelman, A.; Meijer, H. G. E.; Rottschäfer, V.; Zagaris, A.

    2015-04-01

    In this paper we develop an extended center manifold reduction method: a methodology to analyze the formation and bifurcations of small-amplitude patterns in certain classes of multi-component, singularly perturbed systems of partial differential equations. We specifically consider systems with a spatially homogeneous state whose stability spectrum partitions into eigenvalue groups with distinct asymptotic properties. One group of successive eigenvalues in the bifurcating group are widely interspaced, while the eigenvalues in the other are stable and cluster asymptotically close to the origin along the stable semi-axis. The classical center manifold reduction provides a rigorous framework to analyze destabilizations of the trivial state, as long as there is a spectral gap of sufficient width. When the bifurcating eigenvalue becomes commensurate to the stable eigenvalues clustering close to the origin, the center manifold reduction breaks down. Moreover, it cannot capture subsequent bifurcations of the bifurcating pattern. Through our methodology, we formally derive expressions for low-dimensional manifolds exponentially attracting the full flow for parameter combinations that go beyond those allowed for the (classical) center manifold reduction, i.e. to cases in which the spectral gap condition no longer can be satisfied. Our method also provides an explicit description of the flow on these manifolds and thus provides an analytical tool to study subsequent bifurcations. Our analysis centers around primary bifurcations of transcritical type-that can be either of co-dimension 1 or 2-in two- and three-component PDE systems. We employ our method to study bifurcation scenarios of small-amplitude patterns and the possible appearance of low-dimensional spatio-temporal chaos. We also exemplify our analysis by a number of characteristic reaction-diffusion systems with disparate diffusivities.

  6. Evolution of Xylan Substitution Patterns in Gymnosperms and Angiosperms: Implications for Xylan Interaction with Cellulose.

    PubMed

    Busse-Wicher, Marta; Li, An; Silveira, Rodrigo L; Pereira, Caroline S; Tryfona, Theodora; Gomes, Thiago C F; Skaf, Munir S; Dupree, Paul

    2016-08-01

    The interaction between cellulose and xylan is important for the load-bearing secondary cell wall of flowering plants. Based on the precise, evenly spaced pattern of acetyl and glucuronosyl (MeGlcA) xylan substitutions in eudicots, we recently proposed that an unsubstituted face of xylan in a 2-fold helical screw can hydrogen bond to the hydrophilic surfaces of cellulose microfibrils. In gymnosperm cell walls, any role for xylan is unclear, and glucomannan is thought to be the important cellulose-binding polysaccharide. Here, we analyzed xylan from the secondary cell walls of the four gymnosperm lineages (Conifer, Gingko, Cycad, and Gnetophyta). Conifer, Gingko, and Cycad xylan lacks acetylation but is modified by arabinose and MeGlcA. Interestingly, the arabinosyl substitutions are located two xylosyl residues from MeGlcA, which is itself placed precisely on every sixth xylosyl residue. Notably, the Gnetophyta xylan is more akin to early-branching angiosperms and eudicot xylan, lacking arabinose but possessing acetylation on alternate xylosyl residues. All these precise substitution patterns are compatible with gymnosperm xylan binding to hydrophilic surfaces of cellulose. Molecular dynamics simulations support the stable binding of 2-fold screw conifer xylan to the hydrophilic face of cellulose microfibrils. Moreover, the binding of multiple xylan chains to adjacent planes of the cellulose fibril stabilizes the interaction further. Our results show that the type of xylan substitution varies, but an even pattern of xylan substitution is maintained among vascular plants. This suggests that 2-fold screw xylan binds hydrophilic faces of cellulose in eudicots, early-branching angiosperm, and gymnosperm cell walls. PMID:27325663

  7. The nocturnal bottleneck and the evolution of activity patterns in mammals.

    PubMed

    Gerkema, Menno P; Davies, Wayne I L; Foster, Russell G; Menaker, Michael; Hut, Roelof A

    2013-08-22

    In 1942, Walls described the concept of a 'nocturnal bottleneck' in placental mammals, where these species could survive only by avoiding daytime activity during times in which dinosaurs were the dominant taxon. Walls based this concept of a longer episode of nocturnality in early eutherian mammals by comparing the visual systems of reptiles, birds and all three extant taxa of the mammalian lineage, namely the monotremes, marsupials (now included in the metatherians) and placentals (included in the eutherians). This review describes the status of what has become known as the nocturnal bottleneck hypothesis, giving an overview of the chronobiological patterns of activity. We review the ecological plausibility that the activity patterns of (early) eutherian mammals were restricted to the night, based on arguments relating to endothermia, energy balance, foraging and predation, taking into account recent palaeontological information. We also assess genes, relating to light detection (visual and non-visual systems) and the photolyase DNA protection system that were lost in the eutherian mammalian lineage. Our conclusion presently is that arguments in favour of the nocturnal bottleneck hypothesis in eutherians prevail. PMID:23825205

  8. Energetic constraints, not predation, influence the evolution of sleep patterning in mammals.

    PubMed

    Capellini, I; Nunn, C L; McNamara, P; Preston, B T; Barton, R A

    2008-10-01

    Mammalian sleep is composed of two distinct states - rapid-eye-movement (REM) and non-REM (NREM) sleep - that alternate in cycles over a sleep bout. The duration of these cycles varies extensively across mammalian species. Because the end of a sleep cycle is often followed by brief arousals to waking, a shorter sleep cycle has been proposed to function as an anti-predator strategy. Similarly, higher predation risk could explain why many species exhibit a polyphasic sleep pattern (division of sleep into several bouts per day), as having multiple sleep bouts avoids long periods of unconsciousness, potentially reducing vulnerability.Using phylogenetic comparative methods, we tested these predictions in mammals, and also investigated the relationships among sleep phasing, sleep-cycle length, sleep durations and body mass.Neither sleep-cycle length nor phasing of sleep was significantly associated with three different measures of predation risk, undermining the idea that they represent anti-predator adaptations.Polyphasic sleep was associated with small body size, shorter sleep cycles and longer sleep durations. The correlation with size may reflect energetic constraints: small animals need to feed more frequently, preventing them from consolidating sleep into a single bout. The reduced daily sleep quotas in monophasic species suggests that the consolidation of sleep into one bout per day may deliver the benefits of sleep more efficiently and, since early mammals were small-bodied and polyphasic, a more efficient monophasic sleep pattern could be a hitherto unrecognized advantage of larger size. PMID:20428321

  9. Long-distance communication by specialized cellular projections during pigment pattern development and evolution

    PubMed Central

    Eom, Dae Seok; Bain, Emily J; Patterson, Larissa B; Grout, Megan E; Parichy, David M

    2015-01-01

    Changes in gene activity are essential for evolutionary diversification. Yet, elucidating the cellular behaviors that underlie modifications to adult form remains a profound challenge. We use neural crest-derived adult pigmentation of zebrafish and pearl danio to uncover cellular bases for alternative pattern states. We show that stripes in zebrafish require a novel class of thin, fast cellular projection to promote Delta-Notch signaling over long distances from cells of the xanthophore lineage to melanophores. Projections depended on microfilaments and microtubules, exhibited meandering trajectories, and stabilized on target cells to which they delivered membraneous vesicles. By contrast, the uniformly patterned pearl danio lacked such projections, concomitant with Colony stimulating factor 1-dependent changes in xanthophore differentiation that likely curtail signaling available to melanophores. Our study reveals a novel mechanism of cellular communication, roles for differentiation state heterogeneity in pigment cell interactions, and an unanticipated morphogenetic behavior contributing to a striking difference in adult form. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12401.001 PMID:26701906

  10. Phylogenetic Patterns of Codon Evolution in the ACTIN-DEPOLYMERIZING FACTOR/COFILIN (ADF/CFL) Gene Family

    PubMed Central

    Roy-Zokan, Eileen M.; Dyer, Kelly A.; Meagher, Richard B.

    2015-01-01

    The actin-depolymerizing factor/cofilin (ADF/CFL) gene family encodes a diverse group of relatively small proteins. Once known strictly as modulators of actin filament dynamics, recent research has demonstrated that these proteins are involved in a variety of cellular processes, from signal transduction to the cytonuclear trafficking of actin. In both plant and animal lineages, expression patterns of paralogs in the ADF/CFL gene family vary among tissue types and developmental stages. In this study we use computational approaches to investigate the evolutionary forces responsible for the diversification of the ADF/CFL gene family. Estimating the rate of non-synonymous to synonymous mutations (dN/dS) across phylogenetic lineages revealed that the majority of ADF/CFL codon positions were under strong purifying selection, with rare episodic events of accelerated protein evolution. In both plants and animals these instances of accelerated evolution were ADF/CFL subclass specific, and all of the sites under selection were located in regions of the protein that could serve in new functional roles. We suggest these sites may have been important in the functional diversification of ADF/CFL proteins. PMID:26717562

  11. The evolution of spatial distribution patterns of rigid porphyroclasts under pure and simple shear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dabrowski, Marcin

    2016-04-01

    Rock strain can be inferred by analyzing the spatial correlation of rock elements that were strongly anticlustered and exhibited an isotropic arrangement prior to deformation (Fry, 1979). The question arises as to whether this technique can be applied for non-densely packed aggregates of relatively strong particles such as porphyroclasts in shear zones. It has been recognized that mechanical interaction in non-dilute aggregates of rigid particles may introduce substantial perturbations to their trajectories. The goal of this study is to quantify the evolution of spatial correlations among rigid equant particles under pure and simple shear, primarily as a function of particle fraction, and to assess whether the evolving microstructural characteristics could be related to finite strain. Synthetic tests are performed to check the impact of system size and degree of anticlustering on the quality of strain estimates for simplified systems with passive particles. A modified version of the Delaunay triangulation nearest neighbor method (Mulchrone, 2003) is used. Numerical simulations were run to calculate the trajectories of cylindrical particles in assemblages of varying fraction under either pure or simple shear in the far field. The steady two-dimensional Stokes equations are used under the creeping flow assumption and gravity effects are neglected. The matrix is treated as an incompressible, isotropic viscous fluid and the particles are rigid. Both cases of either coherent or slipping particle-matrix interfaces are considered. No frictional contacts between the particles are allowed. Double periodic boundary conditions are used.

  12. Episode-Based Evolution Pattern Analysis of Haze Pollution: Method Development and Results from Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Guangjie; Duan, Fengkui; Ma, Yongliang; Zhang, Qiang; Huang, Tao; Kimoto, Takashi; Cheng, Yafang; Su, Hang; He, Kebin

    2016-05-01

    Haze episodes occurred in Beijing repeatedly in 2013, resulting in 189 polluted days. These episodes differed in terms of sources, formation processes, and chemical composition and thus required different control policies. Therefore, an overview of the similarities and differences among these episodes is needed. For this purpose, we conducted one-year online observations and developed a program that can simultaneously divide haze episodes and identify their shapes. A total of 73 episodes were identified, and their shapes were linked with synoptic conditions. Pure-haze events dominated in wintertime, whereas mixed haze-dust (PM2.5/PM10 < 60%) and mixed haze-fog (Aerosol Water/PM2.5 ∼ 0.3) events dominated in spring and summer-autumn, respectively. For all types, increase of ratio of PM2.5 in PM10 was typically achieved before PM2.5 reached ∼150 μg/m(3). In all PM2.5 species observed, organic matter (OM) was always the most abundant component (18-60%), but it was rarely the driving factor: its relative contribution usually decreased as the pollution level increased. The only OM-driven episode observed was associated with intensive biomass-burning activities. In comparison, haze evolution generally coincided with increasing sulfur and nitrogen oxidation ratios (SOR and NOR), indicating the enhanced production of secondary inorganic species. Applicability of these conclusions required further tests with simultaneously multisite observations. PMID:27050081

  13. Hominin cognitive evolution: identifying patterns and processes in the fossil and archaeological record

    PubMed Central

    Shultz, Susanne; Nelson, Emma; Dunbar, Robin I. M.

    2012-01-01

    As only limited insight into behaviour is available from the archaeological record, much of our understanding of historical changes in human cognition is restricted to identifying changes in brain size and architecture. Using both absolute and residual brain size estimates, we show that hominin brain evolution was likely to be the result of a mix of processes; punctuated changes at approximately 100 kya, 1 Mya and 1.8 Mya are supplemented by gradual within-lineage changes in Homo erectus and Homo sapiens sensu lato. While brain size increase in Homo in Africa is a gradual process, migration of hominins into Eurasia is associated with step changes at approximately 400 kya and approximately 100 kya. We then demonstrate that periods of rapid change in hominin brain size are not temporally associated with changes in environmental unpredictability or with long-term palaeoclimate trends. Thus, we argue that commonly used global sea level or Indian Ocean dust palaeoclimate records provide little evidence for either the variability selection or aridity hypotheses explaining changes in hominin brain size. Brain size change at approximately 100 kya is coincident with demographic change and the appearance of fully modern language. However, gaps remain in our understanding of the external pressures driving encephalization, which will only be filled by novel applications of the fossil, palaeoclimatic and archaeological records. PMID:22734056

  14. Angiosperm n-alkane distribution patterns and the geologic record of C4 grassland evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, A.; Graham, H. V.; Patzkowsky, M.; Fox, D. L.; Freeman, K. H.

    2012-12-01

    n-Alkane average chain-length (ACL) patterns vary regionally with community composition and climate. To clarify the influence of phylogenetic and community patterns, we compiled and analyzed a global database of published n-alkane abundance for n-C27 to C35 homologs in modern plant specimens (n=205). ACL for waxes in C4 non-woody plants are longer than for woody plants, suggesting ACL can serve as an indicator of the three-dimensional structure of local vegetation. Further, these findings suggest compound-specific isotopic data for longer alkane homologs (C31, C33, C35) will proportionately represent non-woody vegetation and isotope measurements of C29 are more representative of woody vegetation. Thus, the combination of ACL and carbon isotope compositions should allow us to disentangle C3 woody, C3 non-woody, and C4 non-woody signals in terrestrial paleorecords. Application of this approach to the geologic record of Miocene C4 grassland expansion in the US Great Plains and the Siwaliks in Pakistan illustrate two very different transition scenarios. Alkane-specific isotopic data indicate C4 grasslands appeared 2.5 Ma in the Great Plains and 6.5 Ma in the Siwaliks, and ACL analysis indicates that this transition involved the replacement of woody vegetation in the US and the replacement of C3 grasses in Pakistan. Our analysis illustrates that, consistent with differences in the timing of C4 grassland, the drivers of change were likely not the same in these regions. Oxygen isotope records suggest that the more recent transition in the Great Plains was associated with climate cooling and possibly changes in disturbance regimes and that the transition in the Siwaliks was likely associated with warming and drying.

  15. Energetic constraints, not predation, influence the evolution of sleep patterning in mammals

    PubMed Central

    Capellini, I.; Nunn, C. L.; McNamara, P.; Preston, B. T.; Barton, R. A.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Mammalian sleep is composed of two distinct states – rapid-eye-movement (REM) and non-REM (NREM) sleep – that alternate in cycles over a sleep bout. The duration of these cycles varies extensively across mammalian species. Because the end of a sleep cycle is often followed by brief arousals to waking, a shorter sleep cycle has been proposed to function as an anti-predator strategy. Similarly, higher predation risk could explain why many species exhibit a polyphasic sleep pattern (division of sleep into several bouts per day), as having multiple sleep bouts avoids long periods of unconsciousness, potentially reducing vulnerability.Using phylogenetic comparative methods, we tested these predictions in mammals, and also investigated the relationships among sleep phasing, sleep-cycle length, sleep durations and body mass.Neither sleep-cycle length nor phasing of sleep was significantly associated with three different measures of predation risk, undermining the idea that they represent anti-predator adaptations.Polyphasic sleep was associated with small body size, shorter sleep cycles and longer sleep durations. The correlation with size may reflect energetic constraints: small animals need to feed more frequently, preventing them from consolidating sleep into a single bout. The reduced daily sleep quotas in monophasic species suggests that the consolidation of sleep into one bout per day may deliver the benefits of sleep more efficiently and, since early mammals were small-bodied and polyphasic, a more efficient monophasic sleep pattern could be a hitherto unrecognized advantage of larger size. PMID:20428321

  16. Non-linear Ice Sheet influence during deglaciation and its impact on the evolution of atmospheric teleconnection patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietrich, Stephan; Wassenburg, Jasper; Wei, Wei; Lohmann, Gerrit; Jens, Fohlmeister; Adrian, Immenhauser

    2013-04-01

    During present conditions atmospheric teleconnections such as the Arctic Oscillation/North Atlantic Oscillation (AO/NAO) have a major impact on Northern Hemispheric climate. However, the Early Holocene is characterized by the presence and melting of the Laurentide Ice Sheet (LIS) leading to a different background climate in comparison to today. Here we investigate the climate evolution during the early (9 ka BP, including LIS and melt water), mid (6 ka BP) and late Holocene (pre-industrial conditions) focussing on the mechanisms and feedbacks during deglaciation by applying the state-of-the-art earth system model COSMOS. A special interest is set on the evolution of atmospheric teleconnection patterns such as the AO/NAO and the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) that have a major influence on North Atlantic/European climate. The evolution and relative importance of these oscillations throughout the Holocene, however, is still largely unknown. We demonstrate that North Atlantic/European climate is affected by a shift from a more ocean-ice-dominated climate during approx. 9 ka towards a more atmosphere-dominated one during the mid to late Holocene. To isolate the contributions of the presence of the LIS and the melt water we run four different model simulations for the early Holocene sensitivity study (a standard configuration only forced with green house gases and orbital parameters, one with the additional LIS topography, one with a melt water flux of 0.09 Sv, and a fourth that combines all the external forcings). The model results show that the influence of the LIS and its melt water contribution lead to a strong non-linear cooling of surface air temperatures during deglaciation. This synergetic influence of the Laurentide Ice Sheet strengthens the effect of melting on ocean circulation during the early Holocene. The severe colder background climate during deglaciation leads to a more vulnerable ocean circulation in terms of the Atlantic Meridional

  17. Streamflow droughts in major watershed regions of the conterminous U.S.: Understanding evolution of historic patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pournasiri Poshtiri, M.; Pal, I.

    2015-12-01

    Climate non-stationarity affects regional hydrological extremes. This research looks into historic patterns of streamflow drought indicators and their evolution for major watershed regions in the conterminous U.S. (CONUS). The results indicate general linear and non-linear drying trends, particularly in the last four decades, as opposed to wetting trends reported in previous studies. Regional differences in the trends are notable, and echo the local climatic changes documented in the recent National Climate Assessment (NCA). A reversal of linear trends is seen for some northern regions after 1980s. Patterns in return periods and corresponding return values of the indicators are also examined, which suggests changing risk conditions that are important for water-resources decision-making. Persistent or flash drought conditions in a river can lead to chronic or short-term water scarcity—a main driver of societal and cross-boundary conflicts. Thus, this research identifies "hotspot" locations where suitable adaptive management measures are most needed.

  18. Molecular evolution patterns reveal life history features of mycoplasma-related endobacteria associated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.

    PubMed

    Toomer, Kevin H; Chen, Xiuhua; Naito, Mizue; Mondo, Stephen J; den Bakker, Henk C; VanKuren, Nicholas W; Lekberg, Ylva; Morton, Joseph B; Pawlowska, Teresa E

    2015-07-01

    The mycoplasma-related endobacteria (MRE), representing a recently discovered lineage of Mollicutes, are widely distributed across arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF, Glomeromycota). AMF colonize roots of most terrestrial plants and improve plant mineral nutrient uptake in return for plant-assimilated carbon. The role of MRE in the biology of their fungal hosts is unknown. To start characterizing this association, we assessed partitioning of MRE genetic diversity within AMF individuals and across the AMF phylogeographic range. We further used molecular evolution patterns to make inferences about MRE codivergence with AMF, their lifestyle and antiquity of the Glomeromycota-MRE association. While we did not detect differentiation between MRE derived from different continents, high levels of diversity were apparent in MRE populations within AMF host individuals. MRE exhibited significant codiversification with AMF over ecological time and the absence of codivergence over evolutionary time. Moreover, genetic recombination was evident in MRE. These patterns indicate that, while MRE transmission is predominantly vertical, their complex intrahost populations are likely generated by horizontal transmission and recombination. Based on predictions of evolutionary theory, we interpreted these observations as a suggestion that MRE may be antagonists of AMF. Finally, we detected a marginally significant signature of codivergence of MRE with Glomeromycota and the Endogone lineage of Mucoromycotina, implying that the symbiosis between MRE and fungi may predate the divergence between these two groups of fungi. PMID:26011293

  19. Holocene evolution in weathering and erosion patterns in the Pearl River delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Dengke; Clift, Peter D.; BöNing, Philipp; Hannigan, Robyn; Hillier, Stephen; Blusztajn, Jerzy; Wan, Shiming; Fuller, Dorian Q.

    2013-07-01

    Sediments in the Pearl River delta have the potential to record the weathering response of this river basin to climate change since 9.5 ka, most notably weakening of the Asian monsoon since the Early Holocene (˜8 ka). Cores from the Pearl River delta show a clear temporal evolution of weathering intensity, as measured by K/Al, K/Rb, and clay mineralogy, that shows deposition of less weathered sediment at a time of weakening monsoon rainfall in the Early-Mid Holocene (6.0-2.5 ka). This may reflect an immediate response to a less humid climate, or more likely reduced reworking of older deposits from river terraces as the monsoon weakened. Human settlement of the Pearl River basin may have had a major impact on landscape and erosion as a result of the establishment of widespread agriculture. After around 2.5 ka weathering intensity sharply increased, despite limited change in the monsoon, but at a time when anthropogenic pollutants (e.g., Cu, Zn, and Pb) increased and when the flora of the basin changed. 87Sr/86Sr covaries with these other proxies but is also partly influenced by the presence of carbonate. The sediments in the modern Pearl River are even more weathered than the youngest material from the delta cores. We infer that the spread of farming into the Pearl River basin around 2.7 ka was followed by a widespread reworking of old, weathered soils after 2.5 ka, and large-scale disruption of the river system that was advanced by 2.0 ka.

  20. Changes in exon–intron structure during vertebrate evolution affect the splicing pattern of exons

    PubMed Central

    Gelfman, Sahar; Burstein, David; Penn, Osnat; Savchenko, Anna; Amit, Maayan; Schwartz, Schraga; Pupko, Tal; Ast, Gil

    2012-01-01

    Exon–intron architecture is one of the major features directing the splicing machinery to the short exons that are located within long flanking introns. However, the evolutionary dynamics of exon–intron architecture and its impact on splicing is largely unknown. Using a comparative genomic approach, we analyzed 17 vertebrate genomes and reconstructed the ancestral motifs of both 3′ and 5′ splice sites, as also the ancestral length of exons and introns. Our analyses suggest that vertebrate introns increased in length from the shortest ancestral introns to the longest primate introns. An evolutionary analysis of splice sites revealed that weak splice sites act as a restrictive force keeping introns short. In contrast, strong splice sites allow recognition of exons flanked by long introns. Reconstruction of the ancestral state suggests these phenomena were not prevalent in the vertebrate ancestor, but appeared during vertebrate evolution. By calculating evolutionary rate shifts in exons, we identified cis-acting regulatory sequences that became fixed during the transition from early vertebrates to mammals. Experimental validations performed on a selection of these hexamers confirmed their regulatory function. We additionally revealed many features of exons that can discriminate alternative from constitutive exons. These features were integrated into a machine-learning approach to predict whether an exon is alternative. Our algorithm obtains very high predictive power (AUC of 0.91), and using these predictions we have identified and successfully validated novel alternatively spliced exons. Overall, we provide novel insights regarding the evolutionary constraints acting upon exons and their recognition by the splicing machinery. PMID:21974994

  1. Asymmetric patterns of reassortment and concerted evolution in Cardamom bushy dwarf virus.

    PubMed

    Savory, F R; Ramakrishnan, U

    2014-06-01

    Nanoviruses are single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) plant viruses which have multipartite genomes consisting of discrete, individually encapsidated components. This multipartite strategy may lead to high rates of reassortment, whereby entire genome components are exchanged among different strains. However, few studies have explored the extent to which reassortment shapes the genetic diversity of nanovirus populations. Here we present an extensive analysis of reassortment among 163 Cardamom bushy dwarf virus (CBDV; Nanoviridae family, Babuvirus genus) isolates collected in Northeast India. We also examined evidence of recombination, which is known to play a role in the evolutionary dynamics of nanovirus populations. By sequencing six discrete genome components for each isolate, we demonstrate that over 40% of the isolates display evidence of at least one reassortment event during their evolutionary histories. Nevertheless, a bias in the frequencies at which different genome components reassort was observed, with the DNA-M and DNA-N components being the most predisposed to reassortment. This may reflect variation in the ability of different genome components to function efficiently in a foreign genomic background. Comparisons of the common regions of different genome components revealed signatures of concerted evolution mediated by frequent inter-component homologous recombination. This process, which has previously been reported in nanoviruses and other multipartite ssDNA viruses, may allow proteins which initiate replication to maintain control over distinct genome components. Notably, DNA-N, one of the genome components most prone to reassortment, also exhibited the most frequent inter-component homologous recombination. This supports the idea that inter-component homologous recombination may promote the efficient replication of novel components which are introduced into a genome via reassortment. PMID:24613431

  2. Evolution of the globin gene family in deuterostomes: lineage-specific patterns of diversification and attrition.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Federico G; Opazo, Juan C; Hoogewijs, David; Hankeln, Thomas; Ebner, Bettina; Vinogradov, Serge N; Bailly, Xavier; Storz, Jay F

    2012-07-01

    In the Metazoa, globin proteins display an underlying unity in tertiary structure that belies an extraordinary diversity in primary structures, biochemical properties, and physiological functions. Phylogenetic reconstructions can reveal which of these functions represent novel, lineage-specific innovations, and which represent ancestral functions that are shared with homologous globin proteins in other eukaryotes and even prokaryotes. To date, our understanding of globin diversity in deuterostomes has been hindered by a dearth of genomic sequence data from the Ambulacraria (echinoderms + hemichordates), the sister group of chordates, and the phylum Xenacoelomorpha, which includes xenoturbellids, acoelomorphs, and nemertodermatids. Here, we report the results of a phylogenetic and comparative genomic analysis of the globin gene repertoire of deuterostomes. We first characterized the globin genes of the acorn worm, Saccoglossus kowalevskii, a representative of the phylum Hemichordata. We then integrated genomic sequence data from the acorn worm into a comprehensive analysis of conserved synteny and phylogenetic relationships among globin genes from representatives of the eight lineages that comprise the superphylum Deuterostomia. The primary aims were 1) to unravel the evolutionary history of the globin gene superfamily in deuterostomes and 2) to use the estimated phylogeny to gain insights into the functional evolution of deuterostome globins. Results of our analyses indicate that the deuterostome common ancestor possessed a repertoire of at least four distinct globin paralogs and that different subsets of these ancestral genes have been retained in each of the descendant organismal lineages. In each major deuterostome group, a different subset of ancestral precursor genes underwent lineage-specific expansions of functional diversity through repeated rounds of gene duplication and divergence. By integrating results of the phylogenetic analysis with available

  3. Divergence pattern and selective mode in protein evolution: the example of vertebrate myoglobins and hemoglobin chains.

    PubMed

    Otsuka, J; Miyazaki, K; Horimoto, K

    1993-02-01

    The evolutionary relation of vertebrate myoglobin and the hemoglobin chains including the agnathan hemoglobin chain is investigated on the basis of a new view of amino acid changes that is developed by canonical discriminant analysis of amino acid residues at individual sites. In contrast to the clear discrimination of amino acid residues between myoglobin, hemoglobin alpha chain, and hemoglobin beta chain in warm-blood vertebrates, the three types of globins in the lower class of vertebrates show so much variation that they are not well discriminated. This is seen particularly at the sites that are ascertained in mammals to carry the amino acid residues participating in stabilizing the monomeric structure in myoglobin and the residues forming the subunit contacts in hemoglobin. At these sites, agnathan hemoglobin chains are evaluated to be intermediate between the myoglobin and hemoglobin chains of gnathostomes. The variation in the phylogenetically lower class of globins is also seen in the internal region; there the amino acid residues of myoglobin and hemoglobin chains in the phylogenetically higher class exhibit an example of parallel evolution at the molecular level. New quantities, the distance of sequence property between discriminated groups and the variation within each group, are derived from the values of discriminant functions along the peptide chain, and this set of quantities simply describes an overall feature of globins such that the distinction between the three types of globins has been clearer as the vertebrates have evolved to become jawed, landed, and warm-blooded. This result strongly suggests that the functional constraint on the amino acid sequence of a protein is changed by living conditions and that severe conditions constitute a driving force that creates a distinctive protein from a less-constrained protein. PMID:8433384

  4. Targeted resequencing reveals geographical patterns of differentiation for loci implicated in parallel evolution.

    PubMed

    Westram, Anja M; Panova, Marina; Galindo, Juan; Butlin, Roger K

    2016-07-01

    Parallel divergence and speciation provide evidence for the role of divergent selection in generating biological diversity. Recent studies indicate that parallel phenotypic divergence may not have the same genetic basis in different geographical locations - 'outlier loci' (loci potentially affected by divergent selection) are often not shared among parallel instances of phenotypic divergence. However, limited sharing may be due, in part, to technical issues if false-positive outliers occur. Here, we test this idea in the marine snail Littorina saxatilis, which has evolved two partly isolated ecotypes (adapted to crab predation vs. wave action) in multiple locations independently. We argue that if the low extent of sharing observed in earlier studies in this system is due to sampling effects, we expect outliers not to show elevated FST when sequenced in new samples from the original locations and also not to follow predictable geographical patterns of elevated FST . Following a hierarchical sampling design (within vs. between country), we applied capture sequencing, targeting outliers from earlier studies and control loci. We found that outliers again showed elevated levels of FST in their original location, suggesting they were not generated by sampling effects. Outliers were also likely to show increased FST in geographically close locations, which may be explained by higher levels of gene flow or shared ancestral genetic variation compared with more distant locations. However, in contrast to earlier findings, we also found some outlier types to show elevated FST in geographically distant locations. We discuss possible explanations for this unexpected result. PMID:27061172

  5. Global phylogenetic structure of the hyperdiverse ant genus Pheidole reveals the repeated evolution of macroecological patterns

    PubMed Central

    Economo, Evan P.; Klimov, Pavel; Sarnat, Eli M.; Guénard, Benoit; Weiser, Michael D.; Lecroq, Beatrice; Knowles, L. Lacey

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive radiations are of particular interest owing to what they reveal about the ecological and evolutionary regulation of biodiversity. This applies to localized island radiations such as Darwin's finches, and also to rapid radiations occurring on a global scale. Here we analyse the macroevolution and macroecology of Pheidole, a famously hyperdiverse and ecologically dominant ant genus. We generate and analyse four novel datasets: (i) a robust global phylogeny including 285 Pheidole species, (ii) a global database on regional Pheidole richness in 365 political areas summarizing over 97 000 individual records from more than 6500 studies, (iii) a global database of Pheidole richness from 3796 local communities and (iv) a database of Pheidole body sizes across species. Analysis of the potential climate drivers of richness revealed that the patterns are statistically very similar across different biogeographic regions, with both regional and local richness associated with the same coefficients of temperature and precipitation. This similarity occurs even though phylogenetic analysis shows that Pheidole reached dominance in communities through serial localized radiations into different biomes within different continents and islands. Pheidole body size distributions have likewise converged across geographical regions. We propose these cases of convergence indicate that the global radiation of Pheidole is structured by deterministic factors regulating diversification and diversity. PMID:25429013

  6. Fluctuation-induced patterns and rapid evolution in predator-prey ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldenfeld, Nigel

    2014-03-01

    Predator-prey ecosystems exhibit noisy, persistent cycles that cannot be described by intuitive population-level differential equations such as the Lotka-Volterra equations. Traditionally this paradox has been met by including additional nonlinearities such as predator satiation to force limit cycle behavior. Over the last few years, it has been realized that individual-level descriptions, combined with systematic perturbation techniques can reproduce the key features of such systems in a minimal way, without requiring many additional assumptions or fine tunings. Here I review work in this area that uses these techniques to treat spatial patterns and the phenomenon of rapidly evolving prey sub-populations. In the latter case, I show how stochastic individual-level models reproduce the key features observed in chemostats and in the wild, including anomalous phase shifts between predator and prey species, evolutionary cycles and cryptic cycles. This work shows that stochastic individual-level models naturally describe systems where evolutionary time scales surprisingly match ecosystem time scales.

  7. In silico evolution of gene cooption in pattern-forming gene networks.

    PubMed

    Spirov, Alexander V; Sabirov, Marat A; Holloway, David M

    2012-01-01

    Gene recruitment or cooption occurs when a gene, which may be part of an existing gene regulatory network (GRN), comes under the control of a new regulatory system. Such re-arrangement of pre-existing networks is likely more common for increasing genomic complexity than the creation of new genes. Using evolutionary computations (EC), we investigate how cooption affects the evolvability, outgrowth and robustness of GRNs. We use a data-driven model of insect segmentation, for the fruit fly Drosophila, and evaluate fitness by robustness to maternal variability-a major constraint in biological development. We compare two mechanisms of gene cooption: a simpler one with gene Introduction and Withdrawal operators; and one in which GRN elements can be altered by transposon infection. Starting from a minimal 2-gene network, insufficient for fitting the Drosophila gene expression patterns, we find a general trend of coopting available genes into the GRN, in order to better fit the data. With the transposon mechanism, we find co-evolutionary oscillations between genes and their transposons. These oscillations may offer a new technique in EC for overcoming premature convergence. Finally, we comment on how a differential equations (in contrast to Boolean) approach is necessary for addressing realistic continuous variation in biochemical parameters. PMID:23365523

  8. Multi-locus phylogenetic analysis reveals the pattern and tempo of bony fish evolution

    PubMed Central

    Broughton, Richard E.; Betancur-R., Ricardo; Li, Chenhong; Arratia, Gloria; Ortí, Guillermo

    2013-01-01

    Over half of all vertebrates are “fishes”, which exhibit enormous diversity in morphology, physiology, behavior, reproductive biology, and ecology. Investigation of fundamental areas of vertebrate biology depend critically on a robust phylogeny of fishes, yet evolutionary relationships among the major actinopterygian and sarcopterygian lineages have not been conclusively resolved. Although a consensus phylogeny of teleosts has been emerging recently, it has been based on analyses of various subsets of actinopterygian taxa, but not on a full sample of all bony fishes. Here we conducted a comprehensive phylogenetic study on a broad taxonomic sample of 61 actinopterygian and sarcopterygian lineages (with a chondrichthyan outgroup) using a molecular data set of 21 independent loci. These data yielded a resolved phylogenetic hypothesis for extant Osteichthyes, including 1) reciprocally monophyletic Sarcopterygii and Actinopterygii, as currently understood, with polypteriforms as the first diverging lineage within Actinopterygii; 2) a monophyletic group containing gars and bowfin (= Holostei) as sister group to teleosts; and 3) the earliest diverging lineage among teleosts being Elopomorpha, rather than Osteoglossomorpha. Relaxed-clock dating analysis employing a set of 24 newly applied fossil calibrations reveals divergence times that are more consistent with paleontological estimates than previous studies. Establishing a new phylogenetic pattern with accurate divergence dates for bony fishes illustrates several areas where the fossil record is incomplete and provides critical new insights on diversification of this important vertebrate group. PMID:23788273

  9. Long Bone Histology and Growth Patterns in Ankylosaurs: Implications for Life History and Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Martina; Hayashi, Shoji; Sander, P. Martin

    2013-01-01

    The ankylosaurs are one of the major dinosaur groups and are characterized by unique body armor. Previous studies on other dinosaur taxa have revealed growth patterns, life history and evolutionary mechanisms based on their long bone histology. However, to date nothing is known about long bone histology in the Ankylosauria. This study is the first description of ankylosaurian long bone histology based on several limb elements, which were sampled from different individuals from the Ankylosauridae and Nodosauridae. The histology is compared to that of other dinosaur groups, including other Thyreophora and Sauropodomorpha. Ankylosaur long bone histology is characterized by a fibrolamellar bone architecture. The bone matrix type in ankylosaurs is closest to that of Stegosaurus. A distinctive mixture of woven and parallel-fibered bone together with overall poor vascularization indicates slow growth rates compared to other dinosaurian taxa. Another peculiar characteristic of ankylosaur bone histology is the extensive remodeling in derived North American taxa. In contrast to other taxa, ankylosaurs substitute large amounts of their primary tissue early in ontogeny. This anomaly may be linked to the late ossification of the ankylosaurian body armor. Metabolically driven remodeling processes must have liberated calcium to ossify the protective osteodermal structures in juveniles to subadult stages, which led to further remodeling due to increased mechanical loading. Abundant structural fibers observed in the primary bone and even in remodeled bone may have improved the mechanical properties of the Haversian bone. PMID:23894321

  10. Comparative genomics reveals new evolutionary and ecological patterns of selenium utilization in bacteria.

    PubMed

    Peng, Ting; Lin, Jie; Xu, Yin-Zhen; Zhang, Yan

    2016-08-01

    Selenium (Se) is an important micronutrient for many organisms, which is required for the biosynthesis of selenocysteine, selenouridine and Se-containing cofactor. Several key genes involved in different Se utilization traits have been characterized; however, systematic studies on the evolution and ecological niches of Se utilization are very limited. Here, we analyzed more than 5200 sequenced organisms to examine the occurrence patterns of all Se traits in bacteria. A global species map of all Se utilization pathways has been generated, which demonstrates the most detailed understanding of Se utilization in bacteria so far. In addition, the selenophosphate synthetase gene, which is used to define the overall Se utilization, was also detected in some organisms that do not have any of the known Se traits, implying the presence of a novel Se form in this domain. Phylogenetic analyses of components of different Se utilization traits revealed new horizontal gene transfer events for each of them. Moreover, by characterizing the selenoproteomes of all organisms, we found a new selenoprotein-rich phylum and additional selenoprotein-rich species. Finally, the relationship between ecological environments and Se utilization was investigated and further verified by metagenomic analysis of environmental samples, which indicates new macroevolutionary trends of each Se utilization trait in bacteria. Our data provide insights into the general features of Se utilization in bacteria and should be useful for a further understanding of the evolutionary dynamics of Se utilization in nature. PMID:26800233

  11. The planetary nebulae populations in five galaxies: abundance patterns and evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stasińska, G.; Richer, M. G.; McCall, M. L.

