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Sample records for evolutional approach proven

  1. A proven approach for more effective software development and maintenance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pajerski, Rose; Hall, Dana; Sinclair, Craig

    1994-01-01

    Modern space flight mission operations and associated ground data systems are increasingly dependent upon reliable, quality software. Critical functions such as command load preparation, health and status monitoring, communications link scheduling and conflict resolution, and transparent gateway protocol conversion are routinely performed by software. Given budget constraints and the ever increasing capabilities of processor technology, the next generation of control centers and data systems will be even more dependent upon software across all aspects of performance. A key challenge now is to implement improved engineering, management, and assurance processes for the development and maintenance of that software; processes that cost less, yield higher quality products, and that self-correct for continual improvement evolution. The NASA Goddard Space Flight Center has a unique experience base that can be readily tapped to help solve the software challenge. Over the past eighteen years, the Software Engineering Laboratory within the code 500 Flight Dynamics Division has evolved a software development and maintenance methodology that accommodates the unique characteristics of an organization while optimizing and continually improving the organization's software capabilities. This methodology relies upon measurement, analysis, and feedback much analogous to that of control loop systems. It is an approach with a time-tested track record proven through repeated applications across a broad range of operational software development and maintenance projects. This paper describes the software improvement methodology employed by the Software Engineering Laboratory, and how it has been exploited within the Flight Dynamics Division with GSFC Code 500. Examples of specific improvement in the software itself and its processes are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the methodology. Finally, the initial findings are given when this methodology was applied across the

  2. A proven knowledge-based approach to prioritizing process information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corsberg, Daniel R.

    1991-01-01

    Many space-related processes are highly complex systems subject to sudden, major transients. In any complex process control system, a critical aspect is rapid analysis of the changing process information. During a disturbance, this task can overwhelm humans as well as computers. Humans deal with this by applying heuristics in determining significant information. A simple, knowledge-based approach to prioritizing information is described. The approach models those heuristics that humans would use in similar circumstances. The approach described has received two patents and was implemented in the Alarm Filtering System (AFS) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). AFS was first developed for application in a nuclear reactor control room. It has since been used in chemical processing applications, where it has had a significant impact on control room environments. The approach uses knowledge-based heuristics to analyze data from process instrumentation and respond to that data according to knowledge encapsulated in objects and rules. While AFS cannot perform the complete diagnosis and control task, it has proven to be extremely effective at filtering and prioritizing information. AFS was used for over two years as a first level of analysis for human diagnosticians. Given the approach's proven track record in a wide variety of practical applications, it should be useful in both ground- and space-based systems.

  3. Capturing Provenance, Evolution and Modification of Clinical Protocols via a Heterogeneous, Semantic Social Network.

    PubMed

    Portokallidis, Nick; Drosatos, George; Kaldoudi, Eleni

    2016-01-01

    Healthcare delivery is largely based on medical best practices as in clinical protocols. Research so far has addressed the computerized execution of clinical protocols by developing a number of related representation languages, execution engines and integrated platforms to support real time execution. However, much less effort has been put into organizing clinical protocols for use and reuse. In this paper we propose a heterogeneous semantic social network to describe and organize clinical protocols based on their provenance, evolution and modifications. The proposed approach allows semantic tagging and enrichment of clinical protocols so that they can be used and re-used across platforms and also be linked directly to other relevant scientific information, e.g. published works in PubMed or personal health records, and other clinical information systems. PMID:27332270

  4. Spectral data analysis approaches for improved provenance classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorauf, Kellen J.; Bauer, Amy J. R.; Miziolek, Andrzej W.; De Lucia, Frank C.

    2015-06-01

    In the last 10 years various chemometric methods have been developed and used for the analysis of spectra generated by Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS). One of the more successful and proven methods is Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA). Recently PLS-DA was utilized for purposes of provenance of spent brass cartridges and achieved correct classification at around 93% with a false alarm rate of around 5%. The LIBS spectra from the cartridge samples are rich in emission lines from numerous mostly metallic elements comprising the brass and the cited results were based on the analysis of the full broadband high resolution spectra. It was observed that some of the lines were clearly saturated in all spectra, while others were sometimes saturated due to pulse-to-pulse variation. The pulse-to-pulse variation was also evident in the intensity variations of the spectra within cartridges and between cartridges. In order to improve on the accuracy of the classification we have developed some preprocessing strategies including the removal of spectral wavelength ranges susceptible to saturation and normalization techniques to diminish the effects of intensity variations in the spectra. The results indicate incremental improvements when applying additional preprocessing steps to the limit of 100% True Positives and 0% False Positives when utilizing selected wavelengths that are normalized and averaged.

  5. Influence of Rock Strength on Landscape Evolution and Sediment Provenance Records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forte, A. M.; Whipple, K. X.; Yanites, B.

    2014-12-01

    Detrital minerals within the stratigraphic record provide key constraints for a range of geologic problems, including the first order tectonic setting of basins, structural histories within orogens, changes in climate, and major drainage network reorganizations. Numerous provenance techniques exist for linking detrital minerals to their source areas, but the majority of these methods share an underlying assumption that sediment delivered to a basin is a representative sample of the bedrock geology of the source area. Satisfying this assumption requires that sediment production rates, i.e. erosion rates, of a source area are uniform throughout. In detail, erosion rates within a source area vary as a function of patterns of landscape evolution dictated by rock erodibility, climate, and relative uplift rate, thus long-term and transient biasing of sediment provenance records is expected. Biases associated with landscape evolution in response to changes in climate, tectonics, or strength of exposed rock can last 10s Myr. Previous work recognized a potential influence of differential erosion on provenance records, but the relative importance of this effect has proven difficult to quantify with field data. To address this, we are using a modified version of the CHILD landscape evolution model (LEM), which supports numerous lithologies with different erodibilities within a landscape. We perform a sensitivity analysis on the relative influence of rock strength and changes in climate or uplift rate on provenance records. We focus on U-Pb detrital zircon records because these data have seen wide adoption as a provenance tool and the refractory nature of zircon makes them less likely to be influenced by chemical weathering effects that are beyond the scope of this work. We plan to test several scenarios including variations in rock erodibility and temporal changes in climate or uplift rate. We will then use results from the LEM to calculate erosion rates from different

  6. Rapid evolution and range expansion of an invasive plant are driven by provenance-environment interactions.

    PubMed

    Zenni, Rafael D; Bailey, Joseph K; Simberloff, Daniel

    2014-06-01

    To improve our ability to prevent and manage biological invasions, we must understand their ecological and evolutionary drivers. We are often able to explain invasions after they happen, but our predictive ability is limited. Here, we show that range expansions of introduced Pinus taeda result from an interaction between genetic provenance and climate and that temperature and precipitation clines predict the invasive performance of particular provenances. Furthermore, we show that genotypes can occupy climate niche spaces different from those observed in their native ranges and, at least in our case, that admixture is not a main driver of invasion. Genotypes respond to climate in distinct ways, and these interactions affect the ability of populations to expand their ranges. While rapid evolution in introduced ranges is a mechanism at later stages of the invasion process, the introduction of adapted genotypes is a key driver of naturalisation of populations of introduced species. PMID:24703489

  7. Multiobjective Optimization Using a Pareto Differential Evolution Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madavan, Nateri K.; Biegel, Bryan A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Differential Evolution is a simple, fast, and robust evolutionary algorithm that has proven effective in determining the global optimum for several difficult single-objective optimization problems. In this paper, the Differential Evolution algorithm is extended to multiobjective optimization problems by using a Pareto-based approach. The algorithm performs well when applied to several test optimization problems from the literature.

  8. A convergent diffusion and social marketing approach for disseminating proven approaches to physical activity promotion.

    PubMed

    Dearing, James W; Maibach, Edward W; Buller, David B

    2006-10-01

    Approaches from diffusion of innovations and social marketing are used here to propose efficient means to promote and enhance the dissemination of evidence-based physical activity programs. While both approaches have traditionally been conceptualized as top-down, center-to-periphery, centralized efforts at social change, their operational methods have usually differed. The operational methods of diffusion theory have a strong relational emphasis, while the operational methods of social marketing have a strong transactional emphasis. Here, we argue for a convergence of diffusion of innovation and social marketing principles to stimulate the efficient dissemination of proven-effective programs. In general terms, we are encouraging a focus on societal sectors as a logical and efficient means for enhancing the impact of dissemination efforts. This requires an understanding of complex organizations and the functional roles played by different individuals in such organizations. In specific terms, ten principles are provided for working effectively within societal sectors and enhancing user involvement in the processes of adoption and implementation. PMID:16979466

  9. Provenance record of Paleogene exhumation and Laramide basin evolution along the southern Rocky Mountain front

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bush, M. A.; Horton, B. K.; Murphy, M. A.; Stockli, D. F.

    2015-12-01

    The Sangre de Cristo and Nacimiento uplifts of the southern Rocky Mountains formed key parts of a major Paleogene topographic boundary separating the Cordilleran orogenic system from the North American plate interior. This barrier largely isolated interior Laramide basins from a broad Laramide foreland with fluvial systems draining to the Gulf of Mexico, and thereby played a critical role in the evolution of continental-scale paleodrainage patterns. New detrital zircon U-Pb geochronology and heavy mineral provenance analyses of Cretaceous-Paleogene siliciclastic strata in the Raton, Galisteo-El Rito, and San Juan basins record the partitioning of the broad Cordilleran (Sevier) foreland basin by Laramide basement uplifts. These trends are recognized both in provenance signals and depositional styles corresponding to cratonward (eastward) propagation of the Laramide deformation front and resultant advance of flexural depocenters in the North American interior. Along the eastern flank of the deformation front, the Raton basin shows a mix of Cordilleran, Appalachian, and Grenville age zircons restricted to the Cretaceous Dakota and Vermejo formations, marine units of the Western Interior Seaway. Upsection, the Cordilleran age peaks are absent from Paleocene-Eocene units, consistent with significant Laramide drainage reorganization and isolation from Cordilleran sources to the west. In the Galisteo-El Rito basin system, a shift to dominantly Mazatzal-Yavapai basement ages is recognized in the Paleocene El Rito and Oligocene Ritito formations. The heavy mineral results show a corresponding shift to less mature, dominantly metamorphic source compositions. These new datasets bear upon Cretaceous-Cenozoic reconstructions of North American paleodrainage and have implications for potential linkages between major fluvial systems of the southern Rocky Mountains and Paleogene deepwater reservoir units in the Gulf of Mexico basin.

  10. Bridging the Gap between Scientific Data Producers and Consumers: A Provenance Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Stephan, Eric G.; Pinheiro da Silva, Paulo; Kleese van Dam, Kerstin

    2013-06-03

    Despite the methodical and painstaking efforts made by scientists to record their scientific findings and protocols, a knowledge gap problem continues to persist today between producers of scientific results and consumers because technology is performing the exchange of data as opposed to scientists making direct contact. Provenance is a means to formalize how this knowledge is transferred. However, for it to be meaningful to scientists, the provenance research community needs continued contributions from the scientific community to extend and leverage provenance-based vocabularies and technology from the provenance community. Going forward the provenance community must also be vigilant to meet scalability needs of data intensive science

  11. Simple approach to sediment provenance tracing using element analysis and fundamental principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matys Grygar, Tomas; Elznicova, Jitka; Popelka, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Common sediment fingerprinting techniques use either (1) extensive analytical datasets, sometimes nearly complete with respect to accessible characterization techniques; they are processed by multidimensional statistics based on certain statistical assumptions on distribution functions of analytical results and conservativeness/additivity of some components, or (2) analytically demanding characteristics such as isotope ratios assumed to be unequivocal "labels" on the parent material unaltered by any catchment process. The inherent problem of the approach ad (1) is that interpretation of statistical components ("sources") is done ex post and remains purely formal. The problem of the approach ad (2) is that catchment processes (weathering, transport, deposition) can modify most geochemical parameters of soils and sediments, in other words, that the idea that some geochemistry parameters are "conservative" may be idealistic. Grain-size effects and sediment provenance have a joint influence on chemical composition of fluvial sediments that is indeed not easy to distinguish. Attempts to separate those two main components using only statistics seem risky and equivocal, because grain-size dependence of element composition is nearly individual for each element and reflects sediment maturity and catchment-specific formation transport processes. We suppose that the use of less extensive datasets of analytical results and their interpretation respecting fundamental principles should be more robust than only statistic tools applied to overwhelming datasets. We examined sediment composition, both published by other researchers and gathered by us, and we found some general principles, which are in our opinion relevant for fingerprinting: (1) Concentrations of all elements are grain-size sensitive, i.e. there are no "conservative" elements in conventional sense of provenance- or transport-pathways tracing, (2) fractionation by catchment processes and fluvial transport changes

  12. An agent-based approach for capturing and linking provenance in geoscience workflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narock, Tom; Yoon, Victoria

    2015-06-01

    Provenance is becoming increasingly important as web services and computational workflows enable new methods by which work is conducted. Yet, there exist sets of questions that cannot be addressed by current provenance capture systems. We address these challenges by leveraging a service provenance ontology that captures execution details of workflow constituent web services. The ontology is used in conjunction with a multi-agent system to automate provenance aggregation and collation. The use of a multi-agent system eliminates the need to modify service interfaces, as was done in previous research. Simulation experiments are used to evaluate multiple agent topologies and identify an efficient and scalable system that scales to large numbers of workflows.

  13. Student Teachers' Approaches to Teaching Biological Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borgerding, Lisa A.; Klein, Vanessa A.; Ghosh, Rajlakshmi; Eibel, Albert

    2015-06-01

    Evolution is fundamental to biology and scientific literacy, but teaching high school evolution is often difficult. Evolution teachers face several challenges including limited content knowledge, personal conflicts with evolution, expectations of resistance, concerns about students' conflicts with religion, and curricular constraints. Evolution teaching can be particularly challenging for student teachers who are just beginning to gain pedagogical knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge related to evolution teaching and who seek approval from university supervisors and cooperating teachers. Science teacher educators need to know how to best support student teachers as they broach the sometimes daunting task of teaching evolution within student teaching placements. This multiple case study report documents how three student teachers approached evolution instruction and what influenced their approaches. Data sources included student teacher interviews, field note observations for 4-5 days of evolution instruction, and evolution instructional artifacts. Data were analyzed using grounded theory approaches to develop individual cases and a cross-case analysis. Seven influences (state exams and standards, cooperating teacher, ideas about teaching and learning, concerns about evolution controversy, personal commitment to evolution, knowledge and preparation for teaching evolution, and own evolution learning experiences) were identified and compared across cases. Implications for science teacher preparation and future research are provided.

  14. U-Pb Detrital Zircon Ages from Sarawak: Changes in Provenance Reflecting the Tectonic Evolution of Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breitfeld, H. T.; Galin, T.; Hall, R.

    2014-12-01

    Sarawak is located on the northern edge of Sundaland in NW Borneo. Five sedimentary basins are distinguished with ages from Triassic to Cenozoic. New light mineral, heavy mineral and U-Pb detrital zircon ages show differences in provenance reflecting the tectonic evolution of the region. The oldest clastic sediments are Triassic of the Sadong-Kuching Basin and were sourced by a Carnian to Norian volcanic arc and erosion of Cathaysian rocks containing zircons of Paleoproterozoic age. Sandstones of the Upper Jurassic to Cretaceous Bau-Pedawan Basin have distinctive zircon populations indicating a major change of tectonic setting, including initiation of subduction below present-day West Sarawak in the Late Jurassic. A wide range of inherited zircon ages indicates various Cathaysian fragments as major source areas and the arrival of the SW Borneo Block following subduction beneath the Schwaner Mountains in the early Late Cretaceous. After collision of the SW Borneo Block and the microcontinental fragments with Sundaland in the early Late Cretaceous, deep marine sedimentation (Pedawan Formation) ceased, and there was uplift forming the regional Pedawan-Kayan unconformity. Two episodes of extension were responsible for basin development on land from the latest Cretaceous onwards, probably in a strike-slip setting. The first episode formed the Kayan Basin in the Latest Cretaceous (Maastrichtian) to Early Paleocene, and the second formed the Ketungau Basin and the Penrissen Sandstone in the Middle to Late Eocene. Zircons indicate nearby volcanic activity throughout the Early Cenozoic in NW Borneo. Inherited zircon ages indicate an alternation between Borneo and Tin Belt source rocks. A large deep marine basin, the Rajang Basin, formed north of the Lupar Line fault. Zircons from sediments of the Rajang Basin indicate they are of similar age and provenance as the contemporaneous terrestrial sediments to the south suggesting a narrow steep continental Sundaland margin at the

  15. A Multi-technique Approach for Provenance Studies of Mesozoic Clastic Rocks in the Barents Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, N. E.; Zimmermann, U.; Støle, L.; Ruud, C.; Mostafa, E.; Andò, S.; Borromeo, L.; Magnaghi, M.; Lapen, T. J.

    2015-12-01

    Sediments of Mesozoic age deposited in the Arctic Hammerfest and Tromsø basins (southern Barents Sea) are the focus of a comprehensive provenance study which forms part of ongoing work by the LoCrA consortium (Lower Cretaceous Basin Studies in the Arctic). Jurassic (Stø, Fuglen, Hekkingen) and Cretaceous (Knurr, Kolje, Kolmule) formations were sampled from seven wells. Analytical methods include petrography, whole-rock geochemistry, heavy mineral (HM) analysis and U-Pb on detrital zircons. HM concentration is <1%, with an ultrastable HM assemblage of zircon, rutile, tourmaline, spinel, apatite, garnet, chloritoid and common authigenic heavy minerals and opaques. Cretaceous sedimentary rocks show geochemical variations that reflect an unrecycled Upper Continental Crust signature, whereas Jurassic detritus tends to show more evidence of recycling with a relatively low input of mafic material. Kolmule Formation whole-rock geochemistry indicates sediment recycling from a major Sc-depleted but intermediate to mafic source and hence suggests input of rift detritus from the syn-depositional opening of the Atlantic Ocean. U-Pb ages for detrital zircons for Cretaceous sandstones show age groups of 200-500 Ma, 1200-1800 Ma, and 2100-2800 Ma, indicating potential source regions in the Urals/Novaya Zemlya, the Caledonides, Grenvillian/Sveconorwegian, and Palaeoproterozoic and Archean sources. Provenance data via geochemistry and HM analysis indicate different sources in the same formation basin-wide, with a significant change in provenance and sediment composition from Jurassic to Cretaceous and between the Knurr and Kolmule formations. These differences in composition need to be compared to detailed single grain studies and may only be explained in terms of basin dynamics, or even on a smaller scale, in terms of facies distributions. If so, this case study raises concerns about the use of single samples for provenance models on a larger scale.

  16. Detrital zircon provenance analysis of the Great Valley Group, California: Evolution of an arc-forearc system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeGraaff-Surpless, K.; Graham, S.A.; Wooden, J.L.; McWilliams, M.O.

    2002-01-01

    The improved resolution of sediment provenance from detrital zircon analysis of Great Valley stratigraphy enables recognition of previously undocumented arc magmatism and the evolution of regional drainage systems within the Cretaceous arc-forearc system related to uplift, magmatism, and structure in the arc. Great Valley detrital zircon age data confirm previous studies that indicate that the locus of the sediment source in the southern Sierra Nevada arc migrated east with the active volcanic front and suggest rapid rates of uplift and unroofing of the southern arc. Sacramento Valley detrital zircon age data indicate a more complex history of drainage in the northern Klamath-Sierran arc than previously documented. Detrital zircon age distributions from the Cache Creek section of the Great Valley Group broaden through time from nearly unimodal age distributions to signatures with multiple age peaks. This transition to more broadly distributed detrital zircon age spectra likely results from a combination of (1) expanding subaerial drainage systems from highly localized to more broadly distributed catchments; (2) changing shelf and submarine-canyon morphology with rising sea level and/or basin subsidence; (3) increased degree of dissection of the Klamath-Sierran arc; and (4) potential drainage capture and redirection within the arc. Sacramento Valley detrital zircon age data also record a pulse of Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous magmatism in the northwestern Sierra Nevada arc, an age of Cordilleran magmatism and deformation represented by limited exposure in the modern Sierra Nevada. These results offer significant new insights into the evolution of a well-studied arc-forearc system.

  17. An Approach to Evaluate Scientist Support in Abstract Workflows and Provenance Traces

    SciTech Connect

    Salayandia, Leonardo; Gates, Ann Q.; Pinheiro da Silva, Paulo

    2012-11-02

    Abstract workflows are useful to bridge the gap between scientists and technologists towards using computer systems to carry out scientific processes. Provenance traces provide evidence required to validate results and support their reuse. Assuming both technologies are based on formal semantics, a knowledge-based system that consistently merges both technologies is useful for scientists that produce data to document their data collecting and transformation processes; it is also useful for scientists that reuse data to assess scientific processes and resulting datasets produced by others. While evaluation of each technology is necessary for a given application, this work discusses their combined evaluation. The claim is that both technologies should complement each other and align consistently to a scientist’s perspective in order to be effective for science. Evaluation criteria are proposed based on lessons learned and exemplified for discussion.

  18. Provenance analysis of the Oligocene turbidites (Andaman Flysch), South Andaman Island: A geochemical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandopadhyay, P. C.; Ghosh, Biswajit

    2015-07-01

    The Oligocene-aged sandstone-shale turbidites of the Andaman Flysch are best exposed along the east coast of the South Andaman Island. Previously undocumented sandstone-shale geochemistry, investigated here, provides important geochemical constraints on turbidite provenance. The average 70.75 wt% SiO2, 14.52 wt% Al2O3, 8.2 wt% FeMgO and average 0.20 Al2O3/SiO2 and 1.08 K2O/Na2O ratios in sandstones, compare with quartzwackes. The shale samples have average 59.63 wt% SiO2, 20.29 wt% Al2O3, 12.63 wt% FeMgO and average 2.42 K2O/Na2O and 0.34 Al2O3/SiO2 ratios. Geochemical data on CaO-Na2O-K2O diagram fall close to a granite field and on K2O/Na2O-SiO2 diagram within an active continental margin tectonic setting. The range and average values of Rb and Rb/Sr ratios are consistent with acid-intermediate igneous source rocks, while the values and ratios for Cr and Ni are with mafic rocks. Combined geochemical, petrographic and palaeocurrent data indicate a dominantly plutonic-metamorphic provenance with a lesser contribution from sedimentary and volcanic source, which is possibly the Shan-Thai continental block and volcanic arc of the north-eastern and eastern Myanmar. Chemical index of alteration (CIA) values suggests a moderate range of weathering of a moderate relief terrane under warm and humid climate.

  19. Structural and drainage pattern evolution of the Alborz Mountains (N Iran) inferred from provenance data and magnetostratigraphy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballato, P.; Landgraf, A.; Strecker, M. R.; Friedrich, A.; Tabatabaei, S.

    2007-12-01

    The Alborz Mts, N Iran, constitute an active, E-W-oriented, double verging orogen, within the continental collision zone between Arabia and Eurasia. GPS data show that currently convergence is partitioned in the Alborz by 6 mmyr-1 of NNE directed shortening and 4 mmyr-1 of left-lateral motion. The growth of the Alborz was associated with the development of adjacent foreland basins. Here, we discuss the evolution of the southern Alborz and its foreland basin. We present a sandstone and conglomerate provenance study, combined with sedimentary facies analysis, and magnetostratigraphy of a 7200-m-thick sedimentary section in the foreland basin, previously thought to be Mio- Pleistocene in age. This section includes three first-order coarsening and thickening upward units and documents a gradual transition from restricted marine to lacustrine, braided river (U1 and U2), and alluvial fan depositional environments (U3). These units were deposited between 17.5 and 7.8 Ma. Assuming a constant accumulation rate for the alluvial-fan conglomerates of U3, the top of the section is approximately 6 m.y. old. The derived accumulation rates correlate with the cyclicity of the recognized units: at the bottom of each cycle in association with the fine-grained facies, the accumulation rates are faster, while with the appearance of coarse- grained facies the accumulation rates decrease. Fifty sandstone samples were analyzed using the Gazzi-Dickinson sandstone provenance method. The detrital modes of lithic grains indicate at least two first-order variations in the source area. The first major change occurred at the bottom of U1 and is characterised by an increase of low-grade metamorphic clasts and a concomitant decrease in volcanoclastic grains. The second major change is manifested at the base of U3 with a progressive decrease in low-grade metamorphic clasts and the increase of carbonates and volcanic lithics. The analysis of conglomerate clasts shows a relatively uniform composition

  20. Geochemical evolution of the Tertiary succession of the NW shelf, Bengal basin, Bangladesh: Implications for provenance, paleoweathering and Himalayan erosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Dhiman Kumer; Roser, B. P.

    2013-12-01

    Whole rock major, trace and rare earth element (REE) compositions of Paleogene to Neogene sedimentary rocks of the NW shelf succession (Province 1) of Bangladesh contain a record of interaction of the India and Asian plates, Himalayan tectonism, and climatic development. Analyses of 66 sandstones and mudrocks from the Tertiary succession of Bangladesh were made to examine provenance, source weathering, and the influence of paleoclimate and tectonism. The sediments display linear geochemical trends due to quartz dilution, and varying quartz-clay ratios produced by hydrodynamic sorting. Chondrite-normalized REE patterns for both sandstones and mudrocks from different groups are similar to upper continental crust, with moderate to high LREE enrichment (lithotypes within formations average LaN/YbN 5.31-11.41) and marked negative Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu* 0.51-0.69). Based on geochemical criteria the succession can be divided into three parts (Jaintia; Barail-Surma; and Dupi Tila). Very high silica contents in Jaintia Tura sandstones and high Chemical Index of Alteration (CIA) indices in Kopili mudrocks (Fe-shales) suggest derivation from a deeply weathered and stable cratonic source (India). The Tura sandstones are interpreted as first-cycle quartz arenites, produced while the Indian plate drifted across equatorial regions during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal maximum (PETM). The Barail-Surma and Dupi Tila sediments were derived from a felsic orogen (the Himalaya). The Barail-Surma sediments were mainly derived from the Trans Himalayan Batholith and associated granitoids, with significant contribution from the Lesser Himalaya. Mafic input is also evident, probably from intraoceanic arc material within the Himalaya. Barail mudrocks have uniformly high CIA values (92-95), suggesting intense steady-state weathering of their proto-Himalayan source, and warm and humid climate. In contrast, CIA values of Surma mudrocks range from 66 to 93 (average 84), suggesting non-steady state

  1. Provenance evolution of the Western foreland basin and its relationship to the exhumation of source rocks during arc-continent collision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagel, S.; Fellin, M. G.; Castelltort, S.; Willett, S. D.; Mouthereau, F.; Lin, A. T.

    2012-04-01

    Late Miocene to Pleistocene sedimentary rocks in the Western foreland basin of Taiwan record the evolution of an orogenic wedge during oblique arc-continent collision between the Luzon volcanic arc and the Chinese passive margin. Our stratigraphic record reaches back to pre-collisional sediments of the Late Miocene to Pliocene, which were deposited on the Chinese passive margin. A dramatic change is observed in the Pliocene, as the depositional center shifts to a collisional basin developing on the passive margin due to the obliquely colliding Luzon Arc and input of sediment from the approaching accretionary wedge. Synorogenic sedimentation continues into the Pleistocene providing a history of material being eroded from the growing mountains to the east. We apply standard provenance analysis techniques on several stratigraphic profiles along the strike of the orogen to relate the sediments to their source and reconstruct possible distribution pathways to further enhance a paleogeographic reconstruction of the area. Unmetamorphosed mudstones within our sedimentary record contain abundant detrital illite, chlorite and zircons. The Illite Crystallinity Index (IC) and the fission-track dating of detrital zircons provides robust information about the thermal history of source terrains, and we combine these methods to infer the timing of exhumation of metamorphic rocks in the Central Range of Taiwan. The initial input of illite minerals with high crystallinity and of zircons with reset ages (younger than 10 Ma) is recorded in the Yutengping fm. and Chinsui Shale, around 3.5 Ma in the north and around 2.5 Ma in the South, contemporaneously with a deepening and widening of the depositional basin. This is the time of deposition of the mud-dominated Chinshui shale, interpreted as the "underfilled" stage of the foreland basin. This clearly marks accelerated subsidence caused by the approach of the growing orogen. In the south, the illite crystallinity and the frequency of

  2. Middle-Late Mesozoic sedimentary provenances of the Luxi and Jiaolai areas: Implications for tectonic evolution of the North China Block

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jianqiang; Li, Zhong

    2015-11-01

    Provenances of sedimentary rocks may provide important constraints on the tectonic evolution of the North China Block (NCB). Previous studies have demonstrated that the northern NCB (NNCB) and the Xing-Meng orogenic belt (XMOB) supplied massive detritus southward into the hinterland of the NCB during the Jurassic. In order to study the evolution of sedimentary provenance during the Middle-Late Mesozoic, U-Pb geochronology and Hf isotopic geochemistry of detrital zircon grains and chemical compositions of detrital garnets from sandstones in the Luxi and Jiaolai areas, eastern NCB, were analyzed in combination with published data on the Jurassic sandstones. The Late Paleozoic-Mesozoic (367-139 Ma) zircons in the lowermost Cretaceous Mengyin Formation samples from the Luxi area show εHf(t) values of -15.3 to -3.2 and +1.3 to +10.0, which are very similar to the results of analyses of the Jurassic formations. Further, the increased amount of Mesozoic zircons and granulite-derived garnets in the Mengyin Formation samples, compared to those in the Jurassic samples, indicates there was more detritus supply from the NNCB than from the XMOB. In the overlying Qingshan Formation samples, zircon grains do not exhibit Paleozoic ages, but most of them have Early Cretaceous ages and negative εHf(t) values, which are similar to the zircon grains extracted from the widespread Early Cretaceous igneous rocks in the NCB. This suggests that the provenance might have changed to a locally derived source. In contrast, the zircon population of the Early Cretaceous sandstones from the Jiaolai basin is dominated by grains of mid-Neoproterozoic age (700-900 Ma) which signifies contribution from the Sulu orogen. Moreover, the detrital garnet assemblages of sandstones in the Luxi area are not consistent with those from representative metamorphic rocks in the Sulu orogen. The above results seem to confirm that the Mesozoic sedimentary provenance of the Luxi area had no evident connection with

  3. Insights from heavy minerals and zircon U-Pb ages into the middle Miocene-Pliocene provenance evolution of the Yinggehai Basin, northwestern South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Tao; Cao, Licheng; Xie, Xinong; Wang, Zhenfeng; Li, Xushen; Zhang, Yingzhao; Zhang, Daojun; Sun, Hui

    2015-08-01

    The well-preserved Cenozoic sedimentary record in the Yinggehai Basin, South China Sea, is suitable to explore the tectonic and climatic evolution of SE Asia. Red River, a large-scale fluvial system in this region, was previously regarded as the major sediment source for the basin. Here we combine heavy mineral analysis and detrital zircon U-Pb dating to shed new light on the middle Miocene-Pliocene provenance evolution at a basin scale. The results clearly reveal potential source areas additional to the Red River. Sediments have been delivered to the proximal areas from Hainan Island, as indicated by the high zircon content and the Yanshanian U-Pb ages in the southern segment of the Yingdong Slope. A provenance from Central Vietnam is explicitly discerned in the upper Miocene of the Central Depression, where sediments are characterized by few metamorphic heavy minerals and the U-Pb age pattern peaking at around 250 Ma and 440 Ma. Coeval large-scale relative sea-level fall and rapid exhumation along the Vietnamese margin together may have facilitated this long-distance sediment transport. Provenance of sediments from the Red River seems to change over time. Song Lo River, on the north side of the main stream, probably flowed from the NE and carried Neoproterozoic-early Paleozoic zircons to the Yinggehai Basin during the middle Miocene. Since the late Miocene, rocks along the Red River Fault Zone have become the dominant source. Subsequently, widespread metamorphic minerals in the Central Depression of the Yinggehai Basin, combined with the strong river incision and high offshore sedimentation rates, indicate an increased sediment supply from the Red River in the Pliocene.

  4. Sedimentological and stratigraphic evolution of the southern part of the Barberton greenstone belt: A case of changing provenance and stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowe, D. R.; Byerly, G. R.

    1986-01-01

    The sedimentological and stratigraphic evolution of the 3.5 to 3.3 Ga Barberton Greenstone Belt can be divided into three principal stages: (1) the volcanic platform stage during which at least 8 km of mafic and ultramafic volcanic rocks, minor felsic volcanic units, and thin sedimentary layers (Onverwacht Group) accumulated under generally anorogenic conditions; (2) a transitional stage of developing instability during which widespread dacitic volcanism and associated pyroclastic and volcaniclastic sedimentation was punctuated by the deposition of terrigenous debris derived by uplift and shallow erosion of the belt itself (Fig Tree Group); (3) an orogenic stage involving cessation of active volcanism, extensive thrust faulting, and widespread deposition of clastic sediments representing deep erosion of the greenstone belt sequence as well as sources outside of the belt (Moodies Group).

  5. Combined heavy mineral and biomarker analysis in silt: a novel approach for provenance studies (Indus Fan, IODP Expedition 355)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andò, Sergio; Bratenkov, Sophia; Hahn, Annette; George, Simon; Clift, Peter D.; Garzanti, Eduardo

    2016-04-01

    A high-resolution mineralogical study of Indus Fan turbiditic sediments cored during IODP Expedition 355 (Arabian Sea Monsoon) in the Laxmi Basin was carried out to investigate and quantify the different compositional signatures encoded in the sand, silt, and clay fractions. The turbidite deposits recovered at IODP Sites U1456 and U1457 in sedimentological Unit II were chosen as the best candidate for such a study. The integrated dataset presented here was obtained by coupling traditional and innovative bulk-sediment to single-grain analytical techniques, including bulk petrography, heavy-mineral and biomarker analyses on the same samples. Reliable quantitative results even in the medium to fine silt classes, which represent the dominant sediment sizes encountered in the recovered cores, were obtained by point-counting under the microscope, assisted by Micro-Raman spectroscopy (Andò et al., 2011; 2014). Preliminary data from the studied turbidites document rich and diverse heavy mineral assemblages in both the sand and silty-sand fractions. Heavy-mineral concentrations, as well as the number of mineral species, reach a maximum in sand and tend to decrease with grain size, becoming minimal in the clay fraction. Conversely, the biomarker analysis is generally focused on the finer sediment fractions and clay, where better preservation of biomarker compounds are obtained. The two approaches are thus complementary. Because biomarkers tend to be depleted in sand and heavy minerals in clay, the medium silt fraction represents the most suitable size window for the joint application of these two techniques. Comparing heavy-mineral assemblages with biomarkers allows us to evaluate both continental and marine inputs in turbidites and the hemipelagic deposits of the Indus Fan. This new methodological approach plays a key role in the identification of the effects of climate change on marine depositional environments and helps us to differentiate among the diverse Himalayan

  6. Student Teachers' Approaches to Teaching Biological Evolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borgerding, Lisa A.; Klein, Vanessa A.; Ghosh, Rajlakshmi; Eibel, Albert

    2015-01-01

    Evolution is fundamental to biology and scientific literacy, but teaching high school evolution is often difficult. Evolution teachers face several challenges including limited content knowledge, personal conflicts with evolution, expectations of resistance, concerns about students' conflicts with religion, and curricular constraints. Evolution…

  7. Provenance and tectonic-paleogeographic evolution: Constraints from detrital zircon U-Pb ages of Late Triassic-Early Jurassic deposits in the northern Sichuan basin, central China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Tongbin; Cheng, Nanfei; Song, Maoshuang

    2016-09-01

    U-Pb ages of 290 new detrital zircons from five Late Triassic-Early Jurassic sandstone samples in the northern Sichuan basin, along with other geological data, are used to constrain the sediment provenance and evaluate tectonic-paleogeographic evolution for the adjacent orogens through/from which these sediments were potentially derived. The Upper Triassic depocenter was located at the front of the Longmen Shan belt, and sediments in the western, southern and eastern Sichuan basin shared the southern North China block (NCB) and Qinling belt with the eastern Songpan-Ganzi terrane of Middle-Upper Triassic via the Longmen Shan belt, whereas the northern part of the basin was fed by dominant South Qinling belt (SQB) and northern Yangtze block and possibly subordinate southern NCB. Also, the youngest population in the northern Sichuan basin has a slightly younger age peak (∼235 Ma) than those (∼270 Ma) in other parts of the basin. During the Early Jurassic, the depocenter was still at the front of the Longmen Shan belt but only northern regions (e.g., SQB and northern Yangtze block) fed the basin. The northern Sichuan basin received less sediments from the southern NCB and more from the SQB and northern Yangtze block during the Early Jurassic than during the Late Triassic. The middle Mesoproterozoic detrital zircons, which likely originated from the North Qinling belt and northern Yangtze block where rocks with these zircons may be unexposed, occur more widely in the Lower Jurassic than in the Upper Triassic. These facts suggest that from the Late Triassic to Early Jurassic, it was increasingly difficult for sediments to transport from the NCB into the northern Sichuan basin and the provenance transferred progressively from the southern NCB to both the SQB and northern Yangtze block, implying the continuous South China block-NCB collision during that time.

  8. Clay mineral contribution from various provenances in the northern South China Sea over the past 400 kyr: implications for the East Asian monsoon evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Quan; Liu, Zhifei; Xie, Xin; Kissel, Catherine

    2014-05-01

    Clay mineralogy of Core MD12-3432 taken at 2125 m water depth (CIRCEA cruise on board the R.V. Marion Dufresne, IPEV) in the northern South China Sea was investigated in order to understand the time series contribution of terrigenous sediments from various provenances. With calibration of a low-resolution analysis on carbonate concentration and major elements, we converted the XRF core scanned calcium data into a high-resolution carbonate content records. Through referring to the well-dated carbonate record of nearby Core MD05-2904, we established a reliable age model, indicating about 400 kyr ago at the bottom of Core MD12-3432. The clay mineral assemblage is dominated by smectite (23-59%) and illite (22-43%), with minor chlorite (13-27%) and kaolinite (4-13%). The time series variation of clay mineral assemblages indicates strong glacial-interglacial cyclicity. In general, the variation in smectite content is similar to that of carbonate concentration, with higher values during interglacials than during glacials, while illite and chlorite contents showing opposite patterns. The change in kaolinite content shows an independent pattern with high values during glacials, corresponding well with the illite crystallinity variation. The provenance analysis of these clay minerals suggests three end-member sources: all smectites derive from Luzon, all kaolinites originate from the Pearl River, and illite and chlorite are coming from both the Pearl River and Taiwan. Using the linear separation method of illite crystallinity, a time series of the clay mineral contribution from the three major provenances to the northern South China Sea was reconstructed. Combined with spectral analyses, we suggest the clay mineral contribution from Pearl River was mainly influenced by sea level change, while the East Asian summer monsoon controlled the contribution from Luzon. The strong precipitation rate related to intensive East Asian summer monsoon would have enhanced the denudation and

  9. The QCD evolution of TMD in the covariant approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efremov, A. V.; Teryaev, O. V.; Zavada, P.

    2016-02-01

    The procedure for calculation of the QCD evolution of transverse momentum dependent distributions within the covariant approach is suggested. The standard collinear QCD evolution together with the requirements of relativistic invariance and rotational symmetry of the nucleon in its rest frame represent the basic ingredients of our approach. The obtained results are compared with the predictions of some other approaches.

  10. Systems approaches in understanding evolution and evolvability.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Sumeet

    2013-12-01

    Systems and network-based approaches are becoming increasingly popular in cellular biology. One contribution of such approaches has been to shed some light on the evolutionary origins of core organisational principles in biological systems, such as modularity, robustness, and evolvability. Models of interactions between genes (epistasis) have also provided insight into how sexual reproduction may have evolved. Additionally, recent work on viewing evolution as a form of learning from the environment has indicated certain bounds on the complexity of the genetic circuits that can evolve within feasible quantities of time and resources. Here we review the key studies and results in these areas, and discuss possible connections between them. In particular, we speculate on the link between the two notions of 'evolvability': the evolvability of a system in terms of how agile it is in responding to novel goals or environments, and the evolvability of certain kinds of gene network functionality in terms of its computational complexity. Drawing on some recent work on the complexity of graph-theoretic problems on modular networks, we suggest that modularity as an organising principle may have its raison d'etre in its ability to enhance evolvability, in both its senses. PMID:24120732

  11. Provenance of unknown plutonium material.

    PubMed

    Nicolaou, G

    2008-10-01

    The determination of the provenance of 'unknown' plutonium material is demonstrated through a simulation study based on an isotopic fingerprinting approach. Plutonium of known provenance was considered as the 'unknown' nuclear material in order to evaluate the potential of the approach and verify its predictive capabilities. Factor analysis was used to compare the Pu isotopic composition of the 'unknown' material with Pu isotopic compositions simulating well known spent fuels from a range of commercial nuclear power stations. The provenance of the 'unknown material' is assigned to the commercial fuel with which exhibits the highest degree of similarity with respect to the Pu composition. The approach appears promising since it accurately predicted the provenance of the one 'unknown' sample considered; nevertheless, the approach is still at the development stage. Important challenging issues related to the simulation uncertainties and its testing on real laboratory samples have to be explored prior to evaluating the potential of the approach. PMID:18639370

  12. Silurian clastic sediments in the North Qilian Shan, NW China: Chemical and isotopic constraints on their forearc provenance with implications for the Paleozoic evolution of the Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Z.; Xiao, W. J.; Windley, B. F.; Wang, Z. Q.; Li, J. L.

    2010-11-01

    The North Qilian Shan is an accretion-collision orogenic belt in the northeastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau that connects the North China plate to the north with the Tethyan orogenic assemblage to the south. Its Early Paleozoic temporal-spatial tectonic evolution has been extensively studied, but the nature and tectonic setting of its Silurian deposition is poorly understood. Our new petrological analysis suggests that the clast composition of fan conglomerates is complex. In the Danbanshan and Zhongdabanshan sections, abundant lenticular conglomerate beds contain mainly subrounded-rounded metamorphic clasts; whereas the Tongziba and Haichaoba sections contain volcanic, chert, limestone, ultramafic and granitoid clasts. However, in the Sunan area, clast types are relatively simple, dominated by basalt and granitoids, and at Tongziba gabbro and basalt clasts are subrounded and angular, indicating two different types of provenance. Ultramafic, limestone and abundant chert clasts in the Haichaoba and Tonghe conglomerates indicate an ophiolitic source, whereas subrounded-rounded quartzite and granitoid gneiss clasts were probably derived from the Central Qilian basement. Geochemical data from the volcanic and granitoid clasts suggest an arc-related source and their zircon U-Pb ages of 515-429 Ma suggest that the arc magmatism did not end in the Mid-Silurian. Sandstone petrology and detrital modes suggest that the Silurian sediments were deposited in a forearc basin. Paleogeographic reconstructions inferred from NNW-NNE paleocurrent data indicate that an island arc was present off the southern margin of the Silurian basin, and that southward subduction of oceanic crust between North China and the Qilian Shan was active or continued in the Silurian.

  13. Evolution as a Controversial Issue: A Review of Instructional Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermann, Ronald S.

    2008-01-01

    Although evolution has long been considered a controversial issue, little effort has been made to ensure that instructional approaches address the controversial nature of the issue. A framework for understanding the nature of controversy and some defining characteristics of controversial issues are provided. In light of this framework evolution is…

  14. A Proven Way to Incorporate Catholic Social Thought in Business School Curricula: Teaching Two Approaches to Management in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyck, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    Widespread agreement suggests that it is appropriate and desirable to develop and teach business theory and practice consistent with Catholic social teaching (CST) in Catholic business schools. Such a curriculum would cover the same mainstream material taught in other business schools, but then offer a CST approach to business that can be…

  15. The tectonic evolution of the Neoproterozoic Brasília Belt, central Brazil, based on SHRIMP and LA-ICPMS U-Pb sedimentary provenance data: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pimentel, Márcio M.; Rodrigues, Joseneusa B.; DellaGiustina, Maria Emilia S.; Junges, Sergio; Matteini, Massimo; Armstrong, Richard

    2011-04-01

    The Brasília Belt is a Neoproterozoic orogenic belt in central Brazil, developed between the Amazon, São Francisco-Congo and Paranapanema cratons. It consists of a thick sedimentary pile, made up of several stratigraphic units, which have been deformed and metamorphosed along the western margin of the São Francisco Craton during the Brasiliano orogenic cycle. In the western part of the belt, a large, juvenile magmatic arc is exposed (the Goiás Magmatic Arc), consisting of calc-alkaline plutonic suites as well as volcano-sedimentary sequences, ranging in age between ca. 860 and 650 Ma. Regional-scale, west-dipping thrusts and reverse faults normally mark the limits between the main stratigraphic units, and clearly indicate tectonic transport towards the east. The age of deposition and tectonic significance of the sedimentary units comprising the Brasília Belt have been a matter of continuous debate over the last three decades. In the present paper, recent provenance data based on LA-ICPMS U-Pb ages of detrital zircon grains from several of these units, are reviewed and their significance for the age of deposition of the original sediments and tectonic evolution of the Brasília Belt are discussed. The Paranoá, Canastra and the Vazante groups, in the central part of the Belt, have detrital zircon grains with ages older than ca. 900 Ma and are interpreted as representative of the passive margin sequence deposited on the western margin of the São Francisco Craton. On the other hand, samples from the Araxá and Ibiá groups have a much younger population of Neoproterozoic zircon grains, as young as 650 Ma, and have been interpreted as syn-orogenic (fore-arc?) deposits. The Bambuí Group, exposed in the easternmost part of the belt and covering large areas of the São Francisco Craton also has young zircon grains and is interpreted, at least in part, as the foreland basin of the Brasília Belt.

  16. New approach to the differentiation of marble samples using thermal analysis and chemometrics in order to identify provenance

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The possibility of applying a novel chemometric approach which could allow the differentiation of marble samples, all from different quarries located in the Mediterranean basin and frequently used in ancient times for artistic purposes, was investigated. By suggesting tentative or allowing to rule out unlikely attributions, this kind of differentiation could, indeed, be of valuable support to restorers and other professionals in the field of cultural heritage. Experimental data were obtained only using thermal analytical techniques: Thermogravimetry (TG), Derivative Thermogravimetry (DTG) and Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA). Results The extraction of kinetic parameters from the curves obtained using these thermal analytical techniques allowed Activation Energy values to be evaluated together with the logarithm of the Arrhenius pre-exponential factor of the main TG-DTG process. The main data thus obtained after subsequent chemometric evaluation (using Principal Components Analysis) have already proved useful in the identification the original quarry of a small number of archaeological marble finds. Conclusion One of the most evident advantages of the thermoanalytical – chemometric approach adopted seems to be that it allows the certain identification of an unknown find composed of a marble known to be present among the reference samples considered, that is, contained in the reference file. On the other hand with equal certainty it prevents the occurrence of erroneous or highly uncertain identification if the find being tested does not belong to the reference file considered. PMID:24982691

  17. Articulating Babel: An approach to cultural evolution.

    PubMed

    Wimsatt, William C

    2013-12-01

    After an initial discussion of the character of interdisciplinary linkages between complex disciplines, I consider an area with confluences of many diverse disciplines-the study of cultural evolution. This must embrace not only the traditional biological sciences, but also the multiple often warring disciplines of the human sciences. This interdisciplinary articulation is in its early stages compared, e.g., to that of evolutionary biology or evolutionary developmental biology, and I try to lay out major axes along which its articulation should plausibly occur, given the relevant causal processes acting at different levels. One cannot have an adequate account of cultural evolution without recognizing a central role for cognitive and social development (since culture is cumulatively acquired by individuals through the life-cycle) and the social and cultural organizations and institutions and artifactual tools and infrastructure that support and structure these developmental processes. These induce a population structure that mediates the transmission, expression, and elaboration of culture, and in particular the different ways in which they scaffold learning and the development and articulation of complex skills. I consider how these elements should articulate the disciplines that tend to focus separately on them. Intentions and the market are not explicitly included in this account, and I consider ways in which these perspectives might enter. PMID:24189109

  18. Evolution of a Teaching Approach for Beginning Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banerjee, Rakhi; Subramaniam, K.

    2012-01-01

    The article reports aspects of the evolution of a teaching approach over repeated trials for beginning symbolic algebra. The teaching approach emphasized the structural similarity between arithmetic and algebraic expressions and aimed at supporting students in making a transition from arithmetic to beginning algebra. The study was conducted with…

  19. Differential Evolution approach to detect recent admixture

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The genetic structure of human populations is extraordinarily complex and of fundamental importance to studies of anthropology, evolution, and medicine. As increasingly many individuals are of mixed origin, there is an unmet need for tools that can infer multiple origins. Misclassification of such individuals can lead to incorrect and costly misinterpretations of genomic data, primarily in disease studies and drug trials. We present an advanced tool to infer ancestry that can identify the biogeographic origins of highly mixed individuals. reAdmix can incorporate individual's knowledge of ancestors (e.g. having some ancestors from Turkey or a Scottish grandmother). reAdmix is an online tool available at http://chcb.saban-chla.usc.edu/reAdmix/. PMID:26111206

  20. Experimental approaches to studying cumulative cultural evolution

    PubMed Central

    Caldwell, Christine A.; Atkinson, Mark; Renner, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    In humans, cultural traditions often change in ways which increase efficiency and functionality. This process, widely referred to as cumulative cultural evolution, sees beneficial traits preferentially retained, and it is so pervasive that we may be inclined to take it for granted. However, directional change of this kind appears to distinguish human cultural traditions from behavioural traditions that have been documented in other animals. Cumulative culture is therefore attracting an increasing amount of attention within psychology, and researchers have begun to develop methods of studying this phenomenon under controlled conditions. These studies have now addressed a number of different questions, including which learning mechanisms may be implicated, and how the resulting behaviours may be influenced by factors such as population structure. The current article provides a synopsis of some of these studies, and highlights some of the unresolved issues in this field. PMID:27397972

  1. Gene-pseudogene evolution: a probabilistic approach

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decade, methods have been developed for the reconstruction of gene trees that take into account the species tree. Many of these methods have been based on the probabilistic duplication-loss model, which describes how a gene-tree evolves over a species-tree with respect to duplication and losses, as well as extension of this model, e.g., the DLRS (Duplication, Loss, Rate and Sequence evolution) model that also includes sequence evolution under relaxed molecular clock. A disjoint, almost as recent, and very important line of research has been focused on non protein-coding, but yet, functional DNA. For instance, DNA sequences being pseudogenes in the sense that they are not translated, may still be transcribed and the thereby produced RNA may be functional. We extend the DLRS model by including pseudogenization events and devise an MCMC framework for analyzing extended gene families consisting of genes and pseudogenes with respect to this model, i.e., reconstructing gene-trees and identifying pseudogenization events in the reconstructed gene-trees. By applying the MCMC framework to biologically realistic synthetic data, we show that gene-trees as well as pseudogenization points can be inferred well. We also apply our MCMC framework to extended gene families belonging to the Olfactory Receptor and Zinc Finger superfamilies. The analysis indicate that both these super families contains very old pseudogenes, perhaps so old that it is reasonable to suspect that some are functional. In our analysis, the sub families of the Olfactory Receptors contains only lineage specific pseudogenes, while the sub families of the Zinc Fingers contains pseudogene lineages common to several species. PMID:26449131

  2. Evolution, Physics, and Cancer: Disrupting Traditional Approache

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Austin, Robert

    Physicists who were recruited to try and assist with the stubbornly constant mortality rates of cancer world-wide over the past 100 years have basically had the invitation withdrawn by the oncology community. The oncologists became annoyed with the independence of thought and the skepticism of some physicists with continuation of the present paradigm of the cancer genome as the rosette stone as the key to cancer. To quote a recent letter in Physics Today: ``Curing cancer is a complex biological problem to be solved by biologists''. Apparently our mission as minions is is to be high-level technicians. But I think that is wrong and will lead to continuation of the string of failures and deceptions foisted on the public at large by the Medical Industrial Complex, I think we really need to re-think cancer as a phenomena which is driven by evolution and may be desired by the organism and be a product of both the aging of the proteome and the genome. Further, searching for mutations (The Cancer Genome) may be completely the wrong direction, searching for protected genes may be as important as looking for mutated genes. I'll try to present the case that physicists should not have been kicked out of the Medical Industrial Complex that keeps the cancer business humming and profitable.

  3. Medical rare book provenance.

    PubMed Central

    Overmier, J A; Sentz, L

    1987-01-01

    Provenance is defined as the record of a book's ownership history. Its value and uses are explored. A survey of provenance practices in medical school rare book libraries found that only 21% of the reporting libraries maintain this important file. Examples of the uses and value of a provenance file in a medical rare book collection are presented. Decisions necessary to institute and maintain such a file are outlined and discussed. PMID:3828606

  4. An experimental approach to submarine canyon evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Steven Y. J.; Gerber, Thomas P.; Amblas, David

    2016-03-01

    We present results from a sandbox experiment designed to investigate how sediment gravity flows form and shape submarine canyons. In the experiment, unconfined saline gravity flows were released onto an inclined sand bed bounded on the downstream end by a movable floor that was used to increase relief during the experiment. In areas unaffected by the flows, we observed featureless, angle-of-repose submarine slopes formed by retrogressive breaching processes. In contrast, areas influenced by gravity flows cascading across the shelf break were deeply incised by submarine canyons with well-developed channel networks. Normalized canyon long profiles extracted from successive high-resolution digital elevation models collapse to a single profile when referenced to the migrating shelf-slope break, indicating self-similar growth in the relief defined by the canyon and intercanyon profiles. Although our experimental approach is simple, the resulting canyon morphology and behavior appear similar in several important respects to that observed in the field.

  5. Proven Weight Loss Methods

    MedlinePlus

    Fact Sheet Proven Weight Loss Methods What can weight loss do for you? Losing weight can improve your health in a number of ways. It can lower ... at www.hormone.org/Spanish . Proven Weight Loss Methods Fact Sheet www.hormone.org

  6. Tectonomagmatic setting and provenance of the Santa Marta Schists, northern Colombia: Insights on the growth and approach of Cretaceous Caribbean oceanic terranes to the South American continent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardona, A.; Valencia, V.; Bustamante, C.; García-Casco, A.; Ojeda, G.; Ruiz, J.; Saldarriaga, M.; Weber, M.

    2010-10-01

    Metamorphosed volcano-sedimentary rocks accreted to the northern South American continental margin are major vestiges of the Caribbean oceanic plate evolution and its interactions with the continent. Selected whole rock geochemistry, Nd-Sr isotopes and detrital zircon geochronology were obtained in metabasic and metasedimentary rocks from the Santa Marta and San Lorenzo Schists in northernmost Colombia. Trace element patterns are characterized by primitive island arc and MORB signatures. Similarly initial 87Sr/ 86Sr-ɛ Nd isotopic relations correlate with oceanic arcs and MORB reservoirs, suggesting that the protoliths were formed within a back-arc setting or at the transition between the inta-oceanic arc and the Caribbean oceanic crust. Trace element trends from associated metasedimentary rocks show that the provenance was controlled by a volcanic arc and a sialic continental domain, whereas detrital U/Pb zircons from the Santa Marta Schists and adjacent southeastern metamorphic units show Late Cretaceous and older Mesozoic, Late Paleozoic and Mesoproterozoic sources. Comparison with continental inland basins suggests that this arc-basin is allocthonous to its current position, and was still active by ca. 82 Ma. The geological features are comparable to other arc remnants found in northeastern Colombia and the Netherland Antilles. The geochemical and U/Pb detrital signatures from the metasedimentary rocks suggest that this tectonic domain was already in proximity to the continental margin, in a configuration similar to the modern Antilles or the Kermadec arc in the Pacific. The older continental detritus were derived from the ongoing Andean uplift feeding the intra-oceanic tectonic environment. Cross-cutting relations with granitoids and metamorphic ages suggest that metamorphism was completed by ca. 65 Ma.

  7. Provenance in neuroimaging.

    PubMed

    Mackenzie-Graham, Allan J; Van Horn, John D; Woods, Roger P; Crawford, Karen L; Toga, Arthur W

    2008-08-01

    Provenance, the description of the history of a set of data, has grown more important with the proliferation of research consortia-related efforts in neuroimaging. Knowledge about the origin and history of an image is crucial for establishing data and results quality; detailed information about how it was processed, including the specific software routines and operating systems that were used, is necessary for proper interpretation, high fidelity replication and re-use. We have drafted a mechanism for describing provenance in a simple and easy to use environment, alleviating the burden of documentation from the user while still providing a rich description of an image's provenance. This combination of ease of use and highly descriptive metadata should greatly facilitate the collection of provenance and subsequent sharing of data. PMID:18519166

  8. Provenance in bioinformatics workflows

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    In this work, we used the PROV-DM model to manage data provenance in workflows of genome projects. This provenance model allows the storage of details of one workflow execution, e.g., raw and produced data and computational tools, their versions and parameters. Using this model, biologists can access details of one particular execution of a workflow, compare results produced by different executions, and plan new experiments more efficiently. In addition to this, a provenance simulator was created, which facilitates the inclusion of provenance data of one genome project workflow execution. Finally, we discuss one case study, which aims to identify genes involved in specific metabolic pathways of Bacillus cereus, as well as to compare this isolate with other phylogenetic related bacteria from the Bacillus group. B. cereus is an extremophilic bacteria, collected in warm water in the Midwestern Region of Brazil, its DNA samples having been sequenced with an NGS machine. PMID:24564294

  9. Depositional and provenance record of the Paleogene transition from foreland to hinterland basin evolution during Andean orogenesis, northern Middle Magdalena Valley Basin, Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, Christopher J.; Horton, Brian K.; Caballero, Victor; Mora, Andrés; Parra, Mauricio; Sierra, Jair

    2011-10-01

    The Central Cordillera and Eastern Cordillera of the northern Andes form the topographic flanks of the north-trending Magdalena Valley Basin. Constraining the growth of these ranges and intervening basin has implications for Andean shortening and the transformation from a foreland to hinterland basin configuration. We present sedimentological, paleocurrent, and sandstone petrographic results from Cenozoic type localities to provide insights into the tectonic history of the northern Middle Magdalena Valley Basin of Colombia. In the Nuevo Mundo Syncline, the mid-Paleocene transition from marine to nonmarine deposystems of the Lisama Formation corresponds with a paleocurrent shift from northward to eastward transport. These changes match detrital geochronological evidence for a contemporaneous shift from cratonic (Amazonian) to orogenic (Andean) provenance, suggesting initial shortening-related uplift of the Central Cordillera and foreland basin generation in the Magdalena Valley by mid-Paleocene time. Subsequent establishment of a meandering fluvial system is recorded in lower-middle Eocene strata of the lower La Paz Formation. Eastward paleocurrents in mid-Paleocene through uppermost Eocene fluvial deposits indicate a continuous influence of western sediment source areas. However, at the upper middle Eocene (˜40 Ma) boundary between the lower and upper La Paz Formation, sandstone compositions show a drastic decrease in lithic content, particularly lithic volcanic fragments. This change is accompanied by a facies shift from mixed channel and overbank facies to thick, amalgamated braided fluvial deposits of possible fluvial megafans, reflecting changes in both the composition and proximity of western sediment sources. We attribute these modifications to the growing influence of exhumed La Cira-Infantas paleohighs in the axial Magdalena Valley, features presently buried beneath upper Eocene-Quaternary basin fill along the western flank of the Nuevo Mundo Syncline. In

  10. Late Cretaceous protolith age and provenance of the Pelona and Orocopia Schists, southern California: Implications for evolution of the Cordilleran margin

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, C.E.; Barth, A.P.; Grove, M.

    2000-03-01

    The Pelona and Orocopia Schists are southern members of a eugeoclinal terrane that structurally underlies a large part of southwestern North America. Ion-microprobe U-Pb ages of >100 detrital zircons from three widely spaced samples of these two units indicate that deposition occurred after 70--80 Ma. Moreover, the distribution of zircon ages, including a significant peak centered ca. 1.7 Ga, implies a major contribution f detritus from the Mojave Desert and Transverse Ranges of southern California. Recrystallization of the schists at depths of 20--35 km occurred within 10--15 m.y. of deposition, which requires underthrusting at minimum rates of {approximately}4--12 mm/yr for reasonable thrust dips. Considering that similar processes formed the more northern Rand Schist at somewhat earlier times, results indicate a southward progression in timing of deformation for the schists' protoliths. This result is at odds with northward migration of deformation implied by the Baja British Columbia hypothesis. The age and provenance of the schist's protoliths are consistent with models that derive the schists from either the Franciscan Complex or Great Valley Group.

  11. Oxygen Sensing for Industrial Safety — Evolution and New Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Willett, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The requirement for the detection of oxygen in industrial safety applications has historically been met by electrochemical technologies based on the consumption of metal anodes. Products using this approach have been technically and commercially successful for more than three decades. However, a combination of new requirements is driving the development of alternative approaches offering fresh opportunities and challenges. This paper reviews some key aspects in the evolution of consumable anode products and highlights recent developments in alternative technologies aimed at meeting current and anticipated future needs in this important application. PMID:24681673

  12. Multi-Model approach to reconstruct the Mediterranean Freshwater Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Dirk; Marzocchi, Alice; Flecker, Rachel; Lunt, Dan; Hilgen, Frits; Meijer, Paul

    2016-04-01

    Today the Mediterranean Sea is isolated from the global ocean by the Strait of Gibraltar. This restricted nature causes the Mediterranean basin to react more sensitively to climatic and tectonic related phenomena than the global ocean. Not just eustatic sea-level and regional river run-off, but also gateway tectonics and connectivity between sub-basins are leaving an enhanced fingerprint in its geological record. To understand its evolution, it is crucial to understand how these different effects are coupled. The Miocene-Pliocene sedimentary record of the Mediterranean shows alternations in composition and colour and has been astronomically tuned. Around the Miocene-Pliocene Boundary the most extreme changes occur in the Mediterranean Sea. About 6% of the salt in the global ocean deposited in the Mediterranean Region, forming an approximately 2 km thick salt layer, which is still present today. This extreme event is named the Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC, 5.97-5.33 Ma). The gateway and climate evolution is not well constrained for this time, which makes it difficult to distinguish which of the above mentioned drivers might have triggered the MSC. We, therefore, decided to tackle this problem via a multi-model approach: (1) We calculate the Mediterranean freshwater evolution via 30 atmosphere-ocean-vegetation simulations (using HadCM3L), to which we fitted to a function, using a regression model. This allows us to directly relate the orbital curves to evaporation, precipitation and run off. The resulting freshwater evolution can be directly correlated to other sedimentary and proxy records in the late Miocene. (2) By feeding the new freshwater evolution curve into a box/budget model we can predict the salinity and strontium evolution of the Mediterranean for a certain Atlantic-Mediterranean gateway. (3) By comparing these results to the known salinity thresholds of gypsum and halite saturation of sea water, but also to the late Miocene Mediterranean strontium

  13. A systematic approach to design for lifelong aircraft evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Dongwook

    This research proposes a systematic approach with which the decision makers can evaluate the value and risk of a new aircraft development program, including potential derivative development opportunities. The proposed Evaluation of Lifelong Vehicle Evolution (EvoLVE) method is a two- or multi-stage representation of the aircraft design process that accommodates initial development phases as well as follow-on phases. One of the key elements of this method is the Stochastic Programming with Recourse (SPR) technique, which accounts for uncertainties associated with future requirements. The remedial approach of SPR in its two distinctive problem-solving steps is well suited to aircraft design problems where derivatives, retrofits, and upgrades have been used to fix designs that were once but no longer optimal. The solution approach of SPR is complemented by the Risk-Averse Strategy Selection (RASS) technique to gauge risk associated with vehicle evolution options. In the absence of a full description of the random space, a scenario-based approach captures the randomness with a few probable scenarios and reveals implications of different future events. Last, an interactive framework for decision-making support allows simultaneous navigation of the current and future design space with a greater degree of freedom. A cantilevered beam design problem was set up and solved using the SPR technique to showcase its application to an engineering design setting. The full EvoLVE method was conducted on a notional multi-role fighter based on the F/A-18 Hornet.

  14. Provenance of metasedimentary rocks of the Western Pernambuco-Alagoas Domain: Contribution to understand the crustal evolution of southern Borborema Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz, Rodrigo Fabiano da; Pimentel, Márcio Martins; Accioly, Ana Cláudia de Aguiar

    2014-12-01

    The Borborema Province is a complex neoproterozoic orogen in northeastern Brazil, made of a mosaic of fault-bounded terrains and several metassedimentary sequences. In the present work, new zircon U-Pb provenance data for metasedimentary rocks in the Western Pernambuco-Alagoas Domain, southern part of the Province, are reported. Detrital zircon ages range from Archean to Neoproterozoic. Three samples of the Cabrobó Complex were investigated: (i) sillimanite-kyanite-garnet-biotite schist, which presented mostly Ediacaran and Cryogenian detrital zircon ages (youngest zircon at ca. 554 Ma) indicating erosion of neoproterozoic sources, (ii) garnet-biotite schist, which has a dominant Tonian/Stenian population, a less abundant Cryogenian (youngest zircon age at ca. 643 Ma) as well as Paleoproterozoic and Archean zircon grains, and (iii) tourmaline-muscovite quartzite, which contains detrital zircon varying in age between ca. 2.08 Ga and 1.57 Ga, and an abundant population close to the Meso/Paleoproterozoic boundary, possibly associated with the erosion of rocks formed during the Statherian taphrogenesis, known in the central part of the São Francisco Craton as well as in other areas of the Borborema Province. Two samples of the Riacho Seco Metasedimentary Complex were also investigated: (i) a biotite schist with a dominant population presenting ages mostly between 2.3 and 2.7 Ga (youngest zircon age at ca. 2023 Ma) and (ii) a magnetite-biotite-muscovite quartzite, having detrital zircon grains with ages ranging between ca. 1.9 and 2.7 Ga. The sedimentary rocks of the Riacho Seco Complex may have their origin related to the erosion of sources within the São Francisco Craton. The data for the Riacho Seco metasedimentary rocks, however, are not conclusive with respect to the depositional age of the original sedimentary rocks. The sequence might represent exposure of an old (Paleoproterozoic) sedimentary pile or, alternatively, it comprises a neoproterozoic passive

  15. Sandstone provenance and tectonic evolution of the Xiukang Mélange from Neotethyan subduction to India-Asia collision (Yarlung-Zangbo suture, south Tibet)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Wei; Hu, Xiumian; Garzanti, Eduardo

    2016-04-01

    The Xiukang Mélange of the Yarlung-Zangbo suture zone in south Tibet documents low efficiency of accretion along the southern active margin of Asia during Cretaceous Neotethyan subduction, followed by final development during the early Paleogene stages of the India-Asia collision. Here we investigate four transverses in the Xigaze area (Jiding, Cuola Pass, Riwuqi and Saga), inquiry the composition in each transverse, and present integrated petrologic, U-Pb detrital-zircon geochronology and Hf isotope data on sandstone blocks. In fault contact with the Yarlung-Zangbo Ophiolite to the north and the Tethyan Himalaya to the south, the Xiukang mélange can be divided into three types: serpentinite-matrix mélange composed by broken Yarlung-Zangbo Ophiolite, thrust-sheets consisting mainly chert, quartzose or limestone sheets(>100m) with little intervening marix, and mudstone-matrix mélange displaying typical blocks-in-matrix texture. While serpentinite-matrix mélange is exposed adjacent to the ophiolite, distributions of thrust-sheets and blocks in mudstone-matrix mélange show along-strike diversities. For example, Jiding transverse is dominant by chert sheets and basalt blocks with scarcely sandstone blocks, while Cuola Pass and Saga transverses expose large amounts of limestone/quartzarenite sheets in the north and volcaniclastic blocks in the south. However, turbidite sheets and volcaniclastic blocks are outcropped in the north Riwuqi transverse with quartzarenite blocks preserved in the south. Three groups of sandstone blocks/sheets with different provenance and depositional setting are distinguished by their petrographic, geochronological and isotopic fingerprints. Sheets of turbiditic quartzarenite originally sourced from the Indian continent were deposited in pre-Cretaceous time on the northernmost edge of the Indian passive margin and eventually involved into the mélange at the early stage of the India-Asia collision. Two distinct groups of volcaniclastic

  16. Evolution of genome size: new approaches to an old problem.

    PubMed

    Petrov, D A

    2001-01-01

    Eukaryotic genomes come in a wide variety of sizes. Haploid DNA contents (C values) range > 80,000-fold without an apparent correlation with either the complexity of the organism or the number of genes. This puzzling observation, the C-value paradox, has remained a mystery for almost half a century, despite much progress in the elucidation of the structure and function of genomes. Here I argue that new approaches focussing on the genetic mechanisms that generate genome-size differences could shed much light on the evolution of genome size. PMID:11163918

  17. Sm-Nd isotopic study of Precambrian/Cambrian sedimentary provenance in the Great Basin and implications for the tectonic evolution of the western US

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, G.L.

    1985-01-01

    The Nd isotopic compositions and Sm-Nd model ages were determined for 14 Precambrian to Cambrian clastic miogeoclinal and 2 Lower Paleozoic eugeoclinal metasedimentary rocks in the Great Basin to determine the sediment source regions and constrain the tectonic evolution of the western margin of the continental US Upper Precambrian (McCoy Creek Group-MCG) and Lower Cambrian miogeoclinal sandstones and shales have homogeneous 147SM/144Nd values (.110 to .119) but show a regional variation in measured element of/sub Nd/, from values of -18 and -26 (T/sub DM/=1.9 and 2.5Ga) in the Pilot and Ruby Ranges in N. Nevada, to values clustering at -11 and -18 (T/sub DM/=1.3 and 1.9Ga) in the Deep Creek and Schell Creek Ranges in the east-central Great Basin. The isotopic variations in the MCG correspond spatially to changes in the element of/sub ND/(0) and T/sub DM/ Precambrian basement adjacent to the miogeocline, suggesting that the MCG were derived from these crustal terranes and were deposited close to the paleocontinental margin of the western US. An element of/sub Nd/(0)=22.14 (T/sub DM/=2.1 Ga) for deeper water miogeoclinal sediment in the southern Great Basin (Wyman Fm-White Mountains, California) requires a source either in nearby T/sub DM/=2.2Ga crust in the S. Sierra Nevada (Bennett and DePaolo, 1984), or in T/sub DM/>2.0Ga crustal terranes to the north, with the sediment having been transported southward via Precambrian longshore currents. Feldspathic sandstone of the Cambrian Harmony Formation in north-central Nevada has element of/sub Nd/(0)=-25.22 (T/sub DM/=2.4Ga), consistent with a northerly source in Archean crust of present-day Idaho, while Ordovician shale of the Vinini Fm. in central Nevada has element of/sub Nd/(0)=-17.6, identical to values for the MCG exposed directly to the east.

  18. Provenance Store Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Paulson, Patrick R.; Gibson, Tara D.; Schuchardt, Karen L.; Stephan, Eric G.

    2008-03-01

    Requirements for the provenance store and access API are developed. Existing RDF stores and APIs are evaluated against the requirements and performance benchmarks. The team’s conclusion is to use MySQL as a database backend, with a possible move to Oracle in the near-term future. Both Jena and Sesame’s APIs will be supported, but new code will use the Jena API

  19. Analytical Approach to Eigen-Emittance Evolution in Storage Rings

    SciTech Connect

    Nash, Boaz; /SLAC

    2006-05-16

    This dissertation develops the subject of beam evolution in storage rings with nearly uncoupled symplectic linear dynamics. Linear coupling and dissipative/diffusive processes are treated perturbatively. The beam distribution is assumed Gaussian and a function of the invariants. The development requires two pieces: the global invariants and the local stochastic processes which change the emittances, or averages of the invariants. A map based perturbation theory is described, providing explicit expressions for the invariants near each linear resonance, where small perturbations can have a large effect. Emittance evolution is determined by the damping and diffusion coefficients. The discussion is divided into the cases of uniform and non-uniform stochasticity, synchrotron radiation an example of the former and intrabeam scattering the latter. For the uniform case, the beam dynamics is captured by a global diffusion coefficient and damping decrement for each eigen-invariant. Explicit expressions for these quantities near coupling resonances are given. In many cases, they are simply related to the uncoupled values. Near a sum resonance, it is found that one of the damping decrements becomes negative, indicating an anti-damping instability. The formalism is applied to a number of examples, including synchrobetatron coupling caused by a crab cavity, a case of current interest where there is concern about operation near half integer {nu}{sub x}. In the non-uniform case, the moment evolution is computed directly, which is illustrated through the example of intrabeam scattering. Our approach to intrabeam scattering damping and diffusion has the advantage of not requiring a loosely-defined Coulomb Logarithm. It is found that in some situations there is a small difference between our results and the standard approaches such as Bjorken-Mtingwa, which is illustrated by comparison of the two approaches and with a measurement of Au evolution in RHIC. Finally, in combining IBS

  20. Time Evolution of Pulsar Magnetosphere - An Implicit Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sreekumar, Sushilkumar; Schlegel, Eric

    2015-04-01

    The Magnetosphere for a pulsar plays a very significant role in its evolution and is regarded as an ideal site for high energy emission. Understanding the structure, dynamics and evolution of the magnetosphere is important. Contopoulos et al. (CKF, 1999) were able to demonstrate numerically the importance of current sheets (CS) along with the Goldreich-Julian charge density (1969). In addition, Spitkovsky (2006) was also able to numerically solve the time dependent hyperbolic system of equations and validate the existence of CS within the Alfvén radius and beyond. However the explicitnature of the numerical approach restricts the size of the time step, which results in an unresolved current sheet. Currently the CKF type magnetosphere is the new benchmark in pulsar modelling and hence CS and its distribution plays a key role. Its contribution in pulsar spin down mechanism, high energy emissions, flux outflow, reconnection events, acceleration mechanisms and locations is currently not understood and as a result resolution of the CS is critical. It is with this motivation that our group has decided to develop a computationally challenging implicit code under the force-free electrodynamics. With implicit approach the Courant number can be sufficiently large which will not only help to resolve the CS and spatial resolution but will also guide us within the high conductivity limit of resistive solutions, where the traditional explicit method becomes too expensive.

