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Sample records for evolutionary programming society

  1. Evolutionary Biology: Its Value to Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carson, Hampton L.

    1972-01-01

    Cites examples of the contribution of basic research in evolutionary biology to the solution of problems facing society (1) by dispelling myths about human origins, the nature of the individual, and the nature of race (2) by providing basic data concerning the effects of overpopulation, the production of improved sources of food, resistance of…

  2. Evolution, Science and Society: Evolutionary Biology and the National Research Agenda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Futuyma, Douglas J.; Meagher, Thomas R.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses ways of advancing understanding of evolutionary biology which seeks to explain all the characteristics of organisms. Describes the goals of evolutionary biology, why it is important, and how it contributes to society and basic science. (ASK)

  3. Evolutionary Design of Rule Changing Artificial Society Using Genetic Algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yun; Kanoh, Hitoshi

    Socioeconomic phenomena, cultural progress and political organization have recently been studied by creating artificial societies consisting of simulated agents. In this paper we propose a new method to design action rules of agents in artificial society that can realize given requests using genetic algorithms (GAs). In this paper we propose an efficient method for designing the action rules of agents that will constitute an artificial society that meets a specified demand by using a GAs. In the proposed method, each chromosome in the GA population represents a candidate set of action rules and the number of rule iterations. While a conventional method applies distinct rules in order of precedence, the present method applies a set of rules repeatedly for a certain period. The present method is aiming at both firm evolution of agent population and continuous action by that. Experimental results using the artificial society proved that the present method can generate artificial society which fills a demand in high probability.

  4. Evolutionary Paths to Corrupt Societies of Artificial Agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasrallah, Walid

    Virtual corrupt societies can be defined as groups of interacting computer-generated agents who predominantly choose behavior that gives short term personal gain at the expense of a higher aggregate cost to others. This paper focuses on corrupt societies that, unlike published models in which cooperation must evolve in order for the society to continue to survive, do not naturally die out as the corrupt class siphons off the resources. For example, a very computationally simple strategy of avoiding confrontation can allow a majority of "unethical" individuals to survive off the efforts of an "ethical" but productive minority. Analogies are drawn to actual human societies in which similar conditions gave rise to behavior traditionally defined as economic or political corruption.

  5. Hybrid evolutionary programming for heavily constrained problems.

    PubMed

    Myung, H; Kim, J H

    1996-01-01

    A hybrid of evolutionary programming (EP) and a deterministic optimization procedure is applied to a series of non-linear and quadratic optimization problems. The hybrid scheme is compared with other existing schemes such as EP alone, two-phase (TP) optimization, and EP with a non-stationary penalty function (NS-EP). The results indicate that the hybrid method can outperform the other methods when addressing heavily constrained optimization problems in terms of computational efficiency and solution accuracy. PMID:8833746

  6. Program in Science, Technology, and Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge.

    The Program in Science, Technology, and Society at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology is described. Two broad aims of the program are to explore the influence of social, political, and cultural forces on science and technology, and to examine the impact of technologies and scientific ideas on people's lives. Although based in the School of…

  7. Evolutionary Intelligence and Communication in Societies of Virtually Embodied Agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Binh; Skabar, Andrew

    In order to overcome the knowledge bottleneck problem, AI researchers have attempted to develop systems that are capable of automated knowledge acquisition. However, learning in these systems is hindered by context (i.e., symbol-grounding) problems, which are caused by the systems lacking the unifying structure of bodies, situations and needs that typify human learning. While the fields of Embodied Artificial Intelligence and Artificial Life have come a long way towards demonstrating how artificial systems can develop knowledge of the physical and social worlds, the focus in these areas has been on low level intelligence, and it is not clear how, such systems can be extended to deal with higher-level knowledge. In this paper, we argue that we can build towards a higher level intelligence by framing the problem as one of stimulating the development of culture and language. Specifically, we identify three important limitations that face the development of culture and language in AI systems, and propose how these limitations can be overcome. We will do this through borrowing ideas from the evolutionary sciences, which have explored how interactions between embodiment and environment have shaped the development of human intelligence and knowledge.

  8. Virus-Evolutionary Liner Genetic Programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamura, Kenji; Mutoh, Atsuko; Nakamura, Tsuyoshi; Itoh, Hidenori

    Many kinds of evolutionary methods have been proposed. GA and GP in particular have been demonstrated its effectiveness in various problems these days, and many systems have been proposed. One is Virus-Evolutionary Genetic Algorithm (VE-GA), and the other is Linear Genetic Programming in C (LGPC). Each of systems is reported its performance. VE-GA is the coevolution system that host individual and virus individuals. That can spread schema effectively among the host individuals by using the virus infection and virus incorporation. LGPC implements the GP by representing the individuals to one dimension as if GA. LGPC can reduce a search cost of pointer and save the machine memory, and can reduce the time to implements GP programs. We proposed that a system introduce virus individuals in LGPC, and the analyzed performance of the system at two problems. Our system can spread schema among the population, and search solution effectively. The results of computer simulation show that this system can search for solution depending on LGPC applying problem's character compare with LGPC. A search cost of pointer

  9. Evolutionary fitness as a function of pubertal age in 22 subsistence-based traditional societies

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Context The age of puberty has fallen over the past 130 years in industrialized, western countries, and this fall is widely referred to as the secular trend for earlier puberty. The current study was undertaken to test two evolutionary theories: (a) the reproductive system maximizes the number of offspring in response to positive environmental cues in terms of energy balance, and (b) early puberty is a trade-off response for high mortality rate and reduced resource availability. Methods Using a sample of 22 natural-fertility societies of mostly tropical foragers, horticulturalists, and pastoralists from Africa, South America, Australia, and Southeastern Asia, this study compares indices of adolescence growth and menarche with those of fertility fitness in these non-industrial, traditional societies. Results The average age at menarche correlated with the first reproduction, but did not correlate with the total fertility rate TFR or reproductive fitness. The age at menarche correlated negatively with their average adult body mass, and the average adult body weight positively correlated with reproductive fitness. Survivorship did not correlate with the age at menarche or age indices of the adolescent growth spurt. The population density correlated positively with the age at first reproduction, but not with menarche age, TFR, or reproductive fitness. Conclusions Based on our analyses, we reject the working hypotheses that reproductive fitness is enhanced in societies with early puberty or that early menarche is an adaptive response to greater mortality risk. Whereas body mass is a measure of resources is tightly associated with fitness, the age of menarche is not. PMID:21860629

  10. Comparing Evolutionary Programs and Evolutionary Pattern Search Algorithms: A Drug Docking Application

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, W.E.

    1999-02-10

    Evolutionary programs (EPs) and evolutionary pattern search algorithms (EPSAS) are two general classes of evolutionary methods for optimizing on continuous domains. The relative performance of these methods has been evaluated on standard global optimization test functions, and these results suggest that EPSAs more robustly converge to near-optimal solutions than EPs. In this paper we evaluate the relative performance of EPSAs and EPs on a real-world application: flexible ligand binding in the Autodock docking software. We compare the performance of these methods on a suite of docking test problems. Our results confirm that EPSAs and EPs have comparable performance, and they suggest that EPSAs may be more robust on larger, more complex problems.

  11. New Rural Society Concept and Program Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairfield Univ., CT.

    To help achieve a more dispersed population distribution, it is the strategy of the New Rural Society (NRS) project to address the interdependent rural, urban, and energy problems by solving the rural development problem issue first. People live in large urban areas chiefly because the jobs and essential services are there. Advances in…

  12. Optimal lunar soft landing trajectories using taboo evolutionary programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutyalarao, M.; Raj, M. Xavier James

    A safe lunar landing is a key factor to undertake an effective lunar exploration. Lunar lander consists of four phases such as launch phase, the earth-moon transfer phase, circumlunar phase and landing phase. The landing phase can be either hard landing or soft landing. Hard landing means the vehicle lands under the influence of gravity without any deceleration measures. However, soft landing reduces the vertical velocity of the vehicle before landing. Therefore, for the safety of the astronauts as well as the vehicle lunar soft landing with an acceptable velocity is very much essential. So it is important to design the optimal lunar soft landing trajectory with minimum fuel consumption. Optimization of Lunar Soft landing is a complex optimal control problem. In this paper, an analysis related to lunar soft landing from a parking orbit around Moon has been carried out. A two-dimensional trajectory optimization problem is attempted. The problem is complex due to the presence of system constraints. To solve the time-history of control parameters, the problem is converted into two point boundary value problem by using the maximum principle of Pontrygen. Taboo Evolutionary Programming (TEP) technique is a stochastic method developed in recent years and successfully implemented in several fields of research. It combines the features of taboo search and single-point mutation evolutionary programming. Identifying the best unknown parameters of the problem under consideration is the central idea for many space trajectory optimization problems. The TEP technique is used in the present methodology for the best estimation of initial unknown parameters by minimizing objective function interms of fuel requirements. The optimal estimation subsequently results into an optimal trajectory design of a module for soft landing on the Moon from a lunar parking orbit. Numerical simulations demonstrate that the proposed approach is highly efficient and it reduces the minimum fuel

  13. An Evolutionary Programming Based Tabu Search Method for Unit Commitment Problem with Cooling-Banking Constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christober, C.; Rajan, Asir

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a new approach to solve the short-term unit commitment problem using An Evolutionary Programming Based tabu search method with cooling and banking constraints. Numerical results are shown comparing the cost solutions and computation time obtained by using the evolutionary programming method and other conventional methods like dynamic programming, lagrangian relaxation.

  14. The CHAIN program: forging evolutionary links to underlying mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Neuwald, Andrew F

    2007-11-01

    Proteins evolve new functions by modifying and extending the molecular machinery of an ancestral protein. Such changes show up as divergent sequence patterns, which are conserved in descendent proteins that maintain the divergent function. After multiply-aligning a set of input sequences, the CHAIN program partitions the sequences into two functionally divergent groups and then outputs an alignment that is annotated to reveal the selective pressures imposed on divergent residue positions. If atomic coordinates are also provided, hydrogen bonds and other atomic interactions associated with various categories of divergent residues are graphically displayed. Such analyses establish links between protein evolutionary divergence and functionally crucial atomic features and, as a result, can suggest plausible molecular mechanisms for experimental testing. This is illustrated here by its application to bacterial clamp-loader ATPases. PMID:17962021

  15. Modern evolutionary mechanics theories and resolving the programmed/non-programmed aging controversy.

    PubMed

    Goldsmith, Theodore C

    2014-10-01

    Modern programmed (adaptive) theories of biological aging contend that organisms including mammals have generally evolved mechanisms that purposely limit their lifespans in order to obtain an evolutionary benefit. Modern non-programmed theories contend that mammal aging generally results from natural deteriorative processes, and that lifespan differences between species are explained by differences in the degree to which they resist those processes. Originally proposed in the 19th century, programmed aging in mammals has historically been widely summarily rejected as obviously incompatible with the mechanics of the evolution process. However, relatively recent and continuing developments described here have dramatically changed this situation, and programmed mammal aging now has a better evolutionary basis than non-programmed aging. Resolution of this issue is critically important to medical research because the two theories predict that very different biological mechanisms are ultimately responsible for age-related diseases and conditions. PMID:25519063

  16. The Edelman Galileoscope Education Program: A Collaboration Among Professional Societies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pompea, Stephen M.; Marvel, K. B.; Fienberg, R. T.; Arion, D. N.; Herrold, A.; Kruse, B.; Sparks, R. T.; Dugan, C.

    2011-01-01

    The Edelman Galileoscope Education Program is an ongoing national effort to provide K-12 teachers with Galileoscope refractor kits and the proper training to use them effectively for teaching scientific concepts and observational skills. As such it represents a strategic effort to excite children about astronomy and provides them with a powerful tool to increase science literacy. The program was made possible by a generous gift from Jean and Ric Edelman to the American Astronomical Society (AAS). The AAS teamed with the National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO); Galileoscope, LLC; the National Earth Science Teachers Association (NESTA); and the Astronomical Society of the Pacific (ASP) to distribute telescopes, mainly during teacher workshops. Through the professional development efforts of NESTA, ASP, and NOAO's Teaching With Telescopes program some 1,400 teachers received Galileoscopes and hands-on training on how to teach optics and astronomy with them. All participating teachers received Galileoscopes free of charge. Another 1,500 or so teachers not connected with these organizations also received telescopes free of charge through an Internet ordering system, paying only for shipping. Under this combination of programs more than 15,000 Galileoscopes have been given to active teachers, reaching an estimated 300,000 students. The professional development program uses a combination of face-to-face workshops, a train-the-trainer model, and Internet-based self-paced instruction. We describe the Edelman Galileoscope Education Program design, training materials, and distribution networks, as well as the geographic distribution of the teachers who received Galileoscopes. This program represents an efficient and effective model for quickly distributing valuable science teaching materials to urban, suburban, and rural teachers _ including homeschoolers _ across the United States.

  17. How institutions shaped the last major evolutionary transition to large-scale human societies.

    PubMed

    Powers, Simon T; van Schaik, Carel P; Lehmann, Laurent

    2016-02-01

    What drove the transition from small-scale human societies centred on kinship and personal exchange, to large-scale societies comprising cooperation and division of labour among untold numbers of unrelated individuals? We propose that the unique human capacity to negotiate institutional rules that coordinate social actions was a key driver of this transition. By creating institutions, humans have been able to move from the default 'Hobbesian' rules of the 'game of life', determined by physical/environmental constraints, into self-created rules of social organization where cooperation can be individually advantageous even in large groups of unrelated individuals. Examples include rules of food sharing in hunter-gatherers, rules for the usage of irrigation systems in agriculturalists, property rights and systems for sharing reputation between mediaeval traders. Successful institutions create rules of interaction that are self-enforcing, providing direct benefits both to individuals that follow them, and to individuals that sanction rule breakers. Forming institutions requires shared intentionality, language and other cognitive abilities largely absent in other primates. We explain how cooperative breeding likely selected for these abilities early in the Homo lineage. This allowed anatomically modern humans to create institutions that transformed the self-reliance of our primate ancestors into the division of labour of large-scale human social organization. PMID:26729937

  18. Study of an evolutionary interim earth orbit program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. L.; Alton, L. R.; Arno, R. D.; Deerwester, J. M.; Edsinger, L. E.; Sinclair, K. F.; Tindle, E. L.; Wood, R. D.

    1971-01-01

    An evolutionary, gradual, and step-wise spacecraft systems technology development from those used on the Apollos and Skylab 1 to that required for the space station was considered. The four mission spacecraft were dry workshop versions of the Saturn 4-B stage, and each individually configured, outfitted and launched by INT-21 vehicles. These spacecraft were evaluated for crews of three, six and nine men and for mission lifetimes of one year. Two versions of the Apollo CSM, a three man and a four man crew, were considered as the logistic vehicle. The solar cell electrical power system of the first mission evolves into a light weight panel system supplemented by an operating isotope-Brayton system on the later missions. The open life support system of the first mission evolves to a system which recovers both water and oxygen on the last mission. The data handling, communications, radiation shielding, micrometeoroid protection, and orbit keeping systems were determined. The program costs were estimated and, excluding operational costs, the cost for each mission would average about $2 billion of which one-sixth would be for development, one-fourth for experiments, and the balance for vehicle acquisition.

  19. Public Outreach Program of the Planetary society of Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iyori, Tasuku

    2002-01-01

    The Planetary Society of Japan, TPS/J, was founded on October 6, 1999 as the first international wing of The Planetary Society. The Society's objectives are to support exploration of the solar system and search for extraterrestrial life at the grass-roots level in terms of enhancing Japanese people's concern and interest in them. With close-knit relationships with the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, ISAS, and The Planetary Society, TPS/J has been trying to fulfil its goal. Introduced below are major public outreach programs. Planetary Report in Japanese The key vehicle that reaches members. The publication is offered to members together with the English issue every two months. Reprint of Major Texts from The Planetary Report for Science Magazine Major texts from The Planetary Report are reprinted in Nature Science, the science magazine with monthly circulation of 20,000. The science monthly has been published with an aim to provide an easier access to science. Website: http://www.planetary.or.jp A mainstay of the vehicle to reach science-minded people. It covers planetary news on a weekly basis, basics of the solar system and space exploring missions. In order to obtain support of many more people, the weekly email magazine is also provided. It has been enjoying outstanding popularity among subscribers thanks to inspiring commentaries by Dr. Yasunori Matogawa, the professor of ISAS. Public Outreach Events TPS/J's first activity of this kind was its participation in the renowned open-house event at ISAS last August. The one-day event has attracted 20,000 visitors every summer. TPS/J joined the one-day event with the Red Rover, Red Rover project for children, exhibition of winning entries of the international space art contest and introduction of SETI@home. TPS/J also participated in a couple of other planetary events, sponsored by local authorities. TPS/J will continue to have an opportunity to get involved in these public events Tie-up with the

  20. Harvard University Program on Technology and Society; Fifth Annual Report, 1968-1969.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mesthene, Emmanuel G.

    The fifth annual report of Harvard University's Program on Technology and Society describes current research in the Program's major areas of concentration--namely the effects of technological change on the life of the individual in society, social and individual values, the political organization of society, and the structure and processes of…

  1. Evolutionary programming for goal-driven dynamic planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaccaro, James M.; Guest, Clark C.; Ross, David O.

    2002-03-01

    Many complex artificial intelligence (IA) problems are goal- driven in nature and the opportunity exists to realize the benefits of a goal-oriented solution. In many cases, such as in command and control, a goal-oriented approach may be the only option. One of many appropriate applications for such an approach is War Gaming. War Gaming is an important tool for command and control because it provides a set of alternative courses of actions so that military leaders can contemplate their next move in the battlefield. For instance, when making decisions that save lives, it is necessary to completely understand the consequences of a given order. A goal-oriented approach provides a slowly evolving tractably reasoned solution that inherently follows one of the principles of war: namely concentration on the objective. Future decision-making will depend not only on the battlefield, but also on a virtual world where military leaders can wage wars and determine their options by playing computer war games much like the real world. The problem with these games is that the built-in AI does not learn nor adapt and many times cheats, because the intelligent player has access to all the information, while the user has access to limited information provided on a display. These games are written for the purpose of entertainment and actions are calculated a priori and off-line, and are made prior or during their development. With these games getting more sophisticated in structure and less domain specific in scope, there needs to be a more general intelligent player that can adapt and learn in case the battlefield situations or the rules of engagement change. One such war game that might be considered is Risk. Risk incorporates the principles of war, is a top-down scalable model, and provides a good application for testing a variety of goal- oriented AI approaches. By integrating a goal-oriented hybrid approach, one can develop a program that plays the Risk game effectively and move

  2. The Bioelectromagnetic Society Thirteenth Annual Meeting 1991: Program and abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    This volume contains author abstracts representing oral and poster presentations made at the Thirteenth Annual Meeting of The Bioelectromagnetic Society held in Salt Lake City, Utah June 23--27, 1991.

  3. Evolutionary Theory in Undergraduate Biology Programs at Lebanese Universities: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vlaardingerbroek, Barend; Hachem-El-Masri, Yasmine

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gauge the profile of evolutionary theory in Lebanese undergraduate biology programs. The research focused mainly on the views of university biology department heads, given that they are the people who exercise the most direct influence over their departments' ethos. An Australasian sample was chosen as a reference…

  4. 46 CFR 8.420 - Classification society authorization to participate in the Alternate Compliance Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... recognition to the Commandant in writing in accordance with 46 CFR 1.03-15(h)(4). (e) The Coast Guard will... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Classification society authorization to participate in... § 8.420 Classification society authorization to participate in the Alternate Compliance Program....

  5. Evolutionary effects of alternative artificial propagation programs: implications for viability of endangered anadromous salmonids

    PubMed Central

    McClure, Michelle M; Utter, Fred M; Baldwin, Casey; Carmichael, Richard W; Hassemer, Peter F; Howell, Philip J; Spruell, Paul; Cooney, Thomas D; Schaller, Howard A; Petrosky, Charles E

    2008-01-01

    Most hatchery programs for anadromous salmonids have been initiated to increase the numbers of fish for harvest, to mitigate for habitat losses, or to increase abundance in populations at low abundance. However, the manner in which these programs are implemented can have significant impacts on the evolutionary trajectory and long-term viability of populations. In this paper, we review the potential benefits and risks of hatchery programs relative to the conservation of species listed under the US Endangered Species Act. To illustrate, we present the range of potential effects within a population as well as among populations of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) where changes to major hatchery programs are being considered. We apply evolutionary considerations emerging from these examples to suggest broader principles for hatchery uses that are consistent with conservation goals. We conclude that because of the evolutionary risks posed by artificial propagation programs, they should not be viewed as a substitute for addressing other limiting factors that prevent achieving viability. At the population level, artificial propagation programs that are implemented as a short-term approach to avoid imminent extinction are more likely to achieve long-term population viability than approaches that rely on long-term supplementation. In addition, artificial propagation programs can have out-of-population impacts that should be considered in conservation planning. PMID:25567637

  6. An Overview of the Society of Actuaries and Its Education Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klugman, Stuart; Long, Gena

    2014-01-01

    The Society of Actuaries (SOA) is the world's largest actuarial organization. This article describes the SOA with particular attention paid to its education and qualification processes and resources available for university and college programs.

  7. Why evolutionary biologists should get seriously involved in ecological monitoring and applied biodiversity assessment programs

    PubMed Central

    Brodersen, Jakob; Seehausen, Ole

    2014-01-01

    While ecological monitoring and biodiversity assessment programs are widely implemented and relatively well developed to survey and monitor the structure and dynamics of populations and communities in many ecosystems, quantitative assessment and monitoring of genetic and phenotypic diversity that is important to understand evolutionary dynamics is only rarely integrated. As a consequence, monitoring programs often fail to detect changes in these key components of biodiversity until after major loss of diversity has occurred. The extensive efforts in ecological monitoring have generated large data sets of unique value to macro-scale and long-term ecological research, but the insights gained from such data sets could be multiplied by the inclusion of evolutionary biological approaches. We argue that the lack of process-based evolutionary thinking in ecological monitoring means a significant loss of opportunity for research and conservation. Assessment of genetic and phenotypic variation within and between species needs to be fully integrated to safeguard biodiversity and the ecological and evolutionary dynamics in natural ecosystems. We illustrate our case with examples from fishes and conclude with examples of ongoing monitoring programs and provide suggestions on how to improve future quantitative diversity surveys. PMID:25553061

  8. Training the Millennial learner through experiential evolutionary scaffolding: implications for clinical supervision in graduate education programs.

    PubMed

    Venne, Vickie L; Coleman, Darrell

    2010-12-01

    They are the Millennials--Generation Y. Over the next few decades, they will be entering genetic counseling graduate training programs and the workforce. As a group, they are unlike previous youth generations in many ways, including the way they learn. Therefore, genetic counselors who teach and supervise need to understand the Millennials and explore new ways of teaching to ensure that the next cohort of genetic counselors has both skills and knowledge to represent our profession well. This paper will summarize the distinguishing traits of the Millennial generation as well as authentic learning and evolutionary scaffolding theories of learning that can enhance teaching and supervision. We will then use specific aspects of case preparation during clinical rotations to demonstrate how incorporating authentic learning theory into evolutionary scaffolding results in experiential evolutionary scaffolding, a method that potentially offers a more effective approach when teaching Millennials. We conclude with suggestions for future research. PMID:20844940

  9. Evolutionary optimization of interatomic potentials using genetic programming.

    SciTech Connect

    Jayaraman, Saivenkataraman

    2010-06-01

    After more than 50 years of molecular simulations, accurate empirical models are still the bottleneck in the wide adoption of simulation techniques. Addressing this issue with a fresh paradigm is the need of the day. In this study, we outline a new genetic-programming based method to develop empirical models for a system purely from its energy and/or forces. While the approach was initially developed for the development of classical force-fields from ab-initio calculations, we also discuss its application to the molecular coarse-graining of methanol. Two models, one representing methanol by a single site and the other via two sites will be developed using this method. They will be validated against existing coarse-grained potentials for methanol by comparing thermophysical properties.

  10. THE URALIC AND ALTAIC PROGRAM OF THE AMERICAN COUNCIL OF LEARNED SOCIETIES (1959-1965).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LOTZ, JOHN

    THIS REPORT GIVES AN OVERVIEW OF THE ENTIRE ACLS (AMERICAN COUNCIL OF LEARNED SOCIETIES) PROGRAM OFFICIALLY KNOWN AS "RESEARCH AND STUDIES IN URALIC AND ALTAIC LANGUAGES" WHICH WAS ORGANIZED AND IMPLEMENTED BETWEEN 1959 AND L965 BY OVER 70 SCHOLARS REPRESENTING 42 INSTITUTIONS. THE PROGRAM WAS PLANNED ON TWO DIMENSIONS--(1) LANGUAGES TO BE…

  11. Harvard University Program on Technology and Society 1964-1972. A Final Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA. Program on Technology and Society.

    Eight years of research by the Harvard University's Program on Technology and Society are summarized. Lengthy abstracts of the 29 books and 164 articles that resulted from the Program, as well as interim accounts of projects not yet completed are presented. The report is divided into four parts; institutions (including business, education, and…

  12. 115-year-old society knows how to reach young scientists: ASM Young Ambassador Program.

    PubMed

    Karczewska-Golec, Joanna

    2015-12-25

    With around 40,000 members in more than 150 countries, American Society for Microbiology (ASM) faces the challenge of meeting very diverse needs of its increasingly international members base. The newly launched ASM Young Ambassador Program seeks to aid the Society in this effort. Equipped with ASM conceptual support and financing, Young Ambassadors (YAs) design and pursue country-tailored approaches to strengthen the Society's ties with local microbiological communities. In a trans-national setting, the active presence of YAs at important scientific events, such as 16th European Congress on Biotechnology, forges new interactions between ASM and sister societies. The paper presents an overview of the Young Ambassadors-driven initiatives at both global and country levels, and explores the topic of how early-career scientists can contribute to science diplomacy and international relations. PMID:25449541

  13. Adaptive Evolutionary Programming Incorporating Neural Network for Transient Stability Constrained Optimal Power Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tangpatiphan, Kritsana; Yokoyama, Akihiko

    This paper presents an adaptive evolutionary programming incorporating neural network for solving transient stability constrained optimal power flow (TSCOPF). The proposed AEP method is an evolutionary programming (EP)-based algorithm, which adjusts its population size automatically during an optimization process. The artificial neural network, which classifies the AEP individual based on its stability degrees, is embedded into the search template to reduce the computational load caused by transient stability constraints. The fuel cost minimization is selected as the objective function of TSCOPF. The proposed method is tested on the IEEE 30-bus system with two types of the fuel cost functions, i.e. the conventional quadratic function and the quadratic function superimposed by sine component to model the cost curves without and with valve-point loading effect respectively. The numerical examples show that AEP is more effective than conventional EP in terms of computational speed, and when the neural network is incorporated into AEP, it can significantly reduce the computational time of TSCOPF. A study of the architecture of the neural network is also conducted and discussed. In addition, the effectiveness of the proposed method for solving TSCOPF with the consideration of multiple contingencies is manifested.

  14. 1994 NASA-HU American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE) Summer Faculty Fellowship Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spencer, John H. (Compiler); Young, Deborah B. (Compiler)

    1994-01-01

    Since 1964, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has supported a program of summer faculty fellowships for engineering and science educators. In a series of collaborations between NASA research and development centers and nearby universities, engineering faculty members spend 10 weeks working with professional peers on research. The Summer Faculty Program Committee of the American Society for Engineering Education supervises the programs. Objectives: (1) To further the professional knowledge of qualified engineering and science faculty members; (2) To stimulate and exchange ideas between participants and NASA; (3) To enrich and refresh the research and teaching activities of participants' institutions; (4) To contribute to the research objectives of the NASA center.

  15. The 1993 NASA-ODU American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE) Summer Faculty Fellowship Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tiwari, Surendra N. (Compiler); Young, Deborah B. (Compiler)

    1993-01-01

    Since 1964, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration has supported a program of summer faculty fellowships for engineering and science educators. In a series of collaborations between NASA research and development centers and nearby universities, engineering faculty members spend 10 weeks working with professional peers on research. The Summer Faculty Program Committee of the American Society for Engineering Education supervises the programs. Objectives are: to further the professional knowledge of qualified engineering and science faculty members; to stimulate and exchange ideas between participants and NASA; to enrich and refresh the research and teaching activities of participants' institutions; and to contribute to the research objectives of the NASA center.

  16. A Program for At-Risk High School Students Informed by Evolutionary Science

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, David Sloan; Kauffman, Richard A.; Purdy, Miriam S.

    2011-01-01

    Improving the academic performance of at-risk high school students has proven difficult, often calling for an extended day, extended school year, and other expensive measures. Here we report the results of a program for at-risk 9th and 10th graders in Binghamton, New York, called the Regents Academy that takes place during the normal school day and year. The design of the program is informed by the evolutionary dynamics of cooperation and learning, in general and for our species as a unique product of biocultural evolution. Not only did the Regents Academy students outperform their comparison group in a randomized control design, but they performed on a par with the average high school student in Binghamton on state-mandated exams. All students can benefit from the social environment provided for at-risk students at the Regents Academy, which is within the reach of most public school districts. PMID:22114703

  17. NASA/American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE) Summer Faculty Fellowship Program, 1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tiwari, Surendra N. (Compiler)

    1991-01-01

    In a series of collaborations between NASA research and development centers and nearby universities, engineering faculty members spent 10 weeks working with professional peers on research. The Summer Faculty Program Committee of the American Society of Engineering Education supervises the programs. The objects were the following: (1) to further the professional knowledge of qualified engineering and science faculty members; (2) to stimulate and exchange ideas between participants and NASA; (3) to enrich and refresh the research and teaching activities of the participants' institutions; and (4) to contribute to the research objectives of the NASA center.

  18. Prediction of Layer Thickness in Molten Borax Bath with Genetic Evolutionary Programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylan, Fatih

    2011-04-01

    In this study, the vanadium carbide coating in molten borax bath process is modeled by evolutionary genetic programming (GEP) with bath composition (borax percentage, ferro vanadium (Fe-V) percentage, boric acid percentage), bath temperature, immersion time, and layer thickness data. Five inputs and one output data exist in the model. The percentage of borax, Fe-V, and boric acid, temperature, and immersion time parameters are used as input data and the layer thickness value is used as output data. For selected bath components, immersion time, and temperature variables, the layer thicknesses are derived from the mathematical expression. The results of the mathematical expressions are compared to that of experimental data; it is determined that the derived mathematical expression has an accuracy of 89%.

  19. NASA/American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE) Summer Faculty Fellowship Program 1992

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spencer, John H. (Compiler)

    1992-01-01

    Since 1964, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has supported a program of summer faculty fellowships for engineering and science educators. In a series of collaborations between NASA research and development centers and nearby universities, engineering faculty members spend 10 weeks working with professional peers on research. The Summer Faculty Program Committee of the American Society for Engineering Education supervises the programs. Objectives of the program are (1) to further the professional knowledge of qualified engineering and science faculty members; (2) to stimulate and exchange ideas between participants and NASA; (3) to enrich and refresh the research and teaching activities of participants' institutions; and (4) to contribute to the research objectives of the NASA center.

  20. Executive Summary: Implementing an Antibiotic Stewardship Program: Guidelines by the Infectious Diseases Society of America and the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America.

    PubMed

    Barlam, Tamar F; Cosgrove, Sara E; Abbo, Lilian M; MacDougall, Conan; Schuetz, Audrey N; Septimus, Edward J; Srinivasan, Arjun; Dellit, Timothy H; Falck-Ytter, Yngve T; Fishman, Neil O; Hamilton, Cindy W; Jenkins, Timothy C; Lipsett, Pamela A; Malani, Preeti N; May, Larissa S; Moran, Gregory J; Neuhauser, Melinda M; Newland, Jason G; Ohl, Christopher A; Samore, Matthew H; Seo, Susan K; Trivedi, Kavita K

    2016-05-15

    Evidence-based guidelines for implementation and measurement of antibiotic stewardship interventions in inpatient populations including long-term care were prepared by a multidisciplinary expert panel of the Infectious Diseases Society of America and the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America. The panel included clinicians and investigators representing internal medicine, emergency medicine, microbiology, critical care, surgery, epidemiology, pharmacy, and adult and pediatric infectious diseases specialties. These recommendations address the best approaches for antibiotic stewardship programs to influence the optimal use of antibiotics. PMID:27118828

  1. Implementing an Antibiotic Stewardship Program: Guidelines by the Infectious Diseases Society of America and the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America.

    PubMed

    Barlam, Tamar F; Cosgrove, Sara E; Abbo, Lilian M; MacDougall, Conan; Schuetz, Audrey N; Septimus, Edward J; Srinivasan, Arjun; Dellit, Timothy H; Falck-Ytter, Yngve T; Fishman, Neil O; Hamilton, Cindy W; Jenkins, Timothy C; Lipsett, Pamela A; Malani, Preeti N; May, Larissa S; Moran, Gregory J; Neuhauser, Melinda M; Newland, Jason G; Ohl, Christopher A; Samore, Matthew H; Seo, Susan K; Trivedi, Kavita K

    2016-05-15

    Evidence-based guidelines for implementation and measurement of antibiotic stewardship interventions in inpatient populations including long-term care were prepared by a multidisciplinary expert panel of the Infectious Diseases Society of America and the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America. The panel included clinicians and investigators representing internal medicine, emergency medicine, microbiology, critical care, surgery, epidemiology, pharmacy, and adult and pediatric infectious diseases specialties. These recommendations address the best approaches for antibiotic stewardship programs to influence the optimal use of antibiotics. PMID:27080992

  2. Hand Society and Matching Program Web Sites Provide Poor Access to Information Regarding Hand Surgery Fellowship.

    PubMed

    Hinds, Richard M; Klifto, Christopher S; Naik, Amish A; Sapienza, Anthony; Capo, John T

    2016-08-01

    The Internet is a common resource for applicants of hand surgery fellowships, however, the quality and accessibility of fellowship online information is unknown. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the accessibility of hand surgery fellowship Web sites and to assess the quality of information provided via program Web sites. Hand fellowship Web site accessibility was evaluated by reviewing the American Society for Surgery of the Hand (ASSH) on November 16, 2014 and the National Resident Matching Program (NRMP) fellowship directories on February 12, 2015, and performing an independent Google search on November 25, 2014. Accessible Web sites were then assessed for quality of the presented information. A total of 81 programs were identified with the ASSH directory featuring direct links to 32% of program Web sites and the NRMP directory directly linking to 0%. A Google search yielded direct links to 86% of program Web sites. The quality of presented information varied greatly among the 72 accessible Web sites. Program description (100%), fellowship application requirements (97%), program contact email address (85%), and research requirements (75%) were the most commonly presented components of fellowship information. Hand fellowship program Web sites can be accessed from the ASSH directory and, to a lesser extent, the NRMP directory. However, a Google search is the most reliable method to access online fellowship information. Of assessable programs, all featured a program description though the quality of the remaining information was variable. Hand surgery fellowship applicants may face some difficulties when attempting to gather program information online. Future efforts should focus on improving the accessibility and content quality on hand surgery fellowship program Web sites. PMID:27625537

  3. The 1993 NASA-ODU American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE) Summer Faculty Fellowship Program

    SciTech Connect

    Tiwari, S.N.; Young, D.B.

    1993-12-01

    Since 1964, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration has supported a program of summer faculty fellowships for engineering and science educators. In a series of collaborations between NASA research and development centers and nearby universities, engineering faculty members spend 10 weeks working with professional peers on research. The Summer Faculty Program Committee of the American Society for Engineering Education supervises the programs. Objectives are: to further the professional knowledge of qualified engineering and science faculty members; to stimulate and exchange ideas between participants and NASA; to enrich and refresh the research and teaching activities of participants' institutions; and to contribute to the research objectives of the NASA center. Separate abstracts have been prepared for articles from this report.

  4. 1994 NASA-HU American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE) Summer Faculty Fellowship Program

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, J.H.; Young, D.B.

    1994-12-01

    Since 1964, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has supported a program of summer faculty fellowships for engineering and science educators. In a series of collaborations between NASA research and development centers and nearby universities, engineering faculty members spend 10 weeks working with professional peers on research. The Summer Faculty Program Committee of the American Society for Engineering Education supervises the programs. Objectives: (1) To further the professional knowledge of qualified engineering and science faculty members; (2) To stimulate and exchange ideas between participants and NASA; (3) To enrich and refresh the research and teaching activities of participants` institutions; (4) To contribute to the research objectives of the NASA center. Separate abstracts have been prepared for articles from this report.

  5. 1997 NASA-ODU American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE) Summer Faculty Fellowship Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tiwari, Surendra N. (Compiler); Young, Deborah B. (Compiler)

    1998-01-01

    Since 1964, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has supported a program of summer faculty fellowships for engineering and science educators. In a series of collaborations between NASA research and development centers and nearby universities, engineering faculty members spend 10 weeks working with professional peers on research. The Summer Faculty Program Committee of the American Society for Engineering Education supervises the programs. Objectives of the program are as follows: (1) To further the professional knowledge of qualified engineering and science faculty members, (2) To stimulate and exchange ideas between participants and NASA; (3) To enrich and refresh the research and teaching activities of participants' institutions; and (4) To contribute to the research objectives of the NASA center. Program description is as follows: College or university faculty members will be appointed as Research Fellows to spend 10 weeks in cooperative research and study at the NASA Langley Research Center. The Fellow will devote approximately 90 percent of the time to a research problem and the remaining time to a study program. The study program will consist of lectures and seminars on topics of interest or that are directly relevant to the Fellows' research topics. The lectures and seminar leaders will be distinguished scientists and engineers from NASA, education, and industry.

  6. Motivational and evolutionary aspects of a physical exercise training program: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Rosa, João P P; de Souza, Altay A L; de Lima, Giscard H O; Rodrigues, Dayane F; de Aquino Lemos, Valdir; da Silva Alves, Eduardo; Tufik, Sergio; de Mello, Marco T

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have indicated that motivational level and prior expectations influence one's commitment to physical activity. Moreover, these aspects are not properly described in terms of proximal (SDT, Self Determination Theory) and distal (evolutionary) explanations in the literature. This paper aims to verify if level of motivation (BREQ-2, Behavioral Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire-2) and expectations regarding regular physical exercise (IMPRAF-54) before starting a 1-year exercise program could determine likelihood of completion. Ninety-four volunteers (53 women) included a completed protocol group (CPG; n = 21) and drop-out group (n = 73). The IMPRAF-54 scale was used to assess six different expectations associated with physical activity, and the BREQ-2 inventory was used to assess the level of motivation in five steps (from amotivation to intrinsic motivation). Both questionnaires were assessed before starting a regular exercise program. The CPG group presented higher sociability and lower pleasure scores according to IMPRAF-54 domains. A logistic regression analysis showed that a one-point increment on sociability score increased the chance of completing the program by 10%, and the same one-point increment on pleasure score reduced the chance of completing the protocol by 16%. ROC curves were also calculated to establish IMPRAF-54 cutoffs for adherence (Sociability - 18.5 points - 81% sensibility/50% specificity) and dropout (Pleasure - 25.5 points - 86% sensibility/20% specificity) of the exercise protocol. Our results indicate that an expectation of social interaction was a positive factor in predicting adherence to exercise. Grounded in SDT and its innate needs (competence, autonomy, relatedness), physical exercise is not an end; it is a means to achieve autonomy and self-cohesion. The association of physical activity with social practices, as occurs in hunter-gathering groups, can engage people to be physically active and can provide better

  7. Motivational and evolutionary aspects of a physical exercise training program: a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, João P. P.; de Souza, Altay A. L.; de Lima, Giscard H. O.; Rodrigues, Dayane F.; de Aquino Lemos, Valdir; da Silva Alves, Eduardo; Tufik, Sergio; de Mello, Marco T.

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have indicated that motivational level and prior expectations influence one’s commitment to physical activity. Moreover, these aspects are not properly described in terms of proximal (SDT, Self Determination Theory) and distal (evolutionary) explanations in the literature. This paper aims to verify if level of motivation (BREQ-2, Behavioral Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire-2) and expectations regarding regular physical exercise (IMPRAF-54) before starting a 1-year exercise program could determine likelihood of completion. Ninety-four volunteers (53 women) included a completed protocol group (CPG; n = 21) and drop-out group (n = 73). The IMPRAF-54 scale was used to assess six different expectations associated with physical activity, and the BREQ-2 inventory was used to assess the level of motivation in five steps (from amotivation to intrinsic motivation). Both questionnaires were assessed before starting a regular exercise program. The CPG group presented higher sociability and lower pleasure scores according to IMPRAF-54 domains. A logistic regression analysis showed that a one-point increment on sociability score increased the chance of completing the program by 10%, and the same one-point increment on pleasure score reduced the chance of completing the protocol by 16%. ROC curves were also calculated to establish IMPRAF-54 cutoffs for adherence (Sociability – 18.5 points – 81% sensibility/50% specificity) and dropout (Pleasure – 25.5 points – 86% sensibility/20% specificity) of the exercise protocol. Our results indicate that an expectation of social interaction was a positive factor in predicting adherence to exercise. Grounded in SDT and its innate needs (competence, autonomy, relatedness), physical exercise is not an end; it is a means to achieve autonomy and self-cohesion. The association of physical activity with social practices, as occurs in hunter-gathering groups, can engage people to be physically active and can provide

  8. NASA/American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE) Summer Faculty Fellowship Program, 1985

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goglia, G. (Compiler)

    1985-01-01

    Since 1964, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has supported a program of summer faculty fellowships for engineering and science educators. In a series of collaborations between NASA research and development centers and nearby universities, engineering faculty members spend 10 weeks working with professional peers on research. The Summer Faculty Program Committee of the American Society for Engineering Education supervises the programs. The objectives of this program are: (1) to further the professional knowledge of qualified engineering and science faculty members; (2) to simulate and exchange ideas between participants and NASA; (3) to enrich and refresh the research and teaching activities of participants institutions; and (4) to contribute to the research objectives of the NASA center. College or university faculty members will be appointed as research fellows to spend 10 weeks in cooperative research and study at the NASA Langley Research Center. The fellows will devote approximately 90 percent of the time to a research problem and the remaining time to a study program. The study program will consist of lectures and seminars on topics of general interest or that are directly relevant to the fellows' research project. The lecturers and seminar leaders will be distinguished scientists and engineers from NASA, the educational community, or industry.

  9. 1996 NASA-Hampton University American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE) Summer Faculty Fellowship Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spencer, John H. (Compiler); Young, Deborah B. (Compiler)

    1996-01-01

    NASA has supported a program of summer faculty fellowships for engineering and science educators. In a series of collaborations between NASA research and development centers and nearby universities, engineering faculty members spend 10 weeks working with professional peers on research. The Summer Faculty Program Committee of the American Society for Engineering Education supervises the programs. The objectives were: (1) To further the professional knowledge of qualified engineering and science faculty members; (2) To stimulate and exchange ideas between participants and NASA; (3) To enrich and refresh the research and teaching activities of participants institutions; (4) To contribute to the research objectives of the NASA Center. Program Description: College or university faculty members will be appointed as Research Fellows to spend 10 weeks in cooperative research and study at the NASA Langley Research Center. The Fellow will devote approximately 90 percent of the time to a research problem and the remaining time to a study program. The study program will consist of lectures and seminars on topics of interest or that are directly relevant to the Fellows' research topics. The lectures and seminar leaders will be distinguished scientists and engineers from NASA, education, or industry.

  10. 1999 NASA - ODU American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE) Summer Faculty Fellowship Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tiwari, Surendra N. (Compiler); Murray, Deborah B. (Compiler)

    2000-01-01

    Since 1964, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has supported a program or summer faculty fellowships for engineering and science educators. In a series of collaborations between NASA research and development centers and nearby universities, engineering faculty members spend 10 weeks working with professional peers on research. The Summer Faculty Program Committee of the American Society for Engineering Education supervises the programs. Objectives: (1) To further the professional knowledge of qualified engineering and science faculty members; (2) To stimulate and exchange ideas between participants and NASA; (3) To enrich and refresh the research and teaching activities of participants' institutions; (4) To contribute to the research objectives of the NASA center. Program Description: College or university faculty members will be appointed as Research Fellows to spend 10 weeks in cooperative research and study at the NASA Langley Research Center. The Fellow will devote approximately 90 percent of the time to a research problem and the remaining time to a study program. The study program will consist of lectures and seminars on topics of interest or that are directly relevant to the Fellows' research topics. The lecture and seminar leaders will be distinguished scientists and engineers from NASA, education, and industry.

  11. NASA/American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE) Summer Faculty Fellowship Program 1987

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tiwari, Surendra N. (Compiler)

    1987-01-01

    Since 1964, NASA has supported a program of summer faculty fellowships for engineering and science educators. In a series of collaborations between NASA research and development centers and nearby universities, engineering faculty members spend 10 or 11 weeks working with professional peers on research. The Summer Faculty Program Committee of the American Society for Engineering Education supervises the programs. Objectives: (1) to further the professional knowledge of qualified engineering and science faculty members; (2) to stimulate and exchange ideas between participants and NASA; (3) to enrich and refresh the research and teaching activities of participants' institutions; (4) to contribute to the research objectives of the NASA center. Program Description: College or university faculty members were appointed as Research Fellows to spend 10 weeks in cooperative research and study at the NASA Langley Research Center. The Fellow devoted approximately 90 percent of the time to a research problem and the remaining time to a study program. The study program consisted of lectures and seminars on topics of interest or that are directly relevant to the Fellows' research topic.

  12. 1998 NASA-HU American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE) Summer Faculty Fellowship Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marable, William P. (Compiler); Murray, Deborah B. (Compiler)

    1998-01-01

    Since 1964, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has supported a program of summer faculty fellowships for engineering and science educators. In a series of collaborations between NASA research and development centers and nearby universities, engineering faculty members spend 10 weeks working with professional peers on research. The Summer Faculty Program Committee of the American Society for Engineering Education supervises the programs. The program objectives include: (1) To further the professional knowledge of qualified engineering and science faculty members; (2) To stimulate and exchange ideas between participants and NASA; (3) To enrich and refresh the research and teaching activities of participants' institutions; (4) To contribute to the research objectives of the NASA center. College or university faculty members will be appointed as Research Fellows to spend 10 weeks in cooperative research and study at the NASA Langley Research Center. The Fellow will devote approximately 90 percent of the time to a research problem and the remaining time to a study program. The study program will consist of lectures and seminars on topics of interest or that are directly relevant to the Fellows' research topics. The lecture and seminar leaders will be distinguished scientists and engineers from NASA, education, and industry.

  13. Hampton University/American Society for Engineering Education/NASA Summer Faculty Fellowship Program 1986

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spencer, J. H. (Compiler)

    1986-01-01

    Since 1964, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has supported a program of summer faculty fellowships for engineering and science educators. In a series of collaborations between NASA research and development centers and nearby universities, engineering faculty members spend 10 or 11 weeks working with professional peers on research. The Summer Faculty Program Committee of the American Society of Engineering Education supervises the programs. Objectives: (1) To further the professional knowledge of qualified engineering and science faculty members; (2) to stimulate and exchange ideas between participants and NASA; (3) To enrich and refresh the research and teaching activities of participants' institutions; (4) to contribute to the research objectives of the NASA center. Program Description: College or university will be faculty members appointed as Research Fellows to spend 10 weeks in cooperative research and study at the NASA-Langley Research Center. The Fellow will devote approximately 90 percent of the time to a research problem and the remaining time to a study program. The study program will consist of lectures and seminars on topics of general interest or that are directly relevant to the Fellows' research project. The lecturers and seminar leaders will be distinguished scientists and engineers from NASA, education or industry.