    1998-08-01

    We have collected photometric and spectroscopic data on planetary nebulae (PNe) in 5 galaxies: the Milky Way (bulge), M 31 (bulge), M 32, the LMC and the SMC. We have computed the abundances of O, Ne and N and compared them from one galaxy to another. In each Galaxy, the distribution of oxygen abundances has a large dispersion. The average O/H ratio is larger in the M 31 and the Galactic bulge PNe than in those in the Magellanic Clouds. In a given galaxy, it is also larger for PNe with [O III] luminosities greater than 100 L_⊙, which are likely to probe more recent epochs in the galaxy history. We find that the M 31 and the Galactic bulge PNe extend the very tight Ne/H-O/H correlation observed in the Galactic disk and Magellanic Clouds PNe towards higher metallicities. We note that the anticorrelation between N/O and O/H that was known to occur in the Magellanic Clouds and in the disk PNe is also marginally found in the PNe of the Galactic bulge. Furthermore, we find that high N/O ratios are higher for less luminous PNe. In M 32, all PNe have a large N/O ratio, indicating that the stellar nitrogen abundance is enhanced in this galaxy. We have also compared the PN evolution in the different galactic systems by constructing diagrams that are independent of abundances, and have found strikingly different behaviours of the various samples. In order to help in the interpretation of these data, we have constructed a grid of expanding, PN photoionization models in which the central stars evolve according to the evolutionary tracks of Bl{öcker (1995). These models show that the apparent spectroscopic properties of PNe are extremely dependent, not only on the central stars, but also on the masses and expansion velocities of the nebular envelopes. The main conclusion of the confrontation of the observed samples with the model grids is that the PN populations are indeed not the same in the various parent galaxies. Both stars and nebulae are different. In particular, the

  12. Inferring Bounded Evolution in Phenotypic Characters from Phylogenetic Comparative Data.

    PubMed

    Boucher, Florian C; Démery, Vincent

    2016-07-01

    Our understanding of phenotypic evolution over macroevolutionary timescales largely relies on the use of stochastic models for the evolution of continuous traits over phylogenies. The two most widely used models, Brownian motion and the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck (OU) process, differ in that the latter includes constraints on the variance that a trait can attain in a clade. The OU model explicitly models adaptive evolution toward a trait optimum and has thus been widely used to demonstrate the existence of stabilizing selection on a trait. Here we introduce a new model for the evolution of continuous characters on phylogenies: Brownian motion between two reflective bounds, or Bounded Brownian Motion (BBM). This process also models evolutionary constraints, but of a very different kind. We provide analytical expressions for the likelihood of BBM and present a method to calculate the likelihood numerically, as well as the associated R code. Numerical simulations show that BBM achieves good performance: parameter estimation is generally accurate but more importantly BBM can be very easily discriminated from both BM and OU. We then analyze climatic niche evolution in diprotodonts and find that BBM best fits this empirical data set, suggesting that the climatic niches of diprotodonts are bounded by the climate available in Australia and the neighboring islands but probably evolved with little additional constraints. We conclude that BBM is a valuable addition to the macroevolutionary toolbox, which should enable researchers to elucidate whether the phenotypic traits they study are evolving under hard constraints between bounds. PMID:26865274

  13. Patterns in root traits of woody species hosting arbuscular and ectomycorrhizas: implications for the evolution of belowground strategies.

    PubMed

    Comas, Louise H; Callahan, Hilary S; Midford, Peter E

    2014-08-01

    Root traits vary enormously among plant species but we have little understanding of how this variation affects their functioning. Of central interest is how root traits are related to plant resource acquisition strategies from soil. We examined root traits of 33 woody species from northeastern US forests that form two of the most common types of mutualisms with fungi, arbuscular mycorrhizas (AM) and ectomycorrhizas (EM). We examined root trait distribution with respect to plant phylogeny, quantifying the phylogenetic signal (K statistic) in fine root morphology and architecture, and used phylogenetically independent contrasts (PICs) to test whether taxa forming different mycorrhizal associations had different root traits. We found a pattern of species forming roots with thinner diameters as species diversified across time. Given moderate phylogenetic signals (K = 0.44-0.68), we used PICs to examine traits variation among taxa forming AM or EM, revealing that hosts of AM were associated with lower branching intensity (r PIC = -0.77) and thicker root diameter (r PIC = -0.41). Because EM evolved relatively more recently and intermittently across plant phylogenies, significant differences in root traits and colonization between plants forming AM and EM imply linkages between the evolution of these biotic interactions and root traits and suggest a history of selection pressures, with trade-offs for supporting different types of associations. Finally, across plant hosts of both EM and AM, species with thinner root diameters and longer specific root length (SRL) had less colonization (r PIC = 0.85, -0.87), suggesting constraints on colonization linked to the evolution of root morphology. PMID:25247056

  14. Asynchronous evolution of the Indian and East Asian Summer Monsoon indicated by Holocene moisture patterns in monsoonal central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yongbo; Liu, Xingqi; Herzschuh, Ulrike

    2010-12-01

    The numerical meta-analysis of 92 proxy records (72 sites) of moisture and/or temperature change confirms earlier findings that the dominant trends of climatic evolution in monsoonal central Asia since the Last Glacial roughly parallel changes in Northern Hemisphere summer insolation, i.e. the period following the Last Glacial Maximum was characterized by dry and cold conditions until 15 cal. kyr BP, followed by a warm, wet period coincident with the Bølling/Allerød warm period and terminated by a cold, dry reversal during the Younger Dryas period. After an abrupt increase at the start of the Holocene, warm and wet conditions prevailed until ca. 4 cal. kyr BP when moisture levels and temperatures started to decrease. Ordination of moisture records reveals strong spatial heterogeneity in moisture evolution during the last 10 cal. kyr. The Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM) areas (northern India, Tibetan Plateau and southwest China) exhibit maximum wet conditions during the early Holocene, while many records from the area of the East Asian Summer Monsoon indicate relatively dry conditions, especially in north-central China where the maximum moisture levels occurred during the mid-Holocene. We assign such phenomena to strengthened Hadley Circulation centered over the Tibetan Plateau during the early Holocene which resulted in subsidence in the East Asian monsoonal regions leading to relatively dry conditions. Our observations of the asynchronous nature of the two Asian monsoon subsystems on millennial time scales have also been observed on annual time-scales as well as implied through the spatial analysis of vertical air motion patterns after strong ascending airflows over the Tibetan Plateau area that were calculated from NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data for the last 30 years. Analogous with the early Holocene, the enhancement of the ISM in a 'future warming world' will result in an increase in the asynchronous nature of the monsoon subsystems; this trend is already observed in

  15. Patterns in root traits of woody species hosting arbuscular and ectomycorrhizas: implications for the evolution of belowground strategies

    PubMed Central

    Comas, Louise H; Callahan, Hilary S; Midford, Peter E

    2014-01-01

    Root traits vary enormously among plant species but we have little understanding of how this variation affects their functioning. Of central interest is how root traits are related to plant resource acquisition strategies from soil. We examined root traits of 33 woody species from northeastern US forests that form two of the most common types of mutualisms with fungi, arbuscular mycorrhizas (AM) and ectomycorrhizas (EM). We examined root trait distribution with respect to plant phylogeny, quantifying the phylogenetic signal (K statistic) in fine root morphology and architecture, and used phylogenetically independent contrasts (PICs) to test whether taxa forming different mycorrhizal associations had different root traits. We found a pattern of species forming roots with thinner diameters as species diversified across time. Given moderate phylogenetic signals (K = 0.44–0.68), we used PICs to examine traits variation among taxa forming AM or EM, revealing that hosts of AM were associated with lower branching intensity (rPIC = −0.77) and thicker root diameter (rPIC = −0.41). Because EM evolved relatively more recently and intermittently across plant phylogenies, significant differences in root traits and colonization between plants forming AM and EM imply linkages between the evolution of these biotic interactions and root traits and suggest a history of selection pressures, with trade-offs for supporting different types of associations. Finally, across plant hosts of both EM and AM, species with thinner root diameters and longer specific root length (SRL) had less colonization (rPIC = 0.85, −0.87), suggesting constraints on colonization linked to the evolution of root morphology. PMID:25247056

  16. Whole Genome Sequencing Reveals Complex Evolution Patterns of Multidrug-Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing Strains in Patients

    PubMed Central

    Merker, Matthias; Kohl, Thomas A.; Roetzer, Andreas; Truebe, Leona; Richter, Elvira; Rüsch-Gerdes, Sabine; Fattorini, Lanfranco; Oggioni, Marco R.; Cox, Helen; Varaine, Francis; Niemann, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Multidrug-resistant (MDR) Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) strains represent a major threat for tuberculosis (TB) control. Treatment of MDR-TB patients is long and less effective, resulting in a significant number of treatment failures. The development of further resistances leads to extensively drug-resistant (XDR) variants. However, data on the individual reasons for treatment failure, e.g. an induced mutational burst, and on the evolution of bacteria in the patient are only sparsely available. To address this question, we investigated the intra-patient evolution of serial MTBC isolates obtained from three MDR-TB patients undergoing longitudinal treatment, finally leading to XDR-TB. Sequential isolates displayed identical IS6110 fingerprint patterns, suggesting the absence of exogenous re-infection. We utilized whole genome sequencing (WGS) to screen for variations in three isolates from Patient A and four isolates from Patient B and C, respectively. Acquired polymorphisms were subsequently validated in up to 15 serial isolates by Sanger sequencing. We determined eight (Patient A) and nine (Patient B) polymorphisms, which occurred in a stepwise manner during the course of the therapy and were linked to resistance or a potential compensatory mechanism. For both patients, our analysis revealed the long-term co-existence of clonal subpopulations that displayed different drug resistance allele combinations. Out of these, the most resistant clone was fixed in the population. In contrast, baseline and follow-up isolates of Patient C were distinguished each by eleven unique polymorphisms, indicating an exogenous re-infection with an XDR strain not detected by IS6110 RFLP typing. Our study demonstrates that intra-patient microevolution of MDR-MTBC strains under longitudinal treatment is more complex than previously anticipated. However, a mutator phenotype was not detected. The presence of different subpopulations might confound phenotypic and molecular drug

  17. Evolution of geographical place and niche space: Patterns of diversification in the North American sedge (Cyperaceae) flora.

    PubMed

    Spalink, Daniel; Drew, Bryan T; Pace, Matthew C; Zaborsky, John G; Li, Pan; Cameron, Kenneth M; Givnish, Thomas J; Sytsma, Kenneth J

    2016-02-01

    The role of geography and ecology in speciation are often discussed in the context of phylogenetic niche conservatism (PNC), the propensity of lineages to retain ancestral niche related traits. However, a recent paradigm shift focuses instead on measuring divergence of these traits in conjunction with patterns of speciation. Under this framework, we analyzed the diversification of North America's third most diverse family, Cyperaceae ("sedges"), using a modified Parsimony Analysis of Endemicity approach to identify floristic regions and ordination statistics to quantify species distribution in a continuous manner. Utilizing over 200,000 georeferenced specimens, we characterized the geographical distribution and climatic and edaphic niche space occupied by each species. We constructed a supermatrix phylogeny of the North American sedge flora, aided in part by the sequencing of all sedges of Wisconsin, and employed a multifaceted approach to assess the role of geographical and ecological divergence on lineage diversification. In addition to measuring phylogenetic signal for these traits, we also measured pairwise phylogenetic distance of species within floristic regions, calculated rates of speciation, and tested for correlations of speciation rate to tempo of geographical and ecological evolution. Our analyses consistently show that evolutionarily related species tend to be geographically unrelated. Rates of geographical and ecological diversification are closely linked to tempo of speciation, and exploration of geographical place coincides with divergence in ecological niche space. We highlight the benefits of treating geography in a continuous manner, and stress the importance of employing a diverse suite of analytical approaches in testing hypotheses regarding the evolution of range and niche. PMID:26702956

  18. Trends and patterns of anthropogenic evolution of chernozems in lands of agricultural afforestation within the territory of forest-steppe in the center of eastern Europe

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The anthropogenic evolution of chernozems as a result of plowing and the creation of forest shelterbelts on three meadow-steppe areas of forest-steppe were studied. It was established, that in all areas there are similar patterns, caused by the transformation of virgin soils into arable soils and vi...

  19. HIV Evolution in Early Infection: Selection Pressures, Patterns of Insertion and Deletion, and the Impact of APOBEC

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Natasha; Bhattacharya, Tanmoy; Keele, Brandon F.; Giorgi, Elena; Liu, Michael; Gaschen, Brian; Daniels, Marcus; Ferrari, Guido; Haynes, Barton F.; McMichael, Andrew; Shaw, George M.; Hahn, Beatrice H.; Korber, Bette; Seoighe, Cathal

    2009-01-01

    The pattern of viral diversification in newly infected individuals provides information about the host environment and immune responses typically experienced by the newly transmitted virus. For example, sites that tend to evolve rapidly across multiple early-infection patients could be involved in enabling escape from common early immune responses, could represent adaptation for rapid growth in a newly infected host, or could represent reversion from less fit forms of the virus that were selected for immune escape in previous hosts. Here we investigated the diversification of HIV-1 env coding sequences in 81 very early B subtype infections previously shown to have resulted from transmission or expansion of single viruses (n = 78) or two closely related viruses (n = 3). In these cases, the sequence of the infecting virus can be estimated accurately, enabling inference of both the direction of substitutions as well as distinction between insertion and deletion events. By integrating information across multiple acutely infected hosts, we find evidence of adaptive evolution of HIV-1 env and identify a subset of codon sites that diversified more rapidly than can be explained by a model of neutral evolution. Of 24 such rapidly diversifying sites, 14 were either i) clustered and embedded in CTL epitopes that were verified experimentally or predicted based on the individual's HLA or ii) in a nucleotide context indicative of APOBEC-mediated G-to-A substitutions, despite having excluded heavily hypermutated sequences prior to the analysis. In several cases, a rapidly evolving site was embedded both in an APOBEC motif and in a CTL epitope, suggesting that APOBEC may facilitate early immune escape. Ten rapidly diversifying sites could not be explained by CTL escape or APOBEC hypermutation, including the most frequently mutated site, in the fusion peptide of gp41. We also examined the distribution, extent, and sequence context of insertions and deletions, and we provide

  20. Structural shifts of aldehyde dehydrogenase enzymes were instrumental for the early evolution of retinoid-dependent axial patterning in metazoans.

    PubMed

    Sobreira, Tiago J P; Marlétaz, Ferdinand; Simões-Costa, Marcos; Schechtman, Deborah; Pereira, Alexandre C; Brunet, Frédéric; Sweeney, Sarah; Pani, Ariel; Aronowicz, Jochanan; Lowe, Christopher J; Davidson, Bradley; Laudet, Vincent; Bronner, Marianne; de Oliveira, Paulo S L; Schubert, Michael; Xavier-Neto, José

    2011-01-01

    Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs) catabolize toxic aldehydes and process the vitamin A-derived retinaldehyde into retinoic acid (RA), a small diffusible molecule and a pivotal chordate morphogen. In this study, we combine phylogenetic, structural, genomic, and developmental gene expression analyses to examine the evolutionary origins of ALDH substrate preference. Structural modeling reveals that processing of small aldehydes, such as acetaldehyde, by ALDH2, versus large aldehydes, including retinaldehyde, by ALDH1A is associated with small versus large substrate entry channels (SECs), respectively. Moreover, we show that metazoan ALDH1s and ALDH2s are members of a single ALDH1/2 clade and that during evolution, eukaryote ALDH1/2s often switched between large and small SECs after gene duplication, transforming constricted channels into wide opened ones and vice versa. Ancestral sequence reconstructions suggest that during the evolutionary emergence of RA signaling, the ancestral, narrow-channeled metazoan ALDH1/2 gave rise to large ALDH1 channels capable of accommodating bulky aldehydes, such as retinaldehyde, supporting the view that retinoid-dependent signaling arose from ancestral cellular detoxification mechanisms. Our analyses also indicate that, on a more restricted evolutionary scale, ALDH1 duplicates from invertebrate chordates (amphioxus and ascidian tunicates) underwent switches to smaller and narrower SECs. When combined with alterations in gene expression, these switches led to neofunctionalization from ALDH1-like roles in embryonic patterning to systemic, ALDH2-like roles, suggesting functional shifts from signaling to detoxification. PMID:21169504

  1. Structural shifts of aldehyde dehydrogenase enzymes were instrumental for the early evolution of retinoid-dependent axial patterning in metazoans

    PubMed Central

    Sobreira, Tiago J. P.; Marlétaz, Ferdinand; Simões-Costa, Marcos; Schechtman, Deborah; Pereira, Alexandre C.; Brunet, Frédéric; Sweeney, Sarah; Pani, Ariel; Aronowicz, Jochanan; Lowe, Christopher J.; Davidson, Bradley; Laudet, Vincent; Bronner, Marianne; de Oliveira, Paulo S. L.; Schubert, Michael; Xavier-Neto, José

    2011-01-01

    Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs) catabolize toxic aldehydes and process the vitamin A-derived retinaldehyde into retinoic acid (RA), a small diffusible molecule and a pivotal chordate morphogen. In this study, we combine phylogenetic, structural, genomic, and developmental gene expression analyses to examine the evolutionary origins of ALDH substrate preference. Structural modeling reveals that processing of small aldehydes, such as acetaldehyde, by ALDH2, versus large aldehydes, including retinaldehyde, by ALDH1A is associated with small versus large substrate entry channels (SECs), respectively. Moreover, we show that metazoan ALDH1s and ALDH2s are members of a single ALDH1/2 clade and that during evolution, eukaryote ALDH1/2s often switched between large and small SECs after gene duplication, transforming constricted channels into wide opened ones and vice versa. Ancestral sequence reconstructions suggest that during the evolutionary emergence of RA signaling, the ancestral, narrow-channeled metazoan ALDH1/2 gave rise to large ALDH1 channels capable of accommodating bulky aldehydes, such as retinaldehyde, supporting the view that retinoid-dependent signaling arose from ancestral cellular detoxification mechanisms. Our analyses also indicate that, on a more restricted evolutionary scale, ALDH1 duplicates from invertebrate chordates (amphioxus and ascidian tunicates) underwent switches to smaller and narrower SECs. When combined with alterations in gene expression, these switches led to neofunctionalization from ALDH1-like roles in embryonic patterning to systemic, ALDH2-like roles, suggesting functional shifts from signaling to detoxification. PMID:21169504

  2. Evolution of Cooperation Patterns in Psoriasis Research: Co-Authorship Network Analysis of Papers in Medline (1942–2013)

    PubMed Central

    González-Alcaide, Gregorio; Park, Jinseo; Huamaní, Charles; Belinchón, Isabel; Ramos, José M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Although researchers have worked in collaboration since the origins of modern science and the publication of the first scientific journals in the eighteenth century, this phenomenon has acquired exceptional importance in the last several decades. Since the mid-twentieth century, new knowledge has been generated from within an ever-growing network of investigators, working cooperatively in research groups across countries and institutions. Cooperation is a crucial determinant of academic success. Objective The aim of the present paper is to analyze the evolution of scientific collaboration at the micro level, with regard to the scientific production generated on psoriasis research. Methods A bibliographic search in the Medline database containing the MeSH terms “psoriasis” or “psoriatic arthritis” was carried out. The search results were limited to articles, reviews and letters. After identifying the co-authorships of documents on psoriasis indexed in the Medline database (1942–2013), various bibliometric indicators were obtained, including the average number of authors per document and degree of multi-authorship over time. In addition, we performed a network analysis to study the evolution of certain features of the co-authorship network as a whole: average degree, size of the largest component, clustering coefficient, density and average distance. We also analyzed the evolution of the giant component to characterize the changing research patterns in the field, and we calculated social network indicators for the nodes, namely betweenness and closeness. Results The main active research clusters in the area were identified, along with their authors of reference. Our analysis of 28,670 documents sheds light on different aspects related to the evolution of scientific collaboration in the field, including the progressive increase in the mean number of co-authors (which stood at 5.17 in the 2004–2013 decade), and the rise in multi-authored papers

  3. HIV evolution in early infection: selection pressures, patterns of insertion and deletion, and the impact of apobec

    SciTech Connect

    Korber, Bette; Bhattacharya, Tanmoy; Giorgi, Elena; Gaschen, B; Daniels, M

    2009-01-01

    The pattern of viral diversification in newly infected individuals provides information about the host environment and immune responses typically experienced by the newly transmitted virus. For example, sites that tend to evolve rapidly across multiple early-infection patients could be involved in enabling escape from common early immune responses, represent adaptation for rapid growth in a newly infected host, or reversion from less fit forms of the virus that were selected for immune escape in previous hosts. Here we investigated the diversification of HIV -I env coding sequences in 81 very early B SUbtype infections previously shown to have resulted from transmission or expansion of single viruses (n=78) or two closely related viruses (n=3). In these cases the sequence of the infecting virus can be estimated accurately, enabling inference of both the direction of substitutions as well as distinction between insertion and deletion events. By integrating information across multiple acutely infected hosts, we find evidence of adaptive evolution of HIV-1 envand identified a subset of codon sites that diversified more rapidly than can be explained by a model of neutral evolution. Of 24 such rapidly diversifying sites, 14 were either (i) clustered and embedded in CTL epitopes that were verified experimentally or predicted based on the individual's HLA or (ii) in a nucleotide context indicative of APOBEC mediated G-to-A substitutions, despite having excluded heavily hypermutated sequences prior to the analysis. In several cases, a rapidly evolving site was both embedded in an APOBEC motif and in a CTL epitope, suggesting that APOBEC may facilitate early immune escape. Ten rapidly diversifying sites could not be explained by CTL escape or APOBEC hypermutation, including the most frequently mutated site, in the fusion peptide of gp4l. We also examined the distribution, extent, and sequence context of insertions and deletions and provide evidence that the length variation

  4. Patterns of sequence divergence and evolution of the S orthologous regions between Asian and African cultivated rice species.

    PubMed

    Guyot, Romain; Garavito, Andrea; Gavory, Frédérick; Samain, Sylvie; Tohme, Joe; Ghesquière, Alain; Lorieux, Mathias

    2011-01-01

    A strong postzygotic reproductive barrier separates the recently diverged Asian and African cultivated rice species, Oryza sativa and O. glaberrima. Recently a model of genetic incompatibilities between three adjacent loci: S(1)A, S(1) and S(1)B (called together the S(1) regions) interacting epistatically, was postulated to cause the allelic elimination of female gametes in interspecific hybrids. Two candidate factors for the S(1) locus (including a putative F-box gene) were proposed, but candidates for S(1)A and S(1)B remained undetermined. Here, to better understand the basis of the evolution of regions involved in reproductive isolation, we studied the genic and structural changes accumulated in the S(1) regions between orthologous sequences. First, we established an 813 kb genomic sequence in O. glaberrima, covering completely the S(1)A, S(1) and the majority of the S(1)B regions, and compared it with the orthologous regions of O. sativa. An overall strong structural conservation was observed, with the exception of three isolated regions of disturbed collinearity: (1) a local invasion of transposable elements around a putative F-box gene within S(1), (2) the multiple duplication and subsequent divergence of the same F-box gene within S(1)A, (3) an interspecific chromosomal inversion in S(1)B, which restricts recombination in our O. sativa×O. glaberrima crosses. Beside these few structural variations, a uniform conservative pattern of coding sequence divergence was found all along the S(1) regions. Hence, the S(1) regions have undergone no drastic variation in their recent divergence and evolution between O. sativa and O. glaberrima, suggesting that a small accumulation of genic changes, following a Bateson-Dobzhansky-Muller (BDM) model, might be involved in the establishment of the sterility barrier. In this context, genetic incompatibilities involving the duplicated F-box genes as putative candidates, and a possible strengthening step involving the

  5. Patterns of Sequence Divergence and Evolution of the S1 Orthologous Regions between Asian and African Cultivated Rice Species

    PubMed Central

    Gavory, Frédérick; Samain, Sylvie; Tohme, Joe; Ghesquière, Alain; Lorieux, Mathias

    2011-01-01

    A strong postzygotic reproductive barrier separates the recently diverged Asian and African cultivated rice species, Oryza sativa and O. glaberrima. Recently a model of genetic incompatibilities between three adjacent loci: S1A, S1 and S1B (called together the S1 regions) interacting epistatically, was postulated to cause the allelic elimination of female gametes in interspecific hybrids. Two candidate factors for the S1 locus (including a putative F-box gene) were proposed, but candidates for S1A and S1B remained undetermined. Here, to better understand the basis of the evolution of regions involved in reproductive isolation, we studied the genic and structural changes accumulated in the S1 regions between orthologous sequences. First, we established an 813 kb genomic sequence in O. glaberrima, covering completely the S1A, S1 and the majority of the S1B regions, and compared it with the orthologous regions of O. sativa. An overall strong structural conservation was observed, with the exception of three isolated regions of disturbed collinearity: (1) a local invasion of transposable elements around a putative F-box gene within S1, (2) the multiple duplication and subsequent divergence of the same F-box gene within S1A, (3) an interspecific chromosomal inversion in S1B, which restricts recombination in our O. sativa×O. glaberrima crosses. Beside these few structural variations, a uniform conservative pattern of coding sequence divergence was found all along the S1 regions. Hence, the S1 regions have undergone no drastic variation in their recent divergence and evolution between O. sativa and O. glaberrima, suggesting that a small accumulation of genic changes, following a Bateson-Dobzhansky-Muller (BDM) model, might be involved in the establishment of the sterility barrier. In this context, genetic incompatibilities involving the duplicated F-box genes as putative candidates, and a possible strengthening step involving the chromosomal inversion might participate to

  6. Elastic, not plastic species: Frozen plasticity theory and the origin of adaptive evolution in sexually reproducing organisms

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Darwin's evolutionary theory could easily explain the evolution of adaptive traits (organs and behavioral patterns) in asexual but not in sexual organisms. Two models, the selfish gene theory and frozen plasticity theory were suggested to explain evolution of adaptive traits in sexual organisms in past 30 years. Results The frozen plasticity theory suggests that sexual species can evolve new adaptations only when their members are genetically uniform, i.e. only after a portion of the population of the original species had split off, balanced on the edge of extinction for several generations, and then undergone rapid expansion. After a short period of time, estimated on the basis of paleontological data to correspond to 1-2% of the duration of the species, polymorphism accumulates in the gene pool due to frequency-dependent selection; and thus, in each generation, new mutations occur in the presence of different alleles and therefore change their selection coefficients from generation to generation. The species ceases to behave in an evolutionarily plastic manner and becomes evolutionarily elastic on a microevolutionary time-scale and evolutionarily frozen on a macroevolutionary time-scale. It then exists in this state until such changes accumulate in the environment that the species becomes extinct. Conclusion Frozen plasticity theory, which includes the Darwinian model of evolution as a special case - the evolution of species in a plastic state, not only offers plenty of new predictions to be tested, but also provides explanations for a much broader spectrum of known biological phenomena than classic evolutionary theories. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Rob Knight, Fyodor Kondrashov and Massimo Di Giulio (nominated by David H. Ardell). PMID:20067646

  7. Distinct developmental growth patterns account for the disproportionate expansion of the rostral and caudal isocortex in evolution

    PubMed Central

    Charvet, Christine J.

    2014-01-01

    In adulthood, the isocortex of several species is characterized by a gradient in neurons per unit of cortical surface area with fewer neurons per unit of cortical surface area in the rostral pole relative to the caudal pole. A gradient in neurogenesis timing predicts differences in neurons across the isocortex: neurons per unit of cortical surface area are fewer rostrally, where neurogenesis duration is short, and higher caudally where neurogenesis duration is longer. How species differences in neurogenesis duration impact cortical progenitor cells across its axis is not known. I estimated progenitor cells per unit of ventricular area across the rostro-caudal axis of the isocortex in cats (Felis catus) and in dogs (Canis familiaris) mostly before layers VI-II neurons are generated. I also estimated the ventricular length across the rostro-caudal axis at various stages of development in both species. These two species were chosen because neurogenesis duration in dogs is extended compared with cats. Caudally, cortical progenitors expand more tangentially and in numbers in dogs compared with cats. Rostrally, the cortical proliferative zone expands more tangentially in dogs compared with cats. However, the tangential expansion in the rostral cortical proliferative zone occurs without a concomitant increase in progenitor cell numbers. The tangential expansion of the ventricular surface in the rostral cortex is mediated by a reduction in cell density. These different developmental growth patterns account for the disproportionate expansion of the rostral (i.e., frontal cortex) and caudal cortex (e.g., primary visual cortex) when neurogenesis duration lengthens in evolution. PMID:24782736

  8. Clades reach highest morphological disparity early in their evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Martin; Gerber, Sylvain; Albion Wills, Matthew

    2013-08-01

    There are few putative macroevolutionary trends or rules that withstand scrutiny. Here, we test and verify the purported tendency for animal clades to reach their maximum morphological variety relatively early in their evolutionary histories (early high disparity). We present a meta-analysis of 98 metazoan clades radiating throughout the Phanerozoic. The disparity profiles of groups through time are summarized in terms of their center of gravity (CG), with values above and below 0.50 indicating top- and bottom-heaviness, respectively. Clades that terminate at one of the "big five" mass extinction events tend to have truncated trajectories, with a significantly top-heavy CG distribution overall. The remaining 63 clades show the opposite tendency, with a significantly bottom-heavy mean CG (relatively early high disparity). Resampling tests are used to identify groups with a CG significantly above or below 0.50; clades not terminating at a mass extinction are three times more likely to be significantly bottom-heavy than top-heavy. Overall, there is no clear temporal trend in disparity profile shapes from the Cambrian to the Recent, and early high disparity is the predominant pattern throughout the Phanerozoic. Our results do not allow us to distinguish between ecological and developmental explanations for this phenomenon. To the extent that ecology has a role, however, the paucity of bottom-heavy clades radiating in the immediate wake of mass extinctions suggests that early high disparity more probably results from the evolution of key apomorphies at the base of clades rather than from physical drivers or catastrophic ecospace clearing.

  9. Clades reach highest morphological disparity early in their evolution

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Martin; Gerber, Sylvain; Wills, Matthew Albion

    2013-01-01

    There are few putative macroevolutionary trends or rules that withstand scrutiny. Here, we test and verify the purported tendency for animal clades to reach their maximum morphological variety relatively early in their evolutionary histories (early high disparity). We present a meta-analysis of 98 metazoan clades radiating throughout the Phanerozoic. The disparity profiles of groups through time are summarized in terms of their center of gravity (CG), with values above and below 0.50 indicating top- and bottom-heaviness, respectively. Clades that terminate at one of the “big five” mass extinction events tend to have truncated trajectories, with a significantly top-heavy CG distribution overall. The remaining 63 clades show the opposite tendency, with a significantly bottom-heavy mean CG (relatively early high disparity). Resampling tests are used to identify groups with a CG significantly above or below 0.50; clades not terminating at a mass extinction are three times more likely to be significantly bottom-heavy than top-heavy. Overall, there is no clear temporal trend in disparity profile shapes from the Cambrian to the Recent, and early high disparity is the predominant pattern throughout the Phanerozoic. Our results do not allow us to distinguish between ecological and developmental explanations for this phenomenon. To the extent that ecology has a role, however, the paucity of bottom-heavy clades radiating in the immediate wake of mass extinctions suggests that early high disparity more probably results from the evolution of key apomorphies at the base of clades rather than from physical drivers or catastrophic ecospace clearing. PMID:23884651

  10. Late cenozoic evolution of Fortymile Wash: Major change in drainage pattern in the Yucca Mountain, Nevada region during late miocene volcanism

    SciTech Connect

    Lundstrom, S.C.; Warren, R.G.

    1994-04-01

    The site characterization of Yucca Mountain, NV as a potential high level nuclear waste repository includes study of the surficial deposits as a record of the paleoenvironmental history of the Yucca Mountain region. An important aspect of this history is an understanding of the evolution of paleogeography leading to establishment of the present drainage pattern. Establishment of drainage basin evolution is needed before geomorphic response to paleoclimate and tectonics can be assessed, because a major change in drainage basin geometry can predominantly affect the sedimentary record. Because alluvial aquifers are significant to regional hydrology, a major change in surface drainage resulting in buried alluvium could have hydrogeologic significance. In this paper, we report on geologic evidence for a major modification in surface drainage pattern in the Yucca Mountain region, resulting in the probable establishment of the Fortymile Wash drainage basin by latest Miocene time.

  11. Color Pattern on the Forewing of Micropterix (Lepidoptera: Micropterigidae): Insights into the Evolution of Wing Pattern and Wing Venation in Moths

    PubMed Central

    Schachat, Sandra R.; Brown, Richard L.

    2015-01-01

    Wing patterns are key taxonomic characters that have long been used in descriptions of Lepidoptera; however, wing pattern homologies are not understood among different moth lineages. Here, we examine the relationship between wing venation and wing pattern in the genus Micropterix, among the most basal extant Lepidoptera, in order to evaluate the two existing predictive models that have the potential to establish wing pattern element homologies for the order. The location of wing pattern elements along the costal margin of the wing in Micropterix is consistent with the predictions of the model proposed for Tortricidae by Brown and Powell in 1991, later modified by Baixeras in 2002. The predictive power of this model for such distantly related taxa suggests that the model may hold across various superfamilies within Lepidoptera, and supports the long-held notion that fasciae, not spots, are the most likely primitive wing pattern elements for the order. In addition, the location of wing pattern elements suggests that the wing vein commonly termed Sc1 may in fact be a different vein, which Comstock identified in Trichoptera and referred to as “a.” PMID:26437004

  12. The effects of a deleterious mutation load on patterns of influenza A/H3N2's antigenic evolution in humans

    PubMed Central

    Koelle, Katia; Rasmussen, David A

    2015-01-01

    Recent phylogenetic analyses indicate that RNA virus populations carry a significant deleterious mutation load. This mutation load has the potential to shape patterns of adaptive evolution via genetic linkage to beneficial mutations. Here, we examine the effect of deleterious mutations on patterns of influenza A subtype H3N2's antigenic evolution in humans. By first analyzing simple models of influenza that incorporate a mutation load, we show that deleterious mutations, as expected, act to slow the virus's rate of antigenic evolution, while making it more punctuated in nature. These models further predict three distinct molecular pathways by which antigenic cluster transitions occur, and we find phylogenetic patterns consistent with each of these pathways in influenza virus sequences. Simulations of a more complex phylodynamic model further indicate that antigenic mutations act in concert with deleterious mutations to reproduce influenza's spindly hemagglutinin phylogeny, co-circulation of antigenic variants, and high annual attack rates. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07361.001 PMID:26371556

  13. An eco-epidemiological study of Morbilli-related paramyxovirus infection in Madagascar bats reveals host-switching as the dominant macro-evolutionary mechanism.