  1. Preparing Biology Teachers to Teach Evolution in a Project-Based Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Kristin; Buck, Gayle; Park Rogers, Meredith

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates a project-based learning (PBL) approach to teaching evolution to inform efforts in teacher preparation. Data analysis of a secondary biology educator teaching evolution through a PBL approach illuminated: (1) active student voice, which allowed students to reflect on their positioning on evolution and consider multiple…

  2. Evolution of inhomogeneous condensates: Self-consistent variational approach

    SciTech Connect

    Boyanovsky, D.; Cooper, F.; de Vega, H.J.; Sodano, P.

    1998-07-01

    We establish a self-consistent variational framework that allows us to study numerically the non-equilibrium evolution of non-perturbative inhomogeneous field configurations including quantum back reaction effects. After discussing the practical merits and disadvantages of different approaches we provide a closed set of local and renormalizable update equations that determine the dynamical evolution of inhomogeneous condensates and can be implemented numerically. These incorporate self-consistently the back reaction of quantum fluctuations and particle production. This program requires the solution of a self-consistent inhomogeneous problem to provide initial Cauchy data for the inhomogeneous condensates and Green`s functions. We provide a simple solvable ansatz for such an initial value problem for the sine-Gordon and {phi}{sup 4} quantum field theories in one spatial dimension. We compare exact known results of the sine-Gordon model to this simple ansatz. We also study the linear sigma model in the large N limit in three spatial dimensions as a microscopic model for pion production in ultrarelativistic collisions. We provide a solvable self-consistent ansatz for the initial value problem with cylindrical symmetry. For this case we also obtain a closed set of local and renormalized update equations that can be numerically implemented. A novel phenomenon of spinodal instabilities and pion production arises as a result of a Klein paradox for large amplitude inhomogeneous condensate configurations. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  3. New approaches to enzymatic glycoside synthesis through directed evolution.

    PubMed

    Kittl, Roman; Withers, Stephen G

    2010-07-01

    The expanding field of glycobiology requires tools for the synthesis of structurally defined oligosaccharides and glycoconjugates, while any potential therapeutic applications of sugar-based derivates would require access to substantial quantities of such compounds. Classical chemical approaches are not well suited for such large-scale syntheses, thus enzymatic approaches are sought. Traditional routes to the enzymatic assembly of oligosaccharides have involved the use of either Nature's own biosynthetic enzymes, the glycosyl transferases, or glycosidases run in transglycosylation mode. However, each approach has drawbacks that have limited its application. Glycosynthases are mutant glycosidases in which the catalytic nucleophile has been replaced by mutation, inactivating them as hydrolases. When used in conjunction with glycosyl fluorides of the opposite anomeric configuration to that of the substrate, these enzymes function as highly efficient transferases, frequently giving stoichiometric yields of products. Further improvements can be obtained through directed evolution of the gene encoding the enzyme in question, but this requires the ability to screen very large libraries of catalysts. In this review we survey new screening methods for the formation of glycosidic linkages using high-throughput techniques, such as FACS, chemical complementation, and robot-assisted ELISA assays. Enzymes were evolved to have higher catalytic activity with their natural substrates, to show altered substrate specificities or to be promiscuous for efficient application in oligosaccharide, glycolipid, and glycoprotein synthesis. PMID:20427037

  4. Relational Neural Evolution Approach to Bank Failure Prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abudu, Bolanle; Markose, Sheri

    2007-12-01

    Relational neural networks as a concept offers a unique opportunity for improving classification accuracy by exploiting relational structure in data. The premise is that a relational classification technique, which uses information implicit in relationships, should classify more accurately than techniques that only examine objects in isolation. In this paper, we study the use of relational neural networks for predicting bank failure. Alongside classical financial ratios normally used as predictor variables, we introduced new relational variables for the network. The relational neural network structure, specified as a combination of feed forward and recurrent neural networks, is determined by bank data through neuro-evolution. We discuss empirical results comparing performance of the relational approach to standard propositional methods used for bank failure prediction.

  5. Evolution of cyanobacterial morphotypes: Taxa required for improved phylogenomic approaches.

    PubMed

    Schirrmeister, Bettina E; Anisimova, Maria; Antonelli, Alexandre; Bagheri, Homayoun C

    2011-07-01

    Within prokaryotes cyanobacteria represent one of the oldest and morphologically most diverse phyla on Earth. The rise of oxygen levels in the atmosphere 2.32-2.45 billion years ago is assigned to the photosynthetic activity of ancestors from this phylum. Subsequently cyanobacteria were able to adapt to various habitats evolving a comprehensive set of different morphotypes. In a recent study we showed that this evolution is not a gradual transition from simple unicellular to more complex multicellular forms as often assumed. Instead complexity was lost several times and regained at least once. An understanding of the genetic basis of these transitions would be further strengthened by phylogenomic approaches. However, considering that new methods for phylogenomic analyses are emerging, it is unfortunate that genomes available today are comprised of an unbalanced sampling of taxa. We propose avenues to remedy this by identifying taxa that would improve the representation of phylogenetic diversity in this phylum. PMID:21966561

  6. Relational Neural Evolution Approach to Bank Failure Prediction

    SciTech Connect

    Abudu, Bolanle; Markose, Sheri

    2007-12-26

    Relational neural networks as a concept offers a unique opportunity for improving classification accuracy by exploiting relational structure in data. The premise is that a relational classification technique, which uses information implicit in relationships, should classify more accurately than techniques that only examine objects in isolation. In this paper, we study the use of relational neural networks for predicting bank failure. Alongside classical financial ratios normally used as predictor variables, we introduced new relational variables for the network. The relational neural network structure, specified as a combination of feed forward and recurrent neural networks, is determined by bank data through neuro-evolution. We discuss empirical results comparing performance of the relational approach to standard propositional methods used for bank failure prediction.

  7. A systemic approach for modeling biological evolution using Parallel DEVS.

    PubMed

    Heredia, Daniel; Sanz, Victorino; Urquia, Alfonso; Sandín, Máximo

    2015-08-01

    A new model for studying the evolution of living organisms is proposed in this manuscript. The proposed model is based on a non-neodarwinian systemic approach. The model is focused on considering several controversies and open discussions about modern evolutionary biology. Additionally, a simplification of the proposed model, named EvoDEVS, has been mathematically described using the Parallel DEVS formalism and implemented as a computer program using the DEVSLib Modelica library. EvoDEVS serves as an experimental platform to study different conditions and scenarios by means of computer simulations. Two preliminary case studies are presented to illustrate the behavior of the model and validate its results. EvoDEVS is freely available at http://www.euclides.dia.uned.es. PMID:26116878

  8. Provenance for Environmental Cyberenvironments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Futrelle, J.

    2006-12-01

    Scientific collaboration is a complex distributed process that spans disciplinary, organizational, and spatiotemporal boundaries. As information technology (IT) is deployed in scientific communities, new techniques are required to manage these complex processes so that the digital artifacts associated with scientific knowledge can be used as effectively as possible. Cyberenvironments (CE) propose to extend current IT infrastructure to support distributed, collaborative work, comprising online collaboration tools, distributed data management, distributed processing, and social networking analysis. The Environmental Cyberinfrastructure Demonstrator (ECID) project at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA) is exploring cyberenvironment directions for environmental research, motivated in particular by the requirements being identified through the NSF's CLEANER/CUASHI/WATERS environmental observatory planning activities. These requirements entail providing integrated access to an evolving set of community sensor networks, data collections, models, analysis tools, literature, and community members, and tracking the relationships between them. The metadata and provenance information required to support resource discovery and information fusion to support new scientific endeavors is anticipated to come from a variety of sources including human inputs, direct reporting from individual tools, and inferences from observations of human and system activities and to evolve over time. At NCSA, we have been developing a lightweight, distributed infrastructure for managing metadata and provenance information and, through ECID, applying it in support of environmental observatory scenarios. This poster will provide an overview of the technical infrastructure being created, describe the set of tools and types of information being managed in ECID, and outline concepts such as sharing of best-practice workflows and community model validation that would leverage this

  9. Mass balance approaches to understanding evolution of dripwater chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fairchild, I. J.; Baker, A.; Andersen, M. S.; Treble, P. C.

    2015-12-01

    Forward and inverse modelling of dripwater chemistry is a fast-developing area in speleothem science. Such approaches can incorporate theoretical, parameterized or observed relationships between forcing factors and water composition, but at the heart is mass balance: a fundamental principle that provides important constraints. Mass balance has been used in speleothem studies to trace the evolution of dissolved inorganic carbon and carbon isotopes from soil to cave, and to characterize the existence and quantification of prior calcite precipitation (PCP) based on ratios of Mg and Sr to Ca. PCP effects can dominate slow drips, whereas fast drips are more likely to show a residual variability linked to soil-biomass processes. A possible configuration of a more complete mass balance model is illustrated in the figure. Even in humid temperate climates, evapotranspiration can be 50% of total atmospheric precipitation leading to substantially raised salt contents and there can be significant exchange with biomass. In more arid settings, at least seasonal soil storage of salts is likely. Golgotha Cave in SW Australia is in a Mediterranean climate with a strong summer soil moisture deficit. The land surface is forested leading to large ion fluxes related to vegetation. There are also periodic disturbances related to fire. Mass balance approaches have been applied to an 8-year monitoring record. Inter-annual trends of elements coprecipitated in speleothems from fast drips are predicted to be dominated by biomass effects.

  10. A quantitative approach to evolution of music and philosophy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, Vilson; Fabbri, Renato; Travieso, Gonzalo; Oliveira, Osvaldo N., Jr.; da Fontoura Costa, Luciano

    2012-08-01

    The development of new statistical and computational methods is increasingly making it possible to bridge the gap between hard sciences and humanities. In this study, we propose an approach based on a quantitative evaluation of attributes of objects in fields of humanities, from which concepts such as dialectics and opposition are formally defined mathematically. As case studies, we analyzed the temporal evolution of classical music and philosophy by obtaining data for 8 features characterizing the corresponding fields for 7 well-known composers and philosophers, which were treated with multivariate statistics and pattern recognition methods. A bootstrap method was applied to avoid statistical bias caused by the small sample data set, with which hundreds of artificial composers and philosophers were generated, influenced by the 7 names originally chosen. Upon defining indices for opposition, skewness and counter-dialectics, we confirmed the intuitive analysis of historians in that classical music evolved according to a master-apprentice tradition, while in philosophy changes were driven by opposition. Though these case studies were meant only to show the possibility of treating phenomena in humanities quantitatively, including a quantitative measure of concepts such as dialectics and opposition, the results are encouraging for further application of the approach presented here to many other areas, since it is entirely generic.

  11. Detrital zircon U-Pb geochronology and stratigraphy of the Cretaceous Sanjiang Basin in NE China: Provenance record of an abrupt tectonic switch in the mode and nature of the NE Asian continental margin evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Feng-Qi; Chen, Han-Lin; Batt, Geoffrey E.; Dilek, Yildirim; A, Min-Na; Sun, Ming-Dao; Yang, Shu-Feng; Meng, Qi-An; Zhao, Xue-Qin

    2015-12-01

    The age spectra obtained from 505 spots of detrital zircon U-Pb ages of five representative sandstone samples from the Sanjiang Basin in NE China point to a significant change in its provenance during the Coniacian-Santonian. The predominant detrital source for the Sanjiang Basin during the early Cretaceous was the Zhangguangcai Range magmatic belt and Jiamusi Block along its western and southern periphery, whereas it changed in the late Cretaceous to its eastern periphery. The timing of these inferred changes in the detrital source regions and drainage patterns nearly coincide with the age of a regional unconformity in and across the basin. The time interval of non-deposition and unconformity development was coeval with a transitional period between an extensional tectonic regime in the early Cretaceous and a contractional deformation episode in the late Cretaceous. The Sanjiang Basin evolved during this time window from a backarc to a foreland basin. The migration of the coastal orogenic belt and the fold and thrust belt development farther inland during the late Cretaceous marked the onset of regional-scale shortening and surface uplift in the upper plate of a flat (or very shallow-dipping) subduction zone. The stratigraphic record, the detrital source and geochronology of the basinal strata, and the internal structure of the Sanjiang Basin present, therefore, an important record of a tectonic switch in the nature of continental margin evolution of Northeast Asia during the late Mesozoic.

  12. Detrital zircon U-Pb ages and Hf isotopes of Permo-Carboniferous sandstones in central Inner Mongolia, China: Implications for provenance and tectonic evolution of the southeastern Central Asian Orogenic Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yan; Zhang, Zhicheng; Li, Ke; Yu, Haifei; Wu, Tairan

    2016-03-01

    The tectonic setting of the southeastern Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) during the Late Paleozoic has been debated for many years. Provenance analysis of Permo-Carboniferous sedimentary rocks can effectively address this issue. In this study, eight sandstone samples were collected for zircon U-Pb and Lu-Hf isotopic analyses combined with petrographic analysis. Framework petrography and zircon morphology suggest that the samples were from recycled orogen of an igneous origin. Carboniferous rocks, with a significant age peak at 432 Ma and εHf (t) values of - 9.0 to 13.6, were mainly derived from Early to Mid-Paleozoic magmatic rocks and deposited in a piedmont zone, namely, the margin of an inland sea. Permian rocks, mostly with age peaks at 445 Ma and/or 280 Ma and εHf (t) values of - 25.2 to 11.4, dominantly originated from a pre-existing Early to Mid-Paleozoic magmatic arc and Late Paleozoic igneous rocks. These rocks formed in restricted basins of the piedmont and intermountain zones. Based on zircon spectral discrimination, sedimentary environmental analysis, and previous studies, this study supports the interpretation that the southeastern CAOB entered stages of extension and rifting during the Late Paleozoic. In the end, this study proposes a tectonic-paleogeographic reconstruction to explain the tectonic evolution of the southeastern CAOB and the exhumation-transportation-deposition processes between the basins and ranges developed in this orogen.

  13. An automaton approach for waiting times in DNA evolution.

    PubMed

    Behrens, Sarah; Nicaud, Cyril; Nicodème, Pierre

    2012-05-01

    In a recent article, Behrens and Vingron (J. Comput. Biol. 17/12, 2010) compute waiting times for k-mers to appear during DNA evolution under the assumption that the considered k-mers do not occur in the initial DNA sequence, an issue arising when studying the evolution of regulatory DNA sequences with regard to transcription factor (TF) binding site emergence. The mathematical analysis underlying their computation assumes that occurrences of words under interest do not overlap. We relax here this assumption by use of an automata approach. In an alphabet of size 4 like the DNA alphabet, most words have no or a low autocorrelation; therefore, globally, our results confirm those of Behrens and Vingron. The outcome is quite different when considering highly autocorrelated k-mers; in this case, the autocorrelation pushes down the probability of occurrence of these k-mers at generation 1 and, consequently, increases the waiting time for apparition of these k-mers up to 40%. An analysis of existing TF binding sites unveils a significant proportion of k-mers exhibiting autocorrelation. Thus, our computations based on automata greatly improve the accuracy of predicting waiting times for the emergence of TF binding sites to appear during DNA evolution. We do the computation in the Bernoulli or M0 model; computations in the M1 model, a Markov model of order 1, are more costly in terms of time and memory but should produce similar results. While Behrens and Vingron considered specifically promoters of length 1000, we extend the results to promoters of any size; we exhibit the property that the probability that a k-mer occurs at generation time 1 while being absent at time 0 behaves linearly with respect to the length of the promoter, which induces a hyperbolic behaviour of the waiting time of any k-mer with respect to the length of the promoter. The C code is available at www.lipn.univ-paris13.fr/∼nicodeme/ . PMID:22468677

  14. An evolution of image source camera attribution approaches.

    PubMed

    Jahanirad, Mehdi; Wahab, Ainuddin Wahid Abdul; Anuar, Nor Badrul

    2016-05-01

    researchers, are also critically analysed and further categorised into four different classes, namely, optical aberrations based, sensor camera fingerprints based, processing statistics based and processing regularities based, to present a classification. Furthermore, this paper aims to investigate the challenging problems, and the proposed strategies of such schemes based on the suggested taxonomy to plot an evolution of the source camera attribution approaches with respect to the subjective optimisation criteria over the last decade. The optimisation criteria were determined based on the strategies proposed to increase the detection accuracy, robustness and computational efficiency of source camera brand, model or device attribution. PMID:27060542

  15. Basaltic island sand provenance

    SciTech Connect

    Marsaglia, K.M. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1992-01-01

    The Hawaiian Islands are an ideal location to study basaltic sand provenance in that they are a series of progressively older basaltic shield volcanoes with arid to humid microclimates. Sixty-two sand samples were collected from beaches on the islands of Hawaii, Maui, Oahu and Kauai and petrographically analyzed. The major sand components are calcareous bioclasts, volcanic lithic fragments, and monomineralic grains of dense minerals and plagioclase. Proportions of these components vary from island to island, with bioclastic end members being more prevalent on older islands exhibiting well-developed fringing reef systems and volcanic end members more prevalent on younger, volcanically active islands. Climatic variations across the island of Hawaii are reflected in the percentage of weathered detritus, which is greater on the wetter, northern side of the island. The groundmass of glassy, basaltic lithics is predominantly black tachylite, with lesser brown sideromelane; microlitic and lathwork textures are more common than holohyaline vitric textures. Other common basaltic volcanic lithic fragments are holocrystalline aggregates of silt-sized pyroxene or olivine, opaque minerals and plagioclase. Sands derived from alkalic lavas are texturally and compositionally indistinguishable from sands derived from tholeiitic lavas. Although Hawaiian basaltic sands overlap in composition with magmatic arc-derived sands in terms of their relative QFL, QmPK and LmLvLs percentages, they are dissimilar in that they lack felsic components and are more enriched in lathwork volcanic lithic fragments, holocrystalline volcanic lithic fragments, and dense minerals.

  16. Interpreting Evidence: An Approach to Teaching Human Evolution in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeSilva, Jeremy

    2004-01-01

    Paleoanthropology, which is the study of human evolution through fossil records, can be used as a tool for teaching human evolution in the classrooms. An updated approach to teaching human evolution and a model for explaining what is science and how it is done, is presented.

  17. Star clusters evolution simulation on basement of linguo- combinatorial approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ignatyev, Mikhail B.

    2015-08-01

    Each of the clusters of star systems can be described using linguo- combinatorial approach through a formula that determines the number of arbitrary factors in the structure of equivalent equations as the number of combinations of n by m + 1, where n - number of stars in the cluster, m - number of constraints imposed on the stars cluster(M.Ignatyev “The linguo- combinatorial simulation in modern physics”\\\\ J. of Modern Physics,USA, 2012, Vol.1, No 1, p.7-11). Such clusters can be multiple, they can be combined into larger clusters or clusters can decay based on the effect of the collective. For example, if we have two clusters are characterized by the number of arbitrary coefficients S1 and S2, wherem1 + 1 m2 + 1S1 = C S2 = Cn1 n2then by imposing general restrictions mcol we will havem1 + m2 + mcol +1Scol = Cn1 + n2At the same time, depending on the specific parameters can be Scol > S1 + S2, when the union in collective increases the adaptive capabilities, and can be Scol < S1 + S2, where adaptive capacity of less than the sum of the collective adaptation a possibly initial clusters. In the first case, we can observe the effect of the formation of new large clusters, in the second case - the collapse of large clusters into smaller ones. The report deals with the simulation of the evolution of star clusters on the basement of linguo- combinatorial approach.

  18. Intelligent Resource Management for Local Area Networks: Approach and Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meike, Roger

    1988-01-01

    The Data Management System network is a complex and important part of manned space platforms. Its efficient operation is vital to crew, subsystems and experiments. AI is being considered to aid in the initial design of the network and to augment the management of its operation. The Intelligent Resource Management for Local Area Networks (IRMA-LAN) project is concerned with the application of AI techniques to network configuration and management. A network simulation was constructed employing real time process scheduling for realistic loads, and utilizing the IEEE 802.4 token passing scheme. This simulation is an integral part of the construction of the IRMA-LAN system. From it, a causal model is being constructed for use in prediction and deep reasoning about the system configuration. An AI network design advisor is being added to help in the design of an efficient network. The AI portion of the system is planned to evolve into a dynamic network management aid. The approach, the integrated simulation, project evolution, and some initial results are described.

  19. A Bayesian Approach to Constraining Dwarf Galaxy Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lotz, J. M.; Ferguson, H. C.

    2001-12-01

    We use a Bayesian - maximum likelihood analysis of the Hubble Deep Field to constrain the epoch of dwarf galaxy formation. Late formation of dwarf galaxies arises as a natural consequence of proposed solutions to the "over-cooling" problem in hierarchical structure formation. Although dwarf-sized halos are among the first objects to collapse out of a cold dark matter dominated universe, photo-ionization from the inter-galactic UV background and stellar feedback at early epochs may suppress or delay significant star formation in dwarf galaxies until redshifts ~ 1. Such late-forming dwarf galaxies may make up a portion of the population of the faint blue galaxies observed at intermediate redshifts. Previous attempts to understand the nature of the faint blue galaxy population have fit the binned number counts, luminosity functions, color and size distributions and compared the results to a handful of possible scenarios. Our approach sums the likelihood of observing each object in the HDF catalog given a dwarf galaxy formation scenario and computes the total likelihood of the given dwarf formation scenario. The parameters of the input model are then varied, and the model with the maximum total likelihood is determined. This technique does not bin the data in any way, tests a wide range of input model parameters, and allows us to quantify the goodness-of-fit and constraints on dwarf galaxy evolution.

  20. Evolution and dispersal of the genus Homo: A landscape approach.

    PubMed

    Winder, Isabelle C; Devès, Maud H; King, Geoffrey C P; Bailey, Geoffrey N; Inglis, Robyn H; Meredith-Williams, Matthew

    2015-10-01

    The notion of the physical landscape as an arena of ecological interaction and human evolution is a powerful one, but its implementation at larger geographical and temporal scales is hampered by the challenges of reconstructing physical landscape settings in the geologically active regions where the earliest evidence is concentrated. We argue that the inherently dynamic nature of these unstable landscapes has made them important agents of biological change, creating complex topographies capable of selecting for, stimulating, obstructing or accelerating the latent and emerging properties of the human evolutionary trajectory. We use this approach, drawing on the concepts and methods of active tectonics, to develop a new perspective on the origins and dispersal of the Homo genus. We show how complex topography provides an easy evolutionary pathway to full terrestrialisation in the African context, and would have further equipped members of the genus Homo with a suite of adaptive characteristics that facilitated wide-ranging dispersal across ecological and climatic boundaries into Europe and Asia by following pathways of complex topography. We compare this hypothesis with alternative explanations for hominin dispersal, and evaluate it by mapping the distribution of topographic features at varying scales, and comparing the distribution of early Homo sites with the resulting maps and with other environmental variables. PMID:26235482

  1. Tracking Provenance of Earth Science Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilmes, Curt; Yesha, Yelena; Halem, Milton

    2010-01-01

    Tremendous volumes of data have been captured, archived and analyzed. Sensors, algorithms and processing systems for transforming and analyzing the data are evolving over time. Web Portals and Services can create transient data sets on-demand. Data are transferred from organization to organization with additional transformations at every stage. Provenance in this context refers to the source of data and a record of the process that led to its current state. It encompasses the documentation of a variety of artifacts related to particular data. Provenance is important for understanding and using scientific datasets, and critical for independent confirmation of scientific results. Managing provenance throughout scientific data processing has gained interest lately and there are a variety of approaches. Large scale scientific datasets consisting of thousands to millions of individual data files and processes offer particular challenges. This paper uses the analogy of art history provenance to explore some of the concerns of applying provenance tracking to earth science data. It also illustrates some of the provenance issues with examples drawn from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) Data Processing System (OMIDAPS) run at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center by the first author.

  2. Provenance through Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandler, C. L.; Groman, R. C.; Shepherd, A.; Allison, M. D.; Kinkade, D.; Rauch, S.; Wiebe, P. H.; Glover, D. M.

    2014-12-01

    The ability to reproduce scientific results is a cornerstone of the scientific method, and access to the data upon which the results are based is essential to reproducibility. Access to the data alone is not enough though, and research communities have recognized the importance of metadata (data documentation) to enable discovery and data access, and facilitate interpretation and accurate reuse. The Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO) was first funded in late 2006 by the National Science Foundation (NSF) Division of Ocean Sciences (OCE) Biology and Chemistry Sections to help ensure that data generated during NSF OCE funded research would be preserved and available for future use. The BCO-DMO was formed by combining the formerly independent data management offices of two marine research programs: the United States Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (US JGOFS) and the US GLOBal Ocean ECosystems Dynamics (US GLOBEC) program. Since the US JGOFS and US GLOBEC programs were both active (1990s) there have been significant changes in all aspects of the research data life cycle, and the staff at BCO-DMO has modified the way in which we manage data contributed to the office. The supporting documentation that describes each dataset was originally displayed as a human-readable text file retrievable via a Web browser. BCO-DMO still offers that form because our primary audience is marine researchers using Web browser clients; however we are seeing an increased demand to support machine client access. Metadata records from the BCO-DMO data system are now extracted and published out in a variety of formats. The system supports ISO 19115, FGDC, GCMD DIF, schema.org Dataset extension, formal publication with a DOI, and RDF with semantic markup including PROV-O, FOAF and more. In the 1990s, data documentation helped researchers locate data of interest and understand the provenance sufficiently to determine fitness for purpose. Today, providing data

  3. Analysis Traceability and Provenance for HEP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamdasani, Jetendr; McClatchey, Richard; Branson, Andrew; Kovács, Zsolt

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents the use of the CRISTAL software in the N4U project. CRISTAL was used to create a set of provenance aware analysis tools for the Neuroscience domain. This paper advocates that the approach taken in N4U to build the analysis suite is sufficiently generic to be able to be applied to the HEP domain. A mapping to the PROV model for provenance interoperability is also presented and how this can be applied to the HEP domain for the interoperability of HEP analyses.

  4. Formation and evolution of galaxies: Analytical and numerical approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bing

    2001-08-01

    The effects of viscosity and clumpiness are investigated in the context of the formation and the dynamical evolution of galaxies by analytical models and numerical simulations. The major motivation of this investigation is to study how these two factors can alter the angular momentum behavior of the galaxies formed in the bottom-up formation scenario as indicated by the hierarchical CDM cosmology. We analytically modify the standard disk formation model to incorporate the effect of viscous evolution. We derive generic analytic solutions for the disk-halo system after adiabatic compression of the dark halo, with free choice of the input virialized dark halo density profile and of the specific angular momentum distribution. We derive limits on the final density profile of the halo in the central regions due to the condensation of gas. The viscous evolution can redistribute angular momentum distribution by driving material inwards to form a proto- bulge which can be formed by the bar instability in the proto-disk, and by spreading gas to large radius to form pure exponential stellar disk if the viscous evolution timescale and star formation timescale are similar. The `disk-halo' conspiracy is found to be formed better by the disk-halo interaction during the viscous evolution of disk. We investigate the relationship between the assumed initial conditions, such as halo `formation', or assembly, redshift zf, spin parameter λ, baryonic fraction F, and final disk properties such as global star formation timescale, gas fraction, and bulge-to-disk ratio. We find that the present properties of disks, such as the scale length, are compatible with a higher initial formation redshift if the re-distribution by viscous evolution is included than if it is ignored. The numerical simulations confirm many results derived in the analytical model. Further it is found that pure viscous evolution can be unstable. Possibly feedback from star formation is required to maintain a stable

  5. Evolution of proteins and proteomes: a phylogenetics approach

    PubMed Central

    Gabaldón, Toni

    2007-01-01

    The study of evolutionary relationships among protein sequences was one of the first applications of bioinformatics. Since then, and accompanying the wealth of biological data produced by genome sequencing and other high-throughput techniques, the use of bioinformatics in general and phylogenetics in particular has been gaining ground in the study of protein and proteome evolution. Nowadays, the use of phylogenetics is instrumental not only to infer the evolutionary relationships among species and their genome sequences, but also to reconstruct ancestral states of proteins and proteomes and hence trace the paths followed by evolution. Here I survey recent progress in the elucidation of mechanisms of protein and proteome evolution in which phylogenetics has played a determinant role. PMID:19325853

  6. The Ecology of Language Evolution. Cambridge Approaches to Language Contact.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mufwene, Salikoko S.

    This book explores the development of creoles and other new languages, highlighting conceptual and methodological issues for genetic linguistics and discussing the significance of ecologies that influence language evolution. It presents examples of changes in the structure, function, and vitality of languages, suggesting that similar ecologies…

  7. Early Stages of the Evolution of Life: a Cybernetic Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melkikh, Alexey V.; Seleznev, Vladimir D.

    2008-08-01

    Early stages of the evolution of life are considered in terms of control theory. A model is proposed for the transport of substances in a protocell possessing the property of robustness with regard to changes in the environmental concentration of a substance.

  8. Directed evolution as an approach to the design of efficient biocatalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zagrebelny, Stanislav N.

    2005-03-01

    Methodical approaches to the modification of the catalytic properties of enzymes by various means of directed evolution are summarised. A number of particular examples of the design of enzymes with new and enhanced properties, including higher thermal stability, solubility, substrate specificity, stereoselectivity, etc., are considered. The prospects for further development of the directed evolution strategy for enzymes and proteins with other functions are discussed.

  9. Convergence of Galerkin approximations for operator Riccati equations: A nonlinear evolution equation approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosen, I. G.

    1988-01-01

    An approximation and convergence theory was developed for Galerkin approximations to infinite dimensional operator Riccati differential equations formulated in the space of Hilbert-Schmidt operators on a separable Hilbert space. The Riccati equation was treated as a nonlinear evolution equation with dynamics described by a nonlinear monotone perturbation of a strongly coercive linear operator. A generic approximation result was proven for quasi-autonomous nonlinear evolution system involving accretive operators which was then used to demonstrate the Hilbert-Schmidt norm convergence of Galerkin approximations to the solution of the Riccati equation. The application of the results was illustrated in the context of a linear quadratic optimal control problem for a one dimensional heat equation.

  10. Predicting Thermal Conductivity Evolution of Polycrystalline Materials Under Irradiation Using Multiscale Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Dongsheng; Li, Yulan; Hu, Shenyang Y.; Sun, Xin; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2012-03-01

    A multiscale methodology was developed to predict the evolution of thermal conductivity of polycrystalline fuel under irradiation. In the mesoscale level, phase field model was used to predict the evolution of gas bubble microstructure. Generation of gas atoms and vacancies were taken into consideration. In the macroscopic scale, a statistical continuum mechanics model was applied to predict the anisotropic thermal conductivity evolution during irradiation. Microstructure predicted by phase field model was fed into statistical continuum mechanics model to predict properties and behavior. Influence of irradiation intensity, exposition time and morphology were investigated. This approach provides a deep understanding on microstructure evolution and property prediction from a basic scientific viewpoint.

  11. Approach of Complex-Systems Biology to Reproduction and Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneko, Kunihiko

    Two basic issues in biology - the origin of life and evolution of phenotypes - are discussed on the basis of statistical physics and dynamical systems. In section "A Bridge Between Catalytic Reaction Networks and Reproducing Cells", we survey recent developments in the origin of reproducing cells from an ensemble of catalytic reactions. After surveying several models of catalytic reaction networks briefly, we provide possible answers to the following three questions: (1) How are nonequilibrium states sustained in catalytic reaction dynamics? (2) How is recursive production of a cell maintaining composition of a variety of chemicals possible? (3) How does a specific molecule species carry information for heredity? In section "Evolution", general relationships between plasticity, robustness, and evolvability are presented in terms of phenotypic fluctuations. First, proportionality between evolution speed, phenotypic plasticity, and isogenic phenotypic fluctuation is proposed by extending the fluctuation-response relationship in physics. We then derive a general proportionality relationship between the phenotypic fluctuations of epigenetic and genetic origin: the former is the variance of phenotype due to noise in the developmental process, and the latter due to genetic mutation. The relationship also suggests a link between robustness to noise and to mutation. These relationships are confirmed in models of gene expression dynamics, as well as in laboratory experiments, and then are explained by a theory based on an evolutionary stability hypothesis For both sections "A Bridge Between Catalytic Reaction Networks and Reproducing Cells" and "Evolution", consistency between two levels of hierarchy (i.e., molecular and cellular, or genetic and phenotypic levels) is stressed as a principle for complex-systems biology.

  12. A Quantitative Approach to Analyzing Genome Reductive Evolution Using Protein–Protein Interaction Networks: A Case Study of Mycobacterium leprae

    PubMed Central

    Akinola, Richard O.; Mazandu, Gaston K.; Mulder, Nicola J.

    2016-01-01

    The advance in high-throughput sequencing technologies has yielded complete genome sequences of several organisms, including complete bacterial genomes. The growing number of these available sequenced genomes has enabled analyses of their dynamics, as well as the molecular and evolutionary processes which these organisms are under. Comparative genomics of different bacterial genomes have highlighted their genome size and gene content in association with lifestyles and adaptation to various environments and have contributed to enhancing our understanding of the mechanisms of their evolution. Protein–protein functional interactions mediate many essential processes for maintaining the stability of the biological systems under changing environmental conditions. Thus, these interactions play crucial roles in the evolutionary processes of different organisms, especially for obligate intracellular bacteria, proven to generally have reduced genome sizes compared to their nearest free-living relatives. In this study, we used the approach based on the Renormalization Group (RG) analysis technique and the Maximum-Excluded-Mass-Burning (MEMB) model to investigate the evolutionary process of genome reduction in relation to the organization of functional networks of two organisms. Using a Mycobacterium leprae (MLP) network in comparison with a Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) network as a case study, we show that reductive evolution in MLP was as a result of removal of important proteins from neighbors of corresponding orthologous MTB proteins. While each orthologous MTB protein had an increase in number of interacting partners in most instances, the corresponding MLP protein had lost some of them. This work provides a quantitative model for mapping reductive evolution and protein–protein functional interaction network organization in terms of roles played by different proteins in the network structure. PMID:27066064

  13. Evolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayr, Ernst

    1978-01-01

    Traces the history of evolution theory from Lamarck and Darwin to the present. Discusses natural selection in detail. Suggests that, besides biological evolution, there is also a cultural evolution which is more rapid than the former. (MA)

  14. Protein Engineering by Combined Computational and In Vitro Evolution Approaches.

    PubMed

    Rosenfeld, Lior; Heyne, Michael; Shifman, Julia M; Papo, Niv

    2016-05-01

    Two alternative strategies are commonly used to study protein-protein interactions (PPIs) and to engineer protein-based inhibitors. In one approach, binders are selected experimentally from combinatorial libraries of protein mutants that are displayed on a cell surface. In the other approach, computational modeling is used to explore an astronomically large number of protein sequences to select a small number of sequences for experimental testing. While both approaches have some limitations, their combination produces superior results in various protein engineering applications. Such applications include the design of novel binders and inhibitors, the enhancement of affinity and specificity, and the mapping of binding epitopes. The combination of these approaches also aids in the understanding of the specificity profiles of various PPIs. PMID:27061494

  15. A Noisy 10GB Provenance Database

    SciTech Connect

    Cheah, You-Wei; Plale, Beth; Kendall-Morwick, Joey; Leake, David; Ramakrishnan, Lavanya

    2011-06-06

    Provenance of scientific data is a key piece of the metadata record for the data's ongoing discovery and reuse. Provenance collection systems capture provenance on the fly, however, the protocol between application and provenance tool may not be reliable. Consequently, the provenance record can be partial, partitioned, and simply inaccurate. We use a workflow emulator that models faults to construct a large 10GB database of provenance that we know is noisy (that is, has errors). We discuss the process of generating the provenance database, and show early results on the kinds of provenance analysis enabled by the large provenance.

  16. Random Matrix Approach to Quantum Adiabatic Evolution Algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boulatov, Alexei; Smelyanskiy, Vadier N.

    2004-01-01

    We analyze the power of quantum adiabatic evolution algorithms (Q-QA) for solving random NP-hard optimization problems within a theoretical framework based on the random matrix theory (RMT). We present two types of the driven RMT models. In the first model, the driving Hamiltonian is represented by Brownian motion in the matrix space. We use the Brownian motion model to obtain a description of multiple avoided crossing phenomena. We show that the failure mechanism of the QAA is due to the interaction of the ground state with the "cloud" formed by all the excited states, confirming that in the driven RMT models. the Landau-Zener mechanism of dissipation is not important. We show that the QAEA has a finite probability of success in a certain range of parameters. implying the polynomial complexity of the algorithm. The second model corresponds to the standard QAEA with the problem Hamiltonian taken from the Gaussian Unitary RMT ensemble (GUE). We show that the level dynamics in this model can be mapped onto the dynamics in the Brownian motion model. However, the driven RMT model always leads to the exponential complexity of the algorithm due to the presence of the long-range intertemporal correlations of the eigenvalues. Our results indicate that the weakness of effective transitions is the leading effect that can make the Markovian type QAEA successful.

  17. Computational Approaches to Viral Evolution and Rational Vaccine Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Tanmoy

    2006-10-01

    Viral pandemics, including HIV, are a major health concern across the world. Experimental techniques available today have uncovered a great wealth of information about how these viruses infect, grow, and cause disease; as well as how our body attempts to defend itself against them. Nevertheless, due to the high variability and fast evolution of many of these viruses, the traditional method of developing vaccines by presenting a heuristically chosen strain to the body fails and an effective intervention strategy still eludes us. A large amount of carefully curated genomic data on a number of these viruses are now available, often annotated with disease and immunological context. The availability of parallel computers has now made it possible to carry out a systematic analysis of this data within an evolutionary framework. I will describe, as an example, how computations on such data has allowed us to understand the origins and diversification of HIV, the causative agent of AIDS. On the practical side, computations on the same data is now being used to inform choice or defign of optimal vaccine strains.

  18. Random matrix approach to quantum adiabatic evolution algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    Boulatov, A.; Smelyanskiy, V.N.

    2005-05-15

    We analyze the power of the quantum adiabatic evolution algorithm (QAA) for solving random computationally hard optimization problems within a theoretical framework based on random matrix theory (RMT). We present two types of driven RMT models. In the first model, the driving Hamiltonian is represented by Brownian motion in the matrix space. We use the Brownian motion model to obtain a description of multiple avoided crossing phenomena. We show that nonadiabatic corrections in the QAA are due to the interaction of the ground state with the 'cloud' formed by most of the excited states, confirming that in driven RMT models, the Landau-Zener scenario of pairwise level repulsions is not relevant for the description of nonadiabatic corrections. We show that the QAA has a finite probability of success in a certain range of parameters, implying a polynomial complexity of the algorithm. The second model corresponds to the standard QAA with the problem Hamiltonian taken from the RMT Gaussian unitary ensemble (GUE). We show that the level dynamics in this model can be mapped onto the dynamics in the Brownian motion model. For this reason, the driven GUE model can also lead to polynomial complexity of the QAA. The main contribution to the failure probability of the QAA comes from the nonadiabatic corrections to the eigenstates, which only depend on the absolute values of the transition amplitudes. Due to the mapping between the two models, these absolute values are the same in both cases. Our results indicate that this 'phase irrelevance' is the leading effect that can make both the Markovian- and GUE-type QAAs successful.

  19. Bridging Inter- and Intraspecific Trait Evolution with a Hierarchical Bayesian Approach.

    PubMed

    Kostikova, Anna; Silvestro, Daniele; Pearman, Peter B; Salamin, Nicolas

    2016-05-01

    The evolution of organisms is crucially dependent on the evolution of intraspecific variation. Its interactions with selective agents in the biotic and abiotic environments underlie many processes, such as intraspecific competition, resource partitioning and, eventually, species formation. Nevertheless, comparative models of trait evolution neither allow explicit testing of hypotheses related to the evolution of intraspecific variation nor do they simultaneously estimate rates of trait evolution by accounting for both trait mean and variance. Here, we present a model of phenotypic trait evolution using a hierarchical Bayesian approach that simultaneously incorporates interspecific and intraspecific variation. We assume that species-specific trait means evolve under a simple Brownian motion process, whereas species-specific trait variances are modeled with Brownian or Ornstein-Uhlenbeck processes. After evaluating the power of the method through simulations, we examine whether life-history traits impact evolution of intraspecific variation in the Eriogonoideae (buckwheat family, Polygonaceae). Our model is readily extendible to more complex scenarios of the evolution of inter- and intraspecific variation and presents a step toward more comprehensive comparative models for macroevolutionary studies. PMID:26911152

  20. Scapular dyskinesia: evolution towards a systems-based approach

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Historically, scapular dyskinesia has been used to describe an isolated clinical entity whereby an abnormality in positioning, movement or function of the scapula is present. Based upon this, treatment approaches have focused on addressing local isolated muscle activity. Recently, however, there has been a progressive move towards viewing the scapula as being part of a wider system of movement that is regulated and controlled by multiple factors, including the wider kinetic chain and individual patient-centred requirements. We therefore propose a paradigm shift whereby scapular dyskinesia is seen not in isolation but is considered within the broader context of patient-centred care and an entire neuromuscular system. PMID:27583003

  1. An ensemble approach to the evolution of complex systems.

    PubMed

    Arpağ, Göker; Erzan, Ayşe

    2014-04-01

    Adaptive systems frequently incorporate complex structures which can arise spontaneously and which may be nonadaptive in the evolutionary sense. We give examples from phase transition and fractal growth to develop the themes of cooperative phenomena and pattern formation. We discuss RNA interference and transcriptional gene regulation networks, where a major part of the topological properties can be accounted for by mere combinatorics. A discussion of ensemble approaches to biological systems and measures of complexity is presented, and a connection is established between complexity and fitness. PMID:24736159

  2. Scapular dyskinesia: evolution towards a systems-based approach.

    PubMed

    Willmore, Elaine G; Smith, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Historically, scapular dyskinesia has been used to describe an isolated clinical entity whereby an abnormality in positioning, movement or function of the scapula is present. Based upon this, treatment approaches have focused on addressing local isolated muscle activity. Recently, however, there has been a progressive move towards viewing the scapula as being part of a wider system of movement that is regulated and controlled by multiple factors, including the wider kinetic chain and individual patient-centred requirements. We therefore propose a paradigm shift whereby scapular dyskinesia is seen not in isolation but is considered within the broader context of patient-centred care and an entire neuromuscular system. PMID:27583003

  3. PAV ontology: provenance, authoring and versioning

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    We analyze and compare PAV with related approaches, namely Provenance Vocabulary (PRV), DC Terms and BIBFRAME. We identify similarities and analyze differences between those vocabularies and PAV, outlining strengths and weaknesses of our proposed model. We specify SKOS mappings that align PAV with DC Terms. We conclude the paper with general remarks on the applicability of PAV. PMID:24267948

  4. A variational approach to understanding white dwarf evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, M. A.; Winget, D. E.

    1989-01-01

    A variational approach is used to map out the effects that uncertainties in the theoretical model parameters have upon the derived ages near the observed cutoff in the white dwarf luminosity function. Two representative sequences are assessed, simulating a white dwarf with a 50/50 C/O mixture in the core and an outer helium layer and a white dwarf with a C/O convective overshooting profile. The differential effects that the variation of selected model input quantities has on the ages are reported, and it is concluded that internal theoretical uncertainties are small and getting smaller with time, and the results underscore the power of using the observed white dwarf luminosity function for studying the history of star formation in the Galaxy.

  5. Adaptive virulence evolution: the good old fitness-based approach.

    PubMed

    Alizon, Samuel; Michalakis, Yannis

    2015-05-01

    Infectious diseases could be expected to evolve towards complete avirulence to their hosts if given enough time. However, this is not the case. Often, virulence is maintained because it is linked to adaptive advantages to the parasite, a situation that is often associated with the hypothesis known as the transmission-virulence trade-off hypothesis. Here, we argue that this hypothesis has three limitations, which are related to how virulence is defined, the possibility of multiple trade-offs, and the difficulty of testing the hypothesis empirically. By adopting a fitness-based approach, where the relation between virulence and the fitness of the parasite throughout its life cycle is directly assessed, it is possible to address these limitations and to determine directly whether virulence is adaptive. PMID:25837917

  6. Evolution of Minimally Invasive Approaches to the Sella and Parasellar Region

    PubMed Central

    Louis, Robert G.; Eisenberg, Amy; Barkhoudarian, Garni; Griffiths, Chester; Kelly, Daniel F.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Given advancements in endoscopic image quality, instrumentation, surgical navigation, skull base closure techniques, and anatomical understanding, the endonasal endoscopic approach has rapidly evolved into a widely utilized technique for removal of sellar and parasellar tumors. Although pituitary adenomas and Rathke cleft cysts constitute the majority of lesions removed via this route, craniopharyngiomas, clival chordomas, parasellar meningiomas, and other lesions are increasingly removed using this approach. Paralleling the evolution of the endonasal route to the parasellar region, the supraorbital eyebrow craniotomy has also been increasingly used as an alternative minimally invasive approach to reach this skull base region. Similar to the endonasal route, the supraorbital route has been greatly facilitated by advances in endoscopy, along with development of more refined, low-profile instrumentation and surgical navigation technology. Objectives This review, encompassing both transcranial and transsphenoidal routes, will recount the high points and advances that have made minimally invasive approaches to the sellar region possible, the evolution of these approaches, and their relative indications and technical nuances. Data Synthesis The literature is reviewed regarding the evolution of surgical approaches to the sellar region beginning with the earliest attempts and emphasizing technological advances, which have allowed the evolution of the modern technique. The surgical techniques for both endoscopic transsphenoidal and supraorbital approaches are described in detail. The relative indications for each approach are highlighted using case illustrations. Conclusions Although tremendous advances have been made in transitioning toward minimally invasive transcranial and transsphenoidal approaches to the sella, further work remains to be done. Together, the endonasal endoscopic and the supraorbital endoscope-assisted approaches are complementary

  7. Continuing evolution in the approach to severe liver trauma.

    PubMed Central

    Reed, R L; Merrell, R C; Meyers, W C; Fischer, R P

    1992-01-01

    Surgical and radiologic techniques from computed tomography (CT) scanning and embolization to temporary gauze packing and mesh hepatorrhaphy have been developed to make the management of severe liver injuries more effective. Surgical approaches for severe liver trauma have been oriented to two major consequences of these injuries: hemorrhage and infection. Early attempts at hemorrhagic control found benefit only in temporary intrahepatic gauze packing. The subsequent recognition of complications after liver injury blamed the practice of packing, which then remained unused for more than 30 years. Yet more aggressive attempts at controlling hemorrhage without temporary packing failed to improve results. Temporary perihepatic gauze packing therefore has been reintroduced, but this is probably an imperfect solution. Mesh hepatorrhaphy may control bleeding without many of the adverse effects of packing. Fourteen patients are reported with severe liver injuries who have undergone mesh hepatorrhaphy, bringing the current reported experience with mesh hepatorrhaphy to 24, with a combined mortality rate of 37.5%. Thus far, it appears that only juxtacaval injuries fail to have their hemorrhage controlled with mesh hepatorrhaphy, but many believe that these injuries may be controlled by perihepatic packing. Prophylactic drainage of severe liver injuries is a concept for which there is little evidence of benefit. Furthermore, recent radiologic developments appear capable of draining those collections that do occasionally develop in the postoperative period. The ultimate challenge of liver transplantation for trauma has been attempted, but the experience is thus far very limited. PMID:1444644

  8. Surge-tectonic evolution of southeastern Asia: a geohydrodynamics approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyerhoff, Arthur A.

    The repeated need for ad hoc modifications in plate-tectonic models to explain the evolution of southeastern Asia reveals their inability to fully explain the complex features and dynamics of this region. As one example, the hypothesis does not provide a mechanism to explain the 180° turns and twists along the strike of several foldbelts and island arcs in the region (e.g. Banda arc). Convection-cell configuration renders such 180° contortions and Rayleigh-Bénard-type convection impossible. However, during the last 10 years, new data bearing on the convection-cell problem have become available in the form of seismotomographic images of the earth's interior. These images show that (i) mantle diapirs as proposed by traditional plate-tectonic models do not exist; (ii) there is no discernible pattern of upper or lower mantle convection, and thus no longer an adequate mechanism to move plates; and (iii) the lithosphere above a depth of about 80 km is permeated by an interconnected network of low-velocity channels. Seismic-reflection studies of the low-velocity channels discovered on the seismotomographic images reveal that these channels have walls with a 7.1-7.8 km s -1 P-wave velocity. Commonly, the interiors of the channels are acoustically transparent, with much slower P-wave velocities, in places as low as 5.4 km s -1. The author and co-workers have interpreted the low velocities as evidence for the presence of partial melt in the channels, and they postulated that this melt moves preferentially eastward as a result of the earth's rotation. They named these channels "surge channels" and their new hypothesis for earth dynamics "surge tectonics". Surge channels underlie every type of tectonic belt, which includes mid-ocean ridges, aseismic ridges, continental rifts, strike-slip fracture zones, and foldbelts. In southeastern Asia, surge channels—mainly foldbelts—lie between all platform and cratonic massifs. These massifs, platforms, and tectonics belts

  9. Surge-tectonic evolution of southeastern Asia: a geohydrodynamics approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyerhoff, Arthur A.

    The repeated need for ad hoc modifications in plate-tectonic models to explain the evolution of southeastern Asia reveals their inability to fully explain the complex features and dynamics of this region. As one example, the hypothesis does not provide a mechanism to explain the 180° turns and twists along the strike of several foldbelts and island arcs in the region (e.g. Banda arc). Convection-cell configuration renders such 180° contortions and Rayleigh-Bénard-type convection impossible. However, during the last 10 years, new data bearing on the convection-cell problem have become available in the form of seismotomographic images of the earth's interior. These images show that (i) mantle diapirs as proposed by traditional plate-tectonic models do not exist; (ii) there is no discernible pattern of upper or lower mantle convection, and thus no longer an adequate mechanism to move plates; and (iii) the lithosphere above a depth of about 80 km is permeated by an interconnected network of low-velocity channels. Seismic-reflection studies of the low-velocity channels discovered on the seismotomographic images reveal that these channels have walls with a 7.1-7.8 km s -1 P-wave velocity. Commonly, the interiors of the channels are acoustically transparent, with much slower P-wave velocities, in places as low as 5.4 km s -1. The author and co-workers have interpreted the low velocities as evidence for the presence of partial melt in the channels, and they postulated that this melt moves preferentially eastward as a result of the earth's rotation. They named these channels "surge channels" and their new hypothesis for earth dynamics "surge tectonics". Surge channels underlie every type of tectonic belt, which includes mid-ocean ridges, aseismic ridges, continental rifts, strike-slip fracture zones, and foldbelts. In southeastern Asia, surge channels—mainly foldbelts—lie between all platform and cratonic massifs. These massifs, platforms, and tectonics belts

  10. Objective 3D face recognition: Evolution, approaches and challenges.

    PubMed

    Smeets, Dirk; Claes, Peter; Vandermeulen, Dirk; Clement, John Gerald

    2010-09-10

    Face recognition is a natural human ability and a widely accepted identification and authentication method. In modern legal settings, a lot of credence is placed on identifications made by eyewitnesses. Consequently these are based on human perception which is often flawed and can lead to situations where identity is disputed. Therefore, there is a clear need to secure identifications in an objective way based on anthropometric measures. Anthropometry has existed for many years and has evolved with each advent of new technology and computing power. As a result of this, face recognition methodology has shifted from a purely 2D image-based approach to the use of 3D facial shape. However, one of the main challenges still remaining is the non-rigid structure of the face, which can change permanently over varying time-scales and briefly with facial expressions. The majority of face recognition methods have been developed by scientists with a very technical background such as biometry, pattern recognition and computer vision. This article strives to bridge the gap between these communities and the forensic science end-users. A concise review of face recognition using 3D shape is given. Methods using 3D shape applied to data embodying facial expressions are tabulated for reference. From this list a categorization of different strategies to deal with expressions is presented. The underlying concepts and practical issues relating to the application of each strategy are given, without going into technical details. The discussion clearly articulates the justification to establish archival, reference databases to compare and evaluate different strategies. PMID:20395086

  11. Provenance management in Swift with implementation details.

    SciTech Connect

    Gadelha, L. M. R; Clifford, B.; Mattoso, M.; Wilde, M.; Foster, I.

    2011-04-01

    The Swift parallel scripting language allows for the specification, execution and analysis of large-scale computations in parallel and distributed environments. It incorporates a data model for recording and querying provenance information. In this article we describe these capabilities and evaluate interoperability with other systems through the use of the Open Provenance Model. We describe Swift's provenance data model and compare it to the Open Provenance Model. We also describe and evaluate activities performed within the Third Provenance Challenge, which consisted of implementing a specific scientific workflow, capturing and recording provenance information of its execution, performing provenance queries, and exchanging provenance information with other systems. Finally, we propose improvements to both the Open Provenance Model and Swift's provenance system.

  12. The Natural Selection: Identifying Student Misconceptions through an Inquiry-Based, Critical Approach to Evolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robbins, Jennifer R.; Roy, Pamela

    2007-01-01

    We invited 141 non-science major undergraduates to share and then challenge their preconceptions about evolution in a four-lesson inquiry lab unit that integrated diverse topics with rigorous assessment. Our experience suggests that an inquiring approach to evolutionary theory can be highly persuasive.

  13. File level provenance tracking in CMS

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, C.D.; Kowalkowski, J.; Paterno, M.; Sexton-Kennedy, L.; Tanenbaum, W.; Riley, D.S.; /Cornell U., LEPP

    2009-05-01

    The CMS off-line framework stores provenance information within CMS's standard ROOT event data files. The provenance information is used to track how each data product was constructed, including what other data products were read to do the construction. We will present how the framework gathers the provenance information, the efforts necessary to minimize the space used to store the provenance in the file and the tools that will be available to use the provenance.

  14. Detrital zircon record of Paleozoic and Mesozoic meta-sedimentary strata in the eastern part of the Baoshan block: Implications of their provenance and the tectonic evolution of the southeastern margin of the Tibetan plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dapeng; Chen, Yuelong; Hou, Kejun; Lu, Zhen; Cui, Di

    2015-06-01

    The Baoshan block is one of the important members in the southeastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau. Cambrian to Jurassic (meta-) sedimentary strata and their metamorphic counterparts were well preserved in the eastern part of the Baoshan block. Zircon U-Pb dating, trace elements, and Hf isotope data for both the Cambrian to Jurassic (meta-) sedimentary sequences and the Lincang granite were used to deduce the provenance of sediments and crustal affinity with eastern Gondwanaland. The Lincang granite outcropped in the Fengqing area is typical S-type, with crystallization age of ~ 230 Ma and narrow range of zircon εHf(t) values from - 15.5 to - 10. Detrital zircons from Paleozoic strata range in age from Archean to early Paleozoic, with age peaks at ~ 2.5, ~ 0.95, and ~ 0.6 Ga. Triassic age peak (~ 230 Ma) was also detected in the Jurassic strata. Detrital zircon εHf(t) values exhibit a wide range from negative to positive for each of the four major age groups, showing the host magma of zircons from these groups have diverse sources. The Baoshan block should be along the Indian margin as the Qiangtang, Tengchong and Simao-Indochina blocks in Early Paleozoic based on the provenance analyses. Sediment inputs eroded from both the Lincang granite and the coeval igneous rocks in the Baoshan and Gongshan blocks were the dominant contributions to the Jurassic strata after the amalgation of the Baoshan and Simao-Indochina blocks. Tectonic processes linking dispersion of the Baoshan-Sibumasu terrane from the Gondwana supercontinent to the collision with the Simao-Indochina block and the deposition of the Cambrian to Jurassic sedimentary sequences were reconstructed.

  15. Comparative genetic approaches to the evolution of human brain and behavior

    PubMed Central

    Vallender, Eric J.

    2012-01-01

    With advances in genomic technologies the amount of genetic data available to scientists today is vast. Genomes are now available or planned for fourteen different primate species and complete resequencing of numerous human individuals from numerous populations is underway. Moreover, high-throughput deep sequencing is quickly making whole genome efforts within the reach of single laboratories allowing for unprecedented studies. Comparative genetic approaches to the identification of the underlying basis of human brain, behavior and cognitive ability are moving to the forefront. Two approaches predominate: inter-species divergence comparisons and intra-species polymorphism studies. These methodological differences are useful for different time scales of evolution and necessarily focus on different evolutionary events in the history of primate and hominin evolution. Inter-species divergence is more useful in studying large scale primate, or hominoid, evolution whereas intra-species polymorphism can be more illuminating of recent hominin evolution. These differences in methodological utility also extend to studies of differing genetic substrates; current divergence studies focus primarily on protein evolution while polymorphism studies are substrate ambivalent. Some of the issues inherent in these studies can be ameliorated by current sequencing capabilities while others remain intractable. New avenues are also being opened that allow for the incorporation of novel substrates and approaches. In the post-genomic era the study of human evolution, specifically as it relates to the brain, is becoming more complete focusing increasingly on the totality of the system and better conceptualizing the entirety of the genetic changes that have lead to the human phenotype today. PMID:21140466

  16. Transzygomatic Approach to Skull Base: History, Evolution, and Possibility of a Simple Modification.

    PubMed

    Badwal, Jaspreet Singh

    2016-05-01

    The surgical approaches to anterior, middle, and lateral skull base have evolved drastically, transcending from an era of oblivion to well-defined and systematically executed, state-of-the-art, refined surgery. The transzygomatic approach, which was developed to access the nasopharynx, has been applied to versatile locations of skull base pathology, with continuous evolution and modification of the osteotomies and skin flaps involved. A simple modification is proposed which could help reach a compromise between the wide exposure provided by the hemicoronal incision and the minimally invasive preauricular approach. PMID:27054426

  17. Launch Services, a Proven Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trafton, W. C.; Simpson, J.

    2002-01-01

    From a commercial perspective, the ability to justify "leap frog" technology such as reusable systems has been difficult to justify because the estimated 5B to 10B investment is not supported in the current flat commercial market coupled with an oversupply of launch service suppliers. The market simply does not justify investment of that magnitude. Currently, next generation Expendable Launch Systems, including Boeing's Delta IV, Lockheed Martin's Atlas 5, Ariane V ESCA and RSC's H-IIA are being introduced into operations signifying that only upgrades to proven systems are planned to meet the changes in anticipated satellite demand (larger satellites, more lifetime, larger volumes, etc.) in the foreseeable future. We do not see a new fleet of ELVs emerging beyond that which is currently being introduced, only continuous upgrades of the fleet to meet the demands. To induce a radical change in the provision of launch services, a Multinational Government investment must be made and justified by World requirements. The commercial market alone cannot justify such an investment. And if an investment is made, we cannot afford to repeat previous mistakes by relying on one system such as shuttle for commercial deployment without having any back-up capability. Other issues that need to be considered are national science and security requirements, which to a large extent fuels the Japanese, Chinese, Indian, Former Soviet Union, European and United States space transportation entries. Additionally, this system must support or replace current Space Transportation Economies with across-the-board benefits. For the next 10 to 20 years, Multinational cooperation will be in the form of piecing together launch components and infrastructure to supplement existing launch systems and reducing the amount of non-recurring investment while meeting the future requirements of the End-User. Virtually all of the current systems have some form of multinational participation: Sea Launch

  18. Evolution of transoral approaches, endoscopic endonasal approaches, and reduction strategies for treatment of craniovertebral junction pathology: a treatment algorithm update.

    PubMed

    Dlouhy, Brian J; Dahdaleh, Nader S; Menezes, Arnold H

    2015-04-01

    The craniovertebral junction (CVJ), or the craniocervical junction (CCJ) as it is otherwise known, houses the crossroads of the CNS and is composed of the occipital bone that surrounds the foramen magnum, the atlas vertebrae, the axis vertebrae, and their associated ligaments and musculature. The musculoskeletal organization of the CVJ is unique and complex, resulting in a wide range of congenital, developmental, and acquired pathology. The refinements of the transoral approach to the CVJ by the senior author (A.H.M.) in the late 1970s revolutionized the treatment of CVJ pathology. At the same time, a physiological approach to CVJ management was adopted at the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics in 1977 based on the stability and motion dynamics of the CVJ and the site of encroachment, incorporating the transoral approach for irreducible ventral CVJ pathology. Since then, approaches and techniques to treat ventral CVJ lesions have evolved. In the last 40 years at University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, multiple approaches to the CVJ have evolved and a better understanding of CVJ pathology has been established. In addition, new reduction strategies that have diminished the need to perform ventral decompressive approaches have been developed and implemented. In this era of surgical subspecialization, to properly treat complex CVJ pathology, the CVJ specialist must be trained in skull base transoral and endoscopic endonasal approaches, pediatric and adult CVJ spine surgery, and must understand and be able to treat the complex CSF dynamics present in CVJ pathology to provide the appropriate, optimal, and tailored treatment strategy for each individual patient, both child and adult. This is a comprehensive review of the history and evolution of the transoral approaches, extended transoral approaches, endoscopie assisted transoral approaches, endoscopie endonasal approaches, and CVJ reduction strategies. Incorporating these advancements, the authors update the

  19. An alternative approach for neural network evolution with a genetic algorithm: crossover by combinatorial optimization.

    PubMed

    García-Pedrajas, Nicolás; Ortiz-Boyer, Domingo; Hervás-Martínez, César

    2006-05-01

    In this work we present a new approach to crossover operator in the genetic evolution of neural networks. The most widely used evolutionary computation paradigm for neural network evolution is evolutionary programming. This paradigm is usually preferred due to the problems caused by the application of crossover to neural network evolution. However, crossover is the most innovative operator within the field of evolutionary computation. One of the most notorious problems with the application of crossover to neural networks is known as the permutation problem. This problem occurs due to the fact that the same network can be represented in a genetic coding by many different codifications. Our approach modifies the standard crossover operator taking into account the special features of the individuals to be mated. We present a new model for mating individuals that considers the structure of the hidden layer and redefines the crossover operator. As each hidden node represents a non-linear projection of the input variables, we approach the crossover as a problem on combinatorial optimization. We can formulate the problem as the extraction of a subset of near-optimal projections to create the hidden layer of the new network. This new approach is compared to a classical crossover in 25 real-world problems with an excellent performance. Moreover, the networks obtained are much smaller than those obtained with classical crossover operator. PMID:16343847

  20. Restful Implementation of Catalogue Service for Geospatial Data Provenance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, L. C.; Yue, P.; Lu, X. C.

    2013-10-01

    Provenance, also known as lineage, is important in understanding the derivation history of data products. Geospatial data provenance helps data consumers to evaluate the quality and reliability of geospatial data. In a service-oriented environment, where data are often consumed or produced by distributed services, provenance could be managed by following the same service-oriented paradigm. The Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Catalogue Service for the Web (CSW) is used for the registration and query of geospatial data provenance by extending ebXML Registry Information Model (ebRIM). Recent advance of the REpresentational State Transfer (REST) paradigm has shown great promise for the easy integration of distributed resources. RESTful Web Service aims to provide a standard way for Web clients to communicate with servers based on REST principles. The existing approach for provenance catalogue service could be improved by adopting the RESTful design. This paper presents the design and implementation of a catalogue service for geospatial data provenance following RESTful architecture style. A middleware named REST Converter is added on the top of the legacy catalogue service to support a RESTful style interface. The REST Converter is composed of a resource request dispatcher and six resource handlers. A prototype service is developed to demonstrate the applicability of the approach.

  1. Data Provenance in Photogrammetry Through Documentation Protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carboni, N.; Bruseker, G.; Guillem, A.; Bellido Castañeda, D.; Coughenour, C.; Domajnko, M.; de Kramer, M.; Ramos Calles, M. M.; Stathopoulou, E. K.; Suma, R.

    2016-06-01

    Documenting the relevant aspects in digitisation processes such as photogrammetry in order to provide a robust provenance for their products continues to present a challenge. The creation of a product that can be re-used scientifically requires a framework for consistent, standardised documentation of the entire digitisation pipeline. This article provides an analysis of the problems inherent to such goals and presents a series of protocols to document the various steps of a photogrammetric workflow. We propose this pipeline, with descriptors to track all phases of digital product creation in order to assure data provenance and enable the validation of the operations from an analytic and production perspective. The approach aims to support adopters of the workflow to define procedures with a long term perspective. The conceptual schema we present is founded on an analysis of information and actor exchanges in the digitisation process. The metadata were defined through the synthesis of previous proposals in this area and were tested on a case study. We performed the digitisation of a set of cultural heritage artefacts from an Iron Age burial in Ilmendorf, Germany. The objects were captured and processed using different techniques, including a comparison of different imaging tools and algorithms. This augmented the complexity of the process allowing us to test the flexibility of the schema for documenting complex scenarios. Although we have only presented a photogrammetry digitisation scenario, we claim that our schema is easily applicable to a multitude of 3D documentation processes.

  2. Federated provenance of oceanographic research cruises: from metadata to data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Rob; Leadbetter, Adam; Shepherd, Adam

    2016-04-01

    more formally in data journals. Use of the SPARQL 1.1 standard allows queries to be federated across these endpoints to create a distributed network of provenance documents. Future research directions will add further nodes to the federated network of oceanographic research cruise provenance to determine the true scalability of this approach, and will involve analysis of and possible evolution of the data release lifecycle ontology. References Nitin Arora et al., 2006. Information object design pattern for modeling domain specific knowledge. 1st ECOOP Workshop on Domain-Specific Program Development. Simon Cox, 2015. Pitfalls in alignment of observation models resolved using PROV as an upper ontology. Abstract IN33F-07 presented at the American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting, 14-18 December, San Francisco. Adam Leadbetter & Justin Buck, 2015. Where did my data layer come from?" The semantics of data release. Geophysical Research Abstracts 17, EGU2015-3746-1. Xiaogang Ma et al., 2014. Ontology engineering in provenance enablement for the National Climate Assessment. Environmental Modelling & Software 61, 191-205. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envsoft.2014.08.002

  3. [The cost of cancer in France: macroeconomic and microeconomic approaches, evolution towards a prospective payment system].

    PubMed

    Perrier, Lionel; Borella, Laurent; Philip, Thierry

    2003-11-01

    In this article we have reviewed the cost of cancer in France, based on a literature review. The cost of the treatment of cancer is estimated to be 10 thousand million euros for 75,000 lives saved annually. The increasing number of economic evaluations of cancer use both a macro economic approach, based on DRG data, and a micro economic approach, based on cost result analysis. These cost studies provide the elements for a decision aid in the context of social demands, budget constraints and the evolution towards a DRG's prospective payment system which characterises present organisation of health care in France. PMID:14706905

  4. Orbiting binary black hole evolutions with a multipatch high order finite-difference approach

    SciTech Connect

    Pazos, Enrique; Tiglio, Manuel; Duez, Matthew D.; Kidder, Lawrence E.; Teukolsky, Saul A.

    2009-07-15

    We present numerical simulations of orbiting black holes for around 12 cycles, using a high order multipatch approach. Unlike some other approaches, the computational speed scales almost perfectly for thousands of processors. Multipatch methods are an alternative to adaptive mesh refinement, with benefits of simplicity and better scaling for improving the resolution in the wave zone. The results presented here pave the way for multipatch evolutions of black hole-neutron star and neutron star-neutron star binaries, where high resolution grids are needed to resolve details of the matter flow.

  5. PROX: Approximated Summarization of Data Provenance

    PubMed Central

    Ainy, Eleanor; Bourhis, Pierre; Davidson, Susan B.; Deutch, Daniel; Milo, Tova

    2016-01-01

    Many modern applications involve collecting large amounts of data from multiple sources, and then aggregating and manipulating it in intricate ways. The complexity of such applications, combined with the size of the collected data, makes it difficult to understand the application logic and how information was derived. Data provenance has been proven helpful in this respect in different contexts; however, maintaining and presenting the full and exact provenance may be infeasible, due to its size and complex structure. For that reason, we introduce the notion of approximated summarized provenance, where we seek a compact representation of the provenance at the possible cost of information loss. Based on this notion, we have developed PROX, a system for the management, presentation and use of data provenance for complex applications. We propose to demonstrate PROX in the context of a movies rating crowd-sourcing system, letting participants view provenance summarization and use it to gain insights on the application and its underlying data. PMID:27570843

  6. Tracking Provenance in ORNL's Flexible Research Platforms

    SciTech Connect

    Hensley, Zachary P; Sanyal, Jibonananda; New, Joshua Ryan

    2013-08-01

    Provenance is dened as information about the origin of objects, a concept that applies to both physical and digital objects and often overlaps both. The use of provenance in systems designed for research is an important but forgotten feature. Provenance allows for proper and exact tracking of information, its use, its lineage, its derivations and other metadata that are important for correctly adhering to the scien- tic method. In our project's prescribed use of provenance, researchers can determine detailed information about the use of sensor data in their experiments on ORNL's Flexible Research Platforms (FRPs). Our project's provenance system, Provenance Data Management System (ProvDMS), tracks information starting with the creation of information by an FRP sensor. The system determines station information, sensor information, and sensor channel information. The system allows researchers to derive generations of experiments from the sensor data and tracks their hierarchical flow. Key points can be seen in the history of the information as part of the information's workflow. The concept of provenance and its usage in science is relatively new and while used in other cases around the world, our project's provenance diers in a key area. To keep track of provenance, most systems must be designed or redesigned around the new provenance system. Our system is designed as a cohesive but sepa- rate entity and allows for researchers to continue using their own methods of analysis without being constrained in their ways in order to track the provenance. We have designed ProvDMS using a lightweight provenance library, Core Provenance Library (CPL) v.6 In addition to keeping track of sensor data experiments and its provenance, ProvDMS also provides a web-enabled visualization of the inheritance.

  7. A comparison of directed evolution approaches using the beta-glucuronidase model system.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Lori A; Geddie, Melissa L; Alexander, Omar B; Matsumura, Ichiro

    2003-09-26

    Protein engineers can alter the properties of enzymes by directing their evolution in vitro. Many methods to generate molecular diversity and to identify improved clones have been developed, but experimental evolution remains as much an art as a science. We previously used DNA shuffling (sexual recombination) and a histochemical screen to direct the evolution of Escherichia coli beta-glucuronidase (GUS) variants with improved beta-galactosidase (BGAL) activity. Here, we employ the same model evolutionary system to test the efficiencies of several other techniques: recursive random mutagenesis (asexual), combinatorial cassette mutagenesis (high-frequency recombination) and a versatile high-throughput microplate screen. GUS variants with altered specificity evolved in each trial, but different combinations of mutagenesis and screening techniques effected the fixation of different beneficial mutations. The new microplate screen identified a broader set of mutations than the previously employed X-gal colony screen. Recursive random mutagenesis produced essentially asexual populations, within which beneficial mutations drove each other into extinction (clonal interference); DNA shuffling and combinatorial cassette mutagenesis led instead to the accumulation of beneficial mutations within a single allele. These results explain why recombinational approaches generally increase the efficiency of laboratory evolution. PMID:12972256

  8. Quantitative models of sediment generation and provenance: State of the art and future developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weltje, Gert Jan

    2012-12-01

    An overview of quantitative approaches to analysis and modelling of sediment generation and provenance is presented, with an emphasis on major framework components as determined by means of petrographic techniques. Conceptual models of sediment provenance are shown to be consistent with two classes of numerical-statistical models, i.e. linear mixing models and compositional linear models. These cannot be placed within a common mathematical framework, because the former requires that sediment composition is expressed in terms of proportions, whereas the latter requires that sediment composition is expressed in terms of log-ratios of proportions. Additivity of proportions, a fundamental assumption in linear mixing models, cannot be readily expressed in log-ratio terms. Linear mixing models may be used to describe compositional variability in terms of physical and conceptual (un)mixing. Models of physical (un)mixing are appropriate for describing compositional variation within transport-invariant subpopulations of grains as a result of varying rates of supply of detritus from multiple sources. Conceptual (un)mixing governs the relations among chemical, mineralogical and petrographic characteristics of sediments, which represent different descriptive levels within a compositional hierarchy. Compositional linear process models may be used to describe compositional and/or textural evolution resulting from selective modifications induced by sediment transport, as well as chemical and mechanical weathering. Current approaches to modelling of surface processes treat the coupled evolution of source areas and sedimentary basins in terms of bulk mass transfer only, and do not take into account compositional and textural sediment properties. Moving from the inverse modelling approach embodied in provenance research to process-based forward models of sediment generation which provide detailed predictions of sediment properties meets with considerable (albeit not insurmountable

  9. Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peter, Ulmschneider

    When we are looking for intelligent life outside the Earth, there is a fundamental question: Assuming that life has formed on an extraterrestrial planet, will it also develop toward intelligence? As this is hotly debated, we will now describe the development of life on Earth in more detail in order to show that there are good reasons why evolution should culminate in intelligent beings.

  10. Addressing controversies in science education: a pragmatic approach to evolution education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hildebrand, David; Bilica, Kimberly; Capps, John

    2008-09-01

    Science education controversies typically prove more intractable than those in scientific research because they involve a wider range of considerations (e.g., epistemic, social, ethical, political, and religious). How can educators acknowledge central issues in a controversy (such as evolution)? How can such problems be addressed in a way that is ethically sensitive and intellectually responsible? Drawing in part on pragmatic philosopher John Dewey, our solution is politically proactive, philosophically pragmatic, and grounded in research. Central to our proposal is (1) steps toward creating a philosophical “total attitude” that is democratic, imaginative, and hypothetical; (2) a deeper understanding of how scientific theories can be pragmatically true; and (3) an assessment of differing pedagogical approaches for teaching evolution in the classroom.

  11. Distinguishing Provenance Equivalence of Earth Science Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilmes, Curt; Yesha, Ye; Halem, M.