  14. The Society for Women in the Physical Sciences: a successful mentoring program at UC Berkeley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, Kristine

    2000-04-01

    The Society for Women in the Physical Sciences (SWPS, http://socrates.berkeley.edu/ swps) at the University of California at Berkeley has been up and running successfully for three years. This organization aims to increase the number of women undergrad majors in physics, astronomy, and geology and to foster a general sense of community among all the women in these departments: faculty, postdocs, and students. The program consists of three parts: mentoring, events, and resources. The mentoring portion pairs 4 to 5 undergraduate women with one graduate mentor. These mentoring groups meet approximately weekly to visit labs, work on homework, go to science museums, or just talk and gather ideas from one another. SWPS also organizes monthly events that include all members of the department and which have in the past been social events, workshops, or discussion forums. Finally, SWPS writes and distributes, on paper and on our website, a series of guides which make “informal” information, such as where are the quiet places to study, more easily available. During this talk I will present more of the details of this program. In addition, I will present anecdotal and quantitative results of the program at Berkeley and discuss how this program has been implemented at other universities. Finally, I will discuss the general strategies behind the program and how they can be applied to other programs aimed at women in science.

  15. 2001 NASA-ODU American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE) Summer Faculty Fellowship Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tiwari, Surendra N. (Compiler); Murray, Deborah B. (Compiler); Hathaway, Roger A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Since 1964, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has supported a program of summer faculty fellowships for engineering and science educators. In a series of collaborations between NASA research and development centers and nearby universities, engineering faculty members spend 10 weeks working with professional peers on research. The Summer Faculty Program Committee of the American Society for Engineering Education supervises these programs. Objectives: (1) To further the professional knowledge of qualified engineering and science faculty members; (2) To stimulate and exchange ideas between participants and NASA; (3) To enrich and refresh the research and teaching activities of participants' institutions; (4 To contribute to the research objectives of the NASA center. Program Description: College or university faculty members will be appointed as Research Fellows to spend 10 weeks in cooperative research and study at the NASA Langley Research Center. The Fellow will devote approximately 90 percent of the time to a research problem and the remaining time to a study program. The study program will consist of lectures and seminars on topics of interest or that are directly relevant to the Fellow's research topics. The lecture and seminar leaders wil be distinguished scientists and engineers from NASA, education and industry.

  16. 2000 NASA-HU American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE) Summer Faculty Fellowship Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marable, William P. (Compiler); Murray, Deborah B. (Compiler); Hathaway, Roger A. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Since 1964, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has supported a program of summer faculty fellowships for engineering and science educators. In a series of collaborations between NASA research and development centers and nearby universities, engineering faculty members spend ten weeks working with professional peers on research. The Summer Faculty Program Committee of the American Society for Engineering Education supervises the programs. The objectives are: (1) to further the professional knowledge of qualified engineering and science faculty members; (2) to stimulate and exchange ideas between participants and NASA; (3) to enrich and refresh the research and teaching activities of participants' institutions; and (4) to contribute to the research objectives of the NASA center. College or university faculty members will be appointed as Research Fellows to spend ten weeks in cooperative research and study at the NASA Langley Research Center. The Fellow will devote approximately 90 percent of the time to a research problem and the remaining time to a study program. The study program will consist of lectures and seminars on topics of interest or that are directly relevant to the Fellows' research topics. The lecture and seminar leaders will be distinguished scientists and engineers from NASA, education, and industry. A list of the abstracts of the presentations is provided.

  17. A Heuristic Ranking Approach on Capacity Benefit Margin Determination Using Pareto-Based Evolutionary Programming Technique

    PubMed Central

    Othman, Muhammad Murtadha; Abd Rahman, Nurulazmi; Musirin, Ismail; Fotuhi-Firuzabad, Mahmud; Rajabi-Ghahnavieh, Abbas

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel multiobjective approach for capacity benefit margin (CBM) assessment taking into account tie-line reliability of interconnected systems. CBM is the imperative information utilized as a reference by the load-serving entities (LSE) to estimate a certain margin of transfer capability so that a reliable access to generation through interconnected system could be attained. A new Pareto-based evolutionary programming (EP) technique is used to perform a simultaneous determination of CBM for all areas of the interconnected system. The selection of CBM at the Pareto optimal front is proposed to be performed by referring to a heuristic ranking index that takes into account system loss of load expectation (LOLE) in various conditions. Eventually, the power transfer based available transfer capability (ATC) is determined by considering the firm and nonfirm transfers of CBM. A comprehensive set of numerical studies are conducted on the modified IEEE-RTS79 and the performance of the proposed method is numerically investigated in detail. The main advantage of the proposed technique is in terms of flexibility offered to an independent system operator in selecting an appropriate solution of CBM simultaneously for all areas. PMID:25879068

  18. Evolutionary neural networks for anomaly detection based on the behavior of a program.

    PubMed

    Han, Sang-Jun; Cho, Sung-Bae

    2006-06-01

    The process of learning the behavior of a given program by using machine-learning techniques (based on system-call audit data) is effective to detect intrusions. Rule learning, neural networks, statistics, and hidden Markov models (HMMs) are some of the kinds of representative methods for intrusion detection. Among them, neural networks are known for good performance in learning system-call sequences. In order to apply this knowledge to real-world problems successfully, it is important to determine the structures and weights of these call sequences. However, finding the appropriate structures requires very long time periods because there are no suitable analytical solutions. In this paper, a novel intrusion-detection technique based on evolutionary neural networks (ENNs) is proposed. One advantage of using ENNs is that it takes less time to obtain superior neural networks than when using conventional approaches. This is because they discover the structures and weights of the neural networks simultaneously. Experimental results with the 1999 Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Intrusion Detection Evaluation (IDEVAL) data confirm that ENNs are promising tools for intrusion detection. PMID:16761810

  19. Evolutionary programming technique for reducing complexity of artifical neural networks for breast cancer diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo, Joseph Y.; Land, Walker H., Jr.; Morrison, Clayton T.

    2000-06-01

    An evolutionary programming (EP) technique was investigated to reduce the complexity of artificial neural network (ANN) models that predict the outcome of mammography-induced breast biopsy. By combining input variables consisting of mammography lesion descriptors and patient history data, the ANN predicted whether the lesion was benign or malignant, which may aide in reducing the number of unnecessary benign biopsies and thus the cost of mammography screening of breast cancer. The EP has the ability to optimize the ANN both structurally and parametrically. An EP was partially optimized using a data set of 882 biopsy-proven cases from Duke University Medical Center. Although many different architectures were evolved, the best were often perceptrons with no hidden nodes. A rank ordering of the inputs was performed using twenty independent EP runs. This confirmed the predictive value of the mass margin and patient age variables, and revealed the unexpected usefulness of the history of previous breast cancer. Further work is required to improve the performance of the EP over all cases in general and calcification cases in particular.

  20. The Cost of Crime to Society: New Crime-Specific Estimates for Policy and Program Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    French, Michael T.; Fang, Hai

    2010-01-01

    Estimating the cost to society of individual crimes is essential to the economic evaluation of many social programs, such as substance abuse treatment and community policing. A review of the crime-costing literature reveals multiple sources, including published articles and government reports, which collectively represent the alternative approaches for estimating the economic losses associated with criminal activity. Many of these sources are based upon data that are more than ten years old, indicating a need for updated figures. This study presents a comprehensive methodology for calculating the cost of society of various criminal acts. Tangible and intangible losses are estimated using the most current data available. The selected approach, which incorporates both the cost-of-illness and the jury compensation methods, yields cost estimates for more than a dozen major crime categories, including several categories not found in previous studies. Updated crime cost estimates can help government agencies and other organizations execute more prudent policy evaluations, particularly benefit-cost analyses of substance abuse treatment or other interventions that reduce crime. PMID:20071107

  1. The American Meteorological Society Education Program Model for Climate Science Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinbeck, R. S.; Moran, J. M.; Geer, I. W.; Hopkins, E. J.

    2007-12-01

    A guiding principle of the American Meteorological Society (AMS) Education Program is that public scientific literacy is most effectively achieved through systemic change in the classroom. The AMS, partnering with NOAA, NSF, NASA, the US Navy, and SUNY Brockport, aims for greater public scientific literacy through its successful distance learning programs that convey to pre-college teachers and undergraduates the fundamentals of meteorology, oceanography, and hydrology. The AMS DataStreme teacher-enhancement courses (Atmosphere, Water in the Earth System, and Ocean) have changed the way thousands of pre-college teachers teach and hundreds of thousands of students learn. Furthermore, teachers trained in this program are positioned to contribute to local and statewide curriculum reform. The AMS Online Weather Studies and Online Ocean Studies courses are providing tens of thousands of college undergraduates with engaging and highly motivational learning experiences. DataStreme courses are offered locally and feature mentoring of teacher participants whereas Online undergraduate courses are licensed by AMS for offering by colleges and universities. Integrated components of the AMS model are course website, investigations manual, and customized textbook. A portion of twice-weekly investigations is written to a near real-time situation and posted on the course website. Through its extensive experience with the DataStreme/Online programs, the AMS Education Program is now uniquely poised to assume a national leadership role in climate education by applying its proven teaching/learning model to climate education at the pre-college and undergraduate levels. The AMS model is ideally suited for delivering to teachers and students nationwide the basic understandings and enduring ideas of climate science and the role of the individual and society in climate variability and change. The AMS teaching/learning model incorporates an Earth system perspective, is problem focused, and

  2. Outcomes associated with 12 years of grant funding: the Pediatric Endocrinology Nursing Society grant program.

    PubMed

    Keil, Margaret F; Lipman, Terri H

    2007-06-01

    In 1990, the Pediatric Endocrinology Nursing Society (PENS) developed a grant program to provide funding to advance pediatric endocrinology nursing practice through basic and applied research. Minimal data exist regarding the effect of grant funding on professional development and research dissemination. The purpose of this study was to determine the extent that PENS' grant funding has resulted in professional presentations, publications, and further research funding. Nineteen grants that received funding were identified. Survey questions included whether the results of the PENS-funded study were presented, published, and resulted in subsequent funding from other sources. Outcome data were available for 11 of 18 grants (61%). All funded studies were presented at PENS conference; 55% were presented at other national or international conferences. Sixteen publications resulted from seven funded studies; 64% of PENS' funded studies led to additional funding, and 18% resulted in additional research studies. In summary, the research grant program of PENS funded 19 grants, which resulted in numerous publications, presentations, and, in some cases, additional research funding from other sources. Many grant recipients acknowledged that PENS was their first source of research funding and gave them the opportunity to become experienced in their role as clinical researchers. PMID:17524960

  3. American Indian Science & Engineering Society (AISES) Programs: Outreach to Native Americans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacourse, S.

    2003-12-01

    AISES is a national non-profit organization which nurtures building of community by bridging science and technology with traditional Native values. Through its educational programs, AISES provides opportunities for American Indians and Native Alaskans to pursue studies in science, engineering, and technology arenas. The trained professionals then become technologically informed leaders within the Indian community. AISES' ultimate goal is to be a catalyst for the advancement of American Indians and Native Alaskans as they seek to become self-reliant and self-determined members of society. AISES' Higher Education Program consists of scholarships, college relations, leadership development, and internships. This session will focus on the value and impact of AISES internships for AISES students, including hands-on experience in the student's field of study, co-op opportunities, and entrance into graduate school. AISES currently offers internship placements with NASA-Goddard Space Flight Center, the U.S. State Department, the Departments of Commerce and Veterans Affairs, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. In 2004, AISES will also be offering placements at the Central Intelligence Agency.

  4. Program and Abstracts. Volume 2. Society for College Science Teachers. NSTA Convention (Chicago, Illinois, April 1-5, 1982).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Society for College Science Teachers.

    Abstracts of papers presented at the 1982 Annual Meeting of the Society for College Science Teachers (SCST) are listed alphabetically by first author in this two-part program. The first set of 28 abstracts represents a wide range of topics and issues in college science teaching, including among others, solar energy, scientific/technical writing,…

  5. Heat. A Teacher's Manual for General Level Program Development, Grade 9. Science and Society Teaching Units. Informal Series 49.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Douglas A.; And Others

    This teacher's manual is one of a series designed to support "general level" program development for intermediate/junior high school science, emphasizing the relationship between science and society. The main body of the manual deals with teaching about heat in the context of home heating systems. In addition, a brief treatment of the particle…

  6. SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL SOCIETIES PERTINENT TO THE EDUCATION OF TECHNICIANS. TECHNICAL EDUCATION PROGRAM SERIES NO. 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BROOKING, WALTER J.

    THIS LISTING OF SELECTED NATIONAL SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL SOCIETIES WAS PUBLISHED TO ASSIST FEDERAL, STATE, AND LOCAL SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS, SUPERVISORS, DEPARTMENT HEADS, TEACHERS, LIBRARIANS, AND GUIDANCE PERSONNEL TO UNDERSTAND BETTER THE SERVICES OF SUCH SOCIETIES AND TO PROVIDE AN EASILY ACCESSIBLE AND SCIENTIFIC GUIDE TO THEM. CHAPTER…

  7. Scientific Integrity and Professional Ethics at AGU - The Establishment and Evolution of an Ethics Program at a Large Scientific Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McPhaden, Michael; Leinen, Margaret; McEntee, Christine; Townsend, Randy; Williams, Billy

    2016-04-01

    The American Geophysical Union, a scientific society of 62,000 members worldwide, has established a set of scientific integrity and professional ethics guidelines for the actions of its members, for the governance of the union in its internal activities, and for the operations and participation in its publications and scientific meetings. This presentation will provide an overview of the Ethics program at AGU, highlighting the reasons for its establishment, the process of dealing ethical breaches, the number and types of cases considered, how AGU helps educate its members on Ethics issues, and the rapidly evolving efforts at AGU to address issues related to the emerging field of GeoEthics. The presentation will also cover the most recent AGU Ethics program focus on the role for AGU and other scientific societies in addressing sexual harassment, and AGU's work to provide additional program strength in this area.

  8. Review and Assessment of the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene Travel Awards Program, 1991–2010

    PubMed Central

    Le Duc, James W.; DeAcetis, Judy

    2011-01-01

    During 1991–2010, 456 persons from 62 countries were provided financial support to attend the annual meeting of the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. Winners came from 17 African, 16 Asia-Pacific, 14 Latin American and Caribbean, and 13 European and Middle Eastern countries, and from Canada and the United States. Virtually equal numbers of awards were offered to women and men. Winners were selected from U.S. academic centers (30%), foreign universities (26%), international centers, institutes or research units (30%), and approximately 5% from U.S. government agencies. Almost all winners (73 of 76, 96%) had scientific publications subsequent to receiving the travel award. Less than 10% of award winners continued their membership in the Society after their one-year complementary membership. Winners indicated that the travel awards program facilitated international exchange and fostered collaborations between Society members and international scientists. PMID:21896796

  9. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE) Summer Faculty Fellowship Program, 1989, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, William B., Jr. (Editor); Goldstein, Stanley H. (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    The 1989 Johnson Space Center (JSC) National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE) Summer Faculty Fellowship Program was conducted by Texas A and M University and JSC. The 10-week program was operated under the auspices of the ASEE. The program at JSC, as well as the programs at other NASA Centers, was funded by the Office of University Affairs, NASA Headquarters, Washington, D.C. The objectives of the program, which began nationally in 1964 and at JSC in 1965, are: (1) to further the professional knowledge of qualified engineering and science faculty members; (2) to stimulate an exchange of ideas between participants and NASA; (3) to enrich and refresh the research and teaching activities of participants' institutions; and (4) to contribute to the research objective of the NASA Centers.

  10. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE) Summer Faculty Fellowship Program 1988, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bannerot, Richard B.; Goldstein, Stanley H.

    1989-01-01

    The 1988 Johnson Space Center (JSC) National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE) Summer Faculty Fellowship Program was conducted by the University of Houston and JCS. The 10-week program was operated under the auspices of the ASEE. The program at JSC, as well as the programs at other NASA Centers, was funded by the Office of University Affairs, NASA Headquarters, Washington, D.C. The objectives of the program, which began in 1965 at JSC and in 1964 nationally, are: (1) to further the professional knowledge of qualified engineering and science faculty members; (2) to stimulate an exchange of ideas between participants and NASA; (3) to enrich and refresh the research and teaching activities of participants' institutions; and (4) to contribute to the research objectives of the NASA Centers.

  11. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE) Summer Faculty Fellowship Program 1988, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bannerot, Richard B. (Editor); Goldstein, Stanley H. (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    The 1988 Johnson Space Center (JSC) National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE) Summer Faculty Fellowship Program was conducted by the University of Houston and JSC. The 10-week program was operated under the auspices of the ASEE. The program at JSC, as well as the programs at other NASA Centers, was funded by the Office of University Affairs, NASA Headquarters, Washington, D.C. The objectives of the program, which began in 1965 at JSC and in 1964 nationally, are (1) to further the professional knowledge of qualified engineering and science faculty members; (2) to stimulate an exchange of ideas between participants and NASA; (3) to enrich and refresh the research and teaching activities of participants' institutions; and (4) to contribute to the research objectives of the NASA Centers.

  12. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE) Summer Faculty Fellowship Program, 1989, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, William B., Jr. (Editor); Goldstein, Stanley H. (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    The 1989 Johnson Space Center (JSC) National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE) Summer Faculty Fellowship Program was conducted by Texas A and M University and JSC. The 10-week program was operated under the auspices of the ASEE. The program at JSC, as well as the programs at other NASA Centers, was funded by the Office of University Affairs, NASA Headquarters, Washington, D.C. The objectives of the program, which began nationally in 1964 and at JSC in 1965, are: (1) to further the professional knowledge of qualified engineering and science faculty members; (2) to stimulate an exchange of ideas between participants and NASA; (3) to enrich and refresh the research and teaching activities of participants' institutions; and (4) to contribute to the research objective of the NASA Centers.

  13. A National Road Map to a Climate Literate Society: Advancing Climate Literacy by Coordinating Federal Climate Change Educational Programs (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niepold, F.; Karsten, J. L.

    2009-12-01

    Over the 21st century, climate scientists expect Earth's temperature to continue increasing, very likely more than it did during the 20th century. Two anticipated results are rising global sea level and increasing frequency and intensity of heat waves, droughts, and floods. [IPCC 2007, USGCRP 2009] These changes will affect almost every aspect of human society, including economic prosperity, human and environmental health, and national security. Climate change will bring economic and environmental challenges as well as opportunities, and citizens who have an understanding of climate science will be better prepared to respond to both. Society needs citizens who understand the climate system and know how to apply that knowledge in their careers and in their engagement as active members of their communities. Climate change will continue to be a significant element of public discourse. Understanding the essential principles of climate science will enable all people to assess news stories and contribute to their everyday conversations as informed citizens. Key to our nations response to climate change will be a Climate Literate society that understands their influence on climate and climate’s influence on them and society. In order to ensure the nation increases its literacy, the Climate Literacy: Essential Principles of Climate Science document has been endorsed by the 13 Federal agencies that make up the US Global Change Research Program (http://globalchange.gov/resources/educators/climate-literacy) and twenty-four other science and educational institutions. This session will explore the coordinated efforts by the federal agencies and partner organizations to ensure a climate literate society. "Climate Literacy: The Essential Principles of Climate Sciences: A Guide for Individuals and Communities" produced by the U.S. Global Change Research Program in March 2009

  14. Chronic inflammatory systemic diseases: An evolutionary trade-off between acutely beneficial but chronically harmful programs.

    PubMed

    Straub, Rainer H; Schradin, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    It has been recognized that during chronic inflammatory systemic diseases (CIDs) maladaptations of the immune, nervous, endocrine and reproductive system occur. Maladaptation leads to disease sequelae in CIDs. The ultimate reason of disease sequelae in CIDs remained unclear because clinicians do not consider bodily energy trade-offs and evolutionary medicine. We review the evolution of physiological supersystems, fitness consequences of genes involved in CIDs during different life-history stages, environmental factors of CIDs, energy trade-offs during inflammatory episodes and the non-specificity of CIDs. Incorporating bodily energy regulation into evolutionary medicine builds a framework to better understand pathophysiology of CIDs by considering that genes and networks used are positively selected if they serve acute, highly energy-consuming inflammation. It is predicted that genes that protect energy stores are positively selected (as immune memory). This could explain why energy-demanding inflammatory episodes like infectious diseases must be terminated within 3-8 weeks to be adaptive, and otherwise become maladaptive. Considering energy regulation as an evolved adaptive trait explains why many known sequelae of different CIDs must be uniform. These are, e.g. sickness behavior/fatigue/depressive symptoms, sleep disturbance, anorexia, malnutrition, muscle wasting-cachexia, cachectic obesity, insulin resistance with hyperinsulinemia, dyslipidemia, alterations of steroid hormone axes, disturbances of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis, hypertension, bone loss and hypercoagulability. Considering evolved energy trade-offs helps us to understand how an energy imbalance can lead to the disease sequelae of CIDs. In the future, clinicians must translate this knowledge into early diagnosis and symptomatic treatment in CIDs. PMID:26817483

  15. NASA/American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE) Summer Faculty Fellowship Program, 1985. [Space Stations and Their Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chilton, R. G. (Editor); Williams, C. E. (Editor)

    1986-01-01

    The 1985 NASA/ASEE Summer Faculty Fellowship Research Program was conducted by Texas A&M University and the Johnson Space Center. The ten week program was operated under the auspices of the American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE). The faculty fellows spent the time at JSC engaged in research projects commensurate with their interests and background and worked in collaboration with NASA/JSC colleagues. This document is a compilation of the final reports of their research during the summer of 1985.

  16. Infusing Science, Technology, and Society Into an Elementary Teacher Education Program: The Impact on Preservice Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henning, Mary Beth; Peterson, Barbara R.; King, Kenneth Paul

    2011-01-01

    In an effort to improve science and social studies instruction, preservice teachers developed original science, technology, and society units to teach in elementary and middle school classrooms during their clinical field experience. Data revealed that the preservice teachers fell into categories of being skeptics, open-minded instructors, or…

  17. OUR SOCIETY'S FUTURE--IMPLICATIONS FOR THE ADMINISTRATION OF EXTENSION PROGRAMS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GRIFFITH, WILLIAM S.

    IN AN ADDRESS THE AUTHOR STATES THAT THE POPULATION EXPLOSION VERSUS WORLD FOOD PRODUCTION CAPACITY, TOGETHER WITH URBAN BLIGHT, POVERTY, AND FUNCTIONAL ILLITERACY, INCREASING COMPETITION FOR TRAINED MANPOWER, AND RELATED IMBALANCES IN AMERICAN EDUCATION CONSTITUTE MAJOR TRENDS AND ACUTE PROBLEMS IN TODAY'S SOCIETY. THE AUTHOR FEELS UNIVERSITIES…

  18. The Future of the Geography Education Program at the National Geographic Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, George A.

    1987-01-01

    Notes that the National Geographic Society (NGS) has produced curriculum materials since 1972 and that its current catalog contains over 635 multimedia products for the K-12 curriculum. This article details the range of recent NGS activities which are designed to improve the teaching of geography at all grade levels. (JDH)

  19. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE) Summer Faculty Fellowship Program, 1992, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bannerot, Richard B. (Editor); Goldstein, Stanley H. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    The 1992 Johnson Space Center (JSC) National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE) Summer Faculty Fellowship Program was conducted by the University of Houston and JSC. The program at JSC, as well as the programs at other NASA Centers, was funded by the Office of University Affairs, Washington, DC. The objectives of the program, which began nationally in 1964 and at JSC in 1965, are (1) to further the professional knowledge of qualified engineering and science faculty members; (2) to stimulate an exchange of ideas between participants and NASA; (3) to enrich and refresh the research and teaching activities of participants' institutions; and (4) to contribute to the research objective of the NASA Centers. This document is a compilation of the final reports 1 through 12.

  20. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE) Summer Faculty Fellowship Program, 1992, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bannerot, Richard B. (Editor); Goldstein, Stanley H. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    The 1992 Johnson Space Center (JSC) National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE) Summer Faculty Fellowship Program was conducted by the University of Houston and JSC. The program at JSC, as well as the programs at other NASA Centers, was funded by the Office of University Affairs, NASA Headquarters Washington, DC. The objectives of the program, which began nationally in 1964 and at JSC in 1965, are (1) to further the professional knowledge of qualified engineering and science faculty members; (2) to stimulate an exchange of ideas between participants and NASA; (3) to enrich and refresh the research and teaching activities of participants' institutions; and (4) to contribute to the research objective of the NASA Centers. This document contains reports 13 through 24.

  1. Evolutionary programming-based methodology for economical output power from PEM fuel cell for micro-grid application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Sharkh, M. Y.; Rahman, A.; Alam, M. S.

    This paper presents a methodology for finding the optimal output power from a PEM fuel cell power plant (FCPP). The FCPP is used to supply power to a small micro-grid community. The technique used is based on evolutionary programming (EP) to find a near-optimal solution of the problem. The method incorporates the Hill-Climbing technique (HCT) to maintain feasibility during the solution process. An economic model of the FCPP is used. The model considers the production cost of energy and the possibility of selling and buying electrical energy from the local grid. In addition, the model takes into account the thermal energy output from the FCPP and the thermal energy requirement for the micro-grid community. The results obtained are compared against a solution based on genetic algorithms. Results are encouraging and indicate viability of the proposed technique.

  2. Greek Theatre: A Reflection of Ancient Greek Society (A Program Alternative for High School Gifted Students). Programs for Gifted Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Girard, M. Phyllis

    One in a series of instructional units designed for gifted students, the paper describes a high school curriculum that examines the Greek theatre as a reflection of Greek society. The unit is designed to provide academic substance while developing higher level critical thinking skills. Following a brief introduction on the integration of theatre…

  3. Programming Can Move Campuses from Comfort Zone toward Healthy Multicultural Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nejman, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Offers 12 steps for multicultural programming success in a predominantly white environment which can serve as a guide for college union and student activities programming boards. Steps include: step out of one's comfort zone; multicultural programming will benefit the entire campus, not just the target group; and be aware of the three stages of…

  4. American Society for Engineering Education/NASA Summer Faculty Fellowship Program 1982

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spencer, J. H. (Compiler)

    1983-01-01

    A program of summer faculty fellowships for engineering and science educators is described. The program involves participation in cooperative research and study. Results of the program evaluation are summarized. The research fellows indicated satisfaction with the program. Benefits of the program cited include: (1) enhancement of professional abilities; (2) contact with professionals in a chosen area of research; (3) familiarity with research facilities; and (4) development of new research techniques and their adaptation to an academic setting. Abstracts of each of the research projects undertaken are presented.

  5. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE) Summer Faculty Fellowship Program, 1987, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, William B., Jr. (Editor); Goldstein, Stanley H. (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    The 1987 Johnson Space Center (JCS) National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE) Summer Faculty Fellowship program was conducted by Texas A and M University and JSC. The 10-week program was operated under the auspices of ASEE. The basic objectives of the program are: to further the professional knowledge of qualified engineering and science faculty members; to stimulate an exchange of ideas between participants and NASA; to enrich and refresh the research and teaching activities of participants' institutions; and to contribute to the research objective of the NASA Centers. This document is a compilation of the final reports on the research projects done by the faculty fellows during the summer of 1987.

  6. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE) summer faculty fellowship program, 1986, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcinnis, Bayliss (Editor); Goldstein, Stanley (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    The Johnson Space Center (JSC) NASA/ASEE Summer Faculty Fellowship Program was conducted by the University of Houston and JSC. The ten week program was operated under the auspices of the American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE). The basic objectives of the program are (1) to further the professional knowledge of qualified engineering and science faculty members; (2) to stimulate an exchange of ideas between participants and NASA; (3) to enrich and refresh the research and teaching activities of participants' institutions; and (4) to contribute to the research objectives of the NASA Centers. Each faculty fellow spent ten weeks at JSC engaged in a research project commensurate with his interests and background and worked in collaboration with a NASA/JSC colleague. The final reports on the research projects are presented. This volume, 2, contains sections 15 through 30.

  7. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy of supercapacitors: A novel analysis approach using evolutionary programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oz, Alon; Hershkovitz, Shany; Tsur, Yoed

    2014-11-01

    In this contribution we present a novel approach to analyze impedance spectroscopy measurements of supercapacitors. Transforming the impedance data into frequency-dependent capacitance allows us to use Impedance Spectroscopy Genetic Programming (ISGP) in order to find the distribution function of relaxation times (DFRT) of the processes taking place in the tested device. Synthetic data was generated in order to demonstrate this technique and a model for supercapacitor ageing process has been obtained.

  8. NASA/American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE) Summer Faculty Fellowship Program, 1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spencer, John H. (Compiler)

    1990-01-01

    Since 1964, NASA has supported a program of summer faculty fellowships for engineering and science educators. The objectives are to further the professional knowledge of qualified engineering and science members; to stimulate and exchange ideas between participants and NASA; to enrich and refresh the research and teaching activities of participants' institutions; and to contribute to the research objectives of the NASA center. The study program consists of lectures and seminars on topics of interest or that are directly relevant to the research topics.

  9. NASA/American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE) Summer Faculty Fellowship Program, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, J.H.

    1990-09-01

    Since 1964, NASA has supported a program of summer faculty fellowships for engineering and science educators. The objectives are to further the professional knowledge of qualified engineering and science members; to stimulate and exchange ideas between participants and NASA; to enrich and refresh the research and teaching activities of participants' institutions; and to contribute to the research objectives of the NASA center. The study program consists of lectures and seminars on topics of interest or that are directly relevant to the research topics.

  10. American Chemical Society. 23rd Great Lakes Regional Meeting. Program and abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The technical program includes some 250 papers in 38 sessions, featuring 16 symposia with 99 invited speakers. Program highlights include a plenary lecture, The Origin and Consequences of Scientific Illiteracy, by Jon D. Miller. Sessions for general technical papers are scheduled in the following categories: analytical chemistry; biochemistry; inorganic chemistry; organic chemistry; and physical chemistry. Papers have been processed for inclusion on the data base.

  11. Tracking intervention delivery in the 'Tobacco-Free Teachers/Tobacco-Free Society' program, Bihar, India.

    PubMed

    Pawar, P S; Nagler, E M; Gupta, P C; Stoddard, A M; Lando, H A; Shulman, L; Pednekar, M S; Kasisomayajula, V; Aghi, M B; Sinha, D N; Sorensen, G S

    2015-10-01

    In health education and behavior change interventions, process tracking monitors the delivery of an intervention and its receipt to the intended audience. A randomized controlled trial in the state of Bihar, India was conducted to help school teachers become tobacco free through appropriately designed intervention program and delivery system. We describe the results from process tracking of this intervention delivery. The intervention program was centred on six topics delivered in each school through 12 sessions over 6 successive months. The program deliverers recorded the process measures as total number of sessions and program-components implemented (fidelity); time spent conducting sessions (dose) and proportion of teachers attending at least one session (reach). The outcome measures (teachers' exposure to intervention messages and tobacco policy adoption) were assessed post-intervention. All 12 sessions were delivered in 33 out of 36 schools. Thirty-one schools implemented all six program components. In 18 schools, ≥95% of the teachers participated in one or more sessions. Thirty-three schools received 12 or more hours of dose. In 29 schools, 100% teachers reported exposure to all program messages. Tobacco policy was adopted by all schools. Thus, the intervention was generally delivered as planned and it had a positive impact on teachers and schools. PMID:26342136

  12. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/American Society of Engineering Education (ASEE) Summer Faculty Fellowship Program - 2000

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bannerot, Richard B. (Editor); Sickorez, Donn G. (Editor)

    2003-01-01

    The 2000 Johnson Space Center (JSC) National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE) Summer Faculty Fellowship Program was conducted by the University of Houston and JSC. The 10-week program was operated under the auspices of the ASEE. The program at JSC, as well as the programs at other NASA Centers, was funded by the Office of University Affairs, NASA Headquarters, Washington, D.C. The objectives of the program, which began in 1965 at JSC and 1964 nationally, are to (1) further the professional knowledge of qualified engineering and science faculty, (2) stimulate an exchange of ideas between participants and NASA, (3) enrich and refresh the research and teaching activities of participants' institutions, and (4) contribute to the research objectives of the NASA Centers. Each faculty fellow spent at least 10 weeks at JSC engaged in a research project commensurate with her/his interests and background, and worked in collabroation with a NASA/JSC colleague. This document is a compilation of the final reports on the research projects done by the faculty fellows during the summer of 2000.

  13. NASA/American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE) Summer Faculty Fellowship Program 1989

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tiwari, Surendra N. (Compiler)

    1989-01-01

    Since 1964, NASA has supported a program of summer faculty fellowships for engineering and science educators. The objectives are: to further the professional knowledge of qualified engineering and science faculty; to stimulate and exchange ideas between participants and NASA; to enrich and refresh the research and teachning activities of participants' institutions; and to contribute to the research objectives of the NASA center. College or university faculty members will be appointed as Research Fellows to spend 10 weeks in cooperative research and study at the NASA Langley Research Center. The Fellow will devote approximately 90 percent of the time to a research problem and the remaining time to a study program. The study program will consist of lecture and seminars on topics of interest or that are directly relevant to the Fellows' research topic.

  14. Tracking Intervention Delivery in the "Tobacco-Free Teachers/Tobacco-Free Society" Program, Bihar, India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pawar, P. S.; Nagler, E. M.; Gupta, P. C.; Stoddard, A. M.; Lando, H. A.; Shulman, L.; Pednekar, M. S.; Kasisomayajula, V.; Aghi, M. B.; Sinha, D. N.; Sorensen, G. S.

    2015-01-01

    In health education and behavior change interventions, process tracking monitors the delivery of an intervention and its receipt to the intended audience. A randomized controlled trial in the state of Bihar, India was conducted to help school teachers become tobacco free through appropriately designed intervention program and delivery system. We…

  15. Environmental Issues in Brazilian Society. Fulbright-Hays Seminars Abroad Program. June 26-July 31, 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission for Educational Exchange between the United States and Brazil, Brasilia.

    This book contains a review of the 1994 Fulbright-Hays Seminars Abroad Program along with lesson plans from 13 of the participants. The curriculum projects contained in this book include: (1) "The Brazilian Cinema: A Critical Appreciation of An Industry in Turmoil" (Aaron Braun); (2) "Reflections on the Relationship between Brazilian Communities…

  16. Undergraduate Projects Linking Science, Technology and Society. Interdisciplinary Programs and Activities, 1986-87. Interactions:8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schachterle, Lance E., Ed.; Shanahan, Joan M., Ed.

    In 1970, Worcester Polytechnic Institute (WPI) radically revised its curriculum by replacing specific course distributions with a new program, emphasizing projects at various levels. In instituting this change, faculty were especially concerned to encourage engineering, science, and management students to recognize how their professional work…

  17. Children in Contemporary Society. Theme: Staff Development in Programs for Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Mary, Ed.

    1979-01-01

    This volume is a collection of eight short articles that address fundamental issues of staff development in programs for young children. Part I covers supervisory principles and techniques, indicates environmental areas in which child care personnel have not been prepared to intervene effectively (Bronfenbrenner's exo and macro system levels),…

  18. The Long-Term Care Insurance Program in Israel: solidarity with the elderly in a changing society

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The Long-Term Care Insurance Program (LTCIP) in Israel is a social security program administered by the National Insurance Institute (NII) since 1988. LTCIP focuses on home-based personal care services. Differently from most other programs under the responsibility of the NII, LTCIP benefits are in-kind benefits and are delivered via multiple for-profit and not-for-profit organizations. In recent years LTCIP has been the target of various legal amendments and numerous administrative changes. While many of these changes may have had significant effects on individuals, they have not altered the fundamental principles of the program. Thus, many of the characteristics of beneficiaries have remained quite stable over the years; other characteristics of the population of beneficiaries have changed over the years reflecting the aging of Israeli society. A central issue related to LTCIP is whether benefits are adequate to meet the needs of the growing elderly population of Israel. While the generosity of LTCIP benefits is questionable, economic and political struggles have limited the scope of changes introduced thus far. PMID:23343104

  19. American Geriatrics Society/Association of Directors of Geriatric Academic Programs curricular milestones for graduating geriatric fellows.

    PubMed

    Parks, Susan M; Harper, G Michael; Fernandez, Helen; Sauvigne, Karen; Leipzig, Rosanne M

    2014-05-01

    This article describes the curricular milestones for geriatric fellows and the process used to develop them. The curricular milestones were developed to determine what every graduating geriatric fellow should be able to demonstrate to ensure that they will be able to practice effectively and safely in all care settings and with different older adult populations. Three major domains were identified: Caring for the Elderly Patient, Systems-Based Care for Elder Patients, and Geriatric Syndromes. Six hundred thirty-five geriatricians each reviewed and commented on one domain. These geriatricians represented important stakeholder groups: geriatric fellowship program directors; Association of Directors of Geriatric Academic Programs (ADGAP) members, who are primarily geriatric program and fellowship directors; the American Geriatrics Society (AGS) and ADGAP Education Committee; the AGS Teacher's Section; Geriatric Academic Career Award awardees; and through the American Board of Internal Medicine and the American Board of Family Medicine, board-certified geriatricians who spend more than 50% of their time in clinical practice. The AGS and ADGAP boards approved the final set of 76 Geriatric Curricular Milestones, which were posted on the Portal of Geriatric Online Education in December 2012. These curricular milestones are intended to assist geriatric fellowship directors as they develop curricula and assessments to inform program director reporting to the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education in the Next Accreditation System, which begins in July 2014. PMID:24749808

  20. Evolutionary thinking

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, Tam

    2014-01-01

    Evolution as an idea has a lengthy history, even though the idea of evolution is generally associated with Darwin today. Rebecca Stott provides an engaging and thoughtful overview of this history of evolutionary thinking in her 2013 book, Darwin's Ghosts: The Secret History of Evolution. Since Darwin, the debate over evolution—both how it takes place and, in a long war of words with religiously-oriented thinkers, whether it takes place—has been sustained and heated. A growing share of this debate is now devoted to examining how evolutionary thinking affects areas outside of biology. How do our lives change when we recognize that all is in flux? What can we learn about life more generally if we study change instead of stasis? Carter Phipps’ book, Evolutionaries: Unlocking the Spiritual and Cultural Potential of Science's Greatest Idea, delves deep into this relatively new development. Phipps generally takes as a given the validity of the Modern Synthesis of evolutionary biology. His story takes us into, as the subtitle suggests, the spiritual and cultural implications of evolutionary thinking. Can religion and evolution be reconciled? Can evolutionary thinking lead to a new type of spirituality? Is our culture already being changed in ways that we don't realize by evolutionary thinking? These are all important questions and Phipps book is a great introduction to this discussion. Phipps is an author, journalist, and contributor to the emerging “integral” or “evolutionary” cultural movement that combines the insights of Integral Philosophy, evolutionary science, developmental psychology, and the social sciences. He has served as the Executive Editor of EnlightenNext magazine (no longer published) and more recently is the co-founder of the Institute for Cultural Evolution, a public policy think tank addressing the cultural roots of America's political challenges. What follows is an email interview with Phipps. PMID:26478766

  1. Separation of Substances: A Teacher's Manual for General Level Program Development, Grade 9. Science and Society Teaching Units. Informal Series/26.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Douglas A.; And Others

    Recognizing the problems and challenges associated with teaching general level or non-academic science courses in junior high school, a series of manuals was written to assist teachers in developing programs which focus on issues related to science and society. In the first in the series, how to make water fit to drink is investigated. Eight…

  2. Harvard University Program on Technology and Society; Third Annual Report of the Executive Director, July 1, 1966 to June 30, 1967.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA. Program on Technology and Society.

    The report of the third year of Harvard's Program on Technology and Society contains summaries of research done on the relationship of technology to education, biomedical science, business, and social and political change in general. The research group on education, concentrating on secondary education, concluded that high schools in ten years are…

  3. The Secret Agent Society Social Skills Program for Children with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Comparison of Two School Variants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaumont, Renae; Rotolone, Cassie; Sofronoff, Kate

    2015-01-01

    School is often considered an ideal setting for child social skills training due to the opportunities it provides for skills teaching, modeling, and practice. The current study evaluated the effectiveness of two variants of the Secret Agent Society social skills program for children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders (HFASD) in a…

  4. Geologists' Role in Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bally, A. W.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    At a meeting sponsored by the Geological Society of America, earth scientists examined their function in society. Participants concluded that earth scientists are not providing a rationale for value judgments concerning the use and limitations of the earth and a program aimed at understanding solid-Earth resource systems is needed. (BT)

  5. Evolutionary awareness.

    PubMed

    Gorelik, Gregory; Shackelford, Todd K

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we advance the concept of "evolutionary awareness," a metacognitive framework that examines human thought and emotion from a naturalistic, evolutionary perspective. We begin by discussing the evolution and current functioning of the moral foundations on which our framework rests. Next, we discuss the possible applications of such an evolutionarily-informed ethical framework to several domains of human behavior, namely: sexual maturation, mate attraction, intrasexual competition, culture, and the separation between various academic disciplines. Finally, we discuss ways in which an evolutionary awareness can inform our cross-generational activities-which we refer to as "intergenerational extended phenotypes"-by helping us to construct a better future for ourselves, for other sentient beings, and for our environment. PMID:25300054

  6. Gender Inequality in Interaction--An Evolutionary Account

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopcroft, Rosemary L.

    2009-01-01

    In this article I argue that evolutionary theorizing can help sociologists and feminists better understand gender inequality. Evolutionary theory explains why control of the sexuality of young women is a priority across most human societies both past and present. Evolutionary psychology has extended our understanding of male violence against…

  7. Planetary Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Carl Sagan, Bruce Murray and Louis Friedman founded the non-profit Planetary Society in 1979 to advance the exploration of the solar system and to continue the search for extraterrestrial life. The Society has its headquarters in Pasadena, California, but is international in scope, with 100 000 members worldwide, making it the largest space interest group in the world. The Society funds a var...

  8. Evolutionary Computing

    SciTech Connect

    Patton, Robert M; Cui, Xiaohui; Jiao, Yu; Potok, Thomas E

    2008-01-01

    The rate at which information overwhelms humans is significantly more than the rate at which humans have learned to process, analyze, and leverage this information. To overcome this challenge, new methods of computing must be formulated, and scientist and engineers have looked to nature for inspiration in developing these new methods. Consequently, evolutionary computing has emerged as new paradigm for computing, and has rapidly demonstrated its ability to solve real-world problems where traditional techniques have failed. This field of work has now become quite broad and encompasses areas ranging from artificial life to neural networks. This chapter focuses specifically on two sub-areas of nature-inspired computing: Evolutionary Algorithms and Swarm Intelligence.

  9. An evolutionary approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Healy, Thomas J.

    1993-04-01

    The paper describes an evolutionary approach to the development of aerospace systems, represented by the introduction of integrated product teams (IPTs), which are now used at Rockwell's Space Systems Division on all new programs and are introduced into existing projects after demonstrations of increases in quality and reductions in cost and schedule due to IPTs. Each IPT is unique and reflects its own program and lasts for the life of the program. An IPT includes customers, suppliers, subcontractors, and associate contractors, and have a charter, mission, scope of authority, budget, and schedule. Functional management is responsible for the staffing, training, method development, and generic technology development.

  10. The expanding role of civil society in the global HIV/AIDS response: what has the President's Emergency Program For AIDS Relief's role been?

    PubMed

    Coutinho, Alex; Roxo, Uchechi; Epino, Henry; Muganzi, Alex; Dorward, Emily; Pick, Billy

    2012-08-15

    Civil society has been part of the HIV/AIDS response from the very beginning of the epidemic, often becoming engaged before national governments. Traditional roles of civil society--advocacy, activism, serving as government watchdog, and acting as community caretaker--have been critical to the response. In addition, civil society organizations (CSOs) play an integral part in providing world-class HIV prevention and treatment services and helping to ensure continuity of care. The President's Emergency Program for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) has significantly increased the global scale-up of combination antiretroviral therapy reaching for more than 5 million people in developing countries, as well as implementation of effective evidence-based combination prevention approaches. PEPFAR databases in 5 countries and annual reports from a centrally managed initiative were mined and analyzed to determine the numbers and types of CSOs funded by PEPFAR over a 5-year period (2006-2011). Data are also presented from Uganda showing the overall resource growth in CSO working for HIV. Case studies document the evolution of 3 indigenous CSOs that increased the capacity to implement activities with PEPFAR funding. A legacy of PEPFAR has been the growth of civil society to address social and health issues as well as recognition by governments that partnerships with beneficiaries and civil society result in better outcomes. Scale-up of the global response could not have happened without the involvement of civil society and people living with HIV. This game changing partnership to jointly tackle the problems that countries face may well be the greatest benefit emerging from the HIV epidemic. PMID:22797737

  11. Abstracts and program proceedings of the 1994 meeting of the International Society for Ecological Modelling North American Chapter

    SciTech Connect

    Kercher, J.R.

    1994-06-01

    This document contains information about the 1994 meeting of the International Society for Ecological Modelling North American Chapter. The topics discussed include: extinction risk assessment modelling, ecological risk analysis of uranium mining, impacts of pesticides, demography, habitats, atmospheric deposition, and climate change.

  12. The Role of Linguistics and Linguistic Analysis in Programs under Title VI of the National Defense Education Act of 1958: A Statement by the Committee on Language Programs, American Council of Learned Societies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, John B.; And Others

    Concentrating on five ways in which foreign language teaching can be aided by linguistic science, the Committee on Language Programs, established by the American Council of Learned Societies, expresses its support of the National Defense Education Act of 1958, Title VI; and the Language Development Section of the Department of Health, Education,…

  13. Forecasting Caspian Sea level changes using satellite altimetry data (June 1992-December 2013) based on evolutionary support vector regression algorithms and gene expression programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imani, Moslem; You, Rey-Jer; Kuo, Chung-Yen

    2014-10-01

    Sea level forecasting at various time intervals is of great importance in water supply management. Evolutionary artificial intelligence (AI) approaches have been accepted as an appropriate tool for modeling complex nonlinear phenomena in water bodies. In the study, we investigated the ability of two AI techniques: support vector machine (SVM), which is mathematically well-founded and provides new insights into function approximation, and gene expression programming (GEP), which is used to forecast Caspian Sea level anomalies using satellite altimetry observations from June 1992 to December 2013. SVM demonstrates the best performance in predicting Caspian Sea level anomalies, given the minimum root mean square error (RMSE = 0.035) and maximum coefficient of determination (R2 = 0.96) during the prediction periods. A comparison between the proposed AI approaches and the cascade correlation neural network (CCNN) model also shows the superiority of the GEP and SVM models over the CCNN.

  14. The major synthetic evolutionary transitions.

    PubMed

    Solé, Ricard

    2016-08-19

    Evolution is marked by well-defined events involving profound innovations that are known as 'major evolutionary transitions'. They involve the integration of autonomous elements into a new, higher-level organization whereby the former isolated units interact in novel ways, losing their original autonomy. All major transitions, which include the origin of life, cells, multicellular systems, societies or language (among other examples), took place millions of years ago. Are these transitions unique, rare events? Have they instead universal traits that make them almost inevitable when the right pieces are in place? Are there general laws of evolutionary innovation? In order to approach this problem under a novel perspective, we argue that a parallel class of evolutionary transitions can be explored involving the use of artificial evolutionary experiments where alternative paths to innovation can be explored. These 'synthetic' transitions include, for example, the artificial evolution of multicellular systems or the emergence of language in evolved communicating robots. These alternative scenarios could help us to understand the underlying laws that predate the rise of major innovations and the possibility for general laws of evolved complexity. Several key examples and theoretical approaches are summarized and future challenges are outlined.This article is part of the themed issue 'The major synthetic evolutionary transitions'. PMID:27431528

  15. The major synthetic evolutionary transitions

    PubMed Central

    Solé, Ricard

    2016-01-01

    Evolution is marked by well-defined events involving profound innovations that are known as ‘major evolutionary transitions'. They involve the integration of autonomous elements into a new, higher-level organization whereby the former isolated units interact in novel ways, losing their original autonomy. All major transitions, which include the origin of life, cells, multicellular systems, societies or language (among other examples), took place millions of years ago. Are these transitions unique, rare events? Have they instead universal traits that make them almost inevitable when the right pieces are in place? Are there general laws of evolutionary innovation? In order to approach this problem under a novel perspective, we argue that a parallel class of evolutionary transitions can be explored involving the use of artificial evolutionary experiments where alternative paths to innovation can be explored. These ‘synthetic’ transitions include, for example, the artificial evolution of multicellular systems or the emergence of language in evolved communicating robots. These alternative scenarios could help us to understand the underlying laws that predate the rise of major innovations and the possibility for general laws of evolved complexity. Several key examples and theoretical approaches are summarized and future challenges are outlined. This article is part of the themed issue ‘The major synthetic evolutionary transitions’. PMID:27431528

  16. Programed Instruction; the Sixty-Sixth Yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Education. Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lange, Phil C., Ed.