    PubMed

    Mélade, Julien; Wieseke, Nicolas; Ramasindrazana, Beza; Flores, Olivier; Lagadec, Erwan; Gomard, Yann; Goodman, Steven M; Dellagi, Koussay; Pascalis, Hervé

    2016-01-01

    An eco-epidemiological investigation was carried out on Madagascar bat communities to better understand the evolutionary mechanisms and environmental factors that affect virus transmission among bat species in closely related members of the genus Morbillivirus, currently referred to as Unclassified Morbilli-related paramyxoviruses (UMRVs). A total of 947 bats were investigated originating from 52 capture sites (22 caves, 18 buildings, and 12 outdoor sites) distributed over different bioclimatic zones of the island. Using RT-PCR targeting the L-polymerase gene of the Paramyxoviridae family, we found that 10.5% of sampled bats were infected, representing six out of seven families and 15 out of 31 species analyzed. Univariate analysis indicates that both abiotic and biotic factors may promote viral infection. Using generalized linear modeling of UMRV infection overlaid on biotic and abiotic variables, we demonstrate that sympatric occurrence of bats is a major factor for virus transmission. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that all paramyxoviruses infecting Malagasy bats are UMRVs and showed little host specificity. Analyses using the maximum parsimony reconciliation tool CoRe-PA, indicate that host-switching, rather than co-speciation, is the dominant macro-evolutionary mechanism of UMRVs among Malagasy bats. PMID:27068130

  14. An eco-epidemiological study of Morbilli-related paramyxovirus infection in Madagascar bats reveals host-switching as the dominant macro-evolutionary mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Mélade, Julien; Wieseke, Nicolas; Ramasindrazana, Beza; Flores, Olivier; Lagadec, Erwan; Gomard, Yann; Goodman, Steven M.; Dellagi, Koussay; Pascalis, Hervé

    2016-01-01

    An eco-epidemiological investigation was carried out on Madagascar bat communities to better understand the evolutionary mechanisms and environmental factors that affect virus transmission among bat species in closely related members of the genus Morbillivirus, currently referred to as Unclassified Morbilli-related paramyxoviruses (UMRVs). A total of 947 bats were investigated originating from 52 capture sites (22 caves, 18 buildings, and 12 outdoor sites) distributed over different bioclimatic zones of the island. Using RT-PCR targeting the L-polymerase gene of the Paramyxoviridae family, we found that 10.5% of sampled bats were infected, representing six out of seven families and 15 out of 31 species analyzed. Univariate analysis indicates that both abiotic and biotic factors may promote viral infection. Using generalized linear modeling of UMRV infection overlaid on biotic and abiotic variables, we demonstrate that sympatric occurrence of bats is a major factor for virus transmission. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that all paramyxoviruses infecting Malagasy bats are UMRVs and showed little host specificity. Analyses using the maximum parsimony reconciliation tool CoRe-PA, indicate that host-switching, rather than co-speciation, is the dominant macro-evolutionary mechanism of UMRVs among Malagasy bats. PMID:27068130

  15. Adaptive evolution of molecular phenotypes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Held, Torsten; Nourmohammad, Armita; Lässig, Michael

    2014-09-01

    Molecular phenotypes link genomic information with organismic functions, fitness, and evolution. Quantitative traits are complex phenotypes that depend on multiple genomic loci. In this paper, we study the adaptive evolution of a quantitative trait under time-dependent selection, which arises from environmental changes or through fitness interactions with other co-evolving phenotypes. We analyze a model of trait evolution under mutations and genetic drift in a single-peak fitness seascape. The fitness peak performs a constrained random walk in the trait amplitude, which determines the time-dependent trait optimum in a given population. We derive analytical expressions for the distribution of the time-dependent trait divergence between populations and of the trait diversity within populations. Based on this solution, we develop a method to infer adaptive evolution of quantitative traits. Specifically, we show that the ratio of the average trait divergence and the diversity is a universal function of evolutionary time, which predicts the stabilizing strength and the driving rate of the fitness seascape. From an information-theoretic point of view, this function measures the macro-evolutionary entropy in a population ensemble, which determines the predictability of the evolutionary process. Our solution also quantifies two key characteristics of adapting populations: the cumulative fitness flux, which measures the total amount of adaptation, and the adaptive load, which is the fitness cost due to a population's lag behind the fitness peak.

  16. The eunuch phenomenon: adaptive evolution of genital emasculation in sexually dimorphic spiders.

    PubMed

    Kuntner, Matjaž; Agnarsson, Ingi; Li, Daiqin

    2015-02-01

    Under natural and sexual selection traits often evolve that secure paternity or maternity through self-sacrifice to predators, rivals, offspring, or partners. Emasculation-males removing their genitals-is an unusual example of such behaviours. Known only in insects and spiders, the phenomenon's adaptiveness is difficult to explain, yet its repeated origins and association with sexual size dimorphism (SSD) and sexual cannibalism suggest an adaptive significance. In spiders, emasculation of paired male sperm-transferring organs - secondary genitals - (hereafter, palps), results in 'eunuchs'. This behaviour has been hypothesized to be adaptive because (i) males plug female genitals with their severed palps (plugging hypothesis), (ii) males remove their palps to become better fighters in male-male contests (better-fighter hypothesis), perhaps reaching higher agility due to reduced total body mass (gloves-off hypothesis), and (iii) males achieve prolonged sperm transfer through severed genitals (remote-copulation hypothesis). Prior research has provided evidence in support of these hypotheses in some orb-weaving spiders but these explanations are far from general. Seeking broad macroevolutionary patterns of spider emasculation, we review the known occurrences, weigh the evidence in support of the hypotheses in each known case, and redefine more precisely the particular cases of emasculation depending on its timing in relation to maturation and mating: 'pre-maturation', 'mating', and 'post-mating'. We use a genus-level spider phylogeny to explore emasculation evolution and to investigate potential evolutionary linkage between emasculation, SSD, lesser genital damage (embolic breakage), and sexual cannibalism (females consuming their mates). We find a complex pattern of spider emasculation evolution, all cases confined to Araneoidea: emasculation evolved at least five and up to 11 times, was lost at least four times, and became further modified at least once. We also find

  17. Sexual selection on male size drives the evolution of male-biased sexual size dimorphism via the prolongation of male development.

    PubMed

    Rohner, Patrick T; Blanckenhorn, Wolf U; Puniamoorthy, Nalini

    2016-06-01

    Sexual size dimorphism (SSD) arises when the net effects of natural and sexual selection on body size differ between the sexes. Quantitative SSD variation between taxa is common, but directional intraspecific SSD reversals are rare. We combined micro- and macroevolutionary approaches to study geographic SSD variation in closely related black scavenger flies. Common garden experiments revealed stark intra- and interspecific variation: Sepsis biflexuosa is monomorphic across the Holarctic, while S. cynipsea (only in Europe) consistently exhibits female-biased SSD. Interestingly, S. neocynipsea displays contrasting SSD in Europe (females larger) and North America (males larger), a pattern opposite to the geographic reversal in SSD of S. punctum documented in a previous study. In accordance with the differential equilibrium model for the evolution of SSD, the intensity of sexual selection on male size varied between continents (weaker in Europe), whereas fecundity selection on female body size did not. Subsequent comparative analyses of 49 taxa documented at least six independent origins of male-biased SSD in Sepsidae, which is likely caused by sexual selection on male size and mediated by bimaturism. Therefore, reversals in SSD and the associated changes in larval development might be much more common and rapid and less constrained than currently assumed. PMID:27168489

  18. Structural and drainage pattern evolution of the Alborz Mountains (N Iran) inferred from provenance data and magnetostratigraphy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballato, P.; Landgraf, A.; Strecker, M. R.; Friedrich, A.; Tabatabaei, S.

    2007-12-01

    The Alborz Mts, N Iran, constitute an active, E-W-oriented, double verging orogen, within the continental collision zone between Arabia and Eurasia. GPS data show that currently convergence is partitioned in the Alborz by 6 mmyr-1 of NNE directed shortening and 4 mmyr-1 of left-lateral motion. The growth of the Alborz was associated with the development of adjacent foreland basins. Here, we discuss the evolution of the southern Alborz and its foreland basin. We present a sandstone and conglomerate provenance study, combined with sedimentary facies analysis, and magnetostratigraphy of a 7200-m-thick sedimentary section in the foreland basin, previously thought to be Mio- Pleistocene in age. This section includes three first-order coarsening and thickening upward units and documents a gradual transition from restricted marine to lacustrine, braided river (U1 and U2), and alluvial fan depositional environments (U3). These units were deposited between 17.5 and 7.8 Ma. Assuming a constant accumulation rate for the alluvial-fan conglomerates of U3, the top of the section is approximately 6 m.y. old. The derived accumulation rates correlate with the cyclicity of the recognized units: at the bottom of each cycle in association with the fine-grained facies, the accumulation rates are faster, while with the appearance of coarse- grained facies the accumulation rates decrease. Fifty sandstone samples were analyzed using the Gazzi-Dickinson sandstone provenance method. The detrital modes of lithic grains indicate at least two first-order variations in the source area. The first major change occurred at the bottom of U1 and is characterised by an increase of low-grade metamorphic clasts and a concomitant decrease in volcanoclastic grains. The second major change is manifested at the base of U3 with a progressive decrease in low-grade metamorphic clasts and the increase of carbonates and volcanic lithics. The analysis of conglomerate clasts shows a relatively uniform composition

  19. Genome-Wide Analysis Reveals Diverged Patterns of Codon Bias, Gene Expression, and Rates of Sequence Evolution in Picea Gene Families

    PubMed Central

    De La Torre, Amanda R.; Lin, Yao-Cheng; Van de Peer, Yves; Ingvarsson, Pär K.

    2015-01-01

    The recent sequencing of several gymnosperm genomes has greatly facilitated studying the evolution of their genes and gene families. In this study, we examine the evidence for expression-mediated selection in the first two fully sequenced representatives of the gymnosperm plant clade (Picea abies and Picea glauca). We use genome-wide estimates of gene expression (>50,000 expressed genes) to study the relationship between gene expression, codon bias, rates of sequence divergence, protein length, and gene duplication. We found that gene expression is correlated with rates of sequence divergence and codon bias, suggesting that natural selection is acting on Picea protein-coding genes for translational efficiency. Gene expression, rates of sequence divergence, and codon bias are correlated with the size of gene families, with large multicopy gene families having, on average, a lower expression level and breadth, lower codon bias, and higher rates of sequence divergence than single-copy gene families. Tissue-specific patterns of gene expression were more common in large gene families with large gene expression divergence than in single-copy families. Recent family expansions combined with large gene expression variation in paralogs and increased rates of sequence evolution suggest that some Picea gene families are rapidly evolving to cope with biotic and abiotic stress. Our study highlights the importance of gene expression and natural selection in shaping the evolution of protein-coding genes in Picea species, and sets the ground for further studies investigating the evolution of individual gene families in gymnosperms. PMID:25747252

  20. Time scales of pattern evolution from cross-spectrum analysis of advanced very high resolution radiometer and coastal zone color scanner imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denman, Kenneth L.; Abbott, Mark R.

    1994-01-01

    We have selected square subareas (110 km on a side) from coastal zone color scanner (CZCS) and advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) images for 1981 in the California Current region off northern California for which we could identify sequences of cloud-free data over periods of days to weeks. We applied a two-dimensional fast Fourier transformation to images after median filtering, (x, y) plane removal, and cosine tapering. We formed autospectra and coherence spectra as functions of a scalar wavenumber. Coherence estimates between pairs of images were plotted against time separation between images for several wide wavenumber bands to provide a temporal lagged coherence function. The temporal rate of loss of correlation (decorrelation time scale) in surface patterns provides a measure of the rate of pattern change or evolution as a function of spatial dimension. We found that patterns evolved (or lost correlation) approximately twice as rapidly in upwelling jets as in the 'quieter' regions between jets. The rapid evolution of pigment patterns (lifetime of about 1 week or less for scales of 50-100 km) ought to hinder biomass transfer to zooplankton predators compared with phytoplankton patches that persist for longer times. We found no significant differences between the statistics of CZCS and AVHRR images (spectral shape or rate of decorrelation). In addition, in two of the three areas studied, the peak correlation between AVHRR and CZCS images from the same area occurred at zero lag, indicating that the patterns evolved simutaneously. In the third area, maximum coherence between thermal and pigment patterns occurred when pigment images lagged thermal images by 1-2 days, mirroring the expected lag of high pigment behind low temperatures (and high nutrients) in recently upwelled water. We conclude that in dynamic areas such as coastal upwelling systems, the phytoplankton cells (identified by pigment color patterns) behave largely as passive scalars at the

  1. A COMPREHENSIVE ANALYSIS OF FERMI GAMMA-RAY BURST DATA. II. E{sub p} EVOLUTION PATTERNS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR THE OBSERVED SPECTRUM-LUMINOSITY RELATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Lu Ruijing; Wei Junjie; Liang Enwei; Lue Lianzhong; Zhang Binbin; Lue Houjun; Zhang Bing; Lei Weihua E-mail: zhang@physics.unlv.edu

    2012-09-10

    We present a time-resolved spectral analysis of 51 long and 11 short bright gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) observed with the Fermi/Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor, paying special attention to E{sub p} evolution within each burst. Among eight single-pulse long GRBs, five show an evolution from hard to soft, while three show intensity tracking. The multi-pulse long GRBs have more complicated patterns. Statistically, the hard-to-soft evolution pulses tend to be more asymmetric than the intensity-tracking ones, with a steeper rising wing than the falling wing. Short GRBs have E{sub p} tracking intensity exclusively with the 16 ms time-resolution analysis. We performed a simulation analysis and suggest that for at least some bursts, the late intensity-tracking pulses could be a consequence of overlapping hard-to-soft pulses. However, the fact that the intensity-tracking pattern exists in the first pulse of the multi-pulse long GRBs and some single-pulse GRBs, suggests that intensity tracking is an independent component, which may operate in some late pulses as well. For the GRBs with measured redshifts, we present a time-resolved E{sub p} - L{sub {gamma},iso} correlation analysis and show that the scatter of the correlation is comparable to that of the global Amati/Yonetoku relation. We discuss the predictions of various radiation models regarding E{sub p} evolution, as well as the possibility of a precessing jet in GRBs. The data pose a great challenge to each of these models, and hold the key to unveiling the physics behind GRB prompt emission.

  2. Streamflow recession patterns can help unravel the role of climate and humans in landscape co-evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogaart, Patrick W.; van der Velde, Ype; Lyon, Steve W.; Dekker, Stefan C.

    2016-04-01

    Traditionally, long-term predictions of river discharges and their extremes include constant relationships between landscape properties and model parameters. However, due to the co-evolution of many landscape properties more sophisticated methods are necessary to quantify future landscape-hydrological model relationships. As a first step towards such an approach we use the Brutsaert and Nieber (1977) analysis method to characterize streamflow recession behaviour of ≈ 200 Swedish catchments within the context of global change and landscape co-evolution. Results suggest that the Brutsaert-Nieber parameters are strongly linked to the climate, soil, land use, and their interdependencies. Many catchments show a trend towards more non-linear behaviour, meaning not only faster initial recession but also slower recession towards base flow. This trend has been found to be independent from climate change. Instead, we suggest that land cover change, both natural (restoration of natural soil profiles in forested areas) and anthropogenic (reforestation and optimized water management), is probably responsible. Both change types are characterised by system adaptation and change, towards more optimal ecohydrological conditions, suggesting landscape co-evolution is at play. Given the observed magnitudes of recession changes during the past 50 years, predictions of future river discharge critically need to include the effects of landscape co-evolution. The interconnections between the controls of land cover and climate on river recession behaviour, as we have quantified in this paper, provide first-order handles to do so.

  3. Stream flow recession patterns can help unravel the role of climate and humans in landscape co-evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogaart, P. W.; van der Velde, Y.; Lyon, S. W.; Dekker, S. C.

    2015-09-01

    Traditionally, long term predictions of river discharges and their extremes include constant relationships between landscape properties and model parameters. However, due to co-evolution of many of landscape properties more sophisticated methods to quantify future landscape-hydrological model relationships are likely necessary. As a first step towards such an approach we use the Brutsaert and Nieber (1977) analysis method to characterize streamflow recession behaviour of ≈ 200 Swedish catchments within the context of global change and landscape co-evolution. Results suggest that the Brutsaert-Nieber parameters are strongly linked to the climate, soil, land-use and their interdependencies. Many catchments show a trend towards more non-linear behaviour, meaning faster initial recession, but also slower recession towards baseflow. This trend has been found to be independent from climate change. Instead, we suggest that land cover change, both natural (restoration of natural soil profiles in forested areas) and anthropogenic (reforestation and optimized water management), is probably responsible. Both change types are characterised by system adaptation and change, towards more optimal ecohydrological conditions, suggesting landscape co-evolution is at play. Given the observed magnitudes of recession changes during the past 50 years, predictions of future river discharge critically need to include effects of landscape co-evolution. The interconnections between the controls of land cover and climate on river recession behaviour, as we have quantified in this paper, provide first-order handles to do so.

  4. Microstructural properties and dislocation evolution on a GaN grown on patterned sapphire substrate: A transmission electron microscopy study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Y. H.; Ruh, H.; Noh, Y. K.; Kim, M. D.; Oh, J. E.

    2010-03-01

    The microstructural properties of a GaN layer grown on a patterned sapphire substrate (PSS) were studied in detail using transmission electron microscope techniques to determine dislocation and growth behaviors. Regular and uniform recrystallized GaN islands were observed on the protruding pattern. On a flat sapphire surface, the crystallographic orientation relationship of ⟨1¯21¯0⟩GaN on FS//⟨11¯00⟩sapphire and {11¯01}GaN on FS//{12¯13}sapphire existed between the GaN and the substrate. On the other hand, the orientation relationship of ⟨1¯21¯0⟩GaN layer//⟨1¯21¯0⟩GaN island on IS//⟨11¯00⟩sapphire and {11¯01}GaN layer//{0002}GaN island on IS//{12¯13}sapphire was confirmed among the GaN layer, the recrystallized GaN islands on an inclined sapphire surface and the PSS. The flat surface among the protruding patterns began to fill rapidly with GaN. Then, the GaN gradually overgrew the protruding pattern and coalesced near the summit as the growth time increased. The generation of threading dislocations was observed in the vicinity of the coalescence points near the top of the protruding patterns.

  5. Genome structure drives patterns of gene family evolution in ciliates, a case study using Chilodonella uncinata (Protista, Ciliophora, Phyllopharyngea).

    PubMed

    Gao, Feng; Song, Weibo; Katz, Laura A

    2014-08-01

    In most lineages, diversity among gene family members results from gene duplication followed by sequence divergence. Because of the genome rearrangements during the development of somatic nuclei, gene family evolution in ciliates involves more complex processes. Previous work on the ciliate Chilodonella uncinata revealed that macronuclear β-tubulin gene family members are generated by alternative processing, in which germline regions are alternatively used in multiple macronuclear chromosomes. To further study genome evolution in this ciliate, we analyzed its transcriptome and found that (1) alternative processing is extensive among gene families; and (2) such gene families are likely to be C. uncinata specific. We characterized additional macronuclear and micronuclear copies of one candidate alternatively processed gene family-a protein kinase domain containing protein (PKc)-from two C. uncinata strains. Analysis of the PKc sequences reveals that (1) multiple PKc gene family members in the macronucleus share some identical regions flanked by divergent regions; and (2) the shared identical regions are processed from a single micronuclear chromosome. We discuss analogous processes in lineages across the eukaryotic tree of life to provide further insights on the impact of genome structure on gene family evolution in eukaryotes. PMID:24749903

  6. Genome structure drives patterns of gene family evolution in ciliates, a case study using Chilodonella uncinata (Protista, Ciliophora, Phyllopharyngea)

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Feng; Song, Weibo; Katz, Laura A.

    2014-01-01

    In most lineages, diversity among gene family members results from gene duplication followed by sequence divergence. Because of the genome rearrangements during the development of somatic nuclei, gene family evolution in ciliates involves more complex processes. Previous work on the ciliate Chilodonella uncinata revealed that macronuclear β-tubulin gene family members are generated by alternative processing, in which germline regions are alternatively used in multiple macronuclear chromosomes. To further study genome evolution in this ciliate, we analyzed its transcriptome and found that: 1) alternative processing is extensive among gene families; and 2) such gene families are likely to be C. uncinata-specific. We characterized additional macronuclear and micronuclear copies of one candidate alternatively processed gene family -- a protein kinase domain containing protein (PKc) -- from two C. uncinata strains. Analysis of the PKc sequences reveals: 1) multiple PKc gene family members in the macronucleus share some identical regions flanked by divergent regions; and 2) the shared identical regions are processed from a single micronuclear chromosome. We discuss analogous processes in lineages across the eukaryotic tree of life to provide further insights on the impact of genome structure on gene family evolution in eukaryotes. PMID:24749903

  7. Pattern and polarity in the development and evolution of the gnathostome jaw: both conservation and heterotopy in the branchial arches of the shark, Scyliorhinus canicula.

    PubMed

    Compagnucci, Claudia; Debiais-Thibaud, Melanie; Coolen, Marion; Fish, Jennifer; Griffin, John N; Bertocchini, Federica; Minoux, Maryline; Rijli, Filippo M; Borday-Birraux, Véronique; Casane, Didier; Mazan, Sylvie; Depew, Michael J

    2013-05-15

    The acquisition of jaws constitutes a landmark event in vertebrate evolution, one that in large part potentiated their success and diversification. Jaw development and patterning involves an intricate spatiotemporal series of reciprocal inductive and responsive interactions between the cephalic epithelia and the cranial neural crest (CNC) and cephalic mesodermal mesenchyme. The coordinated regulation of these interactions is critical for both the ontogenetic registration of the jaws and the evolutionary elaboration of variable jaw morphologies and designs. Current models of jaw development and evolution have been built on molecular and cellular evidence gathered mostly in amniotes such as mice, chicks and humans, and augmented by a much smaller body of work on the zebrafish. These have been partnered by essential work attempting to understand the origins of jaws that has focused on the jawless lamprey. Chondrichthyans (cartilaginous fish) are the most distant group to amniotes within extant gnathostomes, and comprise the crucial clade uniting amniotes and agnathans; yet despite their critical phylogenetic position, evidence of the molecular and cellular underpinnings of jaw development in chondrichthyans is still lacking. Recent advances in genome and molecular developmental biology of the lesser spotted dogfish shark, Scyliorhinus canicula, make it ideal for the molecular study of chondrichthyan jaw development. Here, following the 'Hinge and Caps' model of jaw development, we have investigated evidence of heterotopic (relative changes in position) and heterochronic (relative changes in timing) shifts in gene expression, relative to amniotes, in the jaw primordia of S. canicula embryos. We demonstrate the presence of clear proximo-distal polarity in gene expression patterns in the shark embryo, thus establishing a baseline molecular baüplan for branchial arch-derived jaw development and further validating the utility of the 'Hinge and Caps' model in comparative

  8. Biostratigraphy, taxonomic diversity and patterns of morphological evolution of Ordovician acritarchs (organic-walled microphytoplankton) from the northern Gondwana margin in relation to palaeoclimatic and palaeogeographic changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vecoli, Marco; Le Hérissé, Alain

    2004-10-01

    Acritarchs, the fossilizable, resting cysts of phytoplanktonic algal protists, are the dominant component of marine organic-walled microfossils in the Palaeozoic. The majority of acritarchs show strong similarities with dinoflagellate cysts in morphological and biogeochemical features, as well as distributional patterns in the sediments. The production of these organic-walled microfossils and their distribution and survivorship in the sediments were controlled by differences in ecological tolerances and life cycle (autecology) of the planktonic parent organisms. Calculation of evolutionary rates and development of a detailed diversity curve at specific level, form the basis for discussing the influence of global palaeoenvironmental perturbations on the evolution of organic-walled microphytoplankton in northern Gondwana during latest Cambrian through Ordovician times. The potential of acritarchs for biostratigraphic correlation at the regional scale (northern Gondwana domain) is much improved by our detailed revision of distributional patterns of 245 acritarch taxa. The most important Cambro-Ordovician acritarch bio-events are short periods of diversification, which also correspond to introduction of morphological innovations, observed in latest Cambrian and earliest Tremadoc, late Tremadoc, early Arenig, basal Llanvirn, and latest Ashgill, and an important extinction phase in the early Caradoc. Overall, acritarch diversity increased from the basal Ordovician up to the middle Llanvirn, then declined in the early and middle Caradoc. During Ashgill times, the assemblages are poorly diversified at the generic level as a result of a combined effect of sea level drawdown and onset of glacial conditions, but no major extinction event is observed in connection with the end-Ordovician biotic crisis. The peak in acritarch diversity during Middle Ordovician times appears to be correlated to maximum spread of palaeogeographical assembly. Acritarch dynamics appear largely

  9. Co-evolution of cancer microenvironment reveals distinctive patterns of gastric cancer invasion: laboratory evidence and clinical significance

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Cancer invasion results from constant interactions between cancer cells and their microenvironment. Major components of the cancer microenvironment are stromal cells, infiltrating inflammatory cells, collagens, matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) and newly formed blood vessels. This study was to determine the roles of MMP-9, MMP-2, type IV collagen, infiltrating macrophages and tumor microvessels in gastric cancer (GC) invasion and their clinico-pathological significance. Methods Paraffin-embedded tissue sections from 37 GC patients were studied by Streptavidin-Peroxidase (SP) immunohistochemical technique to determine the levels of MMP-2, MMP-9, type IV collagen, macrophages infiltration and microvessel density (MVD). Different invasion patterns were delineated and their correlation with major clinico-pathological information was explored. Results MMP2 expression was higher in malignant gland compared to normal gland, especially nearby the basement membrane (BM). High densities of macrophages at the interface of cancer nests and stroma were found where BM integrity was destroyed. MMP2 expression was significantly increased in cases with recurrence and distant metastasis (P = 0.047 and 0.048, respectively). Infiltrating macrophages were correlated with serosa invasion (P = 0.011) and TNM stage (P = 0.001). MVD was higher in type IV collagen negative group compared to type IV collagen positive group (P = 0.026). MVD was related to infiltrating macrophages density (P = 0.040). Patients with negative MMP9 expression had better overall survival (OS) compared to those with positive MMP9 expression (Median OS 44.0 vs 13.5 mo, P = 0.036). Median OS was significantly longer in type IV collagen positive group than negative group (Median OS 25.5 vs 10.0 mo, P = 0.044). The cumulative OS rate was higher in low macrophages density group than in high macrophages density group (median OS 40.5 vs 13.0 mo, P = 0.056). Median OS was significantly longer in low MVD group than

  10. Common Patterns in the Evolution between the Luminous Neutron Star Low-Mass X-ray Binary Subclasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fridriksson, Joel K.; Homan, Jeroen; Remillard, Ronald A.

    2015-08-01

    The X-ray transient XTE J1701-462 was the first source observed to evolve through all known subclasses of low-magnetic-field neutron star low-mass X-ray binaries (NS-LMXBs), as a result of large changes in its mass accretion rate. To investigate to what extent similar evolution is seen in other NS-LMXBs we have performed a detailed study of the color-color and hardness-intensity diagrams (CDs and HIDs) of Cyg X-2, Cir X-1, and GX 13+1—three luminous X-ray binaries, containing weakly magnetized neutron stars, known to exhibit strong secular changes in their CD/HID tracks. Using the full set of Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer Proportional Counter Array data collected for the sources over the 16 year duration of the mission, we show that Cyg X-2 and Cir X-1 display CD/HID evolution with close similarities to XTE J1701-462. Although GX 13+1 shows behavior that is in some ways unique, it also exhibits similarities to XTE J1701-462, and we conclude that its overall CD/HID properties strongly indicate that it should be classified as a Z source, rather than as an atoll source. We conjecture that the secular evolution of Cyg X-2, Cir X-1, and GX 13+1—illustrated by sequences of CD/HID tracks we construct—arises from changes in the mass accretion rate. Our results strengthen previous suggestions that within single sources Cyg-like Z source behavior takes place at higher luminosities and mass accretion rates than Sco-like Z behavior, and lend support to the notion that the mass accretion rate is the primary physical parameter distinguishing the various NS-LMXB subclasses.

  11. Patterns of gene duplication and functional evolution during the diversification of the AGAMOUS subfamily of MADS box genes in angiosperms.

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Elena M; Jaramillo, M Alejandra; Di Stilio, Verónica S

    2004-01-01

    Members of the AGAMOUS (AG) subfamily of MIKC-type MADS-box genes appear to control the development of reproductive organs in both gymnosperms and angiosperms. To understand the evolution of this subfamily in the flowering plants, we have identified 26 new AG-like genes from 15 diverse angiosperm species. Phylogenetic analyses of these genes within a large data set of AG-like sequences show that ancient gene duplications were critical in shaping the evolution of the subfamily. Before the radiation of extant angiosperms, one event produced the ovule-specific D lineage and the well-characterized C lineage, whose members typically promote stamen and carpel identity as well as floral meristem determinacy. Subsequent duplications in the C lineage resulted in independent instances of paralog subfunctionalization and maintained functional redundancy. Most notably, the functional homologs AG from Arabidopsis and PLENA (PLE) from Antirrhinum are shown to be representatives of separate paralogous lineages rather than simple genetic orthologs. The multiple subfunctionalization events that have occurred in this subfamily highlight the potential for gene duplication to lead to dissociation among genetic modules, thereby allowing an increase in morphological diversity. PMID:15020484

  12. Functional Divergence of the Glutathione S-Transferase Supergene Family in Physcomitrella patens Reveals Complex Patterns of Large Gene Family Evolution in Land Plants1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yan-Jing; Han, Xue-Min; Ren, Lin-Ling; Yang, Hai-Ling; Zeng, Qing-Yin

    2013-01-01

    Plant glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are multifunctional proteins encoded by a large gene family that play major roles in the detoxification of xenobiotics and oxidative stress metabolism. To date, studies on the GST gene family have focused mainly on vascular plants (particularly agricultural plants). In contrast, little information is available on the molecular characteristics of this large gene family in nonvascular plants. In addition, the evolutionary patterns of this family in land plants remain unclear. In this study, we identified 37 GST genes from the whole genome of the moss Physcomitrella patens, a nonvascular representative of early land plants. The 37 P. patens GSTs were divided into 10 classes, including two new classes (hemerythrin and iota). However, no tau GSTs were identified, which represent the largest class among vascular plants. P. patens GST gene family members showed extensive functional divergence in their gene structures, gene expression responses to abiotic stressors, enzymatic characteristics, and the subcellular locations of the encoded proteins. A joint phylogenetic analysis of GSTs from P. patens and other higher vascular plants showed that different class GSTs had distinct duplication patterns during the evolution of land plants. By examining multiple characteristics, this study revealed complex patterns of evolutionary divergence among the GST gene family in land plants. PMID:23188805

  13. Bare Bones Pattern Formation: A Core Regulatory Network in Varying Geometries Reproduces Major Features of Vertebrate Limb Development and Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jianfeng; Zhang, Yong-Tao; Alber, Mark S.; Newman, Stuart A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Major unresolved questions regarding vertebrate limb development concern how the numbers of skeletal elements along the proximodistal (P-D) and anteroposterior (A-P) axes are determined and how the shape of a growing limb affects skeletal element formation. There is currently no generally accepted model for these patterning processes, but recent work on cartilage development (chondrogenesis) indicates that precartilage tissue self-organizes into nodular patterns by cell-molecular circuitry with local auto-activating and lateral inhibitory (LALI) properties. This process is played out in the developing limb in the context of a gradient of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) emanating from the apical ectodermal ridge (AER). Results We have simulated the behavior of the core chondrogenic mechanism of the developing limb in the presence of an FGF gradient using a novel computational environment that permits simulation of LALI systems in domains of varying shape and size. The model predicts the normal proximodistal pattern of skeletogenesis as well as distal truncations resulting from AER removal. Modifications of the model's parameters corresponding to plausible effects of Hox proteins and formins, and of the reshaping of the model limb, bud yielded simulated phenotypes resembling mutational and experimental variants of the limb. Hypothetical developmental scenarios reproduce skeletal morphologies with features of fossil limbs. Conclusions The limb chondrogenic regulatory system operating in the presence of a gradient has an inherent, robust propensity to form limb-like skeletal structures. The bare bones framework can accommodate ancillary gene regulatory networks controlling limb bud shaping and establishment of Hox expression domains. This mechanism accounts for major features of the normal limb pattern and, under variant geometries and different parameter values, those of experimentally manipulated, genetically aberrant and evolutionary early forms, with no

  14. Patterns and early evolution of organ failure in the intensive care unit and their relation to outcome

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Recognition of patterns of organ failure may be useful in characterizing the clinical course of critically ill patients. We investigated the patterns of early changes in organ dysfunction/failure in intensive care unit (ICU) patients and their relation to outcome. Methods Using the database from a large prospective European study, we studied 2,933 patients who had stayed more than 48 hours in the ICU and described patterns of organ failure and their relation to outcome. Patients were divided into three groups: patients without sepsis, patients in whom sepsis was diagnosed within the first 48 hours after ICU admission, and patients in whom sepsis developed more than 48 hours after admission. Organ dysfunction was assessed by using the sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score. Results A total of 2,110 patients (72% of the study population) had organ failure at some point during their ICU stay. Patients who exhibited an improvement in organ function in the first 24 hours after admission to the ICU had lower ICU and hospital mortality rates compared with those who had unchanged or increased SOFA scores (12.4 and 18.4% versus 19.6 and 24.5%, P < 0.05, pairwise). As expected, organ failure was more common in sepsis than in nonsepsis patients. In patients with single-organ failure, in-hospital mortality was greater in sepsis than in nonsepsis patients. However, in patients with multiorgan failure, mortality rates were similar regardless of the presence of sepsis. Irrespective of the presence of sepsis, delta SOFA scores over the first 4 days in the ICU were higher in nonsurvivors than in survivors and decreased significantly over time in survivors. Conclusions Early changes in organ function are strongly related to outcome. In patients with single-organ failure, in-hospital mortality was higher in sepsis than in nonsepsis patients. However, in multiorgan failure, mortality rates were not influenced by the presence of sepsis. PMID:23158219

  15. Evolution of Xylan Substitution Patterns in Gymnosperms and Angiosperms: Implications for Xylan Interaction with Cellulose1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Li, An; Gomes, Thiago C.F.

    2016-01-01

    The interaction between cellulose and xylan is important for the load-bearing secondary cell wall of flowering plants. Based on the precise, evenly spaced pattern of acetyl and glucuronosyl (MeGlcA) xylan substitutions in eudicots, we recently proposed that an unsubstituted face of xylan in a 2-fold helical screw can hydrogen bond to the hydrophilic surfaces of cellulose microfibrils. In gymnosperm cell walls, any role for xylan is unclear, and glucomannan is thought to be the important cellulose-binding polysaccharide. Here, we analyzed xylan from the secondary cell walls of the four gymnosperm lineages (Conifer, Gingko, Cycad, and Gnetophyta). Conifer, Gingko, and Cycad xylan lacks acetylation but is modified by arabinose and MeGlcA. Interestingly, the arabinosyl substitutions are located two xylosyl residues from MeGlcA, which is itself placed precisely on every sixth xylosyl residue. Notably, the Gnetophyta xylan is more akin to early-branching angiosperms and eudicot xylan, lacking arabinose but possessing acetylation on alternate xylosyl residues. All these precise substitution patterns are compatible with gymnosperm xylan binding to hydrophilic surfaces of cellulose. Molecular dynamics simulations support the stable binding of 2-fold screw conifer xylan to the hydrophilic face of cellulose microfibrils. Moreover, the binding of multiple xylan chains to adjacent planes of the cellulose fibril stabilizes the interaction further. Our results show that the type of xylan substitution varies, but an even pattern of xylan substitution is maintained among vascular plants. This suggests that 2-fold screw xylan binds hydrophilic faces of cellulose in eudicots, early-branching angiosperm, and gymnosperm cell walls. PMID:27325663

  16. Retention, Molecular Evolution, and Expression Divergence of the Auxin/Indole Acetic Acid and Auxin Response Factor Gene Families in Brassica Rapa Shed Light on Their Evolution Patterns in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Zhinan; Duan, Weike; Song, Xiaoming; Tang, Jun; Wu, Peng; Zhang, Bei; Hou, Xilin

    2016-01-01

    Auxin/indole acetic acids (Aux/IAAs) and auxin response factors (ARFs), major components of the Aux signaling network, are involved in many developmental processes in plants. Investigating their evolution will provide new sight on the relationship between the molecular evolution of these genes and the increasing morphotypes of plants. We constructed comparative analyses of the retention, structure, expansion, and expression patterns of Aux/IAAs and ARFs in Brassica rapa and their evolution in eight other plant species, including algae, bryophytes, lycophytes, and angiosperms. All 33 of the ARFs, including 1 ARF-like (AL) (a type of ARF-like protein) and 53 Aux/IAAs, were identified in the B. rapa genome. The genes mainly diverged approximately 13 Ma. After the split, no Aux/IAA was completely lost, and they were more preferentially retained than ARFs. In land plants, compared with ARFs, which increased in stability, Aux/IAAs expanded more rapidly and were under more relaxed selective pressure. Moreover, BraIAAs were expressed in a more tissue-specific fashion than BraARFs and demonstrated functional diversification during gene duplication under different treatments, which enhanced the cooperative interaction of homologs to help plants adapt to complex environments. In addition, ALs existed widely and had a closer relationship with ARFs, suggesting that ALs might be the initial structure of ARFs. Our results suggest that the rapid expansion and preferential retention of Aux/IAAs are likely paralleled by the increasingly complex morphotypes in Brassicas and even in land plants. Meanwhile, the data support the hypothesis that the PB1 domain plays a key role in the origin of both Aux/IAAs and ARFs. PMID:26721260

  17. Retention, Molecular Evolution, and Expression Divergence of the Auxin/Indole Acetic Acid and Auxin Response Factor Gene Families in Brassica Rapa Shed Light on Their Evolution Patterns in Plants.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhinan; Duan, Weike; Song, Xiaoming; Tang, Jun; Wu, Peng; Zhang, Bei; Hou, Xilin

    2016-02-01

    Auxin/indole acetic acids (Aux/IAAs) and auxin response factors (ARFs), major components of the Aux signaling network, are involved in many developmental processes in plants. Investigating their evolution will provide new sight on the relationship between the molecular evolution of these genes and the increasing morphotypes of plants. We constructed comparative analyses of the retention, structure, expansion, and expression patterns of Aux/IAAs and ARFs in Brassica rapa and their evolution in eight other plant species, including algae, bryophytes, lycophytes, and angiosperms. All 33 of the ARFs, including 1 ARF-like (AL) (a type of ARF-like protein) and 53 Aux/IAAs, were identified in the B. rapa genome. The genes mainly diverged approximately 13 Ma. After the split, no Aux/IAA was completely lost, and they were more preferentially retained than ARFs. In land plants, compared with ARFs, which increased in stability, Aux/IAAs expanded more rapidly and were under more relaxed selective pressure. Moreover, BraIAAs were expressed in a more tissue-specific fashion than BraARFs and demonstrated functional diversification during gene duplication under different treatments, which enhanced the cooperative interaction of homologs to help plants adapt to complex environments. In addition, ALs existed widely and had a closer relationship with ARFs, suggesting that ALs might be the initial structure of ARFs. Our results suggest that the rapid expansion and preferential retention of Aux/IAAs are likely paralleled by the increasingly complex morphotypes in Brassicas and even in land plants. Meanwhile, the data support the hypothesis that the PB1 domain plays a key role in the origin of both Aux/IAAs and ARFs. PMID:26721260

  18. Size and shape in the evolution of ant worker morphology

    PubMed Central

    Tschá, Marcel K.