    2010-01-01

    Reproducibility of scientific research relies on accurate and precise citation of data and the provenance of that data. Earth science data are often the result of applying complex data transformation and analysis workflows to vast quantities of data. Provenance information of data processing is used for a variety of purposes, including understanding the process and auditing as well as reproducibility. Certain provenance information is essential for producing scientifically equivalent data. Capturing and representing that provenance information and assigning identifiers suitable for precisely distinguishing data granules and datasets is needed for accurate comparisons. This paper discusses scientific equivalence and essential provenance for scientific reproducibility. We use the example of an operational earth science data processing system to illustrate the application of the technique of cascading digital signatures or hash chains to precisely identify sets of granules and as provenance equivalence identifiers to distinguish data made in an an equivalent manner.

  12. A differential evolution based approach for estimating minimal model parameters from IVGTT data.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Subhojit

    2014-03-01

    Estimation of insulin sensitivity plays a crucial role in the diagnosis and clinical investigation of glucose related diseases. The Bergman minimal model provides a non-invasive approach for estimating insulin sensitivity from the glucose insulin time series data of intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT). However, quite often in the traditional gradient based techniques for deriving insulin sensitivity from the minimal model, improper initialization leads to convergence problems and results in final solution, which are either incorrect or physiologically not feasible. This paper deals with a differential evolution-based approach for the determination of insulin sensitivity from the minimal model using clinical test data. Being a direct search based technique, the proposed approach enables the determination of the global solution irrespective of the initial parameter values. The fitting performance of the model with parameters estimated from the proposed approach is found to be higher than the corresponding model estimated from the widely used gradient based approach. A high correlation coefficient of 0.964 (95% confidence interval of [0.897,0.988]) is acheived between the estimated insulin sensitivity and the one obtained from the population based approach for 16 subjects. The high correlation signifies the relative similarity between the two estimated indices in representing the same physiological phenomena. The simulation results and statistical analysis reveal that the proposed technique provides a reliable estimate of insulin sensitivity with minimum prior knowledge. PMID:24529205

  13. Special Issue: The First Provenance Challenge

    SciTech Connect

    Moreau, Luc; Ludaescher, Bertram T.; Altintas, Ilkay; Barga, Roger S.; Bowers, Shawn; Callahan, Steven P.; Chin, George; Clifford, Ben; Cohen, Shirley; Cohen-Boulakia, Sarah; Davidson, Susan; Deelman, Ewa; digiampietri, Luciano; Foster, Ian T.; Freire, Juliana; Frew, James; Futrelle, Joe; Gibson, Tara D.; Gil, Yolanda; Goble, Carole; Golbeck, Jennifer; Groth, Paul; Holland, David A.; Jiang, Sheng; Kim, Jihie; Koop, David; Krenek, Ales; McPhillips, Timothy; Mehta, Gaurang; Miles, Simon; Metzger, Dominic; Munroe, Steve; Myers, James D.; Plale, Beth A.; Podhorszki, norbert; Ratnakar, Varun; Emanuele , Santos; scheidegger, Carlos E.; Schuchardt, Karen L.; Seltzer, Margo I.; Simmhan, Yogesh L.; Claudio, Silva T.; Slaughter, Peter; Stephan, Eric G.; Stevens, Robert; Turi, Daniele; Vo, Huy T.; Wilde, Mike J.; Zhao, Jun; Zhao, Yong

    2008-04-01

    The first Provenance Challenge was set up in order to provide a forum for the community to help understand the capabilities of different provenance systems and the expressiveness of their provenance representations. To this end, a Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging workflow was defined, which participants had to either simulate or run in order to produce some provenance representation, from which a set of identified queries had to be implemented and executed. Sixteen teams responded to the challenge, and submitted their inputs. In this paper, we present the challenge workflow and queries, and summarise the participants contributions.

  14. Dhat syndrome: Evolution of concept, current understanding, and need of an integrated approach

    PubMed Central

    Kar, Sujita Kumar; Sarkar, Siddharth

    2015-01-01

    Dhat syndrome has often been construed as a culture-bound sexual neurosis of the Indian subcontinent. Symptoms similar to that of Dhat syndrome has been described in other cultures across different time periods. The present paper looks at the evolution of the concept of Dhat syndrome in India. The review also takes an overview of the current understanding of this syndrome in terms of nosological status as a distinct entity and its “culture-bound” status. The narrative finally attempts to discuss the integrated approach for the treatment of this disorder. PMID:26538854

  15. Shape evolution and collective dynamics of quasifission in the time-dependent Hartree-Fock approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umar, A. S.; Oberacker, V. E.; Simenel, C.

    2015-08-01

    Background: At energies near the Coulomb barrier, capture reactions in heavy-ion collisions result either in fusion or in quasifission. The former produces a compound nucleus in statistical equilibrium, while the second leads to a reseparation of the fragments after partial mass equilibration without formation of a compound nucleus. Extracting the compound nucleus formation probability is crucial to predict superheavy-element formation cross sections. It requires a good knowledge of the fragment angular distribution which itself depends on quantities such as moments of inertia and excitation energies which have so far been somewhat arbitrary for the quasifission contribution. Purpose: Our main goal is to utilize the time-dependent Hartee-Fock (TDHF) approach to extract ingredients of the formula used in the analysis of experimental angular distributions. These include the moment-of-inertia and temperature. Methods: We investigate the evolution of the nuclear density in TDHF calculations leading to quasifission. We study the dependence of the relevant quantities on various initial conditions of the reaction process. Results: The evolution of the moment of inertia is clearly nontrivial and depends strongly on the characteristics of the collision. The temperature rises quickly when the kinetic energy is transformed into internal excitation. Then, it rises slowly during mass transfer. Conclusions: Fully microscopic theories are useful to predict the complex evolution of quantities required in macroscopic models of quasifission.

  16. Bedform genesis and evolution in bedrock substrates: a new experimental approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsons, D. R.; Yin, N.; Peakall, J.

    2014-12-01

    Most previous studies on the genesis and evolution of bedforms have focused on aggradational bedforms within cohesionless sediments, with very few investigations that concern either erosive bedform genesis and evolution or bedrock channel abrasion processes. The study presented here details experiments that involve the genesis and formation of erosional bedform features within natural (soft clay) cohesive sediment beds and analogue bedrock substrates by modelling clay under the effect of both open-channel plain water flows, and sediment-laden flows. A new approach without using plaster-of-Paris or real bedrock developed provides a feasible method to simulate the genesis and evolution of the erosional bedforms in cohesive sediment beds and sculpted forms in bedrock channels on relatively short time-scales in the laboratory by using a realistic substrate substitute.A series of flume experiments are presented herein where the undrained shear strength of two different kinds of substrate material is systematically varied under constant flow conditions. Experiments using plain water flow indicated that erosive bedforms in cohesive sediment substrate cannot be produced only under the effect of sediment-free flow. Particulate-laden flows do form erosional bedforms in both kinds of clay beds and the shear strength of the bed material plays a key role in determining the diversity of erosional features forming on such substrates. Optimisation of modelling clay beds has enabled us to successfully replicate a suite of bedrock bedforms, including potholes, flutes, longitudinal furrows, etc., that have clear equivalents to those observed in bedrock rivers and contributed to investigate the genesis and evolution process of them and explore the flow structures within and above them in experimental analogue bedrock substrate for the first time.

  17. Effects of Extrinsic Mortality on the Evolution of Aging: A Stochastic Modeling Approach

    PubMed Central

    Shokhirev, Maxim Nikolaievich; Johnson, Adiv Adam

    2014-01-01

    The evolutionary theories of aging are useful for gaining insights into the complex mechanisms underlying senescence. Classical theories argue that high levels of extrinsic mortality should select for the evolution of shorter lifespans and earlier peak fertility. Non-classical theories, in contrast, posit that an increase in extrinsic mortality could select for the evolution of longer lifespans. Although numerous studies support the classical paradigm, recent data challenge classical predictions, finding that high extrinsic mortality can select for the evolution of longer lifespans. To further elucidate the role of extrinsic mortality in the evolution of aging, we implemented a stochastic, agent-based, computational model. We used a simulated annealing optimization approach to predict which model parameters predispose populations to evolve longer or shorter lifespans in response to increased levels of predation. We report that longer lifespans evolved in the presence of rising predation if the cost of mating is relatively high and if energy is available in excess. Conversely, we found that dramatically shorter lifespans evolved when mating costs were relatively low and food was relatively scarce. We also analyzed the effects of increased predation on various parameters related to density dependence and energy allocation. Longer and shorter lifespans were accompanied by increased and decreased investments of energy into somatic maintenance, respectively. Similarly, earlier and later maturation ages were accompanied by increased and decreased energetic investments into early fecundity, respectively. Higher predation significantly decreased the total population size, enlarged the shared resource pool, and redistributed energy reserves for mature individuals. These results both corroborate and refine classical predictions, demonstrating a population-level trade-off between longevity and fecundity and identifying conditions that produce both classical and non

  18. General-relativistic approach to the nonlinear evolution of collisionless matter

    SciTech Connect

    Matarrese, S.; Pantano, O. ); Saez, D. )

    1993-02-15

    A new general-relativistic algorithm is developed to study the nonlinear evolution of scalar (density) perturbations of an irrotational collisionless fluid up to shell crossing, under the approximation of neglecting the interaction with tensor (gravitational-wave) perturbations. The dynamics of each fluid element is separately followed in its own inertial rest frame by a system of twelve coupled first-order ordinary differential equations, which can be further reduced to six under very general conditions. Initial conditions are obtained in a cosmological framework, from linear theory, in terms of a single gauge-invariant potential. Physical observables, which are expressed in the Lagrangian form at different times, can be traced back to the Eulerian picture by solving supplementary first-order differential equations for the relative position vectors of neighboring fluid elements. Similarly to the Zel'dovich approximation, in our approach the evolution of each fluid element is completely determined by the local initial conditions and can be independently followed up to the time when it enters a multistream region. Unlike the Zel'dovich approximation, however, our approach is correct also in three dimensions (except for the possible role of gravitational waves). The accuracy of our numerical procedure is tested by integrating the nonlinear evolution of a spherical perturbation in an otherwise spatially flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universe and comparing the results with the exact Tolman-Bondi solution for the same initial profile. An exact solution for the planar symmetric case is also given, which turns out to be locally identical to the Zel'dovich solution.

  19. The floral morphospace--a modern comparative approach to study angiosperm evolution.

    PubMed

    Chartier, Marion; Jabbour, Florian; Gerber, Sylvain; Mitteroecker, Philipp; Sauquet, Hervé; von Balthazar, Maria; Staedler, Yannick; Crane, Peter R; Schönenberger, Jürg

    2014-12-01

    Morphospaces are mathematical representations used for studying the evolution of morphological diversity and for the evaluation of evolved shapes among theoretically possible ones. Although widely used in zoology, they--with few exceptions--have been disregarded in plant science and in particular in the study of broad-scale patterns of floral structure and evolution. Here we provide basic information on the morphospace approach; we review earlier morphospace applications in plant science; and as a practical example, we construct and analyze a floral morphospace. Morphospaces are usually visualized with the help of ordination methods such as principal component analysis (PCA) or nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMDS). The results of these analyses are then coupled with disparity indices that describe the spread of taxa in the space. We discuss these methods and apply modern statistical tools to the first and only angiosperm-wide floral morphospace published by Stebbins in 1951. Despite the incompleteness of Stebbins’ original dataset, our analyses highlight major, angiosperm-wide trends in the diversity of flower morphology and thereby demonstrate the power of this previously neglected approach in plant science. PMID:25539005

  20. A combined NLP-differential evolution algorithm approach for the optimization of looped water distribution systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Feifei; Simpson, Angus R.; Zecchin, Aaron C.

    2011-08-01

    This paper proposes a novel optimization approach for the least cost design of looped water distribution systems (WDSs). Three distinct steps are involved in the proposed optimization approach. In the first step, the shortest-distance tree within the looped network is identified using the Dijkstra graph theory algorithm, for which an extension is proposed to find the shortest-distance tree for multisource WDSs. In the second step, a nonlinear programming (NLP) solver is employed to optimize the pipe diameters for the shortest-distance tree (chords of the shortest-distance tree are allocated the minimum allowable pipe sizes). Finally, in the third step, the original looped water network is optimized using a differential evolution (DE) algorithm seeded with diameters in the proximity of the continuous pipe sizes obtained in step two. As such, the proposed optimization approach combines the traditional deterministic optimization technique of NLP with the emerging evolutionary algorithm DE via the proposed network decomposition. The proposed methodology has been tested on four looped WDSs with the number of decision variables ranging from 21 to 454. Results obtained show the proposed approach is able to find optimal solutions with significantly less computational effort than other optimization techniques.

  1. Evolution of Organic Aerosols in the Atmosphere: A Synthesis of Emerging Approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canagaratna, Manjula R.; Jimenez, J. L.; Donahue, N. M.; Kroll, J. H.; Heald, C. L.; Cappa, C. D.; Prevot, A. S. H.; Worsnop, D. R.; Ng, N. L.; AMS Oa Evolution Team

    2010-05-01

    Organic aerosol (OA) particles affect climate forcing and human health, but their sources and evolution remain poorly characterized. In this presentation we will summarize several emerging approaches to describe the atmospheric evolution of OA that are constrained by high-time-resolution measurements of their composition, volatility, and oxidation state, including and building on the recent Jimenez et al. paper (Science, Dec. 2009). OA and OA-precursor gases evolve by becoming increasingly oxidized, less volatile, and more hygroscopic, leading to the formation of oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA) mass with concentrations comparable to sulfate aerosol throughout the Northern Hemisphere. We identify two types of OOA, semivolatile OOA (SV-OOA) and low-volatility OOA (LV-OOA), with LV-OOA being more aged and hygroscopic. LV-OOA is effectively non-volatile and will not return to the gas-phase under any plausible atmospheric conditions (Cappa et al., ACPD, 2010). The evolution of ambient OOA can be captured in a 2-dimensional diagram based on AMS fragments; chamber SOA mostly falls in the same region of the diagram but does not reach the levels of aging observed in the atmosphere, due to too little oxidation and sometimes too high concentrations (Ng et al., ACPD, 2009). When plotted in a Van Krevelen diagram (H/C vs O/C), the OA evolution in multiple field studies from Mexico City to the pristine Amazon basin is consistent with the addition of carboxylic acids (Heald et al., GRL, submitted, 2009). A two-dimensional basis set using organic O/C and volatility (C*) as its coordinates can reproduce the lab and field observations and should allow faster model development because it is experimentally verifiable (Jimenez et al., Science, 2009; Donahue et al., in prep., 2010). An alternative 2D basis set based on carbon number and mean carbon oxidation state provides very useful insights about the nature and evolution of gas and particulate-phase organic species (Kroll et al., in

  2. Provenance and basin evolution, Zhada basin, southwestern Tibet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saylor, J.; Decelles, P.; Gehrels, G.; Kapp, P.

    2007-12-01

    The Zhada basin is a late Miocene - Pliocene intermontane basin situated at high elevations in the Himalayan hinterland. The fluvial and lacustrine sediments of the Zhada formation are undeformed and sit in angular unconformity above the deformed Tethyan Sedimentary Sequence (TSS). The basin sits just south of the Indus suture in a structural position occupied elsewhere in the Himalayan orogen by some of the highest mountains on earth, including Everest. The occurrence of a basin at this location demands explanation. Currently, the Sutlej River flows parallel to the structural grain of the Himalaya, westward through the basin, towards the Leo Pargil (Qusum) range. Near the range front it takes a sharp southward turn, cuts across the structural grain of the Himalaya and out into the Gangetic foreland. Palaeocurrent indicators in the lower part of the Zhada formation show that the basin originated as a northwest flowing axial river. Palaeocurrent indicators are consistently northwest oriented, even to within to within 10 km of the Leo Pargil range front in the north-western end of the basin. This implies that at the onset of sedimentation in Zhada basin the Leo Pargil range was not a barrier as it is today. In the upper part of the Zhada formation, palaeocurrent indicators are generally directed towards the centre of the basin. In the central and southern portions of the basin this indicates a transition from an axial, northwest flowing river to prograding fluvial and alluvial fans. However, in the north-western part of the basin the change between lower and upper Zhada formation involves a complete drainage reversal. This change in palaeocurrent orientation is also reflected in the detrital zircon signal from basin sediments. Low in the Zhada formation the detrital zircon signal is dominated by zircons from the Kailash (Gangdese) batholith (or associated extrusives, see below). However, higher in the sections, a local source, either from the TSS or the core of the Leo Pargil range dominates the detrital zircon signal. Finally, there is a shift in the sandstone composition from unmetamorphosed sedimentary lithic fragments and extrusive felsic volcanic fragments in the lower part of the Zhada formation to metasedimentary and metaigneous fragments in the upper part of the Zhada formation. This is likely linked either to unroofing of the source terrain or a change to another source terrain. Based on the palaeocurrent and detrital zircon data, a change to another source terrain is favoured. This combination of evidence suggests that the Zhada basin evolved from a through-going fluvial plain to a dammed lake primarily due to uplift of the Leo Pargil range. This uplift would have dammed and ponded the river, and exposed higher grade metamorphic rocks at the surface for incorporation into Zhada formation sandstones. It also would have introduced a new source for detrital zircons. Uplift of the Leo Pargil range along a low angle normal fault would also have evacuated portions of the mid-crust, providing a mechanism for subsidence in the Zhada region. Lacustrine sedimentation would have coincided with progradation of marginal alluvial fans and would have continued until the basin was filled in to the level of a new spill point. At this time incision and re- establishment of the Sutlej River would have occurred.

  3. Provenance for Earth Science Data Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, H.; Tilmes, C.; Ramapriyan, H. K.; Duggan, B.; Wilson, B. D.; Manipon, G. J. M.

    2014-12-01

    Earth Science Data Systems across NASA play a critical role in data processing, management, and analysis of NASA observations. However, there is a growing need to provide the provenance of these datasets as scientists increasingly need more transparency of the data products to improve their understanding and trust of the science results. Lessons learned from Climategate show that there is public demand for more transparency and understanding in the science process. Science data systems are key to enabling the capture, management, and use of production provenance information. Science analysis now also may involve merging multi-sensor datasets where lineage can facilitate the understanding of the data. But there does not exist a formal recommendation for an interoperable standard for provenance representation for use in NASA's Earth Science Data Systems. The W3C Provenance Working Group has a specification for the representation of provenance information. The standard is very general and intended to support the breadth of any domain. To better serve the needs of specific domain communities, the standard has several built in points of extensibility. We will present efforts by NASA's Earth Science Data Systems Working Group (ESDSWG) on Provenance to develop an Earth Science extension to the PROV specification (PROV-ES) and how it can be used in science data system to capture, consume, and interpret provenance information.

  4. Soft-computing approach to plasma evolution tracking in tokamak reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morabito, Francesco C.

    1997-10-01

    Qualitative information about the structure of a mapping can surely be of help in learning a mapping by a collection of input-output pairs. However, there are conditions in which time and some other constraints make guessing the only plausible means for interpreting data. In this paper, the problem of the plasma boundary reconstruction in 'Tokamak' nuclear fusion rectors is assessed. The problem is formulated as an inverse 'identification' problem and the mapping is derived by a properly generated database of simulated experiments. Real data coming from experiments are also available to validate both numerically generated data and extracted model. The identification problem is solved for two different databases by using neural networks and more conventional models. The introduction of techniques derived from soft computing is shown to improve the performance in various respects. Dynamic identification systems appear to be rather demanding also for such systems, for the need of rapidly interpreting real time data for discharge control. Soft computing approaches may yet yield some low cost ways to take decisions during plasma evolution. The approximate analysis of experimental data could also improve the knowledge on the particular problem allowing an evolution of the knowledge base. Experimental data related to ASDEX-Upgrade machine are presented in this work and preliminary processed. Soft computing techniques also allow to simply get ideas about two other interesting problems in plasma engineering, namely, the fault tolerance and the minimization of the number of sensors.

  5. An effective continuum approach for modeling non-equilibrium structural evolution of protein nanofiber networks.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Liang; Englander, Ongi; Paravastu, Anant; Oates, William S

    2011-08-01

    We quantify the formation and evolution of protein nanofibers using a new phase field modeling framework and compare the results to transmission electron microscopy measurements (TEM) and time-dependent growth measurements given in the literature. The modeling framework employs a set of effective continuum equations combined with underlying nanoscale forces and chemical potential relations governing protein nanofiber formation in solution. Calculations based on the theoretical framework are implemented numerically using a nonlinear finite element phase field modeling approach that couples homogenized protein molecular structure via a vector order parameter with chemical potential relations that describe interactions between the nanofibers and the surrounding solution. Homogenized, anisotropic molecular and chemical flux relations are found to be critical in obtaining nanofiber growth from seed particles or a random monomer bath. In addition, the model predicts both sigmoidal and first-order growth kinetics for protein nanofibers for unseeded and seeded models, respectively. These simulations include quantitative predictions on time scales of typical protein self-assembly behavior which qualitatively match TEM measurements of the RADA16-I protein and growth rate measurements for amyloid nanofibers from the literature. For comparisons with experiments, the numerical model performs multiple nanofiber protein evolution simulations with a characteristic length scale of ∼2.4 nm and characteristic time scale of ∼9.1 h. These results provide a new modeling tool that couples underlying monomer structure with self-assembling nanofiber behavior that is compatible with various external loadings and chemical environments. PMID:21823733

  6. An effective continuum approach for modeling non-equilibrium structural evolution of protein nanofiber networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Liang; Englander, Ongi; Paravastu, Anant; Oates, William S.

    2011-08-01

    We quantify the formation and evolution of protein nanofibers using a new phase field modeling framework and compare the results to transmission electron microscopy measurements (TEM) and time-dependent growth measurements given in the literature. The modeling framework employs a set of effective continuum equations combined with underlying nanoscale forces and chemical potential relations governing protein nanofiber formation in solution. Calculations based on the theoretical framework are implemented numerically using a nonlinear finite element phase field modeling approach that couples homogenized protein molecular structure via a vector order parameter with chemical potential relations that describe interactions between the nanofibers and the surrounding solution. Homogenized, anisotropic molecular and chemical flux relations are found to be critical in obtaining nanofiber growth from seed particles or a random monomer bath. In addition, the model predicts both sigmoidal and first-order growth kinetics for protein nanofibers for unseeded and seeded models, respectively. These simulations include quantitative predictions on time scales of typical protein self-assembly behavior which qualitatively match TEM measurements of the RADA16-I protein and growth rate measurements for amyloid nanofibers from the literature. For comparisons with experiments, the numerical model performs multiple nanofiber protein evolution simulations with a characteristic length scale of ˜2.4 nm and characteristic time scale of ˜9.1 h. These results provide a new modeling tool that couples underlying monomer structure with self-assembling nanofiber behavior that is compatible with various external loadings and chemical environments.

  7. Cultural transmission and the evolution of human behaviour: a general approach based on the Price equation.

    PubMed

    El Mouden, C; André, J-B; Morin, O; Nettle, D

    2014-02-01

    Transmitted culture can be viewed as an inheritance system somewhat independent of genes that is subject to processes of descent with modification in its own right. Although many authors have conceptualized cultural change as a Darwinian process, there is no generally agreed formal framework for defining key concepts such as natural selection, fitness, relatedness and altruism for the cultural case. Here, we present and explore such a framework using the Price equation. Assuming an isolated, independently measurable culturally transmitted trait, we show that cultural natural selection maximizes cultural fitness, a distinct quantity from genetic fitness, and also that cultural relatedness and cultural altruism are not reducible to or necessarily related to their genetic counterparts. We show that antagonistic coevolution will occur between genes and culture whenever cultural fitness is not perfectly aligned with genetic fitness, as genetic selection will shape psychological mechanisms to avoid susceptibility to cultural traits that bear a genetic fitness cost. We discuss the difficulties with conceptualizing cultural change using the framework of evolutionary theory, the degree to which cultural evolution is autonomous from genetic evolution, and the extent to which cultural change should be seen as a Darwinian process. We argue that the nonselection components of evolutionary change are much more important for culture than for genes, and that this and other important differences from the genetic case mean that different approaches and emphases are needed for cultural than genetic processes. PMID:24329934

  8. MODEL OF THE FIELD LINE RANDOM WALK EVOLUTION AND APPROACH TO ASYMPTOTIC DIFFUSION IN MAGNETIC TURBULENCE

    SciTech Connect

    Snodin, A. P.; Ruffolo, D.; Matthaeus, W. H. E-mail: david.ruf@mahidol.ac.th

    2013-01-01

    The turbulent random walk of magnetic field lines plays an important role in the transport of plasmas and energetic particles in a wide variety of astrophysical situations, but most theoretical work has concentrated on determination of the asymptotic field line diffusion coefficient. Here we consider the evolution with distance of the field line random walk using a general ordinary differential equation (ODE), which for most cases of interest in astrophysics describes a transition from free streaming to asymptotic diffusion. By challenging theories of asymptotic diffusion to also describe the evolution, one gains insight on how accurately they describe the random walk process. Previous theoretical work has effectively involved closure of the ODE, often by assuming Corrsin's hypothesis and a Gaussian displacement distribution. Approaches that use quasilinear theory and prescribe the mean squared displacement ({Delta}x {sup 2}) according to free streaming (random ballistic decorrelation, RBD) or asymptotic diffusion (diffusive decorrelation, DD) can match computer simulation results, but only over specific parameter ranges, with no obvious 'marker' of the range of validity. Here we make use of a unified description in which the ODE determines ({Delta}x {sup 2}) self-consistently, providing a natural transition between the assumptions of RBD and DD. We find that the minimum kurtosis of the displacement distribution provides a good indicator of whether the self-consistent ODE is applicable, i.e., inaccuracy of the self-consistent ODE is associated with non-Gaussian displacement distributions.

  9. Trickle-down evolution: an approach to getting major evolutionary adaptive changes into textbooks and curricula.

    PubMed

    Padian, Kevin

    2008-08-01

    Although contemporary high school and college textbooks of biology generally cover the principles and data of microevolution (genetic and populational change) and speciation rather well, coverage of what is known of the major changes in evolution (macroevolution), and how the evidence is understood is generally poor to nonexistent. It is critical to improve this because acceptance of evolution by the American public rests on the understanding of how we know what we know about the emergence of major new taxonomic groups, and about their adaptations, behaviors, and ecologies in geologic time. An efficient approach to this problem is to improve the illustrations in college textbooks to show the consilience of different lines of fossil, morphological, and molecular evidence mapped on phylogenies. Such "evograms" will markedly improve traditional illustrations of phylogenies, "menageries," and "companatomies." If "evograms" are installed at the college level, the basic principles and evidence of macroevolution will be more likely taught in K-12, thus providing an essential missing piece in biological education. PMID:21669782

  10. Multi-analytical approach applied to the provenance study of marbles used as covering slabs in the archaeological submerged site of Baia (Naples, Italy): The case of the "Villa con ingresso a protiro"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricca, Michela; Belfiore, Cristina Maria; Ruffolo, Silvestro Antonio; Barca, Donatella; De Buergo, Monica Alvarez; Crisci, Gino Mirocle; La Russa, Mauro Francesco

    2015-12-01

    This paper is focused on archaeometric investigations of white marbles taken from the submerged archaeological site of Baia (Naples). The marine area includes the ruins of this ancient Roman city, whose structures range from luxurious maritime villas and imperial buildings with private thermae and tabernae, to more simple and modest houses. Analyses were carried out on fifty marble fragments of covering slabs, belonging to several pavements of the monumental villa, called the Villa con ingresso a protiro, in order to ascertain their provenance. The most distinctive properties of marbles are their variety of textural property especially regarding grain size (MGS), associated with the Mn content and the variation of stable isotopes. These features, supported by the contribution of other variables and studies, establish the basis for the correct identification of the marbles. For this purpose, minero-petrographic and geochemical techniques were used. Results were compared with literature data of white marbles commonly used in antiquity, especially in the Mediterranean basin and showed that a variety of precious marbles from Carrara, Docimium (Afyon), Thasos-D, Aphrodisias, Proconnesos (Marmara), Paros and Pentelicon were used in the ancient roman city of Baia, confirming the importance of the submerged archaeological site and also allowing researchers to broaden the existing database.

  11. Ground Segment Reference Architectures: An Approach for Cost Effective Systems Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marley, S.; Hansen, D.; Brown, C.

    2011-12-01

    The era of mission specific stovepipe ground systems is drawing to a close. As on-orbit processing capabilities and asset durability continue to improve, the cost of maintaining ground segment implementations can become the limiting factor for when missions are no longer operationally viable. Cost effective evolution demands a new approach to designing ground systems that is evolvable to changing mission needs, adaptable to new technologies and emerging paradigms, and scalable to "peta-scale" data management applications. Ground segment implementations need to be guided by a robust reference architecture that provides a framework in which new mission capability can be deployed, legacy systems can be migrated, and data management services optimized. This presentation describes key architectural drivers and associated patterns for developing the next generation of adaptable and scalable ground systems in order to provide cost effective, long term mission viability.

  12. Phase evolution of magnetite nanocrystals on oxide supports via template-free bismuth ferrite precursor approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, Jeffrey; Bogle, Kashinath; Cheng, Xuan; Sullaphen, Jivika; Kuo, Chang-Yang; Chen, Ying-Jiun; Lin, Hong-Ji; Chen, Chien-Te; Yang, Jan-Chi; Chu, Ying-Hao; Valanoor, Nagarajan

    2012-11-01

    This report investigates the phase evolution pathway of magnetite nanocrystal synthesis on oxide-supported substrates. A template-free phase separation approach, which exploits the thermodynamic instability of ternary perovskite BiFeO3 and inherent volatility of bismuth oxide in low oxygen pressure and high temperature is presented. The formation of an intermediate hematite nanocrystal phase is found as a key step that controls the eventual size and morphology of the magnetite nanocrystals. X-ray absorption spectra measurements and X-ray magnetic circular dichroism confirm that the spectral fingerprints of the magnetite nanocrystals match with that of bulk crystals. Magnetic measurements show that magnetic anisotropy is directly attributed to the nanocrystal morphology.

  13. Respiratory consequences of prematurity: evolution of a diagnosis and development of a comprehensive approach.

    PubMed

    Maitre, N L; Ballard, R A; Ellenberg, J H; Davis, S D; Greenberg, J M; Hamvas, A; Pryhuber, G S

    2015-05-01

    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is the most common respiratory consequence of premature birth and contributes to significant short- and long-term morbidity, mortality and resource utilization. Initially defined as a radiographic, clinical and histopathological entity, the chronic lung disease known as BPD has evolved as obstetrical and neonatal care have improved the survival of lower gestational age infants. Now, definitions based on the need for supplementary oxygen at 28 days and/or 36 weeks provide a useful reference point in the neonatal intensive-care unit (NICU), but are no longer based on histopathological findings, and are neither designed to predict longer term respiratory consequences nor to study the evolution of a multifactorial disease. The aims of this review are to critically examine the evolution of the diagnosis of BPD and the challenges inherent to current classifications. We found that the increasing use of respiratory support strategies that administer ambient air without supplementary oxygen confounds oxygen-based definitions of BPD. Furthermore, lack of reproducible, genetic, biochemical and physiological biomarkers limits the ability to identify an impending BPD for early intervention, quantify disease severity for standardized classification and approaches and reliably predict the long-term outcomes. More comprehensive, multidisciplinary approaches to overcome these challenges involve longitudinal observation of extremely preterm infants, not only those with BPD, using genetic, environmental, physiological and clinical data as well as large databases of patient samples. The Prematurity and Respiratory Outcomes Program (PROP) will provide such a framework to address these challenges through high-resolution characterization of both NICU and post-NICU discharge outcomes. PMID:25811285

  14. Galaxy evolution simulation of the basement of linguo-combinatorial approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ignatyev, Mikhail B.

    2015-08-01

    Galaxy - complex self-organizing systems, therefore they are subject to the identified patterns of development of complex systems (see. M.B.Ignatyev "The linguo-combinatorial simulation in modern physics"\\ J. of Modern Physics? USA, 2012, No 1, p.7-11). As part of the linguo- combinatorial approach complex systems described by the equivalent equation with arbitrary coefficients, the matrix of which depends on the number of variables and the number of restrictions. The number of arbitrary coefficients is determined by the number of combinations of n by m + 1, where n - the number of different elements of the galaxy, m - the number of constraints imposed on them. The number of arbitrary coefficients characterizes the adaptive capacity of the galactic system. In the evolution of a galaxy passes through a maximum adaptation and gradually turns into a rigid system that either die or are transformed through creative transition - see Fig. .Fig. Transformation of developing galaxies, n1 evolution of galaxies on the basement of linguo- combinatorial approach.

  15. Understanding Student Approaches to Learning Evolution in the Context of their Perceptions of the Relationship between Science and Religion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasri, Pratchayapong; Mancy, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates a range of positions that learners take on the relationship between science and religion and the potential for these positions to explain student approaches when learning about evolution. A phenomenographic study based on interviews with nine students studying in Christian high schools in Thailand led to the identification of five distinct positions on the relationship between science and religion. Each position was associated with a characteristic pattern of learning about evolution that could be explained as an attempt by the students to align their particular learning approach with their position. Three of the positions have the potential to support scientifically valid understandings of evolution while avoiding emotional conflict. We suggest that knowledge of the range of positions and associated learning approaches can help educators to focus on the form and timing of support of benefit to those holding different viewpoints.

  16. Fuzzy reasoning of accident provenance in pervasive healthcare monitoring systems.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yongli; Hu, Xiaohua

    2013-11-01

    In pervasive healthcare monitoring environments, data provenance, as one metadata, can help people analyze the reasons for medical accidents that are generated by complex events. This reasoning processing often encounters inaccurate time and irreversible reasoning problems. How to solve the uncertain process and fuzzy transformation time presents many challenges to the study of data provenance. In this paper, we propose a backward derivation model with the provenance semantic, backward fuzzy time reasoning net (BFTRN), to solve these two problems. We design a backward reasoning algorithm motivated by time automation theory based on this model. With regard to given life-critical alarms and some constraints, it cannot only derive all evolution paths and the possibility distribution of paths from historical information, but also efficiently compute the value of fuzzy time function for each transition of lift-critical complex alarms in the healthcare monitoring system. We also analyze the properties of BFTRN model in this paper. Experiments on real dataset show that the proposed model is efficient. PMID:24240719

  17. A holomorph approach to xiphosuran evolution--a case study on the ontogeny of Euproops.

    PubMed

    Haug, Carolin; Van Roy, Peter; Leipner, Angelika; Funch, Peter; Rudkin, David M; Schöllmann, Lothar; Haug, Joachim T

    2012-09-01

    Specimens of Euproops sp. (Xiphosura, Chelicerata) from the Carboniferous Piesberg quarry near Osnabrück, Germany, represent a relatively complete growth series of 10 stages. Based on this growth sequence, morphological changes throughout the ontogeny can be identified. The major change affects the shape of the epimera of the opisthosoma. In earlier stages, they appear very spine-like, whereas in later stages the bases of these spine-like structures become broader; the broadened bases are then successively drawn out distally. In the most mature stage known, the epimera are of trapezoidal shape and approach each other closely to form a complete flange around the thoracetron (=fused tergites of the opisthosoma). These ontogenetic changes question the taxonomic status of different species of Euproops, as the latter appear to correspond to different stages of the ontogenetic series reconstructed from the Piesberg specimens. This means that supposed separate species could, in fact, represent different growth stages of a single species. It could alternatively indicate that heterochrony (=evolutionary change of developmental timing) plays an important role in the evolution of Xiphosura. We propose a holomorph approach, i.e., reconstructing ontogenetic sequences for fossil and extant species as a sound basis for a taxonomic, phylogenetic, and evolutionary discussion of Xiphosura. PMID:22915218

  18. Flame-based processing as a practical approach for manufacturing hydrogen evolution electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roller, Justin; Renner, Julie; Yu, Haoran; Capuano, Chris; Kwak, Tony; Wang, Yang; Carter, C. Barry; Ayers, Kathy; Mustain, William E.; Maric, Radenka

    2014-12-01

    Catalyst structure and morphology are inevitably dictated by the synthesis route, which in-turn dictates catalyst activity, stability and utilization in the electrode. Reactive spray deposition technology (RSDT) is a promising synthesis route for electrode manufacturing because of the potential to achieve high-throughput processing under a diverse range of process configurations. This work investigates several unique approaches to Pt catalyst deposition using jet-flame synthesis for water electrolysis electrodes. Direct application of the catalyst film onto Nafion 117 and carbon paper is explored along with approaches to dispersing the Pt onto carbon or TinO2n-1. Operational challenges relating to the harsh conditions of H2 evolution and electrode adhesion are addressed by adding binder and catalyst support to the electrode structure. The RSDT technology produces an electrode, coated directly onto Nafion 117®, with a 20-fold reduction in Pt loading while maintaining high in-cell performance (2.1 V at 2 A cm-2) compared to an industry-level baseline. Durability testing at 1.8 A cm-2, 400 psi differential pressure and a temperature of 50 °C yields a consistent potential of ∼2.2 V for over 1100 h without failure. The same electrode applied directly to carbon paper resulted in a voltage of ∼2.1 V for ∼600 h without failure.

  19. An innovative approach to predict technology evolution for the desoldering of printed circuit boards: A perspective from China and America.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chen; Zhao, Wu; Wang, Jie; Chen, Ling; Luo, Chun-Jing

    2016-06-01

    The printed circuit boards basis of electronic equipment have seen a rapid growth in recent years and played a significant role in modern life. Nowadays, the fact that electronic devices upgrade quickly necessitates a proper management of waste printed circuit boards. Non-destructive desoldering of waste printed circuit boards becomes the first and the most crucial step towards recycling electronic components. Owing to the diversity of materials and components, the separation process is difficult, which results in complex and expensive recovery of precious materials and electronic components from waste printed circuit boards. To cope with this problem, we proposed an innovative approach integrating Theory of Inventive Problem Solving (TRIZ) evolution theory and technology maturity mapping system to forecast the evolution trends of desoldering technology of waste printed circuit boards. This approach can be applied to analyse the technology evolution, as well as desoldering technology evolution, then research and development strategy and evolution laws can be recommended. As an example, the maturity of desoldering technology is analysed with a technology maturity mapping system model. What is more, desoldering methods in different stages are analysed and compared. According to the analysis, the technological evolution trends are predicted to be 'the law of energy conductivity' and 'increasing the degree of idealisation'. And the potential technology and evolutionary state of waste printed circuit boards are predicted, offering reference for future waste printed circuit boards recycling. PMID:27067430

  20. Provenance in Observational Solar Physics Data Pipelines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGuinness, D.; Fox, P.; Garcia, J.; Zednik, S.

    2008-05-01

    A limiting factor for virtual observatories which intend to make diverse data sets available to a diverse user base is that the following use cases are very difficult to implement: 1. Determine which flat field calibration was applied to the image taken on January, 26, 2005 around 2100UT by the ACOS Mark IV polarimeter. 2. What processing steps were completed to obtain the ACOS PICS limb image of the day for January 26, 2005. 3. What was the cloud cover and atmospheric seeing conditions during the local morning of January 26, 2005 at MLSO. Key to addressing these use cases often requires information that was either not collected from different stages in the data processing pipeline or it was but was not carried forward when the datasets were made available on-line. Collectively, this information is called provenance and in a semantic web data framework; knowledge provenance. In this presentation, we describe the knowledge provenance requirements that have emerged in our previous work on virtual observatories as well as requirements identified from a series of uses cases collected from scientific data users and instrument scientists. We will describe the progress we are making on meeting these requirements in the context of solar physics image data processing pipelines. The Semantic Provenance Capture in Data Ingest Systems (SPCDIS) is a NSF OCI/SDCI-funded project to implement an extensible meta data provenance scheme within the Virtual Solar-Terrestrial Observatory.

  1. An R package for statistical provenance analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vermeesch, Pieter; Resentini, Alberto; Garzanti, Eduardo

    2016-05-01

    This paper introduces provenance, a software package within the statistical programming environment R, which aims to facilitate the visualisation and interpretation of large amounts of sedimentary provenance data, including mineralogical, petrographic, chemical and isotopic provenance proxies, or any combination of these. provenance comprises functions to: (a) calculate the sample size required to achieve a given detection limit; (b) plot distributional data such as detrital zircon U-Pb age spectra as Cumulative Age Distributions (CADs) or adaptive Kernel Density Estimates (KDEs); (c) plot compositional data as pie charts or ternary diagrams; (d) correct the effects of hydraulic sorting on sandstone petrography and heavy mineral composition; (e) assess the settling equivalence of detrital minerals and grain-size dependence of sediment composition; (f) quantify the dissimilarity between distributional data using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Sircombe-Hazelton distances, or between compositional data using the Aitchison and Bray-Curtis distances; (e) interpret multi-sample datasets by means of (classical and nonmetric) Multidimensional Scaling (MDS) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA); and (f) simplify the interpretation of multi-method datasets by means of Generalised Procrustes Analysis (GPA) and 3-way MDS. All these tools can be accessed through an intuitive query-based user interface, which does not require knowledge of the R programming language. provenance is free software released under the GPL-2 licence and will be further expanded based on user feedback.

  2. The evolution of the Thuringian Syncline (Central Germany) - an interdisciplinary approach to basin reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malz, Alexander; Beyer, Daniel; Donndorf, Stephan; Navabpour, Payman; Voigt, Thomas; Aehnelt, Michaela; Kley, Jonas

    2014-05-01

    extensional with small normal offsets, were later reactivated as reverse faults, can explain a significantly higher initial amount of fault-controlled subsidence. The distribution of vitrinite reflectance data indicates a scenario of structural evolution, which is consistent with similar structures of the North German Basin. Our project shows that an interdisciplinary approach can put close constraints on modelling and reconstruction of basin evolution even with incomplete stratigraphic record.

  3. Simulating mesoscale coastal evolution for decadal coastal management: A new framework integrating multiple, complementary modelling approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Maanen, Barend; Nicholls, Robert J.; French, Jon R.; Barkwith, Andrew; Bonaldo, Davide; Burningham, Helene; Brad Murray, A.; Payo, Andres; Sutherland, James; Thornhill, Gillian; Townend, Ian H.; van der Wegen, Mick; Walkden, Mike J. A.

    2016-03-01

    Coastal and shoreline management increasingly needs to consider morphological change occurring at decadal to centennial timescales, especially that related to climate change and sea-level rise. This requires the development of morphological models operating at a mesoscale, defined by time and length scales of the order 101 to 102 years and 101 to 102 km. So-called 'reduced complexity' models that represent critical processes at scales not much smaller than the primary scale of interest, and are regulated by capturing the critical feedbacks that govern landform behaviour, are proving effective as a means of exploring emergent coastal behaviour at a landscape scale. Such models tend to be computationally efficient and are thus easily applied within a probabilistic framework. At the same time, reductionist models, built upon a more detailed description of hydrodynamic and sediment transport processes, are capable of application at increasingly broad spatial and temporal scales. More qualitative modelling approaches are also emerging that can guide the development and deployment of quantitative models, and these can be supplemented by varied data-driven modelling approaches that can achieve new explanatory insights from observational datasets. Such disparate approaches have hitherto been pursued largely in isolation by mutually exclusive modelling communities. Brought together, they have the potential to facilitate a step change in our ability to simulate the evolution of coastal morphology at scales that are most relevant to managing erosion and flood risk. Here, we advocate and outline a new integrated modelling framework that deploys coupled mesoscale reduced complexity models, reductionist coastal area models, data-driven approaches, and qualitative conceptual models. Integration of these heterogeneous approaches gives rise to model compositions that can potentially resolve decadal- to centennial-scale behaviour of diverse coupled open coast, estuary and inner

  4. Sediment generation and provenance: processes and pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caracciolo, L.; Garzanti, E.; von Eynatten, H.; Weltje, G. J.

    2016-05-01

    The ability to trace sediments from their sources to sedimentary basins is a prerequisite for quantitative analysis of Earth-surface dynamics. The comparatively recent revival of sedimentary provenance analysis goes hand-in-hand with the ever expanding range of analytical tools available for quantifying sediment properties (isotopic, mineral, chemical, and petrographic composition, grain-size and shape distributions, age spectra, etc.), and for interpreting such data in paleo-geographic, -tectonic and -climatic terms. The breakdown of sediment budgets into source-specific contributions - one of the most important tasks of provenance analysis - permits quantification of rates of surface processes in the geological past ("deep time"), even in cases where the source areas themselves have been destroyed by global tectonics. Quantitative sedimentary provenance analysis is therefore crucial to the reconstruction of ancient sediment-routing systems, the fundamental units of mass transfer at the Earth's surface.

  5. A new approach to the automatic identification of organism evolution using neural networks.

    PubMed

    Kasperski, Andrzej; Kasperska, Renata

    2016-01-01

    Automatic identification of organism evolution still remains a challenging task, which is especially exiting, when the evolution of human is considered. The main aim of this work is to present a new idea to allow organism evolution analysis using neural networks. Here we show that it is possible to identify evolution of any organisms in a fully automatic way using the designed EvolutionXXI program, which contains implemented neural network. The neural network has been taught using cytochrome b sequences of selected organisms. Then, analyses have been carried out for the various exemplary organisms in order to demonstrate capabilities of the EvolutionXXI program. It is shown that the presented idea allows supporting existing hypotheses, concerning evolutionary relationships between selected organisms, among others, Sirenia and elephants, hippopotami and whales, scorpions and spiders, dolphins and whales. Moreover, primate (including human), tree shrew and yeast evolution has been reconstructed. PMID:26975238

  6. Understanding Student Approaches to Learning Evolution in the Context of Their Perceptions of the Relationship between Science and Religion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yasri, Pratchayapong; Mancy, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates a range of positions that learners take on the relationship between science and religion and the potential for these positions to explain student approaches when learning about evolution. A phenomenographic study based on interviews with nine students studying in Christian high schools in Thailand led to the identification…

  7. Time-dependent evolution of rock slopes by a multi-modelling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozzano, F.; Della Seta, M.; Martino, S.

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents a multi-modelling approach that incorporates contributions from morpho-evolutionary modelling, detailed engineering-geological modelling and time-dependent stress-strain numerical modelling to analyse the rheological evolution of a river valley slope over approximately 102 kyr. The slope is located in a transient, tectonically active landscape in southwestern Tyrrhenian Calabria (Italy), where gravitational processes drive failures in rock slopes. Constraints on the valley profile development were provided by a morpho-evolutionary model based on the correlation of marine and river strath terraces. Rock mass classes were identified through geomechanical parameters that were derived from engineering-geological surveys and outputs of a multi-sensor slope monitoring system. The rock mass classes were associated to lithotechnical units to obtain a high-resolution engineering-geological model along a cross section of the valley. Time-dependent stress-strain numerical modelling reproduced the main morpho-evolutionary stages of the valley slopes. The findings demonstrate that a complex combination of eustatism, uplift and Mass Rock Creep (MRC) deformations can lead to first-time failures of rock slopes when unstable conditions are encountered up to the generation of stress-controlled shear zones. The multi-modelling approach enabled us to determine that such complex combinations may have been sufficient for the first-time failure of the S. Giovanni slope at approximately 140 ka (MIS 7), even without invoking any trigger. Conversely, further reactivations of the landslide must be related to triggers such as earthquakes, rainfall and anthropogenic activities. This failure involved a portion of the slope where a plasticity zone resulted from mass rock creep that evolved with a maximum strain rate of 40% per thousand years, after the formation of a river strath terrace. This study demonstrates that the multi-modelling approach presented herein is a useful

  8. Nonstationary porosity evolution in mixing zone in coastal carbonate aquifer using an alternative modeling approach.

    PubMed

    Laabidi, Ezzeddine; Bouhlila, Rachida

    2015-07-01

    In the last few decades, hydrogeochemical problems have benefited from the strong interest in numerical modeling. One of the most recognized hydrogeochemical problems is the dissolution of the calcite in the mixing zone below limestone coastal aquifer. In many works, this problem has been modeled using a coupling algorithm between a density-dependent flow model and a geochemical model. A related difficulty is that, because of the high nonlinearity of the coupled set of equations, high computational effort is needed. During calcite dissolution, an increase in permeability can be identified, which can induce an increase in the penetration of the seawater into the aquifer. The majority of the previous studies used a fully coupled reactive transport model in order to model such problem. Romanov and Dreybrodt (J Hydrol 329:661-673, 2006) have used an alternative approach to quantify the porosity evolution in mixing zone below coastal carbonate aquifer at steady state. This approach is based on the analytic solution presented by Phillips (1991) in his book Flow and Reactions in Permeable Rock, which shows that it is possible to decouple the complex set of equation. This equation is proportional to the square of the salinity gradient, which can be calculated using a density driven flow code and to the reaction rate that can be calculated using a geochemical code. In this work, this equation is used in nonstationary step-by-step regime. At each time step, the quantity of the dissolved calcite is quantified, the change of porosity is calculated, and the permeability is updated. The reaction rate, which is the second derivate of the calcium equilibrium concentration in the equation, is calculated using the PHREEQC code (Parkhurst and Apello 1999). This result is used in GEODENS (Bouhlila 1999; Bouhlila and Laabidi 2008) to calculate change of the porosity after calculating the salinity gradient. For the next time step, the same protocol is used but using the updated porosity

  9. High resolution remote sensing image segmentation based on graph theory and fractal net evolution approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Y.; Li, H. T.; Han, Y. S.; Gu, H. Y.

    2015-06-01

    Image segmentation is the foundation of further object-oriented image analysis, understanding and recognition. It is one of the key technologies in high resolution remote sensing applications. In this paper, a new fast image segmentation algorithm for high resolution remote sensing imagery is proposed, which is based on graph theory and fractal net evolution approach (FNEA). Firstly, an image is modelled as a weighted undirected graph, where nodes correspond to pixels, and edges connect adjacent pixels. An initial object layer can be obtained efficiently from graph-based segmentation, which runs in time nearly linear in the number of image pixels. Then FNEA starts with the initial object layer and a pairwise merge of its neighbour object with the aim to minimize the resulting summed heterogeneity. Furthermore, according to the character of different features in high resolution remote sensing image, three different merging criterions for image objects based on spectral and spatial information are adopted. Finally, compared with the commercial remote sensing software eCognition, the experimental results demonstrate that the efficiency of the algorithm has significantly improved, and the result can maintain good feature boundaries.

  10. Health needs assessment in primary care: the evolution of a practical public health approach.

    PubMed

    Kilduff, A; McKeown, K; Crowther, A

    1998-05-01

    The purpose of the paper is to place health needs assessment in its primary care context. This is a dynamic context where changes in policies, staff roles and patient expectations have all to be considered. Given this complexity and the variations between practices, it is necessary to help primary health care teams (PHCTs) to understand their stage of development and how this will directly affect any health needs assessment. The technical and methodological aspects of health needs assessment have been explored and described by others, and that work will not be duplicated here. This paper reviews the health needs assessment (HNA) work of the Ribblesdale Total Purchasing Project (RTPP) and then sets this review against the political, organisational, professional and practical pressures that currently confront primary care. Out of this analysis emerges a diagnostic and development tool which links together, and emphasises the intimate relationships between, five stages of development needed for effective primary care-oriented health needs assessment work. The emphasis is on understanding the place of health needs assessment within the general processes and systems of the primary health care team. The paper concludes by suggesting ways in which public health practitioners and specialists might approach the task of supporting and influencing the evolution of the recently proposed Primary Care Groups and Primary Care Trusts. The overall intention of the article is to stimulate debate and action. PMID:9629025

  11. Applying Content Management to Automated Provenance Capture

    SciTech Connect

    Schuchardt, Karen L.; Gibson, Tara D.; Stephan, Eric G.; Chin, George

    2008-04-10

    Workflows and data pipelines are becoming increasingly valuable in both computational and experimen-tal sciences. These automated systems are capable of generating significantly more data within the same amount of time than their manual counterparts. Automatically capturing and recording data prove-nance and annotation as part of these workflows is critical for data management, verification, and dis-semination. Our goal in addressing the provenance challenge was to develop and end-to-end system that demonstrates real-time capture, persistent content management, and ad-hoc searches of both provenance and metadata using open source software and standard protocols. We describe our prototype, which extends the Kepler workflow tools for the execution environment, the Scientific Annotation Middleware (SAM) content management software for data services, and an existing HTTP-based query protocol. Our implementation offers several unique capabilities, and through the use of standards, is able to pro-vide access to the provenance record to a variety of commonly available client tools.

  12. Trends in morphological evolution in homobasidiomycetes inferred using maximum likelihood: a comparison of binary and multistate approaches.

    PubMed

    Hibbett, David

    2004-12-01

    The homobasidiomycetes is a diverse group of macrofungi that includes mushrooms, puffballs, coral fungi, and other forms. This study used maximum likelihood methods to determine if there are general trends (evolutionary tendencies) in the evolution of fruiting body forms in homobasidiomycetes, and to estimate the ancestral forms of the homobasidiomycetes and euagarics clade. Character evolution was modeled using a published 481-species phylogeny under two character-coding regimes: additive binary coding, using DISCRETE, and multistate (five-state) coding, using MULTISTATE. Inferences regarding trends in character evolution made under binary coding were often in conflict with those made under multistate coding, suggesting that the additive binary coding approach cannot serve as a surrogate for multistate methods. MULTISTATE was used to develop a"minimal"model of fruiting body evolution, in which the 20 parameters that specify rates of transformations among character states were grouped into the fewest possible rate categories. The minimal model required only four rate categories, one of which is approaching zero, and suggests the following conclusions regarding trends in evolution of homobasidiomycete fruiting bodies: (1) there is an active trend favoring the evolution of pileate-stipitate forms (those with a cap and stalk); (2) the hypothesis that the evolution of gasteroid forms (those with internal spore production, such as puffballs) is irreversible cannot be rejected; and (3) crustlike resupinate forms are not a particularly labile morphology. The latter finding contradicts the conclusions of a previous study that used binary character coding. Ancestral state reconstructions under binary coding suggest that the ancestor of the homobasidiomycetes was resupinate and the ancestor of the euagarics clade was pileate-stipitate, but ancestral state reconstructions under multistate coding did not resolve the ancestral form of either node. The results of this study

  13. Structure and Evolution of Mediterranean Forest Research: A Science Mapping Approach

    PubMed Central

    Nardi, Pierfrancesco; Di Matteo, Giovanni; Palahi, Marc; Scarascia Mugnozza, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    This study aims at conducting the first science mapping analysis of the Mediterranean forest research in order to elucidate its research structure and evolution. We applied a science mapping approach based on co-term and citation analyses to a set of scientific publications retrieved from the Elsevier’s Scopus database over the period 1980–2014. The Scopus search retrieved 2,698 research papers and reviews published by 159 peer-reviewed journals. The total number of publications was around 1% (N = 17) during the period 1980–1989 and they reached 3% (N = 69) in the time slice 1990–1994. Since 1995, the number of publications increased exponentially, thus reaching 55% (N = 1,476) during the period 2010–2014. Within the thirty-four years considered, the retrieved publications were published by 88 countries. Among them, Spain was the most productive country, publishing 44% (N = 1,178) of total publications followed by Italy (18%, N = 482) and France (12%, N = 336). These countries also host the ten most productive scientific institutions in terms of number of publications in Mediterranean forest subjects. Forest Ecology and Management and Annals of Forest Science were the most active journals in publishing research in Mediterranean forest. During the period 1980–1994, the research topics were poorly characterized, but they become better defined during the time slice 1995–1999. Since 2000s, the clusters become well defined by research topics. Current status of Mediterranean forest research (20092014) was represented by four clusters, in which different research topics such as biodiversity and conservation, land-use and degradation, climate change effects on ecophysiological responses and soil were identified. Basic research in Mediterranean forest ecosystems is mainly conducted by ecophysiological research. Applied research was mainly represented by land-use and degradation, biodiversity and conservation and fire research topics. The citation analyses

  14. An Algebraic Approach to the Evolution of Emittances upon Crossing the Linear Coupling Difference Resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner,C.

    2008-09-01

    One of the hallmarks of linear coupling is the resonant exchange of oscillation amplitude between the horizontal and vertical planes when the difference between the unperturbed tunes is close to an integer. The standard derivation of this phenomenon (known as the difference resonance) can be found, for example, in the classic papers of Guignard [1, 2]. One starts with an uncoupled lattice and adds a linear perturbation that couples the two planes. The equations of motion are expressed in hamiltonian form. As the difference between the unperturbed tunes approaches an integer, one finds that the perturbing terms in the hamiltonian can be divided into terms that oscillate slowly and ones that oscillate rapidly. The rapidly oscillating terms are discarded or transformed to higher order with an appropriate canonical transformation. The resulting approximate hamiltonian gives equations of motion that clearly exhibit the exchange of oscillation amplitude between the two planes. If, instead of the hamiltonian, one is given the four-by-four matrix for one turn around a synchrotron, then one has the complete solution for the turn-by-turn (TBT) motion. However, the conditions for the phenomenon of amplitude exchange are not obvious from a casual inspection of the matrix. These conditions and those that give rise to the related sum resonance are identified in this report. The identification is made using the well known formalism of Edwards and Teng [3, 4, 5] and, in particular, the normalized coupling matrix of Sagan and Rubin [6]. The formulae obtained are general in that no particular hamiltonian or coupling elements are assumed. The only assumptions are that the one-turn matrix is symplectic and that it has distinct eigenvalues on the unit circle in the complex plane. Having identified the conditions of the one-turn matrix that give rise to the resonances, we focus on the difference resonance and apply the formulae to the evolution of the horizontal and vertical emittances

  15. Structure and Evolution of Mediterranean Forest Research: A Science Mapping Approach.

    PubMed

    Nardi, Pierfrancesco; Di Matteo, Giovanni; Palahi, Marc; Scarascia Mugnozza, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    This study aims at conducting the first science mapping analysis of the Mediterranean forest research in order to elucidate its research structure and evolution. We applied a science mapping approach based on co-term and citation analyses to a set of scientific publications retrieved from the Elsevier's Scopus database over the period 1980-2014. The Scopus search retrieved 2,698 research papers and reviews published by 159 peer-reviewed journals. The total number of publications was around 1% (N = 17) during the period 1980-1989 and they reached 3% (N = 69) in the time slice 1990-1994. Since 1995, the number of publications increased exponentially, thus reaching 55% (N = 1,476) during the period 2010-2014. Within the thirty-four years considered, the retrieved publications were published by 88 countries. Among them, Spain was the most productive country, publishing 44% (N = 1,178) of total publications followed by Italy (18%, N = 482) and France (12%, N = 336). These countries also host the ten most productive scientific institutions in terms of number of publications in Mediterranean forest subjects. Forest Ecology and Management and Annals of Forest Science were the most active journals in publishing research in Mediterranean forest. During the period 1980-1994, the research topics were poorly characterized, but they become better defined during the time slice 1995-1999. Since 2000s, the clusters become well defined by research topics. Current status of Mediterranean forest research (20092014) was represented by four clusters, in which different research topics such as biodiversity and conservation, land-use and degradation, climate change effects on ecophysiological responses and soil were identified. Basic research in Mediterranean forest ecosystems is mainly conducted by ecophysiological research. Applied research was mainly represented by land-use and degradation, biodiversity and conservation and fire research topics. The citation analyses revealed highly

  16. A new approach to parton recombination in the QCD evolution equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei Zhu

    1999-06-01

    Parton recombination is reconsidered in perturbation theory without using the AGK cutting rules in the leading order of the recombination. We use time-ordered perturbation theory to sum the cut diagrams, which are neglected in the GLR evolution equation. We present a set of new evolution equations including parton recombination.

  17. Characterizing Provenance in Visualization and Data Analysis: An Organizational Framework of Provenance Types and Purposes

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Ragan, Eric; Alex, Endert; Sanyal, Jibonananda; Chen, Jian

    2016-01-01

    While the primary goal of visual analytics research is to improve the quality of insights and findings, a substantial amount of research in provenance has focused on the history of changes and advances throughout the analysis process. The term, provenance, has been used in a variety of ways to describe different types of records and histories related to visualization. The existing body of provenance research has grown to a point where the consolidation of design knowledge requires cross-referencing a variety of projects and studies spanning multiple domain areas. We present an organizational framework of the different types of provenance informationmore » and purposes for why they are desired in the field of visual analytics. Our organization is intended to serve as a framework to help researchers specify types of provenance and coordinate design knowledge across projects. We also discuss the relationships between these factors and the methods used to capture provenance information. In addition, our organization can be used to guide the selection of evaluation methodology and the comparison of study outcomes in provenance research« less

  18. Characterizing Provenance in Visualization and Data Analysis: An Organizational Framework of Provenance Types and Purposes

    SciTech Connect

    Ragan, Eric; Alex, Endert; Sanyal, Jibonananda; Chen, Jian

    2016-01-01

    While the primary goal of visual analytics research is to improve the quality of insights and findings, a substantial amount of research in provenance has focused on the history of changes and advances throughout the analysis process. The term, provenance, has been used in a variety of ways to describe different types of records and histories related to visualization. The existing body of provenance research has grown to a point where the consolidation of design knowledge requires cross-referencing a variety of projects and studies spanning multiple domain areas. We present an organizational framework of the different types of provenance information and purposes for why they are desired in the field of visual analytics. Our organization is intended to serve as a framework to help researchers specify types of provenance and coordinate design knowledge across projects. We also discuss the relationships between these factors and the methods used to capture provenance information. In addition, our organization can be used to guide the selection of evaluation methodology and the comparison of study outcomes in provenance research

  19. Characterizing Provenance in Visualization and Data Analysis: An Organizational Framework of Provenance Types and Purposes.

    PubMed

    Ragan, Eric D; Endert, Alex; Sanyal, Jibonananda; Chen, Jian

    2016-01-01

    While the primary goal of visual analytics research is to improve the quality of insights and findings, a substantial amount of research in provenance has focused on the history of changes and advances throughout the analysis process. The term, provenance, has been used in a variety of ways to describe different types of records and histories related to visualization. The existing body of provenance research has grown to a point where the consolidation of design knowledge requires cross-referencing a variety of projects and studies spanning multiple domain areas. We present an organizational framework of the different types of provenance information and purposes for why they are desired in the field of visual analytics. Our organization is intended to serve as a framework to help researchers specify types of provenance and coordinate design knowledge across projects. We also discuss the relationships between these factors and the methods used to capture provenance information. In addition, our organization can be used to guide the selection of evaluation methodology and the comparison of study outcomes in provenance research. PMID:26340779

  20. The stones and historic mortars of the Santissima Trinità di Saccargia Romanesque Basilica (Sardinia, Italy): a multi-analytical techniques' approach for the study of their features and provenance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Columbu, Stefano; Palomba, Marcella; Sitzia, Fabio

    2015-04-01

    A research project devoted to the study of building materials of the Romanesque churches in Sardinia is currently underway. One of the objectives of the project is to focus the mineral, chemical-physical and petrographic characterisation of the construction materials, as well as the alteration processes. To make a contribution to the preservation of Sardinian monuments, we suggests a new approach to define the different alteration-modes of rocks in function of their local exposure to the weather, studying: 1) the changes of physical properties on surface of stone (porosity, water absorption, micro-morphology) determined through laboratory tests and photogrammetry observations, 2) the alteration phases present on surface (e.g., secondary minerals, soluble salts) determined by mineralogical and chemical investigations. This methodological approach will allow to select appropriate, suitable and compatible materials for replacing the original altered one's, and to plan appropriate strategies devoted to the restoration work. In this paper the geomaterials used for construct the Santissima Trinità di Saccargia Basilica have been investigated. The church, finished in 1116 over the ruins of a pre-existing monastery, is the most important Romanesque site in the island. Have been studied the chemical alterations and physical decay of two different stones, as volcanic rocks (i.e., basalt) and sedimentary rocks (i.e., limestones) used in bichromy on the Basilica. The main purpose is to observe the different modes of alteration of these two lithologies with different petrophysical characteristics, placed in the same conditions of weathering. Macroscopic evidences show that the limestones, while not having a high porosity, they were strongly affected by alteration phenomena, especially in the outer surface of ashlars, due to the solubilization of the carbonate matrix. The basalt rocks show no obvious physical alteration. Occasionally, in some ashlar located in basal zone of the

  1. Thermodynamically consistent phase field approach to dislocation evolution at small and large strains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levitas, Valery I.; Javanbakht, Mahdi

    2015-09-01

    A thermodynamically consistent, large strain phase field approach to dislocation nucleation and evolution at the nanoscale is developed. Each dislocation is defined by an order parameter, which determines the magnitude of the Burgers vector for the given slip planes and directions. The kinematics is based on the multiplicative decomposition of the deformation gradient into elastic and plastic contributions. The relationship between the rates of the plastic deformation gradient and the order parameters is consistent with phenomenological crystal plasticity. Thermodynamic and stability conditions for homogeneous states are formulated and satisfied by the proper choice of the Helmholtz free energy and the order parameter dependence on the Burgers vector. They allow us to reproduce desired lattice instability conditions and a stress-order parameter curve, as well as to obtain a stress-independent equilibrium Burgers vector and to avoid artificial dissipation during elastic deformation. The Ginzburg-Landau equations are obtained as the linear kinetic relations between the rate of change of the order parameters and the conjugate thermodynamic driving forces. A crystalline energy coefficient for dislocations is defined as a periodic step-wise function of the coordinate along the normal to the slip plane, which provides an energy barrier normal to the slip plane and determines the desired, mesh-independent height of the dislocation bands for any slip system orientation. Gradient energy contains an additional term, which excludes the localization of a dislocation within a height smaller than the prescribed height, but it does not produce artificial interface energy. An additional energy term is introduced that penalizes the interaction of different dislocations at the same point. Non-periodic boundary conditions for dislocations are introduced which include the change of the surface energy due to the exit of dislocations from the crystal. Obtained kinematics, thermodynamics

  2. Novel Approaches to Manipulating Bacterial Pathogen Biofilms: Whole-Systems Design Philosophy and Steering Microbial Evolution.

    PubMed

    Penn, Alexandra S

    2016-01-01

    Understanding and manipulating bacterial biofilms is crucial in medicine, ecology and agriculture and has potential applications in bioproduction, bioremediation and bioenergy. Biofilms often resist standard therapies and the need to develop new means of intervention provides an opportunity to fundamentally rethink our strategies. Conventional approaches to working with biological systems are, for the most part, "brute force", attempting to effect control in an input and effort intensive manner and are often insufficient when dealing with the inherent non-linearity and complexity of living systems. Biological systems, by their very nature, are dynamic, adaptive and resilient and require management tools that interact with dynamic processes rather than inert artefacts. I present an overview of a novel engineering philosophy which aims to exploit rather than fight those properties, and hence provide a more efficient and robust alternative. Based on a combination of evolutionary theory and whole-systems design, its essence is what I will call systems aikido; the basic principle of aikido being to interact with the momentum of an attacker and redirect it with minimal energy expenditure, using the opponent's energy rather than one's own. In more conventional terms, this translates to a philosophy of equilibrium engineering, manipulating systems' own self-organisation and evolution so that the evolutionarily or dynamically stable state corresponds to a function which we require. I illustrate these ideas with a description of a proposed manipulation of environmental conditions to alter the stability of co-operation in the context of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm infection of the cystic fibrosis lung. PMID:27193553

  3. Phenotypic evolution of human craniofacial morphology after admixture: a geometric morphometrics approach.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Abadías, Neus; González-José, Rolando; González-Martín, Antonio; Van der Molen, Silvina; Talavera, Arturo; Hernández, Patricia; Hernández, Miquel

    2006-03-01

    An evolutionary, diachronic approach to the phenotypic craniofacial pattern arisen in a human population after high levels of admixture and gene flow was achieved by means of geometric morphometrics. Admixture has long been studied after molecular data. Nevertheless, few efforts have been made to explain the morphological outcome in human craniofacial samples. The Spanish-Amerindian contact can be considered a good scenario for such an analysis. Here we present a comparative analysis of craniofacial shape changes observed between two putative ancestor groups, Spanish and precontact Aztecs, and two diachronic admixed groups, corresponding to early and late colonial periods from the Mexico's Central Valley. Quantitative shape comparisons of Amerindian, Spanish, and admixed groups were used to test the expectations of quantitative genetics for admixture events. In its simplest form, this prediction states that an admixed group will present phenotypic values falling between those of both parental groups. Results show that, in general terms, although the human skull is a complex, integrated structure, the craniofacial morphology observed fits the theoretical expectations of quantitative genetics. Thus, it is predictive of population structure and history. In fact, results obtained after the craniofacial analysis are in accordance with previous molecular and historical interpretations, providing evidence that admixture is a main microevolutionary agent influencing modern Mexican gene pool. However, expectations are not straightforward when moderate shape changes are considered. Deviations detected at localized structures, such as the upper and lower face, highlight the evolution of a craniofacial pattern exclusively inherent to the admixed groups, indicating that quantitative characters might respond to admixture in a complicated, nondirectional way. PMID:16323202

  4. Provenance Representation in the Global Change Information System (GCIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilmes, Curt

    2012-01-01

    Global climate change is a topic that has become very controversial despite strong support within the scientific community. It is common for agencies releasing information about climate change to be served with Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) requests for everything that led to that conclusion. Capturing and presenting the provenance, linking to the research papers, data sets, models, analyses, observation instruments and satellites, etc. supporting key findings has the potential to mitigate skepticism in this domain. The U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP) is now coordinating the production of a National Climate Assessment (NCA) that presents our best understanding of global change. We are now developing a Global Change Information System (GCIS) that will present the content of that report and its provenance, including the scientific support for the findings of the assessment. We are using an approach that will present this information both through a human accessible web site as well as a machine readable interface for automated mining of the provenance graph. We plan to use the developing W3C PROV Data Model and Ontology for this system.

  5. DNA DSB measurements and modelling approaches based on gamma-H2AX foci time evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, Giuseppe; Campa, Alessandro; Antonelli, Francesca; Mariotti, Luca; Belli, Mauro; Giardullo, Paola; Simone, Giustina; Antonella Tabocchini, Maria; Ottolenghi, Andrea

    DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) induced by ionising radiation are considered the main dam-age related to the deleterious consequences in the cells. Unrepaired or mis-repaired DSBs can cause mutations or loss of chromosome regions which can eventually lead to cell death or neo-plastic transformation. Quantification of the number and complexity of DSBs induced by low doses of radiation remains a complex problem. About ten years ago Rogakou et al. proposed an immunofluorescent technique able to detect even a single DSB per cell. This approach is based on the serine 139 phosphorylation of many molecules (up to 2000) of histone H2AX (γg-H2AX) following the induction of a DSB in the DNA. DSB can be visualized as foci by immunofluores-cence by using phospho-specific antibodies, so that enumeration of foci can be used to measure DSB induction and processing. It is still not completely clear how γ-H2AX dephosphorylation takes place; however it has been related with DSB repair, in particular with the efficiency of DSB repair. In this work we analyse the H2AX phosphorylation-dephosphorylation kinetics after irradiation of primary human fibroblasts (AG1522 cell line) with radiation of differing quality, that is γ-rays and α-particles (125 keV/µm), with the aim of comparing the time evolution of γ-H2AX foci. Our results show that, after a dose of 0.5 Gy, both γ-rays and α-particles induce the maximum number of γ-H2AX foci within 30 minutes from irradiation, that this number depends on the radiation type and is consistent with the number of track traversal in α-irradiated nuclei, that the dephosphorylation kinetics are very different, being the α-induced foci rate of disappearence slower than that of γ-induced foci. In this work a modellistic approach to estimate the number of DSB induced by γ-rays detectable by using the γ-H2AX assay is presented. The competing processes of appearance and disappearance of visible foci will be modeled taking into account the

  6. Tracking Files Using the Kepler Provenance Framework

    SciTech Connect

    Pierre, Mouallem; Vouk, Mladen; Klasky, Scott A; Tchoua, Roselyne B; Podhorszki, Norbert

    2009-01-01

    Workflow Management Systems (WFMS), such as Kepler, are proving to be an important tool in scientific problem solving. They can automate and manage complex processes and huge amounts of data produced by petascale simulations. Typically, the produced data need to be properly visualized and analyzed by scientists in order to achieve the desired scientific goals. Both run-time and post analysis may benefit from, even require, additional meta-data - provenance information. One of the challenges in this context is the tracking of the data files that can be produced in very large numbers during stages of the workflow, such as visualizations. The Kepler provenance framework collects all or part of the raw information flowing through the workflow graph. This information then needs to be further parsed to extract meta-data of interest. This can be done through add-on tools and algorithms. We show how to automate tracking specific information such as data files locations.

  7. Tracking Files Using the Kepler Provenance Framework

    SciTech Connect

    Mouallem, P. A.; Tchoua, Roselyne B; Klasky, Scott A; Podhorszki, Norbert; Vouk, M. A.

    2009-01-01

    Workflow Management Systems (WFMS), such as Kepler, are prov- ing to be an important tool in scientific problem solving. They can automate and manage complex processes and huge amounts of data produced by petas- cale simulations. Typically, the produced data need to be properly visualized and analyzed by scientists in order to achieve the desired scientific goals. Both run-time and post analysis may benefit from, even require, additional meta-data provenance information. One of the challenges in this context is the tracking of the data files that can be produced in very large numbers during stages of the workflow, such as visualizations. The Kepler provenance framework collects all or part of the raw information flowing through the workflow graph. This infor- mation then needs to be further parsed to extract meta-data of interest. This can be done through add-on tools and algorithms. We show how to automate track- ing specific information such as data files locations.

  8. Tracking Files in the Kepler Provenance Framework

    SciTech Connect

    Mouallem, Pierre A; Klasky, Scott A; Podhorszki, Norbert; Vouk, Mladen

    2009-01-01

    Workflow Management Systems (WFMS), such as Kepler, are proving to be an important tool in scientific problem solving. They can automate and manage complex processes and huge amounts of data produced by petascale simulations. Typically, the produced data need to be properly visualized and analyzed by scientists in order to achieve the desired scientific goals. Both run-time and post analysis may benefit from, even require, additional meta-data - provenance information. One of the challenges in this context is the tracking of the data files that can be produced in very large numbers during stages of the workflow, such as visualizations. The Kepler provenance framework collects all or part of the raw information flowing through the workflow graph. This information then needs to be further parsed to extract meta-data of interest. This can be done through add-on tools and algorithms. We show how to automate tracking specific information such as data files locations.