    A yearbook for the use of educators, administrators, and the lay public was developed around three broad aspects of programed instruction: its foundations in past methods, program development procedures, and current issues and problem areas. Instruction is rigorously defined as the deliberate manipulation of an individual's environment to enable…

  17. Research issues and supporting research of the National Program on Carbon Dioxide, Environment and Society, fiscal year 1980

    SciTech Connect

    1981-01-01

    This report outlines and summarizes the research conducted in the United States under the auspices of the CO/sub 2/ program. The Program encompasses six primary categories which, in turn, are divided into 18 research subcategories and 51 research issues. The research program was designed to describe the research which should be conducted regardless of institutional or even national sponsorship. Project descriptions have been collected and classified according to the research issue to which they most directly apply and have been inserted immediately following the applicable issue description. This provides, for the first time, a detailed view of the nation's effort in addressing the carbon dioxide question in FY 1980.

  18. Education and training for radiation scientists: radiation research program and American Society of Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology Workshop, Bethesda, Maryland, May 12-14, 2003.

    PubMed

    Coleman, C Norman; Stone, Helen B; Alexander, George A; Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen; Bedford, Joel S; Bristow, Robert G; Dynlacht, Joseph R; Fuks, Zvi; Gorelic, Lester S; Hill, Richard P; Joiner, Michael C; Liu, Fei-Fei; McBride, William H; McKenna, W Gillies; Powell, Simon N; Robbins, Michael E C; Rockwell, Sara; Schiff, Peter B; Shaw, Edward G; Siemann, Dietmar W; Travis, Elizabeth L; Wallner, Paul E; Wong, Rosemary S L; Zeman, Elaine M

    2003-12-01

    Current and potential shortfalls in the number of radiation scientists stand in sharp contrast to the emerging scientific opportunities and the need for new knowledge to address issues of cancer survivorship and radiological and nuclear terrorism. In response to these challenges, workshops organized by the Radiation Research Program (RRP), National Cancer Institute (NCI) (Radiat. Res. 157, 204-223, 2002; Radiat. Res. 159, 812-834, 2003), and National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) (Nature, 421, 787, 2003) have engaged experts from a range of federal agencies, academia and industry. This workshop, Education and Training for Radiation Scientists, addressed the need to establish a sustainable pool of expertise and talent for a wide range of activities and careers related to radiation biology, oncology and epidemiology. Although fundamental radiation chemistry and physics are also critical to radiation sciences, this workshop did not address workforce needs in these areas. The recommendations include: (1) Establish a National Council of Radiation Sciences to develop a strategy for increasing the number of radiation scientists. The strategy includes NIH training grants, interagency cooperation, interinstitutional collaboration among universities, and active involvement of all stakeholders. (2) Create new and expanded training programs with sustained funding. These may take the form of regional Centers of Excellence for Radiation Sciences. (3) Continue and broaden educational efforts of the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ASTRO), the American Association for Cancer Research (AACR), the Radiological Society of North America (RSNA), and the Radiation Research Society (RRS). (4) Foster education and training in the radiation sciences for the range of career opportunities including radiation oncology, radiation biology, radiation epidemiology, radiation safety, health/government policy, and industrial research. (5) Educate other

  19. "Yondering" IYA: How the Astronomical Society of the Pacific is Adapting its International Year of Astronomy Programs for the Long Haul

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manning, J. G.

    2011-09-01

    The International Year of Astronomy in 2009, the 400th anniversary of the year Galileo peeped at the heavens with his new telescope, is history. But 2010 is the 400th anniversary of the year he published, and we are now into "Beyond IYA" territory, as things developed for or during IYA are adapted for longer-term use as legacy products and programs. The Astronomical Society of the Pacific (ASP) is continuing three of its IYA efforts in this regard. This article describes how the ASP's IYA Discovery Guides (online packages of theme- and object-based educational materials), Cosmic Clearinghouse (a website with a wide variety of links to good educational materials), and Galileo Teacher Training Program (a teacher workshop using Galileo's iconic observations to teach the process of science) are being adapted for ongoing availability "over yonder," well beyond the horizon of IYA.

  20. The imperative of strategic alignment across organizations: the experience of the Canadian Cancer Society's Centre for Behavioural Research and Program Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Roy; Riley, Barbara L; Campbell, H Sharon; Manske, Stephen; Lamers-Bellio, Kim

    2009-01-01

    The Canadian Cancer Society's Centre for Behavioural Research and Program Evaluation (CBRPE) is a national asset for building pan-Canadian capacity to support intervention studies that guide population-level policies and programs. This paper briefly describes CBRPE's experience in advancing this work in the field of prevention. The aim is to illuminate issues of central importance for advancing the goals of the Population Health Intervention Research Initiative for Canada. According to our experience, success in building the population intervention field will depend heavily on purposeful alignment across organizations to enable integration of research, evaluation, surveillance, policy and practice. CBRPE's capacity development roles include a) a catalytic role in shaping this aligned inter-organizational milieu and b) investing our resources in building tangible assets (teams, indicators, data systems) that contribute relevant capacities within this emerging milieu. Challenges in building capacity in this field are described. PMID:19263980

  1. Audit and Feedback Processes Among Antimicrobial Stewardship Programs: A Survey of the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America Research Network.

    PubMed

    Livorsi, D J; Heintz, B; Jacob, J T; Krein, S L; Morgan, D J; Perencevich, E N

    2016-06-01

    Optimal implementation of audit-and-feedback is an important part of advancing antimicrobial stewardship programs. Our survey demonstrated variability in how 61 programs approach audit-and-feedback. The median (interquartile range) number of recommendations per week was 9 (5-19) per 100 hospital-beds. A major perceived barrier to more comprehensive stewardship was lack of resources. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2016;37:704-706. PMID:26961763

  2. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE) summer faculty fellowship program, 1986, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcinnis, Bayliss (Editor); Goldstein, Stanley (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    The Johnson Space Center (JSC) NASA/ASEE Summer Faculty Fellowship Program was conducted by the University of Houston. The basic objectives of the program are: (1) to further the professional knowledge of qualified engineering and science faculty members; (2) to stimulate an exchange of ideas between participants and NASA; (3) to enrich and refresh the research and teaching objectives of participants' institutions; and (4) to contribute to the research objectives of the NASA Centers. Each faculty fellow spent ten weeks at JSC engaged in a research project commensurate with his interests and background and worked in collaboration with a NASA/JSC colleague. Volume 1 contains sections 1 through 14.

  3. MOEPGA: A novel method to detect protein complexes in yeast protein-protein interaction networks based on MultiObjective Evolutionary Programming Genetic Algorithm.

    PubMed

    Cao, Buwen; Luo, Jiawei; Liang, Cheng; Wang, Shulin; Song, Dan

    2015-10-01

    The identification of protein complexes in protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks has greatly advanced our understanding of biological organisms. Existing computational methods to detect protein complexes are usually based on specific network topological properties of PPI networks. However, due to the inherent complexity of the network structures, the identification of protein complexes may not be fully addressed by using single network topological property. In this study, we propose a novel MultiObjective Evolutionary Programming Genetic Algorithm (MOEPGA) which integrates multiple network topological features to detect biologically meaningful protein complexes. Our approach first systematically analyzes the multiobjective problem in terms of identifying protein complexes from PPI networks, and then constructs the objective function of the iterative algorithm based on three common topological properties of protein complexes from the benchmark dataset, finally we describe our algorithm, which mainly consists of three steps, population initialization, subgraph mutation and subgraph selection operation. To show the utility of our method, we compared MOEPGA with several state-of-the-art algorithms on two yeast PPI datasets. The experiment results demonstrate that the proposed method can not only find more protein complexes but also achieve higher accuracy in terms of fscore. Moreover, our approach can cover a certain number of proteins in the input PPI network in terms of the normalized clustering score. Taken together, our method can serve as a powerful framework to detect protein complexes in yeast PPI networks, thereby facilitating the identification of the underlying biological functions. PMID:26298638

  4. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE) Summer Faculty Fellowship Program, 1994, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bannerot, Richard; Sickorez, Donn G.

    1995-01-01

    The JSC NASA/ASEE Summer Faculty Fellowship Program was conducted by Texas A&M University and JSC. The objectives of the program, which began nationally in 1964 and at JSC in 1965 are to: (1) further the professional knowledge of qualified engineering and science faculty members, (2) stimulate an exchange of ideas between participants and NASA, (3) enrich and refresh the research and teaching activities of participants' institutions, and (4) contribute to the research objectives of the NASA centers. Each faculty fellow spent at least 10 weeks at JSC engaged in a research project in collaboration with a NASA JSC colleague. This document is a compilation of the final reports on the research projects completed by the faculty fellows during the summer of 1994.

  5. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE) Summer Faculty Fellowship Program, 1993, volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Hyman, W.A.; Goldstein, S.H.

    1993-12-01

    The JSC NASA/ASEE Summer Faculty Fellowship Program was conducted by Texas A M University and JSC. The objectives of the program, which began nationally in 1964 and at JSC in 1965, are as follows: (1) to further the professional knowledge of qualified engineering and science faculty members; (2) to stimulate an exchange of ideas between participants and NASA; (3) to enrich and refresh the research and teaching activities of participants' institutions; and (4) to contribute to the research objectives of the NASA centers. Each faculty fellow spent at least 10 weeks at JSC engaged in a research project in collaboration with a NASA/JSC colleague. This document is a compilation of the final reports on the research projects completed by the faculty fellows during the summer of 1993. Separate abstracts have been prepared for articles from this report.

  6. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE) Summer Faculty Fellowship Program, 1993, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyman, William A. (Editor); Goldstein, Stanley H. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    The JSC NASA/ASEE Summer Faculty Fellowship Program was conducted by Texas A&M University and JSC. The objectives of the program, which began nationally in 1964 and at JSC in 1965, are (1) to further the professional knowledge of qualified engineering and science faculty members; (2) to stimulate an exchange of ideas between participants and NASA; (3) to enrich and refresh the research and teaching activities of participant's institutions; and (4) to contribute to the research objectives of the NASA centers. Each faculty fellow spent at least 10 weeks at JSC engaged in a research project in collaboration with a NASA/JSC colleague. A compilation of the final reports on the research projects completed by the faculty fellows during the summer of 1993 is presented.

  7. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) /American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE) Summer Faculty Fellowship Program. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bannerot, Richard B. (Editor); Sickorez, Donn G. (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    The 1996 JSC NASA/ASEE Summer Faculty Fellowship Program was conducted by the University of Houston and JSC. The objectives of the program, which began nationally in 1964 and at JSC in 1965 are to (1) further the professional knowledge qualified engineering and science faculty members, (2) stimulate an exchange of ideas between participants and NASA, (3) refresh the research and teaching activities of participants' institutions, and (4) contribute to the research objectives of the NASA centers. Each faculty fellow spent at least 10 weeks at JSC engaged in a research project in collaboration with a NASA JSC colleague. This document is a compilation of the final reports on the research projects completed by the faculty fellows during the summer of 1996.

  8. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE) Summer Faculty Fellowship Program, 1993, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyman, William A. (Editor); Goldstein, Stanley H. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    The JSC NASA/ASEE Summer Faculty Fellowship Program was conducted by Texas A&M University and JSC. The objectives of the program, which began nationally in 1964 and at JSC in 1965, are as follows: (1) to further the professional knowledge of qualified engineering and science faculty members; (2) to stimulate an exchange of ideas between participants and NASA; (3) to enrich and refresh the research and teaching activities of participants' institutions; and (4) to contribute to the research objectives of the NASA centers. Each faculty fellow spent at least 10 weeks at JSC engaged in a research project in collaboration with a NASA/JSC colleague. This document is a compilation of the final reports on the research projects completed by the faculty fellows during the summer of 1993.

  9. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE) Summer Faculty Fellowship Program, 1998. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bannerot, Richard B. (Editor); Sickorez, Donn G. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    JSC NASA/ASEE Summer Faculty Fellowship Program was conducted by the University of Houston and JSC, under ASEE. The objectives of the program are to further the professional knowledge of qualified engineering and science members; stimulate an exchange of ideas between participants and NASA; enrich and refresh the research and teaching activities of participants; and contribute to the research objectives of the NASA Centers. Each faculty fellow spent at least 10 weeks at JSC engaged in a research project commensurate with his/her interests and background and worked in collaboration with a NASA/JSC colleague. This document is a compilation of the final reports on the fellows' research projects performed during the summer of 1998. Volume 1, current volume, contains the first reports, and volume 2 contains the remaining reports.

  10. Huntington's Disease Society of America

    MedlinePlus

    ... 16 HD Support & Care Network and Huntington’s Disease Society of America Partner for Stronger HD Support Groups ... to HD symptoms 08.02.16 Huntington’s Disease Society of America’s 2017 HDSA Center of Excellence Program ...

  11. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE) Summer Faculty Fellowship Program: 1996. Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bannerot, Richard B. (Editor); Sickorez, Donn G. (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    The objectives of the program, which began nationally in 1964 and at JSC in 1965 are to (1) further the professional knowledge qualified engineering and science faculty members, (2) stimulate an exchange of ideas between participants and NASA, (3) and refresh the research and teaching activities of participants' institutions, and (4) contribute to the research objectives of NASA centers. Each faculty fellow spent at least 10 weeks at JSC engaged in a research project in collaboration with a NASA JSC colleague.

  12. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE) Summer Faculty Fellowship Program: 1995.. Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyman, William A. (Editor); Sickorez, Donn G. (Editor)

    1996-01-01

    The JSC NASA/ASEE Summer Faculty Fellowship Program was conducted at JSC, including the White Sands Test Facility, by Texas A&M University and JSC. The objectives of the program, which began nationally in 1964 and at JSC in 1965, are (1) to further the professional knowledge of qualified engineering and science faculty members; (2) to stimulate an exchange of ideas between participants and NASA; (3) to enrich and refresh the research and teaching activities of the participants' institutions; and (4) to contribute to the research objectives of the NASA centers. Each faculty fellow spent at least 10 weeks at JSC engaged in a research project in collaboration with a NASA/JSC colleague. In addition to the faculty participants, the 1995 program included five students. This document is a compilation of the final reports on the research projects completed by the faculty fellows and visiting students during the summer of 1995. The reports of two of the students are integral with that of the respective fellow. Three students wrote separate reports.

  13. Cryptozoology Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    Reports of Loch Ness monsters, Bigfoot, and the Yeti spring u p from time to time, sparking scientific controversy about the veracity of these observations. Now an organization has been established to help cull, analyze, and disseminate information on the alleged creatures. The International Society of Cryptozoology, formed at a January meeting at the U.S. National Museum of Natural History of the Smithsonian Institution, will serve as the focal point for the investigation, analysis, publication, and discussion of animals of unexpected form or size or of unexpected occurrences in time or space.

  14. Molecular selection in a unified evolutionary sequence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, S. W.

    1986-01-01

    With guidance from experiments and observations that indicate internally limited phenomena, an outline of unified evolutionary sequence is inferred. Such unification is not visible for a context of random matrix and random mutation. The sequence proceeds from Big Bang through prebiotic matter, protocells, through the evolving cell via molecular and natural selection, to mind, behavior, and society.

  15. American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) Survey of Radiation Biology Educators in U.S. and Canadian Radiation Oncology Residency Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenstein, Barry S.; Held, Kathryn D.; Rockwell, Sara; Williams, Jacqueline P.; Zeman, Elaine M.

    2009-11-01

    Purpose: To obtain, in a survey-based study, detailed information on the faculty currently responsible for teaching radiation biology courses to radiation oncology residents in the United States and Canada. Methods and Materials: In March-December 2007 a survey questionnaire was sent to faculty having primary responsibility for teaching radiation biology to residents in 93 radiation oncology residency programs in the United States and Canada. Results: The responses to this survey document the aging of the faculty who have primary responsibility for teaching radiation biology to radiation oncology residents. The survey found a dramatic decline with time in the percentage of educators whose graduate training was in radiation biology. A significant number of the educators responsible for teaching radiation biology were not fully acquainted with the radiation sciences, either through training or practical application. In addition, many were unfamiliar with some of the organizations setting policies and requirements for resident education. Freely available tools, such as the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) Radiation and Cancer Biology Practice Examination and Study Guides, were widely used by residents and educators. Consolidation of resident courses or use of a national radiation biology review course was viewed as unlikely by most programs. Conclusions: A high priority should be given to the development of comprehensive teaching tools to assist those individuals who have responsibility for teaching radiation biology courses but who do not have an extensive background in critical areas of radiobiology related to radiation oncology. These findings also suggest a need for new graduate programs in radiobiology.

  16. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE) Summer Faculty Fellowship Program: 1995. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyman, William A. (Editor); Sickorez, Donn G. (Editor)

    1996-01-01

    The objectives of the JSC NASA/ASEE Summer Faculty Fellowship Program, which began nationally in 1964 and at JSC in 1965, are (1) to further the professional knowledge of qualified engineering and science faculty members; (2) to stimulate an exchange of ideas between participants and NASA; (3) to enrich and refresh the research and teaching activities of the participants' institutions; and (4) to contribute to the research objectives of the NASA centers. Each faculty fellow spent at least 10 weeks at JSC engaged in a research project in collaboration with a NASA/JSC colleague. In addition to the faculty participants, the 1995 program included five students. This document is a compilation of the first fifteen of twenty-seven final reports on the research projects completed by the faculty fellows and visiting students during the summer of 1995. The reports of two of the students are integral with that of the respective fellow. Three students wrote separate reports included in Volume 2.

  17. The evolutionary psychology of hunger.

    PubMed

    Al-Shawaf, Laith

    2016-10-01

    An evolutionary psychological perspective suggests that emotions can be understood as coordinating mechanisms whose job is to regulate various psychological and physiological programs in the service of solving an adaptive problem. This paper suggests that it may also be fruitful to approach hunger from this coordinating mechanism perspective. To this end, I put forward an evolutionary task analysis of hunger, generating novel a priori hypotheses about the coordinating effects of hunger on psychological processes such as perception, attention, categorization, and memory. This approach appears empirically fruitful in that it yields a bounty of testable new hypotheses. PMID:27328100

  18. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE) Summer Faculty Fellowship Program, 1987, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, William B. (Editor); Goldstein, Stanley H. (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    The objective of the NASA/ASEE program were: (1) to further the professional knowledge of qualified engineering and science faculty members; (2) to stimulate an exchange of ideas between participants and NASA; (3) to enrich and refresh the research and teaching activities of participants' institutions; and (4) to contribute to the research objectives of the NASA centers. Each faculty fellow spent 10 weeks at Johnson Space Center engaged in a research project commensurate with his/her interests and background and worked in collaboration with a NASA/JSC colleague. A compilation is presented of the final reports on the research projects done by the fellows during the summer of 1987. This is volume 1 of a 2 volume report.

  19. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/american Society for Engineering Education (ASEE) Summer Faculty Fellowship Program, 1991, Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyman, William A. (Editor); Goldstein, Stanley H. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    The objectives of the program are: (1) to further the professional knowledge of qualified engineering and science faculty members; (2) to stimulate an exchange of ideas between participants and NASA; (3) to enrich and refresh the research and teaching activities of participant's institutions; and (4) to contribute to the research objectives of the NASA Centers. A compilation of the final reports on the research projects done by the faculty fellows during the summer of 1991 are presented. Some of the topics covered include: collision avoidance for rover vehicles, bioinstrumentation, neural nets, total quality management of flexible space structures, project scheduling, nondestructive tests, orthostatic intolerance to bedrest, hypersonic reentry simulation, measuring human energy expenditure, tribological models, trace element movement in Anarctic ice, gastrointestinal function, and computer assisted instruction.

  20. Programmed Death Ligand-1 Immunohistochemistry--A New Challenge for Pathologists: A Perspective From Members of the Pulmonary Pathology Society.

    PubMed

    Sholl, Lynette M; Aisner, Dara L; Allen, Timothy Craig; Beasley, Mary Beth; Borczuk, Alain C; Cagle, Philip T; Capelozzi, Vera; Dacic, Sanja; Hariri, Lida; Kerr, Keith M; Lantuejoul, Sylvie; Mino-Kenudson, Mari; Raparia, Kirtee; Rekhtman, Natasha; Roy-Chowdhuri, Sinchita; Thunnissen, Eric; Tsao, Ming Sound; Yatabe, Yasushi

    2016-04-01

    The binding of programmed death ligand-1 and ligand-2 (PD-L1 and PD-L2) to PD-1 blocks T-cell-mediated immune response to tumor. Antibodies that target programmed death receptor-1 (PD-1) will block the ligand-receptor interface, thereby allowing T cells to attack the tumor and increase antitumor immune response. In clinical trials, PD-1 inhibitors have been associated with an approximately 20% overall response rate in unselected patients with non-small cell lung cancer, with sustained tumor response in a subset of patients treated by these immune checkpoint inhibitors. Facing a proliferation of PD-L1 immunohistochemistry clones, staining platforms, and scoring criteria, the pathologist must decide on the feasibility of introducing a newly approved companion diagnostic assay that may require purchase not only of a specific antibody kit but of a particular staining platform. Given the likely reality that clinical practice may, in the near future, demand access to 4 different PD-L1 antibodies coupled with different immunohistochemistry platforms, laboratories will be challenged with deciding among this variety of testing methods, each with its own potential benefits. Another immediate challenge to PD-L1 testing in lung cancer patients is that of access to adequate tumor tissue, given that non-small cell lung cancer samples are often extremely limited in size. With PD-L1 testing it has become clear that the historically used US regulatory approach of one assay-one drug will not be sustainable. One evolving concept is that of complementary diagnostics, a novel regulatory pathway initiated by the US Food and Drug Administration, which is distinct from companion diagnostics in that it may present additional flexibility. Although pathologists need to face the practical reality that oncologists will be asking regularly for the PD-L1 immunohistochemistry status of their patients' tumors, we should also keep in mind that there may be room for improvement of biomarkers for

  1. Framework for a National STEMI Program: consensus document developed by STEMI INDIA, Cardiological Society of India and Association Physicians of India.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Thomas; Mullasari, Ajit S; Kaifoszova, Zuzana; Khot, Umesh N; Nallamothu, Brahmajee; Ramana, Rao G V; Sharma, Meenakshi; Subramaniam, Kala; Veerasekar, Ganesh; Victor, Suma M; Chand, Kiran; Deb, P K; Venugopal, K; Chopra, H K; Guha, Santanu; Banerjee, Amal Kumar; Armugam, A Muruganathan; Panja, Manotosh; Wander, Gurpreet Singh

    2015-01-01

    The health care burden of ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) in India is enormous. Yet, many patients with STEMI can seldom avail timely and evidence based reperfusion treatments. This gap in care is a result of financial barriers, limited healthcare infrastructure, poor knowledge and accessibility of acute medical services for a majority of the population. Addressing some of these issues, STEMI India, a not-for-profit organization, Cardiological Society of India (CSI) and Association Physicians of India (API) have developed a protocol of "systems of care" for efficient management of STEMI, with integrated networks of facilities. Leveraging newly-developed ambulance and emergency medical services, incorporating recent state insurance schemes for vulnerable populations to broaden access, and combining innovative, "state-of-the-art" information technology platforms with existing hospital infrastructure, are the crucial aspects of this system. A pilot program was successfully employed in the state of Tamilnadu. The purpose of this article is to describe the framework and methods associated with this programme with an aim to improve delivery of reperfusion therapy for STEMI in India. This programme can serve as model STEMI systems of care for other low-and-middle income countries. PMID:26432748

  2. Utopianism in the British evolutionary synthesis.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Maurizio

    2011-03-01

    In this paper I propose a new interpretation of the British evolutionary synthesis. The synthetic work of J. B. S. Haldane, R. A. Fisher and J. S. Huxley was characterized by both an integration of Mendelism and Darwinism and the unification of different biological subdisciplines within a coherent framework. But it must also be seen as a bold and synthetic Darwinian program in which the biosciences served as a utopian blueprint for the progress of civilization. Describing the futuristic visions of these three scientists in their synthetic heydays, I show that, despite a number of important divergences, their biopolitical ideals could be biased toward a controlled and regimented utopian society. Their common ideals entailed a social order where liberal and democratic principles were partially or totally suspended in favor of bioscientific control and planning for the future. Finally, I will argue that the original redefinition of Darwinism that modern synthesizers proposed is a significant historical example of how Darwinism has been used and adapted in different contexts. The lesson I draw from this account is a venerable one: that, whenever we wish to define Darwinism, we need to recognize not only its scientific content and achievements but expose the other traditions and ideologies it may have supported. PMID:21300314

  3. Evolutionary principles and their practical application

    PubMed Central

    Hendry, Andrew P; Kinnison, Michael T; Heino, Mikko; Day, Troy; Smith, Thomas B; Fitt, Gary; Bergstrom, Carl T; Oakeshott, John; Jørgensen, Peter S; Zalucki, Myron P; Gilchrist, George; Southerton, Simon; Sih, Andrew; Strauss, Sharon; Denison, Robert F; Carroll, Scott P

    2011-01-01

    Evolutionary principles are now routinely incorporated into medicine and agriculture. Examples include the design of treatments that slow the evolution of resistance by weeds, pests, and pathogens, and the design of breeding programs that maximize crop yield or quality. Evolutionary principles are also increasingly incorporated into conservation biology, natural resource management, and environmental science. Examples include the protection of small and isolated populations from inbreeding depression, the identification of key traits involved in adaptation to climate change, the design of harvesting regimes that minimize unwanted life-history evolution, and the setting of conservation priorities based on populations, species, or communities that harbor the greatest evolutionary diversity and potential. The adoption of evolutionary principles has proceeded somewhat independently in these different fields, even though the underlying fundamental concepts are the same. We explore these fundamental concepts under four main themes: variation, selection, connectivity, and eco-evolutionary dynamics. Within each theme, we present several key evolutionary principles and illustrate their use in addressing applied problems. We hope that the resulting primer of evolutionary concepts and their practical utility helps to advance a unified multidisciplinary field of applied evolutionary biology. PMID:25567966

  4. Evolutionary Perspective in Child Growth

    PubMed Central

    Hochberg, Ze’ev

    2011-01-01

    Hereditary, environmental, and stochastic factors determine a child’s growth in his unique environment, but their relative contribution to the phenotypic outcome and the extent of stochastic programming that is required to alter human phenotypes is not known because few data are available. This is an attempt to use evolutionary life-history theory in understanding child growth in a broad evolutionary perspective, using the data and theory of evolutionary predictive adaptive growth-related strategies. Transitions from one life-history phase to the next have inherent adaptive plasticity in their timing. Humans evolved to withstand energy crises by decreasing their body size, and evolutionary short-term adaptations to energy crises utilize a plasticity that modifies the timing of transition from infancy into childhood, culminating in short stature in times of energy crisis. Transition to juvenility is part of a strategy of conversion from a period of total dependence on the family and tribe for provision and security to self-supply, and a degree of adaptive plasticity is provided and determines body composition. Transition to adolescence entails plasticity in adapting to energy resources, other environmental cues, and the social needs of the maturing adolescent to determine life-span and the period of fecundity and fertility. Fundamental questions are raised by a life-history approach to the unique growth pattern of each child in his given genetic background and current environment. PMID:23908815

  5. Evolutionary perspective in child growth.

    PubMed

    Hochberg, Ze'ev

    2011-07-01

    Hereditary, environmental, and stochastic factors determine a child's growth in his unique environment, but their relative contribution to the phenotypic outcome and the extent of stochastic programming that is required to alter human phenotypes is not known because few data are available. This is an attempt to use evolutionary life-history theory in understanding child growth in a broad evolutionary perspective, using the data and theory of evolutionary predictive adaptive growth-related strategies. Transitions from one life-history phase to the next have inherent adaptive plasticity in their timing. Humans evolved to withstand energy crises by decreasing their body size, and evolutionary short-term adaptations to energy crises utilize a plasticity that modifies the timing of transition from infancy into childhood, culminating in short stature in times of energy crisis. Transition to juvenility is part of a strategy of conversion from a period of total dependence on the family and tribe for provision and security to self-supply, and a degree of adaptive plasticity is provided and determines body composition. Transition to adolescence entails plasticity in adapting to energy resources, other environmental cues, and the social needs of the maturing adolescent to determine life-span and the period of fecundity and fertility. Fundamental questions are raised by a life-history approach to the unique growth pattern of each child in his given genetic background and current environment. PMID:23908815

  6. Science, Society and Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, K. S.; Teich, A. H.

    2010-12-01

    Apart from the journals they produce, scientific societies play an important role in communicating scientific findings and norms to the broader society. The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) includes among its goals to promote and defend the integrity of science and its use; provide a voice for science on societal issues; promote the responsible use of science in public policy; and increase public engagement with science and technology. AAAS websites and programs, including Communicating Science (www.aaas.org/communicatingscience), Working with Congress (http://www.aaas.org/spp/cstc/wwc/book.htm) and ScienceCareers.org (http://sciencecareers.sciencemag.org), provide tools for scientists to become more directly engaged in effectively communicating their findings and involved in the policy process. Education programs work to build the next generation of scientists and a science-literate public. To bridge the current communication gap between scientists, the public and policymakers, AAAS, like other scientific societies, maintains policy and outreach programs with limited budgets and staff. AAAS works to engage policymakers and provide scientific underpinning to key issues through congressional briefings, meetings, policy briefs, and media outreach. AAAS responds to challenges to accepted scientific findings and processes through op-eds, letters to government officials, resolutions, and Board statements. Some of these initiatives occur on a local level in partnership with local civic leaders, whose endorsement makes them more powerful. On a national scale, they assure that the voice of science is included in the debate. The changing media landscape presents opportunities and challenges for future AAAS endeavors.

  7. Evolutionary stability on graphs

    PubMed Central

    Ohtsuki, Hisashi; Nowak, Martin A.

    2008-01-01

    Evolutionary stability is a fundamental concept in evolutionary game theory. A strategy is called an evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS), if its monomorphic population rejects the invasion of any other mutant strategy. Recent studies have revealed that population structure can considerably affect evolutionary dynamics. Here we derive the conditions of evolutionary stability for games on graphs. We obtain analytical conditions for regular graphs of degree k > 2. Those theoretical predictions are compared with computer simulations for random regular graphs and for lattices. We study three different update rules: birth-death (BD), death-birth (DB), and imitation (IM) updating. Evolutionary stability on sparse graphs does not imply evolutionary stability in a well-mixed population, nor vice versa. We provide a geometrical interpretation of the ESS condition on graphs. PMID:18295801

  8. The National Space Biomedical Research Institute's education and public outreach program: Working toward a global 21st century space exploration society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacLeish, Marlene Y.; Thomson, William A.; Moreno, Nancy P.

    2011-05-01

    Space Exploration educators worldwide are confronting challenges and embracing opportunities to prepare students for the global 21st century workforce. The National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI), established in 1997 through a NASA competition, is a 12-university consortium dedicated to space life science research and education. NSBRI's Education and Public Outreach Program (EPOP) is advancing the Institute's mission by responding to global educational challenges through activities that: provide teacher professional development; develop curricula that teach students to communicate with their peers across the globe; provide women and minority US populations with greater access to, and awareness of science careers; and promote international science education partnerships. A recent National Research Council (NRC) Space Studies Board Report, America's Future in Space: Aligning the Civil Program with National Needs, acknowledges that "a capable workforce for the 21st century is a key strategic objective for the US space program… (and that) US problems requiring best efforts to understand and resolve…are global in nature and must be addressed through mutual worldwide action". [1] This sentiment has gained new momentum through a recent National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) report, which recommends that the life of the International Space Station be extended beyond the planned 2016 termination. [2] The two principles of globalization and ISS utility have elevated NSBRI EPOP efforts to design and disseminate science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) educational materials that prepare students for full participation in a globalized, high technology society; promote and provide teacher professional development; create research opportunities for women and underserved populations; and build international educational partnerships. This paper describes select EPOP projects and makes the case for using innovative, emerging information

  9. Invisible hand effect in an evolutionary minority game model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sysi-Aho, Marko; Saramäki, Jari; Kaski, Kimmo

    2005-03-01

    In this paper, we study the properties of a minority game with evolution realized by using genetic crossover to modify fixed-length decision-making strategies of agents. Although the agents in this evolutionary game act selfishly by trying to maximize their own performances only, it turns out that the whole society will eventually be rewarded optimally. This “invisible hand” effect is what Adam Smith over two centuries ago expected to take place in the context of free market mechanism. However, this behaviour of the society of agents is realized only under idealized conditions, where all agents are utilizing the same efficient evolutionary mechanism. If on the other hand part of the agents are adaptive, but not evolutionary, the system does not reach optimum performance, which is also the case if part of the evolutionary agents form a uniformly acting “cartel”.

  10. The curiously long absence of cooking in evolutionary thought.

    PubMed

    Wrangham, R

    2016-06-01

    Beran et al. (2015, p. 1) characterized the idea that "cooked food was integral in human evolution" as a "long-held hypothesis" favored by Darwin and Engels. In fact, however, although Darwin and Engels considered the use of cooked food to be an important influence on behavior and society, neither of them suggested that its effects were evolutionary in the sense of affecting biology. Explicit discussion of the possible evolutionary impacts of cooking did not begin until the twentieth century. PMID:27059233

  11. Eco-evolutionary dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Pelletier, F.; Garant, D.; Hendry, A.P.

    2009-01-01

    Evolutionary ecologists and population biologists have recently considered that ecological and evolutionary changes are intimately linked and can occur on the same time-scale. Recent theoretical developments have shown how the feedback between ecological and evolutionary dynamics can be linked, and there are now empirical demonstrations showing that ecological change can lead to rapid evolutionary change. We also have evidence that microevolutionary change can leave an ecological signature. We are at a stage where the integration of ecology and evolution is a necessary step towards major advances in our understanding of the processes that shape and maintain biodiversity. This special feature about ‘eco-evolutionary dynamics’ brings together biologists from empirical and theoretical backgrounds to bridge the gap between ecology and evolution and provide a series of contributions aimed at quantifying the interactions between these fundamental processes. PMID:19414463

  12. Polymorphic Evolutionary Games.

    PubMed

    Fishman, Michael A

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, I present an analytical framework for polymorphic evolutionary games suitable for explicitly modeling evolutionary processes in diploid populations with sexual reproduction. The principal aspect of the proposed approach is adding diploid genetics cum sexual recombination to a traditional evolutionary game, and switching from phenotypes to haplotypes as the new game׳s pure strategies. Here, the relevant pure strategy׳s payoffs derived by summing the payoffs of all the phenotypes capable of producing gametes containing that particular haplotype weighted by the pertinent probabilities. The resulting game is structurally identical to the familiar Evolutionary Games with non-linear pure strategy payoffs (Hofbauer and Sigmund, 1998. Cambridge University Press), and can be analyzed in terms of an established analytical framework for such games. And these results can be translated into the terms of genotypic, and whence, phenotypic evolutionary stability pertinent to the original game. PMID:27016340

  13. An evolutionary framework for cultural change: Selectionism versus communal exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabora, Liane

    2013-06-01

    Dawkins' replicator-based conception of evolution has led to widespread mis-application of selectionism across the social sciences because it does not address the paradox that necessitated the theory of natural selection in the first place: how do organisms accumulate change when traits acquired over their lifetime are obliterated? This is addressed by von Neumann's concept of a self-replicating automaton (SRA). A SRA consists of a self-assembly code that is used in two distinct ways: (1) actively deciphered during development to construct a self-similar replicant, and (2) passively copied to the replicant to ensure that it can reproduce. Information that is acquired over a lifetime is not transmitted to offspring, whereas information that is inherited during copying is transmitted. In cultural evolution there is no mechanism for discarding acquired change. Acquired change can accumulate orders of magnitude faster than, and quickly overwhelm, inherited change due to differential replication of variants in response to selection. This prohibits a selectionist but not an evolutionary framework for culture and the creative processes that fuel it. The importance non-Darwinian processes in biological evolution is increasingly recognized. Recent work on the origin of life suggests that early life evolved through a non-Darwinian process referred to as communal exchange that does not involve a self-assembly code, and that natural selection emerged from this more haphazard, ancestral evolutionary process. It is proposed that communal exchange provides an evolutionary framework for culture that enables specification of cognitive features necessary for a (real or artificial) societies to evolve culture. This is supported by a computational model of cultural evolution and a conceptual network based program for documenting material cultural history, and it is consistent with high levels of human cooperation.

  14. An evolutionary framework for cultural change: selectionism versus communal exchange.

    PubMed

    Gabora, Liane

    2013-06-01

    Dawkins' replicator-based conception of evolution has led to widespread mis-application of selectionism across the social sciences because it does not address the paradox that necessitated the theory of natural selection in the first place: how do organisms accumulate change when traits acquired over their lifetime are obliterated? This is addressed by von Neumann's concept of a self-replicating automaton (SRA). A SRA consists of a self-assembly code that is used in two distinct ways: (1) actively deciphered during development to construct a self-similar replicant, and (2) passively copied to the replicant to ensure that it can reproduce. Information that is acquired over a lifetime is not transmitted to offspring, whereas information that is inherited during copying is transmitted. In cultural evolution there is no mechanism for discarding acquired change. Acquired change can accumulate orders of magnitude faster than, and quickly overwhelm, inherited change due to differential replication of variants in response to selection. This prohibits a selectionist but not an evolutionary framework for culture and the creative processes that fuel it. The importance non-Darwinian processes in biological evolution is increasingly recognized. Recent work on the origin of life suggests that early life evolved through a non-Darwinian process referred to as communal exchange that does not involve a self-assembly code, and that natural selection emerged from this more haphazard, ancestral evolutionary process. It is proposed that communal exchange provides an evolutionary framework for culture that enables specification of cognitive features necessary for a (real or artificial) societies to evolve culture. This is supported by a computational model of cultural evolution and a conceptual network based program for documenting material cultural history, and it is consistent with high levels of human cooperation. PMID:23623043

  15. Marketing and Society. Study Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welsh, Robert S.; Blake, Rowland S.

    This self-instructional study guide is part of the materials for a college-level programmed course entitled "Marketing and Society." The study guide is intended for use by students in conjunction with a related textbook, a workbook, a review guide, and a series of instructional tape casettes. The study guide contains a brief introductory section…

  16. Evolutionary biology of language.

    PubMed Central

    Nowak, M A

    2000-01-01

    Language is the most important evolutionary invention of the last few million years. It was an adaptation that helped our species to exchange information, make plans, express new ideas and totally change the appearance of the planet. How human language evolved from animal communication is one of the most challenging questions for evolutionary biology The aim of this paper is to outline the major principles that guided language evolution in terms of mathematical models of evolutionary dynamics and game theory. I will discuss how natural selection can lead to the emergence of arbitrary signs, the formation of words and syntactic communication. PMID:11127907

  17. Evolutionary tree reconstruction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheeseman, Peter; Kanefsky, Bob

    1990-01-01

    It is described how Minimum Description Length (MDL) can be applied to the problem of DNA and protein evolutionary tree reconstruction. If there is a set of mutations that transform a common ancestor into a set of the known sequences, and this description is shorter than the information to encode the known sequences directly, then strong evidence for an evolutionary relationship has been found. A heuristic algorithm is described that searches for the simplest tree (smallest MDL) that finds close to optimal trees on the test data. Various ways of extending the MDL theory to more complex evolutionary relationships are discussed.

  18. Rethinking evolutionary individuality

    PubMed Central

    Ereshefsky, Marc; Pedroso, Makmiller

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers whether multispecies biofilms are evolutionary individuals. Numerous multispecies biofilms have characteristics associated with individuality, such as internal integrity, division of labor, coordination among parts, and heritable adaptive traits. However, such multispecies biofilms often fail standard reproductive criteria for individuality: they lack reproductive bottlenecks, are comprised of multiple species, do not form unified reproductive lineages, and fail to have a significant division of reproductive labor among their parts. If such biofilms are good candidates for evolutionary individuals, then evolutionary individuality is achieved through other means than frequently cited reproductive processes. The case of multispecies biofilms suggests that standard reproductive requirements placed on individuality should be reconsidered. More generally, the case of multispecies biofilms indicates that accounts of individuality that focus on single-species eukaryotes are too restrictive and that a pluralistic and open-ended account of evolutionary individuality is needed. PMID:26039982

  19. Evolutionary behavioral genetics

    PubMed Central

    Zietsch, Brendan P.; de Candia, Teresa R; Keller, Matthew C.

    2014-01-01

    We describe the scientific enterprise at the intersection of evolutionary psychology and behavioral genetics—a field that could be termed Evolutionary Behavioral Genetics—and how modern genetic data is revolutionizing our ability to test questions in this field. We first explain how genetically informative data and designs can be used to investigate questions about the evolution of human behavior, and describe some of the findings arising from these approaches. Second, we explain how evolutionary theory can be applied to the investigation of behavioral genetic variation. We give examples of how new data and methods provide insight into the genetic architecture of behavioral variation and what this tells us about the evolutionary processes that acted on the underlying causal genetic variants. PMID:25587556

  20. Evolutionary Mechanisms for Loneliness

    PubMed Central

    Cacioppo, John T.; Cacioppo, Stephanie; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    2013-01-01

    Robert Weiss (1973) conceptualized loneliness as perceived social isolation, which he described as a gnawing, chronic disease without redeeming features. On the scale of everyday life, it is understandable how something as personally aversive as loneliness could be regarded as a blight on human existence. However, evolutionary time and evolutionary forces operate at such a different scale of organization than we experience in everyday life that personal experience is not sufficient to understand the role of loneliness in human existence. Research over the past decade suggests a very different view of loneliness than suggested by personal experience, one in which loneliness serves a variety of adaptive functions in specific habitats. We review evidence on the heritability of loneliness and outline an evolutionary theory of loneliness, with an emphasis on its potential adaptive value in an evolutionary timescale. PMID:24067110

  1. Rethinking evolutionary individuality.

    PubMed

    Ereshefsky, Marc; Pedroso, Makmiller

    2015-08-18

    This paper considers whether multispecies biofilms are evolutionary individuals. Numerous multispecies biofilms have characteristics associated with individuality, such as internal integrity, division of labor, coordination among parts, and heritable adaptive traits. However, such multispecies biofilms often fail standard reproductive criteria for individuality: they lack reproductive bottlenecks, are comprised of multiple species, do not form unified reproductive lineages, and fail to have a significant division of reproductive labor among their parts. If such biofilms are good candidates for evolutionary individuals, then evolutionary individuality is achieved through other means than frequently cited reproductive processes. The case of multispecies biofilms suggests that standard reproductive requirements placed on individuality should be reconsidered. More generally, the case of multispecies biofilms indicates that accounts of individuality that focus on single-species eukaryotes are too restrictive and that a pluralistic and open-ended account of evolutionary individuality is needed. PMID:26039982

  2. Eco-evolutionary feedbacks, adaptive dynamics and evolutionary rescue theory

    PubMed Central

    Ferriere, Regis; Legendre, Stéphane

    2013-01-01

    Adaptive dynamics theory has been devised to account for feedbacks between ecological and evolutionary processes. Doing so opens new dimensions to and raises new challenges about evolutionary rescue. Adaptive dynamics theory predicts that successive trait substitutions driven by eco-evolutionary feedbacks can gradually erode population size or growth rate, thus potentially raising the extinction risk. Even a single trait substitution can suffice to degrade population viability drastically at once and cause ‘evolutionary suicide’. In a changing environment, a population may track a viable evolutionary attractor that leads to evolutionary suicide, a phenomenon called ‘evolutionary trapping’. Evolutionary trapping and suicide are commonly observed in adaptive dynamics models in which the smooth variation of traits causes catastrophic changes in ecological state. In the face of trapping and suicide, evolutionary rescue requires that the population overcome evolutionary threats generated by the adaptive process itself. Evolutionary repellors play an important role in determining how variation in environmental conditions correlates with the occurrence of evolutionary trapping and suicide, and what evolutionary pathways rescue may follow. In contrast with standard predictions of evolutionary rescue theory, low genetic variation may attenuate the threat of evolutionary suicide and small population sizes may facilitate escape from evolutionary traps. PMID:23209163

  3. Evolutionary games on multilayer networks: a colloquium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhen; Wang, Lin; Szolnoki, Attila; Perc, Matjaž

    2015-05-01

    Networks form the backbone of many complex systems, ranging from the Internet to human societies. Accordingly, not only is the range of our interactions limited and thus best described and modeled by networks, it is also a fact that the networks that are an integral part of such models are often interdependent or even interconnected. Networks of networks or multilayer networks are therefore a more apt description of social systems. This colloquium is devoted to evolutionary games on multilayer networks, and in particular to the evolution of cooperation as one of the main pillars of modern human societies. We first give an overview of the most significant conceptual differences between single-layer and multilayer networks, and we provide basic definitions and a classification of the most commonly used terms. Subsequently, we review fascinating and counterintuitive evolutionary outcomes that emerge due to different types of interdependencies between otherwise independent populations. The focus is on coupling through the utilities of players, through the flow of information, as well as through the popularity of different strategies on different network layers. The colloquium highlights the importance of pattern formation and collective behavior for the promotion of cooperation under adverse conditions, as well as the synergies between network science and evolutionary game theory.

  4. Evolutionary theories of aging and longevity.

    PubMed

    Gavrilov, Leonid A; Gavrilova, Natalia S

    2002-02-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide students and researchers entering the field of aging studies with an introduction to the evolutionary theories of aging, as well as to orient them in the abundant modern scientific literature on evolutionary gerontology. The following three major evolutionary theories of aging are discussed: 1) the theory of programmed death suggested by August Weismann, 2) the mutation accumulation theory of aging suggested by Peter Medawar, and 3) the antagonistic pleiotropy theory of aging suggested by George Williams. We also discuss a special case of the antagonistic pleiotropy theory, the disposable soma theory developed by Tom Kirkwood and Robin Holliday. The theories are compared with each other as well as with recent experimental findings. At present the most viable evolutionary theories are the mutation accumulation theory and the antagonistic pleiotropy theory; these theories are not mutually exclusive, and they both may become a part of a future unifying theory of aging. Evolutionary theories of aging are useful because they open new opportunities for further research by suggesting testable predictions, but they have also been harmful in the past when they were used to impose limitations on aging studies. At this time, the evolutionary theories of aging are not ultimate completed theories, but rather a set of ideas that themselves require further elaboration and validation. This theoretical review article is written for a wide readership. PMID:12806021

  5. Molluscan Evolutionary Genomics

    SciTech Connect

    Simison, W. Brian; Boore, Jeffrey L.

    2005-12-01

    In the last 20 years there have been dramatic advances in techniques of high-throughput DNA sequencing, most recently accelerated by the Human Genome Project, a program that has determined the three billion base pair code on which we are based. Now this tremendous capability is being directed at other genome targets that are being sampled across the broad range of life. This opens up opportunities as never before for evolutionary and organismal biologists to address questions of both processes and patterns of organismal change. We stand at the dawn of a new 'modern synthesis' period, paralleling that of the early 20th century when the fledgling field of genetics first identified the underlying basis for Darwin's theory. We must now unite the efforts of systematists, paleontologists, mathematicians, computer programmers, molecular biologists, developmental biologists, and others in the pursuit of discovering what genomics can teach us about the diversity of life. Genome-level sampling for mollusks to date has mostly been limited to mitochondrial genomes and it is likely that these will continue to provide the best targets for broad phylogenetic sampling in the near future. However, we are just beginning to see an inroad into complete nuclear genome sequencing, with several mollusks and other eutrochozoans having been selected for work about to begin. Here, we provide an overview of the state of molluscan mitochondrial genomics, highlight a few of the discoveries from this research, outline the promise of broadening this dataset, describe upcoming projects to sequence whole mollusk nuclear genomes, and challenge the community to prepare for making the best use of these data.