    2013-01-01

    Morphological evolution in ants has been traditionally thought as being strongly influenced by selection for colony ergonomic efficiency. Although many studies have focused on the evolution of social characteristics in ants, little is known about the evolution of worker morphology at a macroevolutionary scale. In this study, we investigate the tempo and mode of the evolution of worker morphology, focusing on changes in size and shape. Our datasets included a large sample of species from different ant genera, as well as variation within the hyperdiverse genus Pheidole, for a total of 1650 measurements. The rate of size evolution was at least five times faster than the rate of shape evolution. The fit of alternative models of morphological evolution indicated statistically significant phylogenetic signal in both size and shape and in all datasets. Finally, tests of rate heterogeneity in phenotypic evolution among lineages identified several shifts in rates of evolution in both datasets, although the timing of shifts in size and shape was usually not concordant. PMID:24255818

  19. Selective neuronal vulnerability of human hippocampal CA1 neurons: lesion evolution, temporal course, and pattern of hippocampal damage in diffusion-weighted MR imaging.

    PubMed

    Bartsch, Thorsten; Döhring, Juliane; Reuter, Sigrid; Finke, Carsten; Rohr, Axel; Brauer, Henriette; Deuschl, Günther; Jansen, Olav

    2015-11-01

    The CA1 (cornu ammonis) region of hippocampus is selectively vulnerable to a variety of metabolic and cytotoxic insults, which is mirrored in a delayed neuronal death of CA1 neurons. The basis and mechanisms of this regional susceptibility of CA1 neurons are poorly understood, and the correlates in human diseases affecting the hippocampus are not clear. Adopting a translational approach, the lesion evolution, temporal course, pattern of diffusion changes, and damage in hippocampal CA1 in acute neurologic disorders were studied using high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging. In patients with hippocampal ischemia (n=50), limbic encephalitis (n=30), after status epilepticus (n=17), and transient global amnesia (n=53), the CA1 region was selectively affected compared with other CA regions of the hippocampus. CA1 neurons exhibited a maximum decrease of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) 48 to 72 hours after the insult, irrespective of the nature of the insult. Hypoxic-ischemic insults led to a significant lower ADC suggesting that the ischemic insult results in a stronger impairment of cellular metabolism. The evolution of diffusion changes show that CA1 diffusion lesions mirror the delayed time course of the pathophysiologic cascade typically observed in animal models. Studying the imaging correlates of hippocampal damage in humans provides valuable insight into the pathophysiology and neurobiology of the hippocampus. PMID:26082014

  20. Phylogeography, Interaction Patterns and the Evolution of Host Choice in Drosophila-Parasitoid Systems in Ryukyu Archipelago and Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Novković, Biljana; Kimura, Masahito T

    2015-01-01

    Island biotas provide a great opportunity to study not only the phylogeographic patterns of a group of species, but also to explore the differentiation in their coevolutionary interactions. Drosophila and their parasitoids are exemplary systems for studying complex interaction patterns. However, there is a lack of studies combining interaction-based and molecular marker-based methods. We applied an integrated approach combining phylogeography, interaction, and host-choice behavior studies, with the aim to understand how coevolutionary interactions evolve in Drosophila-parasitoid island populations. The study focused on the three most abundant Drosophila species in Ryukyu archipelago and Taiwan: D. albomicans, D. bipectinata, and D. takahashii, and the Drosophila-parasitoid Leptopilina ryukyuensis. We determined mitochondrial COI haplotypes for samples representing five island populations of Drosophila and four island populations of L. ryukyuensis. We additionally sequenced parts of the autosomal Gpdh for Drosophila samples, and the ITS2 for parasitoid samples. Phylogenetic and coalescent analyses were used to test for demographic events and to place them in a temporal framework. Geographical differences in Drosophila-parasitoid interactions were studied in host-acceptance, host-suitability, and host-choice experiments. All four species showed species-specific phylogeographic patterns. A general trend of the haplotype diversity increasing towards the south was observed. D. albomicans showed very high COI haplotype diversity, and had the most phylogeographically structured populations, with differentiation into the northern and the southern population-group, divided by the Kerama gap. Differentiation in host suitability was observed only between highly structured populations of D. albomicans, possibly facilitated by restricted gene flow. Differentiation in host-acceptance in D. takahashii, and host-acceptance and host-choice in L. ryukyuensis was found, despite there

  1. Phylogeography, Interaction Patterns and the Evolution of Host Choice in Drosophila-Parasitoid Systems in Ryukyu Archipelago and Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Island biotas provide a great opportunity to study not only the phylogeographic patterns of a group of species, but also to explore the differentiation in their coevolutionary interactions. Drosophila and their parasitoids are exemplary systems for studying complex interaction patterns. However, there is a lack of studies combining interaction-based and molecular marker-based methods. We applied an integrated approach combining phylogeography, interaction, and host-choice behavior studies, with the aim to understand how coevolutionary interactions evolve in Drosophila-parasitoid island populations. The study focused on the three most abundant Drosophila species in Ryukyu archipelago and Taiwan: D. albomicans, D. bipectinata, and D. takahashii, and the Drosophila-parasitoid Leptopilina ryukyuensis. We determined mitochondrial COI haplotypes for samples representing five island populations of Drosophila and four island populations of L. ryukyuensis. We additionally sequenced parts of the autosomal Gpdh for Drosophila samples, and the ITS2 for parasitoid samples. Phylogenetic and coalescent analyses were used to test for demographic events and to place them in a temporal framework. Geographical differences in Drosophila-parasitoid interactions were studied in host-acceptance, host-suitability, and host-choice experiments. All four species showed species-specific phylogeographic patterns. A general trend of the haplotype diversity increasing towards the south was observed. D. albomicans showed very high COI haplotype diversity, and had the most phylogeographically structured populations, with differentiation into the northern and the southern population-group, divided by the Kerama gap. Differentiation in host suitability was observed only between highly structured populations of D. albomicans, possibly facilitated by restricted gene flow. Differentiation in host-acceptance in D. takahashii, and host-acceptance and host-choice in L. ryukyuensis was found, despite there

  2. Contrasting Patterns in the Evolution of Vertebrate MLX Interacting Protein (MLXIP) and MLX Interacting Protein-Like (MLXIPL) Genes

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Parmveer; Irwin, David M.

    2016-01-01

    ChREBP and MondoA are glucose-sensitive transcription factors that regulate aspects of energy metabolism. Here we performed a phylogenomic analysis of Mlxip (encoding MondoA) and Mlxipl (encoding ChREBP) genes across vertebrates. Analysis of extant Mlxip and Mlxipl genes suggests that the most recent common ancestor of these genes was composed of 17 coding exons. Single copy genes encoding both ChREBP and MondoA, along with their interacting partner Mlx, were found in diverse vertebrate genomes, including fish that have experienced a genome duplication. This observation suggests that a single Mlx gene has been retained to maintain coordinate regulation of ChREBP and MondoA. The ChREBP-β isoform, the more potent and constitutively active isoform, appeared with the evolution of tetrapods and is absent from the Mlxipl genes of fish. Evaluation of the conservation of ChREBP and MondoA sequences demonstrate that MondoA is better conserved and potentially mediates more ancient function in glucose metabolism. PMID:26910886

  3. Wind patterns as a potential driver in the evolution and maintenance of a North American migratory suture zone.

    PubMed

    McCabe, Jennifer D; Olsen, Brian J; Hiebeler, David

    2016-09-01

    Suture zones are areas where range contact zones and hybrid zones of multiple taxa are clustered. Migratory divides, contact zones between divergent populations that breed adjacent to one another but use different migratory routes, are a particular case of suture zones. Although multiple hypotheses for both the formation and maintenance of migratory divides have been suggested, quantitative tests are scarce. Here, we tested whether a novel factor, prevailing winds, was sufficient to explain both the evolution and maintenance of the Cordilleran migratory divide using individual-based models. Empirical observations of eastern birds suggest a circuitous migratory route across Canada before heading south. Western breeders, however, travel south along the Pacific coast to their wintering grounds. We modeled the effect of wind on bird migratory flights by allowing them to float at elevation using spatially explicit modeled wind data. Modeled eastern birds had easterly mean trajectories, whereas western breeders showed significantly more southern trajectories. We also determined that a mean airspeed of 18.5 m s(-1) would be necessary to eliminate this difference in trajectory, a speed that is achieved by waterfowl and shorebirds, but is faster than songbird flight speeds. These results lend support for the potential importance of wind in shaping the phylogeographic history of North American songbirds. PMID:27435797

  4. Molecular Evolution and Circulation Patterns of Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus Subgroup A: Positively Selected Sites in the Attachment G Glycoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Zlateva, Kalina T.; Lemey, Philippe; Vandamme, Anne-Mieke; Van Ranst, Marc

    2004-01-01

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) is the most common etiological agent of acute lower respiratory tract disease in infants and can cause repeated infections throughout life. In this study, we have analyzed nucleotide sequences encompassing 629 bp at the carboxy terminus of the G glycoprotein gene for HRSV subgroup A strains isolated over 47 years, including 112 Belgian strains isolated over 19 consecutive years (1984 to 2002). By using a maximum likelihood method, we have tested the presence of diversifying selection and identified 13 positively selected sites with a posterior probability above 0.5. The sites under positive selection correspond to sites of O glycosylation or to amino acids that were previously described as monoclonal antibody-induced in vitro escape mutants. Our findings suggest that the evolution of subgroup A HRSV G glycoprotein is driven by immune pressure operating in certain codon positions located mainly in the second hypervariable region of the ectodomain. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the prolonged cocirculation of two subgroup A lineages among the Belgian population and the possible extinction of three other lineages. The evolutionary rate of HRSV subgroup A isolates was estimated to be 1.83 × 10−3 nucleotide substitutions/site/year, projecting the most recent common ancestor back to the early 1940s. PMID:15078950

  5. Contrasting Patterns in the Evolution of Vertebrate MLX Interacting Protein (MLXIP) and MLX Interacting Protein-Like (MLXIPL) Genes.

    PubMed

    Singh, Parmveer; Irwin, David M

    2016-01-01

    ChREBP and MondoA are glucose-sensitive transcription factors that regulate aspects of energy metabolism. Here we performed a phylogenomic analysis of Mlxip (encoding MondoA) and Mlxipl (encoding ChREBP) genes across vertebrates. Analysis of extant Mlxip and Mlxipl genes suggests that the most recent common ancestor of these genes was composed of 17 coding exons. Single copy genes encoding both ChREBP and MondoA, along with their interacting partner Mlx, were found in diverse vertebrate genomes, including fish that have experienced a genome duplication. This observation suggests that a single Mlx gene has been retained to maintain coordinate regulation of ChREBP and MondoA. The ChREBP-β isoform, the more potent and constitutively active isoform, appeared with the evolution of tetrapods and is absent from the Mlxipl genes of fish. Evaluation of the conservation of ChREBP and MondoA sequences demonstrate that MondoA is better conserved and potentially mediates more ancient function in glucose metabolism. PMID:26910886

  6. Classic Maya Bloodletting and the Cultural Evolution of Religious Rituals: Quantifying Patterns of Variation in Hieroglyphic Texts

    PubMed Central

    Munson, Jessica; Amati, Viviana; Collard, Mark; Macri, Martha J.

    2014-01-01

    Religious rituals that are painful or highly stressful are hypothesized to be costly signs of commitment essential for the evolution of complex society. Yet few studies have investigated how such extreme ritual practices were culturally transmitted in past societies. Here, we report the first study to analyze temporal and spatial variation in bloodletting rituals recorded in Classic Maya (ca. 250–900 CE) hieroglyphic texts. We also identify the sociopolitical contexts most closely associated with these ancient recorded rituals. Sampling an extensive record of 2,480 hieroglyphic texts, this study identifies every recorded instance of the logographic sign for the word ch’ahb’ that is associated with ritual bloodletting. We show that documented rituals exhibit low frequency whose occurrence cannot be predicted by spatial location. Conversely, network ties better capture the distribution of bloodletting rituals across the southern Maya region. Our results indicate that bloodletting rituals by Maya nobles were not uniformly recorded, but were typically documented in association with antagonistic statements and may have signaled royal commitments among connected polities. PMID:25254359

  7. Classic Maya bloodletting and the cultural evolution of religious rituals: quantifying patterns of variation in hieroglyphic texts.

    PubMed

    Munson, Jessica; Amati, Viviana; Collard, Mark; Macri, Martha J

    2014-01-01

    Religious rituals that are painful or highly stressful are hypothesized to be costly signs of commitment essential for the evolution of complex society. Yet few studies have investigated how such extreme ritual practices were culturally transmitted in past societies. Here, we report the first study to analyze temporal and spatial variation in bloodletting rituals recorded in Classic Maya (ca. 250-900 CE) hieroglyphic texts. We also identify the sociopolitical contexts most closely associated with these ancient recorded rituals. Sampling an extensive record of 2,480 hieroglyphic texts, this study identifies every recorded instance of the logographic sign for the word ch'ahb' that is associated with ritual bloodletting. We show that documented rituals exhibit low frequency whose occurrence cannot be predicted by spatial location. Conversely, network ties better capture the distribution of bloodletting rituals across the southern Maya region. Our results indicate that bloodletting rituals by Maya nobles were not uniformly recorded, but were typically documented in association with antagonistic statements and may have signaled royal commitments among connected polities. PMID:25254359

  8. Whole-genome and multisector exome sequencing of primary and post-treatment glioblastoma reveals patterns of tumor evolution

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hoon; Zheng, Siyuan; Amini, Seyed S.; Virk, Selene M.; Mikkelsen, Tom; Brat, Daniel J.; Grimsby, Jonna; Sougnez, Carrie; Muller, Florian; Hu, Jian; Sloan, Andrew E.; Cohen, Mark L.; Van Meir, Erwin G.; Scarpace, Lisa; Laird, Peter W.; Weinstein, John N.; Lander, Eric S.; Gabriel, Stacey; Getz, Gad; Meyerson, Matthew; Chin, Lynda; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill S.

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is a prototypical heterogeneous brain tumor refractory to conventional therapy. A small residual population of cells escapes surgery and chemoradiation, resulting in a typically fatal tumor recurrence ∼7 mo after diagnosis. Understanding the molecular architecture of this residual population is critical for the development of successful therapies. We used whole-genome sequencing and whole-exome sequencing of multiple sectors from primary and paired recurrent GBM tumors to reconstruct the genomic profile of residual, therapy resistant tumor initiating cells. We found that genetic alteration of the p53 pathway is a primary molecular event predictive of a high number of subclonal mutations in glioblastoma. The genomic road leading to recurrence is highly idiosyncratic but can be broadly classified into linear recurrences that share extensive genetic similarity with the primary tumor and can be directly traced to one of its specific sectors, and divergent recurrences that share few genetic alterations with the primary tumor and originate from cells that branched off early during tumorigenesis. Our study provides mechanistic insights into how genetic alterations in primary tumors impact the ensuing evolution of tumor cells and the emergence of subclonal heterogeneity. PMID:25650244

  9. Holocene Evolution of Precipitation Patterns in the Southwestern US, Mexico, Central America, and Caribbean: Comparison with Tropical SST Records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barron, J. A.; Metcalfe, S. E.; Davies, S. J.

    2014-12-01

    We evaluate proxy reconstructions of Holocene records precipitation in the North American Monsoon region (SW US and northern Mexico) and regions to the south (southern Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean). Seventy-seven precipitation records are tabulated at 2-3 kyr increments for the past 12 kyr, with results displayed mainly on maps. Sites currently dominated by summer precipitation, coupled with proxy records that distinguish summer vs. winter vegetation are used to estimate summer precipitation. Resulting patterns of precipitation variability are evaluated against SST reconstructions from surrounding tropical seas -eastern tropical Pacific, Gulf of California (GoC), Caribbean, and Gulf of Mexico (GoM), which are source areas for summer precipitation. During the Younger Dryas, ca. 12 ka, widespread drying in southern regions contrasted with evidence for wetter conditions in multiple records from the SW US. By 9 ka wetter conditions had spread to the southern regions, likely reflecting an increased Caribbean low-level jet associated with an enhanced Bermuda High. Pacific westerlies contributed significant winter precipitation to the southwestern US and northernmost Mexico at 9 ka. The modern geographical pattern of summer precipitation was established by 6 ka, as the Bermuda High moved northward following the demise of the Laurentide Ice Sheet. SSTs in the GoC and GoM increased, and the NAM strengthened. Increased regional precipitation differences are apparent by 4 ka, likely reflecting enhanced ENSO variability. Most of the southern region experienced increased precipitation during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA), whereas winter drought dominated in the north. In contrast, much of the Little Ice Age (LIA) was characterized by generally drier conditions in Central America and Mexico, with wetter conditions in the SW US. Results are broadly supportive of enhanced La Niña-like conditions during the MCA vs. increased ENSO variability during the LIA.

  10. Vaccination against rubella: Analysis of the temporal evolution of the age-dependent force of infection and the effects of different contact patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaku, M.; Coutinho, F. A.; Azevedo, R. S.; Burattini, M. N.; Lopez, L. F.; Massad, E.

    2003-05-01

    In this paper, we analyze the temporal evolution of the age-dependent force of infection and incidence of rubella, after the introduction of a very specific vaccination program in a previously nonvaccinated population where rubella was in endemic steady state. We deduce an integral equation for the age-dependent force of infection, which depends on a number of parameters that can be estimated from the force of infection in a steady state prior to the vaccination program. We present the results of our simulations, which are compared with observed data. We also examine the influence of contact patterns among members of a community on the age-dependent intensity of transmission of rubella and on the results of vaccination strategies. As an example of the theory proposed, we calculate the effects of vaccination strategies for four communities from Caieiras (Brazil), Huixquilucan (Mexico), Finland, and the United Kingdom. The results for each community differ considerably according to the distinct intensity and pattern of transmission in the absence of vaccination. We conclude that this simple vaccination program is not very efficient (very slow) in the goal of eradicating the disease. This gives support to a mixed strategy, proposed by Massad et al., accepted and implemented by the government of the State of São Paulo, Brazil.

  11. Evolution of the Colorado River: Culmination of a Major Cenozoic Transformation of SW North American Drainage Patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grove, M.; Kimbrough, D. L.

    2008-12-01

    The modern Colorado River is a large, youthful, unequilibrated continental drainage system that was established abruptly between 5 and 6 million years ago in conjunction with Gulf of California rifting and establishment of the modern river course through the western Grand Canyon and lower Colorado river region. New detrital zircon U-Pb analyses provide insight into details relating to the cause, timing and consequences of river inception. These samples encompass (1) the modern Colorado River delta, (2) major tributaries including the Green, "Grand", San Juan, Little Colorado and Gila rivers (3) late Miocene to Pliocene sediments along the lower Colorado (4) late Miocene to Pleistocene deltaic and fluvial sediments of the Imperial and Palm Spring Groups in the western Salton Trough, and (5) late Miocene- early Pliocene Bidahochi Formation of eastern Arizona. Data from the western Salton Trough and modern delta yield strata yield remarkably homogeneous age distributions that indicate there was little evolution in Colorado River sediment composition since 5.3 Ma. Detrital zircon is dominated by a mix of local southwest US cratonal basement (1.7 and 1.4 Ga) plus reworked supracrustal sequences of the Colorado Plateau that provide Neoproterozoic, 1.1 Ga, and early Paleozoic zircons. The strong homogeneity of the detrital zircon record from late Miocene to the present combined with the fact that the most easterly tributaries most strongly resemble the delta is consistent with the 'lake spillover model' for inception and integration of the modern Colorado River drainage. Abrupt integration of the lower Colorado River after 5.6 Ma is clearly recorded by detrital zircon ages from the laucustrine Bouse Formation and Bullhead alluvium aggradational package. Fluvial-laucustrine deposits of the Bidahochi Formation may represent a lake that overtopped the Kaibab upwarp to initiate western Grand Canyon incision.

  12. An Amphioxus Gli Gene Reveals Conservation of Midline Patterning and the Evolution of Hedgehog Signalling Diversity in Chordates

    PubMed Central

    Shimeld, Sebastian M.; van den Heuvel, Marcel; Dawber, Rebecca; Briscoe, James

    2007-01-01

    Background Hedgehog signalling, interpreted in receiving cells by Gli transcription factors, plays a central role in the development of vertebrate and Drosophila embryos. Many aspects of the signalling pathway are conserved between these lineages, however vertebrates have diverged in at least one key aspect: they have evolved multiple Gli genes encoding functionally-distinct proteins, increasing the complexity of the hedgehog-dependent transcriptional response. Amphioxus is one of the closest living relatives of the vertebrates, having split from the vertebrate lineage prior to the widespread gene duplication prominent in early vertebrate evolution. Principal Findings We show that amphioxus has a single Gli gene, which is deployed in tissues adjacent to sources of hedgehog signalling derived from the midline and anterior endoderm. This shows the duplication and divergence of the Gli gene family, and hence the origin of vertebrate Gli functional diversity, was specific to the vertebrate lineage. However we also show that the single amphioxus Gli gene produces two distinct transcripts encoding different proteins. We utilise three tests of Gli function to examine the transcription regulatory capacities of these different proteins, demonstrating one has activating activity similar to Gli2, while the other acts as a weak repressor, similar to Gli3. Conclusions These data show that vertebrates and amphioxus have evolved functionally-similar repertoires of Gli proteins using parallel molecular routes; vertebrates via gene duplication and divergence, and amphioxus via alternate splicing of a single gene. Our results demonstrate that similar functional complexity of intercellular signalling can be achieved via different evolutionary pathways. PMID:17848995

  13. Continuous 1.3-million-year record of East African hydroclimate, and implications for patterns of evolution and biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Robert P; Scholz, Christopher A; Cohen, Andrew S; King, John W; Brown, Erik T; Ivory, Sarah J; Johnson, Thomas C; Deino, Alan L; Reinthal, Peter N; McGlue, Michael M; Blome, Margaret W

    2015-12-22

    The transport of moisture in the tropics is a critical process for the global energy budget and on geologic timescales, has markedly influenced continental landscapes, migratory pathways, and biological evolution. Here we present a continuous, first-of-its-kind 1.3-My record of continental hydroclimate and lake-level variability derived from drill core data from Lake Malawi, East Africa (9-15° S). Over the Quaternary, we observe dramatic shifts in effective moisture, resulting in large-scale changes in one of the world's largest lakes and most diverse freshwater ecosystems. Results show evidence for 24 lake level drops of more than 200 m during the Late Quaternary, including 15 lowstands when water levels were more than 400 m lower than modern. A dramatic shift is observed at the Mid-Pleistocene Transition (MPT), consistent with far-field climate forcing, which separates vastly different hydroclimate regimes before and after ∼800,000 years ago. Before 800 ka, lake levels were lower, indicating a climate drier than today, and water levels changed frequently. Following the MPT high-amplitude lake level variations dominate the record. From 800 to 100 ka, a deep, often overfilled lake occupied the basin, indicating a wetter climate, but these highstands were interrupted by prolonged intervals of extreme drought. Periods of high lake level are observed during times of high eccentricity. The extreme hydroclimate variability exerted a profound influence on the Lake Malawi endemic cichlid fish species flock; the geographically extensive habitat reconfiguration provided novel ecological opportunities, enabling new populations to differentiate rapidly to distinct species. PMID:26644580

  14. Continuous 1.3-million-year record of East African hydroclimate, and implications for patterns of evolution and biodiversity

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, Robert P.; Scholz, Christopher A.; Cohen, Andrew S.; King, John W.; Brown, Erik T.; Ivory, Sarah J.; Johnson, Thomas C.; Deino, Alan L.; Reinthal, Peter N.; McGlue, Michael M.; Blome, Margaret W.

    2015-01-01

    The transport of moisture in the tropics is a critical process for the global energy budget and on geologic timescales, has markedly influenced continental landscapes, migratory pathways, and biological evolution. Here we present a continuous, first-of-its-kind 1.3-My record of continental hydroclimate and lake-level variability derived from drill core data from Lake Malawi, East Africa (9–15° S). Over the Quaternary, we observe dramatic shifts in effective moisture, resulting in large-scale changes in one of the world’s largest lakes and most diverse freshwater ecosystems. Results show evidence for 24 lake level drops of more than 200 m during the Late Quaternary, including 15 lowstands when water levels were more than 400 m lower than modern. A dramatic shift is observed at the Mid-Pleistocene Transition (MPT), consistent with far-field climate forcing, which separates vastly different hydroclimate regimes before and after ∼800,000 years ago. Before 800 ka, lake levels were lower, indicating a climate drier than today, and water levels changed frequently. Following the MPT high-amplitude lake level variations dominate the record. From 800 to 100 ka, a deep, often overfilled lake occupied the basin, indicating a wetter climate, but these highstands were interrupted by prolonged intervals of extreme drought. Periods of high lake level are observed during times of high eccentricity. The extreme hydroclimate variability exerted a profound influence on the Lake Malawi endemic cichlid fish species flock; the geographically extensive habitat reconfiguration provided novel ecological opportunities, enabling new populations to differentiate rapidly to distinct species. PMID:26644580

  15. Continuous 1.3-million-year record of East African hydroclimate, and implications for patterns of evolution and biodiversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyons, Robert P.; Scholz, Christopher A.; Cohen, Andrew S.; King, John W.; Brown, Erik T.; Ivory, Sarah J.; Johnson, Thomas C.; Deino, Alan L.; Reinthal, Peter N.; McGlue, Michael M.; Blome, Margaret W.

    2015-12-01

    The transport of moisture in the tropics is a critical process for the global energy budget and on geologic timescales, has markedly influenced continental landscapes, migratory pathways, and biological evolution. Here we present a continuous, first-of-its-kind 1.3-My record of continental hydroclimate and lake-level variability derived from drill core data from Lake Malawi, East Africa (9-15° S). Over the Quaternary, we observe dramatic shifts in effective moisture, resulting in large-scale changes in one of the world's largest lakes and most diverse freshwater ecosystems. Results show evidence for 24 lake level drops of more than 200 m during the Late Quaternary, including 15 lowstands when water levels were more than 400 m lower than modern. A dramatic shift is observed at the Mid-Pleistocene Transition (MPT), consistent with far-field climate forcing, which separates vastly different hydroclimate regimes before and after ∼800,000 years ago. Before 800 ka, lake levels were lower, indicating a climate drier than today, and water levels changed frequently. Following the MPT high-amplitude lake level variations dominate the record. From 800 to 100 ka, a deep, often overfilled lake occupied the basin, indicating a wetter climate, but these highstands were interrupted by prolonged intervals of extreme drought. Periods of high lake level are observed during times of high eccentricity. The extreme hydroclimate variability exerted a profound influence on the Lake Malawi endemic cichlid fish species flock; the geographically extensive habitat reconfiguration provided novel ecological opportunities, enabling new populations to differentiate rapidly to distinct species.

  16. Soil evolution dynamics and cultural response: Transformation of habitation patterns in the southern Netherlands (1000 BC-500 AD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roymans, Nico; Kluiving, Sjoerd; Bekkema, Marijke; van Puijenbroek, Florens

    2013-04-01

    Long-term archaeological data gathering in the southern Netherlands may deliver an interesting scale model that is suitable for the Pleistocene sand areas of the Northwest European Plain. On a micro-scale level it has become clear that Bronze Age and Iron Age farmers intensively used the landscape, resulting in relatively dense distribution patterns of settlements all over the sand plateaus. However, this agricultural use of the landscape - related to the 'celtic field' system - led to a process of soil degeneration during which initially brown moder podzols gradually transformed into degenerated humus podzols that could no longer be used as farmland. According to established 'models', this process of 'secondary podzolisation' particularly affected those sections of the landscape that were dominated by dry sandy soils with a low loam content (between c. 10 and 20%). In the later Iron Age the changing soil conditions resulted in a dramatic shift in the habitation pattern that clearly manifests itself in the Roman period; on the local scale the habitation moved from the degenerated soils to nearby zones with better soil conditions (higher loam content), which became more densely inhabited now than in the Bronze Age/Early Iron Age. The zones where the Roman period settlements concentrated became also the zones where we can find the early medieval habitation and where in the late medieval period the plaggen soils started to develop. Measured loam values of soil samples (n=181) in Veldhoven, southern Netherlands, are in agreement with the described model that the plaggen cover is located on soils containing high loam% and that humus podzolsoils of former heath areas have low loam content. Local spatial as well as vertical variations in loam content of sand layers is shown to occur, warning against single parameter research. Other potential causes for the deviation of the model are: a) the impact of fluctuating groundwater levels, b) impact of older formations with

  17. ChromEvol: assessing the pattern of chromosome number evolution and the inference of polyploidy along a phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Glick, Lior; Mayrose, Itay

    2014-07-01

    We announce the release of chromEvol version 2.0, a software tool for inferring the pattern of chromosome number change along a phylogeny. The software facilitates the inference of the expected number of polyploidy and dysploidy transitions along each branch of a phylogeny and estimates ancestral chromosome numbers at internal nodes. The new version features a novel extension of the model accounting for general multiplication events, other than doubling of the number of chromosomes. This allows the monoploid number (commonly referred to as x, or the base-number) of a group of interest to be inferred in a statistical framework. In addition, we devise an inference scheme, which allows explicit categorization of each terminal taxon as either diploid or polyploid. The new version also supports intraspecific variation in chromosome number and allows hypothesis testing regarding the root chromosome number. The software, alongside a detailed usage manual, is available at http://www.tau.ac.il/∼itaymay/cp/chromEvol/. PMID:24710517

  18. Evolution of Density of States and a Spin-Resolved Checkerboard-Type Pattern Associated with the Majorana Bound State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawakami, Takuto; Hu, Xiao

    2015-10-01

    In terms of the Bogoliubov-de Gennes approach, we investigate the Majorana bound state (MBS) in a vortex of proximity-induced superconductivity on the surface of a topological insulator. Mapping out the local density of states (LDOS) of quasiparticle excitations as a function of energy and distance from the vortex center, it is found that the spectral distribution evolves from a V shape to a Y shape with the emergence of a MBS upon variation of the chemical potential, consistent with the STM/STS measurement in a very recent experiment [Xu et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 017001 (2015)] on a Bi2Te3 thin layer on the top of NbSe2 . Moreover, we demonstrate that there is a checkerboard-type pattern in the relative LDOS between the spin-up and -down channels, where the quantum mechanical wave function of the MBS manifests itself clearly as a single quantum state. Therefore, a spin-resolved STM/STS technique is expected to be able to provide phase-sensitive evidence for a MBS in the vortex core of a topological superconductor.

  19. Deformation-induced speckle-pattern evolution and feasibility of correlational speckle tracking in optical coherence elastography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaitsev, Vladimir Y.; Matveyev, Alexandr L.; Matveev, Lev A.; Gelikonov, Grigory V.; Gelikonov, Valentin M.; Vitkin, Alex

    2015-07-01

    Feasibility of speckle tracking in optical coherence tomography (OCT) based on digital image correlation (DIC) is discussed in the context of elastography problems. Specifics of applying DIC methods to OCT, compared to processing of photographic images in mechanical engineering applications, are emphasized and main complications are pointed out. Analytical arguments are augmented by accurate numerical simulations of OCT speckle patterns. In contrast to DIC processing for displacement and strain estimation in photographic images, the accuracy of correlational speckle tracking in deformed OCT images is strongly affected by the coherent nature of speckles, for which strain-induced complications of speckle "blinking" and "boiling" are typical. The tracking accuracy is further compromised by the usually more pronounced pixelated structure of OCT scans compared with digital photographic images in classical DIC applications. Processing of complex-valued OCT data (comprising both amplitude and phase) compared to intensity-only scans mitigates these deleterious effects to some degree. Criteria of the attainable speckle tracking accuracy and its dependence on the key OCT system parameters are established.

  20. Soil evolution dynamics and cultural response: Transformation of habitation patterns in NW Europe (3000-1000 yrs BP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kluiving, Sjoerd; Roymans, Nico; Bekkema, Marijke

    2014-05-01

    Long-term archaeological data gathering in the southern Netherlands delivers an interesting scale model that may be tested on the Pleistocene sand areas of the Northwest European Plain. On a micro-scale level it has become clear that Bronze Age and Iron Age farmers intensively used the landscape, resulting in relatively dense distribution patterns of settlements all over the sand plateaus. However, this agricultural use of the landscape - related to the 'celtic field' system - led to a process of soil degeneration during which initially brown moder podzols gradually transformed into degenerated humus podzols that could no longer be used as farmland. Measured loam values of over 250 soil samples of 5 case studies in the southern Netherlands, are in general agreement with the described model that the plaggen cover is located on soils containing high loam% and that humus podzolsoils of former heath areas have low loam content. Local spatial as well as vertical variations in loam content of sand layers are warning against single parameter research. Other potential causes for the deviation of the model are: a) impact of fluctuating groundwater, b) grain size and transmissivity of the sediments, c) organic matter content, d) land management and e) palaeo-climate change. Also studies from nearby NW European Pleistocene sand areas will be presented that show deviations and similarities with the shifting habitation model in the past due to soil degradation.