  9. Obsidian provenance research in the Americas.

    PubMed

    Glascock, Michael D

    2002-08-01

    The characterization of archaeological materials to support provenance research has grown rapidly over the past few decades. Volcanic obsidian has several unique properties that make it the ideal archaeological material for studying prehistoric trade and exchange. This Account describes our laboratory's development of a systematic methodology for the characterization of obsidian sources and artifacts from Mesoamerica and other regions of North and South America in support of archaeological research. PMID:12186565

  10. Implementing Provenance Collection in a Legacy Data Product Generation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conover, H.; Ramachandran, R.; Kulkarni, A.; Beaumont, B.; McEniry, M.; Graves, S. J.; Goodman, H.

    2012-12-01

    NASA has been collecting, storing, archiving and distributing vast amounts of Earth science data derived from satellite observations for several decades now. The raw data collected from the different sensors undergoes many different transformations before it is distributed to the science community as climate-research-quality data products. These data transformations include calibration, geolocation, and conversion of the instrument counts into meaningful geophysical parameters, and may include reprojection and/or spatial and temporal averaging as well. In the case of many Earth science data systems, the science algorithms and any ancillary data files used for these transformations are delivered as a "black box" to be integrated into the data system's processing framework. In contrast to an experimental workflow that may vary with each iteration, such systems use consistent, well-engineered processes to apply the same science algorithm to each well-defined set of inputs in order to create standard data products. Even so, variability is inevitably introduced. There may be changes made to the algorithms, different ancillary datasets may be used, underlying hardware and software may get upgraded, etc. Furthermore, late-arriving input data, operator error, or other processing anomalies may necessitate regeneration and replacement of a particular set of data files and any downstream products. These variations need to be captured, documented and made accessible to the scientific community so they can be properly accounted for in analyses. This presentation describes an approach to provenance capture, storage and dissemination implemented at the NASA Science Investigator-led Processing System (SIPS) for the AMSR-E (Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer - Earth Observing System) instrument. Key considerations in adding provenance capabilities to this legacy data system include: (1) granularity of provenance information captured, (2) additional context information needed

  11. A Bayesian Approach to the Evolution of Metabolic Networks on a Phylogeny

    PubMed Central

    Mithani, Aziz; Preston, Gail M.; Hein, Jotun

    2010-01-01

    The availability of genomes of many closely related bacteria with diverse metabolic capabilities offers the possibility of tracing metabolic evolution on a phylogeny relating the genomes to understand the evolutionary processes and constraints that affect the evolution of metabolic networks. Using simple (independent loss/gain of reactions) or complex (incorporating dependencies among reactions) stochastic models of metabolic evolution, it is possible to study how metabolic networks evolve over time. Here, we describe a model that takes the reaction neighborhood into account when modeling metabolic evolution. The model also allows estimation of the strength of the neighborhood effect during the course of evolution. We present Gibbs samplers for sampling networks at the internal node of a phylogeny and for estimating the parameters of evolution over a phylogeny without exploring the whole search space by iteratively sampling from the conditional distributions of the internal networks and parameters. The samplers are used to estimate the parameters of evolution of metabolic networks of bacteria in the genus Pseudomonas and to infer the metabolic networks of the ancestral pseudomonads. The results suggest that pathway maps that are conserved across the Pseudomonas phylogeny have a stronger neighborhood structure than those which have a variable distribution of reactions across the phylogeny, and that some Pseudomonas lineages are going through genome reduction resulting in the loss of a number of reactions from their metabolic networks. PMID:20700467

  12. Multi-scale Science: Supporting Emerging Practice with Semantically Derived Provenance

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, James D.; Pancerella, Carmen M.; Lansing, Carina S.; Schuchardt, Karen L.; Didier, Brett T.; Ashish, N., Goble, C

    2003-10-20

    Scientific progress is becoming increasingly dependent of our ability to study phenomena at multiple scales and from multiple perspectives. The ability to recontextualize third party data within the semantic and syntactic framework of a given research project is increasingly seen as a primary barrier in multi-scale science. Within the Collaboratory for Multiscale Chemical Science (CMCS) project, we are developing a general-purpose informatics-based approach that emphasizes ''on-demand'' metadata creation, configurable data translations, and semantic mapping to support the rapidly increasing and continually evolving requirements for managing data, metadata, and data relationships in such projects. A concrete example of this approach is the design of the CMCS provenance subsystem. The concept of provenance varies across communities, and multiple independent applications contribute to and use provenance. In CMCS, we have developed generic tools for viewing provenance relationships and for using them to, for example, scope notifications and searches. These tools rely on a configurable concept of provenance defined in terms of other relationships. The result is a very flexible mechanism capable of tracking data provenance across many disciplines and supporting multiple uses of provenance information.

  13. An event-driven approach for studying gene block evolution in bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Ream, David C.; Bankapur, Asma R.; Friedberg, Iddo

    2015-01-01

    Motivation: Gene blocks are genes co-located on the chromosome. In many cases, gene blocks are conserved between bacterial species, sometimes as operons, when genes are co-transcribed. The conservation is rarely absolute: gene loss, gain, duplication, block splitting and block fusion are frequently observed. An open question in bacterial molecular evolution is that of the formation and breakup of gene blocks, for which several models have been proposed. These models, however, are not generally applicable to all types of gene blocks, and consequently cannot be used to broadly compare and study gene block evolution. To address this problem, we introduce an event-based method for tracking gene block evolution in bacteria. Results: We show here that the evolution of gene blocks in proteobacteria can be described by a small set of events. Those include the insertion of genes into, or the splitting of genes out of a gene block, gene loss, and gene duplication. We show how the event-based method of gene block evolution allows us to determine the evolutionary rateand may be used to trace the ancestral states of their formation. We conclude that the event-based method can be used to help us understand the formation of these important bacterial genomic structures. Availability and implementation: The software is available under GPLv3 license on http://github.com/reamdc1/gene_block_evolution.git. Supplementary online material: http://iddo-friedberg.net/operon-evolution Contact: i.friedberg@miamioh.edu Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:25717195

  14. From static to dynamic provenance analysis-Sedimentary petrology upgraded

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garzanti, Eduardo

    2016-05-01

    The classical approach to sandstone petrology, established in the golden years of plate tectonics and based on the axiom that "detrital modes of sandstone suites primarily reflect the different tectonic settings of provenance terranes," has represented a benchmark for decades. The composition of sand and sandstone, however, simply provides us with a distorted image of the lithological structure of source terranes and gives us little clue whether they are allochthonous or autochthonous, orogenic or anorogenic, young or old. What we may able to see reflected in detrital modes is the nature of source terranes (continental, arc, oceanic) and the tectonostratigraphic level reached by erosion in space and time. The proposed new approach to the petrology of sand and sandstone (1) starts with a simple classification scheme circulated since the 1960s, which is purely descriptive, objective, and free of ill-defined ambiguous terms and (2) focuses on the nature and tectonostratigraphic level of source terranes. Further steps are essential to upgrade provenance analysis. Acquiring knowledge from modern settings is needed to properly identify and wherever possible correct for physical and chemical processes introducing environmental and diagenetic bias and thus address nature's complexities with adequate conceptual tools. Equally important is the integration of multiple techniques, ideally including bulk-sediment, multi-mineral, and single-mineral methods. Bulk-sediment petrography remains the fundamental approach that allows us to capture the most precious source of direct provenance information, represented by the mineralogy and texture of rock fragments. Bulk-sediment geochemistry, applicable also to silt and clay carried in suspension, is a superior method to check for hydraulic sorting, chemical weathering, and fertility of detrital minerals in different sediment sources. Detrital geochronology, thermochronology, and isotope geochemistry reveal the diverse time structures

  15. Functions and possible provenance of primordial proteins.

    PubMed

    Sommer, Andrei P; Miyake, Norimune; Wickramasinghe, N Chandra; Narlikar, Jayant V; Al-Mufti, Shirwan

    2004-01-01

    Nanobacteria or living nanovesicles are of great interest to the scientific community because of their dual nature: on the one hand, they appear as primal biosystems originating life; on the other hand, they can cause severe diseases. Their survival as well as their pathogenic potential is apparently linked to a self-synthesized protein-based slime, rich in calcium and phosphate (when available). Here, we provide challenging evidence for the occurrence of nanobacteria in the stratosphere, reflecting a possibly primordial provenance of the slime. An analysis of the slime's biological functions may lead to novel strategies suitable to block adhesion modalities in modern bacterial populations. PMID:15595742

  16. An ecological and behavioural approach to hominin evolution during the Pliocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macho, Gabriele A.

    2014-07-01

    The study considers the turnover in hominins, together with carnivorans and other primates, at 3.5 Ma against an environmental backdrop. Communalities are identified between evolving guilds that may directly inform hominin evolution. These are the evolution of (a) dietary generalists and (b) evidence for sociality in carnivores, baboons and hominins. Sociality and behavioural flexibility are regarded advantageous for the procurement of resources while, at the same time, reducing intraspecific competition; in primates it may initially also have served to reduce predation risk. Behavioural flexibility explains the evolutionary success of Panthera leo, Papio and Homo. Viewed within a wider palaeoecological and environmental context, it is possible that sociality in hominins, including allocare, were triggered by abiotic changes at about 3.5 Ma. If confirmed in future studies, this would mark the beginning of hominin life history evolution.

  17. A Hybrid Particle Swarm with Differential Evolution Operator Approach (DEPSO) for Linear Array Synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Soham; Das, Swagatam

    In recent years particle swarm optimization emerges as one of the most efficient global optimization tools. In this paper, a hybrid particle swarm with differential evolution operator, termed DEPSO, is applied for the synthesis of linear array geometry. Here, the minimum side lobe level and null control, both are obtained by optimizing the spacing between the array elements by this technique. Moreover, a statistical comparison is also provided to establish its performance against the results obtained by Genetic Algorithm (GA), classical Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), Tabu Search Algorithm (TSA), Differential Evolution (DE) and Memetic Algorithm (MA).

  18. Multi-Input Single Output SSSC based damping controller design by a hybrid Improved Differential Evolution-Pattern Search approach.

    PubMed

    Panda, Sidhartha; Yegireddy, Narendra Kumar

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, a hybrid Improved Differential Evolution and Pattern Search (hIDEPS) approach is proposed for the design of a PI-Type Multi-Input Single Output (MISO) Static Synchronous Series Compensator (SSSC) based damping controller. The improvement in Differential Evolution (DE) algorithm is introduced by a simple but effective scheme of changing two of its most important control parameters i.e. step size and crossover probability with an objective of achieving improved performance. Pattern Search (PS) is subsequently employed to fine tune the best solution provided by modified DE algorithm. The superiority of a proposed hIDEPS technique over DE and improved DE has also been demonstrated. At the outset, this concept is applied to a SSSC connected in a Single Machine Infinite Bus (SMIB) power system and then extended to a multi-machine power system. To show the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed design approach, simulation results are presented and compared with DE and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) optimized Single Input Single Output (SISO) SSSC based damping controllers. It is observed that the proposed approach yield superior damping performance compared to some approaches available in the literature. PMID:25864132

  19. Actualistic Ophiolite Provenance: The Cyprus Case.

    PubMed

    Garzanti; Andò; Scutellà

    2000-03-01

    The island of Cyprus represents an excellent site to assess quantitatively petrologic clastic response to actively obducting oceanic sources in order to define an actualistic reference for ophiolite provenance, in terms of framework composition and heavy mineral suites. An improved methodology, an extension of the classic ternary QFL logic to include a wider spectrum of key indexes and ratios, provides an accurate synthesis of modal data and allows differentiation of three main petrographic provinces and at least seven subprovinces. Diagnostic signatures of detritus from various levels of an oceanic lithospheric source, and criteria for distinguishing provenance from suprasubduction versus mid-oceanic ophiolites are also outlined. Modern sands derived from the Troodos Ophiolite contain variable proportions of largely pelagic carbonate to chert, boninite to basalt, diabase to metabasite, plagiogranite to gabbroic, and cumulate grains supplied from progressively deeper-seated levels of the multilayered oceanic crust. Dense minerals are mainly clinopyroxenes (diopside), prevailing over orthopyroxenes (enstatite, hypersthene, clinoenstatite), hornblende, tremolite/actinolite, and epidote. Where serpentinized mantle harzburgites have been unroofed, detritus is markedly enriched in cellular serpentinite grains and enstatite, with still negligible olivine and spinel. Sedimentaclastic sands dominated by chert (Mamonia Province) or carbonate grains (Kyrenia Province) are deposited along the southern and northern shores of the island, respectively. Compositions of Cyprus sands are virtually unaffected by climatic, sedimentary, or anthropic processes; recycling of sandstones from foreign sources is a major process only in the Karpaz Peninsula. Petrographic analysis also provides an independent mean to identify prevalent directions of longshore sand transport. PMID:10736270

  20. Addressing Controversies in Science Education: A Pragmatic Approach to Evolution Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hildebrand, David; Bilica, Kimberly; Capps, John

    2008-01-01

    Science education controversies typically prove more intractable than those in scientific research because they involve a wider range of considerations (e.g., epistemic, social, ethical, political, and religious). How can educators acknowledge central issues in a controversy (such as evolution)? How can such problems be addressed in a way that is…

  1. Insights into the Diversity of Attitudes Concerning Evolution and Creation: A Multidimensional Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konneman, Christiane; Asshoff, Roman; Hammann, Marcus

    2016-01-01

    The main aim of this paper is to describe high school students' attitudes concerning evolution and creation, with a focus on (1) attitudes toward evolutionary theory, (2) attitudes toward the Biblical accounts of creation, (3) creationist beliefs, and (4) scientistic beliefs. Latent class analyses revealed seven attitude profiles in a sample of…

  2. Computers in Biological Education: Simulation Approaches. Genetics and Evolution. CAL Research Group Technical Report No. 13.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, P. J.

    Three examples of genetics and evolution simulation concerning Mendelian inheritance, genetic mapping, and natural selection are used to illustrate the use of simulations in modeling scientific/natural processes. First described is the HERED series, which illustrates such phenomena as incomplete dominance, multiple alleles, lethal alleles,…

  3. Evolution of conformational changes in the dynamics of small biological molecules: a hybrid MD/RRK approach.

    PubMed

    Segev, Elad; Grumbach, Mikael; Gerber, Robert Benny

    2006-11-14

    The dynamics of long timescale evolution of conformational changes in small biological molecules is described by a hybrid molecular dynamics/RRK algorithm. The approach employs classical trajectories for transitions between adjacent structures separated by a low barrier, and the classical statistical RRK approximation when the barrier involved is high. In determining the long-time dynamics from an initial structure to a final structure of interest, an algorithm is introduced for determining the most efficient pathways (sequence of the intermediate conformers). This method uses the Dijkstra algorithm for finding optimal paths on networks. Three applications of the method using an AMBER force field are presented: a detailed study of conformational transitions in a blocked valine dipeptide; a multiple reaction path study of the blocked valine tripeptide; and the evolution in time from the beta hairpin to alpha helix structure of a blocked alanine hexapeptide. Advantages and limitations of the method are discussed in light of the results. PMID:17066182

  4. An interactive approach based on a discrete differential evolution algorithm for a class of integer bilevel programming problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hong; Zhang, Li; Jiao, Yong-Chang

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents an interactive approach based on a discrete differential evolution algorithm to solve a class of integer bilevel programming problems, in which integer decision variables are controlled by an upper-level decision maker and real-value or continuous decision variables are controlled by a lower-level decision maker. Using the Karush--Kuhn-Tucker optimality conditions in the lower-level programming, the original discrete bilevel formulation can be converted into a discrete single-level nonlinear programming problem with the complementarity constraints, and then the smoothing technique is applied to deal with the complementarity constraints. Finally, a discrete single-level nonlinear programming problem is obtained, and solved by an interactive approach. In each iteration, for each given upper-level discrete variable, a system of nonlinear equations including the lower-level variables and Lagrange multipliers is solved first, and then a discrete nonlinear programming problem only with inequality constraints is handled by using a discrete differential evolution algorithm. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  5. Standardized wellheads proven economical for subsea operations

    SciTech Connect

    Moreira, C.C.; Silva Paulo, C.A. )

    1994-05-02

    A standardization program for subsea wellheads and completion equipment has made development of Brazil's offshore fields more economical and efficient. The resulting operational flexibility associated with the use of field-proven equipment and procedures saves rig time and can reduce production loss during workovers. Additionally, investments can be rationalized economically by installing part of the completion equipment at the end of the drilling job and then delaying purchase and installation of the christmas tree and the flow lines until installation of the production platform. Savings are also realized from the reduction in the number of spare parts and tools. Moreover, the savings related to improved operations exceed considerably those from equipment acquisition and storage. Thus, the greatest benefit is the operational flexibility. The paper discusses initial standards, the subsea programs, philosophy, implementation, diver-assisted trees, diverless trees, and economics.

  6. Titian: Data Provenance Support in Spark

    PubMed Central

    Interlandi, Matteo; Shah, Kshitij; Tetali, Sai Deep; Gulzar, Muhammad Ali; Yoo, Seunghyun; Kim, Miryung; Millstein, Todd; Condie, Tyson

    2015-01-01

    Debugging data processing logic in Data-Intensive Scalable Computing (DISC) systems is a difficult and time consuming effort. Today’s DISC systems offer very little tooling for debugging programs, and as a result programmers spend countless hours collecting evidence (e.g., from log files) and performing trial and error debugging. To aid this effort, we built Titian, a library that enables data provenance—tracking data through transformations—in Apache Spark. Data scientists using the Titian Spark extension will be able to quickly identify the input data at the root cause of a potential bug or outlier result. Titian is built directly into the Spark platform and offers data provenance support at interactive speeds—orders-of-magnitude faster than alternative solutions—while minimally impacting Spark job performance; observed overheads for capturing data lineage rarely exceed 30% above the baseline job execution time. PMID:26726305

  7. Evolution of Decision Rules Used for IT Portfolio Management: An Inductive Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karhade, Prasanna P.; Shaw, Michael J.; Subramanyam, Ramanath

    IT portfolio management and the related planning decisions for IT-dependent initiatives are critical to organizational performance. Building on the logic of appropriateness theoretical framework, we define an important characteristic of decision rules used during IT portfolio planning; rule appropriateness with regards to the risk-taking criterion. We propose that rule appropriateness will be an important factor explaining the evolution of rules over time. Using an inductive learning methodology, we analyze a unique dataset of actual IT portfolio planning decisions spanning two consecutive years within one organization. We present systematic comparative analysis of the evolution of rules used in planning over two years to validate our research proposition. We find that rules that were inappropriate in the first year are being redefined to design appropriate rules for use in the second year. Our work provides empirical evidence demonstrating organizational learning and improvements in IT portfolio planning capabilities.

  8. Two-Dimensional Metal Dichalcogenides and Oxides for Hydrogen Evolution: A Computational Screening Approach.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Mohnish; Vojvodic, Aleksandra; Thygesen, Kristian S; Jacobsen, Karsten W

    2015-05-01

    We explore the possibilities of hydrogen evolution by basal planes of 2D metal dichalcogenides and oxides in the 2H and 1T class of structures using the hydrogen binding energy as a computational activity descriptor. For some groups of systems like the Ti, Zr, and Hf dichalcogenides the hydrogen bonding to the 2H structure is stronger than that to the 1T structure, while for the Cr, Mo, and W dichalcogenides the behavior is opposite. This is rationalized by investigating shifts in the chalcogenide p levels comparing the two structures. We find that usually for a given material only at most one of the two phases will be active for the hydrogen evolution reaction; however, in most cases the two phases are very close in formation energy, opening up the possibility for stabilizing the active phase. The study points to many new possible 2D HER materials beyond the few that are already known. PMID:26263317

  9. Sobolev gradient approach for the time evolution related to energy minimization of Ginzburg-Landau functionals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raza, Nauman; Sial, Sultan; Siddiqi, Shahid S.

    2009-04-01

    The Sobolev gradient technique has been discussed previously in this journal as an efficient method for finding energy minima of certain Ginzburg-Landau type functionals [S. Sial, J. Neuberger, T. Lookman, A. Saxena, Energy minimization using Sobolev gradients: application to phase separation and ordering, J. Comput. Phys. 189 (2003) 88-97]. In this article a Sobolev gradient method for the related time evolution is discussed.

  10. Spatial Autocatalytic Dynamics: An Approach to Modeling Prebiotic Evolution. Chapter 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stassinopoulos, Dimitris; Colombano, Silvano P.; Lohn , Jason D.; Haith, Gary L.; Scargle, Jeffrey; Liang, Shoudan; Lee, T. K.

    1999-01-01

    This paper addresses the origin of robust and evolvable metabolic functions, and the conditions under which it took place. We propose that spatial considerations, traditionally ignored, are essential to answering these important questions in prebiotic evolution. Our probabilistic cellular automaton model, based on work on autocatalytic metabolisms by Eigen, Kauffman, and others, has biologically interesting dynamical behavior that is missed if spatial extension is ignored.

  11. Future of DAQ Frameworks and Approaches, and Their Evolution towards the Internet of Things

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neufeld, Niko

    2015-12-01

    Nowadays, a DAQ system is a complex network of processors, sensors and many other active devices. Historically, providing a framework for DAQ has been a very important role of host institutes of experiments. Reviewing evolution of such DAQ frameworks is a very interesting subject of the conference. “Internet of Things” is a recent buzz word but a DAQ framework could be a good example of IoT.

  12. Modeling the evolution of natural cliffs subject to weathering: 1. Limit analysis approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utili, S.; Crosta, G. B.

    2011-03-01

    Retrogressive landsliding evolution of natural slopes subjected to weathering has been modeled by assuming Mohr-Coulomb material behavior and by using an analytical method. The case of weathering-limited slope conditions, with complete erosion of the accumulated debris, has been modeled. The limit analysis upper-bound method is used to study slope instability induced by a homogeneous decrease of material strength in space and time. The only assumption required in the model concerns the degree of weathering within the slope, and for this we assumed and tested different weathering laws. By means of this method, the evolution of cliffs subject to strong weathering conditions (weathering-limited conditions) was predicted. The discrete succession of failures taking place was modeled taking into account the geometry assumed by slopes as a consequence of previous mass movements. The results have been compared with published data from long-term slope monitoring and show a good match between experimental observations and analytical predictions. The retrogressive evolution of the slope occurs with decreasing size of the unstable blocks, following a logarithmic volume-frequency relationship. A nonlinear relationship is found between mass flux and average slope gradient. A set of normalized solutions is presented both by nomograms and tables for different values of slope angle, cohesion, and internal friction angle.

  13. Evolution of a Community-Based Participatory Approach in a Rural and Remote Dementia Care Research Program

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Debra; Crossley, Margaret; Stewart, Norma; Kirk, Andrew; Forbes, Dorothy; D’Arcy, Carl; Dal Bello-Haas, Vanina; McBain, Lesley; O’Connell, Megan; Bracken, Joanne; Kosteniuk, Julie; Cammer, Allison

    2015-01-01

    Background Community-based participatory research (CBPR) approaches are valuable strategies for addressing complex health and social problems and powerful tools to support effective transformation of social and health policy to better meet the needs of diverse stakeholders. Objectives Since 1997, our team has utilized CBPR approaches to improve health service delivery for persons with dementia and their caregivers in rural and remote settings. We describe the evolution of our approach, including benefits, challenges, and lessons learned over the last 15 years. Methods A multistage approach initiated an ongoing CBPR research program in rural dementia care and shaped its direction based on stakeholders’ recommendation to prioritize both community and facility-based care. Strategies to develop and foster collaborative partnerships have included travel to rural and remote regions, province-wide community meetings, stakeholder workshops, creation of a Decision-Maker Advisory Council to provide ongoing direction to the overall program, development of diverse project-specific advisory groups, and a highly successful and much anticipated annual knowledge exchange and team-building event. Lessons Learned Partnering with stakeholders in the full research process has enhanced the research quality, relevance, application, and sustainability. These benefits have supported the team’s evolution from a relatively traditional focus to an integrated approach guiding all aspects of our research. Conclusions Developing and sustaining the full range of stakeholder and decision-maker partnerships is resource-and time-intensive, but our experience shows that community-based participatory strategies are highly suited to health services research that is designed to support sustainable service delivery improvements. PMID:25435560

  14. Mode and tempo in the evolution of socio-political organization: reconciling 'Darwinian' and 'Spencerian' evolutionary approaches in anthropology.

    PubMed

    Currie, Thomas E; Mace, Ruth

    2011-04-12

    Traditional investigations of the evolution of human social and political institutions trace their ancestry back to nineteenth century social scientists such as Herbert Spencer, and have concentrated on the increase in socio-political complexity over time. More recent studies of cultural evolution have been explicitly informed by Darwinian evolutionary theory and focus on the transmission of cultural traits between individuals. These two approaches to investigating cultural change are often seen as incompatible. However, we argue that many of the defining features and assumptions of 'Spencerian' cultural evolutionary theory represent testable hypotheses that can and should be tackled within a broader 'Darwinian' framework. In this paper we apply phylogenetic comparative techniques to data from Austronesian-speaking societies of Island South-East Asia and the Pacific to test hypotheses about the mode and tempo of human socio-political evolution. We find support for three ideas often associated with Spencerian cultural evolutionary theory: (i) political organization has evolved through a regular sequence of forms, (ii) increases in hierarchical political complexity have been more common than decreases, and (iii) political organization has co-evolved with the wider presence of hereditary social stratification. PMID:21357233

  15. Coastline evolution of Portuguese low-lying sandy coast in the last 50 years: an integrated approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponte Lira, Cristina; Nobre Silva, Ana; Taborda, Rui; Freire de Andrade, Cesar

    2016-06-01

    Regional/national-scale information on coastline rates of change and trends is extremely valuable, but these studies are scarce. A widely accepted standardized methodology for analysing long-term coastline change has been difficult to achieve, but it is essential to conduct an integrated and holistic approach to coastline evolution and hence support coastal management actions. Additionally, databases providing knowledge on coastline evolution are of key importance to support both coastal management experts and users.The main objective of this work is to present the first systematic, national-scale and consistent long-term coastline evolution data of Portuguese mainland low-lying sandy coasts.The methodology used quantifies coastline evolution using a unique and robust coastline indicator (the foredune toe), which is independent of short-term changes.The dataset presented comprises (1) two polyline sets, mapping the 1958 and 2010 sandy beach-dune system coastline, both optimized for working at 1 : 50 000 scale or smaller; (2) one polyline set representing long-term change rates between 1958 and 2010, each estimated at 250 m; and (3) a table with minimum, maximum and mean of evolution rates for sandy beach-dune system coastline. All science data produced here are openly accessible at https://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.859136 and can be used in other studies.Results show beach erosion as the dominant trend, with a mean change rate of -0.24 ± 0.01 m year-1 for all mainland Portuguese beach-dune systems. Although erosion is dominant, this evolution is variable in signal and magnitude in different coastal sediment cells and also within each cell. The most relevant beach erosion issues were found in the coastal stretches of Espinho-Torreira and Costa Nova-Praia de Mira, Cova da Gala-Leirosa, and Cova do Vapor-Costa da Caparica. The coastal segments Minho River-Nazaré and Costa da Caparica

  16. Scientific Workflows + Provenance = Better (Meta-)Data Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludaescher, B.; Cuevas-Vicenttín, V.; Missier, P.; Dey, S.; Kianmajd, P.; Wei, Y.; Koop, D.; Chirigati, F.; Altintas, I.; Belhajjame, K.; Bowers, S.

    2013-12-01

    The origin and processing history of an artifact is known as its provenance. Data provenance is an important form of metadata that explains how a particular data product came about, e.g., how and when it was derived in a computational process, which parameter settings and input data were used, etc. Provenance information provides transparency and helps to explain and interpret data products. Other common uses and applications of provenance include quality control, data curation, result debugging, and more generally, 'reproducible science'. Scientific workflow systems (e.g. Kepler, Taverna, VisTrails, and others) provide controlled environments for developing computational pipelines with built-in provenance support. Workflow results can then be explained in terms of workflow steps, parameter settings, input data, etc. using provenance that is automatically captured by the system. Scientific workflows themselves provide a user-friendly abstraction of the computational process and are thus a form of ('prospective') provenance in their own right. The full potential of provenance information is realized when combining workflow-level information (prospective provenance) with trace-level information (retrospective provenance). To this end, the DataONE Provenance Working Group (ProvWG) has developed an extension of the W3C PROV standard, called D-PROV. Whereas PROV provides a 'least common denominator' for exchanging and integrating provenance information, D-PROV adds new 'observables' that described workflow-level information (e.g., the functional steps in a pipeline), as well as workflow-specific trace-level information ( timestamps for each workflow step executed, the inputs and outputs used, etc.) Using examples, we will demonstrate how the combination of prospective and retrospective provenance provides added value in managing scientific data. The DataONE ProvWG is also developing tools based on D-PROV that allow scientists to get more mileage from provenance metadata

  17. Assessing the Impact of Landscape Evolution on Carbon Dynamics: A Coupled Physically-Based Modelling Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dialynas, Y. G.; Bastola, S.; Billings, S. A.; Bras, R. L.

    2014-12-01

    Soil erosion and deposition play an important role in the global carbon (C) cycle, constituting an important driver of atmospheric CO2. Clarification of the net effect of landscape evolution on the C cycle may be achieved using coupled fully-distributed modelling of hydro-geomorphic and biogeochemical processes. We developed a distributed model of soil organic C (SOC) dynamics within an existing coupled physically-based hydro-geomorphic model (tRIBS - Erosion) to simulate the effects of soil erosion and deposition on C dynamics at basin scale. The SOC mass balance is analytically formulated at each cell using temporally variant, continuous vertical profiles of SOC content and SOC production and oxidation rate constants derived from SOC turnover characteristics. Landscape evolution feedbacks on C dynamics include the redistribution of eroded SOC, and the alteration of the SOC production and oxidation throughout the corresponding vertical profiles due to geomorphic perturbations. At each time step, model outputs include lateral and vertical C fluxes, and SOC content, at each soil column. We applied the model to the Calhoun Experimental Forest in South Carolina, which constitutes a forest recovering from agricultural land degradation prior to the mid-20th century. To test performance we carried out a point comparison against a spreadsheet-based model, SOrCERO (Soil Organic Carbon, Erosion, Replacement, and Oxidation) of SOC dynamics, which estimates effects of SOC erosion and altered SOC production and oxidation on CO2 release at an eroding profile. At a point, time integrated results from the two models were comparable. The proposed model has the additional advantage of being able to quantify C sinks and sources across the landscape in a spatially explicit manner, by systematically accounting for topographic controls on C dynamics. Sensitivity analysis suggested that the alteration of SOC production and oxidation due to landscape evolution and management practices

  18. Lithofacies control in detrital zircon provenance studies: Insights from the Cretaceous Methow basin, southern Canadian Cordillera

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeGraaff-Surpless, K.; Mahoney, J.B.; Wooden, J.L.; McWilliams, M.O.

    2003-01-01

    High-frequency sampling for detrital zircon analysis can provide a detailed record of fine-scale basin evolution by revealing the temporal and spatial variability of detrital zircon ages within clastic sedimentary successions. This investigation employed detailed sampling of two sedimentary successions in the Methow/Methow-Tyaughton basin of the southern Canadian Cordillera to characterize the heterogeneity of detrital zircon signatures within single lithofacies and assess the applicability of detrital zircon analysis in distinguishing fine-scale provenance changes not apparent in lithologic analysis of the strata. The Methow/Methow-Tyaughton basin contains two distinct stratigraphic sequences of middle Albian to Santonian clastic sedimentary rocks: submarine-fan deposits of the Harts Pass Formation/Jackass Mountain Group and fluvial deposits of the Winthrop Formation. Although both stratigraphic sequences displayed consistent ranges in detrital zircon ages on a broad scale, detailed sampling within each succession revealed heterogeneity in the detrital zircon age distributions that was systematic and predictable in the turbidite succession but unpredictable in the fluvial succession. These results suggest that a high-density sampling approach permits interpretation of finescale changes within a lithologically uniform turbiditic sedimentary succession, but heterogeneity within fluvial systems may be too large and unpredictable to permit accurate fine-scale characterization of the evolution of source regions. The robust composite detrital zircon age signature developed for these two successions permits comparison of the Methow/Methow-Tyaughton basin age signature with known plutonic source-rock ages from major plutonic belts throughout the Cretaceous North American margin. The Methow/Methow-Tyaughton basin detrital zircon age signature matches best with source regions in the southern Canadian Cordillera, requiring that the basin developed in close proximity to the

  19. Hydrochemical evolution and groundwater flow processes in the Galilee and Eromanga basins, Great Artesian Basin, Australia: a multivariate statistical approach.

    PubMed

    Moya, Claudio E; Raiber, Matthias; Taulis, Mauricio; Cox, Malcolm E

    2015-03-01

    The Galilee and Eromanga basins are sub-basins of the Great Artesian Basin (GAB). In this study, a multivariate statistical approach (hierarchical cluster analysis, principal component analysis and factor analysis) is carried out to identify hydrochemical patterns and assess the processes that control hydrochemical evolution within key aquifers of the GAB in these basins. The results of the hydrochemical assessment are integrated into a 3D geological model (previously developed) to support the analysis of spatial patterns of hydrochemistry, and to identify the hydrochemical and hydrological processes that control hydrochemical variability. In this area of the GAB, the hydrochemical evolution of groundwater is dominated by evapotranspiration near the recharge area resulting in a dominance of the Na-Cl water types. This is shown conceptually using two selected cross-sections which represent discrete groundwater flow paths from the recharge areas to the deeper parts of the basins. With increasing distance from the recharge area, a shift towards a dominance of carbonate (e.g. Na-HCO3 water type) has been observed. The assessment of hydrochemical changes along groundwater flow paths highlights how aquifers are separated in some areas, and how mixing between groundwater from different aquifers occurs elsewhere controlled by geological structures, including between GAB aquifers and coal bearing strata of the Galilee Basin. The results of this study suggest that distinct hydrochemical differences can be observed within the previously defined Early Cretaceous-Jurassic aquifer sequence of the GAB. A revision of the two previously recognised hydrochemical sequences is being proposed, resulting in three hydrochemical sequences based on systematic differences in hydrochemistry, salinity and dominant hydrochemical processes. The integrated approach presented in this study which combines different complementary multivariate statistical techniques with a detailed assessment of the

  20. Managing the Evolution of an Enterprise Architecture using a MAS-Product-Line Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pena, Joaquin; Hinchey, Michael G.; Resinas, manuel; Sterritt, Roy; Rash, James L.

    2006-01-01

    We view an evolutionary system ns being n software product line. The core architecture is the unchanging part of the system, and each version of the system may be viewed as a product from the product line. Each "product" may be described as the core architecture with sonre agent-based additions. The result is a multiagent system software product line. We describe an approach to such n Software Product Line-based approach using the MaCMAS Agent-Oriented nzethoclology. The approach scales to enterprise nrchitectures as a multiagent system is an approprinre means of representing a changing enterprise nrchitectclre nnd the inferaction between components in it.

  1. Controversy in Biology Classrooms—Citizen Science Approaches to Evolution and Applications to Climate Change Discussions

    PubMed Central

    Yoho, Rachel A.; Vanmali, Binaben H.

    2016-01-01

    The biological sciences encompass topics considered controversial by the American public, such as evolution and climate change. We believe that the development of climate change education in the biology classroom is better informed by an understanding of the history of the teaching of evolution. A common goal for science educators should be to engender a greater respect for and appreciation of science among students while teaching specific content knowledge. Citizen science has emerged as a viable yet underdeveloped method for engaging students of all ages in key scientific issues that impact society through authentic data-driven scientific research. Where successful, citizen science may open avenues of communication and engagement with the scientific process that would otherwise be more difficult to achieve. Citizen science projects demonstrate versatility in education and the ability to test hypotheses by collecting large amounts of often publishable data. We find a great possibility for science education research in the incorporation of citizen science projects in curriculum, especially with respect to “hot topics” of socioscientific debate based on our review of the findings of other authors. Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education PMID:27047604

  2. Evolution, Interaction, and Intrinsic Properties of Dislocations in Intermetallics: Anisotropic 3D Dislocation Dynamics Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Qian Chen

    2008-08-18

    The generation, motion, and interaction of dislocations play key roles during the plastic deformation process of crystalline solids. 3D Dislocation Dynamics has been employed as a mesoscale simulation algorithm to investigate the collective and cooperative behavior of dislocations. Most current research on 3D Dislocation Dynamics is based on the solutions available in the framework of classical isotropic elasticity. However, due to some degree of elastic anisotropy in almost all crystalline solids, it is very necessary to extend 3D Dislocation Dynamics into anisotropic elasticity. In this study, first, the details of efficient and accurate incorporation of the fully anisotropic elasticity into 3D discrete Dislocation Dynamics by numerically evaluating the derivatives of Green's functions are described. Then the intrinsic properties of perfect dislocations, including their stability, their core properties and disassociation characteristics, in newly discovered rare earth-based intermetallics and in conventional intermetallics are investigated, within the framework of fully anisotropic elasticity supplemented with the atomistic information obtained from the ab initio calculations. Moreover, the evolution and interaction of dislocations in these intermetallics as well as the role of solute segregation are presented by utilizing fully anisotropic 3D dislocation dynamics. The results from this work clearly indicate the role and the importance of elastic anisotropy on the evolution of dislocation microstructures, the overall ductility and the hardening behavior in these systems.

  3. Controversy in Biology Classrooms-Citizen Science Approaches to Evolution and Applications to Climate Change Discussions.

    PubMed

    Yoho, Rachel A; Vanmali, Binaben H

    2016-03-01

    The biological sciences encompass topics considered controversial by the American public, such as evolution and climate change. We believe that the development of climate change education in the biology classroom is better informed by an understanding of the history of the teaching of evolution. A common goal for science educators should be to engender a greater respect for and appreciation of science among students while teaching specific content knowledge. Citizen science has emerged as a viable yet underdeveloped method for engaging students of all ages in key scientific issues that impact society through authentic data-driven scientific research. Where successful, citizen science may open avenues of communication and engagement with the scientific process that would otherwise be more difficult to achieve. Citizen science projects demonstrate versatility in education and the ability to test hypotheses by collecting large amounts of often publishable data. We find a great possibility for science education research in the incorporation of citizen science projects in curriculum, especially with respect to "hot topics" of socioscientific debate based on our review of the findings of other authors. Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education. PMID:27047604

  4. Microbial experimental evolution as a novel research approach in the Vibrionaceae and squid-Vibrio symbiosis

    PubMed Central

    Soto, William; Nishiguchi, Michele K.

    2014-01-01

    The Vibrionaceae are a genetically and metabolically diverse family living in aquatic habitats with a great propensity toward developing interactions with eukaryotic microbial and multicellular hosts (as either commensals, pathogens, and mutualists). The Vibrionaceae frequently possess a life history cycle where bacteria are attached to a host in one phase and then another where they are free from their host as either part of the bacterioplankton or adhered to solid substrates such as marine sediment, riverbeds, lakebeds, or floating particulate debris. These two stages in their life history exert quite distinct and separate selection pressures. When bound to solid substrates or to host cells, the Vibrionaceae can also exist as complex biofilms. The association between bioluminescent Vibrio spp. and sepiolid squids (Cephalopoda: Sepiolidae) is an experimentally tractable model to study bacteria and animal host interactions, since the symbionts and squid hosts can be maintained in the laboratory independently of one another. The bacteria can be grown in pure culture and the squid hosts raised gnotobiotically with sterile light organs. The partnership between free-living Vibrio symbionts and axenic squid hatchlings emerging from eggs must be renewed every generation of the cephalopod host. Thus, symbiotic bacteria and animal host can each be studied alone and together in union. Despite virtues provided by the Vibrionaceae and sepiolid squid-Vibrio symbiosis, these assets to evolutionary biology have yet to be fully utilized for microbial experimental evolution. Experimental evolution studies already completed are reviewed, along with exploratory topics for future study. PMID:25538686

  5. Modeling the evolution of lithium-ion particle contact distributions using a fabric tensor approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stershic, A. J.; Simunovic, S.; Nanda, J.

    2015-11-01

    Electrode microstructure and processing can strongly influence lithium-ion battery performance such as capacity retention, power, and rate. Battery electrodes are multi-phase composite structures wherein conductive diluents and binder bond active material to a current collector. The structure and response of this composite network during repeated electrochemical cycling directly affects battery performance characteristics. We propose the fabric tensor formalism for describing the structure and evolution of the electrode microstructure. Fabric tensors are directional measures of particulate assemblies based on inter-particle connectivity, relating to the structural and transport properties of the electrode. Fabric tensor analysis is applied to experimental data-sets for positive electrode made of lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide, captured by X-ray tomography for several compositions and consolidation pressures. We show that fabric tensors capture the evolution of inter-particle contact distribution and are therefore good measures for the internal state of and electronic transport within the electrode. The fabric tensor analysis is also applied to Discrete Element Method (DEM) simulations of electrode microstructures using spherical particles with size distributions from the tomography. These results do not follow the experimental trends, which indicates that the particle size distribution alone is not a sufficient measure for the electrode microstructures in DEM simulations.

  6. Conceptual and empirical problems with game theoretic approaches to language evolution

    PubMed Central

    Watumull, Jeffrey; Hauser, Marc D.

    2014-01-01

    The importance of game theoretic models to evolutionary theory has been in formulating elegant equations that specify the strategies to be played and the conditions to be satisfied for particular traits to evolve. These models, in conjunction with experimental tests of their predictions, have successfully described and explained the costs and benefits of varying strategies and the dynamics for establishing equilibria in a number of evolutionary scenarios, including especially cooperation, mating, and aggression. Over the past decade or so, game theory has been applied to model the evolution of language. In contrast to the aforementioned scenarios, however, we argue that these models are problematic due to conceptual confusions and empirical difficiences. In particular, these models conflate the comptutations and representations of our language faculty (mechanism) with its utility in communication (function); model languages as having different fitness functions for which there is no evidence; depend on assumptions for the starting state of the system, thereby begging the question of how these systems evolved; and to date, have generated no empirical studies at all. Game theoretic models of language evolution have therefore failed to advance how or why language evolved, or why it has the particular representations and computations that it does. We conclude with some brief suggestions for how this situation might be ameliorated, enabling this important theoretical tool to make substantive empirical contributions. PMID:24678305

  7. Conceptual and empirical problems with game theoretic approaches to language evolution.

    PubMed

    Watumull, Jeffrey; Hauser, Marc D

    2014-01-01

    The importance of game theoretic models to evolutionary theory has been in formulating elegant equations that specify the strategies to be played and the conditions to be satisfied for particular traits to evolve. These models, in conjunction with experimental tests of their predictions, have successfully described and explained the costs and benefits of varying strategies and the dynamics for establishing equilibria in a number of evolutionary scenarios, including especially cooperation, mating, and aggression. Over the past decade or so, game theory has been applied to model the evolution of language. In contrast to the aforementioned scenarios, however, we argue that these models are problematic due to conceptual confusions and empirical difficiences. In particular, these models conflate the comptutations and representations of our language faculty (mechanism) with its utility in communication (function); model languages as having different fitness functions for which there is no evidence; depend on assumptions for the starting state of the system, thereby begging the question of how these systems evolved; and to date, have generated no empirical studies at all. Game theoretic models of language evolution have therefore failed to advance how or why language evolved, or why it has the particular representations and computations that it does. We conclude with some brief suggestions for how this situation might be ameliorated, enabling this important theoretical tool to make substantive empirical contributions. PMID:24678305

  8. Modeling the evolution of lithium-ion particle contact distributions using a fabric tensor approach

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Stershic, Andrew; Simunovic, Srdjan; Nanda, Jagjit

    2015-01-01

    Electrode microstructure and processing can strongly influence lithium-ion battery performance such as capacity retention, power, and rate. Battery electrodes are multi-phase composite structures wherein conductive diluents and binder bond active material to a current collector. The structure and response of this composite network during repeated electrochemical cycling directly affects battery performance characteristics. We propose the fabric tensor formalism for describing the structure and evolution of the electrode microstructure. Fabric tensors are directional measures of particulate assemblies based on inter-particle connectivity, relating to the structural and transport properties of the electrode. Fabric tensor analysis is applied to experimental data-sets for positivemore » electrode made of lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide, captured by X-ray tomography for several compositions and consolidation pressures. We show that fabric tensors capture the evolution of inter-particle contact distribution and are therefore good measures for the internal state of and electronic transport within the electrode. The fabric tensor analysis is also applied to Discrete Element Method (DEM) simulations of electrode microstructures using spherical particles with size distributions from the tomography. These results do not follow the experimental trends, which indicates that the particle size distribution alone is not a sufficient measure for the electrode microstructures in DEM simulations.« less

  9. Mineralogical and geochemical evidence of Quachita provenance

    SciTech Connect

    Sutton, S.J. . Dept. of Earth Resources); Land, L.S.; Hutson, F. . Dept. of Geological Science); Awwiller, D.N. . Dept. of Geology)

    1994-03-01

    Provenance of the extremely thick Ouachita flysch has not been specifically identified, despite several recent studies. Detrital mineral compositions, Sm-Nd model ages, and single zircon dates strongly suggest that several sources contributed sediment that became well-mixed before deposition. Sm-Nd model ages are nearly uniform for flysch samples, regardless of geographic position or exact stratigraphic position. These ages appear to rule out significant contribution by a Paleozoic island arc, and suggest a single source, multiple sources with similar model ages, or thorough mixing of sources with different model ages. In contrast, single zircon ages are variable, including Archean, Proterozoic, and Paleozoic ages. These ages indicate multiple sediment sources, including some external to North America. The zircon ages, however, may not be generally representative of Ouachita sediment sources because they were obtained on zircons far larger than typical Ouachita detrital zircons. The Sm-Nd model ages and single zircon ages can both be explained if sediment entering the Ouachita Trough came from multiple sources, but was already thoroughly mixed before entering the trough. Such mixing is also suggested by detrital mineral analyses. Muscovite, garnet, and tourmaline have been analyzed.

  10. On Estimating Provenances of Lunar Highland Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haskin, Larry A.; Jolliff, Brad L.

    1998-01-01

    That even relatively small impacts can spread material across the face of the Moon is evident from the rays of Tycho. Tycho ejecta triggered the landslide that produced the light mantle deposit at Apollo 17 and perhaps excavated the Central Valley craters there. Basin-sized impacts appear to follow the same scaling laws as smaller impacts, as indicated by the satisfaction of a geophysical model. These giant impacts rearranged huge amounts of premare material, complicating the determination of provenance of materials collected from the highlands. We have developed a model to estimate the probability that material at a particular location might derive from a given basin or large crater. This model is based on crater scaling laws, and effects of secondary cratering. Because it accounts for the volume of primary ejecta from the basin-forming transient craters and the excavating and mixing effects of these ejecta with the substrate onto which they fall, it gives much thicker deposits than an early work. Our modeling takes into account the distribution of sizes of primary ejecta fragments (PriFrags) to obtain the probability at a given site for a deposit of a particular thickness and with a fraction of PriFrags.

  11. Provenance of Norphlet sandstone, northern Gulf Coast

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, W.P.; Ward, W.C.; Kuglar, R.L.

    1987-09-01

    The Upper Jurassic Norphlet sandstone of the northern Gulf Coast is predominantly subarkose, with some arkose in the eastern area and sublitharenite and quartzarenite in the western area. Despite great depths of burial and despite feldspar and rock-fragment constituents, diagenesis has not appreciably altered the composition of Norphlet sandstone. Therefore, reconstruction of original composition of Norphlet sandstone presented little difficulty. Variation in detrital modes of the Norphlet suggests compositionally distinct source terranes. Samples from Florida, Alabama, and Mississippi reflect the influence of metamorphic and plutonic rocks of the Appalachian Piedmont Province and of Triassic-Jurassic volcanic rocks. Sandstones in east Texas, northern Louisiana, and southern Arkansas were derived from sedimentary and metasedimentary rocks of the Ouachita system. The Arbuckle Mountains and Llano uplift may have supplied trace amounts of quartzo-feldspathic and volcanic-rock fragments to the extreme western part of the study area. Norphlet sandstones represent a mixture of collision-orogen-derived sediment from the Appalachian and/or Ouachita system and continental-block-derived sediment from paleohighs and uplifts within the Gulf basin. However, Norphlet sandstones plot in the craton-interior and transitional-continental fields on Q-F-L and QM-F-Lt tectonic-provenance diagrams, because of mineralogically mature source rocks, elimination of unstable grains by abrasion and sorting during deposition, and/or sediment mixing from different source terranes.

  12. The evolution and functions of laughter and humor: a synthetic approach.

    PubMed

    Gervais, Matthew; Wilson, David Sloan

    2005-12-01

    A number of recent hypotheses have attempted to explain the ultimate evolutionary origins of laughter and humor. However most of these have lacked breadth in their evolutionary frameworks while neglecting the empirical existence of two distinct types of laughter--Duchenne and non-Duchenne--and the implications of this distinction for the evolution of laughter as a signal. Most of these hypotheses have also been proposed in relative isolation of each other and remain disjointed from the relevant empirical literature. Here we attempt to remedy these shortcomings through a synthesis of previous laughter and humor research followed by (i) a reevaluation of this research in light of theory and data from several relevant disciplines, and (ii) the proposal of a synthetic evolutionary framework that takes into account phylogeny and history as well as proximate mechanisms and adaptive significance. We consider laughter to have been a preadaptation that was gradually elaborated and co-opted through both biological and cultural evolution. We hypothesize that Duchenne laughter became fully ritualized in early hominids between 4 and 2 mya as a medium for playful emotional contagion. This mechanism would have coupled the emotions of small hominid groups and promoted resource-building social play during the fleeting periods of safety and satiation that characterized early bipedal life. We further postulate that a generalized class of nonserious social incongruity would have been a reliable indicator of such safe times and thereby came to be a potent distal elicitor of laughter and playful emotion. This class of stimuli had its origins in primate social play and was the foundation for formal human humor. Within this framework, Duchenne laughter and protohumor were well established in the hominid biobehavioral repertoire when more cognitively sophisticated traits evolved in the hominid line between 2 mya and the present. The prior existence of laughter and humor allowed them to be

  13. Molecular Corridor Based Approach for Description of Evolution of Secondary Organic Aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y., Sr.; Poeschl, U.; Shiraiwa, M.

    2015-12-01

    Organic aerosol is ubiquitous in the atmosphere and its major component is secondary organic aerosol (SOA). Formation and evolution of SOA is a complex process involving coupled chemical reactions and mass transport in the gas and particle phases (Shiraiwa et al., 2014). Current air quality models do not embody the full spectrum of reaction and transport processes, nor do they identify the dominant rate-limiting steps in SOA formation, resulting in the significant underprediction of observed SOA concentrations, which precludes reliable quantitative predictions of aerosols and their environmental impacts. Recently, it has been suggested that the SOA chemical evolution can be represented well by "molecular corridor" with a tight inverse correlation between molar mass and volatility of SOA oxidation products (Shiraiwa et al., 2014). Here we further analyzed the structure, molar mass and volatility of 31,000 unique organic compounds. These compounds include oxygenated organic compounds as well as nitrogen- and sulfur-containing organics such as amines, organonitrates, and organosulfates. Results show that most of those compounds fall into this two-dimensional (2-D) space, which is constrained by two boundary lines corresponding to the volatility of n -alkanes CnH2n+2 and sugar alcohols CnH2n+2On. A method to predict the volatility of nitrogen- and sulfur- containing compounds is developed based on those 31,000 organic compounds. It is shown that the volatility can be well predicted as a function of chemical composition numbers, providing a way to apply this 2-D space to organic compounds observed in real atmosphere. A comprehensive set of observation data from laboratory experiments, field campaigns and indoor measurements is mapped to the molecular corridor. This 2-D space can successfully grasp the properties of organic compounds formed in different atmospheric conditions. The molecular corridor represents a new framework in which chemical and physical properties as

  14. Deciphering the brittle evolution of SW Norway through a combined structural, mineralogical and geochronological approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheiber, Thomas; Viola, Giulio; Fredin, Ola; Zwingmann, Horst; Wilkinson, Camilla Maya; Ganerød, Morgan

    2016-04-01

    SW Norway has experienced a complex brittle history after cessation of the Caledonian orogeny, and the recent discoveries of major hydrocarbon reserves in heavily fractured and weathered basement offshore SW Norway has triggered a renewed interest in understanding this complex tectonic evolution. In this contribution we present results from a multidisciplinary study combining lineament analysis, field work, paleo-stress inversion, mineralogical characterization and radiometric dating in the Bømlo area of SW Norway in order to develop a tectonic model for the brittle evolution of this important region. The study area mainly consists of the Rolvsnes granodiorite (U-Pb zircon age of ca. 466 Ma), which is devoid of penetrative ductile deformation features. The first identified brittle faults are muscovite-bearing top-to-the-NNW thrusts and E-W striking dextral strike-slip faults decorated with stretched biotite. These are mechanically compatible and are assigned to the same NNW-SSE transpressional regime. Ar-Ar muscovite and biotite dates of ca. 450 Ma (Late Ordovician) indicate fault activity in the course of a Taconian-equivalent orogenic event. During the subsequent Silurian Laurentia-Baltica collision variably oriented, lower-grade chlorite and epidote-coated faults formed in response to a ENE-WSW compressional stress regime. A large number of mainly N-S striking normal faults consist of variably thick fault gouge cores with illite, quartz, kaolinite, calcite and epidote mineralizations, accommodating mainly E-W extension. K-Ar dating of illites separated from representative fault gouges and zones of altered granodiorite constrain deformation ranging from the Permian to the Late Jurassic, indicating a long history of crustal extension where faults were repeatedly activated. In addition, a set of ca. SW-NE striking faults associated with alteration zones give Cretaceous dates, either representing a young phase of NW-SE extension or reactivation of previously formed

  15. Modern high spatial resolution approaches to crustal evolution studies - pitfalls and progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitehouse, M. J.

    2012-12-01

    Developments in analytical techniques for in situ geochronology and isotope geochemistry over the past few decades have contributed greatly to our understanding of the processes of Precambrian crustal evolution, plate tectonics, the development of Earth's hydrosphere and atmosphere and conditions for the development of life on Earth. The further back in time we go, however, the more complex the geology, requiring that we unravel and/or try to see through multiple phases of disturbance. Such geological complexity complicates interpretation and can lead to conflicting viewpoints on such key questions as when plate tectonics began on Earth, when it evolved to a process essentially similar to that of today and the nature and habitability of a potentially pre-plate tectonic Earth in the Hadean. This presentation will review, with case studies, some of the crucial aspects of applying and interpreting high spatial resolution in situ methods and some of the potential pitfalls. Obtaining accurate and precise geochronology is an essential first step in any study of Precambrian geology, whether it is the primary goal or provides a supporting framework to other diverse applications. To this end, high spatial resolution secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and laser ablation inductiively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICPMS), typically combined with relevant imaging methods such as cathode luminescence (CL) are widely used to investigate the U-Pb systematics of complex zircon. In general precision is merely an analytical hurdle that we are good (and continually getting better) at clearing, but accuracy commonly contains not just an analytical element (e.g. calibration of standards) but also a considerable subjective element in order to unravel the commonly polyphase evolution of early Precambrian zircon. Examples of such problematic interpretations from the Neoarchean Lewisian Complex of northwest Scotland and the Paleoarchean Napier Complex of Antarctica will be

  16. Securing Provenance of Distributed Processes in an Untrusted Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syalim, Amril; Nishide, Takashi; Sakurai, Kouichi

    Recently, there is much concern about the provenance of distributed processes, that is about the documentation of the origin and the processes to produce an object in a distributed system. The provenance has many applications in the forms of medical records, documentation of processes in the computer systems, recording the origin of data in the cloud, and also documentation of human-executed processes. The provenance of distributed processes can be modeled by a directed acyclic graph (DAG) where each node represents an entity, and an edge represents the origin and causal relationship between entities. Without sufficient security mechanisms, the provenance graph suffers from integrity and confidentiality problems, for example changes or deletions of the correct nodes, additions of fake nodes and edges, and unauthorized accesses to the sensitive nodes and edges. In this paper, we propose an integrity mechanism for provenance graph using the digital signature involving three parties: the process executors who are responsible in the nodes' creation, a provenance owner that records the nodes to the provenance store, and a trusted party that we call the Trusted Counter Server (TCS) that records the number of nodes stored by the provenance owner. We show that the mechanism can detect the integrity problem in the provenance graph, namely unauthorized and malicious “authorized” updates even if all the parties, except the TCS, collude to update the provenance. In this scheme, the TCS only needs a very minimal storage (linear with the number of the provenance owners). To protect the confidentiality and for an efficient access control administration, we propose a method to encrypt the provenance graph that allows access by paths and compartments in the provenance graph. We argue that encryption is important as a mechanism to protect the provenance data stored in an untrusted environment. We analyze the security of the integrity mechanism, and perform experiments to measure

  17. Co-Evolution of Opinion and Strategy in Persuasion Dynamics:. AN Evolutionary Game Theoretical Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Fei; Liu, Yun; Li, Yong

    In this paper, a new model of opinion formation within the framework of evolutionary game theory is presented. The model simulates strategic situations when people are in opinion discussion. Heterogeneous agents adjust their behaviors to the environment during discussions, and their interacting strategies evolve together with opinions. In the proposed game, we take into account payoff discount to join a discussion, and the situation that people might drop out of an unpromising game. Analytical and emulational results show that evolution of opinion and strategy always tend to converge, with utility threshold, memory length, and decision uncertainty parameters influencing the convergence time. The model displays different dynamical regimes when we set differently the rule when people are at a loss in strategy.

  18. A multiscale approach to defect evolution in tungsten under helium irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valles, G.; Cazalilla, A. L.; Gonzalez, C.; Martin-Bragado, I.; Prada, A.; Iglesias, R.; Perlado, J. M.; Rivera, A.

    2015-06-01

    We have studied He irradiation in tungsten from a multiscale point of view: Density Functional Theory (DFT) to obtain the binding energies of He to vacancy clusters, Binary Collision Approximation (BCA) and Molecular Dynamics (MD) to produce defect cascades and Object Kinetic Monte Carlo (OKMC) to study their evolution in larger temporal and spatial scales. A comparison between BCA and MD cascades produced by PKA at different energies has been done at different temperatures: at high temperature and at high PKA energies the OKMC results clearly depend on the defect cascades. 625 keV pulsed He ion irradiation has been simulated with cascades obtained by means of BCA and MD. The results show that in the case of ion irradiation, BCA results can provide good OKMC results. However, in the case of neutron irradiation producing high energy PKAs, BCA cascades clearly overestimate the number of FPs, which may have a strong influence on the OKMC results.

  19. Shuttle-C auxiliary propulsion system certification approach and low-cost evolution concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harsh, M. George; Benner, John; Garabetian, Antranig; Burg, Roger

    1991-01-01

    Shuttle-C provides NASA with a heavy-lift cargo capability that is a low-cost derivative of the current Space Shuttle. This system can deliver 80,000 to 140,000 pounds of payload to low earth orbit within 4 years of authority to proceed. Shuttle-C will share th existing Shuttle launch facilities at Kennedy Space Center (KSC). The Shuttle-C vehicle incorporates an auxiliary propulsion system (APS) which provides separation from the external tank (ET), orbit circularization, on-orbit attitude hold, and deorbit capability. The APS is derived from the Shuttle orbiter aft reaction control system (ARCS) and orbital maneuvering system (OMS) with the objective of achieving minimum life cycle cost for this expendable vehicle. The resulting APS system will be described, its plan for a minimum-cost flight certification utilizing a cold-flow test program explained, and low-cost evolution by component design modification and part substitution presented.

  20. The evolution of cosmic-ray-mediated magnetohydrodynamic shocks: A two-fluid approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jun, Byung-Il; Clarke, David A.; Norman, Michael L.

    1994-01-01

    We study the shock structure and acceleration efficiency of cosmic-ray mediated Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) shocks both analytically and numerically by using a two-fluid model. Our model includes the dynamical effect of magnetic fields and cosmic rays on a background thermal fluid. The steady state solution is derived by following the technique of Drury & Voelk (1981) and compared to numerical results. We explore the time evolution of plane-perpendicular, piston-driven shocks. From the results of analytical and numerical studies, we conclude that the mean magnetic field plays an important role in the structure and acceleration efficiency of cosmic-ray mediated MHD shocks. The acceleration of cosmic-ray particles becomes less efficient in the presence of strong magnetic pressure since the field makes the shock less compressive. This feature is more prominent at low Mach numbers than at high Mach numbers.

  1. The evolution of cosmic-ray-mediated magnetohydrodynamic shocks: A two-fluid approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jun, Byung-Il; Clarke, David A.; Norman, Michael L.

    1994-07-01

    We study the shock structure and acceleration efficiency of cosmic-ray mediated Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) shocks both analytically and numerically by using a two-fluid model. Our model includes the dynamical effect of magnetic fields and cosmic rays on a background thermal fluid. The steady state solution is derived by following the technique of Drury & Voelk (1981) and compared to numerical results. We explore the time evolution of plane-perpendicular, piston-driven shocks. From the results of analytical and numerical studies, we conclude that the mean magnetic field plays an important role in the structure and acceleration efficiency of cosmic-ray mediated MHD shocks. The acceleration of cosmic-ray particles becomes less efficient in the presence of strong magnetic pressure since the field makes the shock less compressive. This feature is more prominent at low Mach numbers than at high Mach numbers.

  2. Dynamical evolution of the Oort cloud. I. A Monte Carlo simulation. II. A theoretical approach

    SciTech Connect

    Remy, F.; Mignard, F.

    1985-07-01

    A Monte Carlo model is used to trace the dynamical evolution of the Oort cloud of comets to its ultimate end. After a review of previous simulations, the necessity of considering perturbations of the aphelion distance because of passing stars, the density of passing stars, and the three-body problem of sun-star-comet is discussed. For convenience, the solar gravitation is assumed to be zero as a star passes. It is also assumed that the initial cometary distribution had a perihelion near the orbits of Uranus-Neptune. Six orbital elements are calculated to obtain orbital distributions for the population in the Oort cloud. The cloud is estimated to contain 10 trillion comets, which would satisfy the present apparition rate of new comets. 34 references.

  3. Stream-piracy impact on the long-term evolution of the Meuse basin. Physical approach "modeling with GOLEM"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benaichouche, A.; Stab, O.; Cojan, I.; Brulhet, J.; Tijani, M.; Tessier, B.

    2012-04-01

    Landscape evolution results of antagonistic processes. In the Paris basin (France): tectonic uplift seems to be globally balanced by river incision. But the dynamic equilibrium of the relief can be disturbed by other processes and singularities may appear. A remarkable example is observed in the Meuse basin (NE of France), where the river is actually perched at more than +50m above the surrounding valleys: the Marne valley to the west and the Moselle valley to the east. This special morphology is the result of several stream piracies (at the expense of the Meuse) which has interested numerous researchers since a long time (Davis 1895, Blache 1943, Lesson-Quinif 2001 & Le Roux Harmand 1997-2009…). The most important ones of these piracies are: 1) the well-known capture of the Haute-Moselle by a tributary of the Meurthe near Toul; 2) at the north-west, the capture of the river Aire by the Aisne. On-going evolution suggests that similar events can be expected in the long-term future. Where and when next streams piracies could occur, what consequences may be expected? Our approach is to simulate the dynamic evolution of the landscape with an improved version of GOLEM (Geomorphic / Orogenic Landscape Evolution Model - LEM), software developed by Tucker & Slingerland in 1994 (http://csdms.colorado.edu/wiki/Model:GOLEM). The LEM characterizes erosion by incorporating diffusion and advection equations whose parameters must be fixed, according to local conditions. First simulations for next millions years with « detachment-limited » mode, let us locate several potential captures of the Meuse river by tributaries of the Moselle, therefore inducing a complete reorganization of the hydrographic network. The results of the localizations agree with local topography/geometry analysis. The first capture induces the propagation of a knickpoint and a significant lowering of the upstream part of the Meuse's basin. Downstream of the capture, the orientation of the abandoned valley

  4. Structural and Stratigraphic Evolution of the Iberia and Newfoundland Rifted Margins: A Quantitative Modeling Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohn, G.; Karner, G. D.; Manatschal, G.; Johnson, C. A.

    2014-12-01

    Rifted margins develop generally through polyphased extensional events leading eventually to break-up. We investigate the spatial and temporal evolution of the Iberia-Newfoundland rifted margin from its Permian post-orogenic stage to early Cretaceous break-up. We have applied Quantitative Basin Analysis to integrate seismic stratigraphic interpretations and drill hole data of representative sections across the Iberia-Newfoundland margins with kinematic models for the thinning of the lithosphere and subsequent isostatic readjustment. Our goal is to predict the distribution of extension and thinning, environments of deposition, crustal structure and subsidence history as functions of space and time. The first sediments deposited on the Iberian continental crust were in response to Permian lithospheric thinning, associated with magmatic underplating and subsequent thermal re-equilibration of the lithosphere. During late Triassic-early Jurassic rifting, a broadly distributed depth-independent lithospheric extension occurred, followed by late Jurassic rifting that increasingly focused with time and became depth-dependent during the early Cretaceous. However, there exists a temporality in the along-strike deformation of the Iberia-Newfoundland margin: significant Valanginian-Hauterivian deformation characterizes the northern Galicia Bank-Flemish Cap while the southern Iberian-Newfoundland region is characterized by Tithonian-early Berriasian extension. Deformation localized with time on both margins leading to late Aptian break-up. To match the distribution and magnitude of subsidence across the profiles requires significant thinning of middle/lower crustal level and subcontinental lithospheric mantle, leading to the formation of the hyper-extended domains. The late-stage deformation of both margins was characterized by a predominantly brittle deformation of the residual continental crust, leading to exhumation of subcontinental mantle and ultimately to seafloor

  5. Experimental Approach Reveals the Role of alx1 in the Evolution of the Echinoderm Larval Skeleton.

    PubMed

    Koga, Hiroyuki; Fujitani, Haruka; Morino, Yoshiaki; Miyamoto, Norio; Tsuchimoto, Jun; Shibata, Tomoko F; Nozawa, Masafumi; Shigenobu, Shuji; Ogura, Atsushi; Tachibana, Kazunori; Kiyomoto, Masato; Amemiya, Shonan; Wada, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Over the course of evolution, the acquisition of novel structures has ultimately led to wide variation in morphology among extant multicellular organisms. Thus, the origins of genetic systems for new morphological structures are a subject of great interest in evolutionary biology. The larval skeleton is a novel structure acquired in some echinoderm lineages via the activation of the adult skeletogenic machinery. Previously, VEGF signaling was suggested to have played an important role in the acquisition of the larval skeleton. In the present study, we compared expression patterns of Alx genes among echinoderm classes to further explore the factors involved in the acquisition of a larval skeleton. We found that the alx1 gene, originally described as crucial for sea urchin skeletogenesis, may have also played an essential role in the evolution of the larval skeleton. Unlike those echinoderms that have a larval skeleton, we found that alx1 of starfish was barely expressed in early larvae that have no skeleton. When alx1 overexpression was induced via injection of alx1 mRNA into starfish eggs, the expression patterns of certain genes, including those possibly involved in skeletogenesis, were altered. This suggested that a portion of the skeletogenic program was induced solely by alx1. However, we observed no obvious external phenotype or skeleton. We concluded that alx1 was necessary but not sufficient for the acquisition of the larval skeleton, which, in fact, requires several genetic events. Based on these results, we discuss how the larval expression of alx1 contributed to the acquisition of the larval skeleton in the putative ancestral lineage of echinoderms. PMID:26866800

  6. Experimental Approach Reveals the Role of alx1 in the Evolution of the Echinoderm Larval Skeleton

    PubMed Central

    Koga, Hiroyuki; Fujitani, Haruka; Morino, Yoshiaki; Miyamoto, Norio; Tsuchimoto, Jun; Shibata, Tomoko F.; Nozawa, Masafumi; Shigenobu, Shuji; Ogura, Atsushi; Tachibana, Kazunori; Kiyomoto, Masato; Amemiya, Shonan; Wada, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Over the course of evolution, the acquisition of novel structures has ultimately led to wide variation in morphology among extant multicellular organisms. Thus, the origins of genetic systems for new morphological structures are a subject of great interest in evolutionary biology. The larval skeleton is a novel structure acquired in some echinoderm lineages via the activation of the adult skeletogenic machinery. Previously, VEGF signaling was suggested to have played an important role in the acquisition of the larval skeleton. In the present study, we compared expression patterns of Alx genes among echinoderm classes to further explore the factors involved in the acquisition of a larval skeleton. We found that the alx1 gene, originally described as crucial for sea urchin skeletogenesis, may have also played an essential role in the evolution of the larval skeleton. Unlike those echinoderms that have a larval skeleton, we found that alx1 of starfish was barely expressed in early larvae that have no skeleton. When alx1 overexpression was induced via injection of alx1 mRNA into starfish eggs, the expression patterns of certain genes, including those possibly involved in skeletogenesis, were altered. This suggested that a portion of the skeletogenic program was induced solely by alx1. However, we observed no obvious external phenotype or skeleton. We concluded that alx1 was necessary but not sufficient for the acquisition of the larval skeleton, which, in fact, requires several genetic events. Based on these results, we discuss how the larval expression of alx1 contributed to the acquisition of the larval skeleton in the putative ancestral lineage of echinoderms. PMID:26866800

  7. Data Provenance Architecture for the Geosciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, F.; Irving, D. H.

    2012-12-01

    The pace at which geoscientific insights inform societal development quickens with time and these insights drive decisions and actions of ever-increasing human and economic significance. Until recently academic, commercial and government bodies have maintained distinct bodies of knowledge to support scientific enquiry as well as societal development. However, it has become clear that the curation of the body of data is an activity of equal or higher social and commercial value. We address the community challenges in the curation of, access to, and analysis of scientific data including: the tensions between creators, providers and users; incentives and barriers to sharing; ownership and crediting. We also discuss the technical and financial challenges in maximising the return on the effort made in generating geoscientific data. To illustrate how these challenges might be addressed in the broader geoscientific domain, we describe the high-level data governance and analytical architecture in the upstream Oil Industry. This domain is heavily dependent on costly and highly diverse geodatasets collected and assimilated over timeframes varying from seconds to decades. These data must support both operational decisions at the minute-hour timefame and strategic and economic decisions of enterprise or national scale, and yet be sufficiently robust to last the life of a producing field. We develop three themes around data provenance, data ownership and business models for data curation. 1/ The overarching aspiration is to ensure that data provenance and quality is maintained along the analytical workflow. Hence if data on which a publication or report changes, the report and its publishers can be notified and we describe a mechanism by which dependent knowledge products can be flagged. 2/ From a cost and management point of view we look at who "owns" data especially in cases where the cost of curation and stewardship is significant compared to the cost of acquiring the data

  8. Geochemical provenance of Florida basement components

    SciTech Connect

    Heatherington, A.L.; Mueller, P.A. . Dept. of Geology); Dallmeyer, R.D. . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-03-01

    The pre-Cretaceous basement of Florida is generally considered to be exotic with respect to Proterozoic Laurentia. Paleontologic and paleomagnetic evidence have suggested a Gondwanan provenance for the Floridan basement, as either a peri-Gondwanide terrane or as a rifted block of the West African craton. The report of generally similar lithologic sequences and a record of similar Ar-Ar cooling ages in some Floridan and West African lithologic units has led to very specific correlations between these units. U-Pb, Sm-Nd, and Rb-Sr geochronologic studies as well as isotopic and elemental abundance data have been used to evaluate the validity of these correlations. Results indicate: (1) geochemical similarities between volcanic rocks of northeastern Florida and a Pan-African metavolcanic sequence (Niokola-Koba group) exposed in Senegal; (2) an absence of a Grenvillian-age (i.e., Laurentian) component in zircons separated from a Paleozoic Suwanee basin sandstone; and (3) whole-rock Sm-Nd and U-Pb zircon evidence for an Archean ([approximately]3.0 Ga) component in the neo-Proterozoic Osceola granitoid(s). Although silicic rocks from throughout Florida have Nd model ages (T[sub DM]) that are predominantly Grenvillian (1.1--1.4 Ga), the absence of a Grenvillian component in zircons separated from granite and sandstone suggests that the model ages represent a mixture of older and younger components. Overall, the evidence for Birimian ([approximately]2.1 Ga) and Liberian ([approximately]3.0 Ga) age components in the Florida basement are consistent with its origin as a rifted block of cratonic Gondwana. In addition to demonstrating a strong affinity between the Florida basement and cratonic West Africa/northern South America, these data provide a basis for comparison with other circum-Atlantic terranes traditionally described as Avalonian/Cadomian, etc.

  9. On the Provenance of Pluto's Nitrogen (N2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singer, Kelsi N.; Stern, S. Alan

    2015-08-01

    N2 is abundant in Pluto’s atmosphere and on its surface, but the supply is depleted by prodigious atmospheric escape. We demonstrate that cometary impacts could not have delivered enough N mass to resupply Pluto’s N2 atmospheric escape over time; thus Pluto’s N2 is likely endogenous, and therefore was either acquired early in its history or created by chemistry inside/{on} Pluto. We find that cratering could excavate a considerable amount of N2 to resupply the atmosphere against escape if the near-surface N2 reservoir is deep. However, we find that this process likely falls short of that necessary to resupply the atmosphere against escape by at least an order of magnitude. We conclude that either the escape of N2 from Pluto’s atmosphere was on average much lower than the predictions for the current epoch, or that internal activity could be necessary to bring N2 to the surface and resupply escape losses. Observations made by the New Horizons spacecraft in mid-2015 will yield further constraints on the provenance and evolution of Pluto’s surface and atmospheric N2, and could reveal evidence for past or present internal activity.