  6. IonRock: software for solving strain gradients of ion-implanted semiconductors by X-ray diffraction measurements and evolutionary programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bleicher, Lucas; Sasaki, José Marcos; Orloski, Renata Villela; Cardoso, Lisandro Pavie; Hayashi, Marcelo Assaoka; Swart, Jacobus Willibrordus

    2004-07-01

    We present a program that uses an optimization algorithm to fit rocking curves of ion-implanted semiconductors. This is an inverse problem that cannot be solved by simple methods. However, using recursion formulae for rocking curve calculations and a model of ion distribution after implantation, it is possible to fit experimental data with a general-purpose optimization method. In our case, we use a modified version of the genetic algorithm, which has been shown to be a good technique for this problem. The program also calculates rocking curves for a given ion profile, such as those generated by ion implantation simulation programs. Program summaryTitle of program: IonRock, version 1.0 Catalogue identifier: ADTP Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADTP Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Computer: any computer with Windows95 or later version Operating systems: Windows95/98/2000/NT/XP Programming language used: C++ Memory required to execute with typical data: about 4 MB No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 2 742 530 No of lines in distributed program, including test data etc.: 49 988 Distribution format: tar gzip file Nature of physical problem: strain determination on ion implanted zinc-blend structure semiconductors Method of solution: adapted version of the Genetic Algorithm meta-heuristic Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: strain determination is related to the strain generated by interstitial ions, which causes the left-side distortions on the rocking curve Typical running time: on an Athlon PC computer the computing time for solving the strain gradient using 16 layers takes from 10 to 30 minutes

  7. Pediatric Endocrinology Nurses Society

    MedlinePlus

    ... International Welcome to PENS The Pediatric Endocrinology Nursing Society (PENS) is committed to the development and advancement ... PENS@kellencompany.com • Copyright © 2016 Pediatric Endocrinology Nursing Society • ALL RIGHTS RESERVED • Privacy Policy • Admin

  8. American Cancer Society

    MedlinePlus

    ... Involved Find Local ACS How the American Cancer Society Fights Childhood Cancer Advances in treatment have improved ... long lasting consequences. Learn how the American Cancer Society is working to save more lives from cancer ...

  9. American Urogynecologic Society

    MedlinePlus

    ... Patient Site » PFD Registry » Contact Us American Urogynecologic Society 1100 Wayne Avenue, Suite 670 Silver Spring, MD ... Us | Privacy Policy | HONcode Accredited © 2016 American Urogynecologic Society. All rights reserved.

  10. Society of Interventional Radiology

    MedlinePlus

    ... how interventional radiology research improves patients’ lives at Society of Interventional Radiology’s 2017 Annual Scientific Meeting; read ... comments to CMS on two MACRA coding issues; society is engaged with CMS as they develop codes ...

  11. American Society of Transplantation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Trials in Transplantation September 13, 2016 The American Society of Transplantation and its Transplantation & Immunology Research Network ... Learn More Donate Donate Donate to the American Society of Transplantation Advertisement member spotlight View all Joanna ...

  12. Ehlers-Danlos Society

    MedlinePlus

    ... Scientific Board Staff Volunteer Leaders The Ehlers-Danlos Society Center for EDS Research & Clinical Care Our History ... Message Boards Patient Resource Library The Ehlers-Danlos Society Center for EDS Research & Clinical Care Loose Connections ...

  13. Society for Ambulatory Anesthesia

    MedlinePlus

    ... We Represent Ambulatory and Office-Based Anesthesia The Society for Ambulatory Anesthesia provides educational opportunities, encourages research ... 6620 | E-mail: info@sambahq.org Copyright | 2016 Society for Ambulatory Anesthesia Home | Search | Terms | Privacy Policy | ...

  14. Society of Thoracic Surgeons

    MedlinePlus

    ... With Its Intense Demands New Website from The Society of Thoracic Surgeons Puts the Power of Information ... Hotel Discount for STS Members Copyright © 2016 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. All rights reserved. Expanded Proprietary ...

  15. International Transplant Nurses Society

    MedlinePlus

    ... Register for the 25th Annual ITNS Symposium The International Transplant Nurses Society (ITNS) cordially invites transplant nurses ... Barriers (PDF) This pocket guide, developed by the International Transplant Nurses Society (ITNS), provides an overview of ...

  16. National MPS Society (Mucopolysaccharidoses)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Content Skip to Navigation National MPS Society joins forces with patient data network MPS organizations and PatientCrossroads ... body. Learn More News National MPS Society joins forces with patient data network Teen's wish is to ...

  17. ACSM Fit Society Page

    MedlinePlus

    ... Physical Activity Marketplace Health & Physical Activity Reference Database Public Information Newsletters ACSM Blog ACSM Blog Search By ... Activity Marketplace Health & Physical Activity Reference Database Home Public Information Newsletters Fit Society Page ACSM Fit Society ® ...

  18. American Rocket Society

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    In addition to Dr. Robert Goddard's pioneering work, American experimentation in rocketry prior to World War II grew, primarily in technical societies. This is an early rocket motor designed and developed by the American Rocket Society in 1932.

  19. National Multiple Sclerosis Society

    MedlinePlus

    Home - National Multiple Sclerosis Society Skip to navigation Skip to content Menu Navigation National Multiple Sclerosis Society Sign In In Your Area ... DIAGNOSED IN 2009 You Can Live Well with MS A healthy diet, regular exercise, stress management and ...

  20. The 2010 Canadian Cardiovascular Society guidelines for the diagnosis and management of heart failure update: Heart failure in ethnic minority populations, heart failure and pregnancy, disease management, and quality improvement/assurance programs

    PubMed Central

    Howlett, Jonathan G; McKelvie, Robert S; Costigan, Jeannine; Ducharme, Anique; Estrella-Holder, Estrellita; Ezekowitz, Justin A; Giannetti, Nadia; Haddad, Haissam; Heckman, George A; Herd, Anthony M; Isaac, Debra; Kouz, Simon; Leblanc, Kori; Liu, Peter; Mann, Elizabeth; Moe, Gordon W; O’Meara, Eileen; Rajda, Miroslav; Siu, Samuel; Stolee, Paul; Swiggum, Elizabeth; Zeiroth, Shelley

    2010-01-01

    Since 2006, the Canadian Cardiovascular Society heart failure (HF) guidelines have published annual focused updates for cardiovascular care providers. The 2010 Canadian Cardiovascular Society HF guidelines update focuses on an increasing issue in the western world – HF in ethnic minorities – and in an uncommon but important setting – the pregnant patient. Additionally, due to increasing attention recently given to the assessment of how care is delivered and measured, two critically important topics – disease management programs in HF and quality assurance – have been included. Both of these topics were written from a clinical perspective. It is hoped that the present update will become a useful tool for health care providers and planners in the ongoing evolution of care for HF patients in Canada. PMID:20386768

  1. Indoor Thermal Comfort, an Evolutionary Biology Perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Stoops, John L.

    2006-04-15

    As is becoming increasingly clear, the human species evolvedin the East African savannah. Details of the precise evolutionary chainremain unresolved however it appears that the process lasted severalmillion years, culminating with the emergence of modern Homo sapiensroughly 200,000 years ago. Following that final evolutionary developmentmodern Homo sapiens relatively quickly populated the entire world.Clearly modern Homo sapiens is a successful, resourceful and adaptablespecies. In the developed societies, modern humans live an existence farremoved from our evolutionary ancestors. As we have learned over the lastcentury, this "new" lifestyle can often result in unintendedconsequences. Clearly, our modern access to food, shelter, transportationand healthcare has resulted in greatly expanded expected lifespan butthis new lifestyle can also result in the emergence of different kinds ofdiseases and health problems. The environment in modern buildings haslittle resemblance to the environment of the savannah. We strive tocreate environments with little temperature, air movement and lightvariation. Building occupants often express great dissatisfaction withthese modern created environments and a significant fraction even developsomething akin to allergies to specific buildings (sick buildingsyndrome). Are the indoor environments we are creating fundamentallyunhealthy -- when examined from an evolutionary perspective?

  2. Explaining the universe: Herbert Spencer's attempt to synthesize political and evolutionary ideas.

    PubMed

    Gay, H

    1999-01-01

    Herbert Spencer's evolutionary ideas related not just to the biological world but to the universe and everything in it. Human societies were also viewed through his evolutionary lens so that Spencer's evolutionary and political ideas are inextricably entwined. This essay looks at some of Spencer's ideas and attempts to locate them in the social and intellectual context of his youth. It also speculates on the rise and fall of Spencer's reputation. PMID:10507908

  3. Evolutionary testing using an extended Chaining Approach.

    PubMed

    McMinn, P; Holcombe, M

    2006-01-01

    Fitness functions derived from certain types of white-box test goals can be inadequate for evolutionary software test data generation (Evolutionary Testing), due to a lack of search guidance to the required test data. Often this is because the fitness function does not take into account data dependencies within the program under test, and the fact that certain program statements may need to have been executed prior to the target structure in order for it to be feasible. This paper proposes a solution to this problem by hybridizing Evolutionary Testing with an extended Chaining Approach. The Chaining Approach is a method which identifies statements on which the target structure is data dependent, and incrementally develops chains of dependencies in an event sequence. By incorporating this facility into Evolutionary Testing, and by performing a test data search for each generated event sequence, the search can be directed into potentially promising, unexplored areas of the test object's input domain. Results presented in the paper show that test data can be found for a number of test goals with this hybrid approach that could not be found by using the original Evolutionary Testing approach alone. One such test goal is drawn from code found in the publicly available libpng library. PMID:16536890

  4. Proteomics in evolutionary ecology.

    PubMed

    Baer, B; Millar, A H

    2016-03-01

    Evolutionary ecologists are traditionally gene-focused, as genes propagate phenotypic traits across generations and mutations and recombination in the DNA generate genetic diversity required for evolutionary processes. As a consequence, the inheritance of changed DNA provides a molecular explanation for the functional changes associated with natural selection. A direct focus on proteins on the other hand, the actual molecular agents responsible for the expression of a phenotypic trait, receives far less interest from ecologists and evolutionary biologists. This is partially due to the central dogma of molecular biology that appears to define proteins as the 'dead-end of molecular information flow' as well as technical limitations in identifying and studying proteins and their diversity in the field and in many of the more exotic genera often favored in ecological studies. Here we provide an overview of a newly forming field of research that we refer to as 'Evolutionary Proteomics'. We point out that the origins of cellular function are related to the properties of polypeptide and RNA and their interactions with the environment, rather than DNA descent, and that the critical role of horizontal gene transfer in evolution is more about coopting new proteins to impact cellular processes than it is about modifying gene function. Furthermore, post-transcriptional and post-translational processes generate a remarkable diversity of mature proteins from a single gene, and the properties of these mature proteins can also influence inheritance through genetic and perhaps epigenetic mechanisms. The influence of post-transcriptional diversification on evolutionary processes could provide a novel mechanistic underpinning for elements of rapid, directed evolutionary changes and adaptations as observed for a variety of evolutionary processes. Modern state-of the art technologies based on mass spectrometry are now available to identify and quantify peptides, proteins, protein

  5. Evolutionary impact assessment: accounting for evolutionary consequences of fishing in an ecosystem approach to fisheries management

    PubMed Central

    Laugen, Ane T; Engelhard, Georg H; Whitlock, Rebecca; Arlinghaus, Robert; Dankel, Dorothy J; Dunlop, Erin S; Eikeset, Anne M; Enberg, Katja; Jørgensen, Christian; Matsumura, Shuichi; Nusslé, Sébastien; Urbach, Davnah; Baulier, Loїc; Boukal, David S; Ernande, Bruno; Johnston, Fiona D; Mollet, Fabian; Pardoe, Heidi; Therkildsen, Nina O; Uusi-Heikkilä, Silva; Vainikka, Anssi; Heino, Mikko; Rijnsdorp, Adriaan D; Dieckmann, Ulf

    2014-01-01

    Managing fisheries resources to maintain healthy ecosystems is one of the main goals of the ecosystem approach to fisheries (EAF). While a number of international treaties call for the implementation of EAF, there are still gaps in the underlying methodology. One aspect that has received substantial scientific attention recently is fisheries-induced evolution (FIE). Increasing evidence indicates that intensive fishing has the potential to exert strong directional selection on life-history traits, behaviour, physiology, and morphology of exploited fish. Of particular concern is that reversing evolutionary responses to fishing can be much more difficult than reversing demographic or phenotypically plastic responses. Furthermore, like climate change, multiple agents cause FIE, with effects accumulating over time. Consequently, FIE may alter the utility derived from fish stocks, which in turn can modify the monetary value living aquatic resources provide to society. Quantifying and predicting the evolutionary effects of fishing is therefore important for both ecological and economic reasons. An important reason this is not happening is the lack of an appropriate assessment framework. We therefore describe the evolutionary impact assessment (EvoIA) as a structured approach for assessing the evolutionary consequences of fishing and evaluating the predicted evolutionary outcomes of alternative management options. EvoIA can contribute to EAF by clarifying how evolution may alter stock properties and ecological relations, support the precautionary approach to fisheries management by addressing a previously overlooked source of uncertainty and risk, and thus contribute to sustainable fisheries. PMID:26430388

  6. Paleoanthropology and evolutionary theory.

    PubMed

    Tattersall, Ian

    2012-01-01

    Paleoanthropologists of the first half of the twentieth century were little concerned either with evolutionary theory or with the technicalities and broader implications of zoological nomenclature. In consequence, the paleoanthropological literature of the period consisted largely of a series of descriptions accompanied by authoritative pronouncements, together with a huge excess of hominid genera and species. Given the intellectual flimsiness of the resulting paleoanthropological framework, it is hardly surprising that in 1950 the ornithologist Ernst Mayr met little resistance when he urged the new postwar generation of paleoanthropologists to accept not only the elegant reductionism of the Evolutionary Synthesis but a vast oversimplification of hominid phylogenetic history and nomenclature. Indeed, the impact of Mayr's onslaught was so great that even when developments in evolutionary biology during the last quarter of the century brought other paleontologists to the realization that much more has been involved in evolutionary histories than the simple action of natural selection within gradually transforming lineages, paleoanthropologists proved highly reluctant to follow. Even today, paleoanthropologists are struggling to reconcile an intuitive realization that the burgeoning hominid fossil record harbors a substantial diversity of species (bringing hominid evolutionary patterns into line with that of other successful mammalian families), with the desire to cram a huge variety of morphologies into an unrealistically minimalist systematic framework. As long as this theoretical ambivalence persists, our perception of events in hominid phylogeny will continue to be distorted. PMID:23272602

  7. Applying Evolutionary Anthropology

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Mhairi A; Lawson, David W

    2015-01-01

    Evolutionary anthropology provides a powerful theoretical framework for understanding how both current environments and legacies of past selection shape human behavioral diversity. This integrative and pluralistic field, combining ethnographic, demographic, and sociological methods, has provided new insights into the ultimate forces and proximate pathways that guide human adaptation and variation. Here, we present the argument that evolutionary anthropological studies of human behavior also hold great, largely untapped, potential to guide the design, implementation, and evaluation of social and public health policy. Focusing on the key anthropological themes of reproduction, production, and distribution we highlight classic and recent research demonstrating the value of an evolutionary perspective to improving human well-being. The challenge now comes in transforming relevance into action and, for that, evolutionary behavioral anthropologists will need to forge deeper connections with other applied social scientists and policy-makers. We are hopeful that these developments are underway and that, with the current tide of enthusiasm for evidence-based approaches to policy, evolutionary anthropology is well positioned to make a strong contribution. PMID:25684561

  8. Evolutionary development of path planning algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    Hage, M

    1998-09-01

    This paper describes the use of evolutionary software techniques for developing both genetic algorithms and genetic programs. Genetic algorithms are evolved to solve a specific problem within a fixed and known environment. While genetic algorithms can evolve to become very optimized for their task, they often are very specialized and perform poorly if the environment changes. Genetic programs are evolved through simultaneous training in a variety of environments to develop a more general controller behavior that operates in unknown environments. Performance of genetic programs is less optimal than a specially bred algorithm for an individual environment, but the controller performs acceptably under a wider variety of circumstances. The example problem addressed in this paper is evolutionary development of algorithms and programs for path planning in nuclear environments, such as Chernobyl.

  9. Moral Choices in Contemporary Society: Source Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hellman, Mary, Ed.

    One of several supplementary materials for a newspaper course on moral choices in contemporary society, this sourcebook contains program ideas and resources to help civic leaders and educators plan programs based on the course topics. There are four sections. The first section explains how the topics can be used in planning programs, identifies…

  10. Human nutrition: evolutionary perspectives.

    PubMed

    Barnicot, N A

    2005-01-01

    In recent decades, much new evidence relating to the ape forerunners of modern humans has come to hand and diet appears to be an important factor. At some stage, there must have been a transition from a largely vegetarian ape diet to a modern human hunting economy providing significant amounts of meat. On an even longer evolutionary time scale the change was more complex. The mechanisms of evolutionary change are now better understood than they were in Darwin's time, thanks largely to great advances in genetics, both experimental and theoretical. It is virtually certain that diet, as a major component of the human environment, must have exerted evolutionary effects, but researchers still have little good evidence. PMID:17393680

  11. Ecological and evolutionary traps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schlaepfer, Martin A.; Runge, M.C.; Sherman, P.W.

    2002-01-01

    Organisms often rely on environmental cues to make behavioral and life-history decisions. However, in environments that have been altered suddenly by humans, formerly reliable cues might no longer be associated with adaptive outcomes. In such cases, organisms can become 'trapped' by their evolutionary responses to the cues and experience reduced survival or reproduction. Ecological traps occur when organisms make poor habitat choices based on cues that correlated formerly with habitat quality. Ecological traps are part of a broader phenomenon, evolutionary traps, involving a dissociation between cues that organisms use to make any behavioral or life-history decision and outcomes normally associated with that decision. A trap can lead to extinction if a population falls below a critical size threshold before adaptation to the novel environment occurs. Conservation and management protocols must be designed in light of, rather than in spite of, the behavioral mechanisms and evolutionary history of populations and species to avoid 'trapping' them.

  12. Archaeogenetics in evolutionary medicine.

    PubMed

    Bouwman, Abigail; Rühli, Frank

    2016-09-01

    Archaeogenetics is the study of exploration of ancient DNA (aDNA) of more than 70 years old. It is an important part of the wider studies of many different areas of our past, including animal, plant and pathogen evolution and domestication events. Hereby, we address specifically the impact of research in archaeogenetics in the broader field of evolutionary medicine. Studies on ancient hominid genomes help to understand even modern health patterns. Human genetic microevolution, e.g. related to abilities of post-weaning milk consumption, and specifically genetic adaptation in disease susceptibility, e.g. towards malaria and other infectious diseases, are of the upmost importance in contributions of archeogenetics on the evolutionary understanding of human health and disease. With the increase in both the understanding of modern medical genetics and the ability to deep sequence ancient genetic information, the field of archaeogenetic evolutionary medicine is blossoming. PMID:27289479

  13. Evolutionary Debunking Arguments

    PubMed Central

    Kahane, Guy

    2011-01-01

    Evolutionary debunking arguments (EDAs) are arguments that appeal to the evolutionary origins of evaluative beliefs to undermine their justification. This paper aims to clarify the premises and presuppositions of EDAs—a form of argument that is increasingly put to use in normative ethics. I argue that such arguments face serious obstacles. It is often overlooked, for example, that they presuppose the truth of metaethical objectivism. More importantly, even if objectivism is assumed, the use of EDAs in normative ethics is incompatible with a parallel and more sweeping global evolutionary debunking argument that has been discussed in recent metaethics. After examining several ways of responding to this global debunking argument, I end by arguing that even if we could resist it, this would still not rehabilitate the current targeted use of EDAs in normative ethics given that, if EDAs work at all, they will in any case lead to a truly radical revision of our evaluative outlook. PMID:21949447

  14. Evolutionary strategy for achieving autonomous navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gage, Douglas W.

    1999-01-01

    An approach is presented for the evolutionary development of supervised autonomous navigation capabilities for small 'backpackable' ground robots, in the context of a DARPA- sponsored program to provide robotic support to small units of dismounted warfighters. This development approach relies on the implementation of a baseline visual serving navigation capability, including tools to support operator oversight and override, which is then enhanced with semantically referenced commands and a mission scripting structure. As current and future machine perception techniques are able to automatically designate visual serving goal points, this approach should provide a natural evolutionary pathway to higher levels of autonomous operation and reduced requirements for operator intervention.

  15. The fastest evolutionary trajectory

    PubMed Central

    Traulsen, Arne; Iwasa, Yoh; Nowak, Martin A.

    2008-01-01

    Given two mutants, A and B, separated by n mutational steps, what is the evolutionary trajectory which allows a homogeneous population of A to reach B in the shortest time? We show that the optimum evolutionary trajectory (fitness landscape) has the property that the relative fitness increase between any two consecutive steps is constant. Hence, the optimum fitness landscape between A and B is given by an exponential function. Our result is precise for small mutation rates and excluding back mutations. We discuss deviations for large mutation rates and including back mutations. For very large mutation rates, the optimum fitness landscape is flat and has a single peak at type B. PMID:17900629

  16. Evolutionary families of peptidases.

    PubMed Central

    Rawlings, N D; Barrett, A J

    1993-01-01

    The available amino acid sequences of peptidases have been examined, and the enzymes have been allocated to evolutionary families. Some of the families can be grouped together in 'clans' that show signs of distant relationship, but nevertheless, it appears that there may be as many as 60 evolutionary lines of peptidases with separate origins. Some of these contain members with quite diverse peptidase activities, and yet there are some striking examples of convergence. We suggest that the classification by families could be used as an extension of the current classification by catalytic type. PMID:8439290

  17. Investigating human evolutionary history

    PubMed Central

    WOOD, BERNARD

    2000-01-01

    We rely on fossils for the interpretation of more than 95% of our evolutionary history. Fieldwork resulting in the recovery of fresh fossil evidence is an important component of reconstructing human evolutionary history, but advances can also be made by extracting additional evidence for the existing fossil record, and by improving the methods used to interpret the fossil evidence. This review shows how information from imaging and dental microstructure has contributed to improving our understanding of the hominin fossil record. It also surveys recent advances in the use of the fossil record for phylogenetic inference. PMID:10999269

  18. Hybridization facilitates evolutionary rescue

    PubMed Central

    Stelkens, Rike B; Brockhurst, Michael A; Hurst, Gregory D D; Greig, Duncan

    2014-01-01

    The resilience of populations to rapid environmental degradation is a major concern for biodiversity conservation. When environments deteriorate to lethal levels, species must evolve to adapt to the new conditions to avoid extinction. Here, we test the hypothesis that evolutionary rescue may be enabled by hybridization, because hybridization increases genetic variability. Using experimental evolution, we show that interspecific hybrid populations of Saccharomyces yeast adapt to grow in more highly degraded environments than intraspecific and parental crosses, resulting in survival rates far exceeding those of their ancestors. We conclude that hybridization can increase evolutionary responsiveness and that taxa able to exchange genes with distant relatives may better survive rapid environmental change. PMID:25558281

  19. Indian Vacuum Society: The Indian Vacuum Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, T. K.

    2008-03-01

    The Indian Vacuum Society (IVS) was established in 1970. It has over 800 members including many from Industry and R & D Institutions spread throughout India. The society has an active chapter at Kolkata. The society was formed with the main aim to promote, encourage and develop the growth of Vacuum Science, Techniques and Applications in India. In order to achieve this aim it has conducted a number of short term courses at graduate and technician levels on vacuum science and technology on topics ranging from low vacuum to ultrahigh vacuum So far it has conducted 39 such courses at different parts of the country and imparted training to more than 1200 persons in the field. Some of these courses were in-plant training courses conducted on the premises of the establishment and designed to take care of the special needs of the establishment. IVS also regularly conducts national and international seminars and symposia on vacuum science and technology with special emphasis on some theme related to applications of vacuum. A large number of delegates from all over India take part in the deliberations of such seminars and symposia and present their work. IVS also arranges technical visits to different industries and research institutes. The society also helped in the UNESCO sponsored post-graduate level courses in vacuum science, technology and applications conducted by Mumbai University. The society has also designed a certificate and diploma course for graduate level students studying vacuum science and technology and has submitted a syllabus to the academic council of the University of Mumbai for their approval, we hope that some colleges affiliated to the university will start this course from the coming academic year. IVS extended its support in standardizing many of the vacuum instruments and played a vital role in helping to set up a Regional Testing Centre along with BARC. As part of the development of vacuum education, the society arranges the participation of

  20. The evolutionary sequence: origin and emergences.

    PubMed

    Fox, S W

    1986-03-01

    The evolutionary sequence is being reexamined experimentally from a "Big Bang"origin to the protocell and from the emergence of protocell and variety of species to Darwin's mental power (mind) and society (The Descent of Man). A most fundamentally revisionary consequence of experiments is an emphasis on endogenous ordering. This principle, seen vividly in ordered copolymerization of amino acids, has had new impact on the theory of Darwinian evolution and has been found to apply to the entire sequence. Herein, I will discuss some problems of dealing with teaching controversial subjects. PMID:11542035

  1. The evolutionary sequence: origin and emergences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, S. W.

    1986-01-01

    The evolutionary sequence is being reexamined experimentally from a "Big Bang"origin to the protocell and from the emergence of protocell and variety of species to Darwin's mental power (mind) and society (The Descent of Man). A most fundamentally revisionary consequence of experiments is an emphasis on endogenous ordering. This principle, seen vividly in ordered copolymerization of amino acids, has had new impact on the theory of Darwinian evolution and has been found to apply to the entire sequence. Herein, I will discuss some problems of dealing with teaching controversial subjects.

  2. EVOLUTIONARY FOUNDATIONS FOR MOLECULAR MEDICINE

    PubMed Central

    Nesse, Randolph M.; Ganten, Detlev; Gregory, T. Ryan; Omenn, Gilbert S.

    2015-01-01

    Evolution has long provided a foundation for population genetics, but many major advances in evolutionary biology from the 20th century are only now being applied in molecular medicine. They include the distinction between proximate and evolutionary explanations, kin selection, evolutionary models for cooperation, and new strategies for tracing phylogenies and identifying signals of selection. Recent advances in genomics are further transforming evolutionary biology and creating yet more opportunities for progress at the interface of evolution with genetics, medicine, and public health. This article reviews 15 evolutionary principles and their applications in molecular medicine in hopes that readers will use them and others to speed the development of evolutionary molecular medicine. PMID:22544168

  3. Evolutionary Trends of Problem-Based Learning Practices throughout a Two-Year Preclinical Program: A Comparison of Students' and Teachers' Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baroffio, Anne; Vu, Nu V.; Gerbase, Margaret W.

    2013-01-01

    Implementation of a pedagogical approach is a continuous and evolving process. As an institution with more than 15 years problem-based learning (PBL), we studied how the learning and teaching processes are currently practiced in a 2-year preclinical basic sciences program to assess whether they still match the intended objectives. Using both…

  4. Evolutionary Theories of Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Fitch, J P

    2005-04-29

    Current, mid-term and long range technologies for detection of pathogens and toxins are briefly described in the context of performance metrics and operational scenarios. Predictive (evolutionary) and speculative (revolutionary) assessments are given with trade-offs identified, where possible, among competing performance goals.

  5. Learning: An Evolutionary Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swann, Joanna

    2009-01-01

    This paper draws on the philosophy of Karl Popper to present a descriptive evolutionary epistemology that offers philosophical solutions to the following related problems: "What happens when learning takes place?" and "What happens in human learning?" It provides a detailed analysis of how learning takes place without any direct transfer of…

  6. Evolutionary Theory under Fire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewin, Roger

    1980-01-01

    Summarizes events of a conference on evolutionary biology in Chicago entitled: "Macroevolution." Reviews the theory of modern synthesis, a term used to explain Darwinism in terms of population biology and genetics. Issues presented at the conference are discussed in detail. (CS)

  7. Evolutionary Developmental Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geary, David C.; Bjorklund, David F.

    2000-01-01

    Describes evolutionary developmental psychology as the study of the genetic and ecological mechanisms that govern the development of social and cognitive competencies common to all human beings and the epigenetic (gene-environment interactions) processes that adapt these competencies to local conditions. Outlines basic assumptions and domains of…

  8. Evolutionary software for autonomous path planning

    SciTech Connect

    Couture, S; Hage, M

    1999-02-10

    This research project demonstrated the effectiveness of using evolutionary software techniques in the development of path-planning algorithms and control programs for mobile vehicles in radioactive environments. The goal was to take maximum advantage of the programmer's intelligence by tasking the programmer with encoding the measures of success for a path-planning algorithm, rather than developing the path-planning algorithms themselves. Evolutionary software development techniques could then be used to develop algorithms most suitable to the particular environments of interest. The measures of path-planning success were encoded in the form of a fitness function for an evolutionary software development engine. The task for the evolutionary software development engine was to evaluate the performance of individual algorithms, select the best performers for the population based on the fitness function, and breed them to evolve the next generation of algorithms. The process continued for a set number of generations or until the algorithm converged to an optimal solution. The task environment was the navigation of a rover from an initial location to a goal, then to a processing point, in an environment containing physical and radioactive obstacles. Genetic algorithms were developed for a variety of environmental configurations. Algorithms were simple and non-robust strings of behaviors, but they could be evolved to be nearly optimal for a given environment. In addition, a genetic program was evolved in the form of a control algorithm that operates at every motion of the robot. Programs were more complex than algorithms and less optimal in a given environment. However, after training in a variety of different environments, they were more robust and could perform acceptably in environments they were not trained in. This paper describes the evolutionary software development engine and the performance of algorithms and programs evolved by it for the chosen task.

  9. Scalable computing for evolutionary genomics.

    PubMed

    Prins, Pjotr; Belhachemi, Dominique; Möller, Steffen; Smant, Geert

    2012-01-01

    Genomic data analysis in evolutionary biology is becoming so computationally intensive that analysis of multiple hypotheses and scenarios takes too long on a single desktop computer. In this chapter, we discuss techniques for scaling computations through parallelization of calculations, after giving a quick overview of advanced programming techniques. Unfortunately, parallel programming is difficult and requires special software design. The alternative, especially attractive for legacy software, is to introduce poor man's parallelization by running whole programs in parallel as separate processes, using job schedulers. Such pipelines are often deployed on bioinformatics computer clusters. Recent advances in PC virtualization have made it possible to run a full computer operating system, with all of its installed software, on top of another operating system, inside a "box," or virtual machine (VM). Such a VM can flexibly be deployed on multiple computers, in a local network, e.g., on existing desktop PCs, and even in the Cloud, to create a "virtual" computer cluster. Many bioinformatics applications in evolutionary biology can be run in parallel, running processes in one or more VMs. Here, we show how a ready-made bioinformatics VM image, named BioNode, effectively creates a computing cluster, and pipeline, in a few steps. This allows researchers to scale-up computations from their desktop, using available hardware, anytime it is required. BioNode is based on Debian Linux and can run on networked PCs and in the Cloud. Over 200 bioinformatics and statistical software packages, of interest to evolutionary biology, are included, such as PAML, Muscle, MAFFT, MrBayes, and BLAST. Most of these software packages are maintained through the Debian Med project. In addition, BioNode contains convenient configuration scripts for parallelizing bioinformatics software. Where Debian Med encourages packaging free and open source bioinformatics software through one central project

  10. Evolutionary advantages of adaptive rewarding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szolnoki, Attila; Perc, Matjaž

    2012-09-01

    Our well-being depends on both our personal success and the success of our society. The realization of this fact makes cooperation an essential trait. Experiments have shown that rewards can elevate our readiness to cooperate, but since giving a reward inevitably entails paying a cost for it, the emergence and stability of such behavior remains elusive. Here we show that allowing for the act of rewarding to self-organize in dependence on the success of cooperation creates several evolutionary advantages that instill new ways through which collaborative efforts are promoted. Ranging from indirect territorial battle to the spontaneous emergence and destruction of coexistence, phase diagrams and the underlying spatial patterns reveal fascinatingly rich social dynamics that explain why this costly behavior has evolved and persevered. Comparisons with adaptive punishment, however, uncover an Achilles heel of adaptive rewarding, coming from over-aggression, which in turn hinders optimal utilization of network reciprocity. This may explain why, despite its success, rewarding is not as firmly embedded into our societal organization as punishment.

  11. Mexican Society of Bioelectromagnetism

    SciTech Connect

    Canedo, Luis

    2008-08-11

    In July 2007 physicians, biologists and physicists that have collaborated in previous meetings of the medical branch of the Mexican Physical Society constituted the Mexican Society of Bioelectromagnetism with the purpose of promote scientific study of the interaction of electromagnetic energy (at frequencies ranging from zero Hertz through those of visible light) and acoustic energy with biological systems. A second goal was to increase the contribution of medical and biological professionals in the meetings of the medical branch of the Mexican Physical Society. The following paragraphs summarize some objectives of the Mexican Society of Bioelectromagnetism for the next two years.

  12. Evolutionary trends of problem-based learning practices throughout a two-year preclinical program: a comparison of students' and teachers' perceptions.

    PubMed

    Baroffio, Anne; Vu, Nu V; Gerbase, Margaret W

    2013-10-01

    Implementation of a pedagogical approach is a continuous and evolving process. As an institution with more than 15 years problem-based learning (PBL), we studied how the learning and teaching processes are currently practiced in a 2-year preclinical basic sciences program to assess whether they still match the intended objectives. Using both students' and tutors' evaluations, we analyzed and compared their perceptions on the program content and its organization, on tutors' functioning and on the duration of PBL sessions throughout 11 instructional units of the second and third-year of a 6 years medical curriculum. Whereas both tutors and students indicated that the content and problems selected for the curriculum were well adapted to the PBL process, they felt the references as well as the self-study time as moderately appropriate. Over the course of the 2-year program, tutorial sessions got linearly shorter, whereas reporting sessions got longer. While tutors knew well the PBL approach and were suitably prepared to their tutorials, they however, became less regular in providing feedback and in evaluating group functioning over the 2 years. Our results suggest that the practice of the PBL process evolves within and throughout a 2-year preclinical program and moves away from the original intentions. Possible underlying reasons and their implications are discussed within the context of tutors' and students' concepts of teaching and learning, the medical schools' learning environment and teaching practices and the difficulty of developing and maintaining in the long term a deep and self-directed learning approach. PMID:23053867

  13. The vascular surgeon-scientist: a 15-year report of the Society for Vascular Surgery Foundation/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute-mentored Career Development Award Program.

    PubMed

    Kibbe, Melina R; Dardik, Alan; Velazquez, Omaida C; Conte, Michael S

    2015-04-01

    The Society for Vascular Surgery (SVS) Foundation partnered with the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in 1999 to initiate a competitive career development program that provides a financial supplement to surgeon-scientists receiving NIH K08 or K23 career development awards. Because the program has been in existence for 15 years, a review of the program's success has been performed. Between 1999 and 2013, 41 faculty members applied to the SVS Foundation program, and 29 from 21 different institutions were selected as awardees, resulting in a 71% success rate. Three women (10%) were among the 29 awardees. Nine awardees (31%) were supported by prior NIH F32 or T32 training grants. Awardees received their K award at an average of 3.5 years from the start of their faculty position, at the average age of 39.8 years. Thirteen awardees (45%) have subsequently received NIH R01 awards and five (17%) have received Veterans Affairs Merit Awards. Awardees received their first R01 at an average of 5.8 years after the start of their K award at the average age of 45.2 years. The SVS Foundation committed $9,350,000 to the Career Development Award Program. Awardees subsequently secured $45,108,174 in NIH and Veterans Affairs funds, resulting in a 4.8-fold financial return on investment for the SVS Foundation program. Overall, 23 awardees (79%) were promoted from assistant to associate professor in an average of 5.9 years, and 10 (34%) were promoted from associate professor to professor in an average of 5.2 years. Six awardees (21%) hold endowed professorships and four (14%) have secured tenure. Many of the awardees hold positions of leadership, including 12 (41%) as division chief and two (7%) as vice chair within a department of surgery. Eight (28%) awardees have served as president of a regional or national society. Lastly, 47 postdoctoral trainees have been mentored by recipients of the SVS Foundation Career Development

  14. The Emerging Information Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ochai, Adakole

    1984-01-01

    Focuses on role of library and agencies charged with provision of information in an environment of technological change. Predictions concerning aspects of the emerging information society (computer literacy, home computers), the death of libraries, and effects of a paperless society on libraries in developing countries are noted. Footnotes are…

  15. Environment, energy, and society

    SciTech Connect

    Humphrey, C.R.; Buttel, F.R.

    1986-01-01

    This book delineates the major ways in which human society and the environment affect each other. To study the structure of societies, it employs three conceptual models, or sociological paradigms, conservative, liberal, and radical. The book explains the courses in environmental sociology, international development, natural resources, agriculture, and urban or regional planning.

  16. Schools, Violence, and Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Allan M., Ed.

    The seeming increase of violence in American society and its schools has become a pressing issue. Some researchers argue that the American education system mirrors the dynamics of society. The articles in this book address the following issues: the extent of violence in American schools; the forms that violence takes; its root causes; the effects…

  17. Recidivism and rehabilitation of criminal offenders: a carrot and stick evolutionary game.

    PubMed

    Berenji, Bijan; Chou, Tom; D'Orsogna, Maria R

    2014-01-01

    Motivated by recent efforts by the criminal justice system to treat and rehabilitate nonviolent offenders rather than focusing solely on their punishment, we introduce an evolutionary game theoretic model to study the effects of "carrot and stick" intervention programs on criminal recidivism. We use stochastic simulations to study the evolution of a population where individuals may commit crimes depending on their past history, surrounding environment and, in the case of recidivists, on any counseling, educational or training programs available to them after being punished for their previous crimes. These sociological factors are embodied by effective parameters that determine the decision making probabilities. Players may decide to permanently reform or continue engaging in criminal activity, eventually reaching a state where they are considered incorrigible. Depending on parameter choices, the outcome of the game is a society with a majority of virtuous, rehabilitated citizens or incorrigibles. Since total resources may be limited, we constrain the combined punishment and rehabilitation costs per crime to be fixed, so that increasing one effort will necessarily decrease the other. We find that the most successful strategy in reducing crime is to optimally allocate resources so that after being punished, criminals experience impactful intervention programs, especially during the first stages of their return to society. Excessively harsh or lenient punishments are less effective. We also develop a system of coupled ordinary differential equations with memory effects to give a qualitative description of our simulated societal dynamics. We discuss our findings and sociological implications. PMID:24454884

  18. 46 CFR 8.450 - Termination of classification society authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Termination of classification society authority. 8.450... VESSEL INSPECTION ALTERNATIVES Alternate Compliance Program § 8.450 Termination of classification society authority. (a) The Coast Guard may terminate an authorization agreement with a classification society...

  19. An evolutionary ecology of individual differences

    PubMed Central

    Dall, Sasha R. X.; Bell, Alison M.; Bolnick, Daniel I.; Ratnieks, Francis L. W.

    2014-01-01

    Individuals often differ in what they do. This has been recognised since antiquity. Nevertheless, the ecological and evolutionary significance of such variation is attracting widespread interest, which is burgeoning to an extent that is fragmenting the literature. As a first attempt at synthesis, we focus on individual differences in behaviour within populations that exceed the day-to-day variation in individual behaviour (i.e. behavioural specialisation). Indeed, the factors promoting ecologically relevant behavioural specialisation within natural populations are likely to have far-reaching ecological and evolutionary consequences. We discuss such individual differences from three distinct perspectives: individual niche specialisations, the division of labour within insect societies and animal personality variation. In the process, while recognising that each area has its own unique motivations, we identify a number of opportunities for productive ‘crossfertilisation’ among the (largely independent) bodies of work. We conclude that a complete understanding of evolutionarily and ecologically relevant individual differences must specify how ecological interactions impact the basic biological process (e.g. Darwinian selection, development and information processing) that underpin the organismal features determining behavioural specialisations. Moreover, there is likely to be covariation amongst behavioural specialisations. Thus, we sketch the key elements of a general framework for studying the evolutionary ecology of individual differences. PMID:22897772

  20. Evolutionary transitions during RNA virus experimental evolution.

    PubMed

    Elena, Santiago F

    2016-08-19

    In their search to understand the evolution of biological complexity, John Maynard Smith and Eörs Szathmáry put forward the notion of major evolutionary transitions as those in which elementary units get together to generate something new, larger and more complex. The origins of chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, multicellular organisms, colonies and, more recently, language and technological societies are examples that clearly illustrate this notion. However, a transition may be considered as anecdotal or as major depending on the specific level of biological organization under study. In this contribution, I will argue that transitions may also be occurring at a much smaller scale of biological organization: the viral world. Not only that, but also that we can observe in real time how these major transitions take place during experimental evolution. I will review the outcome of recent evolution experiments with viruses that illustrate four major evolutionary transitions: (i) the origin of a new virus that infects an otherwise inaccessible host and completely changes the way it interacts with the host regulatory and metabolic networks, (ii) the incorporation and loss of genes, (iii) the origin of segmented genomes from a non-segmented one, and (iv) the evolution of cooperative behaviour and cheating between different viruses or strains during co-infection of the same host.This article is part of the themed issue 'The major synthetic evolutionary transitions'. PMID:27431519

  1. Evolutionary Design in Embryogeny

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashlock, Daniel

    In biology texts embryogeny is defined as "the development or production of an embryo." An embryo is a living creature in its first stage of life, from the fertilized egg cell through the initial development of its morphology and its chemical networks. The study of embryogeny is part of developmental biology [1, 2]. The reader may wonder why a book on evolutionary design should have a section on embryogeny. Computational embryogeny is the study of representations for evolutionary computation that mimic biological embryogeny. These representations contain analogs to the complex biological processes that steer a single cell to become a rose, a mouse, or a man. The advantage of using embryogenic representations is their richness of expression. A small seed of information can be expanded, through a developmental process, into a complex and potentially useful object. This richness of expression comes at a substantial price: the developmental process is sufficiently complex to be unpredictable.

  2. Evolutionary Determinants of Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Greaves, Mel

    2015-01-01

    ‘Nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution’ Th. Dobzhansky, 1973 Our understanding of cancer is being transformed by exploring clonal diversity, drug resistance and causation within an evolutionary framework. The therapeutic resilience of advanced cancer is a consequence of its character as complex, dynamic and adaptive ecosystem engendering robustness, underpinned by genetic diversity and epigenetic plasticity. The risk of mutation-driven escape by self-renewing cells is intrinsic to multicellularity but is countered by multiple restraints facilitating increasing complexity and longevity of species. But our own has disrupted this historical narrative by rapidly escalating intrinsic risk. Evolutionary principles illuminate these challenges and provide new avenues to explore for more effective control. PMID:26193902

  3. Predicting evolutionary dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balazsi, Gabor

    We developed an ordinary differential equation-based model to predict the evolutionary dynamics of yeast cells carrying a synthetic gene circuit. The predicted aspects included the speed at which the ancestral genotype disappears from the population; as well as the types of mutant alleles that establish in each environmental condition. We validated these predictions by experimental evolution. The agreement between our predictions and experimental findings suggests that cellular and population fitness landscapes can be useful to predict short-term evolution.

  4. Evolutionary games on graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szabó, György; Fáth, Gábor

    2007-07-01

    Game theory is one of the key paradigms behind many scientific disciplines from biology to behavioral sciences to economics. In its evolutionary form and especially when the interacting agents are linked in a specific social network the underlying solution concepts and methods are very similar to those applied in non-equilibrium statistical physics. This review gives a tutorial-type overview of the field for physicists. The first four sections introduce the necessary background in classical and evolutionary game theory from the basic definitions to the most important results. The fifth section surveys the topological complications implied by non-mean-field-type social network structures in general. The next three sections discuss in detail the dynamic behavior of three prominent classes of models: the Prisoner's Dilemma, the Rock-Scissors-Paper game, and Competing Associations. The major theme of the review is in what sense and how the graph structure of interactions can modify and enrich the picture of long term behavioral patterns emerging in evolutionary games.

  5. Evolutionary mysteries in meiosis.

    PubMed

    Lenormand, Thomas; Engelstädter, Jan; Johnston, Susan E; Wijnker, Erik; Haag, Christoph R

    2016-10-19

    Meiosis is a key event of sexual life cycles in eukaryotes. Its mechanistic details have been uncovered in several model organisms, and most of its essential features have received various and often contradictory evolutionary interpretations. In this perspective, we present an overview of these often 'weird' features. We discuss the origin of meiosis (origin of ploidy reduction and recombination, two-step meiosis), its secondary modifications (in polyploids or asexuals, inverted meiosis), its importance in punctuating life cycles (meiotic arrests, epigenetic resetting, meiotic asymmetry, meiotic fairness) and features associated with recombination (disjunction constraints, heterochiasmy, crossover interference and hotspots). We present the various evolutionary scenarios and selective pressures that have been proposed to account for these features, and we highlight that their evolutionary significance often remains largely mysterious. Resolving these mysteries will likely provide decisive steps towards understanding why sex and recombination are found in the majority of eukaryotes.This article is part of the themed issue 'Weird sex: the underappreciated diversity of sexual reproduction'. PMID:27619705

  6. Asymmetric Evolutionary Games

    PubMed Central

    McAvoy, Alex; Hauert, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Evolutionary game theory is a powerful framework for studying evolution in populations of interacting individuals. A common assumption in evolutionary game theory is that interactions are symmetric, which means that the players are distinguished by only their strategies. In nature, however, the microscopic interactions between players are nearly always asymmetric due to environmental effects, differing baseline characteristics, and other possible sources of heterogeneity. To model these phenomena, we introduce into evolutionary game theory two broad classes of asymmetric interactions: ecological and genotypic. Ecological asymmetry results from variation in the environments of the players, while genotypic asymmetry is a consequence of the players having differing baseline genotypes. We develop a theory of these forms of asymmetry for games in structured populations and use the classical social dilemmas, the Prisoner’s Dilemma and the Snowdrift Game, for illustrations. Interestingly, asymmetric games reveal essential differences between models of genetic evolution based on reproduction and models of cultural evolution based on imitation that are not apparent in symmetric games. PMID:26308326

  7. Infectious Disease Stigmas: Maladaptive in Modern Society.

    PubMed

    Smith, Rachel A; Hughes, David

    2014-04-01

    At multiple times in human history people have asked if there are good stigmas. Is there some useful function stigmas serve in the context of our evolutionary history; is stigma adaptive? This essay discusses stigmas as a group-selection strategy and the human context in which stigmas likely appeared. The next section explores how human patterns have changed in modern society and the consequences for infectious disease (ID) stigmas in the modern age. The concluding section suggests that while social-living species may be particularly apt to create and communicate ID stigmas and enact ID-related stigmatization, such stigma-related processes no longer function to protect human communities. Stigmas do not increase the ability of modern societies to survive infectious diseases, but in fact may be important drivers of problematic disease dynamics and act as catalysts for failures in protecting public health. PMID:25477728

  8. "Design for All in the Context of the Information Society": Integration of a Specialist Course in a Generalist M.Sc. Program in Electrical and Electronics Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godino-Llorente, J. I.; Fraile, R.; Gonzalez de Sande, J. C.; Osma-Ruiz, V.; Saenz-Lechon, N.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes an educational research experience that took place in the Electrical & Electronics Engineering Master's program offered at the Escuela Universitaria de Ingenieria Tecnica de Telecomunicacion, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Madrid, Spain. The focus is to provide details of the motivation behind and the design and subsequent…

  9. Bell-Curve Based Evolutionary Strategies for Structural Optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kincaid, Rex K.