  1. Evolution of akirin family in gene and genome levels and coexpressed patterns among family members and rel gene in croaker.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tianxing; Gao, Yunhang; Xu, Tianjun

    2015-09-01

    Akirins, which are highly conserved nuclear proteins, are present throughout the metazoan and regulate innate immunity, embryogenesis, myogenesis, and carcinogenesis. This study reports all akirin genes from miiuy croaker and analyzes comprehensively the akirin gene family combined with akirin genes from other species. A second nuclear localization signal (NLS) is observed in akirin2 homologues, which is not in akirin1 homologues in all teleosts and most other vertebrates. Thus, we deduced that the loss of second NLS in akirin1 homologues in teleosts likely occurred in an ancestor to all Osteichthyes after splitting with cartilaginous fish. Significantly, the akirin2(2) gene included six exons interrupted by five introns in the miiuy croaker, which may be caused by the intron insertion event as a novel evidence for the variation of akirin gene structure in some species. In addition, comparison of the genomic neighborhood genes of akirin1, akirin2(1), and akirin2(2) demonstrates a strong level of conserved synteny across the teleost classes, which further proved the deduction of Macqueen and Johnston 2009 that the produce of akirin paralogues can be attributed to whole-genome duplications and the loss of some akirin paralogues after genome duplications. Furthermore, akirin gene family members and relish gene are ubiquitously expressed across all tissues, and their expression levels are increased in three immune tissues after infection with Vibrio anguillarum. Combined with the expression patterns of LEAP-1 and LEAP-2 from miiuy croaker, an intricate network of co-regulation among family members is established. Thus, it is further proved that akirins acted in concert with the relish protein to induce the expression of a subset of downstream pathway elements in the NF-kB dependent signaling pathway. PMID:25912355

  2. Evolution of Antp-class genes and differential expression of Hydra Hox/paraHox genes in anterior patterning

    PubMed Central

    Gauchat, Dominique; Mazet, Françoise; Berney, Cédric; Schummer, Michèl; Kreger, Sylvia; Pawlowski, Jan; Galliot, Brigitte

    2000-01-01

    The conservation of developmental functions exerted by Antp-class homeoproteins in protostomes and deuterostomes suggested that homologs with related functions are present in diploblastic animals. Our phylogenetic analyses showed that Antp-class homeodomains belong either to non-Hox or to Hox/paraHox families. Among the 13 non-Hox families, 9 have diploblastic homologs, Msx, Emx, Barx, Evx, Tlx, NK-2, and Prh/Hex, Not, and Dlx, reported here. Among the Hox/paraHox, poriferan sequences were not found, and the cnidarian sequences formed at least five distinct cnox families. Two are significantly related to the paraHox Gsx (cnox-2) and the mox (cnox-5) sequences, whereas three display some relatedness to the Hox paralog groups 1 (cnox-1), 9/10 (cnox-3) and the paraHox cdx (cnox-4). Intermediate Hox/paraHox genes (PG 3 to 8 and lox) did not have clear cnidarian counterparts. In Hydra, cnox-1, cnox-2, and cnox-3 were not found chromosomally linked within a 150-kb range and displayed specific expression patterns in the adult head. During regeneration, cnox-1 was expressed as an early gene whatever the polarity, whereas cnox-2 was up-regulated later during head but not foot regeneration. Finally, cnox-3 expression was reestablished in the adult head once it was fully formed. These results suggest that the Hydra genes related to anterior Hox/paraHox genes are involved at different stages of apical differentiation. However, the positional information defining the oral/aboral axis in Hydra cannot be correlated strictly to that characterizing the anterior–posterior axis in vertebrates or arthropods. PMID:10781050

  3. To move or to evolve: contrasting patterns of intercontinental connectivity and climatic niche evolution in "Terebinthaceae" (Anacardiaceae and Burseraceae).

    PubMed

    Weeks, Andrea; Zapata, Felipe; Pell, Susan K; Daly, Douglas C; Mitchell, John D; Fine, Paul V A

    2014-01-01

    Many angiosperm families are distributed pantropically, yet for any given continent little is known about which lineages are ancient residents or recent arrivals. Here we use a comprehensive sampling of the pantropical sister pair Anacardiaceae and Burseraceae to assess the relative importance of continental vicariance, long-distance dispersal and niche-conservatism in generating its distinctive pattern of diversity over time. Each family has approximately the same number of species and identical stem age, yet Anacardiaceae display a broader range of fruit morphologies and dispersal strategies and include species that can withstand freezing temperatures, whereas Burseraceae do not. We found that nuclear and chloroplast data yielded a highly supported phylogenetic reconstruction that supports current taxonomic concepts and time-calibrated biogeographic reconstructions that are broadly congruent with the fossil record. We conclude that the most recent common ancestor of these families was widespread and likely distributed in the Northern Hemisphere during the Cretaceous and that vicariance between Eastern and Western Hemispheres coincided with the initial divergence of the families. The tempo of diversification of the families is strikingly different. Anacardiaceae steadily accumulated lineages starting in the Late Cretaceous-Paleocene while the majority of Burseraceae diversification occurred in the Miocene. Multiple dispersal- and vicariance-based intercontinental colonization events are inferred for both families throughout the past 100 million years. However, Anacardiaceae have shifted climatic niches frequently during this time, while Burseraceae have experienced very few shifts between dry and wet climates and only in the tropics. Thus, we conclude that both Anacardiaceae and Burseraceae move easily but that Anacardiaceae have adapted more often, either due to more varied selective pressures or greater intrinsic lability. PMID:25506354

  4. Regional diversity patterns in African bovids, hyaenids, and felids during the past 3 million years: the role of taphonomic bias and implications for the evolution of Paranthropus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patterson, David B.; Faith, J. Tyler; Bobe, René; Wood, Bernard

    2014-07-01

    Reconstructing patterns of Plio-Pleistocene mammalian faunal exchange between eastern and southern Africa may help us to better understand patterns of evolution within the hominin clade. However, differences in geological context, taphonomic history and collection methods, as well as a lack of a precise chronology in one of the regions, complicate attempts to compare the faunas of the two regions, but access to new comprehensive datasets encouraged us to re-examine this critical time period in the African paleontological record. In this study, we examine the biogeographic histories of three terrestrial African mammalian families whose fossil records span the past 3 million years to test hypotheses related to the evolutionary history of the hominin genus Paranthropus. We used presence/absence data for 117 species from 38 genera within the family Bovidae and 34 species from 15 genera within the families Hyaenidae and Felidae from 52 eastern African and 40 southern African fossil localities. These assemblages were placed into 500 ka time slices and compared at both the genus and species level using the Jaccard index of faunal similarity. Our findings indicate that sampling biases have more effect on the patterns of interchange between eastern and southern African Bovidae than they do the patterns of interchange seen in the Hyaenidae and Felidae. However, even when these biases are taken into account there are persistent differences in the degree of interchange within and between these families. These findings suggest that mammalian groups (including hominins) can have very different histories of exchange between eastern and southern Africa over the past 3 million years. There is no a priori reason why any of the three families we examined is a suitable proxy for the eastern and southern African hyper-megadont and megadont hominin taxa presently included in Paranthropus, but of the three we suggest that the Bovidae is likely to come closest to being an appropriate

  5. Genes encoding the alpha-carboxyltransferase subunit of acetyl-CoA carboxylase from Brassica napus and parental species: cloning, expression patterns, and evolution.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhi-Guo; Yin, Wei-Bo; Guo, Huan; Song, Li-Ying; Chen, Yu-Hong; Guan, Rong-Zhan; Wang, Jing-Qiao; Wang, Richard R-C; Hu, Zan-Min

    2010-05-01

    Heteromeric acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase (ACCase), a rate-limiting enzyme in fatty acid biosynthesis in dicots, is a multi-enzyme complex consisting of biotin carboxylase, biotin carboxyl carrier protein, and carboxyltransferase (alpha-CT and beta-CT). In the present study, four genes encoding alpha-CT were cloned from Brassica napus, and two were cloned from each of the two parental species, B. rapa and B. oleracea. Comparative and cluster analyses indicated that these genes were divided into two major groups. The major divergence between group-1 and group-2 occurred in the second intron. Group-2 alpha-CT genes represented the ancestral form in the genus Brassica. The divergence of group-1 and group-2 genes occurred in their common ancestor 12.96-17.78 million years ago (MYA), soon after the divergence of Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica (15-20 MYA). This time of divergence is identical to that reported for the paralogous subgenomes of diploid Brassica species (13-17 MYA). Real-time reverse transcription PCR revealed that the expression patterns of the two groups of genes were similar in different organs, except in leaves. To better understand the regulation and evolution of alpha-CT genes, promoter regions from two sets of orthologous gene copies from B. napus, B. rapa, and B. oleracea were cloned and compared. The function of the promoter of gene Bnalpha-CT-1-1 in group-1 and gene Bnalpha-CT-2-1 in group-2 was examined by assaying beta-glucuronidase activity in transgenic A. thaliana. Our results will be helpful in elucidating the evolution and regulation of ACCase in oilseed rape. PMID:20616867

  6. Probing S-state advancements and recombination pathways in photosystem II with a global fit program for flash-induced oxygen evolution pattern.

    PubMed

    Pham, Long Vo; Messinger, Johannes

    2016-06-01

    The oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) in photosystem II catalyzes the oxidation of water to molecular oxygen. Four decades ago, measurements of flash-induced oxygen evolution have shown that the OEC steps through oxidation states S(0), S(1), S(2), S(3) and S(4) before O(2) is released and the S(0) state is reformed. The light-induced transitions between these states involve misses and double hits. While it is widely accepted that the miss parameter is S state dependent and may be further modulated by the oxidation state of the acceptor side, the traditional way of analyzing each flash-induced oxygen evolution pattern (FIOP) individually did not allow using enough free parameters to thoroughly test this proposal. Furthermore, this approach does not allow assessing whether the presently known recombination processes in photosystem II fully explain all measured oxygen yields during Si state lifetime measurements. Here we present a global fit program that simultaneously fits all flash-induced oxygen yields of a standard FIOP (2 Hz flash frequency) and of 11-18 FIOPs each obtained while probing the S(0), S(2) and S(3) state lifetimes in spinach thylakoids at neutral pH. This comprehensive data treatment demonstrates the presence of a very slow phase of S(2) decay, in addition to the commonly discussed fast and slow reduction of S(2) by YD and QB(-), respectively. Our data support previous suggestions that the S(0)→S(1) and S(1)→S(2) transitions involve low or no misses, while high misses occur in the S(2)→S(3) or S(3)→S(0) transitions. PMID:27033305

  7. Solar radiation signature manifested on the spatial patterns of modeled soil moisture, vegetation, and topography using an ecohydro-geomorphic landscape evolution model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yetemen, O.; Flores Cervantes, J. H.; Istanbulluoglu, E.; Vivoni, E. R.

    2013-12-01

    The role of solar radiation on ecohydrologic fluxes, vegetation dynamics, species composition, and landscape morphology have long been documented in field studies. However a numerical model framework to integrate a range of ecohydrologic and geomorphic processes to explore the integrated ecohydro-geomorphic landscape response have been missing. In this study, our aim is to realistically represent flood generation and solar-radiation-driven echydrologic dynamics in a landscape evolution model (LEM) to investigate how ecohydrologic differences caused by differential irradiance on opposing hillslopes manifest themselves on the organization of modeled topography, soil moisture and plant biomass. We use the CHILD LEM equipped with a spatially-distributed solar-radiation component, leading to spatial patterns of soil moisture; a vegetation dynamics component that explicitly tracks above- and below-ground biomass; and a runoff component that allows for runoff-runon processes along the landscape flow paths. Ecohydrological component has been verified using a detailed data gathered from Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge in central New Mexico, and Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed in southern Arizona. LEM scenarios were designed to compare the outcomes of spatially distributed versus spatially uniform solar radiation forced with a constant climate and variable uplift. Modeled spatial patterns of soil moisture confirm empirical observations at the landscape scale and other hydrologic modeling studies. The spatial variability in soil moisture is controlled by aspect prior to the wet season (North American Monsoon, NAM), and by the hydraulic connectivity of the flow network during NAM. Aspect and network connectivity signatures are also manifested on plant biomass with typically denser vegetation cover on north-facing slopes than south facing slopes. Over the long-term, CHILD gives slightly steeper and less dissected north-facing slopes more dissected south facing slopes and

  8. Colorful patterns indicate common ancestry in diverged tiger beetle taxa: Molecular phylogeny, biogeography, and evolution of elytral coloration of the genus Cicindela subgenus Sophiodela and its allies.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Kaoru; Hori, Michio; Phyu, Moe Hnin; Liang, Hongbin; Sota, Teiji

    2016-02-01

    We investigated the phylogenetic relationships among tiger beetles of the subtribe Cicindelina (=Cicindela s. lat.; Coleoptera: Cicindelidae) mainly from the Oriental and Sino-Japanese zoogeographic regions using one mitochondrial and three nuclear gene sequences to examine the position of the subgenus Sophiodela, currently classified in the genus Cicindela s. str., their biogeography, and the evolution of their brilliant coloration. The subgenus Sophiodela was not related to the other subgenera of Cicindela s. str. but was closely related to the genus Cosmodela. In addition, the Oriental genus Calochroa was polyphyletic with three lineages, one of which was closely related to Sophiodela and Cosmodela. The clade comprising Sophiodela, Cosmodela and two Calochroa species, referred to here as the Sophiodela group, was strongly supported, and most species in this clade had similar brilliant coloration. The Sophiodela group was related to the genera Calomera, Cicindela (excluding Sophiodela) and Cicindelidia, and these were related to Lophyra, Hipparidium and Calochroa, except species in the Sophiodela group. Divergence time estimation suggested that these worldwide Cicindelina groups diverged in the early Oligocene, and the Sophiodela group, which is found in the Oriental and Sino-Japanese zoogeographic regions, in the mid Miocene. Some components of the elytral pattern related to maculation and coloration in the Cicindelina taxa studied contained weak, but significant, phylogenetic signals and were partly associated with habitat types. Therefore, the brilliant coloration of the Sophiodela was related to both phylogeny and habitat adaptation, although the function of coloration needs to be studied. PMID:26578441

  9. The role of background selection in shaping patterns of molecular evolution and variation: evidence from variability on the Drosophila X chromosome.

    PubMed

    Charlesworth, Brian

    2012-05-01

    In the putatively ancestral population of Drosophila melanogaster, the ratio of silent DNA sequence diversity for X-linked loci to that for autosomal loci is approximately one, instead of the expected "null" value of 3/4. One possible explanation is that background selection (the hitchhiking effect of deleterious mutations) is more effective on the autosomes than on the X chromosome, because of the lack of crossing over in male Drosophila. The expected effects of background selection on neutral variability at sites in the middle of an X chromosome or an autosomal arm were calculated for different models of chromosome organization and methods of approximation, using current estimates of the deleterious mutation rate and distributions of the fitness effects of deleterious mutations. The robustness of the results to different distributions of fitness effects, dominance coefficients, mutation rates, mapping functions, and chromosome size was investigated. The predicted ratio of X-linked to autosomal variability is relatively insensitive to these variables, except for the mutation rate and map length. Provided that the deleterious mutation rate per genome is sufficiently large, it seems likely that background selection can account for the observed X to autosome ratio of variability in the ancestral population of D. melanogaster. The fact that this ratio is much less than one in D. pseudoobscura is also consistent with the model's predictions, since this species has a high rate of crossing over. The results suggest that background selection may play a major role in shaping patterns of molecular evolution and variation. PMID:22377629

  10. A new species of bright-eyed treefrog (Mantellidae) from Madagascar, with comments on call evolution and patterns of syntopy in the Boophis ankaratra complex.

    PubMed

    Hutter, Carl R; Lambert, Shea M; Cobb, Kerry A; Andriampenomanana, Zo Faniry; Vences, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    We describe a new species of Boophis treefrog from Ranomafana National Park in the southern central east of Madagascar. This region has remarkably high anuran diversity, and along with neighbouring sites, hosts more than 35 Boophis species. Boophis boppa sp. nov. is part of the B. ankaratra sub-clade (herein named the B. ankaratra complex), previously identified within the monophyletic B. albipunctatus species group. It occurs sympatrically with two other species of the complex (B. ankaratra and B. schuboeae). Morphological differentiation of species within the B. ankaratra clade remains elusive, but species are well characterized by distinct advertisement calls, with B. boppa having the longest note duration and inter-note intervals when compared to closely related species. Furthermore, it has moderate differentiation in mitochondrial DNA, with pairwise distances of 1.9-3.7% to all other species in sequences of the mitochondrial 16S rRNA marker. Additional evidence is given by the lack of haplotype sharing with related species for the nuclear exon DNAH-3. All examples of syntopic occurrence in this complex involve species with strongly different advertisement calls, while allopatric species have more similar calls. Such a pattern might result from adaptive call co-evolution but could also be the result of non-adaptive processes. Thorough clarification of the systematics of the B. ankaratra sub-clade is required, and we outline future directions for both bioacoustic and genetic research. PMID:26624456

  11. The Role of Background Selection in Shaping Patterns of Molecular Evolution and Variation: Evidence from Variability on the Drosophila X Chromosome

    PubMed Central

    Charlesworth, Brian

    2012-01-01

    In the putatively ancestral population of Drosophila melanogaster, the ratio of silent DNA sequence diversity for X-linked loci to that for autosomal loci is approximately one, instead of the expected “null” value of 3/4. One possible explanation is that background selection (the hitchhiking effect of deleterious mutations) is more effective on the autosomes than on the X chromosome, because of the lack of crossing over in male Drosophila. The expected effects of background selection on neutral variability at sites in the middle of an X chromosome or an autosomal arm were calculated for different models of chromosome organization and methods of approximation, using current estimates of the deleterious mutation rate and distributions of the fitness effects of deleterious mutations. The robustness of the results to different distributions of fitness effects, dominance coefficients, mutation rates, mapping functions, and chromosome size was investigated. The predicted ratio of X-linked to autosomal variability is relatively insensitive to these variables, except for the mutation rate and map length. Provided that the deleterious mutation rate per genome is sufficiently large, it seems likely that background selection can account for the observed X to autosome ratio of variability in the ancestral population of D. melanogaster. The fact that this ratio is much less than one in D. pseudoobscura is also consistent with the model’s predictions, since this species has a high rate of crossing over. The results suggest that background selection may play a major role in shaping patterns of molecular evolution and variation. PMID:22377629

  12. Complete Mitochondrial DNA Sequences of the Threadfin Cichlid (Petrochromis trewavasae) and the Blunthead Cichlid (Tropheus moorii) and Patterns of Mitochondrial Genome Evolution in Cichlid Fishes

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Christoph; Koblmüller, Stephan; Gülly, Christian; Schlötterer, Christian; Sturmbauer, Christian; Thallinger, Gerhard G.

    2013-01-01

    The cichlid fishes of the East African Great Lakes represent a model especially suited to study adaptive radiation and speciation. With several African cichlid genome projects being in progress, a promising set of closely related genomes is emerging, which is expected to serve as a valuable data base to solve questions on genotype-phenotype relations. The mitochondrial (mt) genomes presented here are the first results of the assembly and annotation process for two closely related but eco-morphologically highly distinct Lake Tanganyika cichlids, Petrochromis trewavasae and Tropheus moorii. The genomic sequences comprise 16,588 bp (P. trewavasae) and 16,590 bp (T. moorii), and exhibit the typical mitochondrial structure, with 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes, and a non-coding control region. Analyses confirmed that the two species are very closely related with an overall sequence similarity of 96%. We analyzed the newly generated sequences in the phylogenetic context of 21 published labroid fish mitochondrial genomes. Consistent with other vertebrates, the D-loop region was found to evolve faster than protein-coding genes, which in turn are followed by the rRNAs; the tRNAs vary greatly in the rate of sequence evolution, but on average evolve the slowest. Within the group of coding genes, ND6 evolves most rapidly. Codon usage is similar among examined cichlid tribes and labroid families; although a slight shift in usage patterns down the gene tree could be observed. Despite having a clearly different nucleotide composition, ND6 showed a similar codon usage. C-terminal ends of Cox1 exhibit variations, where the varying number of amino acids is related to the structure of the obtained phylogenetic tree. This variation may be of functional relevance for Cox1 synthesis. PMID:23826193

  13. Different patterns of codon usage in the overlapping polymerase and surface genes of hepatitis B virus suggest a de novo origin by modular evolution.

    PubMed

    Pavesi, Angelo

    2015-12-01

    The polymerase (P) and surface (S) genes of hepatitis B virus (HBV) show the longest gene overlap in animal viruses. Gene overlaps originate by the overprinting of a novel frame onto an ancestral pre-existing frame. Identifying which frame is ancestral and which frame is de novo (the genealogy of the overlap) is an appealing topic. However, the P/S overlap of HBV is an intriguing paradox, because both genes are indispensable for virus survival. Thus, the hypothesis of a primordial virus without the surface protein or without the polymerase makes no biological sense. With the aim to determine the genealogy of the overlap, the codon usage of the overlapping frames P and S was compared to that of the non-overlapping region. It was found that the overlap of human HBV had two patterns of codon usage. One was localized in the 59 one-third of the overlap and the other in the 39 two-thirds. By extending the analysis to non-human HBVs, it was found that this feature occurred in all hepadnaviruses. Under the assumption that the ancestral frame has a codon usage significantly closer to that of the non-overlapping region than the de novo frame, the ancestral frames in the 59 and 39 region of the overlap could be predicted. They were, respectively, frame S and frame P. These results suggest that the spacer domain of the polymerase and the S domain of the surface protein originated de novo by overprinting. They support a modular evolution hypothesis for the origin of the overlap. PMID:26446206

  14. Chemical Evolution of Groundwater Near a Sinkhole Lake, Northern Florida: 2. Chemical Patterns, Mass Transfer Modeling, and Rates of Mass Transfer Reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katz, Brian G.; Plummer, L. Niel; Busenberg, Eurybiades; Revesz, Kinga M.; Jones, Blair F.; Lee, Terrie M.

    1995-06-01

    Chemical patterns along evolutionary groundwater flow paths in silicate and carbonate aquifers were interpreted using solute tracers, carbon and sulfur isotopes, and mass balance reaction modeling for a complex hydrologic system involving groundwater inflow to and outflow from a sinkhole lake in northern Florida. Rates of dominant reactions along defined flow paths were estimated from modeled mass transfer and ages obtained from CFC-modeled recharge dates. Groundwater upgradient from Lake Barco remains oxic as it moves downward, reacting with silicate minerals in a system open to carbon dioxide (CO2), producing only small increases in dissolved species. Beneath and downgradient of Lake Barco the oxic groundwater mixes with lake water leakage in a highly reducing, silicate-carbonate mineral environment. A mixing model, developed for anoxic groundwater downgradient from the lake, accounted for the observed chemical and isotopic composition by combining different proportions of lake water leakage and infiltrating meteoric water. The evolution of major ion chemistry and the 13C isotopic composition of dissolved carbon species in groundwater downgradient from the lake can be explained by the aerobic oxidation of organic matter in the lake, anaerobic microbial oxidation of organic carbon, and incongruent dissolution of smectite minerals to kaolinite. The dominant process for the generation of methane was by the CO2 reduction pathway based on the isotopic composition of hydrogen (δ2H(CH4) = -186 to -234‰) and carbon (δ13C(CH4) = -65.7 to -72.3‰). Rates of microbial metabolism of organic matter, estimated from the mass transfer reaction models, ranged from 0.0047 to 0.039 mmol L-1 yr-1 for groundwater downgradient from the lake.

  15. Phylogenomic insights into the cambrian explosion, the colonization of land and the evolution of flight in arthropoda.

    PubMed

    Wheat, Christopher W; Wahlberg, Niklas

    2013-01-01

    The timing of the origin of arthropods in relation to the Cambrian explosion is still controversial, as are the timing of other arthropod macroevolutionary events such as the colonization of land and the evolution of flight. Here we assess the power of a phylogenomic approach to shed light on these major events in the evolutionary history of life on earth. Analyzing a large phylogenomic dataset (122 taxa, 62 genes) with a Bayesian-relaxed molecular clock, we simultaneously reconstructed the phylogenetic relationships and the absolute times of divergences among the arthropods. Simulations were used to test whether our analysis could distinguish between alternative Cambrian explosion scenarios with increasing levels of autocorrelated rate variation. Our analyses support previous phylogenomic hypotheses and simulations indicate a Precambrian origin of the arthropods. Our results provide insights into the 3 independent colonizations of land by arthropods and suggest that evolution of insect wings happened much earlier than the fossil record indicates, with flight evolving during a period of increasing oxygen levels and impressively large forests. These and other findings provide a foundation for macroevolutionary and comparative genomic study of Arthropoda. PMID:22949483

  16. Repeated and Widespread Evolution of Bioluminescence in Marine Fishes.

    PubMed

    Davis, Matthew P; Sparks, John S; Smith, W Leo

    2016-01-01

    Bioluminescence is primarily a marine phenomenon with 80% of metazoan bioluminescent genera occurring in the world's oceans. Here we show that bioluminescence has evolved repeatedly and is phylogenetically widespread across ray-finned fishes. We recover 27 independent evolutionary events of bioluminescence, all among marine fish lineages. This finding indicates that bioluminescence has evolved many more times than previously hypothesized across fishes and the tree of life. Our exploration of the macroevolutionary patterns of bioluminescent lineages indicates that the present day diversity of some inshore and deep-sea bioluminescent fish lineages that use bioluminescence for communication, feeding, and reproduction exhibit exceptional species richness given clade age. We show that exceptional species richness occurs particularly in deep-sea fishes with intrinsic bioluminescent systems and both shallow water and deep-sea lineages with luminescent systems used for communication. PMID:27276229

  17. Repeated and Widespread Evolution of Bioluminescence in Marine Fishes

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Matthew P.; Sparks, John S.; Smith, W. Leo

    2016-01-01

    Bioluminescence is primarily a marine phenomenon with 80% of metazoan bioluminescent genera occurring in the world’s oceans. Here we show that bioluminescence has evolved repeatedly and is phylogenetically widespread across ray-finned fishes. We recover 27 independent evolutionary events of bioluminescence, all among marine fish lineages. This finding indicates that bioluminescence has evolved many more times than previously hypothesized across fishes and the tree of life. Our exploration of the macroevolutionary patterns of bioluminescent lineages indicates that the present day diversity of some inshore and deep-sea bioluminescent fish lineages that use bioluminescence for communication, feeding, and reproduction exhibit exceptional species richness given clade age. We show that exceptional species richness occurs particularly in deep-sea fishes with intrinsic bioluminescent systems and both shallow water and deep-sea lineages with luminescent systems used for communication. PMID:27276229

  18. Convergent evolution as natural experiment: the tape of life reconsidered.

    PubMed

    Powell, Russell; Mariscal, Carlos

    2015-12-01

    Stephen Jay Gould argued that replaying the 'tape of life' would result in radically different evolutionary outcomes. Recently, biologists and philosophers of science have paid increasing attention to the theoretical importance of convergent evolution-the independent origination of similar biological forms and functions-which many interpret as evidence against Gould's thesis. In this paper, we examine the evidentiary relevance of convergent evolution for the radical contingency debate. We show that under the right conditions, episodes of convergent evolution can constitute valid natural experiments that support inferences regarding the deep counterfactual stability of macroevolutionary outcomes. However, we argue that proponents of convergence have problematically lumped causally heterogeneous phenomena into a single evidentiary basket, in effect treating all convergent events as if they are of equivalent theoretical import. As a result, the 'critique from convergent evolution' fails to engage with key claims of the radical contingency thesis. To remedy this, we develop ways to break down the heterogeneous set of convergent events based on the nature of the generalizations they support. Adopting this more nuanced approach to convergent evolution allows us to differentiate iterated evolutionary outcomes that are probably common among alternative evolutionary histories and subject to law-like generalizations, from those that do little to undermine and may even support, the Gouldian view of life. PMID:26640647

  19. Evolution of increased phenotypic diversity enhances population performance by reducing sexual harassment in damselflies.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Yuma; Kagawa, Kotaro; Svensson, Erik I; Kawata, Masakado

    2014-01-01

    The effect of evolutionary changes in traits and phenotypic/genetic diversity on ecological dynamics has received much theoretical attention; however, the mechanisms and ecological consequences are usually unknown. Female-limited colour polymorphism in damselflies is a counter-adaptation to male mating harassment, and thus, is expected to alter population dynamics through relaxing sexual conflict. Here we show the side effect of the evolution of female morph diversity on population performance (for example, population productivity and sustainability) in damselflies. Our theoretical model incorporating key features of the sexual interaction predicts that the evolution of increased phenotypic diversity will reduce overall fitness costs to females from sexual conflict, which in turn will increase productivity, density and stability of a population. Field data and mesocosm experiments support these model predictions. Our study suggests that increased phenotypic diversity can enhance population performance that can potentially reduce extinction rates and thereby influence macroevolutionary processes. PMID:25034518

  20. Reconstructing the Phylogenetic History of Long-Term Effective Population Size and Life-History Traits Using Patterns of Amino Acid Replacement in Mitochondrial Genomes of Mammals and Birds

    PubMed Central

    Nabholz, Benoit; Lartillot, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    The nearly neutral theory, which proposes that most mutations are deleterious or close to neutral, predicts that the ratio of nonsynonymous over synonymous substitution rates (dN/dS), and potentially also the ratio of radical over conservative amino acid replacement rates (Kr/Kc), are negatively correlated with effective population size. Previous empirical tests, using life-history traits (LHT) such as body-size or generation-time as proxies for population size, have been consistent with these predictions. This suggests that large-scale phylogenetic reconstructions of dN/dS or Kr/Kc might reveal interesting macroevolutionary patterns in the variation in effective population size among lineages. In this work, we further develop an integrative probabilistic framework for phylogenetic covariance analysis introduced previously, so as to estimate the correlation patterns between dN/dS, Kr/Kc, and three LHT, in mitochondrial genomes of birds and mammals. Kr/Kc displays stronger and more stable correlations with LHT than does dN/dS, which we interpret as a greater robustness of Kr/Kc, compared with dN/dS, the latter being confounded by the high saturation of the synonymous substitution rate in mitochondrial genomes. The correlation of Kr/Kc with LHT was robust when controlling for the potentially confounding effects of nucleotide compositional variation between taxa. The positive correlation of the mitochondrial Kr/Kc with LHT is compatible with previous reports, and with a nearly neutral interpretation, although alternative explanations are also possible. The Kr/Kc model was finally used for reconstructing life-history evolution in birds and mammals. This analysis suggests a fairly large-bodied ancestor in both groups. In birds, life-history evolution seems to have occurred mainly through size reduction in Neoavian birds, whereas in placental mammals, body mass evolution shows disparate trends across subclades. Altogether, our work represents a further step toward a more

  1. Grainsize Patterns and Bed Evolution of the Rhone River (France): A Present-day Snapshot Following a Century and a Half of Human Modifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michal, T.; Parrot, E.; Piegay, H.

    2014-12-01

    Over the past 150 years the Rhône River has been heavily altered by human infrastructures. The first wave (1860 - 1930) of modifications consisted of dikes and groynes designed to narrow the channel and promote incision in order to facilitate navigation. A second period (1948 - 1986) involved the construction of a series of canals and dams for hydroelectricity production. These works bypass multiple reaches of the original channel and drastically reduce the discharge and sediment load reaching them. A comprehensive study underway is aimed at describing the present-day morphology of the Rhone along its 512 km length from its source at Lake Geneva to its sink at the Mediterranean Sea and quantifying the role of management works in the evolution to its current state. Grainsize distributions and armour ratios were determined using a combination of Wolman counts on bars and in shallow channels and dredge samples collected from a boat in navigable reaches. Long profiles were constructed from historical bathymetric maps and bathymetric data collected between 1950 - 2010. Differential long profiles highlighting changes in bed elevation due to sediment storage and erosion were analyzed for three different periods: post-channelization, post-dam construction, and a recent period of major floods. Results show a complex discontinuous pattern in grainsize associated with hydraulic discontinuities imposed by dams. The D50 for bypass reaches is 45 mm compared to a D50 of 34 mm in the non-bypass reaches. The lower D50 as well as a finer tailed distribution in non-bypass reaches reflects fining associated with storage upstream of dams. Armour ratios are on average around 2 but are notably higher for reaches in the middle section of the Rhone. The average incision rate was 1.8 cm/yr for the period of post-channelization and 1.2 cm/yr following dam construction, suggesting the post-dam Rhone was already partially armoured due to incision associated with channelization preceding dam

  2. Extraterrestrial civilizations: Problems of their evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leskov, L. V.

    1987-01-01

    The problem of finding extraterrestrial civilizations and establishing contact with them is directly related to the problem of their evolution. Possible patterns in this evolution and the stages in the evolution of extraterrestrial civilizations are examined.

  3. Causal evidence between monsoon and evolution of rhizomyine rodents

    PubMed Central

    López-Antoñanzas, Raquel; Knoll, Fabien; Wan, Shiming; Flynn, Lawrence J.

    2015-01-01

    The modern Asian monsoonal systems are currently believed to have originated around the end of the Oligocene following a crucial step of uplift of the Tibetan-Himalayan highlands. Although monsoon possibly drove the evolution of many mammal lineages during the Neogene, no evidence thereof has been provided so far. We examined the evolutionary history of a clade of rodents, the Rhizomyinae, in conjunction with our current knowledge of monsoon fluctuations over time. The macroevolutionary dynamics of rhizomyines were analyzed within a well-constrained phylogenetic framework coupled with biogeographic and evolutionary rate studies. The evolutionary novelties developed by these rodents were surveyed in parallel with the fluctuations of the Indian monsoon so as to evaluate synchroneity and postulate causal relationships. We showed the existence of three drops in biodiversity during the evolution of rhizomyines, all of which reflected elevated extinction rates. Our results demonstrated linkage of monsoon variations with the evolution and biogeography of rhizomyines. Paradoxically, the evolution of rhizomyines was accelerated during the phases of weakening of the monsoons, not of strengthening, most probably because at those intervals forest habitats declined, which triggered extinction and progressive specialization toward a burrowing existence. PMID:25759260

  4. Causal evidence between monsoon and evolution of rhizomyine rodents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Antoñanzas, Raquel; Knoll, Fabien; Wan, Shiming; Flynn, Lawrence J.

    2015-03-01

    The modern Asian monsoonal systems are currently believed to have originated around the end of the Oligocene following a crucial step of uplift of the Tibetan-Himalayan highlands. Although monsoon possibly drove the evolution of many mammal lineages during the Neogene, no evidence thereof has been provided so far. We examined the evolutionary history of a clade of rodents, the Rhizomyinae, in conjunction with our current knowledge of monsoon fluctuations over time. The macroevolutionary dynamics of rhizomyines were analyzed within a well-constrained phylogenetic framework coupled with biogeographic and evolutionary rate studies. The evolutionary novelties developed by these rodents were surveyed in parallel with the fluctuations of the Indian monsoon so as to evaluate synchroneity and postulate causal relationships. We showed the existence of three drops in biodiversity during the evolution of rhizomyines, all of which reflected elevated extinction rates. Our results demonstrated linkage of monsoon variations with the evolution and biogeography of rhizomyines. Paradoxically, the evolution of rhizomyines was accelerated during the phases of weakening of the monsoons, not of strengthening, most probably because at those intervals forest habitats declined, which triggered extinction and progressive specialization toward a burrowing existence.

  5. Bridging Inter- and Intraspecific Trait Evolution with a Hierarchical Bayesian Approach.

    PubMed

    Kostikova, Anna; Silvestro, Daniele; Pearman, Peter B; Salamin, Nicolas

    2016-05-01

    The evolution of organisms is crucially dependent on the evolution of intraspecific variation. Its interactions with selective agents in the biotic and abiotic environments underlie many processes, such as intraspecific competition, resource partitioning and, eventually, species formation. Nevertheless, comparative models of trait evolution neither allow explicit testing of hypotheses related to the evolution of intraspecific variation nor do they simultaneously estimate rates of trait evolution by accounting for both trait mean and variance. Here, we present a model of phenotypic trait evolution using a hierarchical Bayesian approach that simultaneously incorporates interspecific and intraspecific variation. We assume that species-specific trait means evolve under a simple Brownian motion process, whereas species-specific trait variances are modeled with Brownian or Ornstein-Uhlenbeck processes. After evaluating the power of the method through simulations, we examine whether life-history traits impact evolution of intraspecific variation in the Eriogonoideae (buckwheat family, Polygonaceae). Our model is readily extendible to more complex scenarios of the evolution of inter- and intraspecific variation and presents a step toward more comprehensive comparative models for macroevolutionary studies. PMID:26911152

  6. Pattern Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoyle, Rebecca

    2006-03-01

    From the stripes of a zebra and the spots on a leopard's back to the ripples on a sandy beach or desert dune, regular patterns arise everywhere in nature. The appearance and evolution of these phenomena has been a focus of recent research activity across several disciplines. This book provides an introduction to the range of mathematical theory and methods used to analyse and explain these often intricate and beautiful patterns. Bringing together several different approaches, from group theoretic methods to envelope equations and theory of patterns in large-aspect ratio-systems, the book also provides insight behind the selection of one pattern over another. Suitable as an upper-undergraduate textbook for mathematics students or as a fascinating, engaging, and fully illustrated resource for readers in physics and biology, Rebecca Hoyle's book, using a non-partisan approach, unifies a range of techniques used by active researchers in this growing field. Accessible description of the mathematical theory behind fascinating pattern formation in areas such as biology, physics and materials science Collects recent research for the first time in an upper level textbook Features a number of exercises - with solutions online - and worked examples

  7. Average sedimentary rock rare Earth element patterns and crustal evolution: Some observations and implications from the 3800 Ma ISUA supracrustal belt, West Greenland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dymek, R. F.; Boak, J. L.; Gromet, L. P.

    1983-01-01

    Rare earth element (REE) data is given on a set of clastic metasediments from the 3800 Ma Isua Supracrustal belt, West Greenland. Each of two units from the same sedimentary sequence has a distinctive REE pattern, but the average of these rocks bears a very strong resemblance to the REE pattern for the North American Shale Composite (NASC), and departs considerably from previous estimates of REE patterns in Archaean sediments. The possibility that the source area for the Isua sediments resembled that of the NASC is regarded as highly unlikely. However, REE patterns like that in the NASC may be produced by sedimentary recycling of material yielding patterns such as are found at Isua. The results lead to the following tentative conclusions: (1) The REE patterns for Isua Seq. B MBG indicate the existence of crustal materials with fractionated REE and negative Eu anomalies at 3800 Ma, (2) The average Seq. B REE pattern resembles that of the North American Shale Composite (NASC), (3) If the Seq. B average is truly representative of its crustal sources, then this early crust could have been extensively differentiated. In this regard, a proper understanding of the NASC pattern, and its relationship to post-Archaean crustal REE reservoirs, is essential, (4) The Isua results may represent a local effect.