  10. Key Provenance of Earth Science Observational Data Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conover, H.; Plale, B.; Aktas, M.; Ramachandran, R.; Purohit, P.; Jensen, S.; Graves, S. J.

    2011-12-01

    As the sheer volume of data increases, particularly evidenced in the earth and environmental sciences, local arrangements for sharing data need to be replaced with reliable records about the what, who, how, and where of a data set or collection. This is frequently called the provenance of a data set. While observational data processing systems in the earth sciences have a long history of capturing metadata about the processing pipeline, current processes are limited in both what is captured and how it is disseminated to the science community. Provenance capture plays a role in scientific data preservation and stewardship precisely because it can automatically capture and represent a coherent picture of the what, how and who of a particular scientific collection. It reflects the transformations that a data collection underwent prior to its current form and the sequence of tasks that were executed and data products applied to generate a new product. In the NASA-funded Instant Karma project, we examine provenance capture in earth science applications, specifically the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer - Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) Science Investigator-led Processing system (SIPS). The project is integrating the Karma provenance collection and representation tool into the AMSR-E SIPS production environment, with an initial focus on Sea Ice. This presentation will describe capture and representation of provenance that is guided by the Open Provenance Model (OPM). Several things have become clear during the course of the project to date. One is that core OPM entities and relationships are not adequate for expressing the kinds of provenance that is of interest in the science domain. OPM supports name-value pair annotations that can be used to augment what is known about the provenance entities and relationships, but in Karma, annotations cannot be added during capture, but only after the fact. This limits the capture system's ability to record something it

  11. From Microactions to Macrostructure and Back: A Structurational Approach to the Evolution of Organizational Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitbred, Robert; Fonti, Fabio; Steglich, Christian; Contractor, Noshir

    2011-01-01

    Structuration theory (ST) and network analysis are promising approaches for studying the emergence of communication networks. We offer a model that integrates the conceptual richness of structuration with the precision of relevant concepts and mechanisms offered from communication network research. We leverage methodological advancements (i.e.,…

  12. The Evolution of a Contextual Approach to Therapy: From Comprehensive Distancing to ACT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zettle, Robert D.

    2005-01-01

    This paper traces the developmental history of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) from its beginning as comprehensive distancing to its current form and status. It is maintained that technical differences between the two approaches are overshadowed by ones of conceptualization. Comprehensive distancing emerged from efforts to extend Skinner's…

  13. Comparative embryology without a microscope: using genomic approaches to understand the evolution of development

    PubMed Central

    Garfield, David A; Wray, Gregory A

    2009-01-01

    Until recently, understanding developmental conservation and change has relied on embryological comparisons and analyses of single genes. Several studies, including one recently published in BMC Biology, have now taken a genomic approach to this classical problem, providing insights into how selection operates differentially across the life cycle. PMID:19664180

  14. Matrix operator approach to the quantum evolution operator and the geometric phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sang Pyo; Kim, Jewan; Soh, Kwang Sup

    2013-11-01

    The Moody-Shapere-Wilczek's adiabatic effective Hamiltonian and Lagrangian method is developed further into the matrix effective Hamiltonian (MEH) and Lagrangian (MEL) approach to a parameter-dependent quantum system. The matrix-operator approach formulated in the product integral (PI) provides not only a method to find the wave function efficiently in the MEH approach but also higher order corrections to the effective action systematically in the MEL approach, a la the Magnus expansion and the Kubo cumulant expansion. A coupled quantum system of a light particle of a harmonic oscillator is worked out, and as a by-product, a new kind of gauge potential (Berry's connection) is found even for nondegenerate cases (real eigenfunctions). Moreover, in the PI formulation the holonomy of the induced gauge potential is related to Schlesinger's exact formula for the gauge field tensor. A superadiabatic expansion is also constructed, and a generalized Dykhne formula, depending on the contour integrals of the homotopy class of complex degenerate points, is rephrased in the PI formulation.

  15. The Evolution of a Contextual Approach to Therapy: From Comprehensive Distancing to ACT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zettle, Robert D.

    2011-01-01

    This paper traces the developmental history of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) from its beginning as comprehensive distancing to its current form and status. It is maintained that technical differences between the two approaches are overshadowed by ones of conceptualization. Comprehensive distancing emerged from efforts to extend Skinner's…

  16. Tracing the evolution within nearby galaxy groups: a multi-wavelength approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bettoni, Daniela; Marino, Antonina; Rampazzo, Roberto; Plana, Henri; Rosado, Margarita; Galletta, Giuseppe; Mazzei, Paola; Bianchi, Luciana; Buson, Lucio M.; Ambrocio-Cruz, Patricia; Gabbasov, Ruslan

    2015-03-01

    Evolutionary scenarios suggest that several mechanisms (from inner secular evolution to accretion/merging) may transform galaxy members, driving groups from an active star forming phase to a more passive, typical of dense environments. We are investigating this transition in a nearby group sample, designed to cover a wide range of properties (see also Marino et al. (2010), Bettoni et al. (2011) and Marino et al. (2012)). We study two groups, USGC U268 and USGC U376 located in different regions of the Leo cloud, through a photometric and kinematic characterization of their member galaxies. We revisit the group membership, using results from recent red-shift surveys, and we investigate their substructures. U268, composed of 10 catalogued members and 11 new added members, has a small fraction (~24%) of early-type galaxies (ETGs). U376 has 16 plus 8 new added members, with ~38% of ETGs. We find the significant substructuring in both groups suggesting that they are likely accreting galaxies. U268 is located in a more loose environment than U376. For each member galaxy, broad band integrated and surface photometry have been obtained in far-UV (FUV) and near-UV (NUV) with GALEX, and in u, g, r, i, z (SDSS) bands. Hα imaging and 2D high resolution kinematical data have been obtained using PUMA Scanning Fabry-Perot interferometer at the 2.12 m telescope in San Pedro Mártir (Baja California, México). We improved the galaxy classification and we detected morphological and kinematical distortions that may be connected to either on-going and/or past interaction/accretion events or environmental induced secular evolution. U268 appears more active than U376, with a large fraction of galaxies showing interaction signatures (60% vs. 13%). The presence of bars among late-type galaxies is ~10% in U268 and 29% in U376. The cumulative distribution of (FUV - NUV) colors of galaxies in U268 is significantly different (bluer) than that of U376's galaxies. Most (80%) of the early

  17. Biogeomorphic evolution of new Missouri River wetlands: A remote sensing approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niebur, Curt Stanley

    The Great Flood of 1993 damaged the floodplain of the Lower Missouri River when over 500 levees failed. These levee failures created large scours and deposited massive amounts of sediment on the agricultural floodplain. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service acquired areas heavily damaged by the 1993 floods and incorporated them into the Big Muddy Fish and Wildlife Refuge. One purpose of this refuge system is to restore the Missouri River system within the refuge from its highly engineered state to a more natural form. Analysis of a combination of remote sensing data, fieldwork, and finite element flow models was used to investigate the biogeomorphic evolution of one of these new wetlands refuges, the Lisbon Bottoms/Jameson Island Refuge. Four landcover mapping techniques were used to track changes with time: (1) geomorphic mapping, (2) maximum likelihood classification of Landsat TM data, (3) a linear spectral unmixing model using Landsat TM data, and (4) polarimetric and minimum distance classification of AIRSAR radar scattering data. Research showed that a biogeomorphic feedback loop in which the flow field, geomorphology, sediment, and vegetation interactions controlled the rapid evolution of the refuge after 1993. The 1993 flood first entered the area through levee breaks, forming scour zones, sweeping away most non-woody vegetation, and leaving behind a largely uniform, sand-covered floodplain. Field and remote sensing data showed that xeric sparse vegetation species encroached on high, dry sands, whereas mesic species populated lower, wetter scours. Smaller floods after 1993 entered the levee breaks, extended the scours into chutes, and draped silt and clay over the sand, allowing vegetation to spread rapidly. Remnant levees protected most of the area from fast flows, allowing cottonwood and willow saplings to spread across the study area and dominate the landscape, except in floodplain chutes. Expansion of saplings and the absence of flooding in 1999

  18. Organization and evolution of Gorilla centromeric DNA from old strategies to new approaches.

    PubMed

    Catacchio, C R; Ragone, R; Chiatante, G; Ventura, M

    2015-01-01

    The centromere/kinetochore interaction is responsible for the pairing and segregation of replicated chromosomes in eukaryotes. Centromere DNA is portrayed as scarcely conserved, repetitive in nature, quickly evolving and protein-binding competent. Among primates, the major class of centromeric DNA is the pancentromeric α-satellite, made of arrays of 171 bp monomers, repeated in a head-to-tail pattern. α-satellite sequences can either form tandem heterogeneous monomeric arrays or assemble in higher-order repeats (HORs). Gorilla centromere DNA has barely been characterized, and data are mainly based on hybridizations of human alphoid sequences. We isolated and finely characterized gorilla α-satellite sequences and revealed relevant structure and chromosomal distribution similarities with other great apes as well as gorilla-specific features, such as the uniquely octameric structure of the suprachromosomal family-2 (SF2). We demonstrated for the first time the orthologous localization of alphoid suprachromosomal families-1 and -2 (SF1 and SF2) between human and gorilla in contrast to chimpanzee centromeres. Finally, the discovery of a new 189 bp monomer type in gorilla centromeres unravels clues to the role of the centromere protein B, paving the way to solve the significance of the centromere DNA's essential repetitive nature in association with its function and the peculiar evolution of the α-satellite sequence. PMID:26387916

  19. A geochronological approach for cave evolution in the Cantabrian Coast (Pindal Cave, NW Spain)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jimenez-Sanchez, M.; Bischoff, J.L.; Stoll, H.; Aranburu, A.

    2006-01-01

    Some of the oldest speleothems in the North Cantabrian Coast (Spain) are reported for the first time in this work. Pindal Cave is developed at 24 m above sea level, in a karstic massif reaching its highest surface in a marine terrace (rasa) located at 50-64 m above the present sea level. Several phases of evolution were previously recognized into the cave, including block collapse of the roof, episodic flooding and detrital sedimentation, and chemical precipitation of at least four speleothem generations over both alluvial and collapse deposits. Three of these speleothem generations have been dated by U/Th. The first generation yielded ages from 124,2 ?? 1, 5 ka BP to 73,1 ?? 0,9 ka BP, giving a minimum age for the main detritic sediments in the cave. The second one is not dated. The third generation gives an age of 3,71 ?? 0,4 ka BP (mathematically corrected to 2.7 ?? 0.5 ka BP), while for the youngest generation, with actively growing stalagmites in the cave, basal ages of 200 years BP are estimated by counting annual laminae. The data suggest a tentative maximum elevation rate close to 0, 2 mm/yr for the Cantabrian Margin in this area, although further chronological studies will be needed to check this hypothesis. ?? 2006 Gebru??der Borntraeger.

  20. DNA barcoding in plants: evolution and applications of in silico approaches and resources.

    PubMed

    Bhargava, Mili; Sharma, Ashok

    2013-06-01

    Bioinformatics has played an important role in the analysis of DNA barcoding data. The process of DNA barcoding initially involves the available data collection from the existing databases. Many databases have been developed in recent years, e.g. MMDBD [Medicinal Materials DNA Barcode Database], BioBarcode, etc. In case of non-availability of sequences, sequencing has to be done in vitro for which a recently developed software ecoPrimers can be helpful. This is followed by multiple sequence alignment. Further, basic sequence statistics computation and phylogenetic analysis can be performed by MEGA and PHYLIP/PAUP tools respectively. Some of the recent tools for in silico and statistical analysis specifically designed for barcoding viz. CAOS (Character Based DNA Barcoding), BRONX (DNA Barcode Sequence Identification Incorporating Taxonomic Hierarchy and within Taxon Variability), Spider (Analysis of species identity and evolution, particularly DNA barcoding), jMOTU and Taxonerator (Turning DNA Barcode Sequences into Annotated OTUs), OTUbase (Analysis of OTU data and taxonomic data), SAP (Statistical Assignment Package), etc. have been discussed and analysed in this review. The paper presents a comprehensive overview of the various in silico methods, tools, softwares and databases used for DNA barcoding of plants. PMID:23500333

  1. Morphological changes in pedal phalanges through ornithopod dinosaur evolution: a biomechanical approach.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Karen; Carrano, Matthew T; Snyder, Rebecca

    2007-01-01

    The evolution of ornithopod dinosaurs provides a well-documented example of the transition from digitigrady to subunguligrady. During this transition, the ornithopod pes was drastically altered from the plesiomorphic dinosaurian morphology (four digits, claw-shaped unguals, strongly concavo-convex joints, phalanges longer than wide, excavated collateral ligament fossae, presence of sagittal ridge, and prominent processes for the attachment of tendons) to a more derived condition (tridactyly, modification of the unguals into hooves, phalanges wider and thinner than long, lack of collateral ligament fossae, loss of sagittal ridge and tendon attachment processes, relatively flattened articular surfaces). These changes are particularly noteworthy given the overall conservatism in pedal morphology seen across Dinosauria. But what are the functional consequences of these specific morphological transitions? To study them, we examine a wide range of pedal morphologies in four non-avian dinosaurs and two birds. Our analyses of the external morphology, two-dimensional models (using Finite Element Analysis), and internal bone structure demonstrate that this evolutionary shift was accompanied by a loss of digit mobility and flexibility. In addition, pedal posture was modified to better align the pes with the main direction of the ground reaction force, thus becoming well suited to support high loads. These conclusions can be applied to other, parallel evolutionary changes (in both dinosaurs and mammals) that involved similar transitions to a subunguligrade posture. PMID:17146773

  2. Evolution of a unified, stereodivergent approach to the synthesis of communesin F and perophoramidine.

    PubMed

    Han, Seo-Jung; Vogt, Florian; May, Jeremy A; Krishnan, Shyam; Gatti, Michele; Virgil, Scott C; Stoltz, Brian M

    2015-01-01

    Expedient synthetic approaches to the highly functionalized polycyclic alkaloids communesin F and perophoramidine are described using a unified approach featuring a key decarboxylative allylic alkylation to access a crucial and highly congested 3,3-disubstituted oxindole. Described are two distinct, stereoselective alkylations that produce structures in divergent diastereomeric series possessing the critical vicinal all-carbon quaternary centers needed for each synthesis. Synthetic studies toward these challenging core structures have revealed a number of unanticipated modes of reactivity inherent to these complex alkaloid scaffolds. Additionally, several novel and interesting intermediates en route to the target natural products, such as an intriguing propellane hexacyclic oxindole encountered in the communesin F sequence, are disclosed. Indeed, such unanticipated structures may prove to be convenient strategic intermediates in future syntheses. PMID:25402459

  3. Evolution of a Unified, Stereodivergent Approach to the Synthesis of Communesin F and Perophoramidine

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Expedient synthetic approaches to the highly functionalized polycyclic alkaloids communesin F and perophoramidine are described using a unified approach featuring a key decarboxylative allylic alkylation to access a crucial and highly congested 3,3-disubstituted oxindole. Described are two distinct, stereoselective alkylations that produce structures in divergent diastereomeric series possessing the critical vicinal all-carbon quaternary centers needed for each synthesis. Synthetic studies toward these challenging core structures have revealed a number of unanticipated modes of reactivity inherent to these complex alkaloid scaffolds. Additionally, several novel and interesting intermediates en route to the target natural products, such as an intriguing propellane hexacyclic oxindole encountered in the communesin F sequence, are disclosed. Indeed, such unanticipated structures may prove to be convenient strategic intermediates in future syntheses. PMID:25402459

  4. Evolutions in fragment-based drug design: the deconstruction-reconstruction approach.

    PubMed

    Chen, Haijun; Zhou, Xiaobin; Wang, Ailan; Zheng, Yunquan; Gao, Yu; Zhou, Jia

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in the understanding of molecular recognition and protein-ligand interactions have facilitated rapid development of potent and selective ligands for therapeutically relevant targets. Over the past two decades, a variety of useful approaches and emerging techniques have been developed to promote the identification and optimization of leads that have high potential for generating new therapeutic agents. Intriguingly, the innovation of a fragment-based drug design (FBDD) approach has enabled rapid and efficient progress in drug discovery. In this critical review, we focus on the construction of fragment libraries and the advantages and disadvantages of various fragment-based screening (FBS) for constructing such libraries. We also highlight the deconstruction-reconstruction strategy by utilizing privileged fragments of reported ligands. PMID:25263697

  5. Evolutions in fragment-based drug design: the deconstruction–reconstruction approach

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Haijun; Zhou, Xiaobin; Wang, Ailan; Zheng, Yunquan; Gao, Yu; Zhou, Jia

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in the understanding of molecular recognition and protein–ligand interactions have facilitated rapid development of potent and selective ligands for therapeutically relevant targets. Over the past two decades, a variety of useful approaches and emerging techniques have been developed to promote the identification and optimization of leads that have high potential for generating new therapeutic agents. Intriguingly, the innovation of a fragment-based drug design (FBDD) approach has enabled rapid and efficient progress in drug discovery. In this critical review, we focus on the construction of fragment libraries and the advantages and disadvantages of various fragment-based screening (FBS) for constructing such libraries. We also highlight the deconstruction–reconstruction strategy by utilizing privileged fragments of reported ligands. PMID:25263697

  6. Metal Accretion onto White Dwarfs. III. A Still Better Approach Based on the Coupling of Diffusion with Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brassard, Pierre; Fontaine, Gilles

    2015-06-01

    The accretion-diffusion picture is the model par excellence for describing the presence of planetary debris polluting the atmospheres of relatively cool white dwarfs. In the time-dependent approach used in Paper II of this series (Fontaine et al. 2014), the basic assumption is that the accreted metals are trace elements and do not influence the background structure, which may be considered static in time. Furthermore, the usual assumption of instantaneous mixing in the convection zone is made. As part of the continuing development of our local evolutionary code, diffusion in presence of stellar winds or accretion is now fully coupled to evolution. Convection is treated as a diffusion process, i.e., the assumption of instantaneous mixing is relaxed, and, furthermore, overshooting is included. This allows feedback on the evolving structure from the accreting metals. For instance, depending of its abundance, a given metal may contribute enough to the overall opacity (especially in a He background) to change the size of the convection zone as a function of time. Our better approach also allows to include in a natural way the mechanism of thermohaline convection, which we discuss at some length. Also, it is easy to consider sophisticated time-dependent models of accretion from circumstellar disks, such as those developed by Roman Rafikov at Princeton for instance. The current limitations of our approach are 1) the calculations are extremely computer-intensive, and 2) we have not yet developed detailed EOS megatables for metals beyond oxygen.

  7. Compositing Methods for Proba-V and Sentinel-3: Critical Assessment of Current Approaches and Potential Evolutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niro, Fabrizio; Goryl, Philippe

    2015-12-01

    A comparison of different compositing methods for Proba-V surface reflectance products is presented in this paper. The goal is to test the performances of the current approach and to investigate on potential evolutions, in particular in the frame of Sentinel-3 SYN-VGT products baseline definition. Methods based on the Max NDVI [1], which represent the current baseline, are compared to statistical methods, which make best use of the information coming from all clouds free pixels acquired during the compositing period, as the Mean Compositing method [2]. Performances indicators for the different approaches are analysed, in particular the image texture and quality, the spatial noise, the observation geometry distribution as well as the presence of artefacts in the image. As already observed in the literature and confirmed within this analysis, the Max NDVI approaches have clear limitations due to the presence of directional effects in the images, while statistically based methods seem to be the best alternative for implementation in Sentinel-3 SYN-VGT processing.

  8. The provenance of Taklamakan desert sand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rittner, Martin; Vermeesch, Pieter; Carter, Andrew; Bird, Anna; Stevens, Thomas; Garzanti, Eduardo; Andò, Sergio; Vezzoli, Giovanni; Dutt, Ripul; Xu, Zhiwei; Lu, Huayu

    2016-03-01

    Sand migration in the vast Taklamakan desert within the Tarim Basin (Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous region, PR China) is governed by two competing transport agents: wind and water, which work in diametrically opposed directions. Net aeolian transport is from northeast to south, while fluvial transport occurs from the south to the north and then west to east at the northern rim, due to a gradual northward slope of the underlying topography. We here present the first comprehensive provenance study of Taklamakan desert sand with the aim to characterise the interplay of these two transport mechanisms and their roles in the formation of the sand sea, and to consider the potential of the Tarim Basin as a contributing source to the Chinese Loess Plateau (CLP). Our dataset comprises 39 aeolian and fluvial samples, which were characterised by detrital-zircon U-Pb geochronology, heavy-mineral, and bulk-petrography analyses. Although the inter-sample differences of all three datasets are subtle, a multivariate statistical analysis using multidimensional scaling (MDS) clearly shows that Tarim desert sand is most similar in composition to rivers draining the Kunlun Shan (south) and the Pamirs (west), and is distinctly different from sediment sources in the Tian Shan (north). A small set of samples from the Junggar Basin (north of the Tian Shan) yields different detrital compositions and age spectra than anywhere in the Tarim Basin, indicating that aeolian sediment exchange between the two basins is minimal. Although river transport dominates delivery of sand into the Tarim Basin, wind remobilises and reworks the sediment in the central sand sea. Characteristic signatures of main rivers can be traced from entrance into the basin to the terminus of the Tarim River, and those crossing the desert from the south to north can seasonally bypass sediment through the sand sea. Smaller ephemeral rivers from the Kunlun Shan end in the desert and discharge their sediment there. Both river run

  9. Provenance In Sensor Data Management: A Cohesive, Independent Solution

    SciTech Connect

    Hensley, Zachary P; Sanyal, Jibonananda; New, Joshua Ryan

    2014-01-01

    In today's information-driven workplaces, data is constantly undergoing transformations and being moved around. The typical business-as-usual approach is to use email attachments, shared network locations, databases, and now, the cloud. More often than not, there are multiple versions of the data sitting in different locations and users of this data are confounded by the lack of metadata describing its provenance, or in other words, its lineage. Our project is aimed to solve this issue in the context of sensor data. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Building Technologies Research and Integration Center has reconfigurable commercial buildings deployed on the Flexible Research Platforms (FRPs). These FRPs are instrumented with a large number of sensors which measure a number of variables such as HVAC efficiency, relative humidity, and temperature gradients across doors, windows, and walls. Sub-minute resolution data from hundreds of channels is acquired. This sensor data, traditionally, was saved to a shared network location which was accessible to a number of scientists for performing complicated simulation and analysis tasks. The sensor data also participates in elaborate quality assurance exercises as a result of inherent faults. Sometimes, faults are induced to observe building behavior. It became apparent that proper scientific controls required not just managing the data acquisition and delivery, but to also manage the metadata associated with temporal subsets of the sensor data. We built a system named ProvDMS, or Provenance Data Management System for the FRPs, which would both allow researchers to retrieve data of interest as well as trace data lineage. This provides researchers a one-stop shop for comprehensive views of various data transformation allowing researchers to effectively trace their data to its source so that experiments, and derivations of experiments, may be reused and reproduced without much overhead of the repeatability of experiments that

  10. Multitechnique characterization of lapis lazuli for provenance study.

    PubMed

    Lo Giudice, Alessandro; Re, Alessandro; Calusi, Silvia; Giuntini, Lorenzo; Massi, Mirko; Olivero, Paolo; Pratesi, Giovanni; Albonico, Maria; Conz, Elisa

    2009-12-01

    Lapis lazuli is one of the oldest precious stone, being used for glyptic as early as 7,000 years ago: jewels, amulets, seals, and inlays are examples of objects produced using this material. Only a few sources of lapis lazuli exist in the world due to the low probability of geological conditions in which it can form, so that the possibility to associate the raw material to man-made objects helps to reconstruct trade routes. Since art objects produced using lapis lazuli are valuable, only nondestructive investigations can be carried out to identify the provenance of the raw materials. Ionoluminescence (IL) is a good candidate for this task. Similar to cathodoluminescence (CL), IL consists in the collection of luminescence spectra induced by megaelectronvolt ion (usually protons) irradiation. The main advantage of IL consists in the possibility of working in air while measuring simultaneously the composition of major and trace elements by means of complementary ion beam analysis techniques like particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) or particle-induced gamma-ray emission (PIGE). In the present work, a systematic study of the luminescence properties of lapis lazuli under charged particle irradiation is reported. In the first phase, a multitechnique approach was adopted (CL, scanning electron microscopy with microanalysis, micro-Raman) to characterize luminescent minerals. This characterization was propaedeutic for IL/PIXE/PIGE measurements carried out on significant areas selected on the basis of results obtained previously. Criteria to identify provenance of lapis lazuli from four of the main sources (Afghanistan, Pamir Mountains in Tajikistan, Chile, and Siberia) were proposed. PMID:19705108

  11. A comparative approach to testing hypotheses for the evolution of sex-biased dispersal in bean beetles.

    PubMed

    Downey, Michelle H; Searle, Rebecca; Bellur, Sunil; Geiger, Adam; Maitner, Brian S; Ohm, Johanna R; Tuda, Midori; Miller, Tom E X

    2015-11-01

    Understanding the selective forces that shape dispersal strategies is a fundamental goal of evolutionary ecology and is increasingly important in changing, human-altered environments. Sex-biased dispersal (SBD) is common in dioecious taxa, and understanding variation in the direction and magnitude of SBD across taxa has been a persistent challenge. We took a comparative, laboratory-based approach using 16 groups (species or strains) of bean beetles (genera Acanthoscelides, Callosobruchus, and Zabrotes, including 10 strains of one species) to test two predictions that emerge from dominant hypotheses for the evolution of SBD: (1) groups that suffer greater costs of inbreeding should exhibit greater SBD in favor of either sex (inbreeding avoidance hypothesis) and (2) groups with stronger local mate competition should exhibit greater male bias in dispersal (kin competition avoidance hypothesis). We used laboratory experiments to quantify SBD in crawling dispersal, the fitness effects of inbreeding, and the degree of polygyny (number of female mates per male), a proxy for local mate competition. While we found that both polygyny and male-biased dispersal were common across bean beetle groups, consistent with the kin competition avoidance hypothesis, quantitative relationships between trait values did not support the predictions. Across groups, there was no significant association between SBD and effects of inbreeding nor SBD and degree of polygyny, using either raw values or phylogenetically independent contrasts. We discuss possible limitations of our experimental approach for detecting the predicted relationships, as well as reasons why single-factor hypotheses may be too simplistic to explain the evolution of SBD. PMID:26640662

  12. An evolution-based approach to De Novo protein design and case study on Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Pralay; Shultis, David; Brender, Jeffrey R; Czajka, Jeff; Marsh, David; Gray, Felicia; Cierpicki, Tomasz; Zhang, Yang

    2013-10-01

    Computational protein design is a reverse procedure of protein folding and structure prediction, where constructing structures from evolutionarily related proteins has been demonstrated to be the most reliable method for protein 3-dimensional structure prediction. Following this spirit, we developed a novel method to design new protein sequences based on evolutionarily related protein families. For a given target structure, a set of proteins having similar fold are identified from the PDB library by structural alignments. A structural profile is then constructed from the protein templates and used to guide the conformational search of amino acid sequence space, where physicochemical packing is accommodated by single-sequence based solvation, torsion angle, and secondary structure predictions. The method was tested on a computational folding experiment based on a large set of 87 protein structures covering different fold classes, which showed that the evolution-based design significantly enhances the foldability and biological functionality of the designed sequences compared to the traditional physics-based force field methods. Without using homologous proteins, the designed sequences can be folded with an average root-mean-square-deviation of 2.1 Å to the target. As a case study, the method is extended to redesign all 243 structurally resolved proteins in the pathogenic bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which is the second leading cause of death from infectious disease. On a smaller scale, five sequences were randomly selected from the design pool and subjected to experimental validation. The results showed that all the designed proteins are soluble with distinct secondary structure and three have well ordered tertiary structure, as demonstrated by circular dichroism and NMR spectroscopy. Together, these results demonstrate a new avenue in computational protein design that uses knowledge of evolutionary conservation from protein structural families to engineer

  13. Evolution of the human hand: approaches to acquiring, analysing and interpreting the anatomical evidence

    PubMed Central

    MARZKE, MARY W.; MARZKE, R. F.

    2000-01-01

    The discovery of fossil hand bones from an early human ancestor at Olduvai Gorge in 1960, at the same level as primitive stone tools, generated a debate about the role of tools in the evolution of the human hand that has raged to the present day. Could the Olduvai hand have made the tools? Did the human hand evolve as an adaptation to tool making and tool use? The debate has been fueled by anatomical studies comparing living and fossil human and nonhuman primate hands, and by experimental observations. These have assessed the relative abilities of apes and humans to manufacture the Oldowan tools, but consensus has been hampered by disagreements about how to translate experimental data from living species into quantitative models for predicting the performance of fossil hands. Such models are now beginning to take shape as new techniques are applied to the capture, management and analysis of data on kinetic and kinematic variables ranging from hand joint structure, muscle mechanics, and the distribution and density of bone to joint movements and muscle recruitment during manipulative behaviour. The systematic comparative studies are highlighting a functional complex of features in the human hand facilitating a distinctive repertoire of grips that are apparently more effective for stone tool making than grips characterising various nonhuman primate species. The new techniques are identifying skeletal variables whose form may provide clues to the potential of fossil hominid hands for one-handed firm precision grips and fine precision manoeuvering movements, both of which are essential for habitual and effective tool making and tool use. PMID:10999274

  14. An Evolution-Based Approach to De Novo Protein Design and Case Study on Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Brender, Jeffrey R.; Czajka, Jeff; Marsh, David; Gray, Felicia; Cierpicki, Tomasz; Zhang, Yang

    2013-01-01

    Computational protein design is a reverse procedure of protein folding and structure prediction, where constructing structures from evolutionarily related proteins has been demonstrated to be the most reliable method for protein 3-dimensional structure prediction. Following this spirit, we developed a novel method to design new protein sequences based on evolutionarily related protein families. For a given target structure, a set of proteins having similar fold are identified from the PDB library by structural alignments. A structural profile is then constructed from the protein templates and used to guide the conformational search of amino acid sequence space, where physicochemical packing is accommodated by single-sequence based solvation, torsion angle, and secondary structure predictions. The method was tested on a computational folding experiment based on a large set of 87 protein structures covering different fold classes, which showed that the evolution-based design significantly enhances the foldability and biological functionality of the designed sequences compared to the traditional physics-based force field methods. Without using homologous proteins, the designed sequences can be folded with an average root-mean-square-deviation of 2.1 Å to the target. As a case study, the method is extended to redesign all 243 structurally resolved proteins in the pathogenic bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which is the second leading cause of death from infectious disease. On a smaller scale, five sequences were randomly selected from the design pool and subjected to experimental validation. The results showed that all the designed proteins are soluble with distinct secondary structure and three have well ordered tertiary structure, as demonstrated by circular dichroism and NMR spectroscopy. Together, these results demonstrate a new avenue in computational protein design that uses knowledge of evolutionary conservation from protein structural families to engineer

  15. Detrital shocked minerals: microstructural provenance indicators of impact craters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavosie, A. J.

    2014-12-01

    The study of detrital shocked minerals (DSMs) merges planetary science, sedimentology, mineralogy/crystallography, accessory mineral geochemistry, and geochronology, with the goal of identifying and determining provenance of shock metamorphosed sand grains. Diagnostic high-pressure impact-generated microstructures (planar fractures, planar deformation features) are readily identified on external grain surfaces using standard SEM imaging methods (BSE), and when found, unambiguously confirm an impact origin for a given sand grain. DSMs, including quartz, zircon, monazite, and apatite, have thus far been documented at the Vredefort Dome [1,2,3], Sudbury [4], Rock Elm [5], and Santa Fe [6,7] impact structures. DSMs have been identified in alluvium, colluvium, beach sand, and glacial deposits. Two main processes are recognized that imply the global siliciclastic record contains DSMs: they survive extreme distal transport, and they survive 'deep time' lithification. Distal transport: In South Africa, shocked minerals are preserved in alluvium from the Vaal River >750 km downstream from the Vredefort impact; SHRIMP U-Pb geochronology has confirmed the origin of detrital shocked zircon and monazite from shocked Vredefort bedrock [2]. Vredefort-derived shocked zircons have also been found at the mouth of the Orange River on the Atlantic coast, having travelled ~2000 km downriver from Vredefort [8]. Deep time preservation: Vredefort-derived shocked zircon and quartz has been documented in glacial diamictite from the 300 Myr-old Dwyka Group in South Africa. Shocked minerals were thus entrained and transported in Paleozoic ice sheets that passed over Vredefort [9]. An impact crater can thus be viewed as a unique 'point source', in some cases for billions of years [2,4]; DSMs thus have applications in studying eroded impact craters, sedimentary provenance, landscape evolution, and long-term sediment transport processes throughout the geologic record. This work was supported by

  16. Pathways to Provenance: "DACS" and Creator Descriptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weimer, Larry

    2007-01-01

    "Describing Archives: A Content Standard" breaks important ground for American archivists in its distinction between creator descriptions and archival material descriptions. Implementations of creator descriptions, many using Encoded Archival Context (EAC), are found internationally. "DACS"'s optional approach of describing creators in authority…

  17. A genetic algorithm approach to probing the evolution of self-organized nanostructured systems.

    PubMed

    Siepmann, Peter; Martin, Christopher P; Vancea, Ioan; Moriarty, Philip J; Krasnogor, Natalio

    2007-07-01

    We present a new methodology, based on a combination of genetic algorithms and image morphometry, for matching the outcome of a Monte Carlo simulation to experimental observations of a far-from-equilibrium nanosystem. The Monte Carlo model used simulates a colloidal solution of nanoparticles drying on a solid substrate and has previously been shown to produce patterns very similar to those observed experimentally. Our approach enables the broad parameter space associated with simulated nanoparticle self-organization to be searched effectively for a given experimental target morphology. PMID:17552572

  18. a Statistical Dynamic Approach to Structural Evolution of Complex Capital Market Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Xiao; Chai, Li H.

    As an important part of modern financial systems, capital market has played a crucial role on diverse social resource allocations and economical exchanges. Beyond traditional models and/or theories based on neoclassical economics, considering capital markets as typical complex open systems, this paper attempts to develop a new approach to overcome some shortcomings of the available researches. By defining the generalized entropy of capital market systems, a theoretical model and nonlinear dynamic equation on the operations of capital market are proposed from statistical dynamic perspectives. The US security market from 1995 to 2001 is then simulated and analyzed as a typical case. Some instructive results are discussed and summarized.

  19. Application of Named Graphs Towards Custom Provenance Views

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, Tara D.; Schuchardt, Karen L.; Stephan, Eric G.

    2009-02-10

    Provenance capture as applied to execution oriented and interactive workflows is designed to record minute detail needed to support a "modify and restart" paradigm as well as re-execution of past workflows. In our experience, provenance also plays an important role in human-centered verification, results tracking, and knowledge sharing. To enable this we must overcome the low level of detail received from most provenance capture mechanisms and pre-sent it in a user oriented view. In this paper, we present a design which leverages named graphs to create and man-age views as a server-side function, simplifying user presentation of provenance data.

  20. Semantic Workflows and Provenance-Aware Software (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Workflows are increasingly used in science to manage complex computations and data processing at large scale. Intelligent workflow systems provide assistance in setting up parameters and data, validating workflows created by users, and automating the generation of workflows from high-level user guidance. These systems use semantic workflows that extend workflow representations with semantic constraints that express characteristics of the data and analytic models. Reasoning algorithms propagate these semantic constraints throughout the workflow structure, select executable components for underspecified steps, and suggest parameter values. Semantic workflows also enhance provenance records with abstract steps that reflect the overall data analysis method rather than just execution traces. Intelligent workflow systems are provenance-aware, since they both use and generate provenance and metadata as the data is being processed. Provenance-aware software enhances scientific analysis by propagating upstream metadata and provenance to new data products. Through the use of provenance standards, such as the recent W3C PROV recommendation for provenance on the Web, provenance-aware software can significantly enhance scientific data analysis, publication, and reuse. New capabilities are enabled when provenance is brought to the forefront in the design of software systems for science.

  1. Towards a common provenance model for research publications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, L.; Ma, X.; West, P.; Beaulieu, S. E.; Di Stefano, M.; Fox, P. A.

    2014-12-01

    Provenance is information about entities, activities, and people involved in producing a piece of data or thing, which can be used to form assessments about its quality, reliability or trustworthiness. In a research publication, provenance includes entities, activities and people involved in the process leading to the parts of the publication such as figures, tables, paragraphs etc. Such information is often desirable for the readers to correctly interpret publication content and enables them to evaluate the credibility of the reported results by digging into the software in use, source data and responsible agents or even reproducing the results themselves. In this presentation, we will describe our ontology designed to model the preparing process of research publications based on our experience from two projects, both focusing on provenance capturing for research publications. The first project is about capturing provenance information for a National Climate Assessment (NCA) report of the US Global Change Research Program (USGCRP), and the second about capturing provenance information for an Ecosystem Status Report (ESR) of the Northeast Fisheries Science Center (NEFSC). Both projects base their provenance modeling on the W3C Provenance ontology (PROV-O), which proves to be an effective way to create models for provenance capturing. We will illustrate the commonalities and differences between use cases of these two projects and how we derive a common model from models specifically designed to capture provenance information for each of the projects.

  2. The Evolution of a More Rigorous Approach to Benefit Transfer: Benefit Function Transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loomis, John B.

    1992-03-01

    The desire for economic values of recreation for unstudied recreation resources dates back to the water resource development benefit-cost analyses of the early 1960s. Rather than simply applying existing estimates of benefits per trip to the study site, a fairly rigorous approach was developed by a number of economists. This approach involves application of travel cost demand equations and contingent valuation benefit functions from existing sites to the new site. In this way the spatial market of the new site (i.e., its differing own price, substitute prices and population distribution) is accounted for in the new estimate of total recreation benefits. The assumptions of benefit transfer from recreation sites in one state to another state for the same recreation activity is empirically tested. The equality of demand coefficients for ocean sport salmon fishing in Oregon versus Washington and for freshwater steelhead fishing in Oregon versus Idaho is rejected. Thus transfer of either demand equations or average benefits per trip are likely to be in error. Using the Oregon steelhead equation, benefit transfers to rivers within the state are shown to be accurate to within 5-15%.

  3. Structure, function, and evolution of adenovirus-associated RNA: a phylogenetic approach.

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Y; Mathews, M B

    1996-01-01

    To explore the structure and function of a small regulatory RNA, we examined the virus-associated (VA) RNA species of all 47 known human adenovirus serotypes and of one simian virus, SA7. The VA RNA gene regions of 43 human adenoviruses were amplified and sequenced, and the structures of 10 representative VA RNAs were probed by nuclease sensitivity analysis. Most human viruses have two VA RNA species, VA RNA, and VA RNAII, but nine viruses (19%) have a single VA RNA gene. Sequence alignments classified the RNAs into eight families, corresponding broadly to the known virus groups, and three superfamilies. One superfamily contains the single VA RNAs of groups A and F and the VA RNAI species of group C; the second contains the VA RNAI species of groups B1, D, and E and the unclassified viruses (adenovirus types 42 to 47), as well as the single VA RNAs of group B2; and the third contains all VA RNAII species. Fourteen regions of homology occur throughout the molecule. The longest of these correspond to transcription signals; most of the others participate in RNA secondary structure. The previously identified tetranucleotide pair, GGGU:ACCC, is nearly invariant, diverging slightly (to GGGU:ACCU) only in the two group F viruses and forming a stem in the central domain that is critical for VA RNA structure and function. Secondary structure models which accommodate the nuclease sensitivity data and sequence variations within each family were generated. The major structural features-the terminal stem, apical stem-loop, and central domain-are conserved in all VA RNAs, but differences exist in the apical stem and central domains, especially of the VA RNAII species. Sequence analysis suggests that an ancestral VA RNA gene underwent duplication during the evolution of viruses containing two VA RNA genes. Although the VA RNAII gene seems to have been lost or inactivated by secondary deletion events in some viruses, the high degree of homology among the VA RNAII species implies

  4. Evolution of isolated caves in porous limestone by mixing corrosion: A model approach.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dreybrodt, W.; Romanov, D.; Kaufmann, G.

    2009-04-01

    When water from the surface, e.g. from a lake flows through porous carbonate rocks down along some region with high hydraulic conductivity and encounters the water table of a phreatic aquifer both waters mix by diffusion along their boundary. In a carbonate aquifer, where both surface and phreatic waters are saturated with respect to calcite, mixing corrosion causes renewed dissolution capacity ceq of the carbonate rock in the diffusional mixing zone extending from the boundary separating the phreatic water from the surface water encountering it. A numerical model is presented from which the initial change of porosity in such a diffusional mixing zone is obtained. The initial change of porosity can be calculated from the local distribution m(x,y)of the mixing ratio m and the second derivative of ceq with respect to m. m = V sur•(Vsur + Vphr), and the V's assign the corresponding volumes of surface and phreatic water. The second derivative has been calculated for three geochemical scenarios with differing CO2-concentrations of surface and phreatic water by use of PHREEQC-2. The spatial distribution m(x,y) is obtained by using MODFLOW and MT3DMS in a modeling domain with constant hydraulic conductivity for various flow velocities of the phreatic aquifer. From the results the time scale of cave evolution is estimated. Passages of dimensions of about one meter in width and several 10 cm in height, extending in length along the border line, where surface and phreatic water meet, can be created in time scales of 10 000 years. These caves are horizontal with blind ending passages and resemble closely to the isolated caves observed in Central West Florida. For more realistic modeling we have used a geostatistical local distribution of hydraulic conductivities in the modeling domain. For a correlation length of 1% of the length of modeling domain the spatial distribution extends deeper into the flow direction. When the correlation length is increased by a factor of 10 flow

  5. Geodynamic evolution of eastern Dronning Maud Land: research highlights from an international geological-geophysical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Joachim; Ehlburg, Marlina; Laeufer, Andreas; Clark, Chris; Kleinhanns, Ilka; Andersen, Tom; Mieth, Matthias; Ruppel, Antonia; Damaske, Detlef; Lucka, Nicole; Estrada, Solveig; Jokat, Wilfried

    2014-05-01

    East Antarctica formed by amalgamation of a number of cratons along distinct Ediacaran mobile belts, including the ca. 600-500 Ma East African-Antarctic Orogen (EAAO) and the Kuunga Orogen that apparently converge in Dronning Maud Land (DML). In central DML, the major Forster Magnetic Anomaly separates rocks with Grenville-age protolith ages of ca. 1130-1000 Ma to the W, from rocks with Early Neoproterozic protolith ages, c. 1000-930 Ma, to the East. The Forster Magnetic Anomaly is therefore interpreted as a suture. New field-work during two recent international expeditions, Geodynamic Evolution of East Antarctica (GEA) I + II, and first geoscientic results reveal a complex tectonic architecture between Sør Rondane and central DML. East of the Forster anomaly, the magnetic anomaly pattern changes significantly and typical Maud type crust is not present any longer. GEA II targeted a range of nunataks between Sør Rondane and central DML that had never been visited previously (from Blåklettane and Bergekongen in the E to Urna and Sørsteinen in the W). These nunataks are dominated by medium- to high-grade metasedimentary and metavolcanic rocks of possibly Neoproterozoic age, including abundant marble and graphite schists. Sør Rondane in eastern DML, is dominated by two distinct blocks separated by the dextral Main Shear Zone. The northwestern block appears as part of the EAAO or the Kuunga Orogen, where new SHRIMP zircon data from metamorphic rims provide ages of ca. 560 Ma. The southeastern block is made up of a TTG terrane, which provides 12 new zircon crystallistation ages ranging from 1000-930 Ma. The TTG terrane has predominantly oceanic affinities and the wide range of ages might indicate long-lasting accretionary tectonics. The TTG terrane shows in part limited tectonic overprint and could be the southeastern foreland of the EAAO or the Kuunga Orogen. Close to the contact of the two blocks, grey geisses and augen-gneisses gave zircon crystallization ages of

  6. Nuclear Thermal Rocket (Ntr) Propulsion: A Proven Game-Changing Technology for Future Human Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borowski, Stanley K.; McCurdy, David R.; Packard, Thomas W.

    2012-01-01

    The NTR represents the next evolutionary step in high performance rocket propulsion. It generates high thrust and has a specific impulse (Isp) of approx.900 seconds (s) or more V twice that of today s best chemical rockets. The technology is also proven. During the previous Rover and NERVA (Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Applications) nuclear rocket programs, 20 rocket reactors were designed, built and ground tested. These tests demonstrated: (1) a wide range of thrust; (2) high temperature carbide-based nuclear fuel; (3) sustained engine operation; (4) accumulated lifetime; and (5) restart capability V all the requirements needed for a human mission to Mars. Ceramic metal cermet fuel was also pursued, as a backup option. The NTR also has significant growth and evolution potential. Configured as a bimodal system, it can generate electrical power for the spacecraft. Adding an oxygen afterburner nozzle introduces a variable thrust and Isp capability and allows bipropellant operation. In NASA s recent Mars Design Reference Architecture (DRA) 5.0 study, the NTR was selected as the preferred propulsion option because of its proven technology, higher performance, lower launch mass, simple assembly and mission operations. In contrast to other advanced propulsion options, NTP requires no large technology scale-ups. In fact, the smallest engine tested during the Rover program V the 25,000 lbf (25 klbf) Pewee engine is sufficient for human Mars missions when used in a clustered engine arrangement. The Copernicus crewed spacecraft design developed in DRA 5.0 has significant capability and a human exploration strategy is outlined here that uses Copernicus and its key components for precursor near Earth asteroid (NEA) and Mars orbital missions prior to a Mars landing mission. Initially, the basic Copernicus vehicle can enable reusable 1-year round trip human missions to candidate NEAs like 1991 JW and Apophis in the late 2020 s to check out vehicle systems. Afterwards, the

  7. Symmetry Based Automatic Evolution of Clusters: A New Approach to Data Clustering

    PubMed Central

    Vijendra, Singh; Laxman, Sahoo

    2015-01-01

    We present a multiobjective genetic clustering approach, in which data points are assigned to clusters based on new line symmetry distance. The proposed algorithm is called multiobjective line symmetry based genetic clustering (MOLGC). Two objective functions, first the Davies-Bouldin (DB) index and second the line symmetry distance based objective functions, are used. The proposed algorithm evolves near-optimal clustering solutions using multiple clustering criteria, without a priori knowledge of the actual number of clusters. The multiple randomized K dimensional (Kd) trees based nearest neighbor search is used to reduce the complexity of finding the closest symmetric points. Experimental results based on several artificial and real data sets show that proposed clustering algorithm can obtain optimal clustering solutions in terms of different cluster quality measures in comparison to existing SBKM and MOCK clustering algorithms. PMID:26339233

  8. Understanding the formation and evolution of interstellar ices: a Bayesian approach

    SciTech Connect

    Makrymallis, Antonios; Viti, Serena

    2014-10-10

    Understanding the physical conditions of dark molecular clouds and star-forming regions is an inverse problem subject to complicated chemistry that varies nonlinearly with both time and the physical environment. In this paper, we apply a Bayesian approach based on a Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method for solving the nonlinear inverse problems encountered in astrochemical modeling. We use observations for ice and gas species in dark molecular clouds and a time-dependent, gas-grain chemical model to infer the values of the physical and chemical parameters that characterize quiescent regions of molecular clouds. We show evidence that in high-dimensional problems, MCMC algorithms provide a more efficient and complete solution than more classical strategies. The results of our MCMC method enable us to derive statistical estimates and uncertainties for the physical parameters of interest as a result of the Bayesian treatment.

  9. The natural evolution of endoscopic approaches in skull base surgery: robotic-assisted surgery?

    PubMed

    Dallan, I; Castelnuovo, P; Vicini, C; Tschabitscher, M

    2011-12-01

    The current surgical trend is to expand the variety of minimally invasive approaches and, in particular, the possible applications of robotic systems in head and neck surgery. This is particularly intriguing in skull base regions. In this paper, we review the current literature and propose personal considerations on the role of robotic techniques in this field. A brief description of our personal preclinical experience on skull base robotic dissection represents the basis for further considerations. We are convinced that the advantages of robotic surgery applied to the posterior cranial fossa are similar to those already clinically experienced in other areas (oropharynx, tongue base), in terms of tremor-free, bimanual, precise dissection: the implementation of instruments for bony work and resolving current drawbacks will definitely increase the applicability of such a system in forthcoming years. PMID:22323850

  10. Laparoscopic vs. open approach for colorectal cancer: evolution over time of minimal invasive surgery

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In the late '80s the successes of the laparoscopic surgery for gallbladder disease laid the foundations on the modern use of this surgical technique in a variety of diseases. In the last 20 years, laparoscopic colorectal surgery had become a popular treatment option for colorectal cancer patients. Discussion Many studies emphasized on the benefits stating the significant advantages of the laparoscopic approach compared with the open surgery of reduced blood loss, early return of intestinal motility, lower overall morbidity, and shorter duration of hospital stay, leading to a general agreement on laparoscopic surgery as an alternative to conventional open surgery for colon cancer. The reduced hospital stay may also decrease the cost of the laparoscopic surgery for colorectal cancer, despite th higher operative spending compared with open surgery. The average reduction in total direct costs is difficult to define due to the increasing cost over time, making challenging the comparisons between studies conducted during a time range of more than 10 years. However, despite the theoretical advantages of laparoscopic surgery, it is still not considered the standard treatment for colorectal cancer patients due to technical limitations or the characteristics of the patients that may affect short and long term outcomes. Conclusions The laparoscopic approach to colectomy is slowly gaining acceptance for the management of colorectal pathology. Laparoscopic surgery for colon cancer demonstrates better short-term outcome, oncologic safety, and equivalent long-term outcome of open surgery. For rectal cancer, laparoscopic technique can be more complex depending on the tumor location. The advantages of minimally invasive surgery may translate better care quality for oncological patients and lead to increased cost saving through the introduction of active enhanced recovery programs which are likely cost-effective from the perspective of the hospital health-care providers

  11. Provenance and sediment fluxes in the Irrawaddy (Ayeyarwadi) River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garzanti, Eduardo; Wang, Jiangang; Vezzoli, Giovanni; Limonta, Mara

    2016-04-01

    .5 and 2.0 Ga (Limonta et al., 2016). Forward mixing calculations based on integrated petrographic and heavy-mineral data (Garzanti et al., 2012) indicate that 60±10% of the total sediment flux is supplied by the Chindwin River and that upper Irrawaddy sand is supplied mainly by the Nmai headwater branch but also significantly from the Mali branch and left-bank tributaries sourced in the northern Shan Plateau. CITED REFERENCES Garzanti E., Resentini A., Vezzoli G., Andò S., Malusà M., Padoan M. 2012. Forward compositional modelling of Alpine orogenic sediments. Sedimentary Geology 280:149-164. Garzanti E., Limonta M., Resentini A., Bandopadhyay P. C., Najman Y., Andò S., Vezzoli G. 2013. Sediment recycling at convergent plate margins (Indo-Burman Ranges and Andaman-Nicobar Ridge). Earth-Science Reviews 123:113-132. Limonta M., Resentini A., Carter A., Bandopadhyay P.C., Garzanti E. 2016. Provenance of Oligocene Andaman Sandstones (Andaman-Nicobar islands): Ganga-Brahmaputra or Irrawaddy derived? In: Bandyopadhyay P., Carter A. (Eds.). The Andaman-Nicobar accretionary ridge geology, tectonics and hazards, Geological Society of London Memoir, in review. Robinson R.A.J., Bird M.I., Oo N.W., Hoey T.B., Aye M.M., Higgitt D.L., Lu X.X., Swe A., Tun T., Win S. L. 2007. The Irrawaddy River sediment flux to the Indian Ocean: the original nineteenth-century data revisited. The Journal of Geology 115:629-640. Wang J.G., Wu F.Y., Tan X.C., Liu C.Z. 2014. Magmatic evolution of the Western Myanmar Arc documented by U-Pb and Hf isotopes in detrital zircon. Tectonophysics 612:97-105.

  12. Multilevel image thresholding based on 2D histogram and maximum Tsallis entropy--a differential evolution approach.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Soham; Das, Swagatam

    2013-12-01

    Multilevel thresholding amounts to segmenting a gray-level image into several distinct regions. This paper presents a 2D histogram based multilevel thresholding approach to improve the separation between objects. Recent studies indicate that the results obtained with 2D histogram oriented approaches are superior to those obtained with 1D histogram based techniques in the context of bi-level thresholding. Here, a method to incorporate 2D histogram related information for generalized multilevel thresholding is proposed using the maximum Tsallis entropy. Differential evolution (DE), a simple yet efficient evolutionary algorithm of current interest, is employed to improve the computational efficiency of the proposed method. The performance of DE is investigated extensively through comparison with other well-known nature inspired global optimization techniques such as genetic algorithm, particle swarm optimization, artificial bee colony, and simulated annealing. In addition, the outcome of the proposed method is evaluated using a well known benchmark--the Berkley segmentation data set (BSDS300) with 300 distinct images. PMID:23955760

  13. Annotating and embedding provenance in science data repositories to enable next generation science applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGuinness, D. L.; Fox, P.; Pinheiro da Silva, P.; Zednik, S.; Del Rio, N.; Ding, L.; West, P.; Chang, C.

    2008-12-01

    Recognizing the increased need for knowledge provenance in interdisciplinary eScience efforts, we have begun an effort to enhance a real-world data production pipeline and the resulting data services with semantic provenance. This work designing and implementing in an existing fielded virtual observatory setting has allowed us to collect key provenance requirements for a broad variety of end users. We have documented several image data pipelines for solar physics instruments at the Mauna Loa Solar Observatory and have documented almost 20 use cases covering usage from instrument scientists, observers, data analysts and managers, and end-user scientists. These use cases have guided our work developing an initial infrastructure that can be searched, queried, or browsed by these users. We use a multi-stage approach to provenance as data and information artifacts progress along processing pipelines. Our motivation, is that both the qualitative and quantitative measures of uncertainty may be vastly improved when treated in an end-to-end manner. This also reduces the likelihood that critical information is left behind or obscurely represented, making the later use of the data and information difficult or impossible. Another motivation is that provenance captured consistently at ingest time supports transparency of sources and propagation of credit for data generation, thereby increasing the likelihood of contribution and reuse. We present the current stages of implementation of our provenance infrastructure, tools and impact on what users are able to learn from the annotated information streams. The Semantic Provenance Capture in Data Ingest Systems (SPCDIS) project is an NSF/OCI/SDCI funded effort involving the High Altitude Observatory at NCAR, McGuinness Associates and the University of Michigan.

  14. Aging as Evolution-Facilitating Program and a Biochemical Approach to Switch It Off

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skulachev, Vladimir P.

    A concept is presented considering aging of living organisms as a final step of their ontogenetic program. It is assumed that such an aging program was invented by biological evolution to facilitate the evolutionary process. Indications are summarized suggesting that controlled production of toxic forms of oxygen (so called reactive oxygen species) by respiring intracellular organelles (mitochondria) is an obligatory component of the aging program. First results of a research project devoted to an attempt to interrupt aging program by antioxidants specifically addressed to mitochondria have been described. Within the framework of the project, antioxidants of a new type (SkQ) were synthesized. SkQs are composed of (i) plastoquinone (an antioxidant moiety), (ii) a penetrating cation, and (iii) a decane or pentane linker. Using planar bilayer phospholipid membranes, we selected SkQ derivatives of the highest penetrability, namely plastoquinonyl decyl triphenylphosphonium (SkQ1), plastoquinonyl decyl rhodamine 19 (SkQR1), and methylplastoquinonyl decyl triphenylphosphonium (SkQ3). Anti- and prooxidant properties of these substances and also of ubiquinonyl-decyl-triphenylphosphonium (MitoQ) were tested in isolated mitochondria. Micromolar concentrations of cationic quinones are found to be very strong prooxidants, but in the lower (sub-micromolar) concentrations they display antioxidant activity which decreases in the series SkQ1 = SkQR1 > SkQ3 > MitoQ. Thus, the window between the anti- and prooxidant effects is the smallest for MitoQ and the largest for SkQ1 and SkQR1. SkQ1 is rapidly reduced by complex III of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, i.e. it is a rechargeable antioxidant. Extremely low concentrations of SkQ1 and SkQR1 completely arrest the H2O2-induced apoptosis in human fibroblasts and HeLa cells (for SkQ1, C 1/2 = 8 · 10-9M). Higher concentrations of SkQ1 are required to block necrosis initiated by reactive oxygen species (ROS). In mice, SkQ1

  15. The metallic contamination of the Loire River Basin (France): Spatial and temporal evolution with a multi-scale approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhivert, Elie; Grosbois, Cécile; Desmet, Marc; Curie, Florence; Moatar, Florentina; Meybeck, Michel; Bourrain, Xavier

    2013-04-01

    Since the early 19th century, important agricultural, mining and industrial development has been active in Western Europe. The Loire River Basin (117,800 km2, total population of 8.4 Mp) presents a long history of human pressures, reflecting temporal evolution of technological and urban activities (Grosbois et al, 2012). Hence, sediments of the Loire River and its tributaries have recorded partially and/or totally organic, nutrients and trace element contamination. Nowadays, can we determine history of metallic emissions in sediment records and what is the part of these past inputs relative to the actual contamination? Can we point out historical sources of contamination? To answer these questions, two approaches were used in this study. Firstly, in four coring sites in the Loire River Basin, a temporal re-enacting of metallic contamination trapped in sediments was carried out. Based on age-model and inter-element correlations in each core, trace element signals were deconvoluted and compared to actual and specific chemical signatures of anthropogenic inputs (300 bed sediment samples collected downstream of former and current industrial sites like mines, smelters, planting/coating plants, glassware and car industries, metal recycling plants and waste water treatment plants). The second approach was at a larger basin scale, comparing location of these former and actual contamination sources with explanatory factors such as geology, evolution of population density, of industrial activities and of land use. This was done in the main stream of the Loire River and its major tributaries and locally at a smaller scale (0-500 km²). All these approaches emphasized three temporal periods of metallic contamination: (i) the first period begins with the 20th century until 1950, it corresponds to the first increase of major contaminants like Ag, As, Cd, Cr, Hg, Pb, Sb, Sn and Zn; some trace elements like Hg and Sn seem to be present in the Loire sediments much earlier as they

  16. A Modern Approach to Disinfection, as Old as the Evolution of Vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Migliarina, Franco; Ferro, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    The immune system of vertebrates “naturally” produces hypochlorous acid (HOCl) to fight against bacteria and pathogens. A patented electrochemical technology mirrors the above defense system, allowing the synthesis of HOCl solutions through the electrolysis of water enriched in salts, at the level of a few grams per liter. The system allows for the careful control of the pH of produced solutions, with consequent optimization of their activity. Once the HOCl is introduced into the water system; it is able to remove the biofilm from pipe network; significantly decreasing the level of Legionella colonization; within 8–10 weeks from the beginning of the disinfection approach. The technology has been applied in a variety of healthcare facilities, both in Italy and in neighboring European countries. In the present paper, two successful case studies are briefly presented: Data were obtained from experiences in two different healthcare facilities, one in Italy and the other in Germany. Destruction of biofilm was indirectly testified by an increase of total organic carbon content of water; as a consequence, and because of the dosing of the disinfecting agent, some μg/L of total halomethanes were also formed. However, both compositional features were only observed during the initial stages of the disinfection treatment. PMID:27429291

  17. Evolution of an Amino Acid-based Prodrug Approach: Stay Tuned

    PubMed Central

    Krylov, Ivan S.; Kashemirov, Boris A.; Hilfinger, John M.; McKenna, Charles E.

    2013-01-01

    Certain acyclic nucleoside phosphonates (ANPs) such as (S)-HPMPC (cidofovir, Vistide®) and (S)-HPMPA have been shown to be active against a broad spectrum of DNA and retroviruses. However, their poor absorption as well as their toxicity limit the utilization of these therapeutics in the clinic. Nucleoside phosphonates are poorly absorbed primarily due to the presence of the phosphonic acid group, which ionizes at physiological pH. When dosed intravenously they display dose-limiting nephrotoxicity due to their accumulation in the kidney. To overcome these limitations, nucleoside phosphonate prodrug strategies have taken center stage in the development pathway and a number of different approaches are at various stages of development. Our efforts have focused on the development of ANP prodrugs in which a benign amino acid promoiety masks a phosphonate P-OH via a hydroxyl side chain. The design of these prodrugs incorporates multiple chemical groups (the P−X−C linkage, the amino acid stereochemistry, the C-terminal and N-terminal functional groups) that can be been tuned to modify absorption, pharmacokinetic and efficacy properties with the goal of improving overall prodrug performance. PMID:23339402

  18. A neurophylogenetic approach provides new insight to the evolution of Scaphopoda.

    PubMed

    Sumner-Rooney, Lauren H; Schrödl, Michael; Lodde-Bensch, Eva; Lindberg, David R; Heß, Martin; Brennan, Gerard P; Sigwart, Julia D

    2015-01-01

    The position of scaphopods in molluscan phylogeny remains singularly contentious, with several sister relationships supported by morphological and phylogenomic data: Scaphopoda + Bivalvia (Diasoma), Scaphopoda + Cephalopoda (Variopoda), and Scaphopoda + Gastropoda. Nervous system architecture has contributed significant insights to reconstructing phylogeny in the Mollusca and other invertebrate groups, but a modern neurophylogenetic approach has not been applied to molluscs, hampered by a lack of clearly defined homologous characters that can be unequivocally compared across the radical body plan disparity among the living clades. We present the first three-dimensional reconstruction of the anterior nervous system of a scaphopod, Rhabdus rectius, using histological tomography. We also describe a new putative sensory organ, a paired and pigmented sensory mantle slit. This structure is restricted to our study species and not a general feature of scaphopods, but it forms an integral part of the description of the nervous system in R. rectius. It also highlights the potential utility of neuro-anatomical characters for multiple levels of phylogenetic inference beyond this study. This potential has not previously been exploited for the thorny problem of molluscan phylogeny. The neuroanatomy of scaphopods demonstrates a highly derived architecture that shares a number of key characters with the cephalopod nervous system, and supports a Scaphopoda + Cephalopoda grouping. PMID:26487042

  19. Sediment transport process and East Asian monsoon evolution during the last 410 kyr in the northern South China Sea: a multi-proxy approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Quan; Liu, Zhifei; Kissel, Catherine

    2015-04-01

    change either in the direction or in the intensity of the bottom current. The clay mineral assemblage is dominated by smectite (23-59%) and illite (22-43%), with minor contribution of chlorite (13-27%) and kaolinite (4-13%). The provenance analysis suggests three end-member sources: smectite derives from Luzon, kaolinite originates from the Pearl River, and illite and chlorite are coming from both the Pearl River and Taiwan. Using the linear separation method of illite crystallinity, a time series of the clay mineral contribution from the three major provenances to the northern South China Sea was reconstructed. By synthesizing all these proxies, we find that the clay minerals and element ratios contain information about provenance supply and transport process. The provenance supply could be a proxy to reconstruct the East Asian Monsoon evolution. To achieve detailed provenance supply information, the terrigenous flux and the analyses of magnetic minerals and grain-size will be also presented.

  20. A NeuroEvolution Approach to Reconstructing Missing Daily Precipitation Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Payne, K. A.; Boyce, S. A.; Farrell, D. A.

    2009-05-01

    The Caribbean region consists of several Small Island Developing States (SIDS). Many of these islands are extremely vulnerable to the impacts of climate change including sea level rise, changes in rainfall regimes and increasing day and night-time temperatures. In addition, the region is extremely susceptible to natural disasters, the most frequent of which is flooding. As part of its disaster management and mitigation strategy several Caribbean SIDS are developing a parametric insurance policy for flooding. The insurance mechanism is contingent on an adequate precipitation data set. However, missing data within the precipitation time series is one of the issues that is ubiquitous within the region, presenting a challenge to the implementation of such a rainfall-triggered insurance policy. The purpose of this study is to investigate the plausibility of using a class of Evolutionary Computation (EC) algorithms known as a Genetic Algorithms (GAs) for evolving a near-optimal Artificial Neural Network (ANN) to reconstruct missing daily precipitation data. The structure of the artificial neural network used for rainfall imputation in this study has a feedforward Multi-layer Perceptron (MLP) architecture. The predictive capability of this novel hybrid ANN-GA precipitation data infilling technique is tested by degrading 10%, 20% and 30% of a daily precipitation data set, from the period 1997-2000, in a stochastic manner and estimating the missing observations. Tests performed using the proposed approach show the method predicts the randomly selected missing precipitation data with reasonable reliability for a rain gauge in Region 3, Guyana. Research is currently on going to assess the efficacy of the artificial neural network technique for longer time series, which is required to support climate change impact on the Caribbean region.

  1. The Evolution of Cooperation in Managed Groundwater Systems: An Agent-Based Modelling Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castilla Rho, J. C.; Mariethoz, G.; Rojas, R. F.; Andersen, M. S.; Kelly, B. F.; Holley, C.

    2014-12-01

    Human interactions with groundwater systems often exhibit complex features that hinder the sustainable management of the resource. This leads to costly and persistent conflicts over groundwater at the catchment scale. One possible way to address these conflicts is by gaining a better understanding of how social and groundwater dynamics coevolve using agent-based models (ABM). Such models allow exploring 'bottom-up' solutions (i.e., self-organised governance systems), where the behaviour of individual agents (e.g., farmers) results in the emergence of mutual cooperation among groundwater users. There is significant empirical evidence indicating that this kind of 'bottom-up' approach may lead to more enduring and sustainable outcomes, compared to conventional 'top-down' strategies such as centralized control and water right schemes (Ostrom 1990). New modelling tools are needed to study these concepts systematically and efficiently. Our model uses a conceptual framework to study cooperation and the emergence of social norms as initially proposed by Axelrod (1986), which we adapted to groundwater management. We developed an ABM that integrates social mechanisms and the physics of subsurface flow. The model explicitly represents feedback between groundwater conditions and social dynamics, capturing the spatial structure of these interactions and the potential effects on cooperation levels in an agricultural setting. Using this model, we investigate a series of mechanisms that may trigger norms supporting cooperative strategies, which can be sustained and become stable over time. For example, farmers in a self-monitoring community can be more efficient at achieving the objective of sustainable groundwater use than government-imposed regulation. Our coupled model thus offers a platform for testing new schemes promoting cooperation and improved resource use, which can be used as a basis for policy design. Importantly, we hope to raise awareness of agent-based modelling as

  2. An integrated approach to taphonomy and faunal change in the Shungura formation (Ethiopia) and its implication for hominid evolution.

    PubMed

    Alemseged, Zeresenay

    2003-04-01

    Environmental and faunal changes through time have been recorded for many African Plio-Pleistocene sites. Fossil evidence suggests that there is a continuous, if not uniform, transformation of the fauna and flora from the Pliocene through the end of Pleistocene. However, discerning major biotic turnovers and linking them to global and regional climatic changes have been complicated by many factors, notably taphonomy and discontinuity of the fossil evidence, notwithstanding the considerable work of some researchers (e.g., Vrba, E.S., 1988. Late Pliocene climatic events and hominid evolution, in: Grine, F. (Ed.), Evolutionary History of the "Robust" Australopithecines. De Gruyter, New York, pp. 405-426, Vrba, E.S., 1995. The fossil record of African (Mammalia, Bovidae) in relation to human evolution and paleoclimate, in: Vrba, E.S., Denton, G.H., Partridge, T.C., Burkle, L.H. (Eds.), Paleoclimate and Evolution, with Emphasis on Human Origins. Yale University Press, New Haven, pp. 385-424). A sample of over 22,000 fossils collected by the French Omo Expedition, from the Shungura Formation of Ethiopia, was analyzed using an integrated approach to investigate taphonomic and faunal change patterns. The following results are obtained: (1) Univariate and multivariate studies support continuous faunal change from Member A through Member G of the Shungura sequence; (2) Correspondence analysis (CA) on extant bovids in African game parks shows that bovid tribes and genera are generally characterized by habitat specificity; (3) Taphonomic studies demonstrate that the relative abundance of different skeletal elements varies according to depositional environment; (4) CA on 73 localities of the Shungura Formation and 19 mammalian taxa points to a major faunal change around the base of Member G dated to ca. 2.3 Ma. This transformation is characterized by a change to open and edaphic grassland as a dominant type of environment; (5) This major faunal change correlates in time with

  3. SensePath: Understanding the Sensemaking Process Through Analytic Provenance.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Phong H; Xu, Kai; Wheat, Ashley; Wong, B L William; Attfield, Simon; Fields, Bob

    2016-01-01

    Sensemaking is described as the process of comprehension, finding meaning and gaining insight from information, producing new knowledge and informing further action. Understanding the sensemaking process allows building effective visual analytics tools to make sense of large and complex datasets. Currently, it is often a manual and time-consuming undertaking to comprehend this: researchers collect observation data, transcribe screen capture videos and think-aloud recordings, identify recurring patterns, and eventually abstract the sensemaking process into a general model. In this paper, we propose a general approach to facilitate such a qualitative analysis process, and introduce a prototype, SensePath, to demonstrate the application of this approach with a focus on browser-based online sensemaking. The approach is based on a study of a number of qualitative research sessions including observations of users performing sensemaking tasks and post hoc analyses to uncover their sensemaking processes. Based on the study results and a follow-up participatory design session with HCI researchers, we decided to focus on the transcription and coding stages of thematic analysis. SensePath automatically captures user's sensemaking actions, i.e., analytic provenance, and provides multi-linked views to support their further analysis. A number of other requirements elicited from the design session are also implemented in SensePath, such as easy integration with existing qualitative analysis workflow and non-intrusive for participants. The tool was used by an experienced HCI researcher to analyze two sensemaking sessions. The researcher found the tool intuitive and considerably reduced analysis time, allowing better understanding of the sensemaking process. PMID:26357398

  4. Evolution of an operational hydrological model: from global to semi-distributed approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garavaglia, Federico; Le Lay, Matthieu; Gottardi, Frédéric; Garçon, Rémy

    2016-04-01

    MORDOR is a conceptual hydrological model extensively used in Électricité de France (EDF, French electric utility company) for operational applications: (i) hydrological forecasting, (ii) flood risk assessment, (iii) water balance and (iv) climate change studies. In its historical version, hereafter called MORDOR1996, this is a lumped, reservoir, elevation based model with hourly or daily areal rainfall and air temperature as the driving input data. The principal hydrological processes represented are evapotranspiration, direct and indirect runoff, ground water, snow and ice accumulation and melt, routing. The model has been intensively used at EDF for more than 25 years, in particular for modeling French mountainous watersheds. In order to consider the spatial heterogeneity of the input data (rainfall and air temperature) and the hydrological characteristics within a basin, the structure of model has been updated. The new version of the model, named MORDOR SD, is a semi-distributed hydrological model driven by elevation. The basin is spitted into several elevation bands on which a simple global MORDOR model is implemented; i.e. only evapotranspiration, direct and indirect runoff, snow and ice accumulation and melt are computed. However ground water and routing processes remain global. The primary purpose of this study is to present MORDOR SD model through a comparison with the historical version. The first result of this comparative study is that the new version provides better calibration-validation performances. Moreover the semi-distributed approach both allows to simplify the model structure (i.e. less degrees of freedom) and to reduce the equifinality problem in the calibration process. The model's parameters are calibrated at daily timestep with a genetic algorithm that uses a composed objective function. This complex function quantifies the good agreement between the simulated and observed runoff focusing on four different runoff samples: (i) time

  5. Evolution of the basal ganglia: new perspectives through a comparative approach

    PubMed Central

    SMEETS, WILHELMUS J. A. J.; MARÍN, OSCAR; GONZÁLEZ, AGUSTÍN

    2000-01-01

    processing of the thalamic sensory information relayed to the BG of tetrapods. By using the comparative approach, new insights have been gained with respect to certain features of the BG of vertebrates in general, such as the segmental organisation of the midbrain dopaminergic cell groups, the occurrence of large numbers of dopaminergic cell bodies within the telencephalon itself and the variability in, among others, connectivity and chemoarchitecture. However, the intriguing question whether the basal forebrain organisation of nontetrapods differs essentially from that observed in tetrapods still needs to be answered. PMID:10923983

  6. Using 1-to-3D modeling approach to constrain thermomechanical evolution of the Dead Sea Transform region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrunin, Alexey G.; Meneses Rioseco, Ernesto; Sobolev, Stephan V.