    2000-01-01

    Evolutionary methods are exceedingly popular with practitioners of many fields; more so than perhaps any optimization tool in existence. Historically Genetic Algorithms (GAs) led the way in practitioner popularity (Reeves 1997). However, in the last ten years Evolutionary Strategies (ESs) and Evolutionary Programs (EPS) have gained a significant foothold (Glover 1998). One partial explanation for this shift is the interest in using GAs to solve continuous optimization problems. The typical GA relies upon a cumber-some binary representation of the design variables. An ES or EP, however, works directly with the real-valued design variables. For detailed references on evolutionary methods in general and ES or EP in specific see Back (1996) and Dasgupta and Michalesicz (1997). We call our evolutionary algorithm BCB (bell curve based) since it is based upon two normal distributions.

  10. Bell-Curve Based Evolutionary Strategies for Structural Optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kincaid, Rex K.

    2001-01-01

    Evolutionary methods are exceedingly popular with practitioners of many fields; more so than perhaps any optimization tool in existence. Historically Genetic Algorithms (GAs) led the way in practitioner popularity. However, in the last ten years Evolutionary Strategies (ESs) and Evolutionary Programs (EPS) have gained a significant foothold. One partial explanation for this shift is the interest in using GAs to solve continuous optimization problems. The typical GA relies upon a cumbersome binary representation of the design variables. An ES or EP, however, works directly with the real-valued design variables. For detailed references on evolutionary methods in general and ES or EP in specific see Back and Dasgupta and Michalesicz. We call our evolutionary algorithm BCB (bell curve based) since it is based upon two normal distributions.

  11. Development of Selective Lamellar Keratoplasty within an Asian Corneal Transplant Program: The Singapore Corneal Transplant Study (An American Ophthalmological Society Thesis)

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Donald; Ang, Marcus; Arundhati, Anshu; Khor, Wei-Boon

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate outcomes of anterior lamellar keratoplasty (ALK) and endothelial keratoplasty (EK) within the Singapore Corneal Transplant Study (SCTS), with the hypothesis that both ALK and EK are able to provide equivalent or improved clinical outcomes, compared to penetrating keratoplasty (PK), and to determine changing trends globally with other international databases. Methods: Clinical data on all transplants performed was derived from our SCTS database, a prospective national keratoplasty registry, and clinical outcomes (graft survival, endothelial cell loss, complications, visual acuity) were compared between PK, ALK, and EK. Global trends on indications and forms of keratoplasty performed in 2011/2012 were obtained from national keratoplasty or eye banking registries, corneal/ophthalmological societies, national eye banks, and national ophthalmic institutions. Results: Global rates of EK surgery vary widely, from 52% (Sweden) to 0% (South Africa), with higher adoption by industrialized countries. ALK adoption rates similarly vary from 28.7% (China) to 1.0% (Philippines). SCTS data show high adoption rates in Singapore: EK 44% and ALK 28%. Our surgical modifications to big-bubble deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK) surgery resulted in visual outcomes matching PK, and a low conversion to PK of 2.1%, whereas our evolving approaches to donor insertion in Descemet’s stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK) show significant reduction in 1-year postoperative endothelial cell loss rates from 60% (folding), to 22% to 30% (Sheets Glide), to 15% (EndoGlide inserter). Conclusion: Improvements in various forms of ALK and EK surgery can lead to better visual outcomes, longer graft survival, and reduced complications, as compared to PK. Global trends suggest adoption of these procedures at different rates. PMID:26755854

  12. Advanced information society (12)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komatsuzaki, Seisuke

    In this paper, the original Japanese idea of "advanced information society" was reviewed at the first step. Thus, advancement of information/communication technology, advancement of information/communication needs and tendency of industrialization of information" were examined. Next, by comparing studies on advanced information society in various countries, the Japanese characteristics of consensus building was reviewed. Finally, in pursuit of prospect and tasks for the society, advancement of innovation and convergence information/communication technology, information/communication needs, institutional environment for utilization of information/communication and countermeasures against information pollution. Matching of information/communication technology and needs, besides with countermeasures against information pollution were discussed.

  13. North American Menopause Society

    MedlinePlus

    ... Advertisements NAMS in the News Press Room Assistance Society Overview Top 10 reasons why NAMS is your ... fully updated and referenced 5th edition of the Society’s leading professional resource, featuring the latest comprehensive clinical ...

  14. American Society of Hematology

    MedlinePlus

    Main Navigation Account Navigation Main Content American Society of Hematology ASH Store ASH Job Center ASH Apps Share Your Idea Donate My Account Search Show Main Menu + About Awards Membership ASH ...

  15. American Society of Neuroradiology

    MedlinePlus

    ... to announce Mary Beth Hepp, MBA, as the society’s next executive director, replacing James B. Gantenberg, FACHE ... Contact Search form Search 2005-2015 Copyright American Society of Neuroradiology OM Base Theme 2016 | V7.x- ...

  16. North American Spine Society

    MedlinePlus

    ... an appointment Search Don't miss the Largest Spine Meeting and Exhibition in the world. Check it ... committee Coverage Recommendations SpineLine Renew Membership NORTH AMERICAN SPINE SOCIETY BURR RIDGE, IL 7075 Veterans Blvd. Burr ...

  17. American Pain Society

    MedlinePlus

    ... Management Award Recipients Strong Evidence Still Lacking on Medical Marijuana for Pain Fibromyalgia Has Central Nervous System Origins ... Mayday Fund American Pain Society Offers Guidance on Medical Marijuana for Pain Study Shows Pain Often Improves in ...

  18. National Down Syndrome Society

    MedlinePlus

    donate Entire Site Down Syndrome Resources Ways to Give #DSWORKS™ Buddy Walk® Advocacy About NDSS The National Advocate for People with Down Syndrome Since 1979 National Down Syndrome Society 8 E ...

  19. American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) Survey of Radiation Biology Educators in U.S. and Canadian Radiation Oncology Residency Programs

    PubMed Central

    Rosenstein, Barry S.; Held, Kathryn D.; Rockwell, Sara; Williams, Jacqueline P.; Zeman, Elaine M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose The goal of this survey was to obtain detailed information on the faculty currently responsible for teaching radiation biology courses to radiation oncology residents in the U.S. and Canada. Methods and Materials In March-December 2007 a survey questionnaire was sent to faculty having primary responsibility for teaching radiation biology to residents in 93 radiation oncology residency programs in the U.S. and Canada. Results The responses to this survey document the aging of the faculty who have primary responsibility for teaching radiation biology to radiation oncology residents. The survey found a dramatic decline with time in the percentage of educators whose graduate training was in radiation biology. A significant number of the educators responsible for teaching radiation biology were not fully acquainted with the radiation sciences, either through training or practical application. In addition, many were unfamiliar with some of the organizations setting policies and requirements for resident education. Freely available tools, such as the ASTRO Radiation & Cancer Biology Practice Exam used by residents and educators. Consoination and Study Guides, were widely lidation of resident courses or use of a national radiation biology review course, were viewed as unlikely to be employed by most programs. Conclusions A high priority should be given to the development of comprehensive teaching tools to assist those individuals who have responsibility for teaching radiation biology courses, but who do not have an extensive background in critical areas of radiobiology related to radiation oncology. These findings also suggest a need for new graduate programs in radiobiology. PMID:19733012

  20. Consumption in the Information Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zherebin, V. M.; Ermakova, N. A.; Makhrova, O. N.

    2010-01-01

    The current state of the economy in the developed countries make it possible to characterize them using concepts and terms such as the postindustrial society, the new economy, the service economy, the creative economy, the posteconomic society, the information society, the knowledge society, and the consumer society. Among these terms and…

  1. Uxoricide in pregnancy: ancient Greek domestic violence in evolutionary perspective.

    PubMed

    Deacy, Susan; McHardy, Fiona

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies of ancient Greek examples of uxoricide in pregnancy have concluded that the theme is used to suggest tyrannical abuse of power and that the violence is a product of the patriarchal nature of ancient society. This article uses evolutionary analyses of violence during pregnancy to argue that the themes of sexual jealousy and uncertainty over paternity are as crucial as the theme of power to an understanding of these examples and that the examples can be seen as typical instances of spousal abuse as it occurs in all types of society. PMID:24153380

  2. When West meets East: the experience of the Society of Trauma Nurses' Nursing delegation's visit to China with the People to People Citizen Ambassador Program.

    PubMed

    Geiger, Juliet; Grandlich, Cheryl; Wolfe, Deanna

    2009-01-01

    In October 2008, 39 nurses traveled to China as part of the People to People Citizen Ambassador Program Emergency and Trauma Nursing delegation. The group compared and contrasted emergency and trauma nursing practices in the United States with those in China. Similarities include the methods of nursing education, the focus on patient and family education, and the passion of the nurses for delivering optimal care to their patients. Differences include the Chinese nurse's use of traditional Chinese medicine, the lack of modern technology, and low wages of healthcare personnel. The trip emphasized to the delegation the imperative for all nurses, regardless of their location in the world to reach out to one another to share best practices and their love of nursing. PMID:19305294

  3. Evolutionary dynamics of group interactions on structured populations: a review

    PubMed Central

    Perc, Matjaž; Gómez-Gardeñes, Jesús; Szolnoki, Attila; Floría, Luis M.; Moreno, Yamir

    2013-01-01

    Interactions among living organisms, from bacteria colonies to human societies, are inherently more complex than interactions among particles and non-living matter. Group interactions are a particularly important and widespread class, representative of which is the public goods game. In addition, methods of statistical physics have proved valuable for studying pattern formation, equilibrium selection and self-organization in evolutionary games. Here, we review recent advances in the study of evolutionary dynamics of group interactions on top of structured populations, including lattices, complex networks and coevolutionary models. We also compare these results with those obtained on well-mixed populations. The review particularly highlights that the study of the dynamics of group interactions, like several other important equilibrium and non-equilibrium dynamical processes in biological, economical and social sciences, benefits from the synergy between statistical physics, network science and evolutionary game theory. PMID:23303223

  4. Evolutionary status of Polaris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fadeyev, Yu. A.

    2015-05-01

    Hydrodynamic models of short-period Cepheids were computed to determine the pulsation period as a function of evolutionary time during the first and third crossings of the instability strip. The equations of radiation hydrodynamics and turbulent convection for radial stellar pulsations were solved with the initial conditions obtained from the evolutionary models of Population I stars (X = 0.7, Z = 0.02) with masses from 5.2 to 6.5 M⊙ and the convective core overshooting parameter 0.1 ≤ αov ≤ 0.3. In Cepheids with period of 4 d the rate of pulsation period change during the first crossing of the instability strip is over 50 times larger than that during the third crossing. Polaris is shown to cross the instability strip for the first time and to be the fundamental mode pulsator. The best agreement between the predicted and observed rates of period change was obtained for the model with mass of 5.4 M⊙ and the overshooting parameter αov = 0.25. The bolometric luminosity and radius are L = 1.26 × 103 L⊙ and R = 37.5 R⊙, respectively. In the HR diagram, Polaris is located at the red edge of the instability strip.

  5. On evolutionary systems.

    PubMed

    Alvarez de Lorenzana, J M; Ward, L M

    1987-01-01

    This paper develops a metatheoretical framework for understanding evolutionary systems (systems that develop in ways that increase their own variety). The framework addresses shortcomings seen in other popular systems theories. It concerns both living and nonliving systems, and proposes a metahierarchy of hierarchical systems. Thus, it potentially addresses systems at all descriptive levels. We restrict our definition of system to that of a core system whose parts have a different ontological status than the system, and characterize the core system in terms of five global properties: minimal length interval, minimal time interval, system cycle, total receptive capacity, and system potential. We propose two principles through the interaction of which evolutionary systems develop. The Principle of Combinatorial Expansion describes how a core system realizes its developmental potential through a process of progressive differentiation of the single primal state up to a limit stage. The Principle of Generative Condensation describes how the components of the last stage of combinatorial expansion condense and become the environment for and components of new, enriched systems. The early evolution of the Universe after the "big bang" is discussed in light of these ideas as an example of the application of the framework. PMID:3689299

  6. Evolutionary models of binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Rensbergen, Walter; Mennekens, Nicki; de Greve, Jean-Pierre; Jansen, Kim; de Loore, Bert

    2011-07-01

    We have put on CDS a catalog containing 561 evolutionary models of binaries: J/A+A/487/1129 (Van Rensbergen+, 2008). The catalog covers a grid of binaries with a B-type primary at birth, different values for the initial mass ratio and a wide range of initial orbital periods. The evolution was calculated with the Brussels code in which we introduced the spinning up and the creation of a hot spot on the gainer or its accretion disk, caused by impacting mass coming from the donor. When the kinetic energy of fast rotation added to the radiative energy of the hot spot exceeds the binding energy, a fraction of the transferred matter leaves the system: the evolution is liberal during a short lasting era of rapid mass transfer. The spin-up of the gainer was modulated using both strong and weak tides. The catalog shows the results for both types. For comparison, we included the evolutionary tracks calculated with the conservative assumption. Binaries with an initial primary below 6 Msolar show hardly any mass loss from the system and thus evolve conservatively. Above this limit differences between liberal and conservative evolution grow with increasing initial mass of the primary star.

  7. The Evolution of Different Forms of Sociality: Behavioral Mechanisms and Eco-Evolutionary Feedback

    PubMed Central

    van der Post, Daniel J.; Verbrugge, Rineke; Hemelrijk, Charlotte K.

    2015-01-01

    Different forms of sociality have evolved via unique evolutionary trajectories. However, it remains unknown to what extent trajectories of social evolution depend on the specific characteristics of different species. Our approach to studying such trajectories is to use evolutionary case-studies, so that we can investigate how grouping co-evolves with a multitude of individual characteristics. Here we focus on anti-predator vigilance and foraging. We use an individual-based model, where behavioral mechanisms are specified, and costs and benefits are not predefined. We show that evolutionary changes in grouping alter selection pressures on vigilance, and vice versa. This eco-evolutionary feedback generates an evolutionary progression from “leader-follower” societies to “fission-fusion” societies, where cooperative vigilance in groups is maintained via a balance between within- and between-group selection. Group-level selection is generated from an assortment that arises spontaneously when vigilant and non-vigilant foragers have different grouping tendencies. The evolutionary maintenance of small groups, and cooperative vigilance in those groups, is therefore achieved simultaneously. The evolutionary phases, and the transitions between them, depend strongly on behavioral mechanisms. Thus, integrating behavioral mechanisms and eco-evolutionary feedback is critical for understanding what kinds of intermediate stages are involved during the evolution of particular forms of sociality. PMID:25629313

  8. The evolution of different forms of sociality: behavioral mechanisms and eco-evolutionary feedback.

    PubMed

    van der Post, Daniel J; Verbrugge, Rineke; Hemelrijk, Charlotte K

    2015-01-01

    Different forms of sociality have evolved via unique evolutionary trajectories. However, it remains unknown to what extent trajectories of social evolution depend on the specific characteristics of different species. Our approach to studying such trajectories is to use evolutionary case-studies, so that we can investigate how grouping co-evolves with a multitude of individual characteristics. Here we focus on anti-predator vigilance and foraging. We use an individual-based model, where behavioral mechanisms are specified, and costs and benefits are not predefined. We show that evolutionary changes in grouping alter selection pressures on vigilance, and vice versa. This eco-evolutionary feedback generates an evolutionary progression from "leader-follower" societies to "fission-fusion" societies, where cooperative vigilance in groups is maintained via a balance between within- and between-group selection. Group-level selection is generated from an assortment that arises spontaneously when vigilant and non-vigilant foragers have different grouping tendencies. The evolutionary maintenance of small groups, and cooperative vigilance in those groups, is therefore achieved simultaneously. The evolutionary phases, and the transitions between them, depend strongly on behavioral mechanisms. Thus, integrating behavioral mechanisms and eco-evolutionary feedback is critical for understanding what kinds of intermediate stages are involved during the evolution of particular forms of sociality. PMID:25629313

  9. Performance of breast cancer screening methods and modality among Chinese women: a report from a society-based breast screening program (SBSP) in Shanghai.

    PubMed

    Mo, Miao; Liu, Guang-Yu; Zheng, Ying; Di, Lian-Fang; Ji, Ya-Jie; Lv, Li-Lang; Chen, Ying-Yao; Peng, Wei-Jun; Zhu, Jie-Ru; Bao, Ping-Ping; Ding, Jian-Hui; Chang, Cai; Luo, Jian-Feng; Cao, Zhi-Gang; Xu, Wang-Hong; Shao, Zhi-Min

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the screening performance of individual and combined use of clinical breast examination, ultrasonography and mammography in Chinese women, we conducted a biennial breast cancer screening program among 14,464 women aged 35 to 74 years old who lived in Qibao County, Minhang district of Shanghai, China, between May 2008 and Sept 2012. All participants were submitted to clinical breast examination, and then women with positive results and all women at age of 45-69 years old were preformed breast ultrasonography and mammography. The examination results were compared against pathological findings as the gold standard of reference. A total of 66 women were diagnosed with breast cancer in the two rounds of the screening, yielding an incident rate of 194 per 100,000 person-years. The sensitivity of clinical breast examination, ultrasonography and mammography alone were 61.4%, 53.7% and 67.3%, respectively. While mammography performed better in elder age groups and hormone receptor positive disease groups, ultrasonography had a higher sensitivity in younger age group and did not differ in sensitivity by estrogen receptor or progesterone receptor status. Combined use of the two imaging examinations increased the sensitivity in almost all age groups, but had a higher sensitivity in hormone receptor positive cancers than in those negative. Our results suggest that the Qibao modality is an effective strategy for breast cancer screening among Chinese women, especially for early detection of elder and hormone receptor positive breast cancer. PMID:23961381

  10. Fourth joint meeting of the American Urological Association and the Japanese Urological Association Specialty Society program at the 104th annual meeting of the American Urological Association at Chicago 2009.

    PubMed

    Cooperberg, Matthew R; Hinotsu, Shiro; Chancellor, Michael B; Homma, Yukio; Nelson, Peter S; Matsuyama, Hideyasu; Menon, Mani; Kucuk, Omer; Hara, Isao; Egawa, Shin; Uzzo, Robert G; Kanayama, Hiro-Omi; Okuyama, Akihiko; Akaza, Hideyuki

    2009-08-01

    We are heartily grateful for the warm support of all of the people concerned, including the moderators and panelists of both societies for giving us the opportunity to hold the 4th American Urological Association/Japanese Urological Association (AUA/JUA) Joint Meeting, held once again at the 104th Annual Meeting of the American Urological Association (25-30 April 2009, Chicago, Illinois, USA). 2009 is a memorable year, being the start of new collaborations between AUA and JUA. The JUA in collaboration with AUA is promoting an academic exchange program whereby outstanding and promising Japanese and American junior faculty members will be given the opportunity to work in the USA and Japan for one month. The program not only allows the sharing of knowledge and experience, but is designed to foster a closer alliance between the AUA and JUA, and assists in identifying future leaders within both organizations. The JUA will have an exhibit booth at the AUA annual meeting, promoting our new joint activities. The Journal of Urology and International Journal of Urology will share reviewers. The JUA will participate in developing AUA guidelines. With all of these activities, the JUA hopes it will provide greater opportunities to young Japanese urologists to participate in educational projects in the US. We would like to thank Professor Robert C. Flanigan, the Secretary General of AUA, Professor Glenn M. Preminger, the Chairman of the AUA Office of Education and the staff of AUA and JUA for supporting our program. We hope to keep holding the joint meeting and have plenty of ideas on themes and forums. We believe that this international program helps to establish a closer relationship between JUA and AUA in the scientific field. PMID:19682110

  11. Advanced information society(2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masuyama, Keiichi

    Our modern life is full of information and information infiltrates into our daily life. Networking of the telecommunication is extended to society, company, and individual level. Although we have just entered the advanced information society, business world and our daily life have been steadily transformed by the advancement of information network. This advancement of information brings a big influence on economy, and will play they the main role in the expansion of domestic demands. This paper tries to view the image of coming advanced information society, focusing on the transforming businessman's life and the situation of our daily life, which became wealthy by the spread of daily life information and the visual information by satellite system, in the development of the intelligent city.

  12. Spore: Spawning Evolutionary Misconceptions?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bean, Thomas E.; Sinatra, Gale M.; Schrader, P. G.

    2010-10-01

    The use of computer simulations as educational tools may afford the means to develop understanding of evolution as a natural, emergent, and decentralized process. However, special consideration of developmental constraints on learning may be necessary when using these technologies. Specifically, the essentialist (biological forms possess an immutable essence), teleological (assignment of purpose to living things and/or parts of living things that may not be purposeful), and intentionality (assumption that events are caused by an intelligent agent) biases may be reinforced through the use of computer simulations, rather than addressed with instruction. We examine the video game Spore for its depiction of evolutionary content and its potential to reinforce these cognitive biases. In particular, we discuss three pedagogical strategies to mitigate weaknesses of Spore and other computer simulations: directly targeting misconceptions through refutational approaches, targeting specific principles of scientific inquiry, and directly addressing issues related to models as cognitive tools.

  13. Science and Society Colloquium

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2011-04-25

    Mr. Randi will give an update of his lecture to the American Physical Society on the occasion of his award of the 1989 Forum Prize. The citation said: "for his unique defense of Science and the scientific method in many disciplines, including physics, against pseudoscience, frauds and charlatans. His use of scientific techniques has contributed to refuting suspicious and fraudulent claims of paranormal results. He has contributed significantly to public understanding of important issues where science and society interact". He is a professional magician and author of many books. He worked with John Maddox, the Editor of Nature to investigate the claims of "water with memory".

  14. Science and Society Colloquium

    SciTech Connect

    2008-03-10

    Mr. Randi will give an update of his lecture to the American Physical Society on the occasion of his award of the 1989 Forum Prize. The citation said: "for his unique defense of Science and the scientific method in many disciplines, including physics, against pseudoscience, frauds and charlatans. His use of scientific techniques has contributed to refuting suspicious and fraudulent claims of paranormal results. He has contributed significantly to public understanding of important issues where science and society interact". He is a professional magician and author of many books. He worked with John Maddox, the Editor of Nature to investigate the claims of "water with memory".

  15. Advanced information society(7)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiba, Toshihiro

    Various threats are hiding in advanced informationalized society. As we see car accident problems in motorization society light aspects necessarily accompy shady ones. Under the changing circumstances of advanced informationalization added values of information has become much higher. It causes computer crime, hacker, computer virus to come to the surface. In addition it can be said that infringement of intellectual property and privacy are threats brought by advanced information. Against these threats legal, institutional and insurance measures have been progressed, and newly security industry has been established. However, they are not adequate individually or totally. The future vision should be clarified, and countermeasures according to the visions have to be considered.

  16. Society's expectations of health

    PubMed Central

    Leach, Edmund

    1975-01-01

    Sir Edmund Leach argues that doctors in the modern world, fortified by the traditional concept that the life of the sick person must at all costs be preserved, are to some extent guilty of the false antitheses current today between youth and age. Moreover youth means health, age illness and senility. Until this imbalance is corrected society will be in danger of `a kind of civil war between the generations'. Society must be taught again that mortality cannot be avoided or conquered by medical science, and at the same time that `health' is not enshrined in the young alone. PMID:1177271

  17. Phylomemetics—Evolutionary Analysis beyond the Gene

    PubMed Central

    Howe, Christopher J.; Windram, Heather F.

    2011-01-01

    Genes are propagated by error-prone copying, and the resulting variation provides the basis for phylogenetic reconstruction of evolutionary relationships. Horizontal gene transfer may be superimposed on a tree-like evolutionary pattern, with some relationships better depicted as networks. The copying of manuscripts by scribes is very similar to the replication of genes, and phylogenetic inference programs can be used directly for reconstructing the copying history of different versions of a manuscript text. Phylogenetic methods have also been used for some time to analyse the evolution of languages and the development of physical cultural artefacts. These studies can help to answer a range of anthropological questions. We propose the adoption of the term “phylomemetics” for phylogenetic analysis of reproducing non-genetic elements. PMID:21655311

  18. Turbopump Performance Improved by Evolutionary Algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oyama, Akira; Liou, Meng-Sing

    2002-01-01

    The development of design optimization technology for turbomachinery has been initiated using the multiobjective evolutionary algorithm under NASA's Intelligent Synthesis Environment and Revolutionary Aeropropulsion Concepts programs. As an alternative to the traditional gradient-based methods, evolutionary algorithms (EA's) are emergent design-optimization algorithms modeled after the mechanisms found in natural evolution. EA's search from multiple points, instead of moving from a single point. In addition, they require no derivatives or gradients of the objective function, leading to robustness and simplicity in coupling any evaluation codes. Parallel efficiency also becomes very high by using a simple master-slave concept for function evaluations, since such evaluations often consume the most CPU time, such as computational fluid dynamics. Application of EA's to multiobjective design problems is also straightforward because EA's maintain a population of design candidates in parallel. Because of these advantages, EA's are a unique and attractive approach to real-world design optimization problems.

  19. Synthesis of logic circuits with evolutionary algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    JONES,JAKE S.; DAVIDSON,GEORGE S.

    2000-01-26

    In the last decade there has been interest and research in the area of designing circuits with genetic algorithms, evolutionary algorithms, and genetic programming. However, the ability to design circuits of the size and complexity required by modern engineering design problems, simply by specifying required outputs for given inputs has as yet eluded researchers. This paper describes current research in the area of designing logic circuits using an evolutionary algorithm. The goal of the research is to improve the effectiveness of this method and make it a practical aid for design engineers. A novel method of implementing the algorithm is introduced, and results are presented for various multiprocessing systems. In addition to evolving standard arithmetic circuits, work in the area of evolving circuits that perform digital signal processing tasks is described.

  20. Teaching the Intersection of Climate and Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomson, C.; Ting, M.; Orlove, B. S.

    2014-12-01

    As the first program of its kind, the M.A. in Climate and Society at Columbia University educates students on how climate affects society and vice versa. The 12-month interdisciplinary Master's program is designed to allow students from a wide variety of backgrounds to gain knowledge in climate science and a deep understanding of social sciences and how they related to climate. There are currently more than 250 alumni applying their skills in fields including energy, economics, disaster mitigation, journalism and climate research in more than a dozen countries worldwide. The presentation will highlight three key components of the program that have contributed to its growth and helped alumni become brokers that can effectively put climate science in the hands of the public and policymakers for the benefit of society. Those components include working with other academic departments at Columbia to successfully integrate social science classes into the curriculum; the development of the course Applications in Climate and Society to help students make an overt link between climate and its impacts on society; and providing students with hands-on activities with practitioners in climate-related fields.

  1. Quantitative evolutionary design

    PubMed Central

    Diamond, Jared

    2002-01-01

    The field of quantitative evolutionary design uses evolutionary reasoning (in terms of natural selection and ultimate causation) to understand the magnitudes of biological reserve capacities, i.e. excesses of capacities over natural loads. Ratios of capacities to loads, defined as safety factors, fall in the range 1.2-10 for most engineered and biological components, even though engineered safety factors are specified intentionally by humans while biological safety factors arise through natural selection. Familiar examples of engineered safety factors include those of buildings, bridges and elevators (lifts), while biological examples include factors of bones and other structural elements, of enzymes and transporters, and of organ metabolic performances. Safety factors serve to minimize the overlap zone (resulting in performance failure) between the low tail of capacity distributions and the high tail of load distributions. Safety factors increase with coefficients of variation of load and capacity, with capacity deterioration with time, and with cost of failure, and decrease with costs of initial construction, maintenance, operation, and opportunity. Adaptive regulation of many biological systems involves capacity increases with increasing load; several quantitative examples suggest sublinear increases, such that safety factors decrease towards 1.0. Unsolved questions include safety factors of series systems, parallel or branched pathways, elements with multiple functions, enzyme reaction chains, and equilibrium enzymes. The modest sizes of safety factors imply the existence of costs that penalize excess capacities. Those costs are likely to involve wasted energy or space for large or expensive components, but opportunity costs of wasted space at the molecular level for minor components. PMID:12122135

  2. Open Issues in Evolutionary Robotics.

    PubMed

    Silva, Fernando; Duarte, Miguel; Correia, Luís; Oliveira, Sancho Moura; Christensen, Anders Lyhne

    2016-01-01

    One of the long-term goals in evolutionary robotics is to be able to automatically synthesize controllers for real autonomous robots based only on a task specification. While a number of studies have shown the applicability of evolutionary robotics techniques for the synthesis of behavioral control, researchers have consistently been faced with a number of issues preventing the widespread adoption of evolutionary robotics for engineering purposes. In this article, we review and discuss the open issues in evolutionary robotics. First, we analyze the benefits and challenges of simulation-based evolution and subsequent deployment of controllers versus evolution on real robotic hardware. Second, we discuss specific evolutionary computation issues that have plagued evolutionary robotics: (1) the bootstrap problem, (2) deception, and (3) the role of genomic encoding and genotype-phenotype mapping in the evolution of controllers for complex tasks. Finally, we address the absence of standard research practices in the field. We also discuss promising avenues of research. Our underlying motivation is the reduction of the current gap between evolutionary robotics and mainstream robotics, and the establishment of evolutionary robotics as a canonical approach for the engineering of autonomous robots. PMID:26581015

  3. Evolutionary dynamics in structured populations

    PubMed Central

    Nowak, Martin A.; Tarnita, Corina E.; Antal, Tibor

    2010-01-01

    Evolutionary dynamics shape the living world around us. At the centre of every evolutionary process is a population of reproducing individuals. The structure of that population affects evolutionary dynamics. The individuals can be molecules, cells, viruses, multicellular organisms or humans. Whenever the fitness of individuals depends on the relative abundance of phenotypes in the population, we are in the realm of evolutionary game theory. Evolutionary game theory is a general approach that can describe the competition of species in an ecosystem, the interaction between hosts and parasites, between viruses and cells, and also the spread of ideas and behaviours in the human population. In this perspective, we review the recent advances in evolutionary game dynamics with a particular emphasis on stochastic approaches in finite sized and structured populations. We give simple, fundamental laws that determine how natural selection chooses between competing strategies. We study the well-mixed population, evolutionary graph theory, games in phenotype space and evolutionary set theory. We apply these results to the evolution of cooperation. The mechanism that leads to the evolution of cooperation in these settings could be called ‘spatial selection’: cooperators prevail against defectors by clustering in physical or other spaces. PMID:20008382

  4. Child Development and Evolutionary Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjorklund, David F.; Pellegrini, Anthony D.

    2000-01-01

    Argues that an evolutionary account provides insight into developmental function and individual differences. Outlines some assumptions of evolutionary psychology related to development. Introduces the developmental systems approach, differential influence of natural selection at different points in ontogeny, and development of evolved…

  5. Observability in dynamic evolutionary models.

    PubMed

    López, I; Gámez, M; Carreño, R

    2004-02-01

    In the paper observability problems are considered in basic dynamic evolutionary models for sexual and asexual populations. Observability means that from the (partial) knowledge of certain phenotypic characteristics the whole evolutionary process can be uniquely recovered. Sufficient conditions are given to guarantee observability for both sexual and asexual populations near an evolutionarily stable state. PMID:15013222

  6. How competition affects evolutionary rescue

    PubMed Central

    Osmond, Matthew Miles; de Mazancourt, Claire

    2013-01-01

    Populations facing novel environments can persist by adapting. In nature, the ability to adapt and persist will depend on interactions between coexisting individuals. Here we use an adaptive dynamic model to assess how the potential for evolutionary rescue is affected by intra- and interspecific competition. Intraspecific competition (negative density-dependence) lowers abundance, which decreases the supply rate of beneficial mutations, hindering evolutionary rescue. On the other hand, interspecific competition can aid evolutionary rescue when it speeds adaptation by increasing the strength of selection. Our results clarify this point and give an additional requirement: competition must increase selection pressure enough to overcome the negative effect of reduced abundance. We therefore expect evolutionary rescue to be most likely in communities which facilitate rapid niche displacement. Our model, which aligns to previous quantitative and population genetic models in the absence of competition, provides a first analysis of when competitors should help or hinder evolutionary rescue. PMID:23209167

  7. Evolutionary complexity for protection of critical assets.

    SciTech Connect

    Battaile, Corbett Chandler; Chandross, Michael Evan

    2005-01-01

    This report summarizes the work performed as part of a one-year LDRD project, 'Evolutionary Complexity for Protection of Critical Assets.' A brief introduction is given to the topics of genetic algorithms and genetic programming, followed by a discussion of relevant results obtained during the project's research, and finally the conclusions drawn from those results. The focus is on using genetic programming to evolve solutions for relatively simple algebraic equations as a prototype application for evolving complexity in computer codes. The results were obtained using the lil-gp genetic program, a C code for evolving solutions to user-defined problems and functions. These results suggest that genetic programs are not well-suited to evolving complexity for critical asset protection because they cannot efficiently evolve solutions to complex problems, and introduce unacceptable performance penalties into solutions for simple ones.

  8. [The Closing Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewster, Kingman, Jr.

    At the root of student unrest are two basic factors: (1) the "involuntary campus," and (2) the "manipulated society." Many students attend a university not because they want to, but because of parental pressure, to avoid the draft, to get the right job, or to satisfy the notion that in order to be really accomplished it is necessary to have a…

  9. Big Society, Big Deal?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Alastair

    2011-01-01

    Political leaders like to put forward guiding ideas or themes which pull their individual decisions into a broader narrative. For John Major it was Back to Basics, for Tony Blair it was the Third Way and for David Cameron it is the Big Society. While Mr. Blair relied on Lord Giddens to add intellectual weight to his idea, Mr. Cameron's legacy idea…

  10. Society of Mary: Marianists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Habjan, John

    2007-01-01

    The Society of Mary's ministry in education needs to be placed in the context of the Marianist family. The Marianist family is comprised of men and women who are religious brothers, sisters, and priests and vowed and non-vowed members of Marianist lay communities. The implementation of the Marianist mission is the result of the collaboration among…

  11. The School in Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tasmanian Education Dept., Hobart (Australia).

    This document is an English-language abstract (approximately 1,500 words) of the role of school in Tasmania as seen in a report by a committee appointed to determine that question. At present, Tasmanian children are required to attend school between the ages of 6 and 16. About 20% of children attend private schools. The demands of society for…

  12. The Learning Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Zee, Hendrik

    1991-01-01

    Strategic issues in the development of a learning society are (1) broadening the definition of learning; (2) making the goal of learning growth toward completeness; (3) increasing collective competence; (4) fostering autonomy in learners; and (5) stressing a political approach to learning (the right to learn as a civil right). (SK)

  13. Interrogating an insect society

    PubMed Central

    Gadagkar, Raghavendra

    2009-01-01

    Insect societies such as those of ants, bees, and wasps consist of 1 or a small number of fertile queens and a large number of sterile or nearly sterile workers. While the queens engage in laying eggs, workers perform all other tasks such as nest building, acquisition and processing of food, and brood care. How do such societies function in a coordinated and efficient manner? What are the rules that individuals follow? How are these rules made and enforced? These questions are of obvious interest to us as fellow social animals but how do we interrogate an insect society and seek answers to these questions? In this article I will describe my research that was designed to seek answers from an insect society to a series of questions of obvious interest to us. I have chosen the Indian paper wasp Ropalidia marginata for this purpose, a species that is abundantly distributed in peninsular India and serves as an excellent model system. An important feature of this species is that queens and workers are morphologically identical and physiologically nearly so. How then does an individual become a queen? How does the queen suppress worker reproduction? How does the queen regulate the nonreproductive activities of the workers? What is the function of aggression shown by different individuals? How and when is the queen's heir decided? I will show how such questions can indeed be investigated and will emphasize the need for a whole range of different techniques of observation and experimentation. PMID:19487678

  14. The Learning Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canadian Inst. for Advanced Research, Toronto (Ontario).

    This publication focuses on the challenges faced by modern societies as they seek to plan for competing in the global economy, educating the population for new competencies, maintaining the social fabric for nurturing and socializing the next generation, and providing opportunities for the health and well-being of all citizens. Emphasis is placed…

  15. Multiethnic Societies and Regions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanfield, John H., II

    1996-01-01

    Maintains that sociology must reconceptualize the meaning of multiethnic societies and regions and also advance theories about how such social organizations came into being and transform themselves through conflicting and peaceful processes. Briefly reviews traditional approaches and outlines new areas of study. (MJP)

  16. Mind, Society, and Racism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meacham, Jack

    1996-01-01

    Uses example of racism to compare Vygotsky's and Piaget's perspectives on the development of mind within the framework of questions regarding the mutual influence of societies and individuals. Notes that Vygotsky emphasizes knowledge transmission from older to younger, whereas Piaget emphasizes construction of new knowledge with potential for…

  17. Researching Society and Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seale, Clive, Ed.

    This book provides theoretically informed guidance to practicing the key research methods for investigating society and culture. It is a text in both methods and methodology, in which the importance of understanding the historical, theoretical and institutional context in which particular methods have developed is stressed. The contributors of the…

  18. Science Serves Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sneed, G. C.

    This book discusses how some of the topics taught in a conventional physics course have been used to solve interesting technical problems in industry, medicine, agriculture, transportation, and other areas of society. The topics include heat, optics, magnetism and electricity, nuclear physics, and sound. (MLH)

  19. Astronomy and society.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surdin, V. G.

    1994-01-01

    After the breakdown of the socialist planning economy we have realized that the interaction between science and society is a complicated thing. Astronomers had also to meet with problems, and the experience of foreign colleagues could be useful to solve them.

  20. American Astronomical Society (AAS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Founded in 1899, the AAS is a non-profit scientific society created to promote the advancement of astronomy and closely related branches of science. Its membership consists primarily of professional researchers in the astronomical sciences, but also includes educators, students and others interested in the advancement of astronomical research. About 85% of the membership is drawn from North Ame...

  1. Man--Society--Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taxis, Linda A., Ed.

    The 32nd annual American Industrial Arts Association (AIAA) Convention was held in Louisville in 1970. Topics for the AIAA general session addresses were: (1) "Industrial Arts--The Blender Between Social Form and Technical Function," (2) "Technology and Society: Present and Future Challenges," (3) "A Student-Oriented Industrial Arts," (4) "Man:…

  2. The Duplex Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schorr, Alvin L.

    1984-01-01

    The duplex society, in which the poor live in close proximity to others but in a separate compartment, is already with us. Unless something deeply changes about family income, more than one-third of future generations will come to adulthood having spent a portion of their childhood in official poverty. (RM)

  3. The New Rural Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldmark, Peter C.

    The New Rural Society project concerns itself with the deterioration of America through urban overcrowding and rural depletion. Coupled with experimentation and pilot testing, the study is designed to demonstrate that imaginative application of telecommunication will enable business and government departments to function effectively though their…

  4. Air pollution and society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brimblecombe, P.

    2010-12-01

    Air pollution is as much a product of our society as it is one of chemistry and meteorology. Social variables such as gender, age, health status and poverty are often linked with our exposure to air pollutants. Pollution can also affect our behaviour, while regulations to improve the environment can often challenge of freedom.

  5. Art, Society and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Ralph A.

    1976-01-01

    In considering the relation of art with society the author comments on the ideas of the American philosopher, John Dewey, the art historian, Lord Kenneth Clark, a popular humanistic educator, Clifton Fadiman, and a major cultural critic, Jacques Barzun. (Author/RK)

  6. Teaching Global Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peet, Richard

    2002-01-01

    Describes the course, "Global Society," for first-year International Studies students at a Massachusetts liberal arts college. The course, which takes a historical approach, informs students about the nature, history, and present characteristics of the global system, taking theoretical, historical, and critical approaches that stress the…

  7. Evolutionary perspectives on human height variation.

    PubMed

    Stulp, Gert; Barrett, Louise

    2016-02-01

    Human height is a highly variable trait, both within and between populations, has a high heritability, and influences the manner in which people behave and are treated in society. Although we know much about human height, this information has rarely been brought together in a comprehensive, systematic fashion. Here, we present a synthetic review of the literature on human height from an explicit evolutionary perspective, addressing its phylogenetic history, development, and environmental and genetic influences on growth and stature. In addition to presenting evidence to suggest the past action of natural selection on human height, we also assess the evidence that natural and sexual selection continues to act on height in contemporary populations. Although there is clear evidence to suggest that selection acts on height, mainly through life-history processes but perhaps also directly, it is also apparent that methodological factors reduce the confidence with which such inferences can be drawn, and there remain surprising gaps in our knowledge. The inability to draw firm conclusions about the adaptiveness of such a highly visible and easily measured trait suggests we should show an appropriate degree of caution when dealing with other human traits in evolutionary perspective. PMID:25530478

  8. How maladaptation can structure biodiversity: eco-evolutionary island biogeography.

    PubMed

    Farkas, Timothy E; Hendry, Andrew P; Nosil, Patrik; Beckerman, Andrew P

    2015-03-01

    Current research on eco-evolutionary dynamics is mainly concerned with understanding the role of rapid (or 'contemporary') evolution in structuring ecological patterns. We argue that the current eco-evolutionary research program, which focuses largely on natural selection, should be expanded to more explicitly consider other evolutionary processes such as gene flow. Because multiple evolutionary processes interact to generate quantitative variation in the degree of local maladaptation, we focus on how studying the ecological effects of maladaptation will lead to a more comprehensive view of how evolution can influence ecology. We explore how maladaptation can influence ecology through the lens of island biogeography theory, which yields some novel predictions, such as patch isolation increasing species richness. PMID:25666433

  9. Science, Technology & Society, 1991-1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutcliffe, Stephen H., Ed.

    1991-01-01

    This document contains issues 83-93 of the curriculum newsletter of Lehigh University's Science, Technology, and Society (STS) program. Each issue contains articles addressing issues relative to STS, course syllabi, reader responses, and announcements. Issue No. 83 discusses establishing an interdisciplinary minor in technology studies at…

  10. How Our Society Looks at Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivera, Renaldo

    This program, developed for the secondary level, focuses on how our society looks at aging. Three lessons are included which deal with misconceptions about aging in America, the normal dependencies of aging, and economics and the older person. The lesson on misconceptions is intended to help break down stereotypes young people have about older…

  11. RNA based evolutionary optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuster, Peter

    1993-12-01

    The notion of an RNA world has been introduced for a prebiotic scenario that is dominated by RNA molecules and their properties, in particular their capabilities to act as templates for reproduction and as catalysts for several cleavage and ligation reactions of polynucleotides and polypeptides. This notion is used here also for simple experimental assays which are well suited to study evolution in the test tube. In molecular evolution experiments fitness is determined in essence by the molecular structures of RNA molecules. Evidence is presented for adaptation to environment in cell-free media. RNA based molecular evolution experiments have led to interesting spin-offs in biotechnology, commonly called ‘applied molecular evolution’, which make use of Darwinian trial-and-error strategies in order to synthesize new pharmacological compounds and other advanced materials on a biological basis. Error-propagation in RNA replication leads to formation of mutant spectra called ‘quasispecies’. An increase in the error rate broadens the mutant spectrum. There exists a sharply defined threshold beyond which heredity breaks down and evolutionary adaptation becomes impossible. Almost all RNA viruses studied so far operate at conditions close to this error threshold. Quasispecies and error thresholds are important for an understanding of RNA virus evolution, and they may help to develop novel antiviral strategies. Evolution of RNA molecules can be studied and interpreted by considering secondary structures. The notion of sequence space introduces a distance between pairs of RNA sequences which is tantamount to counting the minimal number of point mutations required to convert the sequences into each other. The mean sensitivity of RNA secondary structures to mutation depends strongly on the base pairing alphabet: structures from sequences which contain only one base pair (GC or AU are much less stable against mutation than those derived from the natural (AUGC) sequences

  12. Chemical evolutionary games

    PubMed Central

    Aristotelous, Andreas C.; Durrett, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Inspired by the use of hybrid cellular automata in modeling cancer, we introduce a generalization of evolutionary games in which cells produce and absorb chemicals, and the chemical concentrations dictate the death rates of cells and their fitnesses. Our long term aim is to understand how the details of the interactions in a system with n species and m chemicals translate into the qualitative behavior of the system. Here, we study two simple 2 × 2 games with two chemicals and revisit the two and three species versions of the one chemical colicin system studied earlier by Durrett and Levin [28]. We find that in the 2 × 2 examples, the behavior of our new spatial model can be predicted from that of the mean field differential equation using ideas of [12]. However, in the three species colicin model, the system with diffusion does not have the coexistence which occurs in the lattices model in which sites interact with only their nearest neighbors. PMID:24513098

  13. Modeling tumor evolutionary dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Stransky, Beatriz; de Souza, Sandro J.

    2013-01-01

    Tumorigenesis can be seen as an evolutionary process, in which the transformation of a normal cell into a tumor cell involves a number of limiting genetic and epigenetic events, occurring in a series of discrete stages. However, not all mutations in a cell are directly involved in cancer development and it is likely that most of them (passenger mutations) do not contribute in any way to tumorigenesis. Moreover, the process of tumor evolution is punctuated by selection of advantageous (driver) mutations and clonal expansions. Regarding these driver mutations, it is uncertain how many limiting events are required and/or sufficient to promote a tumorigenic process or what are the values associated with the adaptive advantage of different driver mutations. In spite of the availability of high-quality cancer data, several assumptions about the mechanistic process of cancer initiation and development remain largely untested, both mathematically and statistically. Here we review the development of recent mathematical/computational models and discuss their impact in the field of tumor biology. PMID:23420281

  14. Evolutionary Tracks for Betelgeuse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolan, Michelle M.; Mathews, Grant J.; Lam, Doan Duc; Quynh Lan, Nguyen; Herczeg, Gregory J.; Dearborn, David S. P.

    2016-03-01

    We have constructed a series of nonrotating quasi-hydrostatic evolutionary models for the M2 Iab supergiant Betelgeuse (α Orionis). Our models are constrained by multiple observed values for the temperature, luminosity, surface composition, and mass loss for this star, along with the parallax distance and high-resolution imagery that determines its radius. We have then applied our best-fit models to analyze the observed variations in surface luminosity and the size of detected surface bright spots as the result of up-flowing convective material from regions of high temperature in the surface convective zone. We also attempt to explain the intermittently observed periodic variability in a simple radial linear adiabatic pulsation model. Based on the best fit to all observed data, we suggest a best progenitor mass estimate of {20}-3+5 {M}⊙ and a current age from the start of the zero-age main sequence of 8.0-8.5 Myr based on the observed ejected mass while on the giant branch.

  15. Evolutionary model with Turing machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feverati, Giovanni; Musso, Fabio

    2008-06-01

    The development of a large noncoding fraction in eukaryotic DNA and the phenomenon of the code bloat in the field of evolutionary computations show a striking similarity. This seems to suggest that (in the presence of mechanisms of code growth) the evolution of a complex code cannot be attained without maintaining a large inactive fraction. To test this hypothesis we performed computer simulations of an evolutionary toy model for Turing machines, studying the relations among fitness and coding versus noncoding ratio while varying mutation and code growth rates. The results suggest that, in our model, having a large reservoir of noncoding states constitutes a great (long term) evolutionary advantage.

  16. Shrinking societies favor procreation.

    PubMed

    Kent, M M

    1999-12-01

    Low birth rates and unprecedented improvements in life expectancy had brought a shrinking society to a rapidly expanding retirement-age population. In 1999, people aged 65 and older make up 15% or more of the populations in 19 countries. Furthermore, 14 country populations are already experiencing natural decrease, and a lot more will start to decline early in the 21st century. Due to this predicament, concerned countries have created policies that may encourage more childbearing by easing the opportunity costs of raising children. Among the policies are: 1) paid maternity and paternity leaves until a child is 2-3 years; 2) free child care; 3) tax breaks for large families; 4) family housing allowance; 5) cash paid to parents for raising a child. Governments of the shrinking societies believed that these policies could influence fertility because it affects the socioeconomic setting in which childbearing decisions are made. This paper also discusses Hungary, Japan, and Sweden fertility policies. PMID:12295635

  17. Species Concepts and the Evolutionary Paradigm in Modem Nematology

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Byron J.