  8. Genes encoding biotin carboxylase subunit of acetyl-CoA carboxylase from Brassica napus and parental species: cloning, expression patterns, and evolution

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Comparative genomics is a useful tool to investigate gene and genome evolution. Biotin carboxylase (BC), an important subunit of heteromeric ACCase that is a rate-limiting enzyme in fatty acid biosynthesis in dicots, catalyzes ATP, biotin-carboxyl-carrier protein and CO2 to form carboxybiotin-carbo...

  9. Quality, Evolution, and Positional Change of University Students' Argumentation Patterns about Organic Agriculture during an Argument-Critique-Argument Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Shu-Mey; Yore, Larry D.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the quality, evolution, and position of university students' argumentation about organic agriculture over a 4-week argument-critique-argument e-learning experience embedded in a first year university biology course. The participants (N = 43) were classified into three groups based on their…

  10. GNVQs 1993-97. A National Survey Report. The Final Report of a Joint Project. The Evolution of GNVQs: Enrolment and Delivery Patterns and Their Policy Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuffield Foundation, London (England).

    A 1993-97 study researched the evolution of Intermediate and Advanced General National Vocational Qualifications (GNVQs) in Britain. Data were collected from a nationally representative sample of 225 centers; 5,100 GNVQ students were surveyed individually. Findings indicated that, of the 5 original and 10 added GNVQ subjects, GNVQ programs were…

  11. Darwin's missing link - a novel paradigm for evolution education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catley, Kefyn M.

    2006-09-01

    Microevolutionary mechanisms are taught almost exclusively in our schools, to the detriment of those mechanisms that allow us to understand the larger picture - macroevolution. The results are demonstrable; as a result of the strong emphasis on micro processes in evolution education, students and teachers still have poor understanding of the processes which operate at the macro level, and virtually no understanding at all of the history of life on our planet. Natural selection has become synonymous with the suite of processes we call evolution. This paper makes the case for a paradigm shift in evolution education, so that both perspectives - micro and macro - are given equal weight. Increasingly, issues of bioethics, human origins, cloning, etc., are being cast in a light that requires an understanding of macroevolution. To deny our students access to this debate is to deny the call for universal science literacy. A methodology from professional practice is proposed that could achieve this goal, and discussed in light of its utility, theoretical underpinnings, and historical legacy. A mandate for research is proposed that focuses on learners' understanding of several challenging macroevolutionary concepts, including species, the formation of higher groups, deep time, and hierarchical thinking.

  12. Role of surface-inoculated Debaryomyces hansenii and Yarrowia lipolytica strains in dried fermented sausage manufacture. Part 1: Evaluation of their effects on microbial evolution, lipolytic and proteolytic patterns.

    PubMed

    Patrignani, Francesca; Iucci, Luciana; Vallicelli, Melania; Guerzoni, M Elisabetta; Gardini, Fausto; Lanciotti, Rosalba

    2007-04-01

    The aim of this work was to study the effects of Debaryomyces hansenii and Yarrowia lipolytica strains, used with lactic acid starter cultures (Lactobacillus plantarum), on the manufacture of dried fermented sausages to understand their role on sausage microbial evolution, lipolytic and proteolytic patterns. The inoculation of the yeast strains did not markedly affect the sausage's microbial flora. The sausages with the yeast strains showed more marked and earlier water activity (a(w)) reductions. Moreover, the surface inoculation of the yeast strains resulted, at the end of ripening, in more pronounced proteolysis and lipolysis. The lipolytic patterns of the products were affected not only by the yeast strain but also by the level of mincing of the meat mixture used. PMID:22064033

  13. Evidence of an Exponential Decay Pattern of the Hepatitis Delta Virus Evolution Rate and Fluctuations in Quasispecies Complexity in Long-Term Studies of Chronic Delta Infection

    PubMed Central

    Homs, Maria; Rodriguez-Frias, Francisco; Gregori, Josep; Ruiz, Alicia; Reimundo, Pilar; Casillas, Rosario; Tabernero, David; Godoy, Cristina; Barakat, Salma; Quer, Josep; Riveiro-Barciela, Mar; Roggendorf, Michael; Esteban, Rafael; Buti, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Chronic HDV infection can cause a severe form of viral hepatitis for which there is no specific treatment. Characterization of the hepatitis B or C viral quasispecies has provided insight into treatment failure and disease recurrence following liver transplantation, has proven useful to understand hepatitis B e antigen seroconversion, and has helped to predict whether hepatitis C infection will resolve or become chronic. It is likely that characterization of the hepatitis delta virus (HDV) quasispecies will ultimately have similar value for the management of this infection. This study sought to determine the RNA evolution rates in serum of chronic hepatitis delta (CHD) treatment-naïve patients, using next-generation sequencing methods. The region selected for study encompassed nucleotide positions 910 to 1270 of the genome and included the amber/W codon. Amber/W is a substrate of the editing process by the ADAR1 host enzyme and is essential for encoding the 2 delta antigens (HDAg). The amber codon encodes the small (unedited) HDAg form and the W codon the large (edited) HDAg form. The evolution rate was analyzed taking into account the time elapsed between samples, the percentage of unedited and edited genomes, and the complexity of the viral population. The longitudinal studies included 29 sequential samples from CHD patients followed up for a mean of 11.5 years. In total, 121,116 sequences were analyzed. The HDV evolution rate ranged from 9.5x10-3 to 1.2x10-3 substitutions/site/year and showed a negative correlation with the time elapsed between samples (p<0.05). An accumulation of transition-type changes was found to be responsible for higher evolution rates. The percentages of unedited and edited genomes and the quasispecies complexity showed no relationships with the evolution rate, but the fluctuations in the percentages of genomes and in complexity suggest continuous adaptation of HDV to the host conditions. PMID:27362848

  14. Energy budgets and transports: global evolution and spatial patterns during the twentieth century as estimated in two AMIP-like experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lembo, Valerio; Folini, Doris; Wild, Martin; Lionello, Piero

    2016-05-01

    This study describes characteristics and evolution of the residual of the Earth energy budget (EB) individual components and the implied meridional transports during the twentieth century. This analysis considers two ensembles of AMIP-like experiments (Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project) with prescribed evolution of sea surface temperature and sea ice concentration (SST-SIC), greenhouse gases (GHG), anthropogenic and volcanic aerosols over the entire twentieth century: ERA-20CM and ECHAM5-HAM model simulations. With the latter, additional sensitivity experiments are carried out by constraining either SST-SIC or aerosols to climatological values. The two models provide compatible estimates of the EBs and implied transport absolute values in recent decades. They are not in agreement in terms of global scale evolution: in the 1970s ERA-20CM shows a fast transition from negative to positive EBs at top of atmosphere (TOA) that is not found in ECHAM5-HAM. Climatological SST-SIC sensitivity experiments evidence that the aerosol forcing affects TOA and surface EBs by setting up an inter-hemispheric gradient after 1960. This is also reflected by an increased total transport in the Northern Hemisphere, while decreased in the Southern Hemisphere. ERA-20CM shows no evidence of a similar aerosol forcing. Sensitivity experiments with fixed pre-industrial aerosols show that transient SST are responsible for irregular spatio-temporal anomalies of surface and atmospheric EBs and transports. Surface and atmospheric anomalies oppose each other, and transient SSTs do not influence the EB changes at TOA. Impact of transient SST and GHG forcing on EBs and implied transports are robust across the two models.

  15. Interordinal gene capture, the phylogenetic position of Steller's sea cow based on molecular and morphological data, and the macroevolutionary history of Sirenia.

    PubMed

    Springer, Mark S; Signore, Anthony V; Paijmans, Johanna L A; Vélez-Juarbe, Jorge; Domning, Daryl P; Bauer, Cameron E; He, Kai; Crerar, Lorelei; Campos, Paula F; Murphy, William J; Meredith, Robert W; Gatesy, John; Willerslev, Eske; MacPhee, Ross D E; Hofreiter, Michael; Campbell, Kevin L

    2015-10-01

    tooth-specific loci of a variety of edentulous and enamelless vertebrates including birds, turtles, aardvarks, pangolins, xenarthrans, and baleen whales. Further, branch-site dN/dS analyses provide evidence for positive selection in ENAM on the stem dugongid branch where extensive tooth reduction occurred, followed by neutral evolution on the Hydrodamalis branch. Finally, we present a synthetic evolutionary tree for living and fossil sirenians showing several key innovations in the history of this clade including character state changes that parallel those that occurred in the evolutionary history of cetaceans. PMID:26050523

  16. Genome-Wide Identification, Phylogeny, Evolution and Expression Patterns of AP2/ERF Genes and Cytokinin Response Factors in Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhenning; Kong, Lijun; Zhang, Mei; Lv, Yanxia; Liu, Yapei; Zou, Minghau; Lu, Gang; Cao, Jiashu; Yu, Xiaolin

    2013-01-01

    The AP2/ERF transcription factor family is one of the largest families involved in growth and development, hormone responses, and biotic or abiotic stress responses in plants. In this study, 281 AP2/ERF transcription factor unigenes were identified in Chinese cabbage. These superfamily members were classified into three families (AP2, ERF, and RAV). The ERF family was subdivided into the DREB subfamily and the ERF subfamily with 13 groups (I– XI) based on sequence similarity. Duplication, evolution and divergence of the AP2/ERF genes in B. rapa and Arabidopsis thaliana were investigated and estimated. Cytokinin response factors (CRFs), as a subclade of the AP2/ERF family, are important transcription factors that define a branch point in the cytokinin two-component signal (TCS) transduction pathway. Up to 21 CRFs with a conserved CRF domain were retrieved and designated as BrCRFs. The amino acid sequences, conserved regions and motifs, phylogenetic relationships, and promoter regions of the 21 BrCRFs were analyzed in detail. The BrCRFs broadly expressed in various tissues and organs. The transcripts of BrCRFs were regulated by factors such as drought, high salinity, and exogenous 6-BA, NAA, and ABA, suggesting their involvement in abiotic stress conditions and regulatory mechanisms of plant hormone homeostasis. These results provide new insight into the divergence, variation, and evolution of AP2/ERF genes at the genome-level in Chinese cabbage. PMID:24386201

  17. Genome-wide identification, phylogeny, evolution and expression patterns of AP2/ERF genes and cytokinin response factors in Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhenning; Kong, Lijun; Zhang, Mei; Lv, Yanxia; Liu, Yapei; Zou, Minghau; Lu, Gang; Cao, Jiashu; Yu, Xiaolin

    2013-01-01

    The AP2/ERF transcription factor family is one of the largest families involved in growth and development, hormone responses, and biotic or abiotic stress responses in plants. In this study, 281 AP2/ERF transcription factor unigenes were identified in Chinese cabbage. These superfamily members were classified into three families (AP2, ERF, and RAV). The ERF family was subdivided into the DREB subfamily and the ERF subfamily with 13 groups (I- XI) based on sequence similarity. Duplication, evolution and divergence of the AP2/ERF genes in B. rapa and Arabidopsis thaliana were investigated and estimated. Cytokinin response factors (CRFs), as a subclade of the AP2/ERF family, are important transcription factors that define a branch point in the cytokinin two-component signal (TCS) transduction pathway. Up to 21 CRFs with a conserved CRF domain were retrieved and designated as BrCRFs. The amino acid sequences, conserved regions and motifs, phylogenetic relationships, and promoter regions of the 21 BrCRFs were analyzed in detail. The BrCRFs broadly expressed in various tissues and organs. The transcripts of BrCRFs were regulated by factors such as drought, high salinity, and exogenous 6-BA, NAA, and ABA, suggesting their involvement in abiotic stress conditions and regulatory mechanisms of plant hormone homeostasis. These results provide new insight into the divergence, variation, and evolution of AP2/ERF genes at the genome-level in Chinese cabbage. PMID:24386201

  18. Gradual assembly of avian body plan culminated in rapid rates of evolution across the dinosaur-bird transition.

    PubMed

    Brusatte, Stephen L; Lloyd, Graeme T; Wang, Steve C; Norell, Mark A

    2014-10-20

    The evolution of birds from theropod dinosaurs was one of the great evolutionary transitions in the history of life. The macroevolutionary tempo and mode of this transition is poorly studied, which is surprising because it may offer key insight into major questions in evolutionary biology, particularly whether the origins of evolutionary novelties or new ecological opportunities are associated with unusually elevated "bursts" of evolution. We present a comprehensive phylogeny placing birds within the context of theropod evolution and quantify rates of morphological evolution and changes in overall morphological disparity across the dinosaur-bird transition. Birds evolved significantly faster than other theropods, but they are indistinguishable from their closest relatives in morphospace. Our results demonstrate that the rise of birds was a complex process: birds are a continuum of millions of years of theropod evolution, and there was no great jump between nonbirds and birds in morphospace, but once the avian body plan was gradually assembled, birds experienced an early burst of rapid anatomical evolution. This suggests that high rates of morphological evolution after the development of a novel body plan may be a common feature of macroevolution, as first hypothesized by G.G. Simpson more than 60 years ago. PMID:25264248

  19. Unravelling evolution of Nanog, the key transcription factor involved in self-renewal of undifferentiated embryonic stem cells, by pattern recognition in nucleotide and tandem repeats characteristics.

    PubMed

    Pashaiasl, Maryam; Khodadadi, Khodadad; Kayvanjoo, Amir Hossein; Pashaei-Asl, Roghiyeh; Ebrahimie, Esmaeil; Ebrahimi, Mansour

    2016-03-10

    Nanog, an important transcription factor in embryonic stem cells (ESC), is the key factor in maintaining pluripotency to establish ESC identity and has the ability to induce embryonic germ layers. Nanog is responsible for self-renewal and pluripotency of stem cells as well as cancer invasiveness, tumor cell proliferation, motility and drug-resistance. Understanding the underlying mechanisms of Nanog evolution and regulation can lead to future advances in treatment of cancers. Recent integration of machine learning models with genetics has provided a powerful tool for knowledge discovery and uncovering evolutionary pathways. Herein, sequences of 47 Nanog genes from various species were extracted and two datasets of features were computationally extracted from these sequences. At the first dataset, 76 nucleotide acid attributes were calculated for each Nanog sequence. The second dataset was prepared based on the 10,480 repeated nucleotide sequences (from 5 to 50bp lengths). Then, various data mining algorithms such as decision tree models were applied on these datasets to find the evolutionary pathways of Nanog diversion. Attribute weighting models were highlighted features such as the frequencies of AA and GC as the most important genomic features in Nanog gene classification and differentiation. Similar findings were obtained by tree induction algorithms. Results from the second database showed that some short sequence strings, such as ACTACT, TCCTGA, CCTGA, GAAGAC, and TATCCC can be effectively used to identify Nanog genes in various species. The outcomes of this study, for the first time, unravels the importance of particular genomic features in Nanog gene evolution paving roads toward better understanding of stem cell development and human targeted disorder therapy. PMID:26687709

  20. A fish is not a fish: patterns in fatty acid composition of aquatic food may have had implications for hominin evolution.

    PubMed

    Joordens, Josephine C A; Kuipers, Remko S; Wanink, Jan H; Muskiet, Frits A J

    2014-12-01

    From c. 2 Ma (millions of years ago) onwards, hominin brain size and cognition increased in an unprecedented fashion. The exploitation of high-quality food resources, notably from aquatic ecosystems, may have been a facilitator or driver of this phenomenon. The aim of this study is to contribute to the ongoing debate on the possible role of aquatic resources in hominin evolution by providing a more detailed nutritional context. So far, the debate has focused on the relative importance of terrestrial versus aquatic resources while no distinction has been made between different types of aquatic resources. Here we show that Indian Ocean reef fish and eastern African lake fish yield on average similarly high amounts of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and arachidonic acid (AA). Hence a shift from exploiting tropical marine to freshwater ecosystems (or vice versa) would entail no material difference in dietary long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) availability. However, a shift to marine ecosystems would likely mean a major increase in access to brain-selective micronutrients such as iodine. Fatty fish from marine temperate/cold waters yield twice as much DHA and four times as much EPA as tropical fish, demonstrating that a latitudinal shift in exploitation of African coastal ecosystems could constitute a significant difference in LC-PUFA availability with possible implications for brain development and functioning. We conclude that exploitation of aquatic food resources could have facilitated the initial moderate hominin brain increase as observed in fossils dated to c. 2 Ma, but not the exceptional brain increase in later stages of hominin evolution. We propose that the significant expansion in hominin brain size and cognition later on may have been aided by strong directional selecting forces such as runaway sexual selection of intelligence, and nutritionally supported by exploitation of high-quality food resources in stable and

  1. Divergent expression patterns of miR164 and CUP-SHAPED COTYLEDON genes in palms and other monocots: implication for the evolution of meristem function in angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Adam, Hélène; Marguerettaz, Mélanie; Qadri, Rashad; Adroher, Bernard; Richaud, Frédérique; Collin, Myriam; Thuillet, Anne-Céline; Vigouroux, Yves; Laufs, Patrick; Tregear, James W; Jouannic, Stefan

    2011-04-01

    In order to understand how the morphology of plant species has diversified over time, it is necessary to decipher how the underlying developmental programs have evolved. The regulatory network controlling shoot meristem activity is likely to have played an important role in morphological diversification and useful insights can be gained by comparing monocots and eudicots. These two distinct monophyletic groups of angiosperms diverged 130 Ma and are characterized by important differences in their morphology. Several studies of eudicot species have revealed a conserved role for NAM and CUC3 genes in meristem functioning and pattern formation through the definition of morphogenetic boundaries during development. In this study, we show that NAM- and CUC3-related genes are conserved in palms and grasses, their diversification having predated the radiation of monocots and eudicots. Moreover, the NAM-miR164 posttranscriptional regulatory module is also conserved in palm species. However, in contrast to the CUC3-related genes, which share a similar expression pattern between the two angiosperm groups, the expression domain of the NAM-miR164 module differs between monocot and eudicot species. In our studies of spatial expression patterns, we compared existing eudicot data with novel results from our work using two palm species (date palm and oil palm) and two members of the Poaceae (rice and millet). In addition to contrasting results obtained at the gene expression level, major differences were also observed between eudicot and monocot NAM-related genes in the occurrence of putative cis-regulatory elements in their promoter sequences. Overall, our results suggest that although NAM- and CUC3-related proteins are functionally equivalent between monocots and eudicots, evolutionary radiation has resulted in heterotopy through alterations in the expression domain of the NAM-miR164 regulatory module. PMID:21135149

  2. Analyses on mutation patterns, detection of population bottlenecks, and suggestion of deleterious-compensatory evolution among members of the genus Potyvirus.

    PubMed

    Wang, H; Huang, L F; Cooper, J I

    2006-08-01

    Viruses of the family Potyviridae exhibited a robust single-nucleotide polymorphism profile at the between-species level, conforming to the neutral theory rule. However, the ratios of nonsynonymous to synonymous mutations (Ka/Ks) were relatively greater between-species than within-species in viral cistrons examined from members of the genus Potyvirus, indicating a relaxation on constraint. Judged by the McDonald and Kreitman's test, the fixation frequencies for nonsynonymous mutations across the genomes of closely related potyviruses were greater than expected, suggesting population bottlenecks at speciation. These mutation patterns are best explained by a deleterious-compensatory model. PMID:16538419

  3. Patterns of Broken Patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Field, R. W.; Park, G. B.; Changala, P. B.; Baraban, J. H.; Stanton, J. F.; Merer, A. J.

    2013-06-01

    Spectroscopy - it is all about patterns. Some patterns look so indescribably complicated that, unlike pornography, you do not know one when you see one. It is tempting to say that, at high vibrational excitation, interactions among normal mode basis states are so strong and widespread that all patterns are obliterated. But this is not true. When normal mode frequencies are in near integer multiple ratios, polyads emerge. A polyad is a robust pattern often comprising many vibrational eigenstates. Each such pattern might span many hundreds of cm^{-1}, and it is inevitable that several unrelated polyad patterns overlap. When polyads overlap, it might seem impossible to disentangle them. However, the key to disentanglement is that polyads come in families in which successive generations are related by harmonic oscillator matrix element selection and scaling rules. Families of polyads are described by families of scaling-based effective Hamiltonian matrices, {H}^{{eff}}. No matter how complex and overlapped, the polyad {H}^{{eff}} serves as a magic decoder for picking out the polyad pattern. Sometimes the polyad patterns are systematically broken (a meta-pattern), owing to proximity to an isomerization barrier, as occurs in highly excited bending levels of the S_{1} state of HCCH, which encode the trans-cis minimum energy isomerization path. Quantum Chemists often dismiss {H}^{{eff}} models, precisely because they are models that do not express the full dimensionality of the complete Hamiltonian. But an {H}^{{eff}} explains rather than describes. Shunning {H}^{{eff}}s is like throwing out the baby with the bath water. Don't do it!

  4. Patterns of species range evolution in Indo-Pacific reef assemblages reveal the Coral Triangle as a net source of transoceanic diversity

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Sean M.; McKenna, Caroline; Simpson, Stephen D.; Tournois, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    The Coral Triangle in the Indo-Pacific is a region renowned for exceptional marine biodiversity. The area could have acted as a ‘centre of origin’ where speciation has been prolific or a ‘centre of survival’ by providing refuge during major environmental shifts such as sea-level changes. The region could also have acted as a ‘centre of accumulation’ for species with origins outside of the Coral Triangle, owing to it being at a central position between the Indian and Pacific oceans. Here, we investigated support for these hypotheses using population-level DNA sequence-based reconstructions of the range evolution of 45 species (314 populations) of Indo-Pacific reef-associated organisms. Our results show that populations undergoing the most ancient establishment were significantly more likely to be closer to the centre of the Coral Triangle than to peripheral locations. The data are consistent with the Coral Triangle being a net source of coral-reef biodiversity for the Indo-Pacific region, suggesting that the region has acted primarily as a centre of survival, a centre of origin or both. These results provide evidence of how a key location can influence the large-scale distributions of biodiversity over evolutionary timescales. PMID:27330168

  5. Direct whole-genome deep-sequencing of human respiratory syncytial virus A and B from Vietnamese children identifies distinct patterns of inter- and intra-host evolution.

    PubMed

    Do, Lien Anh Ha; Wilm, Andreas; Van Doorn, H Rogier; Lam, Ha Minh; Sim, Shuzhen; Sukumaran, Rashmi; Tran, Anh Tuan; Nguyen, Bach Hue; Tran, Thi Thu Loan; Tran, Quynh Huong; Vo, Quoc Bao; Dac, Nguyen Anh Tran; Trinh, Hong Nhien; Nguyen, Thi Thanh Hai; Binh, Bao Tinh Le; Le, Khanh; Nguyen, Minh Tien; Thai, Quang Tung; Vo, Thanh Vu; Ngo, Ngoc Quang Minh; Dang, Thi Kim Huyen; Cao, Ngoc Huong; Tran, Thu Van; Ho, Lu Viet; Farrar, Jeremy; Jong, Menno de; Chen, Swaine; Nagarajan, Niranjan; Bryant, Juliet E; Hibberd, Martin L

    2015-12-01

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the major cause of lower respiratory tract infections in children ,2 years of age. Little is known about RSV intra-host genetic diversity over the course of infection or about the immune pressures that drive RSV molecular evolution. We performed whole-genome deep-sequencing on 53 RSV-positive samples (37 RSV subgroup A and 16 RSV subgroup B) collected from the upper airways of hospitalized children in southern Vietnam over two consecutive seasons. RSV A NA1 and RSV B BA9 were the predominant genotypes found in our samples, consistent with other reports on global RSV circulation during the same period. For both RSV A and B, the M gene was the most conserved, confirming its potential as a target for novel therapeutics. The G gene was the most variable and was the only gene under detectable positive selection. Further, positively selected sites inG were found in close proximity to and in some cases overlapped with predicted glycosylation motifs, suggesting that selection on amino acid glycosylation may drive viral genetic diversity. We further identified hotspots and coldspots of intra-host genetic diversity in the RSV genome, some of which may highlight previously unknown regions of functional importance. PMID:26407694

  6. Patterns of species range evolution in Indo-Pacific reef assemblages reveal the Coral Triangle as a net source of transoceanic diversity.

    PubMed

    Evans, Sean M; McKenna, Caroline; Simpson, Stephen D; Tournois, Jennifer; Genner, Martin J

    2016-06-01

    The Coral Triangle in the Indo-Pacific is a region renowned for exceptional marine biodiversity. The area could have acted as a 'centre of origin' where speciation has been prolific or a 'centre of survival' by providing refuge during major environmental shifts such as sea-level changes. The region could also have acted as a 'centre of accumulation' for species with origins outside of the Coral Triangle, owing to it being at a central position between the Indian and Pacific oceans. Here, we investigated support for these hypotheses using population-level DNA sequence-based reconstructions of the range evolution of 45 species (314 populations) of Indo-Pacific reef-associated organisms. Our results show that populations undergoing the most ancient establishment were significantly more likely to be closer to the centre of the Coral Triangle than to peripheral locations. The data are consistent with the Coral Triangle being a net source of coral-reef biodiversity for the Indo-Pacific region, suggesting that the region has acted primarily as a centre of survival, a centre of origin or both. These results provide evidence of how a key location can influence the large-scale distributions of biodiversity over evolutionary timescales. PMID:27330168

  7. New Gene Evolution in the Bonus-TIF1-γ/TRIM33 Family Impacted the Architecture of the Vertebrate Dorsal–Ventral Patterning Network

    PubMed Central

    Wisotzkey, Robert G.; Quijano, Janine C.; Stinchfield, Michael J.; Newfeld, Stuart J.

    2014-01-01

    Uncovering how a new gene acquires its function and understanding how the function of a new gene influences existing genetic networks are important topics in evolutionary biology. Here, we demonstrate nonconservation for the embryonic functions of Drosophila Bonus and its newest vertebrate relative TIF1-γ/TRIM33. We showed previously that TIF1-γ/TRIM33 functions as an ubiquitin ligase for the Smad4 signal transducer and antagonizes the Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) signaling network underlying vertebrate dorsal–ventral axis formation. Here, we show that Bonus functions as an agonist of the Decapentaplegic (Dpp) signaling network underlying dorsal–ventral axis formation in flies. The absence of conservation for the roles of Bonus and TIF1-γ/TRIM33 reveals a shift in the dorsal–ventral patterning networks of flies and mice, systems that were previously considered wholly conserved. The shift occurred when the new gene TIF1-γ/TRIM33 replaced the function of the ubiquitin ligase Nedd4L in the lineage leading to vertebrates. Evidence of this replacement is our demonstration that Nedd4 performs the function of TIF1-γ/TRIM33 in flies during dorsal–ventral axis formation. The replacement allowed vertebrate Nedd4L to acquire novel functions as a ubiquitin ligase of vertebrate-specific Smad proteins. Overall our data reveal that the architecture of the Dpp/BMP dorsal–ventral patterning network continued to evolve in the vertebrate lineage, after separation from flies, via the incorporation of new genes. PMID:24881051

  8. Diversity in a Cold Hot-Spot: DNA-Barcoding Reveals Patterns of Evolution among Antarctic Demosponges (Class Demospongiae, Phylum Porifera)

    PubMed Central

    Vargas, Sergio; Kelly, Michelle; Schnabel, Kareen; Mills, Sadie; Bowden, David; Wörheide, Gert

    2015-01-01

    Background The approximately 350 demosponge species that have been described from Antarctica represent a faunistic component distinct from that of neighboring regions. Sponges provide structure to the Antarctic benthos and refuge to other invertebrates, and can be dominant in some communities. Despite the importance of sponges in the Antarctic subtidal environment, sponge DNA barcodes are scarce but can provide insight into the evolutionary relationships of this unique biogeographic province. Methodology/Principal Findings We sequenced the standard barcoding COI region for a comprehensive selection of sponges collected during expeditions to the Ross Sea region in 2004 and 2008, and produced DNA-barcodes for 53 demosponge species covering about 60% of the species collected. The Antarctic sponge communities are phylogenetically diverse, matching the diversity of well-sampled sponge communities in the Lusitanic and Mediterranean marine provinces in the Temperate Northern Atlantic for which molecular data are readily available. Additionally, DNA-barcoding revealed levels of in situ molecular evolution comparable to those present among Caribbean sponges. DNA-barcoding using the Segregating Sites Algorithm correctly assigned approximately 54% of the barcoded species to the morphologically determined species. Conclusion/Significance A barcode library for Antarctic sponges was assembled and used to advance the systematic and evolutionary research of Antarctic sponges. We provide insights on the evolutionary forces shaping Antarctica's diverse sponge communities, and a barcode library against which future sequence data from other regions or depth strata of Antarctica can be compared. The opportunity for rapid taxonomic identification of sponge collections for ecological research is now at the horizon. PMID:26091103

  9. A high-density linkage map enables a second-generation collared flycatcher genome assembly and reveals the patterns of avian recombination rate variation and chromosomal evolution

    PubMed Central

    Kawakami, Takeshi; Smeds, Linnéa; Backström, Niclas; Husby, Arild; Qvarnström, Anna; Mugal, Carina F; Olason, Pall; Ellegren, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Detailed linkage and recombination rate maps are necessary to use the full potential of genome sequencing and population genomic analyses. We used a custom collared flycatcher 50 K SNP array to develop a high-density linkage map with 37 262 markers assigned to 34 linkage groups in 33 autosomes and the Z chromosome. The best-order map contained 4215 markers, with a total distance of 3132 cm and a mean genetic distance between markers of 0.12 cm. Facilitated by the array being designed to include markers from most scaffolds, we obtained a second-generation assembly of the flycatcher genome that approaches full chromosome sequences (N50 super-scaffold size 20.2 Mb and with 1.042 Gb (of 1.116 Gb) anchored to and mostly ordered and oriented along chromosomes). We found that flycatcher and zebra finch chromosomes are entirely syntenic but that inversions at mean rates of 1.5–2.0 event (6.6–7.5 Mb) per My have changed the organization within chromosomes, rates high enough for inversions to potentially have been involved with many speciation events during avian evolution. The mean recombination rate was 3.1 cm/Mb and correlated closely with chromosome size, from 2 cm/Mb for chromosomes >100 Mb to >10 cm/Mb for chromosomes <10 Mb. This size dependence seemed entirely due to an obligate recombination event per chromosome; if 50 cm was subtracted from the genetic lengths of chromosomes, the rate per physical unit DNA was constant across chromosomes. Flycatcher recombination rate showed similar variation along chromosomes as chicken but lacked the large interior recombination deserts characteristic of zebra finch chromosomes. PMID:24863701

  10. Patterns of landscape evolution on the central and northern Tibetan Plateau investigated using in-situ produced 10Be concentrations from river sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yingkui; Li, Dewen; Liu, Gengnian; Harbor, Jon; Caffee, Marc; Stroeven, Arjen P.

    2014-07-01

    Quantifying long-term erosion rates across the Tibetan Plateau and its bordering mountains is of critical importance to an understanding of the interaction between climate, tectonic movement, and landscape evolution. We present a new dataset of basin-wide erosion rates from the central and northern Tibetan Plateau derived using in-situ produced 10Be concentrations of river sediments. Basin-wide erosion rates from the central plateau range from 10.1±0.9 to 36.8±3.2 mm/kyr, slightly higher than published local erosion rates measured from bedrock surfaces. These values indicate that long-term downwearing of plateau surfaces proceeds at low rates and that the landscape is demonstrably stable in the central plateau. In contrast, basin-wide erosion rates from the Kunlun Shan on the northern Tibetan Plateau range from 19.9±1.7 to 163.2±15.9 mm/kyr. Although the erosion rates of many of these basins are much higher than the rates from the central plateau, they are lower than published basin-wide erosion rates from other mountains fringing the Tibetan Plateau, probably because the basins in the Kunlun Shan include both areas of low-relief plateau surface and high-relief mountain catchments and may also result from retarded fluvial sediment transport in an arid climate. Significantly higher basin-wide erosion rates derived from the Tibetan Plateau margin, compared to the central plateau, reflect a relatively stable plateau surface that is being dissected at its margins by active fluvial erosion.

  11. Ten years in the library: new data confirm paleontological patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sepkoski, J. J. Jr; Sepkoski JJ, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    A comparison is made between compilations of times of origination and extinction of fossil marine animal families published in 1982 and 1992. As a result of ten years of library research, half of the information in the compendia has changed: families have been added and deleted, low-resolution stratigraphic data been improved, and intervals of origination and extinction have been altered. Despite these changes, apparent macroevolutionary patterns for the entire marine fauna have remained constant. Diversity curves compiled from the two data bases are very similar, with a goodness-of-fit of 99%; the principal difference is that the 1992 curve averages 13% higher than the older curve. Both numbers and percentages of origination and extinction also match well, with fits ranging from 83% to 95%. All major events of radiation and extinction are identical. Therefore, errors in large paleontological data bases and arbitrariness of included taxa are not necessarily impediments to the analysis of pattern in the fossil record, so long as the data are sufficiently numerous.

  12. A note on the evolution of the daily pattern of thermal comfort-related micrometeorological parameters in small urban sites in Athens.

    PubMed

    Charalampopoulos, Ioannis; Tsiros, Ioannis; Chronopoulou-Sereli, Aikaterini; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2015-09-01

    Studies on human thermal comfort in urban areas typically quantify and assess the influence of the atmospheric parameters studying the values and their patterns of the selected index or parameter. In this paper, the interpretation tools are the first derivative of the selected parameters (∆Parameter/∆t) and the violin plots. Using these tools, the effect of sites' configuration on thermal conditions was investigated. Both derivatives and violin plots indicated the ability of vegetation to act as a buffer to the rapid changes of air temperature, mean radiant temperature, and the physiologically equivalent temperature (PET). The study is focused on the "thermal extreme" seasons of winter (December, January, and February) and summer (June, July, and August) during a 3-year period of measurements in five selected sites under calm wind and sunny conditions. According to the results, the absence of vegetation leads to high derivative values whereas the existence of dense vegetation tends to keep the parameters' values relatively low, especially under hot weather conditions. PMID:25388948

  13. A note on the evolution of the daily pattern of thermal comfort-related micrometeorological parameters in small urban sites in Athens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charalampopoulos, Ioannis; Tsiros, Ioannis; Chronopoulou-Sereli, Aikaterini; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2015-09-01

    Studies on human thermal comfort in urban areas typically quantify and assess the influence of the atmospheric parameters studying the values and their patterns of the selected index or parameter. In this paper, the interpretation tools are the first derivative of the selected parameters (∆Parameter/∆t) and the violin plots. Using these tools, the effect of sites' configuration on thermal conditions was investigated. Both derivatives and violin plots indicated the ability of vegetation to act as a buffer to the rapid changes of air temperature, mean radiant temperature, and the physiologically equivalent temperature (PET). The study is focused on the "thermal extreme" seasons of winter (December, January, and February) and summer (June, July, and August) during a 3-year period of measurements in five selected sites under calm wind and sunny conditions. According to the results, the absence of vegetation leads to high derivative values whereas the existence of dense vegetation tends to keep the parameters' values relatively low, especially under hot weather conditions.

  14. Study of settlement distribution pattern in the Kolkheti lowland (Black Sea coast of Georgia) starting from early Bronze Age - natural and human influence and adaptation to landscape evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elashvili, Mikheil; Akhvlediani, Dimitri; Navrozashvili, Levan; Sukhishvili, Lasha; Kirkitadze, Giorgi; Kelterbaum, Daniel; Laermans, Hannes

    2015-04-01

    archaeological datasets are collected in the joint-venture project and in addition with known historical and old topographic maps of the region they represent a good start for the research. There are typical ancient settlements in the Kolkheti lowland, called locally "Dikhagudzuba", which are still identifiable on aerial imagery. Their structure, physical dimensions and locations were analyzed from aerial and on site studies. Data from existing archaeological studies and recent field works were analyzed to create a reliable database on the distribution of Bronze Age settlements. Changes in paleoclimate, sea level and river deltas represent the main components to form a paleolandscape of the study area. Based on the results of recent fieldwork and the analyses of regional historical maps in addition with the general geological and geomorphological settings paleogeographical scenarios were constructed. Proposed models of past landscape changes and human settlement pattern were merged and analyzed. From one hand the human settlement distribution (taking into account tells relation with the local landscape of the same period) help us to identify the best suitable scenario from the set of paleolandscape patterns. Moreover, paleogeographical scenarios provide a better understanding on the erection of human settlements in the past, and their influence and adaptation to ongoing changes.