    2010-05-01

    Dead Sea Transform (DST) fault system is a part of the Syrian-African rift system dividing African and Arabian plates, that accommodated more than 100 km of left-lateral transform displacement. Despite the area of the DST is tectonically active during at least last 17 Myr (Krienitz et al., G3, 2009), heat flow lower than 50mW/m2 is reported for the area. The value of 50mW/m2 is consistent with the thickness of the lithosphere of more than 120 km while observed thickness of the lithosphere at the DST area is 70-80 km, according to seismic data (Mohsen et al., G.J.Int.2005). This discrepancy means that lithosphere around DST was thinned in the past and related high heat flow had not enough time to reach the surface. However, it remains unclear which thickness had the lithosphere before the thinning and when the thinning has occurred. To find the appropriate values for the parameters, we use a gradual complication approach. At the initial stage we solve a number of 1D thermal transient problem. Resulting transient geotherms in combination with additional constraints allow us to constrain magnitude and time of lithospheric reduction to 50-70 km and 15-22 Ma, respectively. At the second stage we use 2.5D thermomechanical modeling technique by Sobolev S.V. et all.( EPSL 2005) to model thermal evolution and deformation at the 1000 km transsection of the lithosphere from Mediterranean to Arabian platform, crossing the DST near the Dead Sea. As an initial setup we use simplified geometry of the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary and lithospheric structure according to available geophysical data. The lithospheric thickness is reduced within the 300 km -wide domain beneath the DST. The ranges for the time of and magnitude of the lithosphere thinning are given by the 1D model. The 2.5D model allows to use additional constraints for the model such as evolution of a surface topography and rheological patterns beneath the DST fault. In addition we use the brittle brick stretching

  7. New Tools and the Road to Quantitative Models in Sedimentary Provenance Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Eynatten, Hilmar

    2010-05-01

    Sedimentary provenance analysis is one of the major techniques to link source area geology, climate evolution, and basin dynamics to the compositional characteristics of the clastic basin fill. The high potential of sediments for precise chronostratigraphic calibration in combination with state-of-the-art provenance analysis allows for detailed reconstruction of source area evolution in space and time. A wealth of new and/or refined analytical techniques has been developed in the last decade, especially regarding high-precision single-grain geochemical and geochronological techniques. Accordingly, ultrastable heavy minerals such as rutile or zircon provide inert mineral tracers in sedimentary systems and their analysis yield precise information on source rock petrology and chronology. In terms of quantitative provenance analysis there is, however, a strong need for connecting these detailed information on specific source rocks to the bulk mass transfer and sediment modification from source to sink. Such quantitative provenance models are still in their infancy for a number of reasons, among them (1) the overall complexity of the processes involved including multiple feedback mechanisms, (2) the heterogeneity of data bases with respect to large-scale basin-wide studies, and (3) the lack of tailor-made and user-friendly statistical-numerical models allowing for both forward and inverse modelling that consider the compositional nature of most bulk sediment data. First steps towards fully quantitative models include (i) development of algorithms relating petrographic-mineralogic and geochemical data to sediment grain size, (ii) quantifying chemical, physical, and biological processes and their impact on sediment production and modification, (iii) compositional mixture models, and (iv) verifying these analytical modules in large-scale modern systems, followed by (v) similar ancient systems that are even more complicated due to diagenetic processes.

  8. SEIS-PROV: Practical Provenance for Seismological Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krischer, L.; Smith, J. A.; Tromp, J.

    2015-12-01

    It is widely recognized that reproducibility is crucial to advance science, but at the same time it is very hard to actually achieve. This results in it being recognized but also mostly ignored by a large fraction of the community. A key ingredient towards full reproducibility is to capture and describe the history of data, an issue known as provenance. We present SEIS-PROV, a practical format and data model to store provenance information for seismological data. In a seismological context, provenance can be seen as information about the processes that generated and modified a particular piece of data. For synthetic waveforms the provenance information describes which solver and settings therein were used to generate it. When looking at processed seismograms, the provenance conveys information about the different time series analysis steps that led to it. Additional uses include the description of derived data types, such as cross-correlations and adjoint sources, enabling their proper storage and exchange. SEIS-PROV is based on W3C PROV (http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-overview/), a standard for generic provenance information. It then applies an additional set of constraints to make it suitable for seismology. We present a definition of the SEIS-PROV format, a way to check if any given file is a valid SEIS-PROV document, and two sample implementations: One in SPECFEM3D GLOBE (https://geodynamics.org/cig/software/specfem3d_globe/) to store the provenance information of synthetic seismograms and another one as part of the ObsPy (http://obspy.org) framework enabling automatic tracking of provenance information during a series of analysis and transformation stages. This, along with tools to visualize and interpret provenance graphs, offers a description of data history that can be readily tracked, stored, and exchanged.

  9. Integrated provenance analysis of a convergent retroarc foreland system: U-Pb ages, heavy minerals, Nd isotopes, and sandstone compositions of the Middle Magdalena Valley basin, northern Andes, Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Junsheng; Horton, Brian K.; Saylor, Joel E.; Mora, Andrés; Mange, Maria; Garzione, Carmala N.; Basu, Asish; Moreno, Christopher J.; Caballero, Victor; Parra, Mauricio

    2012-01-01

    Sediment provenance analysis remains a powerful method for testing hypotheses on the temporal and spatial evolution of uplifted source regions, but issues such as recycling, nonunique sources, and pre- and post-depositional modifications may complicate interpretation of results from individual provenance techniques. Convergent retroarc systems commonly contain sediment sources that are sufficiently diverse (continental magmatic arc, fold-thrust belt, and stable craton) to enable explicit provenance assessments. In this paper, we combine detrital zircon U-Pb geochronology, heavy mineral identification, Nd isotopic analyses, conventional sandstone petrography, and paleocurrent measurements to reconstruct the clastic provenance history of a long-lived sedimentary basin now exposed in an intermontane zone of the northern Andean hinterland of Colombia. The Middle Magdalena Valley basin, situated between the Central Cordillera and Eastern Cordillera, contains a 5-10 km-thick succession of Upper Cretaceous to Quaternary fill. The integrated techniques show a pronounced change in provenance during the Paleocene transition from the lower to upper Lisama Formation. We interpret this as a shift from an eastern cratonic source to a western Andean source composed of magmatic-arc rocks uplifted during initial shortening of the Central Cordillera. The appearance of detrital chloritoid and a shift to more negative ɛ Nd(t=0) values in middle Eocene strata of the middle La Paz Formation are attributed to shortening-related exhumation of a continental basement block (La Cira-Infantas paleohigh), now buried, along the axis of the Magdalena Valley. The diverse provenance proxies also show distinct changes during middle to late Eocene deposition of the Esmeraldas Formation that likely reflect initial rock uplift and exhumation of the fold-thrust belt defining the Eastern Cordillera. Upsection, detrital zircon U-Pb ages and heavy mineral assemblages for Oligocene and younger clastic

  10. Development of a State Machine Sequencer for the Keck Interferometer: Evolution, Development and Lessons Learned using a CASE Tool Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rede, Leonard J.; Booth, Andrew; Hsieh, Jonathon; Summer, Kellee

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a discussion of the evolution of a sequencer from a simple EPICS (Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System) based sequencer into a complex implementation designed utilizing UML (Unified Modeling Language) methodologies and a CASE (Computer Aided Software Engineering) tool approach. The main purpose of the sequencer (called the IF Sequencer) is to provide overall control of the Keck Interferometer to enable science operations be carried out by a single operator (and/or observer). The interferometer links the two 10m telescopes of the W. M. Keck Observatory at Mauna Kea, Hawaii. The IF Sequencer is a high-level, multi-threaded, Hare1 finite state machine, software program designed to orchestrate several lower-level hardware and software hard real time subsystems that must perform their work in a specific and sequential order. The sequencing need not be done in hard real-time. Each state machine thread commands either a high-speed real-time multiple mode embedded controller via CORB A, or slower controllers via EPICS Channel Access interfaces. The overall operation of the system is simplified by the automation. The UML is discussed and our use of it to implement the sequencer is presented. The decision to use the Rhapsody product as our CASE tool is explained and reflected upon. Most importantly, a section on lessons learned is presented and the difficulty of integrating CASE tool automatically generated C++ code into a large control system consisting of multiple infrastructures is presented.

  11. Dynamical Evolution of the Inner Heliosphere Approaching Solar Activity Maximum: Interpreting Ulysses Observations Using a Global MHD Model. Appendix 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, Pete; Mikic, Z.; Linker, J. A.

    2003-01-01

    In this study we describe a series of MHD simulations covering the time period from 12 January 1999 to 19 September 2001 (Carrington Rotation 1945 to 1980). This interval coincided with: (1) the Sun s approach toward solar maximum; and (2) Ulysses second descent to the southern polar regions, rapid latitude scan, and arrival into the northern polar regions. We focus on the evolution of several key parameters during this time, including the photospheric magnetic field, the computed coronal hole boundaries, the computed velocity profile near the Sun, and the plasma and magnetic field parameters at the location of Ulysses. The model results provide a global context for interpreting the often complex in situ measurements. We also present a heuristic explanation of stream dynamics to describe the morphology of interaction regions at solar maximum and contrast it with the picture that resulted from Ulysses first orbit, which occurred during more quiescent solar conditions. The simulation results described here are available at: http://sun.saic.com.

  12. The Symbiotic Relationship between Scientific Workflow and Provenance (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephan, E.

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to describe the symbiotic nature of scientific workflows and provenance. We will also discuss the current trends and real world challenges facing these two distinct research areas. Although motivated differently, the needs of the international science communities are the glue that binds this relationship together. Understanding and articulating the science drivers to these communities is paramount as these technologies evolve and mature. Originally conceived for managing business processes, workflows are now becoming invaluable assets in both computational and experimental sciences. These reconfigurable, automated systems provide essential technology to perform complex analyses by coupling together geographically distributed disparate data sources and applications. As a result, workflows are capable of higher throughput in a shorter amount of time than performing the steps manually. Today many different workflow products exist; these could include Kepler and Taverna or similar products like MeDICI, developed at PNNL, that are standardized on the Business Process Execution Language (BPEL). Provenance, originating from the French term Provenir “to come from”, is used to describe the curation process of artwork as art is passed from owner to owner. The concept of provenance was adopted by digital libraries as a means to track the lineage of documents while standards such as the DublinCore began to emerge. In recent years the systems science community has increasingly expressed the need to expand the concept of provenance to formally articulate the history of scientific data. Communities such as the International Provenance and Annotation Workshop (IPAW) have formalized a provenance data model. The Open Provenance Model, and the W3C is hosting a provenance incubator group featuring the Proof Markup Language. Although both workflows and provenance have risen from different communities and operate independently, their mutual

  13. PROVEN ALTERNATIVES FOR ABOVEGROUND TREATMENT OF ARSENIC IN GROUNDWATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report was prepared as an issue paper for the EPA Engineering Forum, summarizes experiences with proven aboveground treatment alternatives for arsenic in groundwater, and provides information on their relative performance and cost. The four technologies reviewed are: preci...

  14. Automatic run-time provenance capture for scientific dataset generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frew, J.; Slaughter, P.

    2008-12-01

    Provenance---the directed graph of a dataset's processing history---is difficult to capture effectively. Human- generated provenance, as narrative metadata, is labor-intensive and thus often incorrect, incomplete, or simply not recorded. Workflow systems capture some provenance implicitly in workflow specifications, but these systems are not ubiquitous or standardized, and a workflow specification may not capture all of the factors involved in a dataset's production. System audit trails capture potentially all processing activities, but not the relationships between them. We describe a system that transparently (i.e., without any modification to science codes) and automatically (i.e. without any human intervention) captures the low-level interactions (files read/written, parameters accessed, etc.) between scientific processes, and then synthesizes these relationships into a provenance graph. This system---the Earth System Science Server (ES3)---is sufficiently general that it can accommodate any combination of stand-alone programs, interpreted codes (e.g. IDL), and command- language scripts. Provenance in ES3 can be published in well-defined XML formats (including formats suitable for graphical visualization), and queried to determine the ancestors or descendants of any specific data file or process invocation. We demonstrate how ES3 can be used to capture the provenance of a large operational ocean color dataset.

  15. On Improving Efficiency of Differential Evolution for Aerodynamic Shape Optimization Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madavan, Nateri K.

    2004-01-01

    Differential Evolution (DE) is a simple and robust evolutionary strategy that has been provEn effective in determining the global optimum for several difficult optimization problems. Although DE offers several advantages over traditional optimization approaches, its use in applications such as aerodynamic shape optimization where the objective function evaluations are computationally expensive is limited by the large number of function evaluations often required. In this paper various approaches for improving the efficiency of DE are reviewed and discussed. Several approaches that have proven effective for other evolutionary algorithms are modified and implemented in a DE-based aerodynamic shape optimization method that uses a Navier-Stokes solver for the objective function evaluations. Parallelization techniques on distributed computers are used to reduce turnaround times. Results are presented for standard test optimization problems and for the inverse design of a turbine airfoil. The efficiency improvements achieved by the different approaches are evaluated and compared.

  16. Provenance in Data Interoperability for Multi-Sensor Intercomparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynnes, C.; Leptoukh, G.; Berrick, S.; Shen, S.; Prados, A.; Fox, P.; Yang, W.; Min, M.; Holloway, D.; Enloe, Y.

    2008-12-01

    As our inventory of Earth science data sets grows, the ability to compare, merge and fuse multiple datasets grows in importance. This implies a need for deeper data interoperability than we have now. Many efforts (e.g. OPeNDAP, Open Geospatial Consortium) have broken down format barriers to interoperability; the next challenge is the semantic aspects of the data. Consider the issues when satellite data are merged, cross- calibrated, validated, inter-compared and fused. We must determine how to match up data sets that are related, yet different in significant ways: the exact nature of the phenomenon being measured, measurement technique, exact location in space-time, or the quality of the measurements. If subtle distinctions between similar measurements are not clear to the user, the results can be meaningless or even lead to an incorrect interpretation of the data. Most of these distinctions trace back to how the data came to be: sensors, processing, and quality assessment. For example, monthly averages of satellite-based aerosol measurements often show significant discrepancies, which might be due to differences in spatio-temporal aggregation, sampling issues, sensor biases, algorithm differences and/or calibration issues. This provenance information must therefore be captured in a semantic framework that allows sophisticated data inter-use tools to incorporate it, and eventually aid in the interpretation of comparison or merged products. Semantic web technology allows us to encode our knowledge of measurement characteristics, phenomena measured, space-time representations, and data quality representation in a well-structured, machine- readable ontology and rulesets. An analysis tool can use this knowledge to show users the provenance- related distinctions between two variables, advising on options for further data processing and analysis. An additional problem for workflows distributed across heterogeneous systems is retrieval and transport of provenance

  17. Evidence-based evolution of an integrated nutrition-focused agriculture approach to address the underlying determinants of stunting.

    PubMed

    Haselow, Nancy J; Stormer, Ame; Pries, Alissa

    2016-05-01

    Despite progress in reducing hunger and malnutrition since the 1990s, many still suffer from undernutrition and food insecurity, particularly women and young children, resulting in preterm birth, low birthweight and stunting, among other conditions. Helen Keller International (HKI) has addressed malnutrition and household food insecurity through implementation of an Enhanced Homestead Food Production (EHFP) programme that increases year-round availability and intake of diverse micronutrient-rich foods and promotes optimal nutrition and hygiene practices among poor households. This paper reviews the evolution and impact of HKI's EHFP programme and identifies core components of the model that address the underlying determinants of stunting. To date, evaluations of EHFP have shown impact on food production, consumption by women and children and household food security. Sale of surplus produce has increased household income, and the use of a transformative gender approach has empowered women. EHFP has also realized nutrition improvements in many project sites. Results from a randomized control trial (RCT) in Baitadi district, Nepal showed a significant improvement in a range of practices known to impact child growth, although no impact on stunting. Additional non-RCT evaluations in Kailali district of Nepal, demonstrated a 10.5% reduction in stunting and in the Chittagong Hill Tracts in Bangladesh, revealed an 18% decrease in stunting. Based on evidence, the EHFP has evolved into an integrated package that includes agriculture, nutrition, water/hygiene/sanitation, linkages to health care, women's empowerment, income generation and advocacy. Closing the stunting gap requires long-term exposure to targeted multi-sectoral solutions and rigorous evaluation to optimize impact. PMID:27187913

  18. Quantitative Genetic Interaction Mapping Using the E-MAP Approach

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Sean R.; Roguev, Assen; Krogan, Nevan J.

    2010-01-01

    Genetic interactions represent the degree to which the presence of one mutation modulates the phenotype of a second mutation. In recent years, approaches for measuring genetic interactions systematically and quantitatively have proven to be effective tools for unbiased characterization of gene function and have provided valuable data for analyses of evolution. Here, we present protocols for systematic measurement of genetic interactions with respect to organismal growth rate for two yeast species. PMID:20946812

  19. Provenance and diagenesis of Oligocene sandstones, southern San Joaquin basin, California

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, M.J.

    1988-03-01

    Oligocene Vedder sandstones and correlatives from the southern San Joaquin basin provide an opportunity to compare diagenesis resulting from variable provenance, depositional environment, and burial or tectonic history. Sandstones were examined from 15 cores in this basin-wide petrographic survey. Oligocene sandstones typically are fine to medium grained, moderately sorted, subangular, and quartzofeldspathic, although sandstones from the western and east-central basin are enriched in potassium feldspar and intermediate volcanic rock fragments, respectively. Detrital compositions are transitional between uplifted continental block and undissected to dissected magmatic arc on provenance diagrams. Sediment provenance included the granodioritic Sierra Nevada-Tehachapi Mountain magmatic arc complex and perhaps granitic terranes to the west. Volcanic detritus was shed from southern and eastern sources. Diagenesis varies within the basin, partly reflecting local pore-fluid evolution and detrital composition. The effects of variable geothermal gradients, sedimentation rate, and tectonism on diagenesis await evaluation. In the composite basin-wide paragenetic sequence, calcite, dolomite, siderite, and chlorite-smectite are earliest authigenic phases. Variable cement and compaction relationships indicate nonuniform depth and timing of cementation. Early cements inhibited subsequent diagenesis and compaction. With deeper burial, plagioclase, potassium feldspar, and carbonates dissolved, pore-filling kaolinite precipitated, plagioclase was albitized and zeolitized, and late-stage carbonates crystallized. Further geochemical analyses will better define composition and origin of authigenic phases and document reaction progress. Cement zones and sources may be identified and spatially and temporally linked in an attempt to constrain scales and rates of mass transfer of calcium basin wide.

  20. ISO TC211 standards on Provenance for Earth science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di, L.; Deng, M.

    2014-12-01

    Data provenance, also called lineage, records the derivation history of a data product. The history could include the algorithms used, the process steps taken, the computing environment run, data sources input to the processes, the organization/person responsible for the product, etc. Provenance provides important information to data users for them to determine the usability and reliability of the product. In the science domain, the data provenance is especially important since scientists need to use the information to determine the scientific validity of a data product and to decide if such a product can be used as the basis for further scientific analysis. Provenance is a kind of metadata. In Earth science domain, the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) Technical Committee 211 (ISO TC 211) have set geospatial metadata standards for geospatial data, including ISO 19115:2003-Metadata, ISO 19115-2:2009-Metadata-Part 2: Extensions for imagery and gridded data, and ISO 19115-1:2014 - Metadata -- Part 1: Fundamentals. ISO 19115 and ISO 19115-1 define the fundamental metadata for documenting geospatial data products, and ISO 19115-2 provides additional metadata classes for imagery and gridded data. ISO 19115-1:2014 is the revised version of ISO 19115:2003. ISO 19115 and ISO 19115-1 define fundamental lineage information classes and subclasses. They miss some key information classes needed for documenting the provenance in the Web service environment, such as the running environment, the algorithms, and software executables. However, ISO 19115-2 extends the lineage model in ISO 19115 and provides additional metadata classes needed for documenting provenance information. The combination of lineage models in ISO 19115 and ISO 19115-2 provides a comprehensive provenance information model needed for the web service environment. Currently the ISO Provence standard is not compatible with W3C Prov standard. The revision of ISO 19115-2 will be started in

  1. Computational provenance in hydrologic science: a snow mapping example.

    PubMed

    Dozier, Jeff; Frew, James

    2009-03-13

    Computational provenance--a record of the antecedents and processing history of digital information--is key to properly documenting computer-based scientific research. To support investigations in hydrologic science, we produce the daily fractional snow-covered area from NASA's moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS). From the MODIS reflectance data in seven wavelengths, we estimate the fraction of each 500 m pixel that snow covers. The daily products have data gaps and errors because of cloud cover and sensor viewing geometry, so we interpolate and smooth to produce our best estimate of the daily snow cover. To manage the data, we have developed the Earth System Science Server (ES3), a software environment for data-intensive Earth science, with unique capabilities for automatically and transparently capturing and managing the provenance of arbitrary computations. Transparent acquisition avoids the scientists having to express their computations in specific languages or schemas in order for provenance to be acquired and maintained. ES3 models provenance as relationships between processes and their input and output files. It is particularly suited to capturing the provenance of an evolving algorithm whose components span multiple languages and execution environments. PMID:19087938

  2. Provenance Usage in the OceanLink Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narock, T.; Arko, R. A.; Carbotte, S. M.; Chandler, C. L.; Cheatham, M.; Fils, D.; Finin, T.; Hitzler, P.; Janowicz, K.; Jones, M.; Krisnadhi, A.; Lehnert, K. A.; Mickle, A.; Raymond, L. M.; Schildhauer, M.; Shepherd, A.; Wiebe, P. H.

    2014-12-01

    A wide spectrum of maturing methods and tools, collectively characterized as the Semantic Web, is helping to vastly improve thedissemination of scientific research. The OceanLink project, an NSF EarthCube Building Block, is utilizing semantic technologies tointegrate geoscience data repositories, library holdings, conference abstracts, and funded research awards. Provenance is a vital componentin meeting both the scientific and engineering requirements of OceanLink. Provenance plays a key role in justification and understanding when presenting users with results aggregated from multiple sources. In the engineering sense, provenance enables the identification of new data and the ability to determine which data sources to query. Additionally, OceanLink will leverage human and machine computation for crowdsourcing, text mining, and co-reference resolution. The results of these computations, and their associated provenance, will be folded back into the constituent systems to continually enhance precision and utility. We will touch on the various roles provenance is playing in OceanLink as well as present our use of the PROV Ontology and associated Ontology Design Patterns.

  3. Evolution of porosity in the saltwater freshwater mixing zone of coastal carbonate aquifers: An alternative modelling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanov, Douchko; Dreybrodt, Wolfgang

    2006-10-01

    presented by Rezaei et al. [Rezaei, M., Sanz, E., Raeisi, E., Ayora, C. Vazquez-Sune, E., Carrera, J., 2005. Reactive transport modeling of calcite dissolution in the fresh-saltwater mixing zone. Journal of Hydrology, 311, 1-4, 282-298]. Our results exhibit a sharper dissolution zone close to the freshwater side of the domain, which is caused by the properties of the second derivative of ceq( s). Recently, Singurindy et al. [Water Resources Research, 40, 2004, and correction in Water Resources Research, 41, 2005] performed dissolution experiments in a saltwater-freshwater mixing zone in a sandbox. The results from our model simulations are in good agreement to their experimental data. Finally, the modelling approach is employed to porosity evolution in homogeneous and heterogeneous carbonate islands. The results are in general agreement to earlier work. Due to the properties of the second derivative, however, the regions of active dissolution are restricted to more narrow regions.

  4. Isozyme variation among teak (Tectona grandis L.f.) provenances.

    PubMed

    Kertadikara, A W; Prat, D

    1995-05-01

    Fourteen enzyme systems were analysed in leaf parenchyma of nine native and introduced populations of teak. These enzyme systems were encoded by 20 putative loci of which 18 were polymorphic. Populations showed a general lack of heterozygosity (average FIS = 0.11). On average over the 18 polymorphic loci, the genetic differentiation among provenances varied according to the estimator: 0.09 for GST, 0.12 for FST and 0.19 for δ. The cluster analysis showed two main gene pools, the first consisted of the Indian provenances and the second of African, Indonesian and Thai provenances. Genetic distances among populations of the same group were similar, and lower than the genetic distances between populations from different groups. The factorial analysis on genotypes of seedlings also showed the same geographic differentiation into two major groups. The possible natural distribution of teak in Java is discussed. PMID:24172922

  5. Using Domain Requirements to Achieve Science-Oriented Provenance

    SciTech Connect

    Stephan, Eric G; Halter, Todd D; Critchlow, Terence J; Pinheiro Da Silva, Paulo; Salayandia, Leonardo

    2010-06-18

    Using Domain Requirements to Achieve Science-Oriented Provenance Eric Stephan1 Todd Halter1 Terence Critchlow1 Paulo Pinheiro da Silva2 Leonardo Salayandia2 1 Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA, USA 2 University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso TX, USA Abstract. The US Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radi- ation Measurement Program (ARM) is adopting the use of formalized provenance to support observational data products produced by ARM operations and relied upon by researchers. Because of the diversity of needs in the climate community provenance will need to be conveyed in a domain-oriented context. This paper explores a use case where semantic abstract workflows (SAW) are employed as a means to filter, aggregate, and contextually describe the historical events responsible for the ARM data product the scientist is relying upon.

  6. Malarial parasite diversity in chimpanzees: the value of comparative approaches to ascertain the evolution of Plasmodium falciparum antigens

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    . Msp2 and var2CSA, however, show extended recent polymorphism in P. falciparum that likely originated after the P. reichenowi-P. falciparum split. The accumulation of such diversity may indicate adaptation to the human host. These examples support the notion that comparative approaches among P. falciparum and its related species will be of great value in understanding the evolution of proteins that are important in parasite invasion of the human red blood cell, as well as those involved in malaria pathogenesis. PMID:24044371

  7. Provenance in Data Interoperability for Multi-Sensor Intercomparison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynnes, Chris; Leptoukh, Greg; Berrick, Steve; Shen, Suhung; Prados, Ana; Fox, Peter; Yang, Wenli; Min, Min; Holloway, Dan; Enloe, Yonsook

    2008-01-01

    As our inventory of Earth science data sets grows, the ability to compare, merge and fuse multiple datasets grows in importance. This requires a deeper data interoperability than we have now. Efforts such as Open Geospatial Consortium and OPeNDAP (Open-source Project for a Network Data Access Protocol) have broken down format barriers to interoperability; the next challenge is the semantic aspects of the data. Consider the issues when satellite data are merged, cross-calibrated, validated, inter-compared and fused. We must match up data sets that are related, yet different in significant ways: the phenomenon being measured, measurement technique, location in space-time or quality of the measurements. If subtle distinctions between similar measurements are not clear to the user, results can be meaningless or lead to an incorrect interpretation of the data. Most of these distinctions trace to how the data came to be: sensors, processing and quality assessment. For example, monthly averages of satellite-based aerosol measurements often show significant discrepancies, which might be due to differences in spatio- temporal aggregation, sampling issues, sensor biases, algorithm differences or calibration issues. Provenance information must be captured in a semantic framework that allows data inter-use tools to incorporate it and aid in the intervention of comparison or merged products. Semantic web technology allows us to encode our knowledge of measurement characteristics, phenomena measured, space-time representation, and data quality attributes in a well-structured, machine-readable ontology and rulesets. An analysis tool can use this knowledge to show users the provenance-related distrintions between two variables, advising on options for further data processing and analysis. An additional problem for workflows distributed across heterogeneous systems is retrieval and transport of provenance. Provenance may be either embedded within the data payload, or transmitted

  8. Morphologic and structural evolution of the Algerian Margin since Messinian (-6 Myr); First results of a new experimental approach.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dominguez, S.; Strzerzynski, P.; Déverchère, J.; Boudiaf, A.; Yelles, K.

    2009-04-01

    In the framework of the ANR (Agence Nationale de la Recherche) DANACOR Project, dedicated to the seismo-tectonic study of the Algerian Margin, we have developed an experimental approach based on a new type of analog models to investigate its morpho-structural evolution over the last 6 Myr. Present day structure of the Algerian margin results from a polyphased geologic evolution starting, during Late Oligocene, with the opening of the Western Mediterranean Sea. During lower Miocene, back-arc extension and slab roll-back, associated to the Tethyan oceanic subduction induced accretion of the Kabylian crustal blocks against the North African passive margin. At the end of Miocene, a main tectono-climatic event occurred, the Messinian salinity crisis, that left a significant footprint on the marine sedimentation and coastal morphology. Finally, during Upper Pliocene and Quaternary, due to the ongoing crustal convergence between Africa and Eurasia, the Algerian Margin experienced active compression as shown by north dipping thrusts located onland (Yelles et al., 2006) and south dipping reverse faults located at sea (Déverchère et al. 2005, Domzig et al., 2006). The occurrence of moderate to strong compressive earthquakes, such as the Boumerdes earthquake (Mw 6.9, 2003) indicates that the deformation is still active. In such a context, the objectives of our study are to evaluate the impact of the Messinian salinity crisis on the morphological and sedimentological evolution of the margin and to test different hypothesis concerning the recent compressive tectonic event that developed in the last millions years and more particularly how it affects the margin and coastal domain tectonics. To model a whole continental margin, we've modified a recent experimental technique developed initially to study the interactions between Tectonics-Erosion-Sedimentation (TES) in active mountain foreland (Graveleau and Dominguez, 2008). Erosion of emerged topographies (coastal domain) is

  9. EVOLUTION OF ANTENNA PERFORMANCE FOR APPLICATIONS IN THERMAL MEDICNE

    PubMed Central

    Stauffer, P.R.; Maccarini, P.F.

    2013-01-01

    This presentation provides an overview of electromagnetic heating technology that has proven useful in clinical applications of hyperthermia therapy for cancer. Several RF and microwave antenna designs are illustrated which highlight the evolution of technology from simple waveguide antennas to spatially and temporally adjustable multiple antenna phased arrays for deep heating, conformal arrays for superficial heating, and compatible approaches for radiometric and magnetic resonance image based non-invasive thermal monitoring. Examples of heating capabilities for several recently developed applicators demonstrate highly adjustable power deposition that has not been possible in the past. PMID:23487445

  10. An extensible framework for provenance in human terrain visual analytics.

    PubMed

    Walker, Rick; Slingsby, Aiden; Dykes, Jason; Xu, Kai; Wood, Jo; Nguyen, Phong H; Stephens, Derek; Wong, B L William; Zheng, Yongjun

    2013-12-01

    We describe and demonstrate an extensible framework that supports data exploration and provenance in the context of Human Terrain Analysis (HTA). Working closely with defence analysts we extract requirements and a list of features that characterise data analysed at the end of the HTA chain. From these, we select an appropriate non-classified data source with analogous features, and model it as a set of facets. We develop ProveML, an XML-based extension of the Open Provenance Model, using these facets and augment it with the structures necessary to record the provenance of data, analytical process and interpretations. Through an iterative process, we develop and refine a prototype system for Human Terrain Visual Analytics (HTVA), and demonstrate means of storing, browsing and recalling analytical provenance and process through analytic bookmarks in ProveML. We show how these bookmarks can be combined to form narratives that link back to the live data. Throughout the process, we demonstrate that through structured workshops, rapid prototyping and structured communication with intelligence analysts we are able to establish requirements, and design schema, techniques and tools that meet the requirements of the intelligence community. We use the needs and reactions of defence analysts in defining and steering the methods to validate the framework. PMID:24051780

  11. From Observation to Impacts: Provenance for Earth Science Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, H.; Tilmes, C.; Fox, P. A.; Zednik, S.; Duggan, B.; Aulenbach, S.; Wilson, B. D.; Manipon, G. J. M.; Privette, A. P.

    2014-12-01

    NASA's Earth Science Data Systems Working Group (ESDSWG) on Provenance is working on a provenance specification for use in Earth science data systems to capture, consume, and interpret the end-to-end data life cycle information. Based on W3C PROV, this Earth Science extension can be used as an interoperable specification for representing Earth science resources that includes observations by instruments, data producers, data processing systems, data archive centers, data users, analysis findings, and societal impacts. NASA is participating in the Big Earth Data Initiative (BEDI) and also leading a related Climate Data Initiative (CDI) effort. Under CDI, NASA is also working with the U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP) and the U.S. Group on Earth Observations (USGEO) to identify and make interoperable relevant data from multiple interagency sources. These interagency efforts will improve the discoverability, accessibility, and usability of Federal data and information products derived from civil Earth observations. We will present our progress to develop a provenance specification for representing Earth science resources from observation to impacts and how it can be used to support these initiatives. We will show how it can be used in earth science data systems to automatically capture, consume, and interpret provenance information using semantic technologies.

  12. Geospatial Data Provenance in the Semantic Web Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di, L.; Yue, P.

    2008-12-01

    Geospatial data will grow to multi-exabytes very soon. The major form of geospatial data is imagery collected by the Earth observing community through remote sensing methods. Those data, along with their derived products and model outputs, are archived in many data centers around the world. Geospatial data has to be converted to user-specific information and knowledge before they become useful. Such a user-specific information and knowledge is normally derived from multi-source data through a set of geoprocess steps. Recent technology advances in the united representation of geospatial data, information, and knowledge, the geospatial semantic web, the geospatial interoperability, and the artificial intelligence have made the automatic derivation of user-specific information and knowledge from diverse data sources in the web service environment possible. A prototype system for proofing such technologies has been constructed and successfully demonstrated. An operational systems is being development. With the ontology support, the system automatically constructs the executable workflow based on users' descriptions of what they want and the available services and the input data over the web, and execute the workflow to generate the user- specific product. In order for users to have the confidence to use such automatically generated products in real applications, complete and accurate provenance information must be provided to users, even before such user-specific products are generated. In this presentation, we will discuss the representation of geospatial data provenance, the automatic capturing of geospatial data provenance in the semantic web environment, and the management of geospatial data provenance. We will also discuss a prototype provenance management system that allows the users to query and access providence information.

  13. Representing annotation compositionality and provenance for the Semantic Web

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Though the annotation of digital artifacts with metadata has a long history, the bulk of that work focuses on the association of single terms or concepts to single targets. As annotation efforts expand to capture more complex information, annotations will need to be able to refer to knowledge structures formally defined in terms of more atomic knowledge structures. Existing provenance efforts in the Semantic Web domain primarily focus on tracking provenance at the level of whole triples and do not provide enough detail to track how individual triple elements of annotations were derived from triple elements of other annotations. Results We present a task- and domain-independent ontological model for capturing annotations and their linkage to their denoted knowledge representations, which can be singular concepts or more complex sets of assertions. We have implemented this model as an extension of the Information Artifact Ontology in OWL and made it freely available, and we show how it can be integrated with several prominent annotation and provenance models. We present several application areas for the model, ranging from linguistic annotation of text to the annotation of disease-associations in genome sequences. Conclusions With this model, progressively more complex annotations can be composed from other annotations, and the provenance of compositional annotations can be represented at the annotation level or at the level of individual elements of the RDF triples composing the annotations. This in turn allows for progressively richer annotations to be constructed from previous annotation efforts, the precise provenance recording of which facilitates evidence-based inference and error tracking. PMID:24268021

  14. Long term modeling of the links between economics, technical progress and environment: Evolution of approaches and new trends

    SciTech Connect

    Edmonds, J.

    1992-10-01

    This paper examines the evolution of modeling on greenhouse as emissions. The paper briefly highlights the origins and early efforts to model greenhouse gas emissions, efforts subsequent to 1988, and the shape of the next generation of greenhouse gas emissions models. Particular emphasis is placed on the author's own contributions, including the Edmonds-Reilly Model and the second generation model.

  15. Long term modeling of the links between economics, technical progress and environment: Evolution of approaches and new trends

    SciTech Connect

    Edmonds, J.

    1992-10-01

    This paper examines the evolution of modeling on greenhouse as emissions. The paper briefly highlights the origins and early efforts to model greenhouse gas emissions, efforts subsequent to 1988, and the shape of the next generation of greenhouse gas emissions models. Particular emphasis is placed on the author`s own contributions, including the Edmonds-Reilly Model and the second generation model.

  16. Soil geomorphology and morphometric analysis to approach denudation rates and geomorphological evolution of Limnopolar basin; Byers Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, Susana del Carmen; De Pablo, Miguel Angel; Otero, Xose Luis; Quesada, Antonio

    2015-04-01

    Limnopolar Lake is located in Byers Peninsula Plateau at 85-100m a.s.l. in maritime Antarctic environment. The peninsula, in the western end of Livingston Island, (latitude 62°34'35" S, longitude 61°13'07" W) has more favourable environmental conditions for soil development than other Antarctic regions. Finished the glacial climate conditions in the area began the weathering and edaphic processes. There are several attempts to date the Domo's Roctch cap melting in Byers peninsula based on limnological records studies giving dates of 9.5, 8.3, 6.0 and 5.0 Ka BP while was dated in 6.3 Ka BP in the basis of neotectonic approach. Nevertheless some authors have documented a period of glacial re-advance in the South Shetland Islands from around 7.0 Ka BP, persisting even until 5.0 Ka BP. During cup ice melting mainly isostatic but also tectonic (4%) uplift of the area free of ice started. Based on the date of marine terrace system (70, 55 and 24 m a.s.l.) developed in free of ice coast of the Livingstone Inland a rate of uplift of 0.4 m/Ka was stablished. General speaking that the melting of the ice cap resulted in the establishment of a lacustrine system spread all over Byers peninsula. At a first stage of evolution waters from the ice melting flooded preexisting topographic depressions lead lakes, while an incipient river networks were developing. Nevertheless, hypsometric integral of Limnopolar watershed shows the existence of at least three downcutting steps into Byers Plateau and the lake is located over the last step above the nick point of the river which is incised into glacial deposit. The base of the sedimentary record of the lake was found at 234 cm of deep and dated at about 8.3 Ka BP but corresponds to glacial sediments. In the same core sample, the change to lacustrine characteristics was found at about 211 cm and dated in 6.7 Ka BP. On the other hand, shore of the lake is excavated at 20 m from the upper part of the basin and the transversal profile of

  17. Seamless Provenance Representation and Use in Collaborative Science Scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Missier, P.; Ludaescher, B.; Bowers, S.; Altintas, I.; Anand, M. K.; Dey, S.; Sarkar, A.; Shrestha, B.; Goble, C.

    2010-12-01

    The notion of sharing scientific data has only recently begun to gain ground in science, where data is still considered a private asset. There is growing evidence, however, that the benefits of scientific collaboration through early data sharing during the course of a science project may outgrow the risk of losing exclusive ownership of the data. As exemplar success stories are making the headlines[1], principles of effective information sharing have become the subject of e-science research. In particular, any piece of published data should be self-describing, to the extent necessary for consumers to determine its suitability for reuse in their own projects. This is accomplished by associating a body of formally specified and machine-processable metadata to the data. When data is produced and reused by independent groups, however, metadata interoperability issues emerge. This is the case for provenance, a form of metadata that describes the history of a data product, Y. Provenance is typically expressed as a graph-structured set of dependencies that account for the sequence of computational or interactive steps that led to Y, often starting from some primary, observational data. Traversing dependency graphs is one of the mechanisms used to answer questions on data reliability. In the context of the NSF DataONE project[2], we have been studying issues of provenance interoperability in scientific collaboration scenarios. Consider a first scientist, Alice, who publishes a data product X along with its provenance, and a second scientist who further transforms X into a new product Y, also along with its provenance. A third scientist, who is interested in Y, expects to be able to trace Y's history up to the inputs used by Alice. This is only possible, however, if provenance accumulates into a single, uniform graph that can be seamlessly traversed. This becomes problematic when provenance is captured using different tools and computational models (i.e. workflow systems

  18. Futility: a concept in evolution.

    PubMed

    Burns, Jeffrey P; Truog, Robert D

    2007-12-01

    The debate about how to resolve cases in which patients and families demand interventions that clinicians regard as futile has been in evolution over the past 20 years. This debate can be divided into three generations. The first generation was characterized by attempts to define futility in terms of certain clinical criteria. These attempts failed because they proposed limitations to care based on value judgments for which there is no consensus among a significant segment of society. The second generation was a procedural approach that empowered hospitals, through their ethics committees, to decide whether interventions demanded by families were futile. Many hospitals adopted such policies, and some states incorporated this approach into legislation. This approach has also failed because it gives hospitals authority to decide whether or not to accede to demands that the clinicians regard as unreasonable, when any national consensus on what is a "beneficial treatment" remains under intense debate. Absent such a consensus, procedural mechanisms to resolve futility disputes inevitably confront the same insurmountable barriers as attempts to define futility. We therefore predict emergence of a third generation, focused on communication and negotiation at the bedside. We present a paradigm that has proven successful in business and law. In the small number of cases in which even the best efforts at communication and negotiation fail, we suggest that clinicians should find ways to better support each other in providing this care, rather than seeking to override the requests of these patients and families. PMID:18079232

  19. Provenance for Runtime Workflow Steering and Validation in Computational Seismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spinuso, A.; Krischer, L.; Krause, A.; Filgueira, R.; Magnoni, F.; Muraleedharan, V.; David, M.

    2014-12-01

    Provenance systems may be offered by modern workflow engines to collect metadata about the data transformations at runtime. If combined with effective visualisation and monitoring interfaces, these provenance recordings can speed up the validation process of an experiment, suggesting interactive or automated interventions with immediate effects on the lifecycle of a workflow run. For instance, in the field of computational seismology, if we consider research applications performing long lasting cross correlation analysis and high resolution simulations, the immediate notification of logical errors and the rapid access to intermediate results, can produce reactions which foster a more efficient progress of the research. These applications are often executed in secured and sophisticated HPC and HTC infrastructures, highlighting the need for a comprehensive framework that facilitates the extraction of fine grained provenance and the development of provenance aware components, leveraging the scalability characteristics of the adopted workflow engines, whose enactment can be mapped to different technologies (MPI, Storm clusters, etc). This work looks at the adoption of W3C-PROV concepts and data model within a user driven processing and validation framework for seismic data, supporting also computational and data management steering. Validation needs to balance automation with user intervention, considering the scientist as part of the archiving process. Therefore, the provenance data is enriched with community-specific metadata vocabularies and control messages, making an experiment reproducible and its description consistent with the community understandings. Moreover, it can contain user defined terms and annotations. The current implementation of the system is supported by the EU-Funded VERCE (http://verce.eu). It provides, as well as the provenance generation mechanisms, a prototypal browser-based user interface and a web API built on top of a NoSQL storage

  20. Visualisation methods for large provenance collections in data-intensive collaborative platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spinuso, Alessandro; Fligueira, Rosa; Atkinson, Malcolm; Gemuend, Andre

    2016-04-01

    This work investigates improving the methods of visually representing provenance information in the context of modern data-driven scientific research. It explores scenarios where data-intensive workflows systems are serving communities of researchers within collaborative environments, supporting the sharing of data and methods, and offering a variety of computation facilities, including HPC, HTC and Cloud. It focuses on the exploration of big-data visualization techniques aiming at producing comprehensive and interactive views on top of large and heterogeneous provenance data. The same approach is applicable to control-flow and data-flow workflows or to combinations of the two. This flexibility is achieved using the W3C-PROV recommendation as a reference model, especially its workflow oriented profiles such as D-PROV (Messier et al. 2013). Our implementation is based on the provenance records produced by the dispel4py data-intensive processing library (Filgueira et al. 2015). dispel4py is an open-source Python framework for describing abstract stream-based workflows for distributed data-intensive applications, developed during the VERCE project. dispel4py enables scientists to develop their scientific methods and applications on their laptop and then run them at scale on a wide range of e-Infrastructures (Cloud, Cluster, etc.) without making changes. Users can therefore focus on designing their workflows at an abstract level, describing actions, input and output streams, and how they are connected. The dispel4py system then maps these descriptions to the enactment platforms, such as MPI, Storm, multiprocessing. It provides a mechanism which allows users to determine the provenance information to be collected and to analyze it at runtime. For this work we consider alternative visualisation methods for provenance data, from infinite lists and localised interactive graphs, to radial-views. The latter technique has been positively explored in many fields, from text

  1. Sensor Data Management, Validation, Correction, and Provenance for Building Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Castello, Charles C; Sanyal, Jibonananda; Rossiter, Jeffrey S; Hensley, Zachary; New, Joshua Ryan

    2014-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) conducts research on technologies that use a wide range of sensors to develop and characterize building energy performance. The management of high-resolution sensor data, analysis, and tracing lineage of such activities is challenging. Missing or corrupt data due to sensor failure, fouling, drifting, calibration error, or data logger failure is another issue. This paper focuses on sensor data management, validation, correction, and provenance to combat these issues, ensuring complete and accurate sensor datasets for building technologies applications and research. The design and development of two integrated software products are discussed: Sensor Data Validation and Correction (SensorDVC) and the Provenance Data Management System (ProvDMS) platform.

  2. Towards Provenance and Traceability in CRISTAL for HEP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamdasani, Jetendr; Branson, Andrew; McClatchey, Richard

    2014-06-01

    This paper discusses the CRISTAL object lifecycle management system and its use in provenance data management and the traceability of system events. This software was initially used to capture the construction and calibration of the CMS ECAL detector at CERN for later use by physicists in their data analysis. Some further uses of CRISTAL in different projects (CMS, neuGRID and N4U) are presented as examples of its flexible data model. From these examples, applications are drawn for the High Energy Physics domain and some initial ideas for its use in data preservation HEP are outlined in detail in this paper. Currently investigations are underway to gauge the feasibility of using the N4U Analysis Service or a derivative of it to address the requirements of data and analysis logging and provenance capture within the HEP long term data analysis environment.

  3. A population genetics-based and phylogenetic approach to understanding the evolution of virulence in the genus Listeria.

    PubMed

    den Bakker, Henk C; Bundrant, Brittany N; Fortes, Esther D; Orsi, Renato H; Wiedmann, Martin

    2010-09-01

    The genus Listeria includes (i) the opportunistic pathogens L. monocytogenes and L. ivanovii, (ii) the saprotrophs L. innocua, L. marthii, and L. welshimeri, and (iii) L. seeligeri, an apparent saprotroph that nevertheless typically contains the prfA virulence gene cluster. A novel 10-loci multilocus sequence typing scheme was developed and used to characterize 67 isolates representing six Listeria spp. (excluding L. grayi) in order to (i) provide an improved understanding of the phylogeny and evolution of the genus Listeria and (ii) use Listeria as a model to study the evolution of pathogenicity in opportunistic environmental pathogens. Phylogenetic analyses identified six well-supported Listeria species that group into two main subdivisions, with each subdivision containing strains with and without the prfA virulence gene cluster. Stochastic character mapping and phylogenetic analysis of hly, a gene in the prfA cluster, suggest that the common ancestor of the genus Listeria contained the prfA virulence gene cluster and that this cluster was lost at least five times during the evolution of Listeria, yielding multiple distinct saprotrophic clades. L. welshimeri, which appears to represent the most ancient clade that arose from an ancestor with a prfA cluster deletion, shows a considerably lower average sequence divergence than other Listeria species, suggesting a population bottleneck and a putatively different ecology than other saprotrophic Listeria species. Overall, our data suggest that, for some pathogens, loss of virulence genes may represent a selective advantage, possibly by facilitating adaptation to a specific ecological niche. PMID:20656873

  4. A Population Genetics-Based and Phylogenetic Approach to Understanding the Evolution of Virulence in the Genus Listeria▿ †

    PubMed Central

    den Bakker, Henk C.; Bundrant, Brittany N.; Fortes, Esther D.; Orsi, Renato H.; Wiedmann, Martin

    2010-01-01

    The genus Listeria includes (i) the opportunistic pathogens L. monocytogenes and L. ivanovii, (ii) the saprotrophs L. innocua, L. marthii, and L. welshimeri, and (iii) L. seeligeri, an apparent saprotroph that nevertheless typically contains the prfA virulence gene cluster. A novel 10-loci multilocus sequence typing scheme was developed and used to characterize 67 isolates representing six Listeria spp. (excluding L. grayi) in order to (i) provide an improved understanding of the phylogeny and evolution of the genus Listeria and (ii) use Listeria as a model to study the evolution of pathogenicity in opportunistic environmental pathogens. Phylogenetic analyses identified six well-supported Listeria species that group into two main subdivisions, with each subdivision containing strains with and without the prfA virulence gene cluster. Stochastic character mapping and phylogenetic analysis of hly, a gene in the prfA cluster, suggest that the common ancestor of the genus Listeria contained the prfA virulence gene cluster and that this cluster was lost at least five times during the evolution of Listeria, yielding multiple distinct saprotrophic clades. L. welshimeri, which appears to represent the most ancient clade that arose from an ancestor with a prfA cluster deletion, shows a considerably lower average sequence divergence than other Listeria species, suggesting a population bottleneck and a putatively different ecology than other saprotrophic Listeria species. Overall, our data suggest that, for some pathogens, loss of virulence genes may represent a selective advantage, possibly by facilitating adaptation to a specific ecological niche. PMID:20656873

  5. Examining the Prospective Scuba Diver: Which Exclusions are Proven?

    PubMed Central

    Beauprie, Ian

    1989-01-01

    Who can safely dive? All prospective divers in Canada must have a physician's approval to start training. Many review articles and typical check-list medical forms, however, imply exclusions that are not well proven. The author critically analyzes current diving and diving accident statistics and discusses the physiology of risk. He also discusses diving morbidity and mortality from pressure changes, illness caused by immersion only, hypothermia, and diving during pregnancy. PMID:21248872

  6. Provenance of sandstones in the Golconda terrane, north central Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, E.A. )

    1991-02-01

    The upper Paleozoic Golconda terrane of north-central Nevada is a composite of several structurally bounded subterranes made of clastic, volcanic, and carbonate rocks. The clastic rocks provide important clues for the interpretation of the provenance and paleogeographic settings of the different lithologic assemblages found in these subterranes. Two petrographically distinct sandstones are identified in the Golconda terrane in the Osgood Mountains and the Hot springs Range of north-central Nevada. The sandstone of the Mississippian Farrel Canyon Formation, part of the Dry Hills subterrane, is characterized by quartzose and sedimentary and lithic-rich clasts with a small feldspar component. in contrast, the sandstone of the Permian Poverty Peak (II) subterrane is a silty quartzarenite with no lithic component, and a very limited feldspar component. The sandstone of the Farrel Canyon Formation is similar to nonvolcanic sandstones reported from elsewhere in the Golconda terrane. Modal data reflect a provenance of a recycled orogen and permit the interpretation that it could have been derived from the antler orogen as has been proposed for other sandstones of the golconda terrane. The sandstone of the Poverty Peak (II) subterrane is more mature than any of the other sandstones in either the Golconda terrane, the Antler overlap sequence, or the Antler foreland basin sequence. Modal data put the Poverty Peak (II) sandstone in the continental block provenance category. The distinct extrabasinal provenances represented in these different sandstones support the idea that the Golconda basin was made up of complex paleogeographic settings, which included multiple sources of extrabasinal sediment.

  7. Quantifying the provenance of aeolian sediments using multiple composite fingerprints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Benli; Niu, Qinghe; Qu, Jianjun; Zu, Ruiping

    2016-09-01

    We introduce a new fingerprinting method that uses multiple composite fingerprints for studies of aeolian sediment provenance. We used this method to quantify the provenance of sediments on both sides of the Qinghai-Tibetan Railway (QTR) in the Cuona Lake section of the Tibetan Plateau (TP), in an environment characterized by aeolian and fluvial interactions. The method involves repeatedly solving a linear mixing model based on mass conservation; the model is not limited to spatial scale or transport types and uses all the tracer groups that passed the range check, Kruskal-Wallis H-test, and a strict analytical solution screening. The proportional estimates that result from using different composite fingerprints are highly variable; however, the average of these fingerprints has a greater accuracy and certainty than any single fingerprint. The results show that sand from the lake beach, hilly surface, and gullies contribute, respectively, 48%, 31% and 21% to the western railway sediments and 43%, 33% and 24% to the eastern railway sediments. The difference between contributions from various sources on either side of the railway, which may increase in the future, was clearly related to variations in local transport characteristics, a conclusion that is supported by grain size analysis. The construction of the QTR changed the local cycling of materials, and the difference in provenance between the sediments that are separated by the railway reflects the changed sedimentary conditions on either side of the railway. The effectiveness of this method suggests that it will be useful in other studies of aeolian sediments.

  8. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound of histologically proven hepatic epithelioid hemangioendothelioma

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Yi; Wang, Wen-Ping; Cantisani, Vito; D’Onofrio, Mirko; Ignee, Andre; Mulazzani, Lorenzo; Saftoiu, Adrian; Sparchez, Zeno; Sporea, Ioan; Dietrich, Christoph F

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To analyze contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) features of histologically proven hepatic epithelioid hemangioendothelioma (HEHE) in comparison to other multilocular benign focal liver lesions (FLL). METHODS: Twenty-five patients with histologically proven HEHE and 45 patients with histologically proven multilocular benign FLL were retrospectively reviewed. Four radiologists assessed the CEUS enhancement pattern in consensus. RESULTS: HEHE manifested as a single (n = 3) or multinodular (n = 22) FLL. On CEUS, HEHE showed rim-like (18/25, 72%) or heterogeneous hyperenhancement (7/25, 28%) in the arterial phase and hypoenhancement (25/25, 100%) in the portal venous and late phases (PVLP), a sign of malignancy. Eighteen patients showed central unenhanced areas (18/25, 72%); in seven patients (7/25, 28%), more lesions were detected in the PVLP. In contrast, all patients with hemangioma and focal nodular hyperplasia showed hyperenhancement as the most distinctive feature (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: CEUS allows for characterization of unequivocal FLL. By analyzing the hypoenhancement in the PVLP, CEUS can determine the malignant nature of HEHE. PMID:27217705

  9. General Relativity Theory - Well Proven and Also Incomplete: Further Arguments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandes, Jürgen

    In the former article "General Relativity Theory - well proven and also incomplete?" with a few arguments it was proven that general relativity (GRT) makes contradictory predictions about the total energy of a particle resting in the gravitational field. With a few further arguments it was proven that this contradiction is resolved by expanding general relativity. General relativity is contradictious in energy questions since on one side the total energy of a particle resting in the gravitational field is lower than its rest mass (there is energy needed to pull out the particle from the gravitational field) while on the other side it is equal to its rest mass (this is a consequence of the equivalence principle). In the following article these considerations are generalized to a moving particle. A particle moving in the gravitational field has a total energy less than its rest mass times the relativistic γ-factor since there is energy needed to pull the particle out without changing its velocity. On the other side total energy of a moving particle is equal to its rest mass times the relativistic γ-factor (this is a consequence of the equivalence principle, too). This contradiction is resolved by expanding general relativity in the same manner as above. The other fact: Though it is not the aim of the author to reject general relativity but to expand it, he is treated as some uncritical anti-relativist - since the start of his considerations and meanwhile for more than 20 years.

  10. Mode and tempo in the evolution of socio-political organization: reconciling ‘Darwinian’ and ‘Spencerian’ evolutionary approaches in anthropology

    PubMed Central

    Currie, Thomas E.; Mace, Ruth

    2011-01-01

    Traditional investigations of the evolution of human social and political institutions trace their ancestry back to nineteenth century social scientists such as Herbert Spencer, and have concentrated on the increase in socio-political complexity over time. More recent studies of cultural evolution have been explicitly informed by Darwinian evolutionary theory and focus on the transmission of cultural traits between individuals. These two approaches to investigating cultural change are often seen as incompatible. However, we argue that many of the defining features and assumptions of ‘Spencerian’ cultural evolutionary theory represent testable hypotheses that can and should be tackled within a broader ‘Darwinian’ framework. In this paper we apply phylogenetic comparative techniques to data from Austronesian-speaking societies of Island South-East Asia and the Pacific to test hypotheses about the mode and tempo of human socio-political evolution. We find support for three ideas often associated with Spencerian cultural evolutionary theory: (i) political organization has evolved through a regular sequence of forms, (ii) increases in hierarchical political complexity have been more common than decreases, and (iii) political organization has co-evolved with the wider presence of hereditary social stratification. PMID:21357233

  11. Geochemical indicators of provenance and tectonic setting of Mississippian pelites of the Ouachita fold belt

    SciTech Connect

    Totten, M.W. ); Blatt, H.; Weaver, B.L. )

    1992-01-01

    Plate tectonic reconstructions of the southern continental margin of North America during the Paleozoic are inconclusive. Numerous conflicting models have been proposed for the opening and closing of the Iapetus Ocean and the subsequent deposition and deformation of the Ouachita System. Considerable confusion also exists concerning the provenance of the Carboniferous flysch deposits of the Ouachitas. Trace element geochemistry of shales from the Stanley Group constrain both the provenance of the sediments and the plate tectonic setting during the Mississippian evolution of the southern continental margin. Th/Sc and Cr/Th ratios support a cratonic source for the majority of samples analyzed. However, in several samples the Th/Sc ratio decreases and the Cr/Th ratio increases, suggesting a contribution from a more mafic source. Using element ratio-ratio diagrams, all of the samples plot along a curve consistent with a two-component mixing model between a felsic and a mafic source. Both a tantalum-niobium trough and a strongly negative strontium anomaly are seen in upper-crust-normalized trace element spiderdiagrams. These anomalies are also present in interbedded volcaniclastics within the Stanley. The Stanley shales also exhibit a positive vanadium-chromium-nickel anomaly. The pervasive occurrence of these anomalies is interpreted as inherited from their source, and not from diagenetic alteration or sedimentary processes.

  12. Making Sense of 'Big Data' in Provenance Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vermeesch, P.

    2014-12-01

    Huge online databases can be 'mined' to reveal previously hidden trends and relationships in society. One could argue that sedimentary geology has entered a similar era of 'Big Data', as modern provenance studies routinely apply multiple proxies to dozens of samples. Just like the Internet, sedimentary geology now requires specialised statistical tools to interpret such large datasets. These can be organised on three levels of progressively higher order:A single sample: The most effective way to reveal the provenance information contained in a representative sample of detrital zircon U-Pb ages are probability density estimators such as histograms and kernel density estimates. The widely popular 'probability density plots' implemented in IsoPlot and AgeDisplay compound analytical uncertainty with geological scatter and are therefore invalid.Several samples: Multi-panel diagrams comprising many detrital age distributions or compositional pie charts quickly become unwieldy and uninterpretable. For example, if there are N samples in a study, then the number of pairwise comparisons between samples increases quadratically as N(N-1)/2. This is simply too much information for the human eye to process. To solve this problem, it is necessary to (a) express the 'distance' between two samples as a simple scalar and (b) combine all N(N-1)/2 such values in a single two-dimensional 'map', grouping similar and pulling apart dissimilar samples. This can be easily achieved using simple statistics-based dissimilarity measures and a standard statistical method called Multidimensional Scaling (MDS).Several methods: Suppose that we use four provenance proxies: bulk petrography, chemistry, heavy minerals and detrital geochronology. This will result in four MDS maps, each of which likely show slightly different trends and patterns. To deal with such cases, it may be useful to use a related technique called 'three way multidimensional scaling'. This results in two graphical outputs: an MDS

  13. Provenance-Enabled Integration of Sensor Network Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinheiro da Silva, P.; McGuinness, D. L.

    2014-12-01

    Ontology design in support of sensor networks requires deep scientific and technical knowledge. For instance, sensor network ontologies may define concepts rich enough to describe the selection of sensor locations that are driven by both scientific use cases, such as proximity to a physical entity, and technical requirements, such as wireless coverage. Our work in collaboration with IBM and the FUND for Lake George is set within the context of the Jefferson Project that aims to monitor, analyze, and understand observation and simulation data in support of decision making concerning the ecosystem of Lake George, NY. We have designed a Human-Aware Sensor Network Ontology (HASNet-O) that we believe is broadly reusable. We will highlight its contributions, describe its relationships to well used ontologies, and demonstrate it in action in the Jefferson Project. The ontology leverages best in class foundational ontologies including OBOE, VSTO, and PROV. One of the reasons HASNet-O is reusable is because it uses a provenance perspective to generalize what initially looked like sensor-specific terms that can be more accurately viewed as provenance terms. For example, we observe that the Activity concept from the PROV language, a W3C provenance standard, can be used to explain complete sensor lifecycles by describing how a network operates including how human interventions may interfere with the quality of the sensor network data, even for highly automated networks. We further observe that Observation activities, which are at the core of most sensor network ontologies, are not described in terms of deployments. In fact, Deployment activities are rarely documented in sensor data/metadata although Observation instances can only occur during the lifetime of Deployment instances. Our analysis of network ontologies in light of provenance knowledge includes a discussion about relationships. For instance, relationships between sensors and data are well-established provenance

  14. A Provenance Model for Real-Time Water Information Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Q.; Bai, Q.; Zednik, S.; Taylor, P.; Fox, P. A.; Taylor, K.; Kloppers, C.; Peters, C.; Terhorst, A.; West, P.; Compton, M.; Shu, Y.; Provenance Management Team

    2010-12-01

    Generating hydrological data products, such as flow forecasts, involves complex interactions among instruments, data simulation models, computational facilities and data providers. Correct interpretation of the data produced at various stages requires good understanding of how data was generated or processed. Provenance describes the lineage of a data product. Making provenance information accessible to hydrologists and decision makers not only helps to determine the data’s value, accuracy and authorship, but also enables users to determine the trustworthiness of the data product. In the water domain, WaterML2 [1] is an emerging standard which describes an information model and format for the publication of water observations data in XML. The W3C semantic sensor network incubator group (SSN-XG) [3] is producing ontologies for the description of sensor configurations. By integrating domain knowledge of this kind into the provenance information model, the integrated information model will enable water domain researchers and water resource managers to better analyse how observations and derived data products were generated. We first introduce the Proof Mark Language (PML2) [2], WaterML2 and the SSN-XG sensor ontology as the proposed provenance representation formalism. Then we describe some initial implementations how these standards could be integrated to represent the lineage of water information products. Finally we will highlight how the provenance model for a distributed real-time water information system assists the interpretation of the data product and establishing trust. Reference [1] Taylor, P., Walker, G., Valentine, D., Cox, Simon: WaterML2.0: Harmonising standards for water observation data. Geophysical Research Abstracts. Vol. 12. [2] da Silva, P.P., McGuinness, D.L., Fikes, R.: A proof markup language for semantic web services. Inf. Syst. 31(4) (2006), 381-395. [3] W3C Semantic Sensor Network Incubator Group http://www.w3.org/2005/Incubator

  15. A Global/Local Finite Element Approach for Predicting Interlaminar and Intralaminar Damage Evolution in Composite Stiffened Panels Under Compressive Load

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietropaoli, Elisa; Riccio, Aniello

    2011-04-01

    This paper addresses the prediction of intralaminar and interlaminar damage onset and evolution in composite structures through the use of a finite element based procedure. This procedure joins methodologies whose credibility has been already assessed in literature such as the Virtual Crack Closure Technique (for delamination) and the ply discount approach (for matrix/fiber failures). In order to establish the reliability of the procedure developed, comparisons with literature experimental results on a stiffened panel with an embedded delamination are illustrated. The methodology proposed, implemented in ANSYS as post-processing routines, is combined with a finite element model of the panel, built by adopting both shell and solid elements within the frame of an embedded global/local approach to connect differently modelled substructures.

  16. Testing the hypothesis on cognitive evolution of modern humans' learning ability: current status of past-climatic approaches.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoneda, Minoru; Abe-Ouchi, Ayako; Kawahata, Hodaka; Yokoyama, Yusuke; Oguchi, Takashi

    2014-05-01

    The impact of climate change on human evolution is important and debating topic for many years. Since 2010, we have involved in a general joint project entitled "Replacement of Neanderthal by Modern Humans: Testing Evolutional Models of Learning", which based on a theoretical prediction that the cognitive ability related to individual and social learning divide fates of ancient humans in very unstable Late Pleistocene climate. This model predicts that the human populations which experienced a series of environmental changes would have higher rate of individual learners, while detailed reconstructions of global climate change have reported fluent and drastic change based on ice cores and stalagmites. However, we want to understand the difference between anatomically modern human which survived and the other archaic extinct humans including European Neanderthals and Asian Denisovans. For this purpose the global synchronized change is not useful for understanding but the regional difference in the amplitude and impact of climate change is the information required. Hence, we invited a geophysicist busing Global Circulation Model to reconstruct the climatic distribution and temporal change in a continental scale. At the same time, some geochemists and geographers construct a database of local climate changes recorded in different proxies. At last, archaeologists and anthropologists tried to interpret the emergence and disappearance of human species in Europe and Asia on the reconstructed past climate maps using some tools, such as Eco-cultural niche model. Our project will show the regional difference in climate change and related archaeological events and its impact on the evolution of learning ability of modern humans.

  17. µ-XRF Analysis of Trace Elements in Lapis Lazuli-Forming Minerals for a Provenance Study.

    PubMed

    Angelici, Debora; Borghi, Alessandro; Chiarelli, Fabrizia; Cossio, Roberto; Gariani, Gianluca; Lo Giudice, Alessandro; Re, Alessandro; Pratesi, Giovanni; Vaggelli, Gloria

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents new developments on the provenance study of lapis lazuli started by our group in 2008: during the years a multi-technique approach has been exploited to obtain minero-petrographic characterization and creation of a database considering only rock samples of known provenance. Since the final aim of the study is to develop a method to analyze archeological findings and artworks made with lapis lazuli in a completely non-invasive way, ion beam analysis techniques were employed to trace the provenance of the raw material used for the production of artifacts. Continuing this goal and focusing the analysis on determination of more significant minero-chemical markers for the provenance study of trace elements in different minerals, the method was extended with the use of micro X-ray fluorescence (µ-XRF), to test the potential of the technique for this application. The analyzes were focused on diopside and pyrite in lapis lazuli samples of known provenance (Afghanistan, Tajikistan, and Siberia). In addition, µ-XRF data were compared with micro proton-induced X-ray emission (µ-PIXE) results to verify the agreement between the two databases and to compare the analytical performance of both techniques for this application. PMID:25782348

  18. Selection of a T7 promoter mutant with enhanced in vitro activity by a novel multi-copy bead display approach for in vitro evolution.

    PubMed

    Paul, Siddhartha; Stang, Alexander; Lennartz, Klaus; Tenbusch, Matthias; Überla, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    In vitro evolution of nucleic acids and proteins is a powerful strategy to optimize their biological and physical properties. To select proteins with the desired phenotype from large gene libraries, the proteins need to be linked to the gene they are encoded by. To facilitate selection of the desired phenotype and isolation of the encoding DNA, a novel bead display approach was developed, in which each member of a library of beads is first linked to multiple copies of a clonal gene variant by emulsion polymerase chain reaction. Beads are transferred to a second emulsion for an in vitro transcription-translation reaction, in which the protein encoded by each bead's amplicon covalently binds to the bead present in the same picoliter reactor. The beads then contain multiple copies of a clonal gene variant and multiple molecules of the protein encoded by the bead's gene variant and serve as the unit of selection. As a proof of concept, we screened a randomized library of the T7 promoter for high expression levels by flow cytometry and identified a T7 promoter variant with an ~10-fold higher in vitro transcriptional activity, confirming that the multi-copy bead display approach can be efficiently applied to in vitro evolution. PMID:23074193

  19. Selection of a T7 promoter mutant with enhanced in vitro activity by a novel multi-copy bead display approach for in vitro evolution

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Siddhartha; Stang, Alexander; Lennartz, Klaus; Tenbusch, Matthias; Überla, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    In vitro evolution of nucleic acids and proteins is a powerful strategy to optimize their biological and physical properties. To select proteins with the desired phenotype from large gene libraries, the proteins need to be linked to the gene they are encoded by. To facilitate selection of the desired phenotype and isolation of the encoding DNA, a novel bead display approach was developed, in which each member of a library of beads is first linked to multiple copies of a clonal gene variant by emulsion polymerase chain reaction. Beads are transferred to a second emulsion for an in vitro transcription–translation reaction, in which the protein encoded by each bead’s amplicon covalently binds to the bead present in the same picoliter reactor. The beads then contain multiple copies of a clonal gene variant and multiple molecules of the protein encoded by the bead’s gene variant and serve as the unit of selection. As a proof of concept, we screened a randomized library of the T7 promoter for high expression levels by flow cytometry and identified a T7 promoter variant with an ∼10-fold higher in vitro transcriptional activity, confirming that the multi-copy bead display approach can be efficiently applied to in vitro evolution. PMID:23074193

  20. Cumulative cultural evolution in the laboratory: An experimental approach to the origins of structure in human language

    PubMed Central

    Kirby, Simon; Cornish, Hannah; Smith, Kenny

    2008-01-01

    We introduce an experimental paradigm for studying the cumulative cultural evolution of language. In doing so we provide the first experimental validation for the idea that cultural transmission can lead to the appearance of design without a designer. Our experiments involve the iterated learning of artificial languages by human participants. We show that languages transmitted culturally evolve in such a way as to maximize their own transmissibility: over time, the languages in our experiments become easier to learn and increasingly structured. Furthermore, this structure emerges purely as a consequence of the transmission of language over generations, without any intentional design on the part of individual language learners. Previous computational and mathematical models suggest that iterated learning provides an explanation for the structure of human language and link particular aspects of linguistic structure with particular constraints acting on language during its transmission. The experimental work presented here shows that the predictions of these models, and models of cultural evolution more generally, can be tested in the laboratory. PMID:18667697

  1. Hydro-chemical evolution of groundwater and mixing between aquifers: a statistical approach based on major ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Linhua; Gui, Herong

    2015-03-01

    Geochemical analysis is a useful tool in hydrogeological assessment, particularly in constructing a conceptual model of a hydrogeological system. In this study, major ion concentrations of 53 groundwater samples from the coal-bearing aquifer in the Qidong coal mine, northern Anhui Province of China have been processed by statistical analysis for understanding either hydro-chemical characteristics or hydrological evolution, which will be useful for the safety of coal mining. The results suggest that most of the samples are Na-SO4 and Na-HCO3 types, and their hydro-chemical compositions are mainly controlled by dissolution of more soluble minerals (e.g. calcite) and weathering of silicate minerals (e.g. plagioclase). Two groups of samples have been subdivided by quantile and scatter plots of factor scores, one is related to different degrees of water-rock interactions and another is related to groundwater mixing. Moreover, four end members have been identified and the mixing calculation suggests that the groundwater samples affected by mixing have 20-100 % contribution from the loose layer aquifer (LA), and therefore, groundwater from the LA in the coal mine should be taken seriously during coal mining. The study demonstrated that statistical analysis is useful for connecting the hydrochemistry of groundwater with hydrological evolution of the aquifer.

  2. Provenance-Powered Automatic Workflow Generation and Composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J.; Lee, S.; Pan, L.; Lee, T. J.

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, scientists have learned how to codify tools into reusable software modules that can be chained into multi-step executable workflows. Existing scientific workflow tools, created by computer scientists, require domain scientists to meticulously design their multi-step experiments before analyzing data. However, this is oftentimes contradictory to a domain scientist's daily routine of conducting research and exploration. We hope to resolve this dispute. Imagine this: An Earth scientist starts her day applying NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) published climate data processing algorithms over ARGO deep ocean temperature and AMSRE sea surface temperature datasets. Throughout the day, she tunes the algorithm parameters to study various aspects of the data. Suddenly, she notices some interesting results. She then turns to a computer scientist and asks, "can you reproduce my results?" By tracking and reverse engineering her activities, the computer scientist creates a workflow. The Earth scientist can now rerun the workflow to validate her findings, modify the workflow to discover further variations, or publish the workflow to share the knowledge. In this way, we aim to revolutionize computer-supported Earth science. We have developed a prototyping system to realize the aforementioned vision, in the context of service-oriented science. We have studied how Earth scientists conduct service-oriented data analytics research in their daily work, developed a provenance model to record their activities, and developed a technology to automatically generate workflow starting from user behavior and adaptability and reuse of these workflows for replicating/improving scientific studies. A data-centric repository infrastructure is established to catch richer provenance to further facilitate collaboration in the science community. We have also established a Petri nets-based verification instrument for provenance-based automatic workflow generation and recommendation.

  3. Indus Basin sediment provenance constrained using garnet geochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alizai, Anwar; Clift, Peter D.; Still, John

    2016-08-01

    The chemical and mineralogical diversity of western Himalayan rivers is the result of each of them draining different tectonic and lithologic units, whose character is partly transferred to the sediments carried by those rivers. Garnet geochemistry was employed to discriminate provenance in the Indus River system. We characterized the geochemistry of garnet sediment grains from the modern Indus and all its major tributaries, as well as the related but ephemeral Ghaggar-Hakra River and dune sand from the Thar Desert. Garnet geochemistry displays a unique signature for the Himalayan rivers on the east of the Indus drainage compared to those in the western drainage. The trunk Indus remains distinct because of the dominant arc-type pyrope-garnet derived from Kohistan and the Karakoram. The Jhellum, which lies just east of the modern Indus has modest concentrations of arc-type pyrope garnets, which are more depleted in the other eastern tributaries. Their presence in the Jhellum reflects recycling of trunk Indus garnets through the Miocene Siwalik Group foreland sedimentary rocks. The Thar Desert dune sample contains significant numbers of grains similar to those in the trunk Indus, likely reworked by monsoon winds from the SW. Our data further indicate the presence of a Himalayan river channel east of the present Indus, close to the delta, in the Nara River valley during the middle Holocene. Sands from this channel cannot be distinguished from the Indus on the basis of their garnet geochemistry alone but we favour their sedimentation from an Indus channel rather than reworking of desert sands by another stream. The garnet geochemistry shows some potential as a provenance tool, but cannot be used alone to uniquely discriminate Indus Basin provenance.