    1998-01-01

    Given the task of recovering and representing evolutionary history, nematode taxonomists can choose from among several species concepts. All species concepts have theoretical and (or) operational inconsistencies that can result in failure to accurately recover and represent species. This failure not only obfuscates nematode taxonomy but hinders other research programs in hematology that are dependent upon a phylogenetically correct taxonomy, such as biodiversity, biogeography, cospeciation, coevolution, and adaptation. Three types of systematic errors inherent in different species concepts and their potential effects on these research programs are presented. These errors include overestimating and underestimating the number of species (type I and II error, respectively) and misrepresenting their phylogenetic relationships (type III error). For research programs in hematology that utilize recovered evolutionary history, type II and III errors are the most serious. Linnean, biological, evolutionary, and phylogenefic species concepts are evaluated based on their sensitivity to systematic error. Linnean and biological species concepts are more prone to serious systematic error than evolutionary or phylogenetic concepts. As an alternative to the current paradigm, an amalgamation of evolutionary and phylogenetic species concepts is advocated, along with a set of discovery operations designed to minimize the risk of making systematic errors. Examples of these operations are applied to species and isolates of Heterorhabditis. PMID:19274195

  18. Evolutionary Processes and Mental Deficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spitz, Herman H.

    1973-01-01

    The author hypothesizes that central nervous system damage of deficiency associated with mental retardation affects primarily those cortical processes which developed at a late stage in man's evolutionary history. (Author)

  19. Evolutionary genetics of plant adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Jill T.; Willis, John H.; Mitchell-Olds, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Plants provide unique opportunities to study the mechanistic basis and evolutionary processes of adaptation to diverse environmental conditions. Complementary laboratory and field experiments are important for testing hypothesis reflecting long term ecological and evolutionary history. For example, these approaches can infer whether local adaptation results from genetic tradeoffs (antagonistic pleiotropy), where native alleles are best adapted to local conditions, or if local adaptation is caused by conditional neutrality at many loci, where alleles show fitness differences in one environment, but not in the contrasting environment. Ecological genetics in natural populations of perennial or outcrossing plants also may differ substantially from model systems. In this review of the evolutionary genetics of plant adaptation, we emphasize the importance of field studies for understanding the evolutionary dynamics of model and non-model systems, highlight a key life history trait (flowering time), and discuss emerging conservation issues. PMID:21550682

  20. Evolutionary constraints or opportunities?

    PubMed Central

    Sharov, Alexei A.

    2014-01-01

    Natural selection is traditionally viewed as a leading factor of evolution, whereas variation is assumed to be random and non-directional. Any order in variation is attributed to epigenetic or developmental constraints that can hinder the action of natural selection. In contrast I consider the positive role of epigenetic mechanisms in evolution because they provide organisms with opportunities for rapid adaptive change. Because the term “constraint” has negative connotations, I use the term “regulated variation” to emphasize the adaptive nature of phenotypic variation, which helps populations and species to survive and evolve in changing environments. The capacity to produce regulated variation is a phenotypic property, which is not described in the genome. Instead, the genome acts as a switchboard, where mostly random mutations switch “on” or “off” preexisting functional capacities of organism components. Thus, there are two channels of heredity: informational (genomic) and structure-functional (phenotypic). Functional capacities of organisms most likely emerged in a chain of modifications and combinations of more simple ancestral functions. The role of DNA has been to keep records of these changes (without describing the result) so that they can be reproduced in the following generations. Evolutionary opportunities include adjustments of individual functions, multitasking, connection between various components of an organism, and interaction between organisms. The adaptive nature of regulated variation can be explained by the differential success of lineages in macro-evolution. Lineages with more advantageous patterns of regulated variation are likely to produce more species and secure more resources (i.e., long-term lineage selection). PMID:24769155

  1. Evolutionary status of Be stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zorec, J.; Frémat, Y.; Cidale, L.

    2004-12-01

    Fundamental parameters of nearly 50 field Be stars have been determined. Correcting these parameters from gravity darkening effects induced the fast rotation, we deduced the evolutionary phase of the studied stars. We show that the evolutionary phase at which appear the Be phenomenon is mass dependent: the smaller the stellar mass the elder the phase in the main sequence at which the Be phenomenon seem to appear.

  2. Learning evasive maneuvers using evolutionary algorithms and neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Moung Hung

    In this research, evolutionary algorithms and recurrent neural networks are combined to evolve control knowledge to help pilots avoid being struck by a missile, based on a two-dimensional air combat simulation model. The recurrent neural network is used for representing the pilot's control knowledge and evolutionary algorithms (i.e., Genetic Algorithms, Evolution Strategies, and Evolutionary Programming) are used for optimizing the weights and/or topology of the recurrent neural network. The simulation model of the two-dimensional evasive maneuver problem evolved is used for evaluating the performance of the recurrent neural network. Five typical air combat conditions were selected to evaluate the performance of the recurrent neural networks evolved by the evolutionary algorithms. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) tests and response graphs were used to analyze the results. Overall, there was little difference in the performance of the three evolutionary algorithms used to evolve the control knowledge. However, the number of generations of each algorithm required to obtain the best performance was significantly different. ES converges the fastest, followed by EP and then by GA. The recurrent neural networks evolved by the evolutionary algorithms provided better performance than the traditional recommendations for evasive maneuvers, maximum gravitational turn, for each air combat condition. Furthermore, the recommended actions of the recurrent neural networks are reasonable and can be used for pilot training.

  3. American Society for Radiation Oncology

    MedlinePlus

    ... PAC Become an Advocate Log In SNIPEND American Society for Radiation Oncology Plan your time at the ... oncology practices. RO-ILS The only medical specialty society-sponsored incident learning system for radiation oncology. RO ...

  4. American Society of Nuclear Cardiology

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Nuclear Cardiology Official publication of the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology Clinical Guidelines Procedures, Appropriate Use Criteria, Information Statements and Joint Society Statements Member Login Enter Forgot your password? Meetings & ...

  5. Phoenix Society for Burn Survivors

    MedlinePlus

    ... Learn More For First Responders & Medical Professionals Phoenix Society is the leader in connecting the burn recovery ... It can be a... Continue Reading The Phoenix Society, Inc. 1835 RW Berends Dr. SW Grand Rapids, ...

  6. American Society of Plastic Surgeons

    MedlinePlus

    ... doctor who is a member of the American Society of Plastic Surgeons (ASPS®), you can rest assured ... ASPS The Plastic Surgery Foundation Copyright © 2016 American Society of Plastic Surgeons | Privacy Policy | Sitemap | Terms and ...

  7. Heart Failure Society of America

    MedlinePlus

    ... Site Terms and Conditions Copyright © 2016 Heart Failure Society of America. All Rights Reserved 2016 Board Review ... Membership Membership Information Membership in the Heart Failure Society is open to all health care professionals with ...

  8. American Society of Human Genetics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Research Awards August 9, 2016 Media Advisory: American Society of Human Genetics 2016 Annual Meeting July 26, ... McKusick Leadership Award June 30, 2016 The American Society of Human Genetics, Incorporated 9650 Rockville Pike • Bethesda, ...

  9. Rethinking Cells to Society

    PubMed Central

    Antonucci, Toni C.; Webster, Noah J.

    2015-01-01

    It is an exciting time to be a developmental scientist. We have advanced theoretical frameworks and developed ground-breaking methods for addressing questions of interest, ranging literally from cells to society. We know more now than we have ever known about human development and the base of acquired knowledge is increasing exponentially. In this paper we share some thoughts about where we are in the science of human development, how we got there, what may be going wrong and what may be going right. Finally, we offer some thoughts about where we go from here to assure that in the future we achieve the best developmental science possible. PMID:25642155

  10. Advanced information society (9)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamata, Hiroki

    This article discusses the U.S. and European national strategies and policies for information society. Coping with the declining competitiveness in high-tech products and Japanese technological advantages both have been trying hard to strengthen technology base and to deregulate the telecommunications services markets. The U.S. approach in 1980's, unlike its liberalist principle, has been characterized by technological protectlonism and defense-oriented policies. European Communities' approach has been more comprehensive and systematic, investing heavily telecommunication infrastructure, deregulating domestic market, and promoting cooperation of member countries. However, both of these approaches have, so far, been unable to achieve a considerable success.

  11. Measurement and society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, Terence J.; Kovalevsky, Jean

    2004-10-01

    In modern society, metrology is a hidden infrastructure, that affects most human activities. Several domains in which measurements, and therefore metrology, play a crucial role are presented and illustrated with examples: manufacturing industries, navigation, telecommunications, medicine, environment, and scientific research. The BIPM and the national metrology institutes are at the top of traceability chains, which guarantee that all measurements are performed in conformity with the International System of Units (SI) and are therefore comparable. Finally, some indications of the economic benefits of metrology are given. To cite this article: T.J. Quinn, J. Kovalevsky, C. R. Physique 5 (2004).

  12. American Head and Neck Society

    MedlinePlus

    American Head & Neck Society Head and Neck Cancer Research & Education American Head & Neck Society | AHNS Head and Neck Cancer Research & Education About AHNS ... and Announcements Copyright ©2016 · American Head and Neck Society · Privacy and Return Policy Managed by BSC Management, ...

  13. Education in a Technological Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVore, Paul W., Ed.; Smith, Wil J., Ed.

    Technological change places increased responsibility on the educational system of a democratic society to prepare citizens for intelligent participation in government. This conference was held to analyze the nature of the technological society and the role of education in preparing the individual for membership in that society. The papers…

  14. Creative Drama and Agricultural Societies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Courtney, Richard

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the interaction of culture and creative drama. Examines agricultural societies under three conditions: historically, from neolithic times; contemporary American Southwest Indian and Polynesian; and modern farming subcultures of European industrial societies. Asks how far agricultural life influences creative drama in agrarian societies.…

  15. Evolutionary psychology and health: confronting an evolving paradigm.

    PubMed

    Higgs, P; Jones, I R

    1999-07-01

    In much the same way that developments in genetics have opened up new areas of activity in health services, the 'new genetics' has also stimulated a renewal in approaches that try to explain the nature of health behaviours within the context of human biological development. Evolutionary psychology, as an umbrella term for these views, stresses the importance of the brain as an intermediary between genes and individual behaviour. From such a perspective, social context is less important than an understanding of why certain behaviours are 'chosen' by the evolutionary process and how they are predicated on reproductive success. Health policy is a key area where these ideas are likely to become important given evolutionary psychology's focus on the interplay between physiological and psychological factors in determining health behaviours. Health research provides a fertile environment because it is already seeking the hidden biological pathways connecting social status with specific diseases. The challenge represented by evolutionary psychology needs to be taken seriously because of the way in which such ideas mesh with the individualistic basis of much health promotion and health policy. In particular, it poses a challenge when it purports to explain how inequalities in health are not necessarily the result of the unequal distribution of income in society but are natural phenomena. It is also important to engage with such ideas because they increasingly seem likely to occupy the empty ideological space created by the disappearance of politics in policy and as such may have a greater impact than would otherwise be the case. PMID:10538885

  16. Transforming Biology Assessment with Machine Learning: Automated Scoring of Written Evolutionary Explanations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nehm, Ross H.; Ha, Minsu; Mayfield, Elijah

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the use of machine learning to automatically evaluate the accuracy of students' written explanations of evolutionary change. Performance of the Summarization Integrated Development Environment (SIDE) program was compared to human expert scoring using a corpus of 2,260 evolutionary explanations written by 565 undergraduate…

  17. Understanding Evolutionary Change within the Framework of Geological Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodick, Jeff

    2007-01-01

    This paper focuses on a learning strategy designed to overcome students' difficulty in understanding evolutionary change within the framework of geological time. Incorporated into the learning program "From Dinosaurs to Darwin: Evolution from the Perspective of Time," this strategy consists of four scaffolded investigations in which students…

  18. Reliability Of A Surgeon-Reported Morbidity And Mortality Database: A Comparison Of Short-Term Morbidity Between The Scoliosis Research Society And National Surgical Quality Improvement Program Databases

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Christopher T.; Pugely, Andrew J.; Gao, Yubo; Skovrlj, Branko; Lee, Nathan J.; Cho, Samuel K.; Mendoza-Lattes, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Background There exists a lack of comparison between large national healthcare databases reporting surgical morbidity and mortality. Prior authors have expressed concern that the Scoliosis Research Society (SRS) membership may have underreported complications in spinal surgery. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to compare the incidence of morbidity between the SRS and National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) databases. Methods We reviewed patients enrolled between 2012 and 2013, with a total of 96,875 patients identified in the SRS dataset and 15,909 in the combined adult and pediatric NSQIP dataset. Patients were matched based on diagnostic category,and a univariate analysis was used to compare reported complication rates in the categories of perioperative infection, neurologic injury, and mortality. The SRS database only requires detailed demographic data reporting on patients that have had a complication event. We compared the demographics and comorbidities of this subgroup, and used this as a surrogate to assess the potential magnitude of confounders. Results Small differences existed between the SRS and NSQIP databases in terms of mortality (0.1% v. 0.2%), infection (1.2% v. 2%), and neurologic injury (0.8% v. 0.1%) (p<0.001 for each comparison). Infection rates were consistently lower across multiple diagnostic sub-categories in the SRS database, whereas neurologic injury rates were consistently lower in the NSQIP database. These differences reached statistical significance across several diagnostic subcategories, but the clinical magnitude of the differences was small. Amongst the patients with a complication, modest differences in comorbidities existed between the two cohorts. Conclusion Overall, the incidence of short-term morbidity and mortality was similar between the two databases. There were modest differences in comorbidities, which may explain the small differences observed in morbidity. Concerns regarding possible under

  19. Perceived Consequences of Evolution: College Students Perceive Negative Personal and Social Impact in Evolutionary Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brem, Sarah K.; Ranney, Michael; Schindel, Jennifer

    2003-01-01

    Examines how college-educated adults (n=135) from diverse ethnic and religious backgrounds perceive the impact of evolutionary theory on individuals and society. Identifies a continuum of perspectives ranging from strong creationist to strong evolutionist. Reports differences between evolutionists and creationists in their prior exposure to…

  20. Evolutionary foundations for cancer biology

    PubMed Central

    Aktipis, C Athena; Nesse, Randolph M

    2013-01-01

    New applications of evolutionary biology are transforming our understanding of cancer. The articles in this special issue provide many specific examples, such as microorganisms inducing cancers, the significance of within-tumor heterogeneity, and the possibility that lower dose chemotherapy may sometimes promote longer survival. Underlying these specific advances is a large-scale transformation, as cancer research incorporates evolutionary methods into its toolkit, and asks new evolutionary questions about why we are vulnerable to cancer. Evolution explains why cancer exists at all, how neoplasms grow, why cancer is remarkably rare, and why it occurs despite powerful cancer suppression mechanisms. Cancer exists because of somatic selection; mutations in somatic cells result in some dividing faster than others, in some cases generating neoplasms. Neoplasms grow, or do not, in complex cellular ecosystems. Cancer is relatively rare because of natural selection; our genomes were derived disproportionally from individuals with effective mechanisms for suppressing cancer. Cancer occurs nonetheless for the same six evolutionary reasons that explain why we remain vulnerable to other diseases. These four principles—cancers evolve by somatic selection, neoplasms grow in complex ecosystems, natural selection has shaped powerful cancer defenses, and the limitations of those defenses have evolutionary explanations—provide a foundation for understanding, preventing, and treating cancer. PMID:23396885

  1. Environmental changes bridge evolutionary valleys

    PubMed Central

    Steinberg, Barrett; Ostermeier, Marc

    2016-01-01

    In the basic fitness landscape metaphor for molecular evolution, evolutionary pathways are presumed to follow uphill steps of increasing fitness. How evolution can cross fitness valleys is an open question. One possibility is that environmental changes alter the fitness landscape such that low-fitness sequences reside on a hill in alternate environments. We experimentally test this hypothesis on the antibiotic resistance gene TEM-15 β-lactamase by comparing four evolutionary strategies shaped by environmental changes. The strategy that included initial steps of selecting for low antibiotic resistance (negative selection) produced superior alleles compared with the other three strategies. We comprehensively examined possible evolutionary pathways leading to one such high-fitness allele and found that an initially deleterious mutation is key to the allele’s evolutionary history. This mutation is an initial gateway to an otherwise relatively inaccessible area of sequence space and participates in higher-order, positive epistasis with a number of neutral to slightly beneficial mutations. The ability of negative selection and environmental changes to provide access to novel fitness peaks has important implications for natural evolutionary mechanisms and applied directed evolution. PMID:26844293

  2. Evolutionary genetics of maternal effects

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Jason B.; Wade, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Maternal genetic effects (MGEs), where genes expressed by mothers affect the phenotype of their offspring, are important sources of phenotypic diversity in a myriad of organisms. We use a single‐locus model to examine how MGEs contribute patterns of heritable and nonheritable variation and influence evolutionary dynamics in randomly mating and inbreeding populations. We elucidate the influence of MGEs by examining the offspring genotype‐phenotype relationship, which determines how MGEs affect evolutionary dynamics in response to selection on offspring phenotypes. This approach reveals important results that are not apparent from classic quantitative genetic treatments of MGEs. We show that additive and dominance MGEs make different contributions to evolutionary dynamics and patterns of variation, which are differentially affected by inbreeding. Dominance MGEs make the offspring genotype‐phenotype relationship frequency dependent, resulting in the appearance of negative frequency‐dependent selection, while additive MGEs contribute a component of parent‐of‐origin dependent variation. Inbreeding amplifies the contribution of MGEs to the additive genetic variance and, therefore enhances their evolutionary response. Considering evolutionary dynamics of allele frequency change on an adaptive landscape, we show that this landscape differs from the mean fitness surface, and therefore, under some condition, fitness peaks can exist but not be “available” to the evolving population. PMID:26969266

  3. Environmental changes bridge evolutionary valleys.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Barrett; Ostermeier, Marc

    2016-01-01

    In the basic fitness landscape metaphor for molecular evolution, evolutionary pathways are presumed to follow uphill steps of increasing fitness. How evolution can cross fitness valleys is an open question. One possibility is that environmental changes alter the fitness landscape such that low-fitness sequences reside on a hill in alternate environments. We experimentally test this hypothesis on the antibiotic resistance gene TEM-15 β-lactamase by comparing four evolutionary strategies shaped by environmental changes. The strategy that included initial steps of selecting for low antibiotic resistance (negative selection) produced superior alleles compared with the other three strategies. We comprehensively examined possible evolutionary pathways leading to one such high-fitness allele and found that an initially deleterious mutation is key to the allele's evolutionary history. This mutation is an initial gateway to an otherwise relatively inaccessible area of sequence space and participates in higher-order, positive epistasis with a number of neutral to slightly beneficial mutations. The ability of negative selection and environmental changes to provide access to novel fitness peaks has important implications for natural evolutionary mechanisms and applied directed evolution. PMID:26844293

  4. Evolutionary genetics of maternal effects.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Jason B; Wade, Michael J

    2016-04-01

    Maternal genetic effects (MGEs), where genes expressed by mothers affect the phenotype of their offspring, are important sources of phenotypic diversity in a myriad of organisms. We use a single-locus model to examine how MGEs contribute patterns of heritable and nonheritable variation and influence evolutionary dynamics in randomly mating and inbreeding populations. We elucidate the influence of MGEs by examining the offspring genotype-phenotype relationship, which determines how MGEs affect evolutionary dynamics in response to selection on offspring phenotypes. This approach reveals important results that are not apparent from classic quantitative genetic treatments of MGEs. We show that additive and dominance MGEs make different contributions to evolutionary dynamics and patterns of variation, which are differentially affected by inbreeding. Dominance MGEs make the offspring genotype-phenotype relationship frequency dependent, resulting in the appearance of negative frequency-dependent selection, while additive MGEs contribute a component of parent-of-origin dependent variation. Inbreeding amplifies the contribution of MGEs to the additive genetic variance and, therefore enhances their evolutionary response. Considering evolutionary dynamics of allele frequency change on an adaptive landscape, we show that this landscape differs from the mean fitness surface, and therefore, under some condition, fitness peaks can exist but not be "available" to the evolving population. PMID:26969266

  5. Communicating Science to Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Illingworth, Samuel; Muller, Jennifer; Leather, Kimberley; Morgan, William; O'Meara, Simon; Topping, David; Booth, Alastair; Llyod, Gary; Young, Dominique; Bannan, Thomas; Simpson, Emma; Percival, Carl; Allen, Grant; Clark, Elaine; Muller, Catherine; Graves, Rosemarie

    2014-05-01

    "Nothing in science has any value to society if it is not communicated." So goes the 1952 quote from Anne Roe, the noted twentieth century American psychologist and writer. She went on to say that "scientists are beginning to learn their social obligations", and now over 60 years later there is certainly evidence to support her assertions. As scientists, by communicating our research to the general public we not only better inform the tax payer where their money is being spent, but are also able to help put into context the topical environmental challenges and issues that society faces, as well as inspiring a whole new generation of future scientists. This process of communication is very much a two-way street; by presenting our work to people outside of our usual spheres of contemporaries, we expose ourselves to alternative thoughts and insights that can inspire us, as scientists, to take another look at our research from angles that we had never before considered. This work presents the results and experiences from a number of public engagement and outreach activities across the UK, in which geoscientists engaged and interacted with members of the general public. These include the design and implementation of Raspberry Pi based outreach activities for several hundred high school students; the process of running a successful podcast (http://thebarometer.podbean.com); hosting and participating in science events for thousands of members of the general public (e.g. http://www.manchestersciencefestival.com and http://sse.royalsociety.org/2013); and creating a citizen science activity that involved primary school children from across the UK. In communicating their research it is imperative that scientists interact with their audience in an effective and engaging manner, whether in an international conference, a classroom, or indeed down the pub. This work also presents a discussion of how these skills can be developed at an early stage in the careers of a research

  6. Evolutionary induction of sparse neural trees

    PubMed

    Zhang; Ohm; Muhlenbein

    1997-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the automatic induction of parsimonious neural networks. In contrast to other program induction situations, network induction entails parametric learning as well as structural adaptation. We present a novel representation scheme called neural trees that allows efficient learning of both network architectures and parameters by genetic search. A hybrid evolutionary method is developed for neural tree induction that combines genetic programming and the breeder genetic algorithm under the unified framework of the minimum description length principle. The method is successfully applied to the induction of higher order neural trees while still keeping the resulting structures sparse to ensure good generalization performance. Empirical results are provided on two chaotic time series prediction problems of practical interest. PMID:10021759

  7. Can An Evolutionary Process Create English Text?

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, David H.

    2008-10-29

    Critics of the conventional theory of biological evolution have asserted that while natural processes might result in some limited diversity, nothing fundamentally new can arise from 'random' evolution. In response, biologists such as Richard Dawkins have demonstrated that a computer program can generate a specific short phrase via evolution-like iterations starting with random gibberish. While such demonstrations are intriguing, they are flawed in that they have a fixed, pre-specified future target, whereas in real biological evolution there is no fixed future target, but only a complicated 'fitness landscape'. In this study, a significantly more sophisticated evolutionary scheme is employed to produce text segments reminiscent of a Charles Dickens novel. The aggregate size of these segments is larger than the computer program and the input Dickens text, even when comparing compressed data (as a measure of information content).

  8. Advanced information society (1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohira, Gosei

    In considering the relationship of informationization and industrial structure, this paper analize some factors such as information revolution, informationization of industries and industrialization of information as background of informationization of Japanese society. Next, some information indicators such as, information coefficient of household which is a share of information related expenditure, information coefficient of industry which is a share of information related cost to total cost of production, and information transmission census developed by Ministry of Post and Telecommunication are introduced. Then new information indicator by Economic Planning Agency, that is, electronic info-communication indicator is showed. In this study, the information activities are defined to produce message or to supply services on process, stores or sale of message using electronic information equipment. International comparisons of information labor force are also presented.

  9. Science, Technology and Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bridgstock, Martin; Burch, David; Forge, John; Laurent, John; Lowe, Ian

    1998-03-01

    This book provides a comprehensive introduction to the human, social and economic aspects of science and technology. It examines a broad range of issues from a variety of perspectives, using examples and experiences from around the world. The authors present complex issues, including the responsibilities of scientists, ethical dilemmas and controversies, the Industrial Revolution, economic issues, public policy, and science and technology in developing countries. The book ends with a thoughtful and provocative look toward the future. It features extensive guides to further reading, as well as a useful section on information searching skills. This book will provoke, engage, inform and stimulate thoughtful discussion about culture, society and science. Broad and interdisciplinary, it will be of considerable value to both students and teachers.

  10. Behaviorism and Society.

    PubMed

    Krapfl, Jon E

    2016-05-01

    A probable list of causes for the limited acceptance of behaviorism in our society is identified. This is followed by a summary review of the proposed solutions identified in other papers in this special issue of The Behavior Analyst, most of which relate to either better marketing of either the behavior analytic process or the results achieved as a consequence. One paper proposes a more broad conception of behavior analysis. This paper endorses the solutions identified in previous papers and then goes on to propose an even more broad conception of behavior analysis and makes the point that behavior analysis is unlikely to flourish unless behavior analysts understand a good deal more about the cultural and other contextual features of the environments in which they work. PMID:27606191

  11. Advanced information society(5)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanizawa, Ippei

    Based on the advancement of information network technology information communication forms informationalized society giving significant impact on business activities and life style in it. The information network has been backed up technologically by development of computer technology and has got great contribution by enhanced computer technology and communication equipments. Information is transferred by digital and analog methods. Technical development which has brought out multifunctioned modems of communication equipments in analog mode, and construction of advanced information communication network which has come out by joint work of computer and communication under digital technique, are described. The trend in institutional matter and standardization of electrical communication is also described showing some examples of value-added network (VAN).

  12. Evolutionary models of interstellar chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prasad, Sheo S.

    1987-01-01

    The goal of evolutionary models of interstellar chemistry is to understand how interstellar clouds came to be the way they are, how they will change with time, and to place them in an evolutionary sequence with other celestial objects such as stars. An improved Mark II version of an earlier model of chemistry in dynamically evolving clouds is presented. The Mark II model suggests that the conventional elemental C/O ratio less than one can explain the observed abundances of CI and the nondetection of O2 in dense clouds. Coupled chemical-dynamical models seem to have the potential to generate many observable discriminators of the evolutionary tracks. This is exciting, because, in general, purely dynamical models do not yield enough verifiable discriminators of the predicted tracks.

  13. Neuronal boost to evolutionary dynamics.

    PubMed

    de Vladar, Harold P; Szathmáry, Eörs

    2015-12-01

    Standard evolutionary dynamics is limited by the constraints of the genetic system. A central message of evolutionary neurodynamics is that evolutionary dynamics in the brain can happen in a neuronal niche in real time, despite the fact that neurons do not reproduce. We show that Hebbian learning and structural synaptic plasticity broaden the capacity for informational replication and guided variability provided a neuronally plausible mechanism of replication is in place. The synergy between learning and selection is more efficient than the equivalent search by mutation selection. We also consider asymmetric landscapes and show that the learning weights become correlated with the fitness gradient. That is, the neuronal complexes learn the local properties of the fitness landscape, resulting in the generation of variability directed towards the direction of fitness increase, as if mutations in a genetic pool were drawn such that they would increase reproductive success. Evolution might thus be more efficient within evolved brains than among organisms out in the wild. PMID:26640653

  14. Paradigm change in evolutionary microbiology.

    PubMed

    O'Malley, Maureen A; Boucher, Yan

    2005-03-01

    Thomas Kuhn had little to say about scientific change in biological science, and biologists are ambivalent about how applicable his framework is for their disciplines. We apply Kuhn's account of paradigm change to evolutionary microbiology, where key Darwinian tenets are being challenged by two decades of findings from molecular phylogenetics. The chief culprit is lateral gene transfer, which undermines the role of vertical descent and the representation of evolutionary history as a tree of life. To assess Kuhn's relevance to this controversy, we add a social analysis of the scientists involved to the historical and philosophical debates. We conclude that while Kuhn's account may capture aspects of the pattern (or outcome) of an episode of scientific change, he has little to say about how the process of generating new understandings is occurring in evolutionary microbiology. Once Kuhn's application is limited to that of an initial investigative probe into how scientific problem-solving occurs, his disciplinary scope becomes broader. PMID:16120264

  15. Evolutionary direction of processed pseudogenes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guoqing; Cui, Xiangjun; Li, Hong; Cai, Lu

    2016-08-01

    While some pseudogenes have been reported to play important roles in gene regulation, little is known about the possible relationship between pseudogene functions and evolutionary process of pseudogenes, or about the forces responsible for the pseudogene evolution. In this study, we characterized human processed pseudogenes in terms of evolutionary dynamics. Our results show that pseudogenes tend to evolve toward: lower GC content, strong dinucleotide bias, reduced abundance of transcription factor binding motifs and short palindromes, and decreased ability to form nucleosomes. We explored possible evolutionary forces that shaped the evolution pattern of pseudogenes, and concluded that mutations in pseudogenes are likely determined, at least partially, by neighbor-dependent mutational bias and recombination-associated selection. PMID:27333782

  16. Neuronal boost to evolutionary dynamics

    PubMed Central

    de Vladar, Harold P.; Szathmáry, Eörs

    2015-01-01

    Standard evolutionary dynamics is limited by the constraints of the genetic system. A central message of evolutionary neurodynamics is that evolutionary dynamics in the brain can happen in a neuronal niche in real time, despite the fact that neurons do not reproduce. We show that Hebbian learning and structural synaptic plasticity broaden the capacity for informational replication and guided variability provided a neuronally plausible mechanism of replication is in place. The synergy between learning and selection is more efficient than the equivalent search by mutation selection. We also consider asymmetric landscapes and show that the learning weights become correlated with the fitness gradient. That is, the neuronal complexes learn the local properties of the fitness landscape, resulting in the generation of variability directed towards the direction of fitness increase, as if mutations in a genetic pool were drawn such that they would increase reproductive success. Evolution might thus be more efficient within evolved brains than among organisms out in the wild. PMID:26640653

  17. Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Community College Journal, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Includes a collection of eight short articles describing model community college programs. Discusses a literacy program, a mobile computer classroom, a support program for at-risk students, a timber-harvesting program, a multimedia presentation on successful women graduates, a career center, a collaboration with NASA, and an Israeli engineering…

  18. American Epilepsy Society

    MedlinePlus

    ... and pricing here . View the preliminary program here . Epilepsy Currents Generic Substitution of AEDs: Is it Time ... in a multicenter prospective infantile spasms cohort More Epilepsy Professional News AES Releases New Guildeline for Treatment ...

  19. Society and Water

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qutub, Musa Y.

    1972-01-01

    At a national symposium on Societal Problems of Water Resources at Western Illinois University, scientists discussed dams, canals, water pollution control and management programs, federal-state relations in resource planning, and their effects on how we live. (BL)

  20. An inquiry into evolutionary inquiry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donovan, Samuel S.

    2005-11-01

    While evolution education has received a great deal of attention within the science education research community it still poses difficult teaching and learning challenges. Understanding evolutionary biology has been given high priority in national science education policy because of its role in coordinating our understanding of the life sciences, its importance in our intellectual history, its role in the perception of humans' position in nature, and its impact on our current medical, agricultural, and conservation practices. The rhetoric used in evolution education policy statements emphasizes familiarity with the nature of scientific inquiry as an important learning outcome associated with understanding evolution but provide little guidance with respect to how one might achieve this goal. This dissertation project explores the nature of evolutionary inquiry and how understanding the details of disciplinary reasoning can inform evolution education. The first analysis involves recasting the existing evolution education research literature to assess educational outcomes related to students ability to reason about data using evolutionary biology methods and models. This is followed in the next chapter by a detailed historical and philosophical characterization of evolutionary biology with the goal of providing a richer context for considering what exactly it is we want students to know about evolution as a discipline. Chapter 4 describes the development and implementation of a high school evolution curriculum that engages students with many aspects of model based reasoning. The final component of this reframing of evolution education involves an empirical study characterizing students' understanding of evolutionary biology as a modeling enterprise. Each chapter addresses a different aspect of evolution education and explores the implications of foregrounding disciplinary reasoning as an educational outcome. The analyses are coordinated with one another in the sense

  1. Supercritical water oxidation - Concept analysis for evolutionary Space Station application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, John B., Jr.; Brewer, Dana A.

    1986-01-01

    The ability of a supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) concept to reduce the number of processes needed in an evolutionary Space Station design's Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS), while reducing resupply requirements and enhancing the integration of separate ECLSS functions into a single Supercritical Water Oxidation process, is evaluated. While not feasible for an initial operational capability Space Station, the SCWO's application to the evolutionary Space Station configuration would aid the integration of eight ECLSS functions into a single one, thereby significantly reducing program costs.

  2. Deep evolutionary origins of neurobiology

    PubMed Central

    Mancuso, Stefano

    2009-01-01

    It is generally assumed, both in common-sense argumentations and scientific concepts, that brains and neurons represent late evolutionary achievements which are present only in more advanced animals. Here we overview recently published data clearly revealing that our understanding of bacteria, unicellular eukaryotic organisms, plants, brains and neurons, rooted in the Aristotelian philosophy is flawed. Neural aspects of biological systems are obvious already in bacteria and unicellular biological units such as sexual gametes and diverse unicellular eukaryotic organisms. Altogether, processes and activities thought to represent evolutionary ‘recent’ specializations of the nervous system emerge rather to represent ancient and fundamental cell survival processes. PMID:19513267

  3. Evolutionary Dynamics of Biological Games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowak, Martin A.; Sigmund, Karl

    2004-02-01

    Darwinian dynamics based on mutation and selection form the core of mathematical models for adaptation and coevolution of biological populations. The evolutionary outcome is often not a fitness-maximizing equilibrium but can include oscillations and chaos. For studying frequency-dependent selection, game-theoretic arguments are more appropriate than optimization algorithms. Replicator and adaptive dynamics describe short- and long-term evolution in phenotype space and have found applications ranging from animal behavior and ecology to speciation, macroevolution, and human language. Evolutionary game theory is an essential component of a mathematical and computational approach to biology.

  4. Locally-adaptive and memetic evolutionary pattern search algorithms.

    PubMed

    Hart, William E

    2003-01-01

    Recent convergence analyses of evolutionary pattern search algorithms (EPSAs) have shown that these methods have a weak stationary point convergence theory for a broad class of unconstrained and linearly constrained problems. This paper describes how the convergence theory for EPSAs can be adapted to allow each individual in a population to have its own mutation step length (similar to the design of evolutionary programing and evolution strategies algorithms). These are called locally-adaptive EPSAs (LA-EPSAs) since each individual's mutation step length is independently adapted in different local neighborhoods. The paper also describes a variety of standard formulations of evolutionary algorithms that can be used for LA-EPSAs. Further, it is shown how this convergence theory can be applied to memetic EPSAs, which use local search to refine points within each iteration. PMID:12804096

  5. Achieving sustainable plant disease management through evolutionary principles.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Jiasui; Thrall, Peter H; Burdon, Jeremy J

    2014-09-01

    Plants and their pathogens are engaged in continuous evolutionary battles and sustainable disease management requires novel systems to create environments conducive for short-term and long-term disease control. In this opinion article, we argue that knowledge of the fundamental factors that drive host-pathogen coevolution in wild systems can provide new insights into disease development in agriculture. Such evolutionary principles can be used to guide the formulation of sustainable disease management strategies which can minimize disease epidemics while simultaneously reducing pressure on pathogens to evolve increased infectivity and aggressiveness. To ensure agricultural sustainability, disease management programs that reflect the dynamism of pathogen population structure are essential and evolutionary biologists should play an increasing role in their design. PMID:24853471

  6. Individual-based modeling of ecological and evolutionary processes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeAngelis, Donald L.; Mooij, Wolf M.

    2005-01-01

    Individual-based models (IBMs) allow the explicit inclusion of individual variation in greater detail than do classical differential-equation and difference-equation models. Inclusion of such variation is important for continued progress in ecological and evolutionary theory. We provide a conceptual basis for IBMs by describing five major types of individual variation in IBMs: spatial, ontogenetic, phenotypic, cognitive, and genetic. IBMs are now used in almost all subfields of ecology and evolutionary biology. We map those subfields and look more closely at selected key papers on fish recruitment, forest dynamics, sympatric speciation, metapopulation dynamics, maintenance of diversity, and species conservation. Theorists are currently divided on whether IBMs represent only a practical tool for extending classical theory to more complex situations, or whether individual-based theory represents a radically new research program. We feel that the tension between these two poles of thinking can be a source of creativity in ecology and evolutionary theory.

  7. Moral parochialism and contextual contingency across seven societies.

    PubMed

    Fessler, Daniel M T; Barrett, H Clark; Kanovsky, Martin; Stich, Stephen; Holbrook, Colin; Henrich, Joseph; Bolyanatz, Alexander H; Gervais, Matthew M; Gurven, Michael; Kushnick, Geoff; Pisor, Anne C; von Rueden, Christopher; Laurence, Stephen

    2015-08-22

    Human moral judgement may have evolved to maximize the individual's welfare given parochial culturally constructed moral systems. If so, then moral condemnation should be more severe when transgressions are recent and local, and should be sensitive to the pronouncements of authority figures (who are often arbiters of moral norms), as the fitness pay-offs of moral disapproval will primarily derive from the ramifications of condemning actions that occur within the immediate social arena. Correspondingly, moral transgressions should be viewed as less objectionable if they occur in other places or times, or if local authorities deem them acceptable. These predictions contrast markedly with those derived from prevailing non-evolutionary perspectives on moral judgement. Both classes of theories predict purportedly species-typical patterns, yet to our knowledge, no study to date has investigated moral judgement across a diverse set of societies, including a range of small-scale communities that differ substantially from large highly urbanized nations. We tested these predictions in five small-scale societies and two large-scale societies, finding substantial evidence of moral parochialism and contextual contingency in adults' moral judgements. Results reveal an overarching pattern in which moral condemnation reflects a concern with immediate local considerations, a pattern consistent with a variety of evolutionary accounts of moral judgement. PMID:26246545

  8. Moral parochialism and contextual contingency across seven societies

    PubMed Central

    Fessler, Daniel M. T.; Barrett, H. Clark; Kanovsky, Martin; Stich, Stephen; Holbrook, Colin; Henrich, Joseph; Bolyanatz, Alexander H.; Gervais, Matthew M.; Gurven, Michael; Kushnick, Geoff; Pisor, Anne C.; von Rueden, Christopher; Laurence, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Human moral judgement may have evolved to maximize the individual's welfare given parochial culturally constructed moral systems. If so, then moral condemnation should be more severe when transgressions are recent and local, and should be sensitive to the pronouncements of authority figures (who are often arbiters of moral norms), as the fitness pay-offs of moral disapproval will primarily derive from the ramifications of condemning actions that occur within the immediate social arena. Correspondingly, moral transgressions should be viewed as less objectionable if they occur in other places or times, or if local authorities deem them acceptable. These predictions contrast markedly with those derived from prevailing non-evolutionary perspectives on moral judgement. Both classes of theories predict purportedly species-typical patterns, yet to our knowledge, no study to date has investigated moral judgement across a diverse set of societies, including a range of small-scale communities that differ substantially from large highly urbanized nations. We tested these predictions in five small-scale societies and two large-scale societies, finding substantial evidence of moral parochialism and contextual contingency in adults' moral judgements. Results reveal an overarching pattern in which moral condemnation reflects a concern with immediate local considerations, a pattern consistent with a variety of evolutionary accounts of moral judgement. PMID:26246545

  9. Perceived consequences of evolution: College students perceive negative personal and social impact in evolutionary theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brem, Sarah K.; Ranney, Michael; Schindel, Jennifer

    2003-03-01

    Evolutionary science has consequences for individuals and society, ranging from the way we interpret human behavior to our notions of spirituality and the purpose of our existence. Popular portrayals of evolution depict a paradoxical theory, a source of knowledge and human connections, but also a threat to our humanity and freedom. Using quantitative and qualitative methodology, we examined how college-educated adults (n = 135) from diverse ethnic and religious backgrounds perceive the impact of evolutionary theory on individuals and society. We identified a continuum of perspectives, ranging from strong creationist to strong evolutionist. Using the model of knowledge as an ecology (Demastes, Good, & Peebles, Science Education, 79, 637-666, 1995; Nardi & O'Day, Information ecologies: Using technology with heart, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 1999), we examined the relationships among participants' beliefs, their perceptions regarding the social and personal impact of evolutionary theory, their prior exposure to and knowledge of evolutionary theory, and their opinions regarding the teaching of evolution. Evolutionists and creationists differed in their prior exposure to evolutionary theory, and their opinions about some aspects of teaching, but showed striking similarities regarding perceived impact. All groups viewed the consequences of accepting evolutionary principles in a way that might be considered undesirable: increased selfishness and racism, decreased spirituality, and a decreased sense of purpose and self-determination. From a science education perspective, this one-sided interpretation is troublesome because it runs counter to the available evidence and theories in evolutionary science, and we consider ways of fostering more balanced presentation and appraisal of evolutionary theory.

  10. Anticipatory Mechanisms in Evolutionary Living Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubois, Daniel M.; Holmberg, Stig C.

    2010-11-01

    This paper deals firstly with a revisiting of Darwin's theory of Natural Selection. Darwin in his book never uses the word "evolution", but shows a clear position about mutability of species. Darwin's Natural Selection was mainly inspired by the anticipatory Artificial Selection by humans in domestication, and the Malthus struggle for existence. Darwin showed that the struggle for existence leads to the preservation of the most divergent offspring of any one species. He cited several times the canon of "Natura non facit saltum". He spoke about the origin of life from some one primordial form, into which life was first breathed. Finally, Darwin made anticipation about the future researches in psychology. This paper cites the work of Ernst Mayr who was the first, after 90 years of an intense scientific debate, to present a new and stable Darwinian paradigm as the "Evolutionary Synthesis" in 1942. To explain what is life, the Living Systems Theory (LST) by J. G. Miller is presented. It is showed that the Autopoietic Systems Theory of Varela et al is also a fundamental component of living systems. In agreement with Darwin, the natural selection is a necessary condition for transformation of biological systems, but is not a sufficient condition. Thus, in this paper we conjecture that an anticipatory evolutionary mechanism exists with the genetic code that is a self-replicating and self-modifying anticipatory program. As demonstrated by Nobel laureate McClintock, evolution in genomes is programmed. The word "program" comes from "pro-gram" meaning to write before, by anticipation, and means a plan for the programming of a mechanism, or a sequence of coded instructions that can be inserted into a mechanism, or a sequence of coded instructions, as genes of behavioural responses, that is part of an organism. For example, cell death may be programmed by what is called the apoptosis. This definitively is a great breakthrough in our understanding of biological evolution. Hence

  11. Evolutionary Psychology and Intelligence Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanazawa, Satoshi

    2010-01-01

    This article seeks to unify two subfields of psychology that have hitherto stood separately: evolutionary psychology and intelligence research/differential psychology. I suggest that general intelligence may simultaneously be an evolved adaptation and an individual-difference variable. Tooby and Cosmides's (1990a) notion of random quantitative…

  12. Cryptic eco-evolutionary dynamics.

    PubMed

    Kinnison, Michael T; Hairston, Nelson G; Hendry, Andrew P

    2015-12-01

    Natural systems harbor complex interactions that are fundamental parts of ecology and evolution. These interactions challenge our inclinations and training to seek the simplest explanations of patterns in nature. Not least is the likelihood that some complex processes might be missed when their patterns look similar to predictions for simpler mechanisms. Along these lines, theory and empirical evidence increasingly suggest that environmental, ecological, phenotypic, and genetic processes can be tightly intertwined, resulting in complex and sometimes surprising eco-evolutionary dynamics. The goal of this review is to temper inclinations to unquestioningly seek the simplest explanations in ecology and evolution, by recognizing that some eco-evolutionary outcomes may appear very similar to purely ecological, purely evolutionary, or even null expectations, and thus be cryptic. We provide theoretical and empirical evidence for observational biases and mechanisms that might operate among the various links in eco-evolutionary feedbacks to produce cryptic patterns. Recognition that cryptic dynamics can be associated with outcomes like stability, resilience, recovery, or coexistence in a dynamically changing world provides added impetus for finding ways to study them. PMID:26619300

  13. Erotomanic stalking in evolutionary perspective.

    PubMed

    Brüne, Martin

    2003-01-01

    Erotomania, the delusion of being loved by another person, comprises marked sex differences concerning prevalence rates and behavior. Whereas traditional psychiatry has considered erotomania to be almost entirely restricted to women, recent studies have revealed that criminal offenses associated with the condition occur much more frequently in men. The main hypothesis of this article is that these findings may be explained in terms of evolutionary theory. Erotomania, accordingly, may be viewed as a pathological variant of a specific sexual strategy that evolved under selection pressures of the human environment of evolutionary adaptedness. The overt behavior is related to the pursuit of long-term mating, its potentially beneficial effect on inclusive fitness of the individual, and disparate strategies of the sexes to ensure sexual fidelity of the potential partner. Therefore, the evolutionary approach provides a plausible explanation as to why forensically relevant erotomania prevails in men. The pathological process of delusional misinterpretation of perceived signals from the social environment itself may result from poor reality testing due to a failure of social meta-cognition. The evolutionary perspective may provide additional insights into the nature of sex-specific behaviors and may improve our understanding of forensically relevant behaviors. PMID:12579619

  14. Statistical Methods for Evolutionary Trees

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, A. W. F.

    2009-01-01

    In 1963 and 1964, L. L. Cavalli-Sforza and A. W. F. Edwards introduced novel methods for computing evolutionary trees from genetical data, initially for human populations from blood-group gene frequencies. The most important development was their introduction of statistical methods of estimation applied to stochastic models of evolution. PMID:19797062

  15. Current Issues in Evolutionary Paleontology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scully, Erik Paul

    1987-01-01

    Describes some of the contributions made by the field of paleontology to theories in geology and biology. Suggests that the two best examples of modern evolutionary paleontology relate to the theory of punctuated equilibria, and the possibility that mass extinctions may be cyclic. (TW)

  16. Euryhalinity in an evolutionary context

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schultz, Eric T.; McCormick, Stephen D.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the evolutionary importance and taxonomic distribution of euryhalinity. Euryhalinity refers to broad halotolerance and broad halohabitat distribution. Salinity exposure experiments have demonstrated that species vary tenfold in their range of tolerable salinity levels, primarily because of differences in upper limits. Halotolerance breadth varies with the species’ evolutionary history, as represented by its ordinal classification, and with the species’ halohabitat. Freshwater and seawater species tolerate brackish water; their empirically-determined fundamental haloniche is broader than their realized haloniche, as revealed by the halohabitats they occupy. With respect to halohabitat distribution, a minority of species (<10%) are euryhaline. Habitat-euryhalinity is prevalent among basal actinopterygian fishes, is largely absent from orders arising from intermediate nodes, and reappears in the most derived taxa. There is pronounced family-level variability in the tendency to be halohabitat-euryhaline, which may have arisen during a burst of diversification following the Cretaceous-Palaeogene extinction. Low prevalence notwithstanding, euryhaline species are potent sources of evolutionary diversity. Euryhalinity is regarded as a key innovation trait whose evolution enables exploitation of new adaptive zone, triggering cladogenesis. We review phylogenetically-informed studies that demonstrate freshwater species diversifying from euryhaline ancestors through processes such as landlocking. These studies indicate that some euryhaline taxa are particularly susceptible to changes in halohabitat and subsequent diversification, and some geographic regions have been hotspots for transitions to freshwater. Comparative studies on mechanisms among multiple taxa and at multiple levels of biological integration are needed to clarify evolutionary pathways to, and from, euryhalinity.