  15. Short Lesson Plan Associated with Increased Acceptance of Evolutionary Theory and Potential Change in Three Alternate Conceptions of Macroevolution in Undergraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abraham, Joel K.; Perez, Kathryn E.; Downey, Nicholas; Herron, Jon C.; Meir, Eli

    2012-01-01

    Undergraduates commonly harbor alternate conceptions about evolutionary biology; these alternate conceptions often persist, even after intensive instruction, and may influence acceptance of evolution. We interviewed undergraduates to explore their alternate conceptions about macroevolutionary patterns and designed a 2-h lesson plan to present…

  16. Overlapping Patterns of Rapid Evolution in the Nucleic Acid Sensors cGAS and OAS1 Suggest a Common Mechanism of Pathogen Antagonism and Escape

    PubMed Central

    Hancks, Dustin C.; Hartley, Melissa K.; Hagan, Celia; Clark, Nathan L.; Elde, Nels C.

    2015-01-01

    A diverse subset of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) detects pathogen-associated nucleic acids to initiate crucial innate immune responses in host organisms. Reflecting their importance for host defense, pathogens encode various countermeasures to evade or inhibit these immune effectors. PRRs directly engaged by pathogen inhibitors often evolve under recurrent bouts of positive selection that have been described as molecular ‘arms races.’ Cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) was recently identified as a key PRR. Upon binding cytoplasmic double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) from various viruses, cGAS generates the small nucleotide secondary messenger cGAMP to signal activation of innate defenses. Here we report an evolutionary history of cGAS with recurrent positive selection in the primate lineage. Recent studies indicate a high degree of structural similarity between cGAS and 2’-5’-oligoadenylate synthase 1 (OAS1), a PRR that detects double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), despite low sequence identity between the respective genes. We present comprehensive comparative evolutionary analysis of cGAS and OAS1 primate sequences and observe positive selection at nucleic acid binding interfaces and distributed throughout both genes. Our data revealed homologous regions with strong signatures of positive selection, suggesting common mechanisms employed by unknown pathogen encoded inhibitors and similar modes of evasion from antagonism. Our analysis of cGAS diversification also identified alternately spliced forms missing multiple sites under positive selection. Further analysis of selection on the OAS family in primates, which comprises OAS1, OAS2, OAS3 and OASL, suggests a hypothesis where gene duplications and domain fusion events result in paralogs that provide another means of escaping pathogen inhibitors. Together our comparative evolutionary analysis of cGAS and OAS provides new insights into distinct mechanisms by which key molecular sentinels of the innate immune system have

  17. To move or to evolve: contrasting patterns of intercontinental connectivity and climatic niche evolution in “Terebinthaceae” (Anacardiaceae and Burseraceae)

    PubMed Central

    Weeks, Andrea; Zapata, Felipe; Pell, Susan K.; Daly, Douglas C.; Mitchell, John D.; Fine, Paul V. A.

    2014-01-01

    Many angiosperm families are distributed pantropically, yet for any given continent little is known about which lineages are ancient residents or recent arrivals. Here we use a comprehensive sampling of the pantropical sister pair Anacardiaceae and Burseraceae to assess the relative importance of continental vicariance, long-distance dispersal and niche-conservatism in generating its distinctive pattern of diversity over time. Each family has approximately the same number of species and identical stem age, yet Anacardiaceae display a broader range of fruit morphologies and dispersal strategies and include species that can withstand freezing temperatures, whereas Burseraceae do not. We found that nuclear and chloroplast data yielded a highly supported phylogenetic reconstruction that supports current taxonomic concepts and time-calibrated biogeographic reconstructions that are broadly congruent with the fossil record. We conclude that the most recent common ancestor of these families was widespread and likely distributed in the Northern Hemisphere during the Cretaceous and that vicariance between Eastern and Western Hemispheres coincided with the initial divergence of the families. The tempo of diversification of the families is strikingly different. Anacardiaceae steadily accumulated lineages starting in the Late Cretaceous–Paleocene while the majority of Burseraceae diversification occurred in the Miocene. Multiple dispersal- and vicariance-based intercontinental colonization events are inferred for both families throughout the past 100 million years. However, Anacardiaceae have shifted climatic niches frequently during this time, while Burseraceae have experienced very few shifts between dry and wet climates and only in the tropics. Thus, we conclude that both Anacardiaceae and Burseraceae move easily but that Anacardiaceae have adapted more often, either due to more varied selective pressures or greater intrinsic lability. PMID:25506354

  18. Chemical Evolution of Groundwater Near a Sinkhole Lake, Northern Florida: 1. Flow Patterns, Age of Groundwater, and Influence of Lake Water Leakage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katz, Brian G.; Lee, Terrie M.; Plummer, L. Niel; Busenberg, Eurybiades

    1995-06-01

    Leakage from sinkhole lakes significantly influences recharge to the Upper Floridan aquifer in poorly confined sediments in northern Florida. Environmental isotopes (oxygen 18, deuterium, and tritium), chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs: CFC-11, CCl3F; CFC-12, CCl2F2; and CFC-113, C2Cl3F3), and solute tracers were used to investigate groundwater flow patterns near Lake Barco, a seepage lake in a mantled karst setting in northern Florida. Stable isotope data indicated that the groundwater downgradient from the lake contained 11-67% lake water leakage, with a limit of detection of lake water in groundwater of 4.3%. The mixing fractions of lake water leakage, which passed through organic-rich sediments in the lake bottom, were directly proportional to the observed methane concentrations and increased with depth in the groundwater flow system. In aerobic groundwater upgradient from Lake Barco, CFC-modeled recharge dates ranged from 1987 near the water table to the mid 1970s for water collected at a depth of 30 m below the water table. CFC-modeled recharge dates (based on CFC-12) for anaerobic groundwater downgradient from the lake ranged from the late 1950s to the mid 1970s and were consistent with tritium data. CFC-modeled recharge dates based on CFC-11 indicated preferential microbial degradation in anoxic waters. Vertical hydraulic conductivities, calculated using CFC-12 modeled recharge dates and Darcy's law, were 0.17, 0.033, and 0.019 m/d for the surficial aquifer, intermediate confining unit, and lake sediments, respectively. These conductivities agreed closely with those used in the calibration of a three-dimensional groundwater flow model for transient and steady state flow conditions.

  19. Tracking interspecies transmission and long-term evolution of an ancient retrovirus using the genomes of modern mammals.

    PubMed

    Diehl, William E; Patel, Nirali; Halm, Kate; Johnson, Welkin E

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian genomes typically contain hundreds of thousands of endogenous retroviruses (ERVs), derived from ancient retroviral infections. Using this molecular 'fossil' record, we reconstructed the natural history of a specific retrovirus lineage (ERV-Fc) that disseminated widely between ~33 and ~15 million years ago, corresponding to the Oligocene and early Miocene epochs. Intercontinental viral spread, numerous instances of interspecies transmission and emergence in hosts representing at least 11 mammalian orders, and a significant role for recombination in diversification of this viral lineage were also revealed. By reconstructing the canonical retroviral genes, we identified patterns of adaptation consistent with selection to maintain essential viral protein functions. Our results demonstrate the unique potential of the ERV fossil record for studying the processes of viral spread and emergence as they play out across macro-evolutionary timescales, such that looking back in time may prove insightful for predicting the long-term consequences of newly emerging viral infections. PMID:26952212

  20. Early cellular evolution.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margulis, L.

    1972-01-01

    Study of the evolutionary developments that occurred subsequent to the origin of ancestral cells. Microbial physiology and ecology are potential sharp tools for shaping concepts of microbial evolution. Some popular unjustified assumptions are discussed. It is considered that certain principles derived mainly from the advances of molecular biology can be used to order the natural groups (genera) of extant prokaryotes and their patterns phylogenetically.

  1. The Evolution of Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, John Maynard

    1978-01-01

    The topic of altruistic behavior is an important one in studying the evolution of behavior. It is questioned whether natural selection can actually favor patterns of behavior that apparently do not favor the survival of the individual. Game theory models are presented to help explore the problem. (MA)

  2. Evolution: Understanding Life on Earth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dybas, Cheryl Lyn

    2002-01-01

    Reports on presentations representing evolution at the 53rd annual meeting of the American Institute of Biological Sciences (AIBS) which was held March 22-24, 2002. Explains evolutionary patterns, phylogenetic pageantry, molecular clocks, speciation and biogeography, speciation and macroevolution, and human-induced evolution of drugs-resistant…

  3. Comparative study of mitotic chromosomes in two blowflies, Luciliasericata and L.cluvia (Diptera, Calliphoridae), by C- and G-like banding patterns and rRNA loci, and implications for karyotype evolution.

    PubMed

    Chirino, Mónica G; Rossi, Luis F; Bressa, María J; Luaces, Juan P; Merani, María S

    2015-01-01

    The karyotypes of Luciliacluvia (Walker, 1849) and Luciliasericata (Meigen, 1826) from Argentina were characterized using conventional staining and the C- and G-like banding techniques. Besides, nucleolus organizer regions (NORs) were detected by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and silver staining technique. The chromosome complement of these species comprises five pairs of autosomes and a pair of sex chromosomes (XX/XY, female/male). The autosomes of both species have the same size and morphology, as well as C- and G-like banding patterns. The X and Y chromosomes of Luciliacluvia are subtelocentric and easily identified due to their very small size. In Luciliasericata, the X chromosome is metacentric and the largest of the complement, showing a secondary constriction in its short arm, whereas the Y is submetacentric and smaller than the X. The C-banding patterns reflect differences in chromatin structure and composition between the subtelocentric X and Y chromosomes of Luciliacluvia and the biarmed sex chromosomes of Luciliasericata. These differences in the sex chromosomes may be due to distinct amounts of constitutive heterochromatin. In Luciliacluvia, the NORs are placed at one end of the long-X and of the long-Y chromosome arms, whereas one of the NORs is disposed in the secondary constriction of the short-X chromosome arm and the other on the long-Y chromosome arm in Luciliasericata. Although the G-like banding technique does not yield G-bands like those in mammalian chromosomes, it shows a high degree chromosomal homology in both species because each pair of autosomes was correctly paired. This chromosome similarity suggests the absence of autosomal rearrangements during karyotype evolution in the two species studied. PMID:25893078

  4. Comparative study of mitotic chromosomes in two blowflies, Lucilia sericata and L. cluvia (Diptera, Calliphoridae), by C- and G-like banding patterns and rRNA loci, and implications for karyotype evolution

    PubMed Central

    Chirino, Mónica G.; Rossi, Luis F.; Bressa, María J.; Luaces, Juan P.; Merani, María S.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The karyotypes of Lucilia cluvia (Walker, 1849) and Lucilia sericata (Meigen, 1826) from Argentina were characterized using conventional staining and the C- and G-like banding techniques. Besides, nucleolus organizer regions (NORs) were detected by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and silver staining technique. The chromosome complement of these species comprises five pairs of autosomes and a pair of sex chromosomes (XX/XY, female/male). The autosomes of both species have the same size and morphology, as well as C- and G-like banding patterns. The X and Y chromosomes of Lucilia cluvia are subtelocentric and easily identified due to their very small size. In Lucilia sericata, the X chromosome is metacentric and the largest of the complement, showing a secondary constriction in its short arm, whereas the Y is submetacentric and smaller than the X. The C-banding patterns reflect differences in chromatin structure and composition between the subtelocentric X and Y chromosomes of Lucilia cluvia and the biarmed sex chromosomes of Lucilia sericata. These differences in the sex chromosomes may be due to distinct amounts of constitutive heterochromatin. In Lucilia cluvia, the NORs are placed at one end of the long-X and of the long-Y chromosome arms, whereas one of the NORs is disposed in the secondary constriction of the short-X chromosome arm and the other on the long-Y chromosome arm in Lucilia sericata. Although the G-like banding technique does not yield G-bands like those in mammalian chromosomes, it shows a high degree chromosomal homology in both species because each pair of autosomes was correctly paired. This chromosome similarity suggests the absence of autosomal rearrangements during karyotype evolution in the two species studied. PMID:25893078

  5. Adaptive Evolution and Functional Redesign of Core Metabolic Proteins in Snakes

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Wanjun; Wang, Zhengyuan O.; Pollock, David D.

    2008-01-01

    Background Adaptive evolutionary episodes in core metabolic proteins are uncommon, and are even more rarely linked to major macroevolutionary shifts. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted extensive molecular evolutionary analyses on snake mitochondrial proteins and discovered multiple lines of evidence suggesting that the proteins at the core of aerobic metabolism in snakes have undergone remarkably large episodic bursts of adaptive change. We show that snake mitochondrial proteins experienced unprecedented levels of positive selection, coevolution, convergence, and reversion at functionally critical residues. We examined Cytochrome C oxidase subunit I (COI) in detail, and show that it experienced extensive modification of normally conserved residues involved in proton transport and delivery of electrons and oxygen. Thus, adaptive changes likely altered the flow of protons and other aspects of function in CO, thereby influencing fundamental characteristics of aerobic metabolism. We refer to these processes as “evolutionary redesign” because of the magnitude of the episodic bursts and the degree to which they affected core functional residues. Conclusions/Significance The evolutionary redesign of snake COI coincided with adaptive bursts in other mitochondrial proteins and substantial changes in mitochondrial genome structure. It also generally coincided with or preceded major shifts in ecological niche and the evolution of extensive physiological adaptations related to lung reduction, large prey consumption, and venom evolution. The parallel timing of these major evolutionary events suggests that evolutionary redesign of metabolic and mitochondrial function may be related to, or underlie, the extreme changes in physiological and metabolic efficiency, flexibility, and innovation observed in snake evolution. PMID:18493604

  6. Losing Complexity: The Role of Simplification in Macroevolution.

    PubMed

    O'Malley, Maureen A; Wideman, Jeremy G; Ruiz-Trillo, Iñaki

    2016-08-01

    Macroevolutionary patterns can be produced by combinations of diverse and even oppositional dynamics. A growing body of data indicates that secondary simplifications of molecular and cellular structures are common. Some major diversifications in eukaryotes have occurred because of loss and minimalisation; numerous episodes in prokaryote evolution have likewise been driven by the reduction of structure. After examining a range of examples of secondary simplification and its consequences across the tree of life, we address how macroevolutionary explanations might incorporate simplification as well as complexification, and adaptive as well as nonadaptive dynamics. PMID:27212432

  7. Deja vu: the evolution of feeding morphologies in the Carnivora.

    PubMed

    Van Valkenburgh, Blaire

    2007-07-01

    The fossil record of the order Carnivora extends back at least 60 million years and documents a remarkable history of adaptive radiation characterized by the repeated, independent evolution of similar feeding morphologies in distinct clades. Within the order, convergence is apparent in the iterative appearance of a variety of ecomorphs, including cat-like, hyena-like, and wolf-like hypercarnivores, as well as a variety of less carnivorous forms, such as foxes, raccoons, and ursids. The iteration of similar forms has multiple causes. First, there are a limited number of ways to ecologically partition the carnivore niche, and second, the material properties of animal tissues (muscle, skin, bone) have not changed over the Cenozoic. Consequently, similar craniodental adaptations for feeding on different proportions of animal versus plant tissues evolve repeatedly. The extent of convergence in craniodental form can be striking, affecting skull proportions and overall shape, as well as dental morphology. The tendency to evolve highly convergent ecomorphs is most apparent among feeding extremes, such as sabertooths and bone-crackers where performance requirements tend to be more acute. A survey of the fossil record indicates that large hypercarnivores evolve frequently, often in response to ecological opportunity afforded by the decline or extinction of previously dominant hypercarnivorous taxa. While the evolution of large size and carnivory may be favored at the individual level, it can lead to a macroevolutionary ratchet, wherein dietary specialization and reduced population densities result in a greater vulnerability to extinction. As a result of these opposing forces, the fossil record of Carnivora is dominated by successive clades of hypercarnivores that diversify and decline, only to be replaced by new hypercarnivorous clades. This has produced a marvelous set of natural experiments in the evolution of similar ecomorphs, each of which start from phylogenetically

  8. The impact of phylogenetic dating method on interpreting trait evolution: a case study of Cretaceous-Palaeogene eutherian body-size evolution.

    PubMed

    Halliday, T J D; Goswami, A

    2016-08-01

    The fossil record of the earliest Cenozoic contains the first large-bodied placental mammals. Several evolutionary models have been invoked to explain the transition from small to large body sizes, but methods for determining evolutionary mode of trait change depend on input from tree topology and divergence dates. Different dating methods may therefore affect inference of evolutionary model. Here, we fit models of body mass evolution onto dated phylogenies of Cretaceous and Palaeogene mammals, comparing the effect of dating method on interpretation of evolutionary model. Among traditional palaeontological dating approaches, an Ornstein-Uhlenbeck model with high alpha parameters is recovered as best-fitting when minimum-age dating is used, while branch-sharing methods are highly sensitive to topology. Release or release-radiate models are preferred when Bayesian fossilized birth-death method is used, but when using stochastic cal3 dating of trees, a model of increased evolutionary rate without a release in constraint at the Cretaceous-Palaeogene boundary has highest support. These results demonstrate unambiguously that choice of dating method is critical for interpretation of continuous trait evolution, and that care must therefore be taken to consider these effects in macroevolutionary studies. PMID:27484642

  9. Intracranial hypertension: classification and patterns of evolution

    PubMed Central

    Iencean, SM

    2008-01-01

    Intracranial hypertension (ICH) was systematized in four categories according to its aetiology and pathogenic mechanisms: parenchymatous ICH with an intrinsic cerebral cause; vascular ICH, which has its aetiology in disorders of cerebral blood circulation; ICH caused by disorders of cerebro–spinal fluid dynamics and idiopathic ICH. The increase of intracranial pressure is the first to happen and then intracranial hypertension develops from this initial effect becoming symptomatic; it then acquires its individuality, surpassing the initial disease. The intracranial hypertension syndrome corresponds to the stage at which the increased intracranial pressure can be compensated and the acute form of intracranial hypertension is equivalent to a decompensated ICH syndrome. The decompensation of intracranial hypertension is a condition of instability and appears when the normal intrinsic ratio of intracranial pressure – time fluctuation is changed. The essential conditions for decompensation of intracranial hypertension are: the speed of intracranial pressure increase over normal values, the highest value of abnormal intracranial pressure and the duration of high ICP values. Medical objectives are preventing ICP from exceeding 20 mm Hg and maintaining a normal cerebral blood flow. The emergency therapy is the same for the acute form but each of the four forms of ICH has a specific therapy, according to the pathogenic mechanism and if possible to aetiology. PMID:20108456

  10. Major transitions in human evolution.

    PubMed

    Foley, Robert A; Martin, Lawrence; Mirazón Lahr, Marta; Stringer, Chris

    2016-07-01

    Evolutionary problems are often considered in terms of 'origins', and research in human evolution seen as a search for human origins. However, evolution, including human evolution, is a process of transitions from one state to another, and so questions are best put in terms of understanding the nature of those transitions. This paper discusses how the contributions to the themed issue 'Major transitions in human evolution' throw light on the pattern of change in hominin evolution. Four questions are addressed: (1) Is there a major divide between early (australopithecine) and later (Homo) evolution? (2) Does the pattern of change fit a model of short transformations, or gradual evolution? (3) Why is the role of Africa so prominent? (4) How are different aspects of adaptation-genes, phenotypes and behaviour-integrated across the transitions? The importance of developing technologies and approaches and the enduring role of fieldwork are emphasized.This article is part of the themed issue 'Major transitions in human evolution'. PMID:27298461

  11. FTS evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Provost, David E.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on flight telerobotic servicer evolution are presented. Topics covered include: paths for FTS evolution; frequently performed actions; primary task states; EPS radiator panel installation; generic task definitions; path planning; non-contact alignment; contact planning and control; and human operator interface.

  12. Teaching Evolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryner, Jeanna

    2005-01-01

    Eighty years after the famous 1925 Scopes "monkey trial," which tested a teacher's right to discuss the theory of evolution in the classroom, evolution--and its most recent counterview, called "intelligent design"--are in the headlines again, and just about everyone seems to have an opinion. This past July, President Bush weighed in, telling…

  13. Machine Learning Biogeographic Processes from Biotic Patterns: A New Trait-Dependent Dispersal and Diversification Model with Model Choice By Simulation-Trained Discriminant Analysis.

    PubMed

    Sukumaran, Jeet; Economo, Evan P; Lacey Knowles, L

    2016-05-01

    Current statistical biogeographical analysis methods are limited in the ways ecology can be related to the processes of diversification and geographical range evolution, requiring conflation of geography and ecology, and/or assuming ecologies that are uniform across all lineages and invariant in time. This precludes the possibility of studying a broad class of macroevolutionary biogeographical theories that relate geographical and species histories through lineage-specific ecological and evolutionary dynamics, such as taxon cycle theory. Here we present a new model that generates phylogenies under a complex of superpositioned geographical range evolution, trait evolution, and diversification processes that can communicate with each other. We present a likelihood-free method of inference under our model using discriminant analysis of principal components of summary statistics calculated on phylogenies, with the discriminant functions trained on data generated by simulations under our model. This approach of model selection by classification of empirical data with respect to data generated under training models is shown to be efficient, robust, and performs well over a broad range of parameter space defined by the relative rates of dispersal, trait evolution, and diversification processes. We apply our method to a case study of the taxon cycle, that is testing for habitat and trophic level constraints in the dispersal regimes of the Wallacean avifaunal radiation. PMID:26715585

  14. Stellar evolution.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiu, H.-Y. (Editor); Muriel, A.

    1972-01-01

    Aspects of normal stellar evolution are discussed together with evolution near the main sequence, stellar evolution from main sequence to white dwarf or carbon ignition, the structure of massive main-sequence stars, and problems of stellar stability and stellar pulsation. Other subjects considered include variable stars, white dwarfs, close binaries, novae, early supernova luminosity, neutron stars, the photometry of field horizontal-branch stars, and stellar opacity. Transport mechanisms in stars are examined together with thermonuclear reactions and nucleosynthesis, the instability problem in nuclear burning shells, stellar coalescence, and intense magnetic fields in astrophysics. Individual items are announced in this issue.

  15. Deciphering the evolution of birdwing butterflies 150 years after Alfred Russel Wallace

    PubMed Central

    Condamine, Fabien L.; Toussaint, Emmanuel F. A.; Clamens, Anne-Laure; Genson, Gwenaelle; Sperling, Felix A. H.; Kergoat, Gael J.

    2015-01-01

    One hundred and fifty years after Alfred Wallace studied the geographical variation and species diversity of butterflies in the Indomalayan-Australasian Archipelago, the processes responsible for their biogeographical pattern remain equivocal. We analysed the macroevolutionary mechanisms accounting for the temporal and geographical diversification of the charismatic birdwing butterflies (Papilionidae), a major focus of Wallace’s pioneering work. Bayesian phylogenetics and dating analyses of the birdwings were conducted using mitochondrial and nuclear genes. The combination of maximum likelihood analyses to estimate biogeographical history and diversification rates reveals that diversity-dependence processes drove the radiation of birdwings, and that speciation was often associated with founder-events colonizing new islands, especially in Wallacea. Palaeo-environment diversification models also suggest that high extinction rates occurred during periods of elevated sea level and global warming. We demonstrated a pattern of spatio-temporal habitat dynamics that continuously created or erased habitats suitable for birdwing biodiversity. Since birdwings were extinction-prone during the Miocene (warmer temperatures and elevated sea levels), the cooling period after the mid-Miocene climatic optimum fostered birdwing diversification due to the release of extinction. This also suggests that current global changes may represent a serious conservation threat to this flagship group. PMID:26133078

  16. Deciphering the evolution of birdwing butterflies 150 years after Alfred Russel Wallace.

    PubMed

    Condamine, Fabien L; Toussaint, Emmanuel F A; Clamens, Anne-Laure; Genson, Gwenaelle; Sperling, Felix A H; Kergoat, Gael J

    2015-01-01

    One hundred and fifty years after Alfred Wallace studied the geographical variation and species diversity of butterflies in the Indomalayan-Australasian Archipelago, the processes responsible for their biogeographical pattern remain equivocal. We analysed the macroevolutionary mechanisms accounting for the temporal and geographical diversification of the charismatic birdwing butterflies (Papilionidae), a major focus of Wallace's pioneering work. Bayesian phylogenetics and dating analyses of the birdwings were conducted using mitochondrial and nuclear genes. The combination of maximum likelihood analyses to estimate biogeographical history and diversification rates reveals that diversity-dependence processes drove the radiation of birdwings, and that speciation was often associated with founder-events colonizing new islands, especially in Wallacea. Palaeo-environment diversification models also suggest that high extinction rates occurred during periods of elevated sea level and global warming. We demonstrated a pattern of spatio-temporal habitat dynamics that continuously created or erased habitats suitable for birdwing biodiversity. Since birdwings were extinction-prone during the Miocene (warmer temperatures and elevated sea levels), the cooling period after the mid-Miocene climatic optimum fostered birdwing diversification due to the release of extinction. This also suggests that current global changes may represent a serious conservation threat to this flagship group. PMID:26133078

  17. Pattern formation today

    PubMed Central

    Chuong, Cheng-Ming; Richardson, Michael K.

    2010-01-01

    Patterns are orders embedded in randomness. They may appear as spatial arrangements or temporal series, and the elements may appear identical or with variations. Patterns exist in the physical world as well as in living systems. In the biological world, patterns can range from simple to complex, forming the basic building blocks of life. The process which generates this ordering in the biological world was termed pattern formation. Since Wolpert promoted this concept four decades ago, scientists from molecular biology, developmental biology, stem cell biology, tissue engineering, theoretical modeling and other disciplines have made remarkable progress towards understanding its mechanisms. It is time to review and re-integrate our understanding. Here, we explore the origin of pattern formation, how the genetic code is translated into biological form, and how complex phenotypes are selected over evolutionary time. We present four topics: Principles, Evolution, Development, and Stem Cells and Regeneration. We have interviewed several leaders in the field to gain insight into how their research and the field of pattern formation have shaped each other. We have learned that both molecular process and physico-chemical principles are important for biological pattern formation. New understanding will emerge through integration of the analytical approach of molecular-genetic manipulation and the systemic approach of model simulation. We regret that we could not include every major investigator in the field, but hope that this Special Issue of the Int. J. Dev. Biol. represents a sample of our knowledge of pattern formation today, which will help to stimulate more research on this fundamental process. PMID:19557673

  18. Linear pattern dynamics in nonlinear threshold systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rundle, John B.; Klein, W.; Tiampo, Kristy; Gross, Susanna

    2000-03-01

    Complex nonlinear threshold systems frequently show space-time behavior that is difficult to interpret. We describe a technique based upon a Karhunen-Loeve expansion that allows dynamical patterns to be understood as eigenstates of suitably constructed correlation operators. The evolution of space-time patterns can then be viewed in terms of a ''pattern dynamics'' that can be obtained directly from observable data. As an example, we apply our methods to a particular threshold system to forecast the evolution of patterns of observed activity. Finally, we perform statistical tests to measure the quality of the forecasts. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

  19. The impact of Quaternary Ice Ages on mammalian evolution.

    PubMed Central

    Lister, Adrian M

    2004-01-01

    The Quaternary was a time of extensive evolution among mammals. Most living species arose at this time, and many of them show adaptations to peculiarly Quaternary environments. The latter include continental northern steppe and tundra, and the formation of lakes and offshore islands. Although some species evolved fixed adaptations to specialist habitats, others developed flexible adaptations enabling them to inhabit broad niches and to survive major environmental changes. Adaptation to short-term (migratory and seasonal) habitat change probably played a part in pre-adapting mammal species to the longer-term cyclical changes of the Quaternary. Fossil evidence indicates that environmental changes of the order of thousands of years have been sufficient to produce subspeciation, but speciation has typically required one hundred thousand to a few hundred thousand years, although there are both shorter and longer exceptions. The persistence of taxa in environments imposing strong selective regimes may have been important in forcing major adaptive change. Individual Milankovitch cycles are not necessarily implicated in this process, but nor did they generally inhibit evolutionary change among mammals: many evolutionary divergences built over multiple climatic cycles. Deduction of speciation timing requires input from fossils and modern phenotypic and breeding data, to complement and constrain mitochondrial DNA coalescence dates which appear commonly to overestimate taxic divergence dates and durations of speciation. Migrational and evolutionary responses to climate change are not mutually exclusive but, on the contrary, may be synergistic. Finally, preliminary analysis suggests that faunal turnover, including an important element of speciation, was elevated in the Quaternary compared with the Neogene, at least in some biomes. Macroevolutionary species selection or sorting has apparently resulted in a modern mammalian fauna enriched with fast-reproducing and/or adaptively

  20. Foam patterns

    SciTech Connect

    Chaudhry, Anil R; Dzugan, Robert; Harrington, Richard M; Neece, Faurice D; Singh, Nipendra P; Westendorf, Travis

    2013-11-26

    A method of creating a foam pattern comprises mixing a polyol component and an isocyanate component to form a liquid mixture. The method further comprises placing a temporary core having a shape corresponding to a desired internal feature in a cavity of a mold and inserting the mixture into the cavity of the mold so that the mixture surrounds a portion of the temporary core. The method optionally further comprises using supporting pins made of foam to support the core in the mold cavity, with such pins becoming integral part of the pattern material simplifying subsequent processing. The method further comprises waiting for a predetermined time sufficient for a reaction from the mixture to form a foam pattern structure corresponding to the cavity of the mold, wherein the foam pattern structure encloses a portion of the temporary core and removing the temporary core from the pattern independent of chemical leaching.

  1. The evolution within us

    PubMed Central

    Cobey, Sarah; Wilson, Patrick; Matsen, Frederick A.

    2015-01-01

    The B-cell immune response is a remarkable evolutionary system found in jawed vertebrates. B-cell receptors, the membrane-bound form of antibodies, are capable of evolving high affinity to almost any foreign protein. High germline diversity and rapid evolution upon encounter with antigen explain the general adaptability of B-cell populations, but the dynamics of repertoires are less well understood. These dynamics are scientifically and clinically important. After highlighting the remarkable characteristics of naive and experienced B-cell repertoires, especially biased usage of genes encoding the B-cell receptors, we contrast methods of sequence analysis and their attempts to explain patterns of B-cell evolution. These phylogenetic approaches are currently unlinked to explicit models of B-cell competition, which analyse repertoire evolution at the level of phenotype, the affinities and specificities to particular antigenic sites. The models, in turn, suggest how chance, infection history and other factors contribute to different patterns of immunodominance and protection between people. Challenges in rational vaccine design, specifically vaccines to induce broadly neutralizing antibodies to HIV, underscore critical gaps in our understanding of B cells' evolutionary and ecological dynamics. PMID:26194749

  2. Genetic drift and rapid evolution of viviparity in insular fire salamanders (Salamandra salamandra).

    PubMed

    Velo-Antón, G; Zamudio, K R; Cordero-Rivera, A

    2012-04-01

    Continental islands offer an excellent opportunity to investigate adaptive processes and to time microevolutionary changes that precede macroevolutionary events. We performed a population genetic study of the fire salamander (Salamandra salamandra), a species that displays unique intraspecific diversity of reproductive strategies, to address the microevolutionary processes leading to phenotypic and genetic differentiation of island, coastal and interior populations. We used eight microsatellite markers to estimate genetic diversity, population structure and demographic parameters in viviparous insular populations and ovoviviparous coastal and interior populations. Our results show considerable genetic differentiation (F(ST) range: 0.06-0.27), and no clear signs of gene flow among populations, except between the large and admixed interior populations. We find no support for island colonization by rafting or intentional/accidental anthropogenic introductions, indicating that rising sea levels were responsible for isolation of the island populations approximately 9000 years ago. Our study provides evidence of rapid genetic differentiation between island and coastal populations, and rapid evolution of viviparity driven by climatic selective pressures on island populations, geographic isolation with genetic drift, or a combination of these factors. Studies of these viviparous island populations in early stages of divergence help us better understand the microevolutionary processes involved in rapid phenotypic shifts. PMID:22086081

  3. Convergent evolution of red carotenoid coloration in widowbirds and bishops (Euplectes spp.).

    PubMed

    Prager, Maria; Andersson, Staffan

    2010-12-01

    Avian carotenoid-based signals are classic examples of sexually selected, condition-dependent threat displays or mate choice cues. In many species, male dominance or mating success is associated with redder (i.e., longer wavelength) color hues, suggesting that red colors are either more efficient or more reliable signals than yellow colors. Few studies, however, have investigated selection for redness in a macroevolutionary context. Here, we phylogenetically reconstruct the evolution of carotenoid coloration in the African widowbirds and bishops (Euplectes spp.), for which agonistic selection for redder hues, as well as pigmentary mechanisms, is well documented. Using reflectance spectrometry for objective color quantification, and accounting for phylogenetic uncertainty, we find that yellow plumage color is a retained ancestral state in Euplectes, and that red color hues have convergently evolved two or three times. Results are discussed in relation to a known diversity in pigment mechanisms, supporting independent origins of red color, and suggesting that agonistic selection and physiological constraints have interacted to generate color diversity in Euplectes. PMID:20629731

  4. Genetic drift and rapid evolution of viviparity in insular fire salamanders (Salamandra salamandra)

    PubMed Central

    Velo-Antón, G; Zamudio, K R; Cordero-Rivera, A

    2012-01-01

    Continental islands offer an excellent opportunity to investigate adaptive processes and to time microevolutionary changes that precede macroevolutionary events. We performed a population genetic study of the fire salamander (Salamandra salamandra), a species that displays unique intraspecific diversity of reproductive strategies, to address the microevolutionary processes leading to phenotypic and genetic differentiation of island, coastal and interior populations. We used eight microsatellite markers to estimate genetic diversity, population structure and demographic parameters in viviparous insular populations and ovoviviparous coastal and interior populations. Our results show considerable genetic differentiation (FST range: 0.06–0.27), and no clear signs of gene flow among populations, except between the large and admixed interior populations. We find no support for island colonization by rafting or intentional/accidental anthropogenic introductions, indicating that rising sea levels were responsible for isolation of the island populations approximately 9000 years ago. Our study provides evidence of rapid genetic differentiation between island and coastal populations, and rapid evolution of viviparity driven by climatic selective pressures on island populations, geographic isolation with genetic drift, or a combination of these factors. Studies of these viviparous island populations in early stages of divergence help us better understand the microevolutionary processes involved in rapid phenotypic shifts. PMID:22086081

  5. Major transitions in human evolution

    PubMed Central

    Foley, Robert A.; Martin, Lawrence; Mirazón Lahr, Marta; Stringer, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Evolutionary problems are often considered in terms of ‘origins', and research in human evolution seen as a search for human origins. However, evolution, including human evolution, is a process of transitions from one state to another, and so questions are best put in terms of understanding the nature of those transitions. This paper discusses how the contributions to the themed issue ‘Major transitions in human evolution’ throw light on the pattern of change in hominin evolution. Four questions are addressed: (1) Is there a major divide between early (australopithecine) and later (Homo) evolution? (2) Does the pattern of change fit a model of short transformations, or gradual evolution? (3) Why is the role of Africa so prominent? (4) How are different aspects of adaptation—genes, phenotypes and behaviour—integrated across the transitions? The importance of developing technologies and approaches and the enduring role of fieldwork are emphasized. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Major transitions in human evolution’. PMID:27298461

  6. Hidden patterns of reciprocity.

    PubMed

    Syi

    2014-03-21

    Reciprocity can help the evolution of cooperation. To model both types of reciprocity, we need the concept of strategy. In the case of direct reciprocity there are four second-order action rules (Simple Tit-for-tat, Contrite Tit-for-tat, Pavlov, and Grim Trigger), which are able to promote cooperation. In the case of indirect reciprocity the key component of cooperation is the assessment rule. There are, again, four elementary second-order assessment rules (Image Scoring, Simple Standing, Stern Judging, and Shunning). The eight concepts can be formalized in an ontologically thin way we need only an action predicate and a value function, two agent concepts, and the constant of goodness. The formalism helps us to discover that the action and assessment rules can be paired, and that they show the same patterns. The logic of these patterns can be interpreted with the concept of punishment that has an inherent paradoxical nature. PMID:24368125

  7. Patterns of macroevolution: How to be prepared for extinction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seilacher, Adolf

    1998-10-01

    Mass extinctions, although triggered by unpredictable extrinsic events, are conditioned by Climatically modulated macroevolutionary Process. The 'golden age' effect of time stability can be observed in modern environments, as well as in the highly specialized fauna of greenhouse periods preceding the extinctions. These insights are relevent for the present ecological crises.

  8. Art & Evolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terry, Mark

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author presents a two-week evolution unit for his biology class. He uses Maria Sybilla Merian (1647-1717) as an example of an Enlightenment mind at work--in this case a woman recognized as one of the great artists and natural scientists of her time. Her representations of butterflies, caterpillars and their pupae, and the…

  9. Security Evolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Patta, Joe

    2003-01-01

    Examines how to evaluate school security, begin making schools safe, secure schools without turning them into fortresses, and secure schools easily and affordably; the evolution of security systems into information technology systems; using schools' high-speed network lines; how one specific security system was developed; pros and cons of the…

  10. Software evolution. What kind of evolution?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres-Carbonell, J. J.; Parets-Llorca, J.