  4. Structural and stratigraphic evolution of the Iberia and Newfoundland hyper-extended rifted margins: A quantitative modeling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohn, Geoffroy; Karner, Garry; Manatschal, Gianreto; Johnson, Christopher

    2014-05-01

    Rifted margins develop through polyphased extensional events leading eventually to break-up. Of particular interests are the stratigraphic and subsidence evolutions of these polyphased rift events. In this contribution, we investigate the spatial and temporal evolution of the Iberia-Newfoundland rift system from the Permian, post-orogenic development of European crust to early Cretaceous break-up on the continental lithosphere between Iberia and Newfoundland. Based on seismic reflection and refraction and ODP drill data combined with a kinematic and flexural model for the deformation of the lithosphere, we explore the general tectono-stratigraphic evolution of Iberia-Newfoundland rift system and its relationship to repeated lithospheric thinning events. Our results emphasize the kinematic and isostatic interactions engendered by the distinct distribution, amplitude and depth-partitioning of extensional events that allowed the formation of the Iberia-Newfoundland rift system. The initial stratigraphic record is controlled by Permian, post-orogenic topographic erosion, lithospheric thinning, and its subsequent thermal re-equilibration that lead to a regional subsidence characterized by non-marine to marine sedimentation. During late Triassic and early Jurassic time, extensional deformation was characterized by broadly-distributed depth uniform thinning related to minor thinning of the crust. From the Late Jurassic onward, extensional deformation was progressively localized and associated with depth-dependent thinning that finally lead to the formation of hyper-extended domains pre-dating the Late Aptian/Early Albian break-up of the Iberia-Newfoundland continental lithosphere. In particular, extension was diachronous, propagating in severity from south to north - while the southern Iberian margin was undergoing significant thinning in the Tithonian-early Berriasian, the northern margin (i.e., Galicia Bank) had yet to start rifting. Break-up is likewise diachronous

  5. CT imaging signs of surgically proven bowel trauma.

    PubMed

    LeBedis, Christina A; Anderson, Stephan W; Bates, David D B; Khalil, Ramy; Matherly, David; Wing, Heidi; Burke, Peter A; Soto, Jorge A

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the incidence and interobserver agreement of individual CT findings as well as the bowel injury prediction score (BIPS) in surgically proven bowel injury after blunt abdominal trauma. This HIPAA-compliant retrospective study was IRB approved and consent was waived. All patients 14 years or older who sustained surgically proven bowel injury after blunt abdominal trauma between 1/1/2004 and 6/30/2015 were included. Admission trauma MDCT scans were independently interpreted by two abdominal fellowship-trained radiologists who recorded the following CT findings: intraperitoneal fluid, mesenteric hematoma/fat stranding, bowel wall thickening/hematoma, active intravenous contrast extravasation, free intraperitoneal air, bowel wall discontinuity, and focal bowel hypoenhancement. Subsequently, the electronic medical records of the included patients, admission abdominal physical exam results, admission white blood cell count, and findings at exploratory laparotomy of the included patients were recorded. Thirty-three patients met the inclusion criteria. The incidence and interobserver agreement of the CT findings were as follows: intraperitoneal fluid 93.9 %, kappa = 0.784 (good); mesenteric hematoma/fat stranding 84.8 %, kappa = 0.718 (good); bowel wall thickening/hematoma 42.4 %, kappa = 0.491 (moderate); active IV contrast extravasation 36.3 %, kappa = 1.00 (perfect); free intraperitoneal air 21.2 %, kappa = 0.904 (very good), bowel wall discontinuity 6.1 %, kappa = 1.00 (perfect); and focal bowel hypoenhancement 6.1 %, kappa = 0.468 (moderate). An absence of the specified CT findings was encountered in 9.1 % with surgically proven bowel injuries (kappa = 1.00, perfect). In our study, 9/16 patients or 56.3 % had a bowel injury prediction score (BIPS) of 2 or more as defined by McNutt et al. (J Trauma Acute Care Surg 78(1):105-111, 2014). The presence of intraperitoneal fluid and

  6. Capturing, Harmonizing and Delivering Data and Quality Provenance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leptoukh, Gregory; Lynnes, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Satellite remote sensing data have proven to be vital for various scientific and applications needs. However, the usability of these data depends not only on the data values but also on the ability of data users to assess and understand the quality of these data for various applications and for comparison or inter-usage of data from different sensors and models. In this paper, we describe some aspects of capturing, harmonizing and delivering this information to users in the framework of distributed web-based data tools.

  7. The Apollo 16 Mare Component: Petrography, Geochemistry, and Provenance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeigler, R. A.; Haskin, L. A.; Korotev, R. L.; Jolliff, B. L.; Gillis, J. J.

    2003-01-01

    The A16 (Apollo16) site in the lunar nearside highlands is 220 km from the nearest mare. Thus it is no surprise that mare basalt samples are uncommon at the site. Here, we present the petrography and geochemistry of 5 new mare basalt samples found at the A16 site. We also discuss possible provenances of all A16 mare basalt samples using high-resolution global data for the distribution of Fe and Ti on the lunar surface derived from Clementine UV-VIS data [1-2].

  8. Clinical differences among PCR-proven dengue serotype infections.

    PubMed

    Limkittikul, Kriengsak; Yingsakmongkon, Sangchai; Jittmittraphap, Akanitt; Chuananon, Somchai; Kongphrai, Yuphin; Kowasupathr, Surasak; Rojanawatsirivit, Chaiyaporn; Mammen, Mammen P; Jampangern, Wipawee

    2005-11-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the clinical spectra of the dengue serotypes proven by the PCR technique. This retrospective study reviewed the clinical information of dengue-infected patients who were admitted to northeastern provincial hospitals in Thailand from June to September 2002. Dengue infection and viral serotypes were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Paired anti-dengue immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM from paired sera were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Ninety-nine PCR-proven dengue-infected Thai patients were studied. Their ages ranged from 3-30 years. They were infected with DEN1, DEN2, DEN3 and DEN4 in 21, 55, 12, and 12%, respectively. Twenty-two percent had primary and 78% had secondary infections. Dengue fever was the most common presentation for both primary (77.2%) and secondary infections (46.7%). The ratios of dengue fever:dengue hemorrhagic fever (DF:DHF) and non-dengue shock syndrome:dengue shock syndrome (non-DSS:DSS) for DEN2 was the lowest of the dengue serotypes. There was no difference in the duration of fever, percentage of hepatomegaly and bleeding among the serotypes in both DF and DHF. The trends in the white blood cells, lymphocyte and atypical lymphocyte counts in DEN3 were the highest, while those of DEN1 were the lowest of the dengue serotypes. PMID:16610645

  9. Preventing aggressive prostate cancer with proven cardiovascular disease preventive methods.

    PubMed

    Moyad, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been the number one cause of death in the U.S. for 114 of the last 115 years. Risk factors for prostate cancer have primarily mirrored risk proven risk factors for CVD, especially aggressive disease. Obesity, dyslipidemia, glucose intolerance, metabolic syndrome, unhealthy dietary habits or caloric excess, lack of physical activity, and inflammation are just some of these shared risk factors. The evidence also suggests proven CVD preventive measures are identical to prostate cancer preventive measures, especially in regard to aggressive disease. Thus, apart from lifestyle measures that can encourage optimal heart and prostate health there are potentially several dietary supplements that need to be avoided in healthy men because they may also increase the risk of prostate cancer. However, there are also several low-cost, generic, safe in the appropriate individuals, and naturally derived agents that could reduce prostate cancer risk, and these can be discussed and remembered utilizing the acronym S.A.M. (statins, aspirin, and/or metformin). PMID:26112486

  10. Negative Biopsy after Referral for Biopsy-Proven Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tae, Chung Hyun; Lee, Jun Haeng; Min, Byung-Hoon; Kim, Kyoung-Mee; Rhee, Poong-Lyul; Kim, Jae J.

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Repeat endoscopy with biopsy is often performed in patients with previously diagnosed gastric cancer to determine further treatment plans. However, biopsy results may differ from the original pathologic report. We reviewed patients who had a negative biopsy after referral for gastric cancer. Methods A total of 116 patients with negative biopsy results after referral for biopsy-proven gastric cancer were enrolled. Outside pathology slides were reviewed. Images of the first and second endoscopic examinations were reviewed. We reviewed the clinical history from referral to the final treatment. Results Eighty-eight patients (76%) arrived with information about the lesion from the referring physician. Among 96 patients with available outside slides, the rate of interobserver variation was 24%. Endoscopy was repeated at our institution; 85 patients (73%) were found to have definite lesions, whereas 31 patients (27%) had indeterminate lesions. In the group with definite lesions, 71% of the lesions were depressed in shape. The most common cause of a negative biopsy was mistargeting. In the group with indeterminate lesions, 94% had insufficient information. All patients with adequate follow-up were successfully treated based on the findings in the follow-up endoscopy. Conclusions A negative biopsy after referral for biopsy-proven gastric cancer is mainly caused by mistargeting and insufficient information during the referral. PMID:25963084

  11. Triangulating the provenance of African elephants using mitochondrial DNA

    PubMed Central

    Ishida, Yasuko; Georgiadis, Nicholas J; Hondo, Tomoko; Roca, Alfred L

    2013-01-01

    African elephant mitochondrial (mt) DNA follows a distinctive evolutionary trajectory. As females do not migrate between elephant herds, mtDNA exhibits low geographic dispersal. We therefore examined the effectiveness of mtDNA for assigning the provenance of African elephants (or their ivory). For 653 savanna and forest elephants from 22 localities in 13 countries, 4258 bp of mtDNA was sequenced. We detected eight mtDNA subclades, of which seven had regionally restricted distributions. Among 108 unique haplotypes identified, 72% were found at only one locality and 84% were country specific, while 44% of individuals carried a haplotype detected only at their sampling locality. We combined 316 bp of our control region sequences with those generated by previous trans-national surveys of African elephants. Among 101 unique control region haplotypes detected in African elephants across 81 locations in 22 countries, 62% were present in only a single country. Applying our mtDNA results to a previous microsatellite-based assignment study would improve estimates of the provenance of elephants in 115 of 122 mis-assigned cases. Nuclear partitioning followed species boundaries and not mtDNA subclade boundaries. For taxa such as elephants in which nuclear and mtDNA markers differ in phylogeography, combining the two markers can triangulate the origins of confiscated wildlife products. PMID:23798975

  12. Lapis lazuli provenance study by means of micro-PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Re, Alessandro; Giudice, Alessandro Lo; Angelici, Debora; Calusi, Silvia; Giuntini, Lorenzo; Massi, Mirko; Pratesi, Giovanni

    2011-10-01

    In this paper we report about the micro-PIXE characterisation of lapis lazuli, for a provenance study of this semi-precious stone, used for glyptic as early as 7000 years ago. The final aim is to find markers permitting to identify the origin of the raw material coming from three quarries in regions of historical importance: Afghanistan, Pamir Mountains and Siberia. This may help to reconstruct trade routes, especially for ancient objects for which written testimonies are scanty or absent at all. Due to the heterogeneity of lapis lazuli we concentrate our attention on single phases instead of the whole stone; in particular we focused on two of the main phases: lazurite, responsible for the blue colour, and diopside, the most frequent accessory mineral. This study was preceded and completed by means of microanalysis with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM-EDX) and Cold-Cathodoluminescence (cold-CL) analysis. Despite the limited number of analysed samples, results are sufficient to exclude/suggest a few features as provenance markers, partly confirming what has been previously published in literature.

  13. Provenance of Neoproterozoic sedimentary basement of northern Iran, Kahar Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etemad-Saeed, Najmeh; Hosseini-Barzi, Mahboubeh; Adabi, Mohammad Hossein; Sadeghi, Abbas; Houshmandzadeh, Abdolrahim

    2015-11-01

    This article presents new data to understand the nature of the hidden crystalline basement of northern Iran and the tectonic setting of Iran during late Neoproterozoic time. The siliciclastic-dominated Kahar Formation represents the oldest known exposures of northern Iran and comprises late Ediacaran (ca. 560-550 Ma) compositionally immature sediments including mudrocks, sandstones, and conglomerates. This work focuses on provenance of three well preserved outcrops of this formation in Alborz Mountains: Kahar Mountain, Sarbandan, and Chalus Road, through petrographic and geochemical methods. Mineralogical Index of Alteration (MIA) and Chemical Index of Alteration (CIA-after correction for K-metasomatism) values combined with A-CN-K relations suggest moderate weathering in the source areas. The polymictic nature of Kahar conglomerates indicates a mixed provenance for them. However, modal analysis of Kahar sandstones (volcanic to plagioclase-rich lithic arkose) and whole rock geochemistry of mudrocks suggest that they are largely first-cycle sediments and that their sources were remarkably late Ediacaran, intermediate-felsic igneous rocks from proximal arc settings. Tectonic setting discrimination diagrams also indicate a convergent plate margin and continental arc related basin for Kahar sediments. This interpretation is supported by the phyllo-tectic to tectic composition and geochemistry of mudrocks. These results reveal the presence of a felsic/intermediate subduction-related basement (∼600-550 Ma) in this region, which provides new constraints on subduction scenario during this time interval in Iran, as a part of the Peri-Gondwanan terranes.

  14. Disentangling the Circularity in Sen's Capability Approach: An Analysis of the Co-Evolution of Functioning Achievement and Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binder, Martin; Coad, Alex

    2011-01-01

    There is an ambiguity in Amartya Sen's capability approach as to what constitutes an individual's resources, conversion factors and valuable functionings. What we here call the "circularity problem" points to the fact that all three concepts seem to be mutually endogenous and interdependent. To econometrically account for this entanglement we…

  15. Ontology-Driven Provenance Management in eScience: An Application in Parasite Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahoo, Satya S.; Weatherly, D. Brent; Mutharaju, Raghava; Anantharam, Pramod; Sheth, Amit; Tarleton, Rick L.

    Provenance, from the French word "provenir", describes the lineage or history of a data entity. Provenance is critical information in scientific applications to verify experiment process, validate data quality and associate trust values with scientific results. Current industrial scale eScience projects require an end-to-end provenance management infrastructure. This infrastructure needs to be underpinned by formal semantics to enable analysis of large scale provenance information by software applications. Further, effective analysis of provenance information requires well-defined query mechanisms to support complex queries over large datasets. This paper introduces an ontology-driven provenance management infrastructure for biology experiment data, as part of the Semantic Problem Solving Environment (SPSE) for Trypanosoma cruzi (T.cruzi). This provenance infrastructure, called T.cruzi Provenance Management System (PMS), is underpinned by (a) a domain-specific provenance ontology called Parasite Experiment ontology, (b) specialized query operators for provenance analysis, and (c) a provenance query engine. The query engine uses a novel optimization technique based on materialized views called materialized provenance views (MPV) to scale with increasing data size and query complexity. This comprehensive ontology-driven provenance infrastructure not only allows effective tracking and management of ongoing experiments in the Tarleton Research Group at the Center for Tropical and Emerging Global Diseases (CTEGD), but also enables researchers to retrieve the complete provenance information of scientific results for publication in literature.

  16. Has Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) co-evolved with Dothistroma septosporum in Scotland? Evidence for spatial heterogeneity in the susceptibility of native provenances.

    PubMed

    Perry, Annika; Brown, Anna V; Cavers, Stephen; Cottrell, Joan E; Ennos, Richard A

    2016-09-01

    Spatial heterogeneity in pathogen pressure leads to genetic variation in, and evolution of, disease-related traits among host populations. In contrast, hosts are expected to be highly susceptible to exotic pathogens as there has been no evolution of defence responses. Host response to pathogens can therefore be an indicator of a novel or endemic pathosystem. Currently, the most significant threat to native British Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) forests is Dothistroma needle blight (DNB) caused by the foliar pathogen Dothistroma septosporum which is presumed to be exotic. A progeny-provenance trial of 6-year-old Scots pine, comprising eight native provenances each with four families in six blocks, was translocated in April 2013 to a clear-fell site in Galloway adjacent to a DNB-infected forest. Susceptibility to D. septosporum, measured as DNB severity (estimated percentage nongreen current-year needles), was assessed visually over 2 years (2013-2014 and 2014-2015; two assessments per year). There were highly significant differences in susceptibility among provenances but not among families for each annual assessment. Provenance mean susceptibility to D. septosporum was negatively and significantly associated with water-related variables at site of origin, potentially due to the evolution of low susceptibility in the host in response to high historical pathogen pressure. PMID:27606006

  17. Trends in the Evolution of Snake Toxins Underscored by an Integrative Omics Approach to Profile the Venom of the Colubrid Phalotris mertensi.

    PubMed

    Campos, Pollyanna Fernandes; Andrade-Silva, Débora; Zelanis, André; Paes Leme, Adriana Franco; Rocha, Marisa Maria Teixeira; Menezes, Milene Cristina; Serrano, Solange M T; Junqueira-de-Azevedo, Inácio de Loiola Meirelles

    2016-01-01

    Only few studies on snake venoms were dedicated to deeply characterize the toxin secretion of animals from the Colubridae family, despite the fact that they represent the majority of snake diversity. As a consequence, some evolutionary trends observed in venom proteins that underpinned the evolutionary histories of snake toxins were based on data from a minor parcel of the clade. Here, we investigated the proteins of the totally unknown venom from Phalotris mertensi (Dipsadinae subfamily), in order to obtain a detailed profile of its toxins and to appreciate evolutionary tendencies occurring in colubrid venoms. By means of integrated omics and functional approaches, including RNAseq, Sanger sequencing, high-resolution proteomics, recombinant protein production, and enzymatic tests, we verified an active toxic secretion containing up to 21 types of proteins. A high content of Kunitz-type proteins and C-type lectins were observed, although several enzymatic components such as metalloproteinases and an L-amino acid oxidase were also present in the venom. Interestingly, an arguable venom component of other species was demonstrated as a true venom protein and named svLIPA (snake venom acid lipase). This finding indicates the importance of checking the actual protein occurrence across species before rejecting genes suggested to code for toxins, which are relevant for the discussion about the early evolution of reptile venoms. Moreover, trends in the evolution of some toxin classes, such as simplification of metalloproteinases and rearrangements of Kunitz and Wap domains, parallel similar phenomena observed in other venomous snake families and provide a broader picture of toxin evolution. PMID:27412610

  18. Trends in the Evolution of Snake Toxins Underscored by an Integrative Omics Approach to Profile the Venom of the Colubrid Phalotris mertensi

    PubMed Central

    Campos, Pollyanna Fernandes; Andrade-Silva, Débora; Zelanis, André; Paes Leme, Adriana Franco; Rocha, Marisa Maria Teixeira; Menezes, Milene Cristina; Serrano, Solange M.T.; Junqueira-de-Azevedo, Inácio de Loiola Meirelles

    2016-01-01

    Only few studies on snake venoms were dedicated to deeply characterize the toxin secretion of animals from the Colubridae family, despite the fact that they represent the majority of snake diversity. As a consequence, some evolutionary trends observed in venom proteins that underpinned the evolutionary histories of snake toxins were based on data from a minor parcel of the clade. Here, we investigated the proteins of the totally unknown venom from Phalotris mertensi (Dipsadinae subfamily), in order to obtain a detailed profile of its toxins and to appreciate evolutionary tendencies occurring in colubrid venoms. By means of integrated omics and functional approaches, including RNAseq, Sanger sequencing, high-resolution proteomics, recombinant protein production, and enzymatic tests, we verified an active toxic secretion containing up to 21 types of proteins. A high content of Kunitz-type proteins and C-type lectins were observed, although several enzymatic components such as metalloproteinases and an L-amino acid oxidase were also present in the venom. Interestingly, an arguable venom component of other species was demonstrated as a true venom protein and named svLIPA (snake venom acid lipase). This finding indicates the importance of checking the actual protein occurrence across species before rejecting genes suggested to code for toxins, which are relevant for the discussion about the early evolution of reptile venoms. Moreover, trends in the evolution of some toxin classes, such as simplification of metalloproteinases and rearrangements of Kunitz and Wap domains, parallel similar phenomena observed in other venomous snake families and provide a broader picture of toxin evolution. PMID:27412610

  19. Speeding up evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoff, Wouter

    Proteins and cells offer great opportunities for green chemistry and renewable energy. However, few of these possible applications have been put into practice because of details that turn out to be major barriers to cost-efficient implementation and that prove difficult to solve by genetic engineering. A better understanding of molecular evolution promises a novel approach to addressing these important challenges. While major advances have been made, major gaps remain in understanding the evolution of proteins. Different approaches to accelerating molecular evolution into targeted directions will be discussed, including recent progress on evolution in non-homogeneous environments.

  20. Temporal and spectral evolution of a storage ring FEL source: Experimental results on Super-ACO and new theoretical approach

    SciTech Connect

    Hara, T.; Couprie, M.E. ||

    1995-12-31

    The Super-ACO FEL source in UV is now used for applications like a time-resolved fluorescence in biology and two colors experiments coupling FEL and Synchrotron Radiation, which are naturally synchronized. The stability of the FEL is then a critical issue for the users. Detailed experimental studies conducted on the temporal characteristics of the laser micropulse showed various phenomena, such as a longitudinal micropulse jitter and a deformation of a longitudinal micropulse distribution. A similar analysis has been performed on the laser spectral evolution with a scanning Fabry-Perot interferometer, showing a spectrum narrowing, and a wavelength drift. A longitudinal feedback system developed after the first user experiment, allowed to reduce significantly the longitudinal jitter, the intensity fluctuation and the spectral drift. Nevertheless, the stability of the FEL is very dependent on any perturbation, and the observed phenomena can not be described by former models like super-mode assuming a stationary regime. A new theoretical model has then been developed, in order to simulate dynamic behaviors. A simple iterative method is employed to obtain the laser spectrum. The access to the temporal distribution requires additional complexity, because the Fourier transformation has to be performed for each pass. The comparison between the experimental data and the simulation results will be given.

  1. Can cathodoluminescence of feldspar be used as provenance indicator?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholonek, Christiane; Augustsson, Carita

    2016-05-01

    We have studied feldspar from crystalline rocks for its textural and spectral cathodoluminescence (CL) characteristics with the aim to reveal their provenance potential. We analyzed ca. 60 rock samples of plutonic, volcanic, metamorphic, and pegmatitic origin from different continents and of 16 Ma to 2 Ga age for their feldspar CL textures and ca. 1200 feldspar crystals from these rocks for their CL color spectra. Among the analyzed rocks, igneous feldspar is most commonly zoned, whereby oscillatory zoning can be confirmed to be typical for volcanic plagioclase. The volcanic plagioclase also less commonly contains twin lamellae that are visible in CL light than crystals from other rock types. Alkali feldspar, particularly from igneous and pegmatitic rocks, was noted to be most affected by alteration features, visible as dark spots, lines and irregular areas. The size of all textural features of up to ca. 150 μm, in combination with possible alteration in both the source area and the sedimentary system, makes the CL textures of feldspar possible to use for qualitative provenance research only. We observed alkali feldspar mostly to luminesce in a bluish color and sometimes in red, and plagioclase in green to yellow. The corresponding CL spectra are dominated by three apparent intensity peaks at 440-520 nm (mainly blue), 540-620 nm (mainly green) and 680-740 nm (red to infrared). A dominance of the peak in the green wavelength interval over the blue one for plagioclase makes CL particularly useful for the differentiation of plagioclase from alkali feldspar. An apparent peak position in red to infrared at < 710 nm for plagioclase mainly is present in mafic rocks. Present-day coastal sand from Peru containing feldspar with the red to infrared peak position mainly exceeding 725 nm for northern Peruvian sand and a larger variety for sand from southern Peru illustrates a discriminative effect of different source areas. We conclude that the provenance application

  2. Determining the Provenance of Late Paleozoic Loess Using Radiogenic Isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiltse, M. R.; Aciego, S.; Soreghan, G. S.; Bailey, A.; Heavens, N. G.; Hinnov, L. A.

    2014-12-01

    Loess deposits in the sedimentary record of the Late Paleozoic tropics are anomalous because Quaternary loess is commonly glaciogenic, and thus confined to mid-high latitudes. The only loess in the tropics today is associated with mountain glaciation. Given the icehouse conditions of the Late Paleozoic, tropical loess could perhaps reflect sourcing from glaciogenic weathering in the Central Pangaean Mountains. Our goals are to constrain spatial and temporal variations in atmospheric "dustiness" and loess/dust provenance. To test the glacial weathering hypothesis and evaluate loess provenance, we collected preliminary data from two intervals (Moscovian or middle Pennsylvanian) of the Copacabana Formation, Madre de Dios Basin (Bolivia). Two 15-m sections representing carbonate inner platform environments were processed to separate the fine-grained silicate mineral fraction (SMF). Given the proximity to arc volcanism, ash fall could complicate the wind-blown weathering signal; initial work is aimed at assessing the volcanic versus continental inputs to the basin. Visual inspection and initial physical - chemical measurements of the dust-loess size fraction indicates discrete differences between the two sections, as well as between ash-rich and ash-poor intervals. The lower section has intervals with up to 72% suspected ash and SMF (non-ash) of 1-7%. The suspected ash layers in the lower section have higher grain sizes (20-40 µm) and distinct 143Nd/144Nd isotopic compositions (ɛNd = -3.5, -3.8) compared to the ash-poor intervals (8 µm, ɛNd = -5.0 to -8.8). The upper section, free of visible ash layers, has high SMF (mean 4-7% up to 41%) with similar size distributions (6-11 µm) and ɛNd (-7.4 to -7.7) to the lower section, but more radiogenic 87Sr/86Sr compositions (0.797 versus 0.71 - 0.75). The distinct physical and isotopic characteristics of the ash and SMF in the sections and sub-intervals suggests that deconvolving ash and loess/dust inputs will be possible

  3. Provenance Capture in Data Access and Data Manipulation Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, P.; Fox, P. A.; McGuinness, D. L.; Gallagher, J. H.; Holloway, D.; Potter, N.

    2013-12-01

    There is increasing need to trace back the origins of data products, whether images or charts in a report, data obtained from a sensor on an instrument, a generated dataset referenced in a research paper, in government reports on the environment, or in a publication or poster presentation. Yet, most software applications that perform data access and manipulation keep only limited history of the data, i.e. the provenance. Imagine the following scenario: There is a figure in a report showing multiple graphs and plots related to global climate, the report is being drafted for a government agency. The graphs and plots are generated using an algorithm from an iPython Notebook, developed by a researcher who is using a particular data portal, where the algorithm pulls data from four data sets from that portal. That data is aggregated together over the time dimension, constrained to a few parameters, accessed using a particular piece of data access software, and converted from one datatype to another datatype; All the processing on the data sets was conducted by three different researchers from a public university, on a project funded by the same government agency requesting the report, with one Principal Investigator and two Co-Investigators. In this scenario, today we're lucky to get a blob of text under the figure that might say a couple things about the figure with a reference to a publication that was written a few years ago. Data citation, data publishing information, licensing information, and provenance are all lacking in the derived data products. What we really want is to be able to trace the figure all the way back to the original datasets, including what was done to those datasets; and to see information about the researchers, the project, the agency funding, the award, and the organizations collaborating on the project. In this paper we discuss the need for such information and traceback features, as well as new technologies and standards that can help us

  4. A numerical method based on the Fourier-Fourier transform approach for modeling 1-D electron plasma evolution. [in earth bow shock region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klimas, A. J.

    1983-01-01

    A numerical method is presented for studying one-dimensional electron plasma evolution under typical interplanetary conditions. The method applies the Fourier-Fourier transform approach to a plasma model that is a generalization of the electrostatic Vlasov-Poisson system of equations. Conservation laws that are modified to include the plasma model generalization and also the boundary effects of nonperiodic solutions are given. A new conservation law for entropy in the transformed space is then introduced. These conservation laws are used to verify the numerical solutions. A discretization error analysis is presented. Two numerical instabilities and the methods used for their suppression are treated. It is shown that in interplanetary plasma conditions, the bump-on-tail instability produces significant excitation of plasma oscillations at the Bohm-Gross frequency and its second harmonic. An explanation of the second harmonic excitation is given in terms of wave-wave coupling during the growth phase of the instability.

  5. An extended model for the evolution of prebiotic homochirality: a bottom-up approach to the origin of life.

    PubMed

    Gleiser, Marcelo; Walker, Sara Imari

    2008-08-01

    A generalized autocatalytic model for chiral polymerization is investigated in detail. Apart from enantiomeric cross-inhibition, the model allows for the autogenic (non-catalytic) formation of left and right-handed monomers from a substrate with reaction rates epsilon L and epsilon R, respectively. The spatiotemporal evolution of the net chiral asymmetry is studied for models with several values of the maximum polymer length, N. For N = 2, we study the validity of the adiabatic approximation often cited in the literature. We show that the approximation obtains the correct equilibrium values of the net chirality, but fails to reproduce the short time behavior. We show also that the autogenic term in the full N = 2 model behaves as a control parameter in a chiral symmetry-breaking phase transition leading to full homochirality from racemic initial conditions. We study the dynamics of the N--> infinity model with symmetric (epsilon L = epsilon R) autogenic formation, showing that it only achieves homochirality for epsilon > epsilon c, where epsilon c is an N-dependent critical value. For epsilon

  6. Embracing the comparative approach: how robust phylogenies and broader developmental sampling impacts the understanding of nervous system evolution.

    PubMed

    Hejnol, Andreas; Lowe, Christopher J

    2015-12-19

    Molecular biology has provided a rich dataset to develop hypotheses of nervous system evolution. The startling patterning similarities between distantly related animals during the development of their central nervous system (CNS) have resulted in the hypothesis that a CNS with a single centralized medullary cord and a partitioned brain is homologous across bilaterians. However, the ability to precisely reconstruct ancestral neural architectures from molecular genetic information requires that these gene networks specifically map with particular neural anatomies. A growing body of literature representing the development of a wider range of metazoan neural architectures demonstrates that patterning gene network complexity is maintained in animals with more modest levels of neural complexity. Furthermore, a robust phylogenetic framework that provides the basis for testing the congruence of these homology hypotheses has been lacking since the advent of the field of 'evo-devo'. Recent progress in molecular phylogenetics is refining the necessary framework to test previous homology statements that span large evolutionary distances. In this review, we describe recent advances in animal phylogeny and exemplify for two neural characters-the partitioned brain of arthropods and the ventral centralized nerve cords of annelids-a test for congruence using this framework. The sequential sister taxa at the base of Ecdysozoa and Spiralia comprise small, interstitial groups. This topology is not consistent with the hypothesis of homology of tripartitioned brain of arthropods and vertebrates as well as the ventral arthropod and rope-like ladder nervous system of annelids. There can be exquisite conservation of gene regulatory networks between distantly related groups with contrasting levels of nervous system centralization and complexity. Consequently, the utility of molecular characters to reconstruct ancestral neural organization in deep time is limited. PMID:26554039

  7. A phylogenetic approach to study the origin and evolution of plasmodesmata-localized glycosyl hydrolases family 17

    PubMed Central

    Gaudioso-Pedraza, Rocio; Benitez-Alfonso, Yoselin

    2014-01-01

    Colonization of the land by plants required major modifications in cellular structural composition and metabolism. Intercellular communication through plasmodesmata (PD) plays a critical role in the coordination of growth and cell activities. Changes in the form, regulation or function of these channels are likely linked to plant adaptation to the terrestrial environments. Constriction of PD aperture by deposition of callose is the best-studied mechanism in PD regulation. Glycosyl hydrolases family 17 (GHL17) are callose degrading enzymes. In Arabidopsis this is a large protein family, few of which have been PD-localized. The objective here is to identify correlations between evolution of this protein family and their role at PD and to use this information as a tool to predict the localization of candidates isolated in a proteomic screen. With this aim, we studied phylogenetic relationship between Arabidopsis GHL17 sequences and those isolated from fungi, green algae, mosses and monocot representatives. Three distinct phylogenetic clades were identified. Clade alpha contained only embryophytes sequences suggesting that this subgroup appeared during land colonization in organisms with functional PD. Accordingly, all PD-associated GHL17 proteins identified so far in Arabidopsis thaliana and Populus are grouped in this ‘embryophytes only’ phylogenetic clade. Next, we tested the use of this knowledge to discriminate between candidates isolated in the PD proteome. Transient and stable expression of GFP protein fusions confirmed PD localization for candidates contained in clade alpha but not for candidates contained in clade beta. Our results suggest that GHL17 membrane proteins contained in the alpha clade evolved and expanded during land colonization to play new roles, among others, in PD regulation. PMID:24904609

  8. Embracing the comparative approach: how robust phylogenies and broader developmental sampling impacts the understanding of nervous system evolution

    PubMed Central

    Hejnol, Andreas; Lowe, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    Molecular biology has provided a rich dataset to develop hypotheses of nervous system evolution. The startling patterning similarities between distantly related animals during the development of their central nervous system (CNS) have resulted in the hypothesis that a CNS with a single centralized medullary cord and a partitioned brain is homologous across bilaterians. However, the ability to precisely reconstruct ancestral neural architectures from molecular genetic information requires that these gene networks specifically map with particular neural anatomies. A growing body of literature representing the development of a wider range of metazoan neural architectures demonstrates that patterning gene network complexity is maintained in animals with more modest levels of neural complexity. Furthermore, a robust phylogenetic framework that provides the basis for testing the congruence of these homology hypotheses has been lacking since the advent of the field of ‘evo-devo’. Recent progress in molecular phylogenetics is refining the necessary framework to test previous homology statements that span large evolutionary distances. In this review, we describe recent advances in animal phylogeny and exemplify for two neural characters—the partitioned brain of arthropods and the ventral centralized nerve cords of annelids—a test for congruence using this framework. The sequential sister taxa at the base of Ecdysozoa and Spiralia comprise small, interstitial groups. This topology is not consistent with the hypothesis of homology of tripartitioned brain of arthropods and vertebrates as well as the ventral arthropod and rope-like ladder nervous system of annelids. There can be exquisite conservation of gene regulatory networks between distantly related groups with contrasting levels of nervous system centralization and complexity. Consequently, the utility of molecular characters to reconstruct ancestral neural organization in deep time is limited. PMID:26554039

  9. The chemical evolution of Kurnub Group palcowater in the Sinai-Negev province - A mass balance approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenthal, E.; Jones, B.F.; Weinberger, G.

    1998-01-01

    The chemical evolution of the Kurnub Group paleowater was studied starting from rainwater in recharge areas of the Sinai and along groundwater flowpaths leading to the natural outlets of this regional aquifer. This was achieved by investigating the chemical composition of groundwater, ionic ratios, degrees of saturation with common mineral species, normative analysis of dissolved salts and by modeling of rock/water interaction and mixing processes occurring along groundwater flow paths. The initial groundwater composition used is from the Nakhel well in Sinai. It evolves from desert rainwater percolating through typical Kurnub Group lithology in Sinai. This rainwater dissolves mainly gypsum, halite and dolomite together with smaller amounts of marine aerosol and K-feldspar. At the same time it precipitates calcite, SiO2, smectite and degasses CO2. Between the area of Nakhel and the northern Negev the chemistry of Kurnub Group waters is influenced by dissolution of halite and lesser amounts of gypsum of surficial origin in recharge areas, small amounts of feldspars and of dolomite cement in sandstones eroded from the Arabo-Nubian igneous massif of Sinai and organic degradation-derived CO2. Concomitantly, there is precipitation of calcite, smectite, SiO2 and probably analcime characteristic of sediments in continental closed basins. North of the Negev, the Kurnub Group fluids are diluted and altered by mixing with Judea Group aquifer groundwaters. On the E there is mixing with residual brines from the water body ancestral to the Dead Sea, prior to discharge into the Arava valley. Rock/water interaction indicated by NETPATH and PHREEQC modeling is in agreement with lithology and facies changes previously observed in the Kurnub Group sequence.

  10. A Multi-Tier Provenance Model for Global Climate Research

    SciTech Connect

    Stephan, Eric G.; Halter, Todd D.; Gibson, Tara D.; Beagley, Nathaniel; Schuchardt, Karen L.

    2009-08-19

    Global climate researchers rely upon many forms of sensor data and analytical methods to help profile subtle changes in climate conditions. The U.S. Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program provides researchers with curated products called Value Added Products (VAPs) resulting from continuous instrumentation streams, data fusion, and analytical profiling. To provide these projects the ARM operations and research teams rely upon a number of techniques to ensure strict quality control and quality assurance codes are maintained. End users in the climate research community are highly interested in obtaining as much causal evidence as possible and currently either not all the evidence are easily attainable or easily identifiable without significant effort. Our research interests are to identify a provenance model that serves both the producers and consumers of the VAP maintaining the quality assurance/quality control standards and tailored to meeting the individual researcher’s needs.

  11. Provenance of Apollo 15 deep drill core sediments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basu, A.; Bower, J. F.

    1977-01-01

    Modal analysis and electron probe microanalysis were performed on polished thin sections prepared from Apollo 15 deep drill core soils in an effort to characterize their provenance. The particles were in the 0.25-1.00 mm size range. The particles were classified into mineral fragments, agglutinates, glasses, rock fragments, and breccias. The results show that highland and mare material occur in the core in an approximately 60:40 ratio, with mare component generally increasing from bottom to top in the core. Quartz-normative basalts are nearly twice as abundant as olivine basalts. Nonmare sources include KREEP basalt flow units from some depth in the crust, excavated by cratering events and supplied to the site as 'rays'.

  12. Functional Requirements for Information Resource Provenance on the Web

    SciTech Connect

    McCusker, James P.; Lebo, Timothy; Graves, Alvaro; Difranzo, Dominic; Pinheiro da Silva, Paulo; McGuinness, Deborah L.

    2012-06-19

    We provide a means to formally explain the relationship between HTTP URLs and the representations returned when they are requested. According to existing World Wide Web architecture, the URL serves as an identier for a semiotic referent while the document returned via HTTP serves as a representation of the same referent. This begins with two sides of a semiotic triangle; the third side is the relationship between the URL and the representation received. We complete this description by extending the library science resource model Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Resources (FRBR) with cryptographic message and content digests to create a Functional Requirements for Information Resources (FRIR). We show how applying the FRIR model to HTTP GET and POST transactions disambiguates the many relationships between a given URL and all representations received from its request, provides fine-grained explanations that are complementary to existing explanations of web resources, and integrates easily into the emerging W3C provenance standard.

  13. ASDF: An Adaptable Seismic Data Format with Full Provenance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, J. A.; Krischer, L.; Tromp, J.; Lefebvre, M. P.

    2015-12-01

    In order for seismologists to maximize their knowledge of how the Earth works, they must extract the maximum amount of useful information from all recorded seismic data available for their research. This requires assimilating large sets of waveform data, keeping track of vast amounts of metadata, using validated standards for quality control, and automating the workflow in a careful and efficient manner. In addition, there is a growing gap between CPU/GPU speeds and disk access speeds that leads to an I/O bottleneck in seismic workflows. This is made even worse by existing seismic data formats that were not designed for performance and are limited to a few fixed headers for storing metadata.The Adaptable Seismic Data Format (ASDF) is a new data format for seismology that solves the problems with existing seismic data formats and integrates full provenance into the definition. ASDF is a self-describing format that features parallel I/O using the parallel HDF5 library. This makes it a great choice for use on HPC clusters. The format integrates the standards QuakeML for seismic sources and StationXML for receivers. ASDF is suitable for storing earthquake data sets, where all waveforms for a single earthquake are stored in a one file, ambient noise cross-correlations, and adjoint sources. The format comes with a user-friendly Python reader and writer that gives seismologists access to a full set of Python tools for seismology. There is also a faster C/Fortran library for integrating ASDF into performance-focused numerical wave solvers, such as SPECFEM3D_GLOBE. Finally, a GUI tool designed for visually exploring the format exists that provides a flexible interface for both research and educational applications. ASDF is a new seismic data format that offers seismologists high-performance parallel processing, organized and validated contents, and full provenance tracking for automated seismological workflows.

  14. Translocations of amphibians: Proven management method or experimental technique

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seigel, Richard A.; Dodd, C. Kenneth, Jr.

    2002-01-01

    In an otherwise excellent review of metapopulation dynamics in amphibians, Marsh and Trenham (2001) make the following provocative statements (emphasis added): If isolation effects occur primarily in highly disturbed habitats, species translocations may be necessary to promote local and regional population persistence. Because most amphibians lack parental care, they areprime candidates for egg and larval translocations. Indeed, translocations have already proven successful for several species of amphibians. Where populations are severely isolated, translocations into extinct subpopulations may be the best strategy to promote regional population persistence. We take issue with these statements for a number of reasons. First, the authors fail to cite much of the relevant literature on species translocations in general and for amphibians in particular. Second, to those unfamiliar with current research in amphibian conservation biology, these comments might suggest that translocations are a proven management method. This is not the case, at least in most instances where translocations have been evaluated for an appropriate period of time. Finally, the authors fail to point out some of the negative aspects of species translocation as a management method. We realize that Marsh and Trenham's paper was not concerned primarily with translocations. However, because Marsh and Trenham (2001) made specific recommendations for conservation planners and managers (many of whom are not herpetologists or may not be familiar with the pertinent literature on amphibians), we believe that it is essential to point out that not all amphibian biologists are as comfortable with translocations as these authors appear to be. We especially urge caution about advocating potentially unproven techniques without a thorough review of available options.

  15. Toward understanding early Earth evolution: Prescription for approach from terrestrial noble gas and light element records in lunar soils

    PubMed Central

    Ozima, Minoru; Yin, Qing-Zhu; Podosek, Frank A.; Miura, Yayoi N.

    2008-01-01

    Because of the almost total lack of geological record on the Earth's surface before 4 billion years ago, the history of the Earth during this period is still enigmatic. Here we describe a practical approach to tackle the formidable problems caused by this lack. We propose that examinations of lunar soils for light elements such as He, N, O, Ne, and Ar would shed a new light on this dark age in the Earth's history and resolve three of the most fundamental questions in earth science: the onset time of the geomagnetic field, the appearance of an oxygen atmosphere, and the secular variation of an Earth–Moon dynamical system. PMID:19001263

  16. The theory of evolution - a jewish perspective.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Avraham

    2010-07-01

    All possible pro and con arguments regarding the theory of evolution have been discussed and debated in the vast literature-scientific, religious, and lay-in the past 150 years. There is usually great zealotry in all debating parties, with mutual intolerance of ideas and concepts, disrespect toward opposing opinions and positions, and usage of very harsh language. This prejudiced approach usually does not allow for a reasonable debate. It is important to look at the facts, assumptions, and beliefs of the theory of evolution in a more calm and humble way. In this article a comparative analysis is offered between the scientific aspects of the theory of evolution and a Judaic approach to these aspects. The two sets of human thought-religion and science-are fundamentally different in their aims and purposes, in their methods of operation, in their scope of interest and issues, and in their origin and ramifications. Whenever science surpasses its limits, or religion exceeds its boundaries, it actually is a form of an abuse of both. This has happened to the theory of evolution in a more powerful mode than any other interaction between science and religion. The agenda of many scientists who promote the theory of evolution is to achieve the goal of understanding the existence of the universe as a random, purposeless, natural development, evolved slowly over billions of years from a common ancestor by way of natural selection, devoid of any supernatural metaphysical power. JEWISH FAITH PERCEIVES THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE UNIVERSE IN A DIFFERENT WAY: God created the world, with a purpose known to Him; He established natural laws that govern the world; and He imposed a moral-religious set of requirements upon Man. The discussion and comparative analysis in this article is based upon the current neo-Darwinian theory, although it seems almost certain that even the new and modern assumptions and speculations will continue to be challenged, changed, and revised as new scientific

  17. The Theory of Evolution - A Jewish Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Steinberg, Avraham

    2010-01-01

    All possible pro and con arguments regarding the theory of evolution have been discussed and debated in the vast literature—scientific, religious, and lay—in the past 150 years. There is usually great zealotry in all debating parties, with mutual intolerance of ideas and concepts, disrespect toward opposing opinions and positions, and usage of very harsh language. This prejudiced approach usually does not allow for a reasonable debate. It is important to look at the facts, assumptions, and beliefs of the theory of evolution in a more calm and humble way. In this article a comparative analysis is offered between the scientific aspects of the theory of evolution and a Judaic approach to these aspects. The two sets of human thought—religion and science—are fundamentally different in their aims and purposes, in their methods of operation, in their scope of interest and issues, and in their origin and ramifications. Whenever science surpasses its limits, or religion exceeds its boundaries, it actually is a form of an abuse of both. This has happened to the theory of evolution in a more powerful mode than any other interaction between science and religion. The agenda of many scientists who promote the theory of evolution is to achieve the goal of understanding the existence of the universe as a random, purposeless, natural development, evolved slowly over billions of years from a common ancestor by way of natural selection, devoid of any supernatural metaphysical power. Jewish faith perceives the development of the universe in a different way: God created the world, with a purpose known to Him; He established natural laws that govern the world; and He imposed a moral-religious set of requirements upon Man. The discussion and comparative analysis in this article is based upon the current neo-Darwinian theory, although it seems almost certain that even the new and modern assumptions and speculations will continue to be challenged, changed, and revised as new

  18. National biosecurity approaches, plans and programmes in response to diseases in farmed aquatic animals: evolution, effectiveness and the way forward.

    PubMed

    Håstein, T; Binde, M; Hine, M; Johnsen, S; Lillehaug, A; Olesen, N J; Purvis, N; Scarfe, A D; Wright, B

    2008-04-01

    The rapid increase in aquaculture production and trade, and increased attention to the negative effects of disease, are becoming stimuli for developing national biosecurity strategies for farmed fisheries, for which the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Aquatic Animal Health Code and Manual of Diagnostic Tests for Aquatic Animals serve as an excellent framework. Using examples from a few countries and selected diseases, this paper provides a general overview of the development of approaches to implementing biosecurity strategies, including those emerging in the national legislation and regulations of some countries, and those being initiated by industries themselves. The determination of disease status in different epidemiological units (from a farm to a nation), appropriate approaches for preventing the introduction of disease and developing contingencies for disease control and eradication are also discussed. Important to the effectiveness of such strategies are provision of financial, personnel and other resources to implement them, including incentives such as indemnification or compensation in eradication programmes, and practical linkage to regulatory or government policy initiatives. PMID:18666484

  19. Associating uncertainty with datasets using Linked Data and allowing propagation via provenance chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Car, Nicholas; Cox, Simon; Fitch, Peter

    2015-04-01

    With earth-science datasets increasingly being published to enable re-use in projects disassociated from the original data acquisition or generation, there is an urgent need for associated metadata to be connected, in order to guide their application. In particular, provenance traces should support the evaluation of data quality and reliability. However, while standards for describing provenance are emerging (e.g. PROV-O), these do not include the necessary statistical descriptors and confidence assessments. UncertML has a mature conceptual model that may be used to record uncertainty metadata. However, by itself UncertML does not support the representation of uncertainty of multi-part datasets, and provides no direct way of associating the uncertainty information - metadata in relation to a dataset - with dataset objects.We present a method to address both these issues by combining UncertML with PROV-O, and delivering resulting uncertainty-enriched provenance traces through the Linked Data API. UncertProv extends the PROV-O provenance ontology with an RDF formulation of the UncertML conceptual model elements, adds further elements to support uncertainty representation without a conceptual model and the integration of UncertML through links to documents. The Linked ID API provides a systematic way of navigating from dataset objects to their UncertProv metadata and back again. The Linked Data API's 'views' capability enables access to UncertML and non-UncertML uncertainty metadata representations for a dataset. With this approach, it is possible to access and navigate the uncertainty metadata associated with a published dataset using standard semantic web tools, such as SPARQL queries. Where the uncertainty data follows the UncertML model it can be automatically interpreted and may also support automatic uncertainty propagation . Repositories wishing to enable uncertainty propagation for all datasets must ensure that all elements that are associated with uncertainty

  20. Provenance of the lower Miocene of the Gulf of Mexico from detrital zircon double dating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    xu, J.

    2013-12-01

    The lower Miocene interval of the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) has recently gained increasing attention from oil and gas industry due to its hydrocarbon potential below the salt canopy. However, it has been less well studied than both the underlying Oligocene and overlying middle Miocene strata. The lower Miocene worldwide is a transitional period of tectonic, climatic, and oceanographic change. In particular, it is a period of major tectonic reorganization in the western interior of North America (Rocky Mountains), involving a shift from the Oligocene thermal phase, with abundant volcanic activity recorded in the thick Frio/Vicksburg succession of the GOM, to the Miocene Basin-Range extensional phase. Climatic conditions also changed from a relatively arid Oligocene to wetter Miocene, resulting in increased sediment yields from exhumed tectonic structures. Previous provenance studies used proportions of quartz, feldspar and lithic fragments and consideration of likely river courses through known paleogeomorphological elements. Only limited detrital zircon (DZ) U-Pb studies on Paleocene strata have been undertaken and there has been no previous U-Pb and (U-Th)/He double dating in the GOM. In this study we apply the latest analytical approaches, such as DZ U-Pb dating to gain robust source terranes ages and more fully elucidate the complex sediment provenance and dispersal history of GOM. We also employ DZ (U-Th)/He (ZHe) dating, combined with DZ U-Pb, to not only define sedimentary provenance but also the exhumation histories of detrital source regions. Samples of lower Miocene outcrop exposures in Texas and Louisiana have been collected to discriminate the varied tectonic and drainage system changes across the basin in lateral. In addition, samples from the Eocene, Oligocene and middle Miocene have been obtained to reveal vertical shift of source terranes contributions. Our initial age data show detrital zircons of lower Miocene sediments come from a wide range of source

  1. Lowering the Barriers to Integrative Aquatic Ecosystem Science: Semantic Provenance, Open Linked Data, and Workflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harmon, T.; Hofmann, A. F.; Utz, R.; Deelman, E.; Hanson, P. C.; Szekely, P.; Villamizar, S. R.; Knoblock, C.; Guo, Q.; Crichton, D. J.; McCann, M. P.; Gil, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Environmental cyber-observatory (ECO) planning and implementation has been ongoing for more than a decade now, and several major efforts have recently come online or will soon. Some investigators in the relevant research communities will use ECO data, traditionally by developing their own client-side services to acquire data and then manually create custom tools to integrate and analyze it. However, a significant portion of the aquatic ecosystem science community will need more custom services to manage locally collected data. The latter group represents enormous intellectual capacity when one envisions thousands of ecosystems scientists supplementing ECO baseline data by sharing their own locally intensive observational efforts. This poster summarizes the outcomes of the June 2011 Workshop for Aquatic Ecosystem Sustainability (WAES) which focused on the needs of aquatic ecosystem research on inland waters and oceans. Here we advocate new approaches to support scientists to model, integrate, and analyze data based on: 1) a new breed of software tools in which semantic provenance is automatically created and used by the system, 2) the use of open standards based on RDF and Linked Data Principles to facilitate sharing of data and provenance annotations, 3) the use of workflows to represent explicitly all data preparation, integration, and processing steps in a way that is automatically repeatable. Aquatic ecosystems workflow exemplars are provided and discussed in terms of their potential broaden data sharing, analysis and synthesis thereby increasing the impact of aquatic ecosystem research.

  2. Provenance Analysis of Surface Sediments in the Chew Bahir Basin (Ethiopia) using Remote Sensing Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boesche, N.; Trauth, M.

    2012-04-01

    Provenance analysis is an essential discipline for describing the generation and dispersal of sediments and yields a fundamental understanding of hydrological and sedimentological processes. Chew Bahir basin is a hardly accessible terrain in southern Ethiopia, which is barely investigated by sedimentological studies until today. In this work, those studies were conducted via remotely sensed digital image analysis (ASTER, Landsat ETM+, Worldview-1 and SRTM) combined with a climatological approach through precipitation data from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). Besides remote sensing, sedimentological investigations were achieved from a highly resolved paleo-climate record through a short drill-core from Chew Bahir basin. In order to identify and localize potential source areas and to describe the dispersal of sediments, different processing methodologies were applied (achievement of sediment composition, land-surface classification, digital terrain analysis and generation of remote sensing time series). The result of this work demonstrates two different source rocks, which belong to two distinct source localities. Hence, the analysis of remote sensed digital imaginary provides an effective tool for studying the provenance of sediments, especially in remote regions such as Chew Bahir basin. Moreover, remotely sensed time series provide important insights into climatologically induced variations in the uppermost sediment-layer. However, fully automated analysis of remotely sensed imaginary cannot replace fieldwork, but provides outstanding contributions to interdisciplinarity.

  3. Age and provenance of Triassic to Cenozoic sediments of West and Central Sarawak, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breitfeld, H. Tim; Galin, Thomson; Hall, Robert

    2015-04-01

    Sarawak is located on the northern edge of Sundaland in NW Borneo. West and Central Sarawak include parts of the Kuching and Sibu Zones. These contain remnants of several sedimentary basins with ages from Triassic to Cenozoic. New light mineral, heavy mineral and U-Pb detrital zircon ages show differences in provenance reflecting the tectonic evolution of the region. The oldest clastic sediments are Triassic (Sadong Formation and its deep marine equivalent Kuching Formation). They were sourced by a Triassic (Carnian to Norian) volcanic arc and reworked Paleoproterozoic detritus derived from Cathaysialand. The Upper Jurassic to Cretaceous Pedawan Formation is interpreted as forearc basin fill with distinctive zircon populations indicating subduction beneath present-day West Sarawak which initiated in the Late Jurassic. Subsequent subduction until the early Late Cretaceous formed the Schwaner Mountains magmatic arc. After collision of SW Borneo and other microcontinental fragments with Sundaland in the early Late Cretaceous, deep marine sedimentation (Pedawan Formation) ceased, and there was uplift forming the regional Pedawan-Kayan unconformity. Two episodes of extension followed and were responsible for basin development on land in West Sarawak from the latest Cretaceous onwards, probably in a pull-apart setting. The first episode is associated with sediments of the Kayan Group, deposited in the Latest Cretaceous (Maastrichtian) to Eocene, and the second episode with Upper Eocene sediments of the Ketungau Basin. Zircon ages indicate volcanic activity throughout the Early Cenozoic in NW Borneo, and inherited zircon ages indicate reworking of Triassic and Cretaceous rocks. A large deep marine basin, the Rajang Basin, was north of the Lupar Line Fault in Central Sarawak (Sibu Zone) from the Late Cretaceous to the Late Eocene. Zircons from sediments of the Rajang Basin indicate they have similar ages and provenance to contemporaneous terrestrial sediments of the Kayan

  4. Syn-Uralian orogenic heavy mineral provenance analysis from southeastern Taimyr, Arctic Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X.; Pease, V.; Scott, R. A.

    2012-12-01

    The Taimyr peninsula is on the northern margin of the Siberian craton and divides into the southern, central and northern NE - SW trending domains. The southern Taimyr domain represents the passive margin of Siberia and is dominated by a Paleozoic, extending into the early Mesozoic, succession. The central Taimyr domain accreted to the southern domain during Late Precambrian time, followed by collision with the northern Taimyr domain of Baltican affinity during the Late Paleozoic as part of Uralian orogenesis. The Carboniferous - Permian sedimentary succession, which was deposited during the later stage of Uralian Orogeny, can provide crucial information about the extent of contemporaneous Uralian orogensis and its influence on the tectonic evolution of southern Taimyr. Three Carboniferous - Permian samples from southeastern Taimyr were analyzed for petrography and heavy mineral analysis to define their sedimentary and provenance characteristics. The Upper Carboniferous to Lower Permian sample (VP10-25, Turuzovskya Formation, C2-P1tr), the Lower Permian sample (VP10-14, Sokolinskaya Formation, P1sk) and the Upper Permian sample (VP10-12, Baykurskaya Formation, P2bk)) classify as subarkose, lithic arkose and feldspathic litharenite, respectively- they record decreasing sediment maturity through time. While all the samples represent a 'recycled orogen' source based on QtFL plots, the C2-P1tr sample represents a recycled quartzite, while the P1sk sample plots within the mixed field, and the P2bk sample is transitional on QmFLt plots. According to the heavy mineral analysis results, the C2-P1tr sample and P1sk sample show great similarity in heavy mineral assemblage, dominated by zircon, apatite and rutile. The P2bk sample shows distinct differences, containing apatite, tourmaline, garnet and zircon. The prominent increase of garnet suggests a metamorphic source. These similarities and variations among the three samples are also shown in other discrimination diagrams

  5. Evolution of an innovative approach to the delivery of in-person training in the responsible conduct of research.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Karen L; Yasko, Laurel; Green, Michael; Alexander, Jane; Ryan, Christopher

    2014-12-01

    The responsible conduct of research (RCR) Center is an innovative, workshop-based approach to research ethics education at the University of Pittsburgh. A flexibly scheduled program of workshops combines the benefits of traditional case-based discussion and in-person instruction with greater accessibility and a broader disciplinary reach. Essential features of the program include a rotating schedule of independent workshops with separate registration, expert speakers, and a dedicated program director position. At an institutional level, this novel response to National Institutes of Health-mandated training requirements increases access to a wide range of interactive RCR training programs and promotes interdisciplinary conversations on research ethics that involves investigators, trainees, and the research community at large. PMID:24842250

  6. Project 1: Microbial Genomes: A Genomic Approach to Understanding the Evolution of Virulence. Project 2: From Genomes to Life: Drosophilia Development in Space and Time

    SciTech Connect

    Robert DeSalle

    2004-09-10

    This project seeks to use the genomes of two close relatives, A. actinomycetemcomitans and H. aphrophilus, to understand the evolutionary changes that take place in a genome to make it more or less virulent. Our primary specific aim of this project was to sequence, annotate, and analyze the genomes of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans (CU1000, serotype f) and Haemophilus aphrophilus. With these genome sequences we have then compared the whole genome sequences to each other and to the current Aa (HK1651 www.genome.ou.edu) genome project sequence along with other fully sequenced Pasteurellaceae to determine inter and intra species differences that may account for the differences and similarities in disease. We also propose to create and curate a comprehensive database where sequence information and analysis for the Pasteurellaceae (family that includes the genera Actinobacillus and Haemophilus) are readily accessible. And finally we have proposed to develop phylogenetic techniques that can be used to efficiently and accurately examine the evolution of genomes. Below we report on progress we have made on these major specific aims. Progress on the specific aims is reported below under two major headings--experimental approaches and bioinformatics and systematic biology approaches.

  7. A quantitative geomorphological approach to constraining the volcanic and tectonic evolution of the active Dabbahu rift segment, Afar, Ethiopia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medynski, Sarah; Pik, Raphaël; Burnard, Peter; Vye-Brown, Charlotte; Blard, Pierre-Henri; France, Lydéric; Dumont, Stéphanie; Grandin, Raphaël; Schimmelpfennig, Irene; Benedetti, Lucilla; Ayalew, Dereje; Yirgu, Gezahegn

    2013-04-01

    In the Afar depression (Ethiopia), extension is organised along rift segments that morphologically resemble oceanic rifts. Segmentation results from interactions between dyke injection and volcanism, as observed during the well-documented 2005 rifting event on the Dabbahu rift segment. This tectono-volcanic crisis was observed in detail via remote sensing techniques, providing invaluable information on the present-day tectonic - magmatic interplay during a sequence of dyke intrusions. However, lack of data remains on timescales of 1 to 100 kyr, the period over which the main morphology of the rift is acquired. The Dabbahu rift segment represents an ideal natural laboratory to study the evolution of rift morphology as a response to volcanic and tectonic influences. We use cosmogenic nuclides (3He and 36Cl) to determine the ages of young (<100 kyr) lava flows and to date the initiation and movement of fault scarps, which cut the lavas. Where possible, we analysed vertical profiles along fault scarps, in an attempt to distinguish individual tectonic events that offset the scarp, estimate their amplitudes and date the recurrence intervals. These geochronological constraints, combined with major & trace element compositions, field mapping and digital mapping (Landsat, ASTER and SPOT imagery), provide valuable insights on the magmatic and tectonic history of the segment. The results show that over the last 100 ka, the northern part of the Dabbahu segment was supplied by at least two different magma reservoirs, which can be identified from their distinctive chemistries. The main reservoir is located beneath Dabbahu volcano at the northern tip of the rift segment, and has been supplied with magma for at least 72 ka. The second reservoir is located further south on the rift axis and corresponds to the current mid-segment magma chamber, which was responsible for the 2005 rifting episode. Two magmatic cycles linked to the Dabbahu magma chamber were recorded, lasting 20-30 kyr

  8. Fossil pollen analysis of U-Pb-dated speleothems: a new approach to understanding Pliocene terrestrial climate evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sniderman, K.; Woodhead, J. D.; Porch, N.

    2013-12-01

    the Miocene/Pliocene boundary (at c. 5.5 Ma) was dominated by Gyrostemonaceae and Casuarinaceae. We interpret this transition from earliest Pliocene to mid-late Pliocene vegetation as an increase in biological productivity, from possibly very sparse woodland to forest, presumably in response to increased effective moisture in the mid-late Pliocene. Hence climate evolution within the Pliocene was substantial enough to drive complete biome turnover. Explanations of the mechanisms that drove Pliocene warmth thus need to explain not only why the Pliocene warm interval was terminated by Pleistocene cooling, but also why the mid-late Pliocene differed substantially from the earliest Pliocene. Our novel use of U/Pb dating of speleothem pollen records demonstrates that previous syntheses of 'mid-Pliocene' vegetation may, in regions with poor age control, have conflated biomes growing within different climatic regimes during different stages within the Pliocene.

  9. The role of duplications in the evolution of genomes highlights the need for evolutionary-based approaches in comparative genomics

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the evolutionary plasticity of the genome requires a global, comparative approach in which genetic events are considered both in a phylogenetic framework and with regard to population genetics and environmental variables. In the mechanisms that generate adaptive and non-adaptive changes in genomes, segmental duplications (duplication of individual genes or genomic regions) and polyploidization (whole genome duplications) are well-known driving forces. The probability of fixation and maintenance of duplicates depends on many variables, including population sizes and selection regimes experienced by the corresponding genes: a combination of stochastic and adaptive mechanisms has shaped all genomes. A survey of experimental work shows that the distinction made between fixation and maintenance of duplicates still needs to be conceptualized and mathematically modeled. Here we review the mechanisms that increase or decrease the probability of fixation or maintenance of duplicated genes, and examine the outcome of these events on the adaptation of the organisms. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Dr. Etienne Joly, Dr. Lutz Walter and Dr. W. Ford Doolittle. PMID:21333002

  10. Evolution in agriculture: the application of evolutionary approaches to the management of biotic interactions in agro-ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Thrall, Peter H; Oakeshott, John G; Fitt, Gary; Southerton, Simon; Burdon, Jeremy J; Sheppard, Andy; Russell, Robyn J; Zalucki, Myron; Heino, Mikko; Ford Denison, R

    2011-01-01

    Anthropogenic impacts increasingly drive ecological and evolutionary processes at many spatio-temporal scales, demanding greater capacity to predict and manage their consequences. This is particularly true for agro-ecosystems, which not only comprise a significant proportion of land use, but which also involve conflicting imperatives to expand or intensify production while simultaneously reducing environmental impacts. These imperatives reinforce the likelihood of further major changes in agriculture over the next 30–40 years. Key transformations include genetic technologies as well as changes in land use. The use of evolutionary principles is not new in agriculture (e.g. crop breeding, domestication of animals, management of selection for pest resistance), but given land-use trends and other transformative processes in production landscapes, ecological and evolutionary research in agro-ecosystems must consider such issues in a broader systems context. Here, we focus on biotic interactions involving pests and pathogens as exemplars of situations where integration of agronomic, ecological and evolutionary perspectives has practical value. Although their presence in agro-ecosystems may be new, many traits involved in these associations evolved in natural settings. We advocate the use of predictive frameworks based on evolutionary models as pre-emptive management tools and identify some specific research opportunities to facilitate this. We conclude with a brief discussion of multidisciplinary approaches in applied evolutionary problems. PMID:25567968

  11. Central pancreatectomy: the Dagradi Serio Iacono operation. Evolution of a surgical technique from the pioneers to the robotic approach.

    PubMed

    Iacono, Calogero; Ruzzenente, Andrea; Bortolasi, Luca; Guglielmi, Alfredo

    2014-11-14

    Central pancreatectomy (CP) is a parenchyma-sparing surgical procedure. The aims are to clarify the history and the development of CP and to give credits to those from whom it came. Ehrhardt, in 1908, described segmental neck resection (SNR) followed, in 1910, by Finney without reconstructive part. In 1950 Honjyo described two cases of SNR combined with gastrectomy for gastric cancer infiltrating the neck of the pancreas. Guillemin and Bessot (1957) and Letton and Wilson (1959) dealt only with the reconstructive aspect of CP. Dagradi and Serio, in 1982, performed the first CP including the resective and reconstructive aspects. Subsequently Iacono has validated it with functional endocrine and exocrine tests and popularized it worldwide. In 2003, Baca and Bokan performed laparoscopic CP and, In 2004, Giulianotti et al performed a robotic assisted CP. CP is performed worldwide either by open surgery or by using minimally-invasive or robotic approaches. This confirms that the operation does not belong to whom introduced it but to everyone who carries out it; however credit must be given to those from whom it came. PMID:25400451

  12. Central pancreatectomy: The Dagradi Serio Iacono operation. Evolution of a surgical technique from the pioneers to the robotic approach

    PubMed Central

    Iacono, Calogero; Ruzzenente, Andrea; Bortolasi, Luca; Guglielmi, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    Central pancreatectomy (CP) is a parenchyma-sparing surgical procedure. The aims are to clarify the history and the development of CP and to give credits to those from whom it came. Ehrhardt, in 1908, described segmental neck resection (SNR) followed, in 1910, by Finney without reconstructive part. In 1950 Honjyo described two cases of SNR combined with gastrectomy for gastric cancer infiltrating the neck of the pancreas. Guillemin and Bessot (1957) and Letton and Wilson (1959) dealt only with the reconstructive aspect of CP. Dagradi and Serio, in 1982, performed the first CP including the resective and reconstructive aspects. Subsequently Iacono has validated it with functional endocrine and exocrine tests and popularized it worldwide. In 2003, Baca and Bokan performed laparoscopic CP and, In 2004, Giulianotti et al performed a robotic assisted CP. CP is performed worldwide either by open surgery or by using minimally-invasive or robotic approaches. This confirms that the operation does not belong to whom introduced it but to everyone who carries out it; however credit must be given to those from whom it came. PMID:25400451

  13. Evolution of classical and quantum phase-space distributions: A new trajectory approach for phase space hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trahan, Corey J.; Wyatt, Robert E.

    2003-10-01

    Recently, Donoso and Martens described a method for evolving both classical and quantum phase-space distribution functions, W(q,p,t), that involves the propagation of an ensemble of correlated trajectories. The trajectories are linked into a unified whole by spatial and momentum derivatives of density dependent terms in the equations of motion. On each time step, these nonlocal terms were evaluated by fitting the density around each trajectory to an assumed functional form. In the present study, we develop a different trajectory method for propagating phase-space distribution functions. A hierarchy of coupled analytic equations of motion are derived for the q and p derivatives of the density and a truncated set of these are integrated along each trajectory concurrently with the equation of motion for the density. The advantage of this approach is that individual trajectories can be propagated, one at a time, and function fitting is not required to evaluate the nonlocal terms. Regional nonlocality can be incorporated at various levels of approximation to "dress" what would otherwise be "thin" locally propagating trajectories. This derivative propagation method is used to obtain trajectory solutions for the Klein-Kramers equation, the Husimi equation, and for a smoothed version of the Caldeira-Leggett equation derived by the Diosi. Trajectory solutions are obtained for the relaxation of an oscillator in contact with a thermal bath and for the decay of a metastable state.

  14. Geochemical Signatures as a Tool for Vermiculite Provenance Determination

    SciTech Connect

    Karen E. Wright; Carl D. Palmer

    2008-09-01

    Thirty-eight samples of known origin (China, Libby MT, South Africa, South Carolina) and 6 vermiculite product samples of unknown origin were analyzed for major and trace elements, including rare earth elements to determine the feasibility of distinguishing the provenance of the samples based upon a geochemical signature. Probability plots suggest that two of the four groups (Libby, South Carolina) were comprised of two subgroups. Results of hierarchical cluster analysis are highly sensitive to the linkage method chosen. Ward’s method is the most useful for this data and suggests that there are five groups within the data set (South African samples, two subsets of the Libby samples, a subset of the South Carolina samples, and a second subset of the South Carolina samples combined with the China samples). Similar results were obtained using k-cluster analysis. Neither clustering method was able to distinguish samples from China from the South Carolina samples. Discriminant analysis was used on a four-category model comprised of the original four groups and on a six-category model comprised of the five categories identified from the cluster analysis but with the China samples grouped into a sixth category. The discriminant/classification model was able to distinguish all of the groups including the China samples from one another for both the four- and six-category models with 100% of the samples properly classified. The 6 unknown product samples were classified with a probability of consistency of 99%. Both discriminant models were also run with a subset of our analyte set to be consistent with the smaller Gunter et al., (2005) analyte set. Twenty vermiculite samples (nine of known origin and eleven of unknown origin) from their study were classified based on our discriminant models with the reduced set of analytes. Of the twenty samples, Gunter et al. (2005) was able to classify 16 with cluster analysis while our 4-category discriminant analysis model allowed us

  15. Rutile geochemistry and its potential use in quantitative provenance studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zack, T.; von Eynatten, H.; Kronz, A.

    2004-10-01

    Rutile is among the most stable detrital minerals in sedimentary systems. Information contained in rutile is therefore of prime importance, especially in the study of mature sediments, where most diagnostic minerals are no longer stable. In contrast to zircon, rutile provides information about the last metamorphic cycle as rutile is not stable at greenschist facies conditions. Several known geochemical characteristics of rutile can be used to retrace provenance. The lithology of source rocks can be determined using Nb and Cr contents in rutile, because the most important source rocks for rutile, metapelites and metabasites, imprint a distinct Nb and Cr signature in rutiles. Since Zr in rutile, coexisting with zircon and quartz, is extremely temperature dependent, this relationship can be used as a geothermometer. Metapelites always contain zircon and quartz, thus the Nb and Cr signatures of metapelites indicate rutiles that can be used for thermometry. The result is effectively a single-mineral geothermometer, which is to our knowledge the first of its kind in provenance studies. Several other trace elements are variably enriched in rutile, but the processes creating these variations are so far not understood. In a case study, Al, Si, V, Cr, Fe, Zr, Nb and W contents in rutiles were obtained by electron microprobe from three sediment samples from Upstate New York. A Pleistocene glacial sand, whose source was granulite-facies rocks of the southern Adirondacks, has detrital rutile geochemical signatures which are consistent with the local Geology; a predominantly metapelitic source with a minor metabasitic contribution. Calculated temperatures for the metapelitic rutiles from the glacial sand are consistent with a predominantly granulite-facies source. The two other samples are from Paleozoic clastic wedges deposited in the foreland of the Taconian and Acadian orogenies. Here several geochemical patterns of detrital rutiles are comparable to rutiles derived from the

  16. An integrated approach to coastal erosion problems in northern Tuscany (Italy): Littoral morphological evolution and cell distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anfuso, G.; Pranzini, E.; Vitale, G.

    2011-06-01

    Occupation of the coast has significantly increased in recent decades, mostly due to a greater demand for recreation and tourism. Today, erosion threatens many human-made structures and activities, requiring an integrated approach for the understanding of coastal dynamics and identification of alternatives to associated problems. This study investigates a 64 km-long coastal physiographic unit in the northern microtidal littoral of Tuscany (Italy). Vertical aerial photographs and direct field surveys were used to retrieve changes in shoreline position over 1938-1997 and 1997-2005 time intervals. Significant beach accretion was observed during the first period updrift of Carrara (84 m) and Viareggio (280 m) harbours and at Marina di Pietrasanta (100 m), whereas severe erosion occurred downcoast of Carrara harbour (- 130 m, at Marina dei Ronchi) and on the northern side of Arno river mouth (- 400 m). Similar trends were observed between 1997 and 2005; beach slope between the 1997 shoreline position and the closure depth correlated well with the distribution of erosion/accretion patterns from the 1938-1997 period (slopes were lower in eroded areas than at sites under accretion). Longshore distribution of erosion/accretion patterns was controlled by coastal compartmentalisation. Three of the main littoral cells were mostly formed by natural limits (i.e., Punta Bianca promontory, Marina di Pietrasanta, the Arno river mouth and the port of Livorno). Several sub-cells were created within these cells due to the introduction of human-made structures (such as Carrara and Viareggio harbours), which formed artificial fixed limits that allowed the transport of sediments (exclusively fines) in one direction only. Results will help improve the understanding of coastal processes and manage littoral sediment transport in a sustainable manner. This will reduce the need for structural interventions, such as breakwaters and groynes, which in the past decades prevented coastal retreat

  17. Evolution of simple sequence repeat-mediated phase variation in bacterial genomes.

    PubMed

    Bayliss, Christopher D; Palmer, Michael E

    2012-09-01

    Mutability as mechanism for rapid adaptation to environmental challenge is an alluringly simple concept whose apotheosis is realized in simple sequence repeats (SSR). Bacterial genomes of several species contain SSRs with a proven role in adaptation to environmental fluctuations. SSRs are hypermutable and generate reversible mutations in localized regions of bacterial genomes, leading to phase variable ON/OFF switches in gene expression. The application of genetic, bioinformatic, and mathematical/computational modeling approaches are revolutionizing our current understanding of how genomic molecular forces and environmental factors influence SSR-mediated adaptation and led to evolution of this mechanism of localized hypermutation in bacterial genomes. PMID:22954215

  18. LQCD workflow execution framework: Models, provenance and fault-tolerance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piccoli, Luciano; Dubey, Abhishek; Simone, James N.; Kowalkowlski, James B.

    2010-04-01

    Large computing clusters used for scientific processing suffer from systemic failures when operated over long continuous periods for executing workflows. Diagnosing job problems and faults leading to eventual failures in this complex environment is difficult, specifically when the success of an entire workflow might be affected by a single job failure. In this paper, we introduce a model-based, hierarchical, reliable execution framework that encompass workflow specification, data provenance, execution tracking and online monitoring of each workflow task, also referred to as participants. The sequence of participants is described in an abstract parameterized view, which is translated into a concrete data dependency based sequence of participants with defined arguments. As participants belonging to a workflow are mapped onto machines and executed, periodic and on-demand monitoring of vital health parameters on allocated nodes is enabled according to pre-specified rules. These rules specify conditions that must be true pre-execution, during execution and post-execution. Monitoring information for each participant is propagated upwards through the reflex and healing architecture, which consists of a hierarchical network of decentralized fault management entities, called reflex engines. They are instantiated as state machines or timed automatons that change state and initiate reflexive mitigation action(s) upon occurrence of certain faults. We describe how this cluster reliability framework is combined with the workflow execution framework using formal rules and actions specified within a structure of first order predicate logic that enables a dynamic management design that reduces manual administrative workload, and increases cluster-productivity.

  19. Provenance of the K/T boundary layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hildebrand, A. R.; Boynton, W. V.