  17. The Challange of Evolutionary Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banathy, Bela H.

    Emerging educational needs in the interdependent world of the Information Age are explored. The current global human predicament in the historical context of the evolution of human systems is examined. A description is given of a systems view of the current evolutionary stage and the new educational needs of the Information Age that can be derived…

  18. The extended evolutionary synthesis: its structure, assumptions and predictions

    PubMed Central

    Laland, Kevin N.; Uller, Tobias; Feldman, Marcus W.; Sterelny, Kim; Müller, Gerd B.; Moczek, Armin; Jablonka, Eva; Odling-Smee, John

    2015-01-01

    Scientific activities take place within the structured sets of ideas and assumptions that define a field and its practices. The conceptual framework of evolutionary biology emerged with the Modern Synthesis in the early twentieth century and has since expanded into a highly successful research program to explore the processes of diversification and adaptation. Nonetheless, the ability of that framework satisfactorily to accommodate the rapid advances in developmental biology, genomics and ecology has been questioned. We review some of these arguments, focusing on literatures (evo-devo, developmental plasticity, inclusive inheritance and niche construction) whose implications for evolution can be interpreted in two ways—one that preserves the internal structure of contemporary evolutionary theory and one that points towards an alternative conceptual framework. The latter, which we label the ‘extended evolutionary synthesis' (EES), retains the fundaments of evolutionary theory, but differs in its emphasis on the role of constructive processes in development and evolution, and reciprocal portrayals of causation. In the EES, developmental processes, operating through developmental bias, inclusive inheritance and niche construction, share responsibility for the direction and rate of evolution, the origin of character variation and organism–environment complementarity. We spell out the structure, core assumptions and novel predictions of the EES, and show how it can be deployed to stimulate and advance research in those fields that study or use evolutionary biology. PMID:26246559

  19. Commentary: tempo of evolutionary change in ecological systems.

    PubMed

    Collins, James P

    2015-04-01

    As ecology and evolutionary biology developed during the 20th century one thing that frustrated an integration of research programs in these areas was the assumption that ecological and evolutionary processes operated on very different time scales. In 1961 the ecologist Lawrence Slobodkin reflected this assumption in his distinction between "evolutionary time" and "ecological time." This commentary reflects on the four papers in this Special Section that advance our understanding of the history of research at the intersection of phenotypes, genotypes, ecology, and evolution using plants as study organisms. Early in the 20th century at least some researchers, especially in agricultural systems, were already using observations and experiments to show how natural selection could operate over relatively short time periods and small spatial scales. These four studies offer a more nuanced view of the history of our understanding of the rate of phenotypic change via natural selection and the use of experiments to study evolutionary change. They illuminate the route that has led to the current presumption that in many cases ecological and evolutionary processes may indeed operate on similar, not dissimilar, time scales. PMID:25708203

  20. The extended evolutionary synthesis: its structure, assumptions and predictions.

    PubMed

    Laland, Kevin N; Uller, Tobias; Feldman, Marcus W; Sterelny, Kim; Müller, Gerd B; Moczek, Armin; Jablonka, Eva; Odling-Smee, John

    2015-08-22

    Scientific activities take place within the structured sets of ideas and assumptions that define a field and its practices. The conceptual framework of evolutionary biology emerged with the Modern Synthesis in the early twentieth century and has since expanded into a highly successful research program to explore the processes of diversification and adaptation. Nonetheless, the ability of that framework satisfactorily to accommodate the rapid advances in developmental biology, genomics and ecology has been questioned. We review some of these arguments, focusing on literatures (evo-devo, developmental plasticity, inclusive inheritance and niche construction) whose implications for evolution can be interpreted in two ways—one that preserves the internal structure of contemporary evolutionary theory and one that points towards an alternative conceptual framework. The latter, which we label the 'extended evolutionary synthesis' (EES), retains the fundaments of evolutionary theory, but differs in its emphasis on the role of constructive processes in development and evolution, and reciprocal portrayals of causation. In the EES, developmental processes, operating through developmental bias, inclusive inheritance and niche construction, share responsibility for the direction and rate of evolution, the origin of character variation and organism-environment complementarity. We spell out the structure, core assumptions and novel predictions of the EES, and show how it can be deployed to stimulate and advance research in those fields that study or use evolutionary biology. PMID:26246559

  1. Climate Extremes and Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mote, Philip

    2009-10-01

    In October 2005, as the United States still was reeling from Hurricane Katrina in August and as the alphabet was too short to contain all of that year's named Atlantic tropical storms (Hurricane Wilma was forming near Jamaica), a timely workshop in Bermuda focused on climate extremes and society (see Eos, 87(3), 25, 17 January 2006). This edited volume, which corresponds roughly to the presentations given at that workshop, offers a fascinating look at the critically important intersection of acute climate stress and human vulnerabilities. A changing climate affects humans and other living things not through the variable that most robustly demonstrates the role of rising greenhouse gases—globally averaged temperature—but through local changes, especially changes in extremes. The first part of this book, “Defining and modeling the nature of weather and climate extremes,” focuses on natural science. The second part, “Impacts of weather and climate extremes,” focuses on societal impacts and responses, emphasizing an insurance industry perspective because a primary sponsor of the workshop was the Risk Prediction Initiative, whose aim is to “support scientific research on topics of interest to its sponsors” (p. 320).

  2. Understanding evolutionary potential in virtual CPU instruction set architectures.

    PubMed

    Bryson, David M; Ofria, Charles

    2013-01-01

    We investigate fundamental decisions in the design of instruction set architectures for linear genetic programs that are used as both model systems in evolutionary biology and underlying solution representations in evolutionary computation. We subjected digital organisms with each tested architecture to seven different computational environments designed to present a range of evolutionary challenges. Our goal was to engineer a general purpose architecture that would be effective under a broad range of evolutionary conditions. We evaluated six different types of architectural features for the virtual CPUs: (1) genetic flexibility: we allowed digital organisms to more precisely modify the function of genetic instructions, (2) memory: we provided an increased number of registers in the virtual CPUs, (3) decoupled sensors and actuators: we separated input and output operations to enable greater control over data flow. We also tested a variety of methods to regulate expression: (4) explicit labels that allow programs to dynamically refer to specific genome positions, (5) position-relative search instructions, and (6) multiple new flow control instructions, including conditionals and jumps. Each of these features also adds complication to the instruction set and risks slowing evolution due to epistatic interactions. Two features (multiple argument specification and separated I/O) demonstrated substantial improvements in the majority of test environments, along with versions of each of the remaining architecture modifications that show significant improvements in multiple environments. However, some tested modifications were detrimental, though most exhibit no systematic effects on evolutionary potential, highlighting the robustness of digital evolution. Combined, these observations enhance our understanding of how instruction architecture impacts evolutionary potential, enabling the creation of architectures that support more rapid evolution of complex solutions to a

  3. Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology

    MedlinePlus

    The Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology PATIENTS Patient Information What Is SART? Risks of IVF Third Party Reproduction A Patient's Guide to Assisted Reproductive Technology Frequently Asked ...

  4. Subwavelength Lattice Optics by Evolutionary Design

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a new class of structured optical materials—lattice opto-materials—that can manipulate the flow of visible light into a wide range of three-dimensional profiles using evolutionary design principles. Lattice opto-materials are based on the discretization of a surface into a two-dimensional (2D) subwavelength lattice whose individual lattice sites can be controlled to achieve a programmed optical response. To access a desired optical property, we designed a lattice evolutionary algorithm that includes and optimizes contributions from every element in the lattice. Lattice opto-materials can exhibit simple properties, such as on- and off-axis focusing, and can also concentrate light into multiple, discrete spots. We expanded the unit cell shapes of the lattice to achieve distinct, polarization-dependent optical responses from the same 2D patterned substrate. Finally, these lattice opto-materials can also be combined into architectures that resemble a new type of compound flat lens. PMID:25380062

  5. Stochastic Evolutionary Algorithms for Planning Robot Paths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fink, Wolfgang; Aghazarian, Hrand; Huntsberger, Terrance; Terrile, Richard

    2006-01-01

    A computer program implements stochastic evolutionary algorithms for planning and optimizing collision-free paths for robots and their jointed limbs. Stochastic evolutionary algorithms can be made to produce acceptably close approximations to exact, optimal solutions for path-planning problems while often demanding much less computation than do exhaustive-search and deterministic inverse-kinematics algorithms that have been used previously for this purpose. Hence, the present software is better suited for application aboard robots having limited computing capabilities (see figure). The stochastic aspect lies in the use of simulated annealing to (1) prevent trapping of an optimization algorithm in local minima of an energy-like error measure by which the fitness of a trial solution is evaluated while (2) ensuring that the entire multidimensional configuration and parameter space of the path-planning problem is sampled efficiently with respect to both robot joint angles and computation time. Simulated annealing is an established technique for avoiding local minima in multidimensional optimization problems, but has not, until now, been applied to planning collision-free robot paths by use of low-power computers.

  6. Subwavelength lattice optics by evolutionary design.

    PubMed

    Huntington, Mark D; Lauhon, Lincoln J; Odom, Teri W

    2014-12-10

    This paper describes a new class of structured optical materials--lattice opto-materials--that can manipulate the flow of visible light into a wide range of three-dimensional profiles using evolutionary design principles. Lattice opto-materials are based on the discretization of a surface into a two-dimensional (2D) subwavelength lattice whose individual lattice sites can be controlled to achieve a programmed optical response. To access a desired optical property, we designed a lattice evolutionary algorithm that includes and optimizes contributions from every element in the lattice. Lattice opto-materials can exhibit simple properties, such as on- and off-axis focusing, and can also concentrate light into multiple, discrete spots. We expanded the unit cell shapes of the lattice to achieve distinct, polarization-dependent optical responses from the same 2D patterned substrate. Finally, these lattice opto-materials can also be combined into architectures that resemble a new type of compound flat lens. PMID:25380062

  7. Computational Physics and Evolutionary Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontana, Walter

    2000-03-01

    One aspect of computational physics deals with the characterization of statistical regularities in materials. Computational physics meets biology when these materials can evolve. RNA molecules are a case in point. The folding of RNA sequences into secondary structures (shapes) inspires a simple biophysically grounded genotype-phenotype map that can be explored computationally and in the laboratory. We have identified some statistical regularities of this map and begin to understand their evolutionary consequences. (1) ``typical shapes'': Only a small subset of shapes realized by the RNA folding map is typical, in the sense of containing shapes that are realized significantly more often than others. Consequence: evolutionary histories mostly involve typical shapes, and thus exhibit generic properties. (2) ``neutral networks'': Sequences folding into the same shape are mutationally connected into a network that reaches across sequence space. Consequence: Evolutionary transitions between shapes reflect the fraction of boundary shared by the corresponding neutral networks in sequence space. The notion of a (dis)continuous transition can be made rigorous. (3) ``shape space covering'': Given a random sequence, a modest number of mutations suffices to reach a sequence realizing any typical shape. Consequence: The effective search space for evolutionary optimization is greatly reduced, and adaptive success is less dependent on initial conditions. (4) ``plasticity mirrors variability'': The repertoire of low energy shapes of a sequence is an indicator of how much and in which ways its energetically optimal shape can be altered by a single point mutation. Consequence: (i) Thermodynamic shape stability and mutational robustness are intimately linked. (ii) When natural selection favors the increase of stability, extreme mutational robustness -- to the point of an evolutionary dead-end -- is produced as a side effect. (iii) The hallmark of robust shapes is modularity.

  8. Knowledge, Society, Higher Education and the Society of Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hostaker, Roar; Vabo, Agnete

    2008-01-01

    Research and higher education are, to a greater extent, being governed and evaluated by other than fellow scholars. These changes are discussed in relation to Gilles Deleuze's notion of a transition from "societies of discipline" to what he called "societies of control". This involves a shift from pyramid-shaped organisations, built upon…

  9. Science, Society, and Social Networking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, K. S.; Lohwater, T.

    2009-12-01

    The increased use of social networking is changing the way that scientific societies interact with their members and others. The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) uses a variety of online networks to engage its members and the broader scientific community. AAAS members and non-members can interact with AAAS staff and each other on AAAS sites on Facebook, YouTube, and Twitter, as well as blogs and forums on the AAAS website (www.aaas.org). These tools allow scientists to more readily become engaged in policy by providing information on current science policy topics as well as methods of involvement. For example, members and the public can comment on policy-relevant stories from Science magazine’s ScienceInsider blog, download a weekly policy podcast, receive a weekly email update of policy issues affecting the scientific community, or watch a congressional hearing from their computer. AAAS resource websites and outreach programs, including Communicating Science (www.aaas.org/communicatingscience), Working with Congress (www.aaas.org/spp/cstc/) and Science Careers (http://sciencecareers.sciencemag.org) also provide tools for scientists to become more personally engaged in communicating their findings and involved in the policy process.

  10. Technology and Society: A Futuristic Perspective. Teacher's Guide. Preparing for Tomorrow's World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iozzi, Louis A.; And Others

    "Technology and Society: A Futuristic Perspective" is one of the "Preparing for Tomorrow's World" (PTW) program modules. PTW is an interdisciplinary, future-oriented program incorporating information from the sciences and social sciences and addressing societal concerns which interface science/technology/society. The program promotes responsible…

  11. Role of Scientific Societies in International Collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fucugauchi, J. U.

    2007-12-01

    Geophysical research increasingly requires global multidisciplinary approaches. Understanding how deeply interrelated are Earth components and processes, population growth, increased needs of mineral and energy resources, global impact of human activities, and view of our planet as an interconnected system emphasizes the need of international cooperation. International research collaboration has an immense potential and is needed for further development of Earth science research and education. The Union Session is planned to provide a forum for analysis and discussion of the status of research and education of geosciences in developing countries, international collaboration programs and new initiatives for promoting and strengthening scientific cooperation. A theme of particular relevance in the analyses and discussions is the role of scientific societies in international collaboration. Societies organize meetings, publish journals and books and promote cooperation through academic exchange activities. They may further assist communities in developing countries in providing and facilitating access to scientific literature, attendance to international meetings, short and long-term stays and student and young researcher mobility. What else can be done? This is a complex subject and scientific societies may not be seen independently from the many factors involved in research and education. Developing countries present additional challenges resulting from limited economic resources and social and political problems, while urgently requiring improved educational and research programs. Needed are in-depth analyses of infrastructure and human resources, and identification of major problems and needs. What are the major limitations and needs in research and postgraduate education in developing countries? What and how should international collaboration do? What are the roles of individuals, academic institutions, funding agencies, scientific societies? Here we attempt to

  12. Cryptic plasticity underlies a major evolutionary transition.

    PubMed

    Field, Jeremy; Paxton, Robert J; Soro, Antonella; Bridge, Catherine

    2010-11-23

    The origin of eusociality is often regarded as a change of macroevolutionary proportions [1, 2]. Its hallmark is a reproductive division of labor between the members of a society: some individuals ("helpers" or "workers") forfeit their own reproduction to rear offspring of others ("queens"). In the Hymenoptera (ants, bees, wasps), there have been many transitions in both directions between solitary nesting and sociality [2-5]. How have such transitions occurred? One possibility is that multiple transitions represent repeated evolutionary gains and losses of the traits underpinning sociality. A second possibility, however, is that once sociality has evolved, subsequent transitions represent selection at just one or a small number of loci controlling developmental switches between preexisting alternative phenotypes [2, 6]. We might then expect transitional populations that can express either sociality or solitary nesting, depending on environmental conditions. Here, we use field transplants to directly induce transitions in British and Irish populations of the sweat bee Halictus rubicundus. Individual variation in social phenotype was linked to time available for offspring production, and to the genetic benefits of sociality, suggesting that helping was not simply misplaced parental care [7]. We thereby demonstrate that sociality itself can be truly plastic in a hymenopteran. PMID:21055940

  13. Evolutionary branching under multi-dimensional evolutionary constraints.

    PubMed

    Ito, Hiroshi; Sasaki, Akira

    2016-10-21

    The fitness of an existing phenotype and of a potential mutant should generally depend on the frequencies of other existing phenotypes. Adaptive evolution driven by such frequency-dependent fitness functions can be analyzed effectively using adaptive dynamics theory, assuming rare mutation and asexual reproduction. When possible mutations are restricted to certain directions due to developmental, physiological, or physical constraints, the resulting adaptive evolution may be restricted to subspaces (constraint surfaces) with fewer dimensionalities than the original trait spaces. To analyze such dynamics along constraint surfaces efficiently, we develop a Lagrange multiplier method in the framework of adaptive dynamics theory. On constraint surfaces of arbitrary dimensionalities described with equality constraints, our method efficiently finds local evolutionarily stable strategies, convergence stable points, and evolutionary branching points. We also derive the conditions for the existence of evolutionary branching points on constraint surfaces when the shapes of the surfaces can be chosen freely. PMID:27444402

  14. Multilevel selection and social evolution of insect societies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korb, Judith; Heinze, Jürgen

    How sterile, altruistic worker castes have evolved in social insects and how they are maintained have long been central topics in evolutionary biology. With the advance of kin selection theory, insect societies, in particular those of haplodiploid bees, ants, and wasps, have become highly suitable model systems for investigating the details of social evolution and recently also how within-group conflicts are resolved. Because insect societies typically do not consist of clones, conflicts among nestmates arise, for example about the partitioning of reproduction and the allocation of resources towards male and female sexuals. Variation in relatedness among group members therefore appears to have a profound influence on the social structure of groups. However, insect societies appear to be remarkably robust against such variation: division of labor and task allocation are often organized in more or less the same way in societies with high as in those with very low nestmate relatedness. To explain the discrepancy between predictions from kin structure and empirical data, it was suggested that constraints-such as the lack of power or information-prevent individuals from pursuing their own selfish interests. Applying a multilevel selection approach shows that these constraints are in fact group-level adaptation preventing or resolving intracolonial conflict. The mechanisms of conflict resolution in insect societies are similar to those at other levels in the biological hierarchy (e.g., in the genome or multicellular organisms): alignment of interests, fair lottery, and social control. Insect societies can thus be regarded as a level of selection with novelties that provide benefits beyond the scope of a solitary life. Therefore, relatedness is less important for the maintenance of insect societies, although it played a fundamental role in their evolution.

  15. 1987 Salaries: Society Membership Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellman, Dawn; Skelton, W. Keith

    Nationwide data are provided on the 1987 salaries of members of each of the American Institute of Physics' 10 member societies. Of the approximately 13,600 society members who were mailed a questionnaire, 61% responded. Data are presented by: degree level, type of employer, gender, salaries for PhDs by geographic location, PhD salaries by…

  16. Making the Good Society Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, John

    2010-01-01

    Everyone is talking about civil society. Perhaps it's the election, and the shock of seeing more voters at the polling booths than anyone had expected. Now David Cameron's idea of a "big society" is being translated into some early policy measures. Does today's debate have anything to do with adult learning? The author believes that the debate…

  17. The Learning Society: Two Justifications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Su, Ya-hui

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the view that has long been fashionable in related policies and literature that the establishment of the learning society is a necessary response to changing times. This article suggests that the association between the learning society and current change may be defensible but is limited. The justification of the learning…

  18. Colleges Enter the Information Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Current Issues in Higher Education, 1983

    1983-01-01

    The implications for higher education of the U.S. transformation from an industrial to an information society are discussed in six papers. Russell Edgerton provides an overview in "Entering the Information Society: An Introduction." In "The Computer: An Enabling Instrument," Louis Robinson considers the current era of the personalization of the…

  19. Education for an Open Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Della-Dora, Delmo, Ed.; House, James E., Ed.

    This yearbook focuses on the issue of opening the society for all people, particularly for those who have not been properly represented heretofore. Part 1 reviews some of the progress made toward an open society during the past two decades. It delineates the exasperatingly slow but important gains that have been registered since the Supreme Court…

  20. [Living in a Temporary Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennis, Warren G.

    Society is in the process of accelerated change and the institutionalization of this change through research and technology. Other factors affecting American society are an increase in affluence, an elevation of the educational level of the population, and a growing interdependence of institutions. The fact that this country is currently going…

  1. Education in a Postindustrial Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatch, Orrin G.

    1982-01-01

    The United States has emerged as the first postindustrial society, that is, one that is organized around information and its codification and the use of that information to guide government employers and the public at large. Because of this evolution, education must change to meet society's changing needs. (JOW)

  2. Social work in postindustrial society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowenstein, Edward R.

    1973-01-01

    Two major trends mark the transformation of industrial society into postindustrial society--increased social complexity and rapid social change. This article projects an image of social work in the future by describing some major problems people may face and presenting a model of an agency that might deal with them. (Author)

  3. Psychotherapy in a Pluralistic Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sisson, Lee Hansen

    A new model for psychotherapy, mandated by current evolution to a pluralistic society, is proposed in this paper. After describing the Big Island of Hawaii as a microcosm of pluralistic society, the author discusses her clinical and educational practice and explores the multi-ethnic population. An individual assessment and treatment matrix is…

  4. Evolutionary use of nuclear electric propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Hack, K.J.; George, J.A.; Riehl, J.P.; Gilland, J.H.

    1990-01-01

    Evolving new propulsion technologies through a rational and conscious effort to minimize development costs and program risks while maximizing the performance benefits is intuitively practical. A phased approach to the evolution of nuclear electric propulsion from use on planetary probes, to lunar cargo vehicles, and finally to manned Mars missions with a concomitant growth in technology is considered. Technology levels and system component makeup are discussed for nuclear power systems and both ion and magnetoplasmadynamic thrusters. Mission scenarios are described, which include analysis of a probe to Pluto, a lunar cargo mission, Martian split, all-up, and quick-trip mission options. Evolutionary progression of the use of NEP in such missions is discussed. 26 refs.

  5. An evolutionary strategy for space nuclear power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, Gary L.

    1996-03-01

    A number of exciting mission opportunities are being considered for the 21st century, including (1) advanced robotic science missions to the outer planets and beyond; (2) advanced space transportation systems; and (3) human exploration of the Moon and Mars. Several of these missions will require some form of nuclear power; however, it is clear that current budgetary constraints preclude developing many different types of space nuclear power systems. This paper reviews the specific civil space missions which have been identified, the power levels and lifetimes required, and the technologies available. From this an evolutionary space nuclear power program is developed which builds upon the experience of radioisotope thermoelectric generators, improved static and dynamic isotope power systems, and space nuclear reactors. It is strongly suggested that not only does this approach make technical and budgetary sense but that it is consistent with the normal development of new technologies.

  6. Evolutionary use of nuclear electric propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hack, K. J.; George, J. A.; Riehl, J. P.; Gilland, J. H.

    1990-01-01

    Evolving new propulsion technologies through a rational and conscious effort to minimize development costs and program risks while maximizing the performance benefits is intuitively practical. A phased approach to the evolution of nuclear electric propulsion from use on planetary probes, to lunar cargo vehicles, and finally to manned Mars missions with a concomitant growth in technology is considered. Technology levels and system component makeup are discussed for nuclear power systems and both ion and magnetoplasmadynamic thrusters. Mission scenarios are described, which include analysis of a probe to Pluto, a lunar cargo mission, Martian split, all-up, and quick-trip mission options. Evolutionary progression of the use of NEP in such missions is discussed.

  7. Linking Research to Policy, Practice, and Education: Lessons Learned, Tasks Ahead. Program Abstracts. Annual Scientific Meeting of the Gerontological Society of America (53rd, Washington, DC, November 17-21, 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerontologist, 2000

    2000-01-01

    This publication contains abstracts from the 53rd annual meeting of the Gerontological Society of America. The abstracts are arranged numerically by the session number in which they appear. Several abstracts are listed under each of the 388 sessions. Although the sessions are not limited to one topic, the dominant theme is education concerning all…

  8. Paperless or vanishing society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner Luke, Joy

    2002-06-01

    In the 1940s color photography became available and within a few years, extremely popular. As people switched from black and white photographs made with the old metallic silver process to the new color films, pictures taken to record their lives and families began a slow disappearing act. The various color processes, coupled with the substrates they were printed on, affected their longevity, but many color photographs taken from the late 1950s through the 1970s, and even into the 1980s, faded not only when exposed to the light, but also when stored in the dark. Henry Wilhelm's excellent book 'The Permanence and Care of Color Photographs' documents this history in detail. Today we are making another transition in the storage of pictures and information. There are questions about the longevity of different types of digital storage, and also of the images printed by various types of inkjet printers, or by laser printers using colored toners. Very expensive and very beautiful works of art produced on Iris printers are appearing in art exhibitions. Some of these are referred to as Giclee prints and are offered on excellent papers. Artists are told the prints will last a lifetime; and if by change they don't it is only necessary to make another print. Henry Wilhelm has begun to test and rate these images for lightfastness; however, his test method was developed for examining longevity in colored photographs. It is of interest to find out how these prints will hold up in the tests required for fine art materials. Thus far companies producing digital inks and printers have not invested the time and money necessary to develop an American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standard method for evaluating the lightfastness of digital prints. However, it is possible to use ASTM D 5383, Standard Practice for Visual Determination of the Lightfastness of Art Materials by Art Technologists, to pinpoint colors that will fade in a short time, even though the test is not as

  9. Advanced information society (8)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimoda, Hirotsugu

    As technology such as computer, office automation equipments, industrial robots have come into wide use, mental and physical fatigue called technostress as well as health injury has become social issues. Some people attribute this technostress to psychological unrest created by masscommunication or to computer works. On the other hand other people have been conducting investigations of the stress caused by programming works, and gathering information on the related symptoms. The expression and causes of technostress are diverse depending on the kind of computer related labor, therefore, it is necessary to have delicate and detailed countermeasures against it. However, after all technostress is much concerned with individuals' life style and industrial climate.

  10. Ultimate realities: deterministic and evolutionary.

    PubMed

    Moxley, Roy A

    2007-01-01

    References to ultimate reality commonly turn up in the behavioral literature as references to determinism. However, this determinism is often difficult to interpret. There are different kinds of determinisms as well as different kinds of ultimate realities for a behaviorist to consider. To clarify some of the issues involved, the views of ultimate realities are treated as falling along a continuum, with extreme views of complete indeterminism and complete determinism at either end and various mixes in between. Doing so brings into play evolutionary realities and the movement from indeterminism to determinism, as in Peirce's evolutionary cosmology. In addition, this framework helps to show how the views of determinism by B. F. Skinner and other behaviorists have shifted over time. PMID:22478489

  11. Ultimate Realities: Deterministic and Evolutionary

    PubMed Central

    Moxley, Roy A

    2007-01-01

    References to ultimate reality commonly turn up in the behavioral literature as references to determinism. However, this determinism is often difficult to interpret. There are different kinds of determinisms as well as different kinds of ultimate realities for a behaviorist to consider. To clarify some of the issues involved, the views of ultimate realities are treated as falling along a continuum, with extreme views of complete indeterminism and complete determinism at either end and various mixes in between. Doing so brings into play evolutionary realities and the movement from indeterminism to determinism, as in Peirce's evolutionary cosmology. In addition, this framework helps to show how the views of determinism by B. F. Skinner and other behaviorists have shifted over time. PMID:22478489

  12. Evolutionary model of stock markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaldasch, Joachim

    2014-12-01

    The paper presents an evolutionary economic model for the price evolution of stocks. Treating a stock market as a self-organized system governed by a fast purchase process and slow variations of demand and supply the model suggests that the short term price distribution has the form a logistic (Laplace) distribution. The long term return can be described by Laplace-Gaussian mixture distributions. The long term mean price evolution is governed by a Walrus equation, which can be transformed into a replicator equation. This allows quantifying the evolutionary price competition between stocks. The theory suggests that stock prices scaled by the price over all stocks can be used to investigate long-term trends in a Fisher-Pry plot. The price competition that follows from the model is illustrated by examining the empirical long-term price trends of two stocks.

  13. Anorexia nervosa: an evolutionary puzzle.

    PubMed

    Gatward, Nicholas

    2007-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) has proven difficult to explain and is especially so from an evolutionary perspective. It is widespread, has probably existed for centuries and includes a genetic component but leads to starvation, infertility and sometimes death. An attempt to explain AN will be made using a synthesis of evolutionary ideas about responses to threat. Dietary restriction is described as a response to perceived threats of exclusion from the group, which would once have been dangerous. This can develop into AN only where the weight loss sets off an ancient adaptive response to the threat of famine. Eating again and weight gain would mean re-entering the competition for status and belonging and are therefore felt as threatening. This synthesis can explain the unusual mix of features found in AN that are otherwise resistant to explanation. PMID:17676667

  14. Future Directions for a Learning Society--1984 and Beyond.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moon, Rexford G., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Future Directions for a Learning Society is a program being conducted by the College Board with funds from the Exxon Corporation to study, plan, demonstrate, and develop new services in the area of adult, lifelong, recurrent, and continuing education. The initiatives and strategic actions of the program are outlined. (JMF)

  15. Analysis of the American Cancer Society's Generation Fit Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Michael; Goodwin, Steve; Ellenberg, Deborah

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the impact of the American Cancer Society's (ACS's) media based peer education program, Message Magic: Selling Healthy Eating and Physical Activity, on participant self-reported dietary and physical activity behaviors and advocacy skill development. High school students participating in the program were required to work as a…

  16. Lesbian tomboys and "evolutionary butch".

    PubMed

    Zevy, Lee

    2004-01-01

    ABSTRACT Lesbian tomboy development occurs within a psychosexual experiential field on a continuum from childhood gender dissonance to evolutionary butch in adulthood. Through the process of integrating gender development, sexual orientation, and identity development, tomboy lesbians learn how to maintain a sense of self and organize desire within a complicated familial/socio/cultural/context. Traversing these complications usually brings adolescent and adult lesbians into therapy where they need clinicians who understand this unique course of development. PMID:24820882

  17. On evolutionary spatial heterogeneous games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fort, H.

    2008-03-01

    How cooperation between self-interested individuals evolve is a crucial problem, both in biology and in social sciences, that is far from being well understood. Evolutionary game theory is a useful approach to this issue. The simplest model to take into account the spatial dimension in evolutionary games is in terms of cellular automata with just a one-parameter payoff matrix. Here, the effects of spatial heterogeneities of the environment and/or asymmetries in the interactions among the individuals are analysed through different extensions of this model. Instead of using the same universal payoff matrix, bimatrix games in which each cell at site ( i, j) has its own different ‘temptation to defect’ parameter T(i,j) are considered. First, the case in which these individual payoffs are constant in time is studied. Second, an evolving evolutionary spatial game such that T=T(i,j;t), i.e. besides depending on the position evolves (by natural selection), is used to explore the combination of spatial heterogeneity and natural selection of payoff matrices.

  18. Evolutionary origins of invasive populations

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Carol Eunmi; Gelembiuk, Gregory William

    2008-01-01

    What factors shape the evolution of invasive populations? Recent theoretical and empirical studies suggest that an evolutionary history of disturbance might be an important factor. This perspective presents hypotheses regarding the impact of disturbance on the evolution of invasive populations, based on a synthesis of the existing literature. Disturbance might select for life-history traits that are favorable for colonizing novel habitats, such as rapid population growth and persistence. Theoretical results suggest that disturbance in the form of fluctuating environments might select for organismal flexibility, or alternatively, the evolution of evolvability. Rapidly fluctuating environments might favor organismal flexibility, such as broad tolerance or plasticity. Alternatively, longer fluctuations or environmental stress might lead to the evolution of evolvability by acting on features of the mutation matrix. Once genetic variance is generated via mutations, temporally fluctuating selection across generations might promote the accumulation and maintenance of genetic variation. Deeper insights into how disturbance in native habitats affects evolutionary and physiological responses of populations would give us greater capacity to predict the populations that are most likely to tolerate or adapt to novel environments during habitat invasions. Moreover, we would gain fundamental insights into the evolutionary origins of invasive populations. PMID:25567726

  19. Superoxide dismutase: an evolutionary puzzle

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Y.M.; Friedman, D.J.; Ayala, F.J.

    1985-02-01

    The authors have obtained the complete amino acid sequence of copper/zinc-containing superoxide dismutase (SOD, superoxide:superoxide oxidoreductase, EC 1.15.1.1) from Drosophila melanogaster. The sequence of this enzyme is also known for man, horse, cow, and the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The rate of evolution of this enzyme is far from constant. The number of amino acid substitutions per 100 residues per 100 million years is 30.9 when the three mammals are compared to each other, 10.6 when Drosophila is compared to the three mammals, and 5.8 when the yeast is compared to the four animals. The first value represents one of the fastest evolutionary rates for any protein, the second is similar to the globin rate, and the third is similar to some cytochromes and other slowly evolving proteins. Hence, SOD is not acceptable evolutionary clock. Another peculiarity of this enzyme is that a two-amino-acid deletion must have occurred independently in the lineages going to the cow and to Drosophila. The authors conclude that using the primary structure of a single gene or protein to time evolutionary events or to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships is potentially fraught with error.

  20. Evolutionary routes to stable ownership.

    PubMed

    Hare, D; Reeve, H K; Blossey, B

    2016-06-01

    Ownership can evolve in potentially any species. Drawing on insights from across disciplines, we distinguish between possession and ownership and present species-neutral criteria for ownership, defined as respect for possession. We use a variant of the tug-of-war evolutionary game to demonstrate how ownership can evolve in the form of a new, biologically realistic strategy, Restraint With Retaliation (RWR). In our game, resource holding potential (RHP) is assumed to be equal between interactants, and resource holding asymmetry determines whether ownership is adaptive. RWR will be evolutionarily stable when the ratio of resource holdings between interactants is relatively low, but not when this ratio is sufficiently high. We offer RWR as one evolutionary route to ownership among many, and discuss how ownership unites previously described behavioural phenomena across taxa. We propose that some but not all mechanisms of territory formation and maintenance can be considered ownership, and show that territories are not the only resources that can be owned. We argue that ownership can be a powerful cooperative solution to tragedies of the commons and problems of collective action throughout the biological world. We advance recent scholarship that has begun to investigate the biological importance of ownership, and we call for a comprehensive account of its evolutionary logic and taxonomic distribution. We propose that ownership should be considered a fundamental, unifying biological phenomenon. PMID:26991035

  1. Evolutionary dynamics in set structured populations

    PubMed Central

    Tarnita, Corina E.; Antal, Tibor; Ohtsuki, Hisashi; Nowak, Martin A.

    2009-01-01

    Evolutionary dynamics are strongly affected by population structure. The outcome of an evolutionary process in a well-mixed population can be very different from that in a structured population. We introduce a powerful method to study dynamical population structure: evolutionary set theory. The individuals of a population are distributed over sets. Individuals interact with others who are in the same set. Any 2 individuals can have several sets in common. Some sets can be empty, whereas others have many members. Interactions occur in terms of an evolutionary game. The payoff of the game is interpreted as fitness. Both the strategy and the set memberships change under evolutionary updating. Therefore, the population structure itself is a consequence of evolutionary dynamics. We construct a general mathematical approach for studying any evolutionary game in set structured populations. As a particular example, we study the evolution of cooperation and derive precise conditions for cooperators to be selected over defectors. PMID:19433793

  2. Light water reactor program

    SciTech Connect

    Franks, S.M.

    1994-12-31

    The US Department of Energy`s Light Water Reactor Program is outlined. The scope of the program consists of: design certification of evolutionary plants; design, development, and design certification of simplified passive plants; first-of-a-kind engineering to achieve commercial standardization; plant lifetime improvement; and advanced reactor severe accident program. These program activities of the Office of Nuclear Energy are discussed.

  3. The focus of women in The American Fertility Society.

    PubMed

    Haseltine, F P; Wentz, A C

    1984-09-01

    This article reports survey responses from 71 female members of the American Fertility Society during the Society's 1984 annual meeting. Survey questions concern 1) demographic factors such as rank, degree, title, address, and number of children, 2) field of specialization and research interests, and 3) what the Society can do for its meeting participants. The typical respondent is a physician living in the Eastern United States and employed as an assistant professor in an academic setting. In vitro fertilization is the greatest area of interest, followed by general practice, endocrine and male infertility, contraception, and fertility surgery. Survey responses show that women are interested in 1) networking, 2) increased visibility at professional meetings, 3) information about research possibilities and grants, 4) child care provision at Society meetings, and 5) more basic science and physiology oriented presentions in the program. In response to networking interests, the Society will make available information from the surveyed members. Since 16% of respondents have a PH.D., and 77% are employed in academics, the Society should consider more basic presentations. The need for day care indicates changes in Society membership. The Society plans to conduct similar surveys on a regular basis. PMID:6468672

  4. Polygyny and polyandry in small ant societies.

    PubMed

    Kellner, K; Trindl, A; Heinze, J; D'Ettorre, P

    2007-06-01

    Social insects, ants in particular, show considerable variation in queen number and mating frequency resulting in a wide range of social structures. The dynamics of reproductive conflicts in insect societies are directly connected to the colony kin structure, thus, the study of relatedness patterns is essential in order to understand the evolutionary resolution of these conflicts. We studied colony kin structure and mating frequencies in two closely related Neotropical ant species Pachycondyla inversa and Pachycondyla villosa. These represent interesting model systems because queens found new colonies cooperatively but, unlike many other ant species, they may still co-exist when the colony becomes mature (primary polygyny). By using five specific and highly variable microsatellite markers, we show that in both species queens usually mate with two or more males and that cofounding queens are always unrelated. Polygynous and polyandrous colonies are characterized by a high genetic diversity, with a mean relatedness coefficient among worker nestmates of 0.27 (+/- 0.03 SE) for P. inversa and 0.31 (+/- 0.05 SE) for P. villosa. However, relatedness among workers of the same matriline is high (0.60 +/- 0.03 in P. inversa, 0.62 +/- 0.08 in P. villosa) since males that mated with the same queen are on average closely related. Hence, we have found a new taxon in social Hymenoptera with high queen-mating frequencies and with intriguing mating and dispersal patterns of the sexuals. PMID:17561897

  5. Genetic Evolutionary Approach for Cutting Forces Prediction in Hard Milling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylan, Fatih; Kayacan, Cengiz

    2011-11-01

    Hard milling is a very common used machining procedure in the last years. Therefore the prediction of cutting forces is important. The paper deals with this prediction using genetic evolutionary programming (GEP) approach to set mathematical expression for out cutting forces. In this study, face milling was performed using DIN1.2842 (90MnCrV8) cold work tool steel, with a hardness of 61 HRC. Experimental parameters were selected using stability measurements and simulations. In the hard milling experiments, cutting force data in a total of three axes were collected. Feed direction (Fx) and tangential direction (Fy) cutting forces generated using genetic evolutionary programming were modelled. Cutting speed and feed rate values were treated as inputs in the models, and average cutting force values as output. Mathematical expressions were created to predict average Fxand Fy forces that can be generated in hard material milling.

  6. War, space, and the evolution of Old World complex societies.

    PubMed

    Turchin, Peter; Currie, Thomas E; Turner, Edward A L; Gavrilets, Sergey

    2013-10-01

    How did human societies evolve from small groups, integrated by face-to-face cooperation, to huge anonymous societies of today, typically organized as states? Why is there so much variation in the ability of different human populations to construct viable states? Existing theories are usually formulated as verbal models and, as a result, do not yield sharply defined, quantitative predictions that could be unambiguously tested with data. Here we develop a cultural evolutionary model that predicts where and when the largest-scale complex societies arose in human history. The central premise of the model, which we test, is that costly institutions that enabled large human groups to function without splitting up evolved as a result of intense competition between societies-primarily warfare. Warfare intensity, in turn, depended on the spread of historically attested military technologies (e.g., chariots and cavalry) and on geographic factors (e.g., rugged landscape). The model was simulated within a realistic landscape of the Afroeurasian landmass and its predictions were tested against a large dataset documenting the spatiotemporal distribution of historical large-scale societies in Afroeurasia between 1,500 BCE and 1,500 CE. The model-predicted pattern of spread of large-scale societies was very similar to the observed one. Overall, the model explained 65% of variance in the data. An alternative model, omitting the effect of diffusing military technologies, explained only 16% of variance. Our results support theories that emphasize the role of institutions in state-building and suggest a possible explanation why a long history of statehood is positively correlated with political stability, institutional quality, and income per capita. PMID:24062433

  7. ISS Update: American Physical Society

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Dan Huot talks with Becky Thompson, head of Public Outreach for the American Physical Society, a professional organization for physicists whose web site hosts astronaut ...

  8. American Society for Clinical Pathology

    MedlinePlus

    ... With the National Cancer Institute for Inaugural Global Pathology Conference March 2016 OneLab Memo ASCP Action Alert - ... 2016 Copyright © 2016 by American Society for Clinical Pathology. All Rights Reserved. Terms of Use About ASCP ...

  9. American Society for Clinical Pathology

    MedlinePlus

    ... Science Letter to Council of Deans: State of Pathology Training in Medical School Help Chart the Future ... Need Copyright © 2016 by American Society for Clinical Pathology. All Rights Reserved. Terms of Use About ASCP ...

  10. The Engineering Societies & Continuing Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Professional Engineer, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Gives a description of what the major engineering societies (ASCE, ASME, AICHE, and IEEE) are doing in the area of continuing education. The description includes the short courses, their costs, duration, type and scope of the content. (GA)

  11. XXXVI Polish Astronomical Society Meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Różańska, Agata; Bejger, Michał

    2014-12-01

    XXXVI meeting of Polish Astronomical Society was held in Warsaw on Sept. 11-14, 2013. The conference brought together 150 astronomers working in different institutes in Poland and abroad. The highlight of the Congress was the first awarding of the Paczynski's Medal. The first laureate of the Medal is Professor Martin Rees from University of Cambridge. Medal was given by the President of the Polish Astronomical Society prof. Bozena Czerny.

  12. Society Membership 1980 Profile: Stability and Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Beverly Fearn; Czujko, Roman

    This 1980 profile provides an overview of employment stability and change among a small random sample of U.S. and Canadian members of The American Institute of Physics (AIP) member societies: The American Physical Society; Optical Society of America; Acoustical Society of America; The Society of Rheology; American Association of Physics Teachers;…

  13. International Skeletal Society outreach 2013: Rwanda.

    PubMed

    Teh, James; Taljanovic, Mihra S; Monu, Johnny

    2014-05-01

    It has been almost 20 years since the horrific events of the Rwandan genocide. Since that time, the country has made a remarkable recovery owing to good government and a great deal of aid. Health-care services are well organized, but remain short of resources and expertise. Musculoskeletal imaging (and treatment) is in its infancy. Given the huge strides that have been made in social order and stability, there is great hope for the future. It is proposed that future International Skeletal Society (ISS) outreach programs plan to make a meaningful commitment to developing expertise in specific hospitals. PMID:24496585

  14. Sexual networks in contemporary Western societies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liljeros, Fredrik

    2004-07-01

    Sexually transmitted infections continue to be a severe health problem in contemporary Western societies, despite the considerable funds allocated for control programs. In this article, we present and discuss a variety of explanations that have been advanced on why this type of disease is so hard to eradicate, despite the fact that the contact by which it is spread is far less frequent than is the case with most other infectious diseases. We conclude that several processes and mechanisms facilitate the spread of sexually infected diseases, and that both broad and targeted intervention is therefore needed to eradicate such diseases.

  15. Identifying constraints in the evolution of primate societies.

    PubMed

    Thierry, Bernard

    2013-05-19

    The evolutionary study of social systems in non-human primates has long been focused on ecological determinants. The predictive value of socio-ecological models remains quite low, however, in particular because such equilibrium models cannot integrate the course of history. The use of phylogenetic methods indicates that many patterns of primate societies have been conserved throughout evolutionary history. For example, the study of social relations in macaques revealed that their social systems are made of sets of correlated behavioural traits. Some macaque species are portrayed by marked social intolerance, a steep dominance gradient and strong nepotism, whereas others display a higher level of social tolerance, relaxed dominance and a weaker influence of kinship. Linkages between behavioural traits occur at different levels of organization, and act as constraints that limit evolutionary responses to external pressures. Whereas these constraints can exert strong stabilizing selection that opposes the potential changes required by the ecological environment, selective mechanisms may have the potential to switch the whole social system from one state to another by acting primarily on some key behavioural traits that could work as pacemakers. PMID:23569290

  16. Identifying constraints in the evolution of primate societies

    PubMed Central

    Thierry, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    The evolutionary study of social systems in non-human primates has long been focused on ecological determinants. The predictive value of socio-ecological models remains quite low, however, in particular because such equilibrium models cannot integrate the course of history. The use of phylogenetic methods indicates that many patterns of primate societies have been conserved throughout evolutionary history. For example, the study of social relations in macaques revealed that their social systems are made of sets of correlated behavioural traits. Some macaque species are portrayed by marked social intolerance, a steep dominance gradient and strong nepotism, whereas others display a higher level of social tolerance, relaxed dominance and a weaker influence of kinship. Linkages between behavioural traits occur at different levels of organization, and act as constraints that limit evolutionary responses to external pressures. Whereas these constraints can exert strong stabilizing selection that opposes the potential changes required by the ecological environment, selective mechanisms may have the potential to switch the whole social system from one state to another by acting primarily on some key behavioural traits that could work as pacemakers. PMID:23569290

  17. Differential susceptibility to the environment: an evolutionary--neurodevelopmental theory.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Bruce J; Boyce, W Thomas; Belsky, Jay; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H

    2011-02-01

    Two extant evolutionary models, biological sensitivity to context theory (BSCT) and differential susceptibility theory (DST), converge on the hypothesis that some individuals are more susceptible than others to both negative (risk-promoting) and positive (development-enhancing) environmental conditions. These models contrast with the currently dominant perspective on personal vulnerability and environmental risk: diathesis stress/dual risk. We review challenges to this perspective based on emerging theory and data from the evolutionary, developmental, and health sciences. These challenges signify the need for a paradigm shift in conceptualizing Person x Environment interactions in development. In this context we advance an evolutionary--neurodevelopmental theory, based on DST and BSCT, of the role of neurobiological susceptibility to the environment in regulating environmental effects on adaptation, development, and health. We then outline current thinking about neurogenomic and endophenotypic mechanisms that may underpin neurobiological susceptibility, summarize extant empirical research on differential susceptibility, and evaluate the evolutionary bases and implications of BSCT and DST. Finally, we discuss applied issues including methodological and statistical considerations in conducting differential susceptibility research; issues of ecological, cultural, and racial--ethnic variation in neurobiological susceptibility; and implications of differential susceptibility for designing social programs. We conclude that the differential susceptibility paradigm has far-reaching implications for understanding whether and how much child and adult development responds, for better and for worse, to the gamut of species-typical environmental conditions. PMID:21262036

  18. SCOPmap: Automated assignment of protein structures to evolutionary superfamilies

    PubMed Central

    Cheek, Sara; Qi, Yuan; Krishna, S Sri; Kinch, Lisa N; Grishin, Nick V

    2004-01-01

    Background Inference of remote homology between proteins is very challenging and remains a prerogative of an expert. Thus a significant drawback to the use of evolutionary-based protein structure classifications is the difficulty in assigning new proteins to unique positions in the classification scheme with automatic methods. To address this issue, we have developed an algorithm to map protein domains to an existing structural classification scheme and have applied it to the SCOP database. Results The general strategy employed by this algorithm is to combine the results of several existing sequence and structure comparison tools applied to a query protein of known structure in order to find the homologs already classified in SCOP database and thus determine classification assignments. The algorithm is able to map domains within newly solved structures to the appropriate SCOP superfamily level with ~95% accuracy. Examples of correctly mapped remote homologs are discussed. The algorithm is also capable of identifying potential evolutionary relationships not specified in the SCOP database, thus helping to make it better. The strategy of the mapping algorithm is not limited to SCOP and can be applied to any other evolutionary-based classification scheme as well. SCOPmap is available for download. Conclusion The SCOPmap program is useful for assigning domains in newly solved structures to appropriate superfamilies and for identifying evolutionary links between different superfamilies. PMID:15598351

  19. Clustering Genes of Common Evolutionary History

    PubMed Central

    Gori, Kevin; Suchan, Tomasz; Alvarez, Nadir; Goldman, Nick; Dessimoz, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Phylogenetic inference can potentially result in a more accurate tree using data from multiple loci. However, if the loci are incongruent—due to events such as incomplete lineage sorting or horizontal gene transfer—it can be misleading to infer a single tree. To address this, many previous contributions have taken a mechanistic approach, by modeling specific processes. Alternatively, one can cluster loci without assuming how these incongruencies might arise. Such “process-agnostic” approaches typically infer a tree for each locus and cluster these. There are, however, many possible combinations of tree distance and clustering methods; their comparative performance in the context of tree incongruence is largely unknown. Furthermore, because standard model selection criteria such as AIC cannot be applied to problems with a variable number of topologies, the issue of inferring the optimal number of clusters is poorly understood. Here, we perform a large-scale simulation study of phylogenetic distances and clustering methods to infer loci of common evolutionary history. We observe that the best-performing combinations are distances accounting for branch lengths followed by spectral clustering or Ward’s method. We also introduce two statistical tests to infer the optimal number of clusters and show that they strongly outperform the silhouette criterion, a general-purpose heuristic. We illustrate the usefulness of the approach by 1) identifying errors in a previous phylogenetic analysis of yeast species and 2) identifying topological incongruence among newly sequenced loci of the globeflower fly genus Chiastocheta. We release treeCl, a new program to cluster genes of common evolutionary history (http://git.io/treeCl). PMID:26893301

  20. Evolutionary conceptual analysis: faith community nursing.

    PubMed

    Ziebarth, Deborah

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the study was to report an evolutionary concept analysis of faith community nursing (FCN). FCN is a source of healthcare delivery in the USA which has grown in comprehensiveness and complexity. With increasing healthcare cost and a focus on access and prevention, FCN has extended beyond the physical walls of the faith community building. Faith communities and healthcare organizations invest in FCN and standardized training programs exist. Using Rodgers' evolutionary analysis, the literature was examined for antecedents, attributes, and consequences of the concept. This design allows for understanding the historical and social nature of the concept and how it changes over time. A search of databases using the keywords FCN, faith community nurse, parish nursing, and parish nurse was done. The concept of FCN was explored using research and theoretical literature. A theoretical definition and model were developed with relevant implications. The search results netted a sample of 124 reports of research and theoretical articles from multiple disciplines: medicine, education, religion and philosophy, international health, and nursing. Theoretical definition: FCN is a method of healthcare delivery that is centered in a relationship between the nurse and client (client as person, family, group, or community). The relationship occurs in an iterative motion over time when the client seeks or is targeted for wholistic health care with the goal of optimal wholistic health functioning. Faith integrating is a continuous occurring attribute. Health promoting, disease managing, coordinating, empowering and accessing health care are other essential attributes. All essential attributes occur with intentionality in a faith community, home, health institution and other community settings with fluidity as part of a community, national, or global health initiative. A new theoretical definition and corresponding conceptual model of FCN provides a basis for future nursing

  1. Clustering Genes of Common Evolutionary History.

    PubMed

    Gori, Kevin; Suchan, Tomasz; Alvarez, Nadir; Goldman, Nick; Dessimoz, Christophe

    2016-06-01

    Phylogenetic inference can potentially result in a more accurate tree using data from multiple loci. However, if the loci are incongruent-due to events such as incomplete lineage sorting or horizontal gene transfer-it can be misleading to infer a single tree. To address this, many previous contributions have taken a mechanistic approach, by modeling specific processes. Alternatively, one can cluster loci without assuming how these incongruencies might arise. Such "process-agnostic" approaches typically infer a tree for each locus and cluster these. There are, however, many possible combinations of tree distance and clustering methods; their comparative performance in the context of tree incongruence is largely unknown. Furthermore, because standard model selection criteria such as AIC cannot be applied to problems with a variable number of topologies, the issue of inferring the optimal number of clusters is poorly understood. Here, we perform a large-scale simulation study of phylogenetic distances and clustering methods to infer loci of common evolutionary history. We observe that the best-performing combinations are distances accounting for branch lengths followed by spectral clustering or Ward's method. We also introduce two statistical tests to infer the optimal number of clusters and show that they strongly outperform the silhouette criterion, a general-purpose heuristic. We illustrate the usefulness of the approach by 1) identifying errors in a previous phylogenetic analysis of yeast species and 2) identifying topological incongruence among newly sequenced loci of the globeflower fly genus Chiastocheta We release treeCl, a new program to cluster genes of common evolutionary history (http://git.io/treeCl). PMID:26893301

  2. An evolutionary approach to Function

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Understanding the distinction between function and role is vexing and difficult. While it appears to be useful, in practice this distinction is hard to apply, particularly within biology. Results I take an evolutionary approach, considering a series of examples, to develop and generate definitions for these concepts. I test them in practice against the Ontology for Biomedical Investigations (OBI). Finally, I give an axiomatisation and discuss methods for applying these definitions in practice. Conclusions The definitions in this paper are applicable, formalizing current practice. As such, they make a significant contribution to the use of these concepts within biomedical ontologies. PMID:20626924

  3. Evolutionary shaping of demographic schedules

    PubMed Central

    Wachter, Kenneth W.; Steinsaltz, David; Evans, Steven N.