    2001-06-01

    Most Software Systems capable of adapting to the environment or of performing some kind of adaptive activity (such as pattern learning, behavior simulations and the like) use concepts and models from Biology. Nevertheless, such approaches are based on the Modern Synthesis, i.e., Darwinism plus Mendelism, and this implies preadaptive mutations in, and subsequent selection of the better adapted individuals. These pre-adaptive changes usually do not produce the desired effect, are virtually useless and require some kind of backtracking for the system to obtain profit from adaptation. It is our contention that an evolutionary approach in Software Systems development cannot be based on pre-adaptive mutations, but rather on post-adaptive ones, that is, anticipatory mutations and modifications (Lamarkism). A novel way of understanding evolution in Software Systems based on applied Lamarkism is presented and a framework that allows the incorporation of modifications according to the necessities of the system and the will of the modeller is proposed.

  11. Global patterns of insect diversification: towards a reconciliation of fossil and molecular evidence?

    PubMed Central

    Condamine, Fabien L.; Clapham, Matthew E.; Kergoat, Gael J.

    2016-01-01

    Macroevolutionary studies of insects at diverse taxonomic scales often reveal dynamic evolutionary patterns, with multiple inferred diversification rate shifts. Responses to major past environmental changes, such as the Cretaceous Terrestrial Revolution, or the development of major key innovations, such as wings or complete metamorphosis are usually invoked as potential evolutionary triggers. However this view is partially contradicted by studies on the family-level fossil record showing that insect diversification was relatively constant through time. In an attempt to reconcile both views, we investigate large-scale insect diversification dynamics at family level using two distinct types of diversification analyses on a molecular timetree representing ca. 82% of the extant families, and reassess the insect fossil diversity using up-to-date records. Analyses focusing on the fossil record recovered an early burst of diversification, declining to low and steady rates through time, interrupted by extinction events. Phylogenetic analyses showed that major shifts of diversification rates only occurred in the four richest holometabolous orders. Both suggest that neither the development of flight or complete metamorphosis nor the Cretaceous Terrestrial Revolution environmental changes induced immediate changes in diversification regimes; instead clade-specific innovations likely promoted the diversification of major insect orders. PMID:26778170

  12. Extinction in Phylogenetics and Biogeography: From Timetrees to Patterns of Biotic Assemblage.

    PubMed

    Sanmartín, Isabel; Meseguer, Andrea S

    2016-01-01

    Global climate change and its impact on biodiversity levels have made extinction a relevant topic in biological research. Yet, until recently, extinction has received less attention in macroevolutionary studies than speciation; the reason is the difficulty to infer an event that actually eliminates rather than creates new taxa. For example, in biogeography, extinction has often been seen as noise, introducing homoplasy in biogeographic relationships, rather than a pattern-generating process. The molecular revolution and the possibility to integrate time into phylogenetic reconstructions have allowed studying extinction under different perspectives. Here, we review phylogenetic (temporal) and biogeographic (spatial) approaches to the inference of extinction and the challenges this process poses for reconstructing evolutionary history. Specifically, we focus on the problem of discriminating between alternative high extinction scenarios using time trees with only extant taxa, and on the confounding effect introduced by asymmetric spatial extinction - different rates of extinction across areas - in biogeographic inference. Finally, we identify the most promising avenues of research in both fields, which include the integration of additional sources of evidence such as the fossil record or environmental information in birth-death models and biogeographic reconstructions, the development of new models that tie extinction rates to phenotypic or environmental variation, or the implementation within a Bayesian framework of parametric non-stationary biogeographic models. PMID:27047538

  13. Extinction in Phylogenetics and Biogeography: From Timetrees to Patterns of Biotic Assemblage

    PubMed Central

    Meseguer, Andrea S.

    2016-01-01

    Global climate change and its impact on biodiversity levels have made extinction a relevant topic in biological research. Yet, until recently, extinction has received less attention in macroevolutionary studies than speciation; the reason is the difficulty to infer an event that actually eliminates rather than creates new taxa. For example, in biogeography, extinction has often been seen as noise, introducing homoplasy in biogeographic relationships, rather than a pattern-generating process. The molecular revolution and the possibility to integrate time into phylogenetic reconstructions have allowed studying extinction under different perspectives. Here, we review phylogenetic (temporal) and biogeographic (spatial) approaches to the inference of extinction and the challenges this process poses for reconstructing evolutionary history. Specifically, we focus on the problem of discriminating between alternative high extinction scenarios using time trees with only extant taxa, and on the confounding effect introduced by asymmetric spatial extinction – different rates of extinction across areas – in biogeographic inference. Finally, we identify the most promising avenues of research in both fields, which include the integration of additional sources of evidence such as the fossil record or environmental information in birth–death models and biogeographic reconstructions, the development of new models that tie extinction rates to phenotypic or environmental variation, or the implementation within a Bayesian framework of parametric non-stationary biogeographic models. PMID:27047538

  14. Item Feature Effects in Evolution Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nehm, Ross H.; Ha, Minsu

    2011-01-01

    Despite concerted efforts by science educators to understand patterns of evolutionary reasoning in science students and teachers, the vast majority of evolution education studies have failed to carefully consider or control for item feature effects in knowledge measurement. Our study explores whether robust contextualization patterns emerge within…

  15. Analysis of EphA4 in the lesser spotted catshark identifies a primitive gnathostome expression pattern and reveals co-option during evolution of shark-specific morphology.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Renata; Cohn, Martin J

    2004-09-01

    The Eph family is the largest known group of structurally related receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs). Each Eph receptor has a specific Ephrin ligand, and these function to define spatial boundaries during development. Analyses of EphA4 in mouse, chick, frog and zebrafish embryos have implicated this gene in a number of developmental processes, including maintenance of segmental boundaries, axon guidance, limb development, neural crest migration and patterning of the ear. In order to determine which components of EphA4 function may be primitive for gnathostomes, we cloned EphA4 from the lesser spotted catshark ( Scyliorhinus canicula) and examined its expression pattern during shark embryonic development. Consistent with the patterns reported for bony fish and tetrapods, we observed segmental expression of EphA4 in the developing hindbrain and later in the pharyngeal arches of shark embryos. EphA4 was also detected during sensory organogenesis, in the developing ear, eye, nasal pits and lateral line. A dynamic pattern of EphA4expression occurs during shark fin development, suggesting an early role in outgrowth and patterning of the fin buds and a later role in tissue differentiation. We also observed several novel domains of EphA4expression that have not been reported in other vertebrates, including external gill buds, dermal denticles, median fins and claspers. While some of these domains may reflect co-option of EphA4expression to novel sites for development of shark-specific characters, others are more likely to be ancestral patterns of expression that were lost in other vertebrate lineages. PMID:15300436

  16. Mitochondrial Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Michael W.

    2012-01-01

    Viewed through the lens of the genome it contains, the mitochondrion is of unquestioned bacterial ancestry, originating from within the bacterial phylum α-Proteobacteria (Alphaproteobacteria). Accordingly, the endosymbiont hypothesis—the idea that the mitochondrion evolved from a bacterial progenitor via symbiosis within an essentially eukaryotic host cell—has assumed the status of a theory. Yet mitochondrial genome evolution has taken radically different pathways in diverse eukaryotic lineages, and the organelle itself is increasingly viewed as a genetic and functional mosaic, with the bulk of the mitochondrial proteome having an evolutionary origin outside Alphaproteobacteria. New data continue to reshape our views regarding mitochondrial evolution, particularly raising the question of whether the mitochondrion originated after the eukaryotic cell arose, as assumed in the classical endosymbiont hypothesis, or whether this organelle had its beginning at the same time as the cell containing it. PMID:22952398

  17. Hox genes and evolution

    PubMed Central

    Hrycaj, Steven M.; Wellik, Deneen M.

    2016-01-01

    Hox proteins are a deeply conserved group of transcription factors originally defined for their critical roles in governing segmental identity along the antero-posterior (AP) axis in Drosophila. Over the last 30 years, numerous data generated in evolutionarily diverse taxa have clearly shown that changes in the expression patterns of these genes are closely associated with the regionalization of the AP axis, suggesting that Hox genes have played a critical role in the evolution of novel body plans within Bilateria. Despite this deep functional conservation and the importance of these genes in AP patterning, key questions remain regarding many aspects of Hox biology. In this commentary, we highlight recent reports that have provided novel insight into the origins of the mammalian Hox cluster, the role of Hox genes in the generation of a limbless body plan, and a novel putative mechanism in which Hox genes may encode specificity along the AP axis. Although the data discussed here offer a fresh perspective, it is clear that there is still much to learn about Hox biology and the roles it has played in the evolution of the Bilaterian body plan. PMID:27239281

  18. Genetic Regulatory Networks in Embryogenesis and Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The article introduces a series of papers that were originally presented at a workshop titled Genetic Regulatory Network in Embryogenesis and Evaluation. Contents include the following: evolution of cleavage programs in relationship to axial specification and body plan evolution, changes in cell lineage specification elucidate evolutionary relations in spiralia, axial patterning in the leech: developmental mechanisms and evolutionary implications, hox genes in arthropod development and evolution, heterochronic genes in development and evolution, a common theme for LIM homeobox gene function across phylogeny, and mechanisms of specification in ascidian embryos.

  19. Downsizing the pelagic carbonate factory: Impacts of calcareous nannoplankton evolution on carbonate burial over the past 17 million years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suchéras-Marx, Baptiste; Henderiks, Jorijntje

    2014-12-01

    Cenozoic deep-sea carbonates ("calcareous oozes") are predominantly biogenic in origin and offer detailed records of the evolution of calcifying plankton groups, such as coccolithophores and foraminifera. The size and abundance of calcifying plankton determine the strength of the calcium carbonate "pump" in the open ocean, which acts as a short-term source of CO2, while the burial of pelagic carbonates serves as a long-term sink of carbon. Here, we show how the macroevolutionary size decrease in calcareous nannoplankton (coccoliths and calcareous nannoliths) has affected burial rates of calcareous ooze over the past 17 million years. We quantified nannofossil carbonate burial rates (g CaCO3/m2/yr) at five DSDP/ODP sites in the Atlantic, Indian, and Western Pacific oceans. The proportion of nannofossil-dominated fine fraction carbonate (< 38 μm) and its mass accumulation rates were regionally and temporally variable, but our combined data reveal globally consistent long-term trends. Mean nannofossil carbonate mass decreased about four-fold between 9 and 4 Ma, but this had little or only minor impact on the burial of pelagic carbonate until ~ 4 Ma. After ~ 4 Ma, when small-sized coccolith-bearing species prevailed, nannofossil carbonate burial rates decreased by one order of magnitude to the lowest values during the Pleistocene. In contrast, mass accumulation rates of the foraminifera-dominated > 38 μm fraction remained stable over the past 17 Myr. This suggests that changes in the deposition of calcareous ooze were primarily driven by calcareous nannoplankton, and that foraminifera did not compensate for the lower nannofossil-carbonate accumulation rates since the Pliocene. Despite a deepening of the lysocline over the past 4 Myr, global pelagic carbonate mass accumulation likely decreased. Whether, or how, this may relate to changes in weathering or other components within the long-term carbonate cycle remains unclear. Explanations for the macroevolutionary size

  20. How do drumlin patterns evolve?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ely, Jeremy; Clark, Chris; Spagnolo, Matteo; Hughes, Anna

    2016-04-01

    The flow of a geomorphic agent over a sediment bed creates patterns in the substrate composed of bedforms. Ice is no exception to this, organising soft sedimentary substrates into subglacial bedforms. As we are yet to fully observe their initiation and evolution beneath a contemporary ice mass, little is known about how patterns in subglacial bedforms develop. Here we study 36,222 drumlins, divided into 72 flowsets, left behind by the former British-Irish Ice sheet. These flowsets provide us with 'snapshots' of drumlin pattern development. The probability distribution functions of the size and shape metrics of drumlins within these flowsets were analysed to determine whether behaviour that is common of other patterned phenomena has occurred. Specifically, we ask whether drumlins i) are printed at a specific scale; ii) grow or shrink after they initiate; iii) stabilise at a specific size and shape; and iv) migrate. Our results indicate that drumlins initiate at a minimum size and spacing. After initiation, the log-normal distribution of drumlin size and shape metrics suggests that drumlins grow, or possibly shrink, as they develop. We find no evidence for stabilisation in drumlin length, supporting the idea of a subglacial bedform continuum. Drumlin migration is difficult to determine from the palaeo-record. However, there are some indications that a mixture of static and mobile drumlins occurs, which could potentially lead to collisions, cannibalisation and coarsening. Further images of modern drumlin fields evolving beneath ice are required to capture stages of drumlin pattern evolution.

  1. The effect of nucleation layer thickness on the structural evolution and crystal quality of bulk GaN grown by a two-step process on cone-patterned sapphire substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Lin; Zhai, Guangmei; Mei, Fuhong; Jia, Wei; Yu, Chunyan; Liu, Xuguang; Xu, Bingshe

    2016-05-01

    The role of nucleation layer thickness on the GaN crystal quality grown on cone-patterned sapphire substrate (PSS) was explored. The morphologies of epitaxial GaN at different growth stages were investigated by a series of growth interruption in detail. After 10- and 15-min three-dimensional growth, the nucleation sites are very important for the bulk GaN crystal quality. They have a close relationship with the nucleation layer thickness, as confirmed through the scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis. Nucleation sites formed mainly on patterns are bad for bulk GaN crystal quality and nucleation sites formed mainly in the trenches of PSS mounds are good for bulk GaN crystal quality, as proved by X-ray diffraction analysis. Nucleation layer thickness can effectively control the nucleation sites and thus determine the crystal quality of bulk GaN.

  2. Recurrent evolution of herbivory in small, cold-climate lizards: Breaking the ecophysiological rules of reptilian herbivory

    PubMed Central

    Espinoza, Robert E.; Wiens, John J.; Tracy, C. Richard

    2004-01-01

    Herbivory has evolved in many groups of vertebrates, but it is rare among both extinct and extant nonavian reptiles. Among squamate reptiles, (lizards, snakes, and their relatives), <2% of the >7,800 species are considered to be herbivorous, and herbivory is restricted to lizards. Here, we show that within a group of South American lizards (Liolaemidae, ≈170 species), herbivory has evolved more frequently than in all other squamates combined and at a rate estimated to be >65 times faster. Furthermore, in contrast to other herbivorous lizards and to existing theory, most herbivorous liolaemids are small bodied and live in cool climates. Herbivory is generally thought to evolve only in reptile species that are large bodied, live in warm climates, and maintain high body temperatures. These three well known “rules” of herbivory are considered to form the bases of physiological constraints that explain the paucity of herbivorous reptile species. We suggest that the recurrent and paradoxical evolution of herbivory in liolaemids is explained by a combination of environmental conditions (promoting independent origins of herbivory in isolated cool-climate regions), ecophysiological constraints (requiring small body size in cool climates, yet high body temperatures for herbivores), and phylogenetic history. More generally, our study demonstrates how integrating information from ecophysiology and phylogeny can help to explain macroevolutionary trends. PMID:15550549

  3. Expression pattern of three-finger toxin and phospholipase A2 genes in the venom glands of two sea snakes, Lapemis curtus and Acalyptophis peronii: comparison of evolution of these toxins in land snakes, sea kraits and sea snakes

    PubMed Central

    Pahari, Susanta; Bickford, David; Fry, Bryan G; Kini, R Manjunatha

    2007-01-01

    Background Snake venom composition varies widely both among closely related species and within the same species, based on ecological variables. In terrestrial snakes, such variation has been proposed to be due to snakes' diet. Land snakes target various prey species including insects (arthropods), lizards (reptiles), frogs and toads (amphibians), birds (aves), and rodents (mammals), whereas sea snakes target a single vertebrate class (fishes) and often specialize on specific types of fish. It is therefore interesting to examine the evolution of toxins in sea snake venoms compared to that of land snakes. Results Here we describe the expression of toxin genes in the venom glands of two sea snakes, Lapemis curtus (Spine-bellied Sea Snake) and Acalyptophis peronii (Horned Sea Snake), two members of a large adaptive radiation which occupy very different ecological niches. We constructed cDNA libraries from their venom glands and sequenced 214 and 192 clones, respectively. Our data show that despite their explosive evolutionary radiation, there is very little variability in the three-finger toxin (3FTx) as well as the phospholipase A2 (PLA2) enzymes, the two main constituents of Lapemis curtus and Acalyptophis peronii venom. To understand the evolutionary trends among land snakes, sea snakes and sea kraits, pairwise genetic distances (intraspecific and interspecific) of 3FTx and PLA2 sequences were calculated. Results show that these proteins appear to be highly conserved in sea snakes in contrast to land snakes or sea kraits, despite their extremely divergent and adaptive ecological radiation. Conclusion Based on these results, we suggest that streamlining in habitat and diet in sea snakes has possibly kept their toxin genes conserved, suggesting the idea that prey composition and diet breadth may contribute to the diversity and evolution of venom components. PMID:17900344

  4. The evolution of emergent computation.

    PubMed Central

    Crutchfield, J P; Mitchell, M

    1995-01-01

    A simple evolutionary process can discover sophisticated methods for emergent information processing in decentralized spatially extended systems. The mechanisms underlying the resulting emergent computation are explicated by a technique for analyzing particle-based logic embedded in pattern-forming systems. Understanding how globally coordinated computation can emerge in evolution is relevant both for the scientific understanding of natural information processing and for engineering new forms of parallel computing systems. PMID:11607588

  5. Transcriptome analysis reveals novel patterning and pigmentation genes underlying Heliconius butterfly wing pattern variation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Heliconius butterfly wing pattern diversity offers a unique opportunity to investigate how natural genetic variation can drive the evolution of complex adaptive phenotypes. Positional cloning and candidate gene studies have identified a handful of regulatory and pigmentation genes implicated in Heliconius wing pattern variation, but little is known about the greater developmental networks within which these genes interact to pattern a wing. Here we took a large-scale transcriptomic approach to identify the network of genes involved in Heliconius wing pattern development and variation. This included applying over 140 transcriptome microarrays to assay gene expression in dissected wing pattern elements across a range of developmental stages and wing pattern morphs of Heliconius erato. Results We identified a number of putative early prepattern genes with color-pattern related expression domains. We also identified 51 genes differentially expressed in association with natural color pattern variation. Of these, the previously identified color pattern “switch gene” optix was recovered as the first transcript to show color-specific differential expression. Most differentially expressed genes were transcribed late in pupal development and have roles in cuticle formation or pigment synthesis. These include previously undescribed transporter genes associated with ommochrome pigmentation. Furthermore, we observed upregulation of melanin-repressing genes such as ebony and Dat1 in non-melanic patterns. Conclusions This study identifies many new genes implicated in butterfly wing pattern development and provides a glimpse into the number and types of genes affected by variation in genes that drive color pattern evolution. PMID:22747837

  6. Evolution of Sedimentary Rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veizer, J.; MacKenzie, F. T.

    2003-12-01

    For almost a century, it has been recognized that the present-day thickness and areal extent of Phanerozoic sedimentary strata increase progressively with decreasing geologic age. This pattern has been interpreted either as reflecting an increase in the rate of sedimentation toward the present (Barrell, 1917; Schuchert, 1931; Ronov, 1976) or as resulting from better preservation of the younger part of the geologic record ( Gilluly, 1949; Gregor, 1968; Garrels and Mackenzie, 1971a; Veizer and Jansen, 1979, 1985).Study of the rocks themselves led to similarly opposing conclusions. The observed secular (=age) variations in relative proportions of lithological types and in chemistry of sedimentary rocks (Daly, 1909; Vinogradov et al., 1952; Nanz, 1953; Engel, 1963; Strakhov, 1964, 1969; Ronov, 1964, 1982) were mostly given an evolutionary interpretation. An opposing, uniformitarian, approach was proposed by Garrels and Mackenzie (1971a). For most isotopes, the consensus favors deviations from the present-day steady state as the likely cause of secular trends.This chapter attempts to show that recycling and evolution are not opposing, but complementary, concepts. It will concentrate on the lithological and chemical attributes of sediments, but not deal with the evolution of sedimentary mineral deposits (Veizer et al., 1989) and of life ( Sepkoski, 1989), both well amenable to the outlined conceptual treatment. The chapter relies heavily on Veizer (1988a) for the sections dealing with general recycling concepts, on Veizer (2003) for the discussion of isotopic evolution of seawater, and on Morse and Mackenzie (1990) and Mackenzie and Morse (1992) for discussion of carbonate rock recycling and environmental attributes.

  7. Intron Evolution in Saccharomycetaceae

    PubMed Central

    Hooks, Katarzyna B.; Delneri, Daniela; Griffiths-Jones, Sam

    2014-01-01

    Introns in protein-coding genes are very rare in hemiascomycetous yeast genomes. It has been suggested that these species have experienced extensive intron loss during their evolution from the postulated intron-rich fungal ancestor. However, no intron-devoid yeast species have been identified and some of the introns remaining within the genomes of intron-poor species, such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, appear to be beneficial during growth under stress conditions. In order to reveal the pattern of intron retention within intron-poor yeast species and better understand the mechanisms of intron evolution, we generated a comprehensive set of 250 orthologous introns in the 20 species that comprise the Saccharomycetaceae, by analyzing RNA deep-sequencing data and alignments of intron-containing genes. Analysis of these intron sets shows that intron loss is at least two orders of magnitude more frequent than intron gain. Fine mapping of intron positions shows that intron sliding is rare, and that introns are almost always removed without changing the primary sequence of the encoded protein. The latter finding is consistent with the prevailing view that homologous recombination between reverse-transcribed mature mRNAs and the corresponding genomic locus is the primary mechanism of intron loss. However, we also find evidence that loss of a small number of introns is mediated by micro-homology, and that the number of intron losses is diminished in yeast species that have lost the microhomology end joining and nonhomologous end joining machinery. PMID:25364803

  8. Heat freezes niche evolution.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Miguel B; Ferri-Yáñez, Francisco; Bozinovic, Francisco; Marquet, Pablo A; Valladares, Fernando; Chown, Steven L

    2013-09-01

    Climate change is altering phenology and distributions of many species and further changes are projected. Can species physiologically adapt to climate warming? We analyse thermal tolerances of a large number of terrestrial ectotherm (n = 697), endotherm (n = 227) and plant (n = 1816) species worldwide, and show that tolerance to heat is largely conserved across lineages, while tolerance to cold varies between and within species. This pattern, previously documented for ectotherms, is apparent for this group and for endotherms and plants, challenging the longstanding view that physiological tolerances of species change continuously across climatic gradients. An alternative view is proposed in which the thermal component of climatic niches would overlap across species more than expected. We argue that hard physiological boundaries exist that constrain evolution of tolerances of terrestrial organisms to high temperatures. In contrast, evolution of tolerances to cold should be more frequent. One consequence of conservatism of upper thermal tolerances is that estimated niches for cold-adapted species will tend to underestimate their upper thermal limits, thereby potentially inflating assessments of risk from climate change. In contrast, species whose climatic preferences are close to their upper thermal limits will unlikely evolve physiological tolerances to increased heat, thereby being predictably more affected by warming. PMID:23869696

  9. Dissolution patterns on caramel blocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Caroline; Derr, Julien; Berhanu, Michael; Courrech Du Pont, Sylvain

    2015-11-01

    We investigate erosion by dissolution processes. We perform laboratory experiments on hard caramel bodies, which dissolve on a short timescale, compared to geological material such as limestone. We put a block of caramel, tilted from the horizontal, in a water tank without flow. The dissolution syrup, which is denser than pure water, sinks and the flow detaching from the surface creates patterns underneath the caramel block. These patterns result from the coupled dynamics of the flow detaching and the eroding surface and are reminiscent of scallops observed in the walls of phreatic cave passages. We investigate the mechanisms of formation of these structures and their evolution depending on several parameters such as the fluid density or the flow velocity. We finally parallel the formation of patterns on melting iceberg.

  10. Spatial patterns in ant colonies.

    PubMed

    Theraulaz, Guy; Bonabeau, Eric; Nicolis, Stamatios C; Solé, Ricard V; Fourcassié, Vincent; Blanco, Stéphane; Fournier, Richard; Joly, Jean-Louis; Fernández, Pau; Grimal, Anne; Dalle, Patrice; Deneubourg, Jean-Louis

    2002-07-23

    The origins of large-scale spatial patterns in biology have been an important source of theoretical speculation since the pioneering work by Turing (1952) on the chemical basis of morphogenesis. Knowing how these patterns emerge and their functional role is important to our understanding of the evolution of biocomplexity and the role played by self organization. However, so far, conclusive evidence for local activation-long-range inhibition mechanisms in real biological systems has been elusive. Here a well-defined experimental and theoretical analysis of the pattern formation dynamics exhibited by clustering behavior in ant colonies is presented. These experiments and a simple mathematical model show that these colonies do indeed use this type of mechanism. All microscopic variables have been measured and provide the first evidence, to our knowledge, for this type of self-organized behavior in complex biological systems, supporting early conjectures about its role in the organization of insect societies. PMID:12114538

  11. Tracking interspecies transmission and long-term evolution of an ancient retrovirus using the genomes of modern mammals

    PubMed Central

    Diehl, William E; Patel, Nirali; Halm, Kate; Johnson, Welkin E

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian genomes typically contain hundreds of thousands of endogenous retroviruses (ERVs), derived from ancient retroviral infections. Using this molecular 'fossil' record, we reconstructed the natural history of a specific retrovirus lineage (ERV-Fc) that disseminated widely between ~33 and ~15 million years ago, corresponding to the Oligocene and early Miocene epochs. Intercontinental viral spread, numerous instances of interspecies transmission and emergence in hosts representing at least 11 mammalian orders, and a significant role for recombination in diversification of this viral lineage were also revealed. By reconstructing the canonical retroviral genes, we identified patterns of adaptation consistent with selection to maintain essential viral protein functions. Our results demonstrate the unique potential of the ERV fossil record for studying the processes of viral spread and emergence as they play out across macro-evolutionary timescales, such that looking back in time may prove insightful for predicting the long-term consequences of newly emerging viral infections. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12704.001 PMID:26952212

  12. Erosion Patterns on Dissolving Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Caroline; Polizzi, Stefano; Berhanu, Michael; Derr, Julien; Courrech Du Pont, Sylvain

    2015-11-01

    The shaping of landscapes results from water or wind erosional processes. Here we focus on dissolution processes. We perform laboratory experiments on hard caramel bodies, which dissolve on a short timescale, compared to geological material such as limestone. We highlight the spontaneous appearance of a dissolution pattern with no external flow. When a tilted hard caramel block dissolves, the syrup (denser than water) sinks in the bath and induces a flow, which results in a pattern on the bottom of the block. First parallel stripes appear, which evolve to transversal scallops in about one hour. The whole pattern moves upstream at a slow velocity. The stripes appearance is due to a buoyancy-driven instability. By varying the density and the viscosity of the bath, we show that the initial wavelengths of the pattern are in agreement with those given by the solutal Rayleigh-Benard number. Later pattern evolution to scallops results from complex interactions between the flow and the topography. Finally we emphasize that similar mechanism of patterns formation can occur in the dissolution of minerals like salt, but also in the shaping of the bottom face of melting icebergs in the cold seas.

  13. Viral evolution

    PubMed Central

    Nasir, Arshan; Kim, Kyung Mo; Caetano-Anollés, Gustavo

    2012-01-01

    Explaining the origin of viruses remains an important challenge for evolutionary biology. Previous explanatory frameworks described viruses as founders of cellular life, as parasitic reductive products of ancient cellular organisms or as escapees of modern genomes. Each of these frameworks endow viruses with distinct molecular, cellular, dynamic and emergent properties that carry broad and important implications for many disciplines, including biology, ecology and epidemiology. In a recent genome-wide structural phylogenomic analysis, we have shown that large-to-medium-sized viruses coevolved with cellular ancestors and have chosen the evolutionary reductive route. Here we interpret these results and provide a parsimonious hypothesis for the origin of viruses that is supported by molecular data and objective evolutionary bioinformatic approaches. Results suggest two important phases in the evolution of viruses: (1) origin from primordial cells and coexistence with cellular ancestors, and (2) prolonged pressure of genome reduction and relatively late adaptation to the parasitic lifestyle once virions and diversified cellular life took over the planet. Under this evolutionary model, new viral lineages can evolve from existing cellular parasites and enhance the diversity of the world’s virosphere. PMID:23550145

  14. Insect evolution.

    PubMed

    Engel, Michael S

    2015-10-01

    It goes without saying that insects epitomize diversity, and with over a million documented species they stand out as one of the most remarkable lineages in the 3.5-billion-year history of life on earth (Figure 1). This reality is passé to even the layperson and is taken for granted in the same way none of us think much of our breathing as we go about our day, and yet insects are just as vital to our existence. Insects are simultaneously familiar and foreign to us, and while a small fraction are beloved or reviled, most are simply ignored. These inexorable evolutionary overachievers outnumber us all, their segmented body plan is remarkably labile, they combine a capacity for high rates of speciation with low levels of natural extinction, and their history of successes eclipses those of the more familiar ages of dinosaurs and mammals alike. It is their evolution - persisting over vast expanses of geological time and inextricably implicated in the diversification of other lineages - that stands as one of the most expansive subjects in biology. PMID:26439349

  15. Punctuated evolution and robustness in morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Grigoriev, D.; Reinitz, J.; Vakulenko, S.; Weber, A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an analytic approach to the pattern stability and evolution problem in morphogenesis. The approach used here is based on the ideas from the gene and neural network theory. We assume that gene networks contain a number of small groups of genes (called hubs) controlling morphogenesis process. Hub genes represent an important element of gene network architecture and their existence is empirically confirmed. We show that hubs can stabilize morphogenetic pattern and accelerate the morphogenesis. The hub activity exhibits an abrupt change depending on the mutation frequency. When the mutation frequency is small, these hubs suppress all mutations and gene product concentrations do not change, thus, the pattern is stable. When the environmental pressure increases and the population needs new genotypes, the genetic drift and other effects increase the mutation frequency. For the frequencies that are larger than a critical amount the hubs turn off; and as a result, many mutations can affect phenotype. This effect can serve as an engine for evolution. We show that this engine is very effective: the evolution acceleration is an exponential function of gene redundancy. Finally, we show that the Eldredge-Gould concept of punctuated evolution results from the network architecture, which provides fast evolution, control of evolvability, and pattern robustness. To describe analytically the effect of exponential acceleration, we use mathematical methods developed recently for hard combinatorial problems, in particular, for so-called k-SAT problem, and numerical simulations. PMID:24996115

  16. EMU evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rouen, M.

    1991-01-01

    Evolution of Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) technology is necessary to support the Extravehicular Activity (EVA) requirements of the Space Station Freedom Program and those of the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI). Key qualities supporting long-duration missions include technologies that are highly reliable, durable, minimize logistics requirements, and are in-flight maintainable and serviceable. While these qualities are common to SSF and SEI EVA, development paths will differ where specific mission requirements impose different constraints. Development of reusable, regenerative technologies is necessary to minimize the logistics penalties. Increased battery discharge/recharge cycle life and usable wet life, compact high current density fuel cells, reusable CO2 absorbing media, and thermal radiation coupled with venting heat rejection technologies are just some methods of reducing consumables. Development must strive for durable, reliable systems that are in-flight serviceable and maintainable, which are vital for missions where logistics capabilities are extremely constrained. Key areas include suit components (e.g., gloves, boots, and cooling garments), and life support hardware such as fans, pumps, instrumentation, and emergency O2 systems. Higher pressure suits will reduce EVA prebreathe requirements and pre-EVA operations overall. Many challenges of higher pressure suits have been addressed by on-going development. Emphasis on glove development is necessary to provide low fatigue, dexterous glove mobility at higher suit pressures. Minimum impact hooks and scars which support an advanced SSF EMU have been identified. These accommodations permit upgrades that support servicing of low volume, high pressure oxygen systems, and hydrogen technologies such as fuel cell, and venting hydrogen heat rejection systems.

  17. The evolution of an asymmetric deltaic lobe (Sf. Gheorghe, Danube) in association with cyclic development of the river-mouth bar: Long-term pattern and present adaptations to human-induced sediment depletion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preoteasa, Luminiţa; Vespremeanu-Stroe, Alfred; Tătui, Florin; Zăinescu, Florin; Timar-Gabor, Alida; Cîrdan, Ionela

    2016-01-01

    The asymmetric Sf. Gheorghe lobe is the only active lobe in the Danube delta associated with a river-mouth bar (and related barrier islands and spits) that has continuously displayed cyclic development during the last 1500 years. During the early cycles, the Sf. Gheorghe distributary experienced a significant increase in sediment load (by an order of magnitude) as a result of the successive avulsions occurred 1.5-1.2 ka, which redistributed more water and sediment captured from the neighboring branches of Împuţita (southern distributary of the Sulina arm) and Dunavăţ. Morphological and sedimentological analyses together with a newly obtained chronology throw light on the multiple ridgeset (10) structure of Sf. Gheorghe lobe, each of them (excepting the first one) following a common evolutionary pattern reflected by the cyclic succession of the recurring stages: i) subaqueous mouth bar building, ii) barrier island emergence, and iii) transformation into a barrier spit with several secondary spits. The spits become encased into the muddy deltaic plain as narrow sandy ridges building out on the downdrift side of the lobe as a barrier-marsh plain, whereas the updrift side constantly accreted fed by longshore currents, forming a classic beach ridge plain. The size of each ridgeset increased exponentially with every new cycle due to the constant lengthening of the coastline as the downdrift side of the lobe advanced seaward through a series of progressively larger similar quadrilaterals, yielding a corresponding geometric progression of the delta front size. Even though each newly formed ridgeset (cycle) had a longer lifespan (the latest cycles lasting 4-5 times longer than the first ones: 200-440 years versus 50-80 years), the evolutionary model remained unchanged as long as the balance between wave- and river-borne sediments, defined by the sedimentary index (Si), remained constantly low (Si ≤ 0.1), whereas the mean advance rates of the river mouth remained

  18. Predation and protection in the macroevolutionary history of conifer cones

    PubMed Central

    Leslie, Andrew B.

    2011-01-01

    Conifers are an excellent group in which to explore how changing ecological interactions may have influenced the allocation of reproductive tissues in seed plants over long time scales, because of their extensive fossil record and their important role in terrestrial ecosystems since the Palaeozoic. Measurements of individual conifer pollen-producing and seed-producing cones from the Pennsylvanian to the Recent show that the relative amount of tissue invested in pollen cones has remained constant through time, while seed cones show a sharp increase in proportional tissue investment in the Jurassic that has continued to intensify to the present day. Since seed size in conifers has remained similar through time, this increase reflects greater investment in protective cone tissues such as robust, tightly packed scales. This shift in morphology and tissue allocation is broadly concurrent with the appearance of new vertebrate groups capable of browsing in tree canopies, as well as a diversification of insect-feeding strategies, suggesting that an important change in plant–animal interactions occurred over the Mesozoic that favoured an increase in seed cone protective tissues. PMID:21345864

  19. Macroevolutionary dynamics in the early diversification of Asteraceae.

    PubMed

    Panero, Jose L; Crozier, Bonnie S

    2016-06-01

    Spatial and temporal differences in ecological opportunity can result in disparity of net species diversification rates and consequently uneven distribution of taxon richness across the tree of life. The largest eudicotyledonous plant family Asteraceae has a global distribution and at least 460 times more species than its South American endemic sister family Calyceraceae. In this study, diversification rate dynamics across Asteraceae are examined in light of the several hypothesized causes for the family's evolutionary success that could be responsible for rate change. The innovations of racemose capitulum and pappus, and a whole genome duplication event occurred near the origin of the family, yet we found the basal lineages of Asteraceae that evolved in South America share background diversification rates with Calyceraceae and their Australasian sister Goodeniaceae. Instead we found diversification rates increased gradually from the origin of Asteraceae approximately 69.5Ma in the late Cretaceous through the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum at least. In contrast to earlier studies, significant rate shifts were not strongly correlated with intercontinental dispersals or polyploidization. The difference is due primarily to sampling more backbone nodes, as well as calibrations placed internally in Asteraceae that resulted in earlier divergence times than those found in most previous relaxed clock studies. Two clades identified as having transformed rate processes are the Vernonioid Clade and a clade within the Heliantheae alliance characterized by phytomelanic fruit (PF Clade) that represents an American radiation. In Africa, subfamilies Carduoideae, Pertyoideae, Gymnarrhenoideae, Cichorioideae, Corymbioideae, and Asteroideae diverged in a relatively short span of only 6.5millionyears during the Middle Eocene. PMID:26979262

  20. Digging Deep: Exploring College Students' Knowledge of Macroevolutionary Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catley, Kefyn M.; Novick, Laura R.

    2009-01-01

    Some ability to comprehend deep time is a prerequisite for understanding macroevolution. This study examines students' knowledge of deep time in the context of seven major historical and evolutionary events (e.g., the age of the Earth, the emergence of life, the appearance of a pre-modern human, "Homo habilis"). The subjects were 126 students…