    1988-01-01

    An array of chemical, physical and isotopic evidence indicates that an impact into oceanic crust terminated the Cretaceous Period. Approximately 1500 cu km of debris, dispersed by the impact fireball, fell out globally in marine and nonmarine environments producing a 2 to 4 mm thick layer (fireball layer). In North American locales, the fireball layer overlies a 15 to 25 mm thick layer of similar but distinct composition. This 15 to 25 mm layer (ejecta layer) may represent approximately 1000 cu km of lower energy ejecta from a nearby impact site. Isotopic and chemical evidence supports a mantle provenance for the bulk of the layers. The extraordinary REE pattern of the boundary clays was modelled as a mixture of oceanic crust, mantle, and approximately 10 percent continental material. The results are presented. If the siderophiles of the ejecta layer were derived solely from the mantle, a test may be available to see if the siderophile element anomaly of the fireball layer had an extraterrestrial origin. Radiogenic Os-187 is depleted in the mantle relative to an undifferentiated chondritic source. Os-187/Os-186 ratios of 1.049 and 1.108 were calculated for the ejecta and fireball layers, respectively.

  20. Numerical analysis of sandstone composition, provenance, and paleogeography

    SciTech Connect

    Smosma, R.; Bruner, K.R.; Burns, A.

    1999-09-01

    Cretaceous deltaic sandstones of the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska exhibit an extreme variability in their mineral makeup. A series of numerical techniques, however, provides some order to the petrographic characteristics of these complex rocks. Ten mineral constituents occur in the sandstones, including quartz, chert, feldspar, mica, and organic matter, plus rock fragments of volcanics, carbonates, shale, phyllite, and schist. A mixing coefficient quantities the degree of heterogeneity in each sample. Hierarchical cluster analysis then groups sandstones on the basis of similarities among all ten mineral components--in the Alaskan example, six groupings characterized mainly by the different rock fragments. Multidimensional scaling shows how the clusters relate to one another and arranges them along compositional gradients--two trends in Alaska based on varying proportions of metamorphic/volcanic and shale/carbonate rock fragments. The resulting sandstone clusters and petrographic gradients can be mapped across the study area and compared with the stratigraphic section. This study confirms the presence of three different source areas that provided diverse sediment to the Cretaceous deltas as well as the general transport directions and distances. In addition, the sand composition is shown to have changed over time, probably related to erosional unroofing in the source areas. This combination of multivariate-analysis techniques proves to be a powerful tool, revealing subtle spatial and temporal relationships among the sandstones and allowing one to enhance provenance and paleogeographic conclusions made from compositional data.

  1. Provenance of Earth Science Datasets - How Deep Should One Go?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramapriyan, H.; Manipon, G. J. M.; Aulenbach, S.; Duggan, B.; Goldstein, J.; Hua, H.; Tan, D.; Tilmes, C.; Wilson, B. D.; Wolfe, R.; Zednik, S.

    2015-12-01

    For credibility of scientific research, transparency and reproducibility are essential. This fundamental tenet has been emphasized for centuries, and has been receiving increased attention in recent years. The Office of Management and Budget (2002) addressed reproducibility and other aspects of quality and utility of information from federal agencies. Specific guidelines from NASA (2002) are derived from the above. According to these guidelines, "NASA requires a higher standard of quality for information that is considered influential. Influential scientific, financial, or statistical information is defined as NASA information that, when disseminated, will have or does have clear and substantial impact on important public policies or important private sector decisions." For information to be compliant, "the information must be transparent and reproducible to the greatest possible extent." We present how the principles of transparency and reproducibility have been applied to NASA data supporting the Third National Climate Assessment (NCA3). The depth of trace needed of provenance of data used to derive conclusions in NCA3 depends on how the data were used (e.g., qualitatively or quantitatively). Given that the information is diligently maintained in the agency archives, it is possible to trace from a figure in the publication through the datasets, specific files, algorithm versions, instruments used for data collection, and satellites, as well as the individuals and organizations involved in each step. Such trace back permits transparency and reproducibility.

  2. Documenting scientific workflow: the metadata, provenance and ontology project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenwald, Martin; Stillerman, J.; Wright, J.; Abla, G.; Chanthavong, R.; Schissel, D.; Romosan, A.; Shoshani, A.

    2014-10-01

    Careful management of data, its creation and transformation (provenance) and associated metadata is a critical part of any scientific enterprise. Traditionally this was the role of the lab notebook, but the digital era has resulted instead in the fragmentation of data, processing and annotation. This paper describes an ongoing multi-institutional project aimed at remedying this problem by developing tools to automate documentation of scientific workflows and associated information. Data and all processes that create or modify that data are represented mathematically as a directed acyclic graph, providing explicit information about the relationships between elements with all elements having globally unique and persistent IDs. The export of data, for publication, presentation or external databases would be recorded, allowing traceability in either direction - answering the questions ``Where was this data used?'' or ``Where did the data in this figure come from.'' Namespace management is provided through a well structured ``ontology,'' which can be customized for any particular community or application. Supported by DOE Contract DE-SC0008736.

  3. Apollo 16 Mafic Glass: Geochemistry, Provenance, and Implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeigler, R. A.; Korotev, R. L.; Jolliff, B. L.; Haskin, L. A.; Floss, C.

    2004-01-01

    Although the Apollo 16 mission landed in the feldspathic lunar highlands, mass-balance models suggest that there is a 5-6% mare component in the mature soils collected at the site. Only one mare basalt greater than 1 cm was found and two surveys of 2-4 mm particles found that less than 1% of this size fraction is mare basalt. Similar surveys of the less than 1 mm size fraction of A16 soils found very little lithic mare basalt, but several percent of basaltic green, yellow, and orange glass. The green glass beads were identified as VLT picritic glass and the orange/yellow glass shards were a mix of high and low Ti mare-like glass, high-Al basaltic glass, and KREEPy glasses. Most previous studies of glasses in the A16 regolith were surveys that identified a high proportion of feldspathic glass because most of the glass is produced by local impacts. Because the number of mafic glasses found was low, few compositional groupings were identified. As part of our ongoing study of the mafic components of the Apollo 16 site, we specifically targeted mafic glasses from Apollo 16, selecting against the more feldspathic glasses. In this way we were able to identify over 300 mafic glasses (greater than 10 wt % FeO). We present here the major- and trace-element chemistry of the main glass groups and discuss the likely provenance of each group.

  4. A global renewable mix with proven technologies and common materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballabrera, J.; Garcia-Olivares, A.; Garcia-Ladona, E.; Turiel, A.

    2012-04-01

    A global alternative mix to fossil fuels is proposed, based on proven renewable energy technologies that do not use scarce materials. Taking into account the availability of materials, the resulting mix consists of a combination of onshore and offshore wind turbines, concentrating solar power stations, hydroelectricity and wave power devices attached to the offshore turbines. Solar photovoltaic power could contribute to the mix if its dependence on scarce materials is solved. Material requirements are studied for the generation, power transport and for some future transport systems. The order of magnitude of copper, aluminium, neodymium, lithium, nickel, zinc and platinum that might be required for the proposed solution is obtained and compared with available reserves. While the proposed global alternative to fossil fuels seems technically feasible, lithium, nickel and platinum could become limiting materials for future vehicles fleet if no global recycling system were implemented and rechargeable zinc-air batteries could not be developed. As much as 60% of the current copper reserves would have to be employed in the implementation of the proposed solution. Altogether, the availability of materials may become a long-term physical constraint, preventing the continuation of the usual exponential growth of energy consumption.

  5. Descartes Mountains and Cayley Plains - Composition and provenance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, M. J.; Taylor, G. J.; Goles, G. G.

    1974-01-01

    Trace element compositions of petrographically characterized 2-4 mm lithic fragments from Apollo 16 soil samples are used to calculate initial REE concentrations in liquids in equilibrium with lunar anorthosites and to discuss the provenance of the Cayley Formation. Lithic fragments may be subdivided into four groups: (1) ANT rocks, (2) K- and SiO2-rich mesostasis-bearing rocks, (3) poikiloblastic rocks, and (4) (spinel) troctolites. Model liquids in equilibrium with essentially monominerallic anorthosites have initial REE concentrations 5-8 times those of chondrites. The REE contents of K- and SiO2-rich mesostasis-bearing rocks and poikiloblastic rocks are dominated by the mesostasis phases. ANT rocks appear to be more abundant in the Descartes Mountains, while poikiloblastic rocks appear to be more abundant in the Cayley Plains. Poikiloblastic rocks have intermediate to high LIL-element concentrations yet the low gamma-ray activity of Mare Orientale implies low LIL-element concentrations. Consequently, it is unlikely that the Cayley Formation is Orientale ejecta. A local origin as ejecta from smaller impacts is a more plausible model for the deposition of the Cayley Formation.

  6. Murder by insulin: suspected, purported and proven-a review.

    PubMed

    Marks, Vincent

    2009-04-01

    Murder by insulin-whether attempted, suspected or proven-is rare. Only 66 cases worldwide could be found for this review. A conviction was secured in 31 cases and additional weapon was employed in 11. Differentiation of attempted homicide from Munchausen syndrome by proxy in the young and from 'mercy killing' in the elderly was not attempted. Most perpetrators were close relatives and most victims were alive when discovered and responded to treatment. Hypoglycaemia is the first clue to homicidal insulin use in living subjects and requires the demonstration of a plasma insulin concentration of generally more than 1000 pmol/L and undetectable plasma C-peptide concentration to establish the diagnosis. Serum glucose measurements are valueless in victims found dead. The presence near the body of insulin vials, syringes or needles, loose talk by the suspected perpetrator or their ready access to insulin may be the only clue. The demonstration of insulin in tissue around an injection site by immunohistopathology or by measuring it in an extract clinches the diagnosis. Immunoassays suitable for clinical use to detect and measure insulin and C-peptide are subject to random errors and cannot be relied upon unless special precautions including separation by gel filtration or HPLC are undertaken prior to analysis. They do not detect or measure accurately a new generation of synthetic insulin analogues. Mass spectrometry will be required to do this and to validate clinical immunoassays, upon which convictions have always had to rely in the past. PMID:20355194

  7. Citation and Recognition of contributions using Semantic Provenance Knowledge Captured in the OPeNDAP Software Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, P.; Michaelis, J.; Lebot, T.; McGuinness, D. L.; Fox, P. A.

    2014-12-01

    Providing proper citation and attribution for published data, derived data products, and the software tools used to generate them, has always been an important aspect of scientific research. However, It is often the case that this type of detailed citation and attribution is lacking. This is in part because it often requires manual markup since dynamic generation of this type of provenance information is not typically done by the tools used to access, manipulate, transform, and visualize data. In addition, the tools themselves lack the information needed to be properly cited themselves. The OPeNDAP Hyrax Software Framework is a tool that provides access to and the ability to constrain, manipulate, and transform, different types of data from different data formats, into a common format, the DAP (Data Access Protocol), in order to derive new data products. A user, or another software client, specifies an HTTP URL in order to access a particular piece of data, and appropriately transform it to suit a specific purpose of use. The resulting data products, however, do not contain any information about what data was used to create it, or the software process used to generate it, let alone information that would allow the proper citing and attribution to down stream researchers and tool developers. We will present our approach to provenance capture in Hyrax including a mechanism that can be used to report back to the hosting site any derived products, such as publications and reports, using the W3C PROV recommendation pingback service. We will demonstrate our utilization of Semantic Web and Web standards, the development of an information model that extends the PROV model for provenance capture, and the development of the pingback service. We will present our findings, as well as our practices for providing provenance information, visualization of the provenance information, and the development of pingback services, to better enable scientists and tool developers to be

  8. Modelling sediment clasts transport during landscape evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carretier, Sébastien; Martinod, Pierre; Reich, Martin; Godderis, Yves

    2016-03-01

    Over thousands to millions of years, the landscape evolution is predicted by models based on fluxes of eroded, transported and deposited material. The laws describing these fluxes, corresponding to averages over many years, are difficult to prove with the available data. On the other hand, sediment dynamics are often tackled by studying the distribution of certain grain properties in the field (e.g. heavy metals, detrital zircons, 10Be in gravel, magnetic tracers). There is a gap between landscape evolution models based on fluxes and these field data on individual clasts, which prevent the latter from being used to calibrate the former. Here we propose an algorithm coupling the landscape evolution with mobile clasts. Our landscape evolution model predicts local erosion, deposition and transfer fluxes resulting from hillslope and river processes. Clasts of any size are initially spread in the basement and are detached, moved and deposited according to probabilities using these fluxes. Several river and hillslope laws are studied. Although the resulting mean transport rate of the clasts does not depend on the time step or the model cell size, our approach is limited by the fact that their scattering rate is cell-size-dependent. Nevertheless, both their mean transport rate and the shape of the scattering-time curves fit the predictions. Different erosion-transport laws generate different clast movements. These differences show that studying the tracers in the field may provide a way to establish these laws on the hillslopes and in the rivers. Possible applications include the interpretation of cosmogenic nuclides in individual gravel deposits, provenance analyses, placers, sediment coarsening or fining, the relationship between magnetic tracers in rivers and the river planform, and the tracing of weathered sediment.

  9. Modelling sediment clasts transport during landscape evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carretier, S.; Martinod, P.; Reich, M.; Godderis, Y.

    2015-10-01

    Over thousands to millions of years, the landscape evolution is predicted by models based on fluxes of eroded, transported and deposited material. The laws describing these fluxes, corresponding to averages over many years, are difficult to prove with the available data. On the other hand, sediment dynamics are often tackled by studying the distribution of certain grain properties in the field (e.g. heavy metals, detrial zircons, 10Be in gravel, magnetic tracers, etc.). There is a gap between landscape evolution models based on fluxes and these field data on individual clasts, which prevent the latter from being used to calibrate the former. Here we propose an algorithm coupling the landscape evolution with mobile clasts. Our landscape evolution model predicts local erosion, deposition and transfer fluxes resulting from hillslope and river processes. Clasts of any size are initially spread in the basement and are detached, moved and deposited according to probabilities using these fluxes. Several river and hillslope laws are studied. Although the resulting mean transport rate of the clasts does not depend on the time step or the model cell size, our approach is limited by the fact that their scattering rate is cell-size dependent. Nevertheless, both their mean transport rate and the shape of the scattering-time curves fit the predictions. Different erosion-transport laws generate different clast movements. These differences show that studying the tracers in the field may provide a way to establish these laws on the hillslopes and in the rivers. Possible applications include the interpretation of cosmogenic nuclides in individual gravel deposits, provenance analyses, placers, sediment coarsening or fining, the relationship between magnetic tracers in rivers and the river planform, and the tracing of weathered sediment.

  10. Multi-proxy geochemical analyses of Indus Submarine Fan sediments sampled by IODP Expedition 355: implications for sediment provenance and palaeoclimate reconstructions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bratenkov, Sophia; George, Simon C.; Bendle, James; Liddy, Hannah; Clift, Peter D.; Pandey, Dhananjai K.; Kulhanek, Denise K.; Andò, Sergio; Tiwari, Manish; Khim, Boo-Keun; Griffith, Elizabeth; Steinke, Stephan; Suzuki, Kenta; Lee, Jongmin; Newton, Kate; Tripathi, Shubham; Expedition 355 Scientific Party

    2016-04-01

    petrography and heavy mineral analysis, geochemical data, isotope composition, and biomarker analysis. Preliminary organic geochemistry data suggest an increase of terrigenous organic matter input into sediment starting around 10.5 Ma, with a strong decrease in the last 1 Ma. Moreover, the detailed analyses of the glyceryl dialkyl glyceryl tetraether (GDGT) and alkenone lipids provide the first sea surface temperature (SST) reconstructions in the region. These data indicate decreasing SST from the Middle Miocene Climatic Optimum until today. This research provides an exceptional opportunity to apply a multiproxy approach to understand sediment provenance, erosional processes, and palaeoclimate evolution in the eastern Arabian Sea.

  11. A new model for the provenance of the Upper Devonian Old Red Sandstone (UORS) of southern Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ennis, Meg; Meere, Pat; Timmerman, Martin

    2010-05-01

    The geology of Southern Ireland is dominated by the influence of both the Caledonian and Variscan orogenies which have shaped the landscape of today. The Old Red Sandstone (ORS) sequences of the Middle - Upper Devonian Munster Basin have traditionally been viewed as a post-orogenic molasse deposit sourced from the Caledonides (Friend et al. 2000 & references therein), which were subsequently deformed by the Late Carboniferous Variscan Orogeny. This model does not take into account the potential impact of the Acadian Orogeny, an Early to Mid Devonian transpressional tectonic event which culminated in Mid Emsian times and resulted in the deformation and inversion of Lower ORS (LORS) basins across Britain and Ireland (Soper & Woodcock 2003; Meere & Mulchrone 2006). Evidence of Acadian deformation in Southern Ireland is recorded in the LORS sequence of the Lower-Middle Devonian basin, the Dingle Basin. Meere & Mulchrone (2006) show that penetrative deformation visible in the LORS of the Dingle Basin has an Acadian signature and is not associated with Late Carboniferous Variscan compression (Parkin 1976; Todd 2000). The role of the Acadian Orogeny in the tectono-sedimentary evolution of Southern Ireland has been analyzed in this study using a multidisciplinary approach. Petrographic analysis of both the LORS and Upper ORS (UORS) of southern Ireland suggests an alternative provenance model in which there is a direct genetic link between the two Devonian deposits. There is a fining-up relationship between the two basins and the volcanic lithic fragments - while extremely limited in occurrence in the Munster Basin - are strikingly similar in both units. The absence of conglomeratic units at the base of the Munster Basin provide further evidence that the UORS does not represent a classic molasse deposit. This is supported by EMPA data from both basins which indicates identical mica chemistries in both the LORS and UORS. A comparison with the white mica chemistries from a

  12. Axial Belt Provenance: modern river sands from the core of collision orogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Resentini, A.; Vezzoli, G.; Paparella, P.; Padoan, M.; Andò, S.; Malusà, M.; Garzanti, E.

    2009-04-01

    tectonostratigraphic level of source rocks are reflected by: a) increasing rank of metamorphic rock fragments (as indicated by progressive development of schistosity and growth of micas and other index minerals; MI index of Garzanti and Vezzoli, 2003); b) increasing feldspars; c) increasing heavy-mineral concentration (HMC index); d) increasing hornblende, changing progressively in color from blue/green to green/brown (HCI index); e) successive appearance of chloritoid, staurolite, kyanite, fibrolitic and prismatic sillimanite (MMI index; Garzanti and Andò, 2007). Dickinson W.R. 1985. Interpreting provenance relations from detrital modes of sandstones. In: Zuffa G.G. (ed.), Reidel, NATO ASI Series 148: 333-361. Dickinson W.R. and C.A. Suczek. 1979. Plate tectonics and sandstone composition. Am. Assoc. Pet. Geol. Bull. 63: 2164-2172. Garzanti E. and S. Andò. 2007, Plate tectonics and heavy-mineral suites of modern sands. In: Mange M. and D. Wright (eds.), Elsevier, Developments in Sedimentology Series 58: 741-763. Garzanti E. and G. Vezzoli. 2003. A classification of metamorphic grains in sands based on their composition and grade. J. Sedimentary Res. 73: 830-837. Garzanti E., C. Doglioni, G. Vezzoli and S. Andò. 2007. Orogenic Belts and Orogenic Sediment Provenances. J. Geology 115: 315-334. Garzanti E., G. Vezzoli, S. Andó, C. France-Lanord, S.K. Singh and G. Foster. 2004. Sediment composition and focused erosion in collision orogens: the Brahmaputra case. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 220: 157-174. Najman Y. 2006. The detrital record of orogenesis: a review of approaches and techniques used in the Himalayan sedimentary basins. Earth Sci. Rev. 74: 1-72.

  13. Infrared reflectance spectra: Effects of particle size, provenance and preparation

    SciTech Connect

    Su, Yin-Fong; Myers, Tanya L.; Brauer, Carolyn S.; Blake, Thomas A.; Forland, Brenda M.; Szecsody, James E.; Johnson, Timothy J.

    2014-09-22

    We have recently developed methods for making more accurate infrared total and diffuse directional - hemispherical reflectance measurements using an integrating sphere. We have found that reflectance spectra of solids, especially powders, are influenced by a number of factors including the sample preparation method, the particle size and morphology, as well as the sample origin. On a quantitative basis we have investigated some of these parameters and the effects they have on reflectance spectra, particularly in the longwave infrared. In the IR the spectral features may be observed as either maxima or minima: In general, upward-going peaks in the reflectance spectrum result from strong surface scattering, i.e. rays that are reflected from the surface without bulk penetration, whereas downward-going peaks are due to either absorption or volume scattering, i.e. rays that have penetrated or refracted into the sample interior and are not reflected. The light signals reflected from solids usually encompass all such effects, but with strong dependencies on particle size and preparation. This paper measures the reflectance spectra in the 1.3 – 16 micron range for various bulk materials that have a combination of strong and weak absorption bands in order to observe the effects on the spectral features: Bulk materials were ground with a mortar and pestle and sieved to separate the samples into various size fractions between 5 and 500 microns. The median particle size is demonstrated to have large effects on the reflectance spectra. For certain minerals we also observe significant spectral change depending on the geologic origin of the sample. All three such effects (particle size, preparation and provenance) result in substantial change in the reflectance spectra for solid materials; successful identification algorithms will require sufficient flexibility to account for these parameters.

  14. First North American longwall in pitching seams proven feasible. [Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, J.F.

    1983-12-01

    There are 1.4 Gt (1.5 billion st) of recoverable coal under less than 914 m (3,000 ft) of cover in Colorado in pitching seams. Snowmass Coal Co., in cooperation with the US Department of Energy, introduced the longwall mining method in pitching seams to North America. This venture is a coal mining research program directed toward the profitable production of coal under difficult mining conditions as found in pitching seams of the western US. Snowmass Coal classifies pitching seams into the following categories for longwall on the strike in seams 3 m (10 ft) or less thick: Flat = 0 to 10/sup 0/: Normal continuous mines and shuttle cars work efficiently. Slight = 10/sup 0/ to 22/sup 0/: The maximum pitch that rubber tired equipment will function. Moderate = 22/sup 0/ to 40/sup 0/: The angle of repose of mined coal. Steep = 40/sup 0/ to 60/sup 0/: The limit of safe use of this roof support. Vertical = over 60/sup 0/. The longwall roof support covered here will work in all pitches except vertical. The shearer and conveyor will work in flat through moderate conditions. Longwalling across strike with this equipment in seam pitch over 60/sup 0/ could be accomplished with an inclined face. Development of the first longwall panel began in 1979 and was completed in 1981. The longwall equipment was installed and mining began on Aug. 11, 1981. Snowmass' performance shows that the capacity of a longwall operating on moderate pitch, up to 45/sup 0/, should be the same as a flat seam longwall. With equipment now available, pitching seam longwall is not only feasible, but cost competitive. The actual roof support method of troika concept has excellent maneuverability, good support, and low maintenance. The shearer has proven power to operate on moderate pitching seams.

  15. Provenance of Mesozoic Sandstones in the Banda Arc, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmermann, S.; Hall, R.

    2014-12-01

    Quartz-rich sandstones in the Banda Arc islands of Tanimbar, Babar, Timor and Sumba are equivalent of Mesozoic sandstones on the Australian margin where they are important hydrocarbon reservoirs. They have been exposed by on-going collision providing an opportunity to study their provenance. Previous studies suggested that rivers draining Australia provided most input. New light mineral, heavy mineral and detrital zircon data provide information on sources of sediments and constraints on palaeogeographic models. Conventional light mineral plots of sandstones from the islands typically show a recycled orogen and continental block origin, consistent with an Australian source. However many of the sandstones are texturally immature. Many samples also contain volcanic quartz and volcanic lithic fragments. Heavy mineral assemblages of most samples contain material from acid igneous and metamorphic rocks, with few indications of mafic or ultramafic sources. Rounded ultrastable minerals are typical, but these are commonly mixed with angular grains. Detrital zircon (LA-ICP-MS) U-Pb ages range from Archean to Mesozoic, but variations in age populations indicate differences in source areas along the Banda Arc in locality and time. We recognise distinctive Permo-Triassic, older Palaeozoic and Proterozoic ages characteristic of a Bird's Head, New Guinea, acid igneous source and this component diminishes from east to west. On Tanimbar and Babar, sediment came from both Australia and the Bird's Head. Sandstones in Timor have immature textures and show differences from east to west. They contain zircons derived from the Birds Head, as well as Precambrian zircons suggesting a northern Australian origin. In contrast, immature textures, heavy minerals and Cretaceous zircon ages in rocks from Sumba suggest that they were mainly derived from metamorphic sources. Mesozoic to Archean zircons indicate derivation from Australian crust that had collided in Sulawesi during the Cretaceous.

  16. On Improving Efficiency of Differential Evolution for Aerodynamic Shape Optimization Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madavan, Nateri K.

    2004-01-01

    Differential Evolution (DE) is a simple and robust evolutionary strategy that has been proven effective in determining the global optimum for several difficult optimization problems. Although DE offers several advantages over traditional optimization approaches, its use in applications such as aerodynamic shape optimization where the objective function evaluations are computationally expensive is limited by the large number of function evaluations often required. In this paper various approaches for improving the efficiency of DE are reviewed and discussed. These approaches are implemented in a DE-based aerodynamic shape optimization method that uses a Navier-Stokes solver for the objective function evaluations. Parallelization techniques on distributed computers are used to reduce turnaround times. Results are presented for the inverse design of a turbine airfoil. The efficiency improvements achieved by the different approaches are evaluated and compared.

  17. Discordance of the U Pb system in detrital zircons: Implication for provenance studies of sedimentary rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemchin, Alexander A.; Cawood, Peter A.

    2005-12-01

    Provenance studies involving U / Pb analysis of detrital zircons have become increasingly popular through the application of microanalytical techniques. Adopted one-dimensional methods for the presentation of detrital zircon data, such as probability density distribution plots, generally require various degrees of filtering of discordant analyses. However, a uniform approach for filtering does not exist, making comparison of data from different samples and sedimentary units, as well as different studies of detrital populations, extremely difficult. The problem is further complicated by the need to switch from 207Pb / 206Pb based ages to 206Pb / 238U ages when zircon populations within a sample show a range of ages from Archean to Proterozoic or even Phanerozoic. Ion probe analysis of multiple spots within a single zircon crystal and calculation of an internal isochron can potentially eliminate problems associated with discordance, but this is a time consuming approach. Comparison of internal isochron ages for zircons generated by multiple ion probe intra-grain zircon analyses from a sample of psammite within the Dalradian Supergroup of Scotland with a data set from the same sample based on single grain ion probe analysis using various filtering methods suggests good agreement between the two approaches particularly when filtering is based on the probability of concordance. However, when precise information is required, such as the age of the youngest zircon grains so as to accurately constrain the maximum depositional age of the strata, then multiple analyses of individual zircon grains may be required.

  18. Evolution of the Theory of the Earth: A Contextualized Approach for Teaching the History of the Theory of Plate Tectonics to Ninth Grade Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolphin, Glenn

    2009-04-01

    Current high school Earth Science curricula and textbooks organize scientific content into isolated “units” of knowledge. Within this structure, content is taught, but in the absence of the context of fundamental understandings or the process of how the science was actually done to reach the conclusions. These are two key facets of scientific literacy. I have developed curriculum from a historical perspective that addresses two particular units of study in Earth Science (“geologic time” and “plate tectonics”). The curriculum traces the evolution of the theory of plate tectonics. It includes contextualized experiences for students such as telling stories, utilizing original historical texts, narratives, and essential questions, to name a few. All of the strategies are utilized with the goal of building understanding around a small set of common themes. Exploring the historical models in this way allows students to analyze the models, while looking for limitations and misconceptions. This methodology is used to encourage students to develop more scientifically accurate understandings about the way in which the world and the process of scientific discovery work. Observations of high student engagement during the utilization of this contextualized approach has demonstrated that a positive effect on student understanding is promising.

  19. A maximum likelihood approach to generate hypotheses on the evolution and historical biogeography in the Lower Volga Valley regions (southwest Russia).

    PubMed

    Mavrodiev, Evgeny V; Laktionov, Alexy P; Cellinese, Nico

    2012-07-01

    The evolution of the diverse flora in the Lower Volga Valley (LVV) (southwest Russia) is complex due to the composite geomorphology and tectonic history of the Caspian Sea and adjacent areas. In the absence of phylogenetic studies and temporal information, we implemented a maximum likelihood (ML) approach and stochastic character mapping reconstruction aiming at recovering historical signals from species occurrence data. A taxon-area matrix of 13 floristic areas and 1018 extant species was constructed and analyzed with RAxML and Mesquite. Additionally, we simulated scenarios with numbers of hypothetical extinct taxa from an unknown palaeoflora that occupied the areas before the dramatic transgression and regression events that have occurred from the Pleistocene to the present day. The flora occurring strictly along the river valley and delta appear to be younger than that of adjacent steppes and desert-like regions, regardless of the chronology of transgression and regression events that led to the geomorphological formation of the LVV. This result is also supported when hypothetical extinct taxa are included in the analyses. The history of each species was inferred by using a stochastic character mapping reconstruction method as implemented in Mesquite. Individual histories appear to be independent from one another and have been shaped by repeated dispersal and extinction events. These reconstructions provide testable hypotheses for more in-depth investigations of their population structure and dynamics. PMID:22957179

  20. A hybrid phylogenetic-phylogenomic approach for species tree estimation in African Agama lizards with applications to biogeography, character evolution, and diversification.

    PubMed

    Leaché, Adam D; Wagner, Philipp; Linkem, Charles W; Böhme, Wolfgang; Papenfuss, Theodore J; Chong, Rebecca A; Lavin, Brian R; Bauer, Aaron M; Nielsen, Stuart V; Greenbaum, Eli; Rödel, Mark-Oliver; Schmitz, Andreas; LeBreton, Matthew; Ineich, Ivan; Chirio, Laurent; Ofori-Boateng, Caleb; Eniang, Edem A; Baha El Din, Sherif; Lemmon, Alan R; Burbrink, Frank T

    2014-10-01

    Africa is renowned for its biodiversity and endemicity, yet little is known about the factors shaping them across the continent. African Agama lizards (45 species) have a pan-continental distribution, making them an ideal model for investigating biogeography. Many species have evolved conspicuous sexually dimorphic traits, including extravagant breeding coloration in adult males, large adult male body sizes, and variability in social systems among colorful versus drab species. We present a comprehensive time-calibrated species tree for Agama, and their close relatives, using a hybrid phylogenetic-phylogenomic approach that combines traditional Sanger sequence data from five loci for 57 species (146 samples) with anchored phylogenomic data from 215 nuclear genes for 23 species. The Sanger data are analyzed using coalescent-based species tree inference using (*)BEAST, and the resulting posterior distribution of species trees is attenuated using the phylogenomic tree as a backbone constraint. The result is a time-calibrated species tree for Agama that includes 95% of all species, multiple samples for most species, strong support for the major clades, and strong support for most of the initial divergence events. Diversification within Agama began approximately 23 million years ago (Ma), and separate radiations in Southern, East, West, and Northern Africa have been diversifying for >10Myr. A suite of traits (morphological, coloration, and sociality) are tightly correlated and show a strong signal of high morphological disparity within clades, whereby the subsequent evolution of convergent phenotypes has accompanied diversification into new biogeographic areas. PMID:24973715

  1. Provenance-Based Approaches to Semantic Web Service Discovery and Usage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Narock, Thomas William

    2012-01-01

    The World Wide Web Consortium defines a Web Service as "a software system designed to support interoperable machine-to-machine interaction over a network." Web Services have become increasingly important both within and across organizational boundaries. With the recent advent of the Semantic Web, web services have evolved into semantic…

  2. A multi-analytical approach to gold in Ancient Egypt: Studies on provenance and corrosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tissot, I.; Troalen, L. G.; Manso, M.; Ponting, M.; Radtke, M.; Reinholz, U.; Barreiros, M. A.; Shaw, I.; Carvalho, M. L.; Guerra, M. F.

    2015-06-01

    Recent results from a three-year multi-disciplinary project on Ancient Egyptian gold jewellery revealed that items of jewellery from the Middle Kingdom to the New Kingdom were manufactured using a variety of alluvial gold alloys. These alloys cover a wide range of colours and the majority contain Platinum Group Elements inclusions. However, in all the gold foils analysed, these inclusions were found to be absent. In this work a selection of gilded wood and leather items and gold foil fragments, all from the excavations by John Garstang at Abydos (primarily from Middle Kingdom graves), were examined using Scanning Electron Microscopy-Energy Disperse Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), X-Ray Fluorescence (μXRF), Particle Induced X-Ray Emission (μPIXE) and Double Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (D2XRF). The work allowed us to characterise the composition of the base-alloys and also to reveal the presence of Pt at trace levels, confirming the use of alluvial gold deposits. Corrosion products were also investigated in the foils where surface tarnish was visually observed. Results showed that the differences in the colour of corrosion observed for the foils are related not only to the thickness of the corrosion layer but also to a multi-layer structure containing the various corrosion products.

  3. Provenance control on chemical indices of weathering (Taiwan river sands)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garzanti, Eduardo; Resentini, Alberto

    2016-05-01

    Geochemical parameters obtained from the analysis of sediments and sedimentary rocks are widely used to infer weathering and paleo-weathering conditions in source areas. Chemical indices of weathering, however, may not reflect weathering only, or even principally. The concentration of chemical elements in terrigenous sediments is constrained by the original mineralogy of source rocks, and is thus provenance-dependent. Moreover, the mineralogy and consequently the geochemistry of sediments may undergo substantial modifications by diverse physical processes during transport and deposition, including recycling and hydraulic sorting by size, density or shape, and/or by chemical dissolution and precipitation during diagenesis. Around the island of Taiwan, temperature and rainfall are consistently high and relatively homogeneous, and no significant correlation is observed between geochemical and climatic parameters. Physical erosion, fostered by landslides induced by frequent earthquakes and typhoons, prevails because of high relief and extreme rates of tectonic uplift. In such a dynamic orogenic setting, all chemical indices of weathering are controlled principally by the geology of source terranes. Sedimentaclastic and metasedimentaclastic sands carried by western Taiwan rivers draining the pro-wedge display the strongest depletion in Na, Ca, Mg and Sr relative to average upper continental crust, and no depletion or even enrichment in K, Rb and Ba. Low WIP indices reflect erosion of phyllosilicate-dominated rocks in the Slate Belt and extensive recycling of clastic rocks exposed in the Western Foothills. Instead, metamorphiclastic sands carried by eastern Taiwan rivers draining the retro-wedge show no depletion or even enrichment in Mg and Ca, and low CIA and PIA, reflecting contributions from the Tailuko Belt and Coastal Range. Volcaniclastic sands have the same CIA values of their andesitic source rocks (47 ± 1 versus 47 ± 7), indicating that weathering is

  4. Tectono-sedimentary evolution of an extensional basin revealed by a combined photo-geological and field-mapping approach. The Montefalco Basin (Northern Apennines, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucci, Francesco; Mirabella, Francesco; Santangelo, Michele; Cardinali, Mauro; Guzzetti, Fausto

    2016-04-01

    Active extensional basins are important since their sedimentary infills and bounding tectonic structures provide: i) sinks with preservation potential for sedimentary and fossil records of past changes in climate and sediment/water supply, ii) information on the growth, activity, decay and death of normal faults, iii) vast economic reserves of hydrocarbons, water and minerals. Unfortunately, quaternary extensional basins, especially if located in humid and temperate climate environments, are often characterized by extensively cultivated areas, homogeneous terrains and quite flat morphologies. Furthermore, they commonly host human settlements, together with roads, economic and industrial infrastructures, with a consequent limited availability of good outcrops. Such a limitation can (often severely) hamper an adequate mapping of the sedimentary infill. Therefore alternative methodological approaches (such as aerial photographs interpretation, API) are needed to integrate heterogeneous and incomplete datasets. This contribution presents an updated photo-geological map of a Quaternary extensional basin in Central Italy, the Montefalco Basin. This basin developed in a continental environment characterized by clayey-sandy lacustrine and fluvial sequences (late Pliocene - early Pleistocene) underlying more recent coarse grained deposits related to alluvial fan environment (early-to-late Pleistocene) and younger palustrine deposits (late Pleistocene). Since the late Pleistocene, regional uplift and local tectonics led to the end of deposition in the Montefalco basin, which experienced a diffuse incision and the modification of the drainage network, in response to the W-to-E migration of active faulting and tectonic subsidence. The new photo-geological map represents an important improvement compared to the existing data, since it provides unprecedented and spatially distributed information on the geometry of the continental deposits and on the tectonic structures affecting

  5. An ecological genetic delineation of local seed-source provenance for ecological restoration

    PubMed Central

    Krauss, Siegfried L; Sinclair, Elizabeth A; Bussell, John D; Hobbs, Richard J

    2013-01-01

    An increasingly important practical application of the analysis of spatial genetic structure within plant species is to help define the extent of local provenance seed collection zones that minimize negative impacts in ecological restoration programs. Here, we derive seed sourcing guidelines from a novel range-wide assessment of spatial genetic structure of 24 populations of Banksia menziesii (Proteaceae), a widely distributed Western Australian tree of significance in local ecological restoration programs. An analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) of 100 amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers revealed significant genetic differentiation among populations (ΦPT = 0.18). Pairwise population genetic dissimilarity was correlated with geographic distance, but not environmental distance derived from 15 climate variables, suggesting overall neutrality of these markers with regard to these climate variables. Nevertheless, Bayesian outlier analysis identified four markers potentially under selection, although these were not correlated with the climate variables. We calculated a global R-statistic using analysis of similarities (ANOSIM) to test the statistical significance of population differentiation and to infer a threshold seed collection zone distance of ∼60 km (all markers) and 100 km (outlier markers) when genetic distance was regressed against geographic distance. Population pairs separated by >60 km were, on average, twice as likely to be significantly genetically differentiated than population pairs separated by <60 km, suggesting that habitat-matched sites within a 30-km radius around a restoration site genetically defines a local provenance seed collection zone for B. menziesii. Our approach is a novel probability-based practical solution for the delineation of a local seed collection zone to minimize negative genetic impacts in ecological restoration. PMID:23919158

  6. Isotopic and magnetic provenance characterization of distal IRD in the Galicia Interior Basin (NW Iberia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plaza-Morlote, Maider; Rey, Daniel; Francisco Santos, Jose; Ribeiro, Sara; Bernabeu, Ana; Mohamed, Kais; Heslop, David; Rubio, Belén; Martins, Virginia

    2016-04-01

    The sediments of the Galicia Interior Basin in NW Iberia Margin are of particular palaeoclimatic interest as they are located at the boundary where the climatic oscillations of the glacial interval were interrupted by extreme events such as Heinrich events. These events are well characterized in Northern North Atlantic areas, but little is known about their occurrence beyond the Ruddiman belt. This study presents a combined environmagnetic and geochemical approach to the provenance and characterization of distal ice-rafted detritus (IRD) that occurred during the last glacial period in core CI12PC3 from the Galicia Interior Basin. The last six Heinrich Layers were identified by their magneto-mineralogical and geochemical properties. Their Sr and Nd isotopic signatures indicated that the Laurentide Ice Sheet was the major source for HL1, HL2, HL4 and HL5. However, the European ice sheets also influenced the initial development stages of HL1, HL2, HL4. HL3, HL6 and partially HL1, HL2 and HL4 were influenced by more juvenile provinces, such as Iceland/Faroes sheets and/or by the Fram Strait/East Greenland nearby areas. Separate provenance analyses of the coarse and fine fractions in the studied Heinrich Layers also indicated that IRDs and glacial flour sources might not always be the same. Our results shed unequivocal evidence that Canadian-sourced distal IRD are preceded by European-sourced IRD, at least from the H4. In our view, LIS and EIS instabilities registered in the Iberian Margin respond to the same climate forcing at different velocities.

  7. Investigating the provenance of thermal groundwater using compositional multivariate statistical analysis: a hydrogeochemical study from Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake, Sarah; Henry, Tiernan; Murray, John; Flood, Rory; Muller, Mark R.; Jones, Alan G.; Rath, Volker

    2016-04-01

    The geothermal energy of thermal groundwater is currently being exploited for district-scale heating in many locations world-wide. The chemical compositions of these thermal waters reflect the provenance and hydrothermal circulation patterns of the groundwater, which are controlled by recharge, rock type and geological structure. Exploring the provenance of these waters using multivariate statistical analysis (MSA) techniques increases our understanding of the hydrothermal circulation systems, and provides a reliable tool for assessing these resources. Hydrochemical data from thermal springs situated in the Carboniferous Dublin Basin in east-central Ireland were explored using MSA, including hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA), to investigate the source aquifers of the thermal groundwaters. To take into account the compositional nature of the hydrochemical data, compositional data analysis (CoDa) techniques were used to process the data prior to the MSA. The results of the MSA were examined alongside detailed time-lapse temperature measurements from several of the springs, and indicate the influence of three important hydrogeological processes on the hydrochemistry of the thermal waters: 1) increased salinity due to evaporite dissolution and increased water-rock-interaction; 2) dissolution of carbonates; and 3) dissolution of metal sulfides and oxides associated with mineral deposits. The use of MSA within the CoDa framework identified subtle temporal variations in the hydrochemistry of the thermal springs, which could not be identified with more traditional graphing methods (e.g., Piper diagrams), or with a standard statistical approach. The MSA was successful in distinguishing different geological settings and different annual behaviours within the group of springs. This study demonstrates the usefulness of the application of MSA within the CoDa framework in order to better understand the underlying controlling processes

  8. An ecological genetic delineation of local seed-source provenance for ecological restoration.

    PubMed

    Krauss, Siegfried L; Sinclair, Elizabeth A; Bussell, John D; Hobbs, Richard J

    2013-07-01

    An increasingly important practical application of the analysis of spatial genetic structure within plant species is to help define the extent of local provenance seed collection zones that minimize negative impacts in ecological restoration programs. Here, we derive seed sourcing guidelines from a novel range-wide assessment of spatial genetic structure of 24 populations of Banksia menziesii (Proteaceae), a widely distributed Western Australian tree of significance in local ecological restoration programs. An analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) of 100 amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers revealed significant genetic differentiation among populations (ΦPT = 0.18). Pairwise population genetic dissimilarity was correlated with geographic distance, but not environmental distance derived from 15 climate variables, suggesting overall neutrality of these markers with regard to these climate variables. Nevertheless, Bayesian outlier analysis identified four markers potentially under selection, although these were not correlated with the climate variables. We calculated a global R-statistic using analysis of similarities (ANOSIM) to test the statistical significance of population differentiation and to infer a threshold seed collection zone distance of ∼60 km (all markers) and 100 km (outlier markers) when genetic distance was regressed against geographic distance. Population pairs separated by >60 km were, on average, twice as likely to be significantly genetically differentiated than population pairs separated by <60 km, suggesting that habitat-matched sites within a 30-km radius around a restoration site genetically defines a local provenance seed collection zone for B. menziesii. Our approach is a novel probability-based practical solution for the delineation of a local seed collection zone to minimize negative genetic impacts in ecological restoration. PMID:23919158

  9. Geisinger's ProvenCare methodology: driving performance improvement within a shared governance structure.

    PubMed

    Nolan, Ruth; Wary, Andrea; King, Megan; Laam, Leslie A; Hallick, Susan

    2011-05-01

    Many performance improvement projects fail because they occur in parallel to the organization's shared governance structure. Leveraging the full potential of its nursing shared governance structure, Geisinger Health System's ProvenCare methodology harnessed the full potential of its staff nurses to create truly reliable workflows that benefit patients and that the team finds professionally satisfying. Using ProvenCare Perinatal and its smoking cessation education intervention and outcomes as an example, the authors describe the ProvenCare methodology. PMID:21519209

  10. Provenance analysis of Neogene sediments in the Thakkhola-Mustang Graben (central Nepal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adhikari, B. R.; Wagreich, M.

    2009-04-01

    some Mesozoic and a small proportion of granite are dominant in the Ghiling, Dhakmar and Chaile sections, suggesting a province from the west and north. The conglomerates of the Tetang Formation comprise mostly Mesozoic rocks with an eastern provenance, consistent with the paleocurrent directions. Minerals from low to high grade metamorphic source rocks are reflected in the heavy mineral assemblages. The presence of chrome-spinel indicates the existence of ophiolitic complexes in the source area. References: Fort, M., Freytet, P., Colchen, M., 1982, Structural and sedimentological evolution of the Thakkhola Mustang Graben (Nepal Himalaya). Z. für Geomorph. Suppl. Bd 42, pp. 75-98. Yoshida, M., Igarashi, Y., Arita, K., Hayashi, D., Sharma, T., 1984. Magnetostratigraphy and pollen analytic studies of the Takmar series, Nepal Himalayas, Journal of Nepal Geol. Soc. pp. 101-120 (Special Issue).

  11. Geochemically tracking provenance changes in marine sediment from the South Pacific Gyre throughout the Cenozoic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunlea, A. G.; Murray, R. W.; Sauvage, J.; Spivack, A. J.; Harris, R. N.; D'Hondt, S. L.

    2012-12-01

    The South Pacific Gyre (SPG), characterized by extremely slow sedimentation rates, is the world's largest oceanic desert. The little eolian dust from continents in the Southern Hemisphere must traverse great distances to reach the SPG, and the ultra-oligotrophic waters minimize the biogenic flux of sediment to the seafloor. However sparse, the pelagic sediment that is ultimately found on the seafloor retains a chemical record that can be used to trace its origin. Using cores from Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 329, we trace downcore fluctuations in major, trace, and rare earth element (REE) composition and flux to yield clues to the geological, chemical, and biological evolution of the SPG throughout the Cenozoic. The shipboard scientific party generally described the completely oxic, brown pelagic clays recovered during Exp. 329 as zeolitic metalliferous clay. The homogenous, very fine-grained nature of these sediments speaks to the challenges we face in resolving eolian detrital material ("dust"), fine-grained ash (commonly altered), and authigenic aluminosilicates from one another. Based on ICP-ES and ICP-MS analyses followed by multivariate statistical treatments, we are developing chemical records from a number of sites located throughout the SPG. Building on earlier work at DSDP Site 596 (Zhou and Kyte, 1992, Paleocean., 7, 441-465), and based on backtrack paths from 100 Ma forward, we are working to construct a regionally and temporally continuous paleoclimatological history of the SPG. Preliminary La-Th-Sc concentrations from Sites U1367, U1368, and U1369 show a distinct authigenic influence, but several refractory elements retain their original provenance signature. Sediment ages are constrained using a constant-Co model, based on the geochemically similar work that Zhou and Kyte (1992) performed in the SPG. REE concentrations normalized to post-archean average shale (PAAS) reveal a negative Ce anomaly that becomes more pronounced closer to

  12. Innovations in Teaching Adults: Proven Practices in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirstein, Kurt D., Ed.; Schieber, Craig E., Ed.; Flores, Kelly A., Ed.; Olswang, Steven G., Ed.

    2013-01-01

    In the rapidly changing world of higher education, innovative approaches to teaching adults are needed to drive instructional practices for helping to prepare the professionals of the future. The papers collected in "Innovations in Teaching Adults" were originally presented at a conference at City University of Seattle. The authors of…

  13. Creating Integrated Curriculum: Proven Ways To Increase Student Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drake, Susan M.

    This book offers detailed descriptions of different approaches to curriculum integration and applies them to elementary, middle, and high school settings. Eight chapters in the book include: (1) "What Is Integrated Curriculum and Why Is It Important?" which sets the current context, and, by applying the story model, concludes that education is…

  14. Achieving Equity in Faculty Salaries: A Proven Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Don Noel

    2008-01-01

    The University of Houston-Victoria's (UHV) approach to addressing salary equity, which has been successfully implemented for a decade, employs a methodology that derives salary targets by field, rank, and seniority from the College and University Professional Association for Human Resources (CUPA-HR) national salary survey. Based primarily on a…

  15. No difference in the competitive ability of introduced and native Trifolium provenances when grown with soil biota from their introduced and native ranges

    PubMed Central

    Shelby, Natasha; Hulme, Philip E.; van der Putten, Wim H.; McGinn, Kevin J.; Weser, Carolin; Duncan, Richard P.

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of increased competitive ability (EICA) hypothesis could explain why some introduced plant species perform better outside their native ranges. The EICA hypothesis proposes that introduced plants escape specialist pathogens or herbivores leading to selection for resources to be reallocated away from defence and towards greater competitive ability. We tested the hypothesis that escape from soil-borne enemies has led to increased competitive ability in three non-agricultural Trifolium (Fabaceae) species native to Europe that were introduced to New Zealand in the 19th century. Trifolium performance is intimately tied to rhizosphere biota. Thus, we grew plants from one introduced (New Zealand) and two native (Spain and the UK) provenances for each of three species in pots inoculated with soil microbiota collected from the rhizosphere beneath conspecifics in the introduced and native ranges. Plants were grown singly and in competition with conspecifics from a different provenance in order to compare competitive ability in the presence of different microbial communities. In contrast to the predictions of the EICA hypothesis, we found no difference in the competitive ability of introduced and native provenances when grown with soil microbiota from either the native or introduced range. Although plants from introduced provenances of two species grew more slowly than native provenances in native-range soils, as predicted by the EICA hypothesis, plants from the introduced provenance were no less competitive than native conspecifics. Overall, the growth rate of plants grown singly was a poor predictor of their competitive ability, highlighting the importance of directly quantifying plant performance in competitive scenarios, rather than relying on surrogate measures such as growth rate. PMID:26969431

  16. No difference in the competitive ability of introduced and native Trifolium provenances when grown with soil biota from their introduced and native ranges.

    PubMed

    Shelby, Natasha; Hulme, Philip E; van der Putten, Wim H; McGinn, Kevin J; Weser, Carolin; Duncan, Richard P

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of increased competitive ability (EICA) hypothesis could explain why some introduced plant species perform better outside their native ranges. The EICA hypothesis proposes that introduced plants escape specialist pathogens or herbivores leading to selection for resources to be reallocated away from defence and towards greater competitive ability. We tested the hypothesis that escape from soil-borne enemies has led to increased competitive ability in three non-agriculturalTrifolium(Fabaceae) species native to Europe that were introduced to New Zealand in the 19th century.Trifoliumperformance is intimately tied to rhizosphere biota. Thus, we grew plants from one introduced (New Zealand) and two native (Spain and the UK) provenances for each of three species in pots inoculated with soil microbiota collected from the rhizosphere beneath conspecifics in the introduced and native ranges. Plants were grown singly and in competition with conspecifics from a different provenance in order to compare competitive ability in the presence of different microbial communities. In contrast to the predictions of the EICA hypothesis, we found no difference in the competitive ability of introduced and native provenances when grown with soil microbiota from either the native or introduced range. Although plants from introduced provenances of two species grew more slowly than native provenances in native-range soils, as predicted by the EICA hypothesis, plants from the introduced provenance were no less competitive than native conspecifics. Overall, the growth rate of plants grown singly was a poor predictor of their competitive ability, highlighting the importance of directly quantifying plant performance in competitive scenarios, rather than relying on surrogate measures such as growth rate. PMID:26969431

  17. New markers to identify the provenance of lapis lazuli: trace elements in pyrite by means of micro-PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Re, A.; Angelici, D.; Lo Giudice, A.; Maupas, E.; Giuntini, L.; Calusi, S.; Gelli, N.; Massi, M.; Borghi, A.; Gallo, L. M.; Pratesi, G.; Mandò, P. A.

    2013-04-01

    Lapis lazuli has been used for glyptics and carving since the fifth millennium BC to produce jewels, amulets, seals, inlays, etc; the identification of the origin of the stone used for carving artworks may be valuable for reconstructing old trade routes. Since ancient lapis lazuli art objects are precious, only non-destructive techniques can be used to identify their provenance, and ion beam analysis (IBA) techniques allow us to characterise this stone in a fully non-invasive way. In addition, by using an ion microprobe, we have been able to focus the analysis on single crystals, as their typical dimensions may range from a few microns to hundreds of microns. Provenance markers, identified in previous IBA studies and already presented elsewhere, were based on the presence/absence of mineral phases, on the presence/quantity of trace elements inside a phase and on characteristic features of the luminescence spectra. In this work, a systematic study on pyrite crystals, a common accessory mineral in lapis lazuli, was carried out, following a multi-technique approach: optical microscopy and SEM-EDX to select crystals for successive trace element micro-PIXE measurements at two Italian facilities, the INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro and the INFN LABEC laboratory in Firenze. The results of this work allowed us to obtain new markers for lapis lazuli provenance identification.

  18. A global multidisciplinary approach to ETI research: a cyclic nonperiodic natural code guides the dynamical evolution of all real perceived structures.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinter, L.

    The conceptual and basic questions of experimental and theoretical ETI research are tackled starting from our present knowledge of star evolution in the Galaxy and envisageable kinds of very advanced civilizations focusing on two complementary ways to do research that advanced civilizations must possess. It is argued that all evolutionary processes can be dynamically and thermally based on a common concept of natural numbers, while temperature is shown to be an undefined concept; the underlying non-separability of dynamics from thermal physics leads to a global perception of a geometrical self- evolving structure of mass and space that doesn't need the concept of time. The intrinsic numerical classification of our perception of the world is discussed, and the 6 quantities on which the entire mathematics is based, i.e. e , , i , 0 , +1 , -1 , are put into evidence. Inconsistencies in definitions of periodic functions raise doubts as to the mathematical description of nature and suggest a new entirely dynamically evolving geometry for the real fields. Past and present ways to contain and transfer information unambiguously were analyzed in trying to answer the question why there are scientifically approachable and scientifically unapproachable fields. The analysis of primitive and non-primitive concepts necessary for a real , i.e. universal perception, shows the concepts of rigid body, motion and local space to be unreal , and the groundlessness of the concept of speed for the electromagnetic spectrum. As to the so called Man/Alien incommensurability problem, the possibility of a simple universal framework of understanding, i.e. of overcoming that problem, is contemplated; which possibility, as Carl Sagan has stated, would consist of a simple interstellar Rosetta stele , based on Mendeleev's elements table and on the assumption that natural laws are the same everywhere.

  19. Wood structural differences between northern and southern beech provenances growing at a moderate site.

    PubMed

    Eilmann, B; Sterck, F; Wegner, L; de Vries, S M G; von Arx, G; Mohren, G M J; den Ouden, J; Sass-Klaassen, U

    2014-08-01

    Planting provenances originating from southern to northern locations has been discussed as a strategy to speed up species migration and mitigate negative effects of climate change on forest stability and productivity. Especially for drought-susceptible species such as European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), the introduction of drought-tolerant provenances from the south could be an option. Yet, beech has been found to respond plastically to environmental conditions, suggesting that the climate on the plantation site might be more important for tree growth than the genetic predisposition of potentially drought-adapted provenances. In this study, we compared the radial growth, wood-anatomical traits and leaf phenology of four beech provenances originating from southern (Bulgaria, France) and northern locations (Sweden, the Netherlands) and planted in a provenance trial in the Netherlands. The distribution of precipitation largely differs between the sites of origin. The northern provenances experience a maximum and the southern provenances experience a minimum of rainfall in summer. We compared tree productivity and the anatomy of the water-conducting system for the period from 2000 to 2010, including the drought year 2003. In addition, tree mortality and the timing of leaf unfolding in spring were analysed for the years 2001, 2007 and 2012. Comparison of these traits in the four beech provenances indicates the influence of genetic predisposition and local environmental factors on the performance of these provenances under moderate site conditions. Variation in radial growth was controlled by environment, although the growth level slightly differed due to genetic background. The Bulgarian provenance had an efficient water-conducting system which was moreover unaffected by the drought in 2003, pointing to a high ability of this provenance to cope well with dry conditions. In addition, the Bulgarian provenance showed up as most productive in terms of height and radial

  20. Volatile organic compounds emitted from silver birch of different provenances across a latitudinal gradient in Finland.

    PubMed

    Maja, Mengistu M; Kasurinen, Anne; Holopainen, Toini; Kontunen-Soppela, Sari; Oksanen, Elina; Holopainen, Jarmo K

    2015-09-01

    Climate warming is having an impact on distribution, acclimation and defence capability of plants. We compared the emission rate and composition of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from silver birch (Betula pendula (Roth)) provenances along a latitudinal gradient in a common garden experiment over the years 2012 and 2013. Micropropagated silver birch saplings from three provenances were acquired along a gradient of 7° latitude and planted at central (Joensuu 62°N) and northern (Kolari 67°N) sites. We collected VOCs emitted by shoots and assessed levels of herbivore damage of three genotypes of each provenance on three occasions at the central site and four occasions at the northern site. In 2012, trees of all provenances growing at the central site had higher total VOC emission rates than the same provenances growing at the northern site; in 2013 the reverse was true, thus indicating a variable effect of latitude. Trees of the southern provenance had lower VOC emission rates than trees of the central and northern provenances during both sampling years. However, northward or southward translocation itself had no significant effect on the total VOC emission rates, and no clear effect on insect herbivore damage. When VOC blend composition was studied, trees of all provenances usually emitted more green leaf volatiles at the northern site and more sesquiterpenes at the central site. The monoterpene composition of emissions from trees of the central provenance was distinct from that of the other provenances. In summary, provenance translocation did not have a clear effect in the short-term on VOC emissions and herbivory was not usually intense at the lower latitude. Our data did not support the hypothesis that trees growing at lower latitudes would experience more intense herbivory, and therefore allocate resources to chemical defence in the form of inducible VOC emissions. PMID:26093370

  1. Lowering the Barrier to Reproducible Research by Publishing Provenance from Common Analytical Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, M. B.; Slaughter, P.; Walker, L.; Jones, C. S.; Missier, P.; Ludäscher, B.; Cao, Y.; McPhillips, T.; Schildhauer, M.

    2015-12-01

    Scientific provenance describes the authenticity, origin, and processing history of research products and promotes scientific transparency by detailing the steps in computational workflows that produce derived products. These products include papers, findings, input data, software products to perform computations, and derived data and visualizations. The geosciences community values this type of information, and, at least theoretically, strives to base conclusions on computationally replicable findings. In practice, capturing detailed provenance is laborious and thus has been a low priority; beyond a lab notebook describing methods and results, few researchers capture and preserve detailed records of scientific provenance. We have built tools for capturing and publishing provenance that integrate into analytical environments that are in widespread use by geoscientists (R and Matlab). These tools lower the barrier to provenance generation by automating capture of critical information as researchers prepare data for analysis, develop, test, and execute models, and create visualizations. The 'recordr' library in R and the `matlab-dataone` library in Matlab provide shared functions to capture provenance with minimal changes to normal working procedures. Researchers can capture both scripted and interactive sessions, tag and manage these executions as they iterate over analyses, and then prune and publish provenance metadata and derived products to the DataONE federation of archival repositories. Provenance traces conform to the ProvONE model extension of W3C PROV, enabling interoperability across tools and languages. The capture system supports fine-grained versioning of science products and provenance traces. By assigning global identifiers such as DOIs, reseachers can cite the computational processes used to reach findings. And, finally, DataONE has built a web portal to search, browse, and clearly display provenance relationships between input data, the software

  2. Composition and provenance of the Puente Formation (Miocene), Los Angeles Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Critelli, S. ); Rumelhart, P.E.; Ingersoll, R.V. )

    1994-04-01

    The Puente Formation (PFm) is a middle to upper Miocene clastic unit lying unconformably on the middle to lower Miocene El Modeno Volcanics and Topanga Group, within the Los Angeles basin (LAB). The PFm, about 3900m thick, is composed of sandstone, conglomerate, and mudrock deposited on a submarine fan at bathyal depths. Several intrabasinal discordances suggest active tectonics during deposition. The succession consists of two main upward thickening and coarsening megacycles reflecting submarine fan progradation. The PFm is characterized up-section by: (1) thin-bedded fine sandstone and shale (La Vida M.) grading to thick-bedded coarse sandstone an conglomerate (soquel M.); (2) thin-bedded siltstone, mudrock and sandstone (Yorba M.) grading to thick- to very thick-bedded coarse-grained sandstone and conglomerate (Sycamore Canyon M.). Sandstones of the PFm are quartzofeldspathic and suggest a probable local provenance from the plutonic, volcanic, and metamorphic rocks of the San Gabriel Mountains. Petrological parameters, however, suggest variable contribution of these source rock units through time. Coarse-grained plutonic rock fragments are abundant for the entire succession and consist of plagioclase-rich plutonic rocks perhaps sourced from the Lowe granodiorite. Microlitic, lathwork to felsitic volcanic lithic grains are also present in the lower and middle part. In the Yorba M. there is a local increase of volcanic detritus (Lv/L - 0.80), represented by larger volcanic lithics and abundant volcaniclastic matrix. Metamorphic detritus is not very abundant; it is concentrated in the La Vida M. the PFm represents sedimentation during tectonically active time in the evolution of southern California.

  3. Nonperturbative Quantum Field Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xingbo; Ilderton, Anton; Maris, Pieter; Vary, James P.

    2014-06-01

    We introduce a nonperturbative, first-principles approach to time-dependent problems in quantum field theory. In this approach, the time-evolution of quantum field configurations is calculated in real time and at the amplitude level. This method is particularly suitable for treating systems interacting with a time-dependent background field. As a test problem, we apply this approach to QED and study electron acceleration and the associated photon emission in a time- and space-dependent electromagnetic background field.

  4. Evolution in the Bacillaceae.

    PubMed

    Fajardo-Cavazos, Patricia; Maughan, Heather; Nicholson, Wayne L

    2014-10-01

    The family Bacillaceae constitutes a phenotypically diverse and globally ubiquitous assemblage of bacteria. Investigation into how evolution has shaped, and continues to shape, this family has relied on several widely ranging approaches from classical taxonomy, ecological field studies, and evolution in soil microcosms to genomic-scale phylogenetics, laboratory, and directed evolution experiments. One unifying characteristic of the Bacillaceae, the endospore, poses unique challenges to answering questions regarding both the calculation of evolutionary rates and claims of extreme longevity in ancient environmental samples. PMID:26104365

  5. Extending eScience Provenance with User-Submitted Semantic Annotations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michaelis, J.; Zednik, S.; West, P.; Fox, P. A.; McGuinness, D. L.

    2010-12-01

    eScience based systems generate provenance of their data products, related to such things as: data processing, data collection conditions, expert evaluation, and data product quality. Recent advances in web-based technology offer users the possibility of making annotations to both data products and steps in accompanying provenance traces, thereby expanding the utility of such provenance for others. These contributing users may have varying backgrounds, ranging from system experts to outside domain experts to citizen scientists. Furthermore, such users may wish to make varying types of annotations - ranging from documenting the purpose of a provenance step to raising concerns about the quality of data dependencies. Semantic Web technologies allow for such kinds of rich annotations to be made to provenance through the use of ontology vocabularies for (i) organizing provenance, and (ii) organizing user/annotation classifications. Furthermore, through Linked Data practices, Semantic linkages may be made from provenance steps to external data of interest. A desire for Semantically-annotated provenance has been motivated by data management issues in the Mauna Loa Solar Observatory’s (MLSO) Advanced Coronal Observing System (ACOS). In ACOS, photomoeter-based readings are taken of solar activity and subsequently processed into final data products consumable by end users. At intermediate stages of ACOS processing, factors such as evaluations by human experts and weather conditions are logged, which could impact data product quality. If such factors are linked via user-submitted annotations to provenance, it could be significantly beneficial for other users. Likewise, the background of a user could impact the credibility of their annotations. For example, an annotation made by a citizen scientist describing the purpose of a provenance step may not be as reliable as a similar annotation made by an ACOS project member. For this work, we have developed a software package that

  6. Presenting Provenance Based on User Roles - Experiences from the ACOS System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, P.; Michaelis, J.; Fox, P. A.; Zednik, S.; McGuinness, D. L.

    2010-12-01

    One goal of provenance is to provide users an understanding of the steps a system took to generate data products. Here, the level of detail captured by provenance becomes an important consideration. As detail is added, more questions can be hypothetically addressed. However, presenting significant provenance detail may also overwhelm end users, for one of two reasons: (i) the detail presented is irrelevant to the objectives, or (ii) the detail requires background knowledge a user lacks. Both of these challenges are present for data generated by the Mauna Loa Solar Observatory’s (MLSO) Advanced Coronal Observing System (ACOS). In ACOS, photometer-based readings are taken of solar activity and subsequently processed into data products consumable by end users. To fully understand these sequences of steps, background knowledge corresponding to various areas (e.g., astronomy, digital imaging, and ACOS specific techniques) is required by end users. This makes reviewing provenance difficult for users outside the ACOS development team, where varying degrees of background may be expected (ranging from outside domain experts in Solar Physics to citizen scientists). Likewise, even when steps taken by ACOS are understandable, they may provide undesired detail to an end user if presented. The work with ACOS involved the development of a Semantic Web based framework to selectively present provenance detail for data products in ACOS. Here, provenance is captured according to two sets of ontologies, the Proof Markup Language, which is an ontology based domain-independent provenance model, and a step ontology, designed to capture hierarchies of provenance steps. Used in combination, these ontology sets enable the creation of multiple levels of provenance, ranging from coarse to fine grained detail. In this setting, users may choose to expand/collapse provenance steps to view desired details. However, the specific provenance details a user initially sees is defined through

  7. Ensuring Credibility of the Third National Climate Assessment through Provenance Traceability in the Global Change Information System (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilmes, C.; Aulenbach, S.; Duggan, B.; Goldstein, J.

    2013-12-01

    A Federal Advisory Committee (The "National Climate Assessment and Development Advisory Committee" or NCADAC) has overseen the development of a draft climate report that after extensive review will be considered by the Federal Government in the Third National Climate Assessment (NCA). This comprehensive report (1) Integrates, evaluates, and interprets the findings of the Program and discusses the scientific uncertainties associated with such findings; (2) Analyzes the effects of global change on the natural environment, agriculture, energy production and use, land and water resources, transportation, human health and welfare, human social systems, and biological diversity; and (3) Analyzes current trends in global change, both human- induced and natural, and projects major trends for the subsequent 25 to 100 years. The U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP), composed of the 13 federal agencies most concerned with global change, is building a Global Change Information System (GCIS) that will ultimately organize access to all the program-wide research, data, and information about global change. A prototype of the system has been constructed that captures and presents all of the elements of provenance of the NCA through a coherent data model and friendly front end web site. This work will focus on the documentation of the provenance of the NCA report and our general approach and data model for capturing, archiving, and presenting that provenance information. We will demonstrate how our approach contributes to the general credibility of the scientific results synthesized through the report. We will also present plans for longer term curation of the material stored in the GCIS and how it can support preservation and stewardship goals throughout the contributing federal agencies.

  8. Variability in Chinese loess single-grain provenance data and the influence of the Quaternary East Asian winter monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, Thomas; Zaremba, Kaja; Bird, Anna; Rittner, Martin; Vermeesch, Pieter; Carter, Andrew; Limonta, Mara; Ando, Sergio; Garzanti, Eduardo; Lu, Huayu; Adamiec, Grzegorz

    2015-04-01

    The Chinese Loess Plateau represents one of the world's most detailed and continuous dust and climate records, stretching back into the Miocene and, to the west of the Plateau, into the late Eocene. It has long been argued that Chinese loess deposits record variations in the East Asian monsoon system, both during the summer via pedogenetic indicators, and during winter via grain-size and sedimentation rates. However, the potential influence of non-monsoonal dust transporting winds on Chinese loess deposition has been increasingly suggested, leaving question marks over whether loess deposits record winter monsoon variability. Central to resolving this is to establish the source regions of loess material. Despite a great deal of previous work, the sources and transport mechanisms of dust on the Chinese Loess Plateau are still contested, although areas to the west and northwest of the Plateau have primarily been suggested. Recent applications of single-grain U-Pb dating of zircons in loess provenance has eliminated some of the proposed sources, although possible spatial and temporal variability across the Loess Plateau and through the Plio-Quaternary still remains contentious. Here we show detailed single-grain provenance data, including zircon U-Pb ages and heavy mineral assemblage data from multiple sites and across the Quaternary to examine the key source areas and consider their variations in space and time. These show changing source characteristics both spatially and temporally, with westerly/Yellow River influence in the west of the Plateau, and probable winter monsoon influence to the east. Furthermore, although abrupt variability within individual sediment units is commonly seen in many loess climate proxy records, a high resolution approach that would reveal this has not been applied in single-grain provenance studies. Consequently the extent to which individual samples from a unit are representative of the unit's source in general has not been demonstrated

  9. Slim hole drilling proven in remote exploration project

    SciTech Connect

    Dachary, J. ); Vighetto, R. )

    1992-06-22

    This paper reports on a helicopter-supported slim hole exploration project in a remote tropical forest which cost 15% less than a conventional drilling operation. The potential savings after improvements in rig equipment, bits, and drilling and coring methods may approach 30%. Because of the small size of the slim hole equipment, the impact on the rain forest was small. The areas cleared for locations and access during the operation were 75% less than that required for similar operations with conventional road-transported rigs. During the second half of 1991, Total Exploration Gabon, a subsidiary of Total Exploration Production, conducted a slim hole drilling project in the Gabonese tropical rain forest in a joint venture with Chevron Corp., Exxon Corp., and Austria's OMV AG. During this helicopter-supported operation, two wells were drilled: one to 2,747 m (9,010 ft) ending with a 3 in. hole and one to 418 m (1,371 ft) ending with a 5-7/8 in. hole. Continuous coring operations recovered 1,868 m (6,127 ft), or 59% of the total length drilled.

  10. A Powerful Toolkit for Synthetic Biology: Over 3.8 Billion Years of Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothschild, Lynn J.

    2010-01-01

    The combination of evolutionary with engineering principles will enhance synthetic biology. Conversely, synthetic biology has the potential to enrich evolutionary biology by explaining why some adaptive space is empty, on Earth or elsewhere. Synthetic biology, the design and construction of artificial biological systems, substitutes bio-engineering for evolution, which is seen as an obstacle. But because evolution has produced the complexity and diversity of life, it provides a proven toolkit of genetic materials and principles available to synthetic biology. Evolution operates on the population level, with the populations composed of unique individuals that are historical entities. The source of genetic novelty includes mutation, gene regulation, sex, symbiosis, and interspecies gene transfer. At a phenotypic level, variation derives from regulatory control, replication and diversification of components, compartmentalization, sexual selection and speciation, among others. Variation is limited by physical constraints such as diffusion, and chemical constraints such as reaction rates and membrane fluidity. While some of these tools of evolution are currently in use in synthetic biology, all ought to be examined for utility. A hybrid approach of synthetic biology coupled with fine-tuning through evolution is suggested

  11. A powerful toolkit for synthetic biology: Over 3.8 billion years of evolution.

    PubMed

    Rothschild, Lynn J

    2010-04-01

    The combination of evolutionary with engineering principles will enhance synthetic biology. Conversely, synthetic biology has the potential to enrich evolutionary biology by explaining why some adaptive space is empty, on Earth or elsewhere. Synthetic biology, the design and construction of artificial biological systems, substitutes bio-engineering for evolution, which is seen as an obstacle. But because evolution has produced the complexity and diversity of life, it provides a proven toolkit of genetic materials and principles available to synthetic biology. Evolution operates on the population level, with the populations composed of unique individuals that are historical entities. The source of genetic novelty includes mutation, gene regulation, sex, symbiosis, and interspecies gene transfer. At a phenotypic level, variation derives from regulatory control, replication and diversification of components, compartmentalization, sexual selection and speciation, among others. Variation is limited by physical constraints such as diffusion, and chemical constraints such as reaction rates and membrane fluidity. While some of these tools of evolution are currently in use in synthetic biology, all ought to be examined for utility. A hybrid approach of synthetic biology coupled with fine-tuning through evolution is suggested. PMID:20349441

  12. Password-only authenticated three-party key exchange proven secure against insider dictionary attacks.

    PubMed

    Nam, Junghyun; Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond; Paik, Juryon; Won, Dongho

    2014-01-01

    While a number of protocols for password-only authenticated key exchange (PAKE) in the 3-party setting have been proposed, it still remains a challenging task to prove the security of a 3-party PAKE protocol against insider dictionary attacks. To the best of our knowledge, there is no 3-party PAKE protocol that carries a formal proof, or even definition, of security against insider dictionary attacks. In this paper, we present the first 3-party PAKE protocol proven secure against both online and offline dictionary attacks as well as insider and outsider dictionary attacks. Our construct can be viewed as a protocol compiler that transforms any 2-party PAKE protocol into a 3-party PAKE protocol with 2 additional rounds of communication. We also present a simple and intuitive approach of formally modelling dictionary attacks in the password-only 3-party setting, which significantly reduces the complexity of proving the security of 3-party PAKE protocols against dictionary attacks. In addition, we investigate the security of the well-known 3-party PAKE protocol, called GPAKE, due to Abdalla et al. (2005, 2006), and demonstrate that the security of GPAKE against online dictionary attacks depends heavily on the composition of its two building blocks, namely a 2-party PAKE protocol and a 3-party key distribution protocol. PMID:25309956

  13. Password-Only Authenticated Three-Party Key Exchange Proven Secure against Insider Dictionary Attacks

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Junghyun; Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond

    2014-01-01

    While a number of protocols for password-only authenticated key exchange (PAKE) in the 3-party setting have been proposed, it still remains a challenging task to prove the security of a 3-party PAKE protocol against insider dictionary attacks. To the best of our knowledge, there is no 3-party PAKE protocol that carries a formal proof, or even definition, of security against insider dictionary attacks. In this paper, we present the first 3-party PAKE protocol proven secure against both online and offline dictionary attacks as well as insider and outsider dictionary attacks. Our construct can be viewed as a protocol compiler that transforms any 2-party PAKE protocol into a 3-party PAKE protocol with 2 additional rounds of communication. We also present a simple and intuitive approach of formally modelling dictionary attacks in the password-only 3-party setting, which significantly reduces the complexity of proving the security of 3-party PAKE protocols against dictionary attacks. In addition, we investigate the security of the well-known 3-party PAKE protocol, called GPAKE, due to Abdalla et al. (2005, 2006), and demonstrate that the security of GPAKE against online dictionary attacks depends heavily on the composition of its two building blocks, namely a 2-party PAKE protocol and a 3-party key distribution protocol. PMID:25309956