    2014-01-01

    Evolutionary processes of natural selection may be expected to leave their mark on age patterns of survival and reproduction. Demographic theory includes three main strands—mutation accumulation, stochastic vitality, and optimal life histories. This paper reviews the three strands and, concentrating on mutation accumulation, extends a mathematical result with broad implications concerning the effect of interactions between small age-specific effects of deleterious mutant alleles. Empirical data from genomic sequencing along with prospects for combining strands of theory hold hope for future progress. PMID:25024186

  4. Introduced species as evolutionary traps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schlaepfer, Martin A.; Sherman, P.W.; Blossey, B.; Runge, M.C.

    2005-01-01

    Invasive species can alter environments in such a way that normal behavioural decision-making rules of native species are no longer adaptive. The evolutionary trap concept provides a useful framework for predicting and managing the impact of harmful invasive species. We discuss how native species can respond to changes in their selective regime via evolution or learning. We also propose novel management strategies to promote the long-term co-existence of native and introduced species in cases where the eradication of the latter is either economically or biologically unrealistic.

  5. Evolutionary aspects of plant photoreceptors.

    PubMed

    Li, Fay-Wei; Mathews, Sarah

    2016-03-01

    Plant photoreceptors link environmental light cues with physiological responses, determining how individual plants complete their life cycles. Structural and functional evolution of photoreceptors has co-occurred as plants diversified and faced the challenge of new light environments, during the transition of plants to land and as substantial plant canopies evolved. Large-scale comparative sequencing projects allow us for the first time to document photoreceptor evolution in understudied clades, revealing some surprises. Here we review recent progress in evolutionary studies of three photoreceptor families: phytochromes, phototropins and neochromes. PMID:26843269

  6. Evolutionary dynamics on interdependent populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez-Gardeñes, Jesús; Gracia-Lázaro, Carlos; Floría, Luis Mario; Moreno, Yamir

    2012-11-01

    Although several mechanisms can promote cooperative behavior, there is no general consensus about why cooperation survives when the most profitable action for an individual is to defect, especially when the population is well mixed. Here we show that when a replicator such as evolutionary game dynamics takes place on interdependent networks, cooperative behavior is fixed on the system. Remarkably, we analytically and numerically show that this is even the case for well-mixed populations. Our results open the path to mechanisms able to sustain cooperation and can provide hints for controlling its rise and fall in a variety of biological and social systems.

  7. Policy folklists and evolutionary theory

    PubMed Central

    O’Neill, Barry

    2014-01-01

    Policy folklists present a set of alleged historical facts seen as relevant to some social issue. Although the validity of these folklists is dubious, leaders and writers circulate them in the media, variants arise, and the lists continue on, sometimes for decades. Folklists are repeated because their messages are appealing and their users are credible. Because folklists are on the record, we can examine their origins and changes. This report draws an analogy with evolutionary theory and suggests that biological mechanisms of self-repair, boundary maintenance, plasticity, speciation, and predation have significant interpretations for folklists, and clarify how the lists win the credence of otherwise skeptical people. PMID:25024210

  8. Policy folklists and evolutionary theory.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Barry

    2014-07-22

    Policy folklists present a set of alleged historical facts seen as relevant to some social issue. Although the validity of these folklists is dubious, leaders and writers circulate them in the media, variants arise, and the lists continue on, sometimes for decades. Folklists are repeated because their messages are appealing and their users are credible. Because folklists are on the record, we can examine their origins and changes. This report draws an analogy with evolutionary theory and suggests that biological mechanisms of self-repair, boundary maintenance, plasticity, speciation, and predation have significant interpretations for folklists, and clarify how the lists win the credence of otherwise skeptical people. PMID:25024210

  9. Historical change and evolutionary theory.

    PubMed

    Masters, Roger D

    2007-09-01

    Despite advances in fields like genetics, evolutionary psychology, and human behavior and evolution--which generally focus on individual or small group behavior from a biological perspective--evolutionary biology has made little impact on studies of political change and social history. Theories of natural selection often seem inapplicable to human history because our social behavior is embedded in language (which makes possible the concepts of time and social identity on which what we call "history" depends). Peter Corning's Holistic Darwinism reconceptualizes evolutionary biology, making it possible to go beyond the barriers separating the social and natural sciences. Corning focuses on two primary processes: "synergy" (complex multivariate interactions at multiple levels between a species and its environment) and "cybernetics" (the information systems permitting communication between individuals and groups over time). Combining this frame of reference with inclusive fitness theory, it is possible to answer the most important (and puzzling) question in human history: How did a species that lived for millennia in hunter-gatherer bands form centralized states governing large populations of non-kin (including multi-ethnic empires as well as modern nation-states)? The fragility and contemporary ethnic violence in Kenya and the Congo should suffice as evidence that these issues need to be taken seriously. To explain the rise and fall of states as well as changes in human laws and customs--the core of historical research--it is essential to show how the provision of collective goods can overcome the challenge of self-interest and free-riding in some instances, yet fail to do so in others. To this end, it is now possible to consider how a state providing public goods can--under circumstances that often include effective leadership--contribute to enhanced inclusive fitness of virtually all its members. Because social behavior needs to adapt to ecology, but ecological

  10. Metabolism at Evolutionary Optimal States

    PubMed Central

    Rabbers, Iraes; van Heerden, Johan H.; Nordholt, Niclas; Bachmann, Herwig; Teusink, Bas; Bruggeman, Frank J.

    2015-01-01

    Metabolism is generally required for cellular maintenance and for the generation of offspring under conditions that support growth. The rates, yields (efficiencies), adaptation time and robustness of metabolism are therefore key determinants of cellular fitness. For biotechnological applications and our understanding of the evolution of metabolism, it is necessary to figure out how the functional system properties of metabolism can be optimized, via adjustments of the kinetics and expression of enzymes, and by rewiring metabolism. The trade-offs that can occur during such optimizations then indicate fundamental limits to evolutionary innovations and bioengineering. In this paper, we review several theoretical and experimental findings about mechanisms for metabolic optimization. PMID:26042723

  11. Evolutionary History of Hunter-Gatherer Marriage Practices

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Robert S.; Hill, Kim R.; Flinn, Mark V.; Ellsworth, Ryan M.

    2011-01-01

    Background The universality of marriage in human societies around the world suggests a deep evolutionary history of institutionalized pair-bonding that stems back at least to early modern humans. However, marriage practices vary considerably from culture to culture, ranging from strict prescriptions and arranged marriages in some societies to mostly unregulated courtship in others, presence to absence of brideservice and brideprice, and polyandrous to polygynous unions. The ancestral state of early human marriage is not well known given the lack of conclusive archaeological evidence. Methodology Comparative phylogenetic analyses using data from contemporary hunter-gatherers around the world may allow for the reconstruction of ancestral human cultural traits. We attempt to reconstruct ancestral marriage practices using hunter-gatherer phylogenies based on mitochondrial DNA sequences. Results Arranged marriages are inferred to go back at least to first modern human migrations out of Africa. Reconstructions are equivocal on whether or not earlier human marriages were arranged because several African hunter-gatherers have courtship marriages. Phylogenetic reconstructions suggest that marriages in early ancestral human societies probably had low levels of polygyny (low reproductive skew) and reciprocal exchanges between the families of marital partners (i.e., brideservice or brideprice). Discussion Phylogenetic results suggest a deep history of regulated exchange of mates and resources among lineages that enhanced the complexity of human meta-group social structure with coalitions and alliances spanning across multiple residential communities. PMID:21556360

  12. Conceptual Barriers to Progress Within Evolutionary Biology

    PubMed Central

    Laland, Kevin N.; Odling-Smee, John; Feldman, Marcus W.; Kendal, Jeremy

    2011-01-01

    In spite of its success, Neo-Darwinism is faced with major conceptual barriers to further progress, deriving directly from its metaphysical foundations. Most importantly, neo-Darwinism fails to recognize a fundamental cause of evolutionary change, “niche construction”. This failure restricts the generality of evolutionary theory, and introduces inaccuracies. It also hinders the integration of evolutionary biology with neighbouring disciplines, including ecosystem ecology, developmental biology, and the human sciences. Ecology is forced to become a divided discipline, developmental biology is stubbornly difficult to reconcile with evolutionary theory, and the majority of biologists and social scientists are still unhappy with evolutionary accounts of human behaviour. The incorporation of niche construction as both a cause and a product of evolution removes these disciplinary boundaries while greatly generalizing the explanatory power of evolutionary theory. PMID:21572912

  13. The Evolving Theory of Evolutionary Radiations.

    PubMed

    Simões, M; Breitkreuz, L; Alvarado, M; Baca, S; Cooper, J C; Heins, L; Herzog, K; Lieberman, B S

    2016-01-01

    Evolutionary radiations have intrigued biologists for more than 100 years, and our understanding of the patterns and processes associated with these radiations continues to grow and evolve. Recently it has been recognized that there are many different types of evolutionary radiation beyond the well-studied adaptive radiations. We focus here on multifarious types of evolutionary radiations, paying special attention to the abiotic factors that might trigger diversification in clades. We integrate concepts such as exaptation, species selection, coevolution, and the turnover-pulse hypothesis (TPH) into the theoretical framework of evolutionary radiations. We also discuss other phenomena that are related to, but distinct from, evolutionary radiations that have relevance for evolutionary biology. PMID:26632984

  14. American Society for Surgery of the Hand

    MedlinePlus

    ... Welcome to ASSH.org Home of the American Society for Surgery of the Hand. The American Society for Surgery of the Hand is the oldest and most prestigious medical society dedicated to the hand and upper extremity. Our ...

  15. Society for Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility

    MedlinePlus

    The Society for Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility SREI Members-only Forum Home About Us About SREI Vision and Mission ... Fact Sheets and Booklets SREI is an affiliated society to the American Society for Reproductive Medicine . Below ...

  16. Evolutionary objections to "alien design" models.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coffey, E. J.

    A previous paper demonstrated that the principal supporters of SETI have ignored the biological and evolutionary consequences of a creature's body form. In fact, the supporting evidence they provide actually contradicts their view. The approach they employ is that of the engineer: the process of "designing" a hypothetical creature to a specification irrespective of biological or evolutionary considerations. The principal types of "alien designs" which have been employed shall be discussed, and the evolutionary objections to them given.

  17. Evolutionary development of tensegrity structures.

    PubMed

    Lobo, Daniel; Vico, Francisco J

    2010-09-01

    Contributions from the emerging fields of molecular genetics and evo-devo (evolutionary developmental biology) are greatly benefiting the field of evolutionary computation, initiating a promise of renewal in the traditional methodology. While direct encoding has constituted a dominant paradigm, indirect ways to encode the solutions have been reported, yet little attention has been paid to the benefits of the proposed methods to real problems. In this work, we study the biological properties that emerge by means of using indirect encodings in the context of form-finding problems. A novel indirect encoding model for artificial development has been defined and applied to an engineering structural-design problem, specifically to the discovery of tensegrity structures. This model has been compared with a direct encoding scheme. While the direct encoding performs similarly well to the proposed method, indirect-based results typically outperform the direct-based results in aspects not directly linked to the nature of the problem itself, but to the emergence of properties found in biological organisms, like organicity, generalization capacity, or modularity aspects which are highly valuable in engineering. PMID:20619314

  18. EVOLUTIONARY STATUS OF 85 PEGASI

    SciTech Connect

    Bach, K.; Kim, Y.-C.; Lee, J.; Demarque, P. E-mail: yckim@yonsei.ac.k E-mail: pierre.demarque@yale.ed

    2009-09-20

    We have investigated the evolutionary status of the visual binary 85 Peg (HD 224930) using a high-resolution spectroscopic analysis and the astrometric calibration of the stellar parameters. In spite of well-determined stellar parameters from HIPPARCOS astrometry and from spectroscopy, 85 Peg has for a long time revealed peculiar properties when attempts have been made to combine an evolutionary model with observation. There has been a chronic problem of the mass ratio of the two components when comparing 85 Peg's dynamical properties to the photometric magnitude difference. Moreover, 85 Peg has been suspected to have unique characteristics in its chemical composition. In order to determine accurate spectroscopic abundances, we have obtained high-resolution echelle spectra for 85 Peg. From our elemental analysis, we found that 85 Peg is alpha-enhanced with respect to the scaled solar abundance by a factor of 2. We then produced, within the framework of the standard stellar theory, grids of stellar model using the most recent observational results. To avoid many-fold degeneracy among physical quantities, a statistical minimization test was carried out between theoretical model grids. Enforcing consistency between the modeling and statistical constraints, we derived a reliable set of physical parameters and confirmed the trinarity of the system. In the context of asteroseismology, the theoretical frequency spectrum of 85 Peg was calculated. 85 Peg A is expected to have a first order spacing {Delta}{nu} {approx} 165 {mu}Hz at the reference frequency {nu}{sub 0} = 790 {mu}Hz.

  19. The evolutionary puzzle of suicide.

    PubMed

    Aubin, Henri-Jean; Berlin, Ivan; Kornreich, Charles

    2013-12-01

    Mechanisms of self-destruction are difficult to reconcile with evolution's first rule of thumb: survive and reproduce. However, evolutionary success ultimately depends on inclusive fitness. The altruistic suicide hypothesis posits that the presence of low reproductive potential and burdensomeness toward kin can increase the inclusive fitness payoff of self-removal. The bargaining hypothesis assumes that suicide attempts could function as an honest signal of need. The payoff may be positive if the suicidal person has a low reproductive potential. The parasite manipulation hypothesis is founded on the rodent-Toxoplasma gondii host-parasite model, in which the parasite induces a "suicidal" feline attraction that allows the parasite to complete its life cycle. Interestingly, latent infection by T. gondii has been shown to cause behavioral alterations in humans, including increased suicide attempts. Finally, we discuss how suicide risk factors can be understood as nonadaptive byproducts of evolved mechanisms that malfunction. Although most of the mechanisms proposed in this article are largely speculative, the hypotheses that we raise accept self-destructive behavior within the framework of evolutionary theory. PMID:24351787

  20. Kramers problem in evolutionary strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunkel, J.; Ebeling, W.; Schimansky-Geier, L.; Hänggi, P.

    2003-06-01

    We calculate the escape rates of different dynamical processes for the case of a one-dimensional symmetric double-well potential. In particular, we compare the escape rates of a Smoluchowski process, i.e., a corresponding overdamped Brownian motion dynamics in a metastable potential landscape, with the escape rates obtained for a biologically motivated model known as the Fisher-Eigen process. The main difference between the two models is that the dynamics of the Smoluchowski process is determined by local quantities, whereas the Fisher-Eigen process is based on a global coupling (nonlocal interaction). If considered in the context of numerical optimization algorithms, both processes can be interpreted as archetypes of physically or biologically inspired evolutionary strategies. In this sense, the results discussed in this work are utile in order to evaluate the efficiency of such strategies with regard to the problem of surmounting various barriers. We find that a combination of both scenarios, starting with the Fisher-Eigen strategy, provides a most effective evolutionary strategy.

  1. Major evolutionary transitions in individuality

    PubMed Central

    West, Stuart A.; Fisher, Roberta M.; Gardner, Andy; Kiers, E. Toby

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of life on earth has been driven by a small number of major evolutionary transitions. These transitions have been characterized by individuals that could previously replicate independently, cooperating to form a new, more complex life form. For example, archaea and eubacteria formed eukaryotic cells, and cells formed multicellular organisms. However, not all cooperative groups are en route to major transitions. How can we explain why major evolutionary transitions have or haven’t taken place on different branches of the tree of life? We break down major transitions into two steps: the formation of a cooperative group and the transformation of that group into an integrated entity. We show how these steps require cooperation, division of labor, communication, mutual dependence, and negligible within-group conflict. We find that certain ecological conditions and the ways in which groups form have played recurrent roles in driving multiple transitions. In contrast, we find that other factors have played relatively minor roles at many key points, such as within-group kin discrimination and mechanisms to actively repress competition. More generally, by identifying the small number of factors that have driven major transitions, we provide a simpler and more unified description of how life on earth has evolved. PMID:25964342

  2. Behavior Trees for Evolutionary Robotics.

    PubMed

    Scheper, Kirk Y W; Tijmons, Sjoerd; de Visser, Cornelis C; de Croon, Guido C H E

    2016-01-01

    Evolutionary Robotics allows robots with limited sensors and processing to tackle complex tasks by means of sensory-motor coordination. In this article we show the first application of the Behavior Tree framework on a real robotic platform using the evolutionary robotics methodology. This framework is used to improve the intelligibility of the emergent robotic behavior over that of the traditional neural network formulation. As a result, the behavior is easier to comprehend and manually adapt when crossing the reality gap from simulation to reality. This functionality is shown by performing real-world flight tests with the 20-g DelFly Explorer flapping wing micro air vehicle equipped with a 4-g onboard stereo vision system. The experiments show that the DelFly can fully autonomously search for and fly through a window with only its onboard sensors and processing. The success rate of the optimized behavior in simulation is 88%, and the corresponding real-world performance is 54% after user adaptation. Although this leaves room for improvement, it is higher than the 46% success rate from a tuned user-defined controller. PMID:26606468

  3. Evolutionary potential games on lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szabó, György; Borsos, István

    2016-04-01

    Game theory provides a general mathematical background to study the effect of pair interactions and evolutionary rules on the macroscopic behavior of multi-player games where players with a finite number of strategies may represent a wide scale of biological objects, human individuals, or even their associations. In these systems the interactions are characterized by matrices that can be decomposed into elementary matrices (games) and classified into four types. The concept of decomposition helps the identification of potential games and also the evaluation of the potential that plays a crucial role in the determination of the preferred Nash equilibrium, and defines the Boltzmann distribution towards which these systems evolve for suitable types of dynamical rules. This survey draws parallel between the potential games and the kinetic Ising type models which are investigated for a wide scale of connectivity structures. We discuss briefly the applicability of the tools and concepts of statistical physics and thermodynamics. Additionally the general features of ordering phenomena, phase transitions and slow relaxations are outlined and applied to evolutionary games. The discussion extends to games with three or more strategies. Finally we discuss what happens when the system is weakly driven out of the "equilibrium state" by adding non-potential components representing games of cyclic dominance.

  4. [Evolutionary endocrinology: a pending matter].

    PubMed

    Zafón, Carles

    2012-01-01

    Twenty years have passed since the foundational article of what is now known as evolutionary medicine (EM) was published. This young medical discipline examines, following Darwinian principles, susceptibility to certain diseases and how we react to them. In short, EM analyzes the final cause of the disease from a historical perspective. Over the years, EM has been introduced in various medical areas in very different ways. While it has found a role in some fields such as infectious diseases and oncology, its contribution in other areas has been quite limited. In endocrinology, EM has only gained prominence as a basis for the so-called "diseases of civilization", including diabetes mellitus and obesity. However, many experts suggest that it may have a much higher potential. The aim of this paper is to provide a view about what evolutionary medicine is. Some examples of how EM may contribute to progress of our specialty are also given. There is no doubt that evolution enriches medicine, but medicine also offers knowledge to evolution. PMID:22113050

  5. Language as an evolutionary system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brighton, Henry; Smith, Kenny; Kirby, Simon

    2005-09-01

    John Maynard Smith and Eörs Szathmáry argued that human language signified the eighth major transition in evolution: human language marked a new form of information transmission from one generation to another [Maynard Smith J, Szathmáry E. The major transitions in evolution. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press; 1995]. According to this view language codes cultural information and as such forms the basis for the evolution of complexity in human culture. In this article we develop the theory that language also codes information in another sense: languages code information on their own structure. As a result, languages themselves provide information that influences their own survival. To understand the consequences of this theory we discuss recent computational models of linguistic evolution. Linguistic evolution is the process by which languages themselves evolve. This article draws together this recent work on linguistic evolution and highlights the significance of this process in understanding the evolution of linguistic complexity. Our conclusions are that: (1) the process of linguistic transmission constitutes the basis for an evolutionary system, and (2), that this evolutionary system is only superficially comparable to the process of biological evolution.

  6. Evolutionary Strategies for Protein Folding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murthy Gopal, Srinivasa; Wenzel, Wolfgang

    2006-03-01

    The free energy approach for predicting the protein tertiary structure describes the native state of a protein as the global minimum of an appropriate free-energy forcefield. The low-energy region of the free-energy landscape of a protein is extremely rugged. Efficient optimization methods must therefore speed up the search for the global optimum by avoiding high energy transition states, adapt large scale moves or accept unphysical intermediates. Here we investigate an evolutionary strategies(ES) for optimizing a protein conformation in our all-atom free-energy force field([1],[2]). A set of random conformations is evolved using an ES to get a diverse population containing low energy structure. The ES is shown to balance energy improvement and yet maintain diversity in structures. The ES is implemented as a master-client model for distributed computing. Starting from random structures and by using this optimization technique, we were able to fold a 20 amino-acid helical protein and 16 amino-acid beta hairpin[3]. We compare ES to basin hopping method. [1]T. Herges and W. Wenzel,Biophys.J. 87,3100(2004) [2] A. Verma and W. Wenzel Stabilization and folding of beta-sheet and alpha-helical proteins in an all-atom free energy model(submitted)(2005) [3] S. M. Gopal and W. Wenzel Evolutionary Strategies for Protein Folding (in preparation)

  7. Evolutionary lines of cysteine peptidases.

    PubMed

    Barrett, A J; Rawlings, N D

    2001-05-01

    The proteolytic enzymes that depend upon a cysteine residue for activity have come from at least seven different evolutionary origins, each of which has produced a group of cysteine peptidases with distinctive structures and properties. We show here that the characteristic molecular topologies of the peptidases in each evolutionary line can be seen not only in their three-dimensional structures, but commonly also in the two-dimensional structures. Clan CA contains the families of papain (C1), calpain (C2), streptopain (C10) and the ubiquitin-specific peptidases (C12, C19), as well as many families of viral cysteine endopeptidases. Clan CD contains the families of clostripain (C11), gingipain R (C25), legumain (C13), caspase-1 (C14) and separin (C50). These enzymes have specificities dominated by the interactions of the S1 subsite. Clan CE contains the families of adenain (C5) from adenoviruses, the eukaryotic Ulp1 protease (C48) and the bacterial YopJ proteases (C55). Clan CF contains only pyroglutamyl peptidase I (C15). The picornains (C3) in clan PA have probably evolved from serine peptidases, which still form the majority of enzymes in the clan. The cysteine peptidase activities in clans PB and CH are autolytic only. In conclusion, we suggest that although almost all the cysteine peptidases depend for activity on catalytic dyads of cysteine and histidine, it is worth noting some important differences that they have inherited from their distant ancestral peptidases. PMID:11517925

  8. Measuring Evolutionary Isolation for Conservation.

    PubMed

    Redding, David W; Mazel, Florent; Mooers, Arne Ø

    2014-01-01

    Conservation planning needs to account for limited resources when choosing those species on which to focus attention and resources. Currently, funding is biased to small sections of the tree of life, such as raptors and carnivores. One new approach for increasing the diversity of species under consideration considers how many close relatives a species has in its evolutionary tree. At least eleven different ways to measure this characteristic on phylogenies for the purposes of setting species-specific priorities for conservation have been proposed. We find that there is much redundancy within the current set, with three pairs of metrics being essentially identical. Non-redundant metrics represent different trade-offs between the unique evolutionary history represented by a species verses its average distance to all other species. Depending on which metric is used, species priority lists can differ as much as 85% for the top 100 species. We call for some consensus on the theory behind these metrics and suggest that all future developments are compared to the current published set, and offer scripts to aid such comparisons. PMID:25493934

  9. Major evolutionary transitions in individuality.

    PubMed

    West, Stuart A; Fisher, Roberta M; Gardner, Andy; Kiers, E Toby

    2015-08-18

    The evolution of life on earth has been driven by a small number of major evolutionary transitions. These transitions have been characterized by individuals that could previously replicate independently, cooperating to form a new, more complex life form. For example, archaea and eubacteria formed eukaryotic cells, and cells formed multicellular organisms. However, not all cooperative groups are en route to major transitions. How can we explain why major evolutionary transitions have or haven't taken place on different branches of the tree of life? We break down major transitions into two steps: the formation of a cooperative group and the transformation of that group into an integrated entity. We show how these steps require cooperation, division of labor, communication, mutual dependence, and negligible within-group conflict. We find that certain ecological conditions and the ways in which groups form have played recurrent roles in driving multiple transitions. In contrast, we find that other factors have played relatively minor roles at many key points, such as within-group kin discrimination and mechanisms to actively repress competition. More generally, by identifying the small number of factors that have driven major transitions, we provide a simpler and more unified description of how life on earth has evolved. PMID:25964342

  10. How evolutionary thinking affects people's ideas about aging interventions.

    PubMed

    Mitteldorf, Josh

    2006-01-01

    Evolutionary theory has guided the development of antiaging interventions in some conscious and some unconscious ways. It is a standard assumption that the body's health has been optimized by natural selection, and that the most benign and promising medical strategies should support the body's efforts to maintain itself. The very concept of natural healing is a reflection of evolutionary thinking about health. Meanwhile, a developing body of experimental evidence points to the startling hypothesis that aging is a metabolic program, under genetic control we are programmed for death. Evolution has provided that the aging program can be abated in times of stress, e.g., caloric restriction. CR mimetics are already recognized as a promising avenue for antiaging research. Beyond this, there are two ancient mechanisms of programmed death in protists that have survived half a billion years of evolution, and still figure in the aging of vertebrates today. These are apoptosis and replicative senescence via telomere truncation. Most researchers have been wary of modifying these mechanisms because they are known to play a stopgap role in cancer prevention. But intriguing evidence suggests that, despite some counter-carcinogenic function, the net result of both these mechanisms may be to shorten lifespan. Thus, interventions that suppress apoptosis and that preserve telomeres may be promising avenues for life extension research. A third element of the body's self-destruction program co-opts the inflammation response. Epidemiological evidence suggests that NSAIDs including aspirin protect against atherosclerosis, arthritis, and some forms of cancer. It may be that aging engages an autoimmune response that can be modified by drugs acting more narrowly on this same pathway. The existence of an evolutionary program that controls aging from the top down supports a new optimism concerning the types of antiaging interventions that are possible, and the likelihood that simple

  11. Adventure Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, John C., Ed.; Priest, Simon, Ed.

    Adventure programming is the deliberate use of adventurous experiences to create learning in individuals or groups, often with the goal of improving society or communities. Adventure programming may focus on recreation, education, individual or group development, or therapy, or on a combination of these. This second edition contains 61 chapters by…

  12. Child murder by parents and evolutionary psychology.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Susan Hatters; Cavney, James; Resnick, Phillip J

    2012-12-01

    This article explores the contribution of evolutionary theory to the understanding of causation and motive in filicide cases and also reviews special issues in the forensic evaluation of alleged perpetrators of filicide. Evolutionary social psychology seeks to understand the context in which our brains evolved, to understand human behaviors. The authors propose evolutionary theory as a framework theory to meaningfully appreciate research about filicide. Using evolutionary psychology as a theoretical lens, this article reviews the research on filicide over the past 40 years, and describes epidemiologic and typologic studies of filicide, and theoretical analyses from a range of disciplines. PMID:23107563

  13. Roles for scientific societies in promoting integrity in publication ethics.

    PubMed

    Caelleigh, Addeane S

    2003-04-01

    Scientific societies can have a powerful influence on the professional lives of scientists. Using this influence, they have a responsibility to make long-term commitments and investments in promoting integrity in publication, just as in other areas of research ethics. Concepts that can inform the thinking and activities of scientific societies with regard to publication ethics are: the "hidden curriculum" (the message of actions rather than formal statements), a fresh look at the components of acting with integrity, deviancy as a normally occurring phenomenon in human society, and the scientific community as an actual community. A society's first step is to decide what values it will promote, within the framework of present-day standards of good conduct of science and given the society's history and traditions. The society then must create educational programs that serve members across their careers. Scientific societies must take seriously the implications of the problem; set policies and standards for publication ethics for their members; educate about and enforce the standards; bring the issues before the members early and often; and maintain continuing dialogue with editors. PMID:12774655

  14. The Health Physics Society Science Teacher Workshops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Albert E.

    2001-03-01

    The South Texas Chapter of the Health Physics Society (STC) maintains a program of education for science teachers, grades 4-12. This program, originally funded by the U.S. Department of Energy but now supported by STC, is intended to teach fundamentals of radiation and radiation safety at a level suitable for comprehension by lay persons. Course topics include Fundamentals of Radiation, Cellular Biology and Radiation Health Effects, Exposure to Radiation in Modern Life, Radioactive Waste, and Radiation Safety. The 8-hour course is usually given on Saturdays at locations in Texas as requested by educational or other groups. Classes of up to 25 teacher-students are ideal. Lesson plans, reference materials, a video tape, software, and a radiation detector are provided to each participant. To schedule a workshop in your area, contact alevans@swbell.net or David Fogle, david.fogle@tdh.state.tx.us.

  15. Bedside ultrasonography (US), Echoscopy and US point of care as a new kind of stethoscope for Internal Medicine Departments: the training program of the Italian Internal Medicine Society (SIMI).

    PubMed

    Arienti, Vincenzo; Di Giulio, Rosella; Cogliati, Chiara; Accogli, Esterita; Aluigi, Leonardo; Corazza, Gino Roberto

    2014-10-01

    In recent years, thanks to the development of miniaturized ultrasound devices, comparable to personal computers, tablets and even to smart phones, we have seen an increasing use of bedside ultrasound in internal medicine departments as a novel kind of ultrasound stethoscope. The clinical ultrasound-assisted approach has proved to be particularly useful in assessing patients with nodules of the neck, dyspnoea, abdominal pain, and with limb edema. In several cases, it has allowed a simple, rapid and precise diagnosis. Since 2005, the Italian Society of Internal Medicine and its Ultrasound Study Group has been holding a Summer School and training courses in ultrasound for residents in internal medicine. A national network of schools in bedside ultrasound was then organized for internal medicine specialists who want to learn this technique. Because bedside ultrasound is a user-dependent diagnostic method, it is important to define the limits and advantages of different new ultrasound devices, to classify them (i.e. Echoscopy and Point of Care Ultrasound), to establish appropriate different levels of competence and to ensure their specific training. In this review, we describe the point of view of the Italian Internal Medicine Society on these topics. PMID:25145290

  16. Evolutionary triangulation: informing genetic association studies with evolutionary evidence.

    PubMed

    Huang, Minjun; Graham, Britney E; Zhang, Ge; Harder, Reed; Kodaman, Nuri; Moore, Jason H; Muglia, Louis; Williams, Scott M

    2016-01-01

    Genetic studies of human diseases have identified many variants associated with pathogenesis and severity. However, most studies have used only statistical association to assess putative relationships to disease, and ignored other factors for evaluation. For example, evolution is a factor that has shaped disease risk, changing allele frequencies as human populations migrated into and inhabited new environments. Since many common variants differ among populations in frequency, as does disease prevalence, we hypothesized that patterns of disease and population structure, taken together, will inform association studies. Thus, the population distributions of allelic risk variants should reflect the distributions of their associated diseases. Evolutionary Triangulation (ET) exploits this evolutionary differentiation by comparing population structure among three populations with variable patterns of disease prevalence. By selecting populations based on patterns where two have similar rates of disease that differ substantially from a third, we performed a proof of principle analysis for this method. We examined three disease phenotypes, lactase persistence, melanoma, and Type 2 diabetes mellitus. We show that for lactase persistence, a phenotype with a simple genetic architecture, ET identifies the key gene, lactase. For melanoma, ET identifies several genes associated with this disease and/or phenotypes related to it, such as skin color genes. ET was less obviously successful for Type 2 diabetes mellitus, perhaps because of the small effect sizes in known risk loci and recent environmental changes that have altered disease risk. Alternatively, ET may have revealed new genes involved in conferring disease risk for diabetes that did not meet nominal GWAS significance thresholds. We also compared ET to another method used to filter for phenotype associated genes, population branch statistic (PBS), and show that ET performs better in identifying genes known to associate with

  17. Understanding variation in human fertility: what can we learn from evolutionary demography?

    PubMed Central

    Sear, Rebecca; Lawson, David W.; Kaplan, Hillard

    2016-01-01

    Decades of research on human fertility has presented a clear picture of how fertility varies, including its dramatic decline over the last two centuries in most parts of the world. Why fertility varies, both between and within populations, is not nearly so well understood. Fertility is a complex phenomenon, partly physiologically and partly behaviourally determined, thus an interdisciplinary approach is required to understand it. Evolutionary demographers have focused on human fertility since the 1980s. The first wave of evolutionary demographic research made major theoretical and empirical advances, investigating variation in fertility primarily in terms of fitness maximization. Research focused particularly on variation within high-fertility populations and small-scale subsistence societies and also yielded a number of hypotheses for why fitness maximization seems to break down as fertility declines during the demographic transition. A second wave of evolutionary demography research on fertility is now underway, paying much more attention to the cultural and psychological mechanisms underpinning fertility. It is also engaging with the complex, multi-causal nature of fertility variation, and with understanding fertility in complex modern and transitioning societies. Here, we summarize the history of evolutionary demographic work on human fertility, describe the current state of the field, and suggest future directions. PMID:27022071

  18. Understanding variation in human fertility: what can we learn from evolutionary demography?

    PubMed

    Sear, Rebecca; Lawson, David W; Kaplan, Hillard; Shenk, Mary K

    2016-04-19

    Decades of research on human fertility has presented a clear picture ofhowfertility varies, including its dramatic decline over the last two centuries in most parts of the world.Whyfertility varies, both between and within populations, is not nearly so well understood. Fertility is a complex phenomenon, partly physiologically and partly behaviourally determined, thus an interdisciplinary approach is required to understand it. Evolutionary demographers have focused on human fertility since the 1980s. The first wave of evolutionary demographic research made major theoretical and empirical advances, investigating variation in fertility primarily in terms of fitness maximization. Research focused particularly on variation within high-fertility populations and small-scale subsistence societies and also yielded a number of hypotheses for why fitness maximization seems to break down as fertility declines during the demographic transition. A second wave of evolutionary demography research on fertility is now underway, paying much more attention to the cultural and psychological mechanisms underpinning fertility. It is also engaging with the complex, multi-causal nature of fertility variation, and with understanding fertility in complex modern and transitioning societies. Here, we summarize the history of evolutionary demographic work on human fertility, describe the current state of the field, and suggest future directions. PMID:27022071

  19. Professional Societies of Minority Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stassun, K. G.

    2003-12-01

    This session will highlight professional organizations that serve minorities in physics, astronomy, and space science, such as the National Society of Black Physicists (NSBP), the National Society of Hispanic Physicists (NSHP), and the Society for the Advancement of Chicanos and Native Americans in Science (SACNAS). These organizations represent and serve minority colleagues and students at both majority and minority-serving institutions. A panel of representatives from these organizations---as well as AAS members who are presently working with them---will discuss these groups' activities and will offer suggestions for how AAS members can better connect with their constituencies. The panel will also include representatives from APS and NASA who will discuss programmatic efforts being developed in partnership with these groups to better engage minority scientists in the research enterprise. Specific funding opportunities will also be presented, including support for minority outreach, undergraduate scholarships, and research grants.

  20. Benefits to society from space exploration and use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doyle, Stephen E.

    Many obvious benefits to society from the exploration and use of outer space have been reported. The conviction that such benefits exist is what motivates national governments to provide funding for national space programs. There is a well known litany of improvements in space applications and space science, as well as the benefits to technology development and basic research in physical sciences. These are the generally visible and often discussed benefits. There are also numerous indirect and less well known benefits that accrue to society. The stimulation of electronics miniaturization, for example, contributes to improvements in medicine, manufacturing processes, and many new forms of automation. New materials development provides advances in aeronautical, maritime and terrestrial transportation and communication systems. In the past 30 years, these developments have also: (1) stimulated improved and expanded educational and research programs: (2) created new organizations: (3) generated jobs: and (4) fostered new forms and sources of national and personal pride and prestige. Rarely is there articulation of the more metaphysical aspects of the philosophical and psychological benefits of the exploration and use of space for society. While this paper touches on many primary, secondary and tertiary physical and industrial benefits, it also deals with the more ephemeral and philosophical benefits that are infrequently explored. Although fascinating stories of courageous development programs in astronautics can be told of programs in Argentina, Brazil, Indonesia, Kenya, Mexico and other countries, there is perhaps no story as dramatic as the story of India as it undertook and pursued major space program development over the past 30 years. Examined in some detail, the story of India indicates clearly how participation in space exploration and use produces benefits to a national society as well as to the international soceity of mankind. Creation of a success spiral

  1. The ABCs of an evolutionary education science: The academic, behavioral, and cultural implications of an evolutionary approach to education theory and practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauffman, Rick, Jr.

    Calls for improving research-informed policy in education are everywhere. Yet, while there is an increasing trend towards science-based practice, there remains little agreement over which of the sciences to consult and how to organize a collective effort between them. What Education lacks is a general theoretical framework through which policies can be constructed, implemented, and assessed. This dissertation submits that evolutionary theory can provide a suitable framework for coordinating educational policies and practice, and can provide the entire field of education with a clearer sense of how to better manage the learning environment. This dissertation explores two broad paths that outline the conceptual foundations for an Evolutionary Education Science: "Teaching Evolution" and "Using Evolution to Teach." Chapter 1 introduces both of these themes. After describing why evolutionary science is best suited for organizing education research and practice, Chapter 1 proceeds to "teach" an overview of the "evolutionary toolkit"---the mechanisms and principles that underlie the modern evolutionary perspective. The chapter then employs the "toolkit" in examining education from an evolutionary perspective, outlining the evolutionary precepts that can guide theorizing and research in education, describing how educators can "use evolution to teach.". Chapters 2-4 expand on this second theme. Chapters 2 and 3 describe an education program for at-risk 9th and 10th grade students, the Regents Academy, designed entirely with evolutionary principles in mind. The program was rigorously assessed in a randomized control design and has demonstrated success at improving students' academic performance (Chapter 2) and social & behavioral development (Chapter 3). Chapter 4 examines current teaching strategies that underlie effective curriculum-instruction-assessment practices and proposes a framework for organizing successful, evidence-based strategies for neural

  2. The Big Society Must Be a Learning Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bubb, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    The UK coalition government has stated its ambition to create a "Big Society". This represents an attempt to alter the relationship between citizen and state, loosening the vertical ties that exist between government and the individual while strengthening the informal bonds of neighbourhoods and communities. This agenda runs through the…

  3. War, space, and the evolution of Old World complex societies

    PubMed Central

    Turchin, Peter; Currie, Thomas E.; Turner, Edward A. L.; Gavrilets, Sergey

    2013-01-01

    How did human societies evolve from small groups, integrated by face-to-face cooperation, to huge anonymous societies of today, typically organized as states? Why is there so much variation in the ability of different human populations to construct viable states? Existing theories are usually formulated as verbal models and, as a result, do not yield sharply defined, quantitative predictions that could be unambiguously tested with data. Here we develop a cultural evolutionary model that predicts where and when the largest-scale complex societies arose in human history. The central premise of the model, which we test, is that costly institutions that enabled large human groups to function without splitting up evolved as a result of intense competition between societies—primarily warfare. Warfare intensity, in turn, depended on the spread of historically attested military technologies (e.g., chariots and cavalry) and on geographic factors (e.g., rugged landscape). The model was simulated within a realistic landscape of the Afroeurasian landmass and its predictions were tested against a large dataset documenting the spatiotemporal distribution of historical large-scale societies in Afroeurasia between 1,500 BCE and 1,500 CE. The model-predicted pattern of spread of large-scale societies was very similar to the observed one. Overall, the model explained 65% of variance in the data. An alternative model, omitting the effect of diffusing military technologies, explained only 16% of variance. Our results support theories that emphasize the role of institutions in state-building and suggest a possible explanation why a long history of statehood is positively correlated with political stability, institutional quality, and income per capita. PMID:24062433

  4. Evolutionary biology and anthropology suggest biome reconstitution as a necessary approach toward dealing with immune disorders

    PubMed Central

    Parker, William; Ollerton, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    Industrialized society currently faces a wide range of non-infectious, immune-related pandemics. These pandemics include a variety of autoimmune, inflammatory and allergic diseases that are often associated with common environmental triggers and with genetic predisposition, but that do not occur in developing societies. In this review, we briefly present the idea that these pandemics are due to a limited number of evolutionary mismatches, the most damaging being ‘biome depletion’. This particular mismatch involves the loss of species from the ecosystem of the human body, the human biome, many of which have traditionally been classified as parasites, although some may actually be commensal or even mutualistic. This view, evolved from the ‘hygiene hypothesis’, encompasses a broad ecological and evolutionary perspective that considers host-symbiont relations as plastic, changing through ecological space and evolutionary time. Fortunately, this perspective provides a blueprint, termed ‘biome reconstitution’, for disease treatment and especially for disease prevention. Biome reconstitution includes the controlled and population-wide reintroduction (i.e. domestication) of selected species that have been all but eradicated from the human biome in industrialized society and holds great promise for the elimination of pandemics of allergic, inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. PMID:24481190

  5. Education in an Information Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, John W.

    1999-04-01

    Last month's editorial pointed out that higher education may well change significantly as a result of the tremendous impact that information technologies are having on society. It quoted a white paper (1) by Russell Edgerton, Director of the Education Program of the Pew Charitable Trusts. Edgerton argued that higher education is currently failing to meet three challenges: to provide higher quality education; to reduce costs; and to regain its former stature as an important player in shaping public policy. Edgerton recommended that the Pew Trusts should encourage colleges and universities to set more ambitious goals for undergraduate education, to enter the public arena and play a major role in the reform of K-12 education, and to develop an academic profession interested in working toward these goals. Four new aims for undergraduate education were identified: "encouraging institutions to take learning seriously, encouraging faculty to take pedagogy seriously, demonstrating that technology can be used to reduce costs as well as to enhance learning, and developing new incentives for continuous quality improvement." One wonders why institutions of higher education should need to be encouraged toward goals that seem obviously congruent with their mission and self interest, but today's colleges and universities seem more likely to respond to outside offers of funding than to develop their own plans of action. As members of the faculty of such institutions, it behooves us to consider what some of those outside influences are likely to be and what effects they are likely to have on us, on our institutions, and on our students. Higher education is seen as a growth market by Michael Dolence and Donald Norris (2). In 1995 they projected that in five years there would be an increase of 20 million full-time equivalent enrollments in the U.S. and more than 100 million world wide. However, this growth was not projected to be traditional, on-campus students. Most was expected to

  6. Evolutionary Origins of Rhizarian Parasites.

    PubMed

    Sierra, Roberto; Cañas-Duarte, Silvia J; Burki, Fabien; Schwelm, Arne; Fogelqvist, Johan; Dixelius, Christina; González-García, Laura N; Gile, Gillian H; Slamovits, Claudio H; Klopp, Christophe; Restrepo, Silvia; Arzul, Isabelle; Pawlowski, Jan

    2016-04-01

    The SAR group (Stramenopila, Alveolata, Rhizaria) is one of the largest clades in the tree of eukaryotes and includes a great number of parasitic lineages. Rhizarian parasites are obligate and have devastating effects on commercially important plants and animals but despite this fact, our knowledge of their biology and evolution is limited. Here, we present rhizarian transcriptomes from all major parasitic lineages in order to elucidate their evolutionary relationships using a phylogenomic approach. Our results suggest that Ascetosporea, parasites of marine invertebrates, are sister to the novel clade Apofilosa. The phytomyxean plant parasites branch sister to the vampyrellid algal ectoparasites in the novel clade Phytorhiza. They also show that Ascetosporea + Apofilosa + Retaria + Filosa + Phytorhiza form a monophyletic clade, although the branching pattern within this clade is difficult to resolve and appears to be model-dependent. Our study does not support the monophyly of the rhizarian parasitic lineages (Endomyxa), suggesting independent origins for rhizarian animal and plant parasites. PMID:26681153

  7. Evolutionary games in wireless networks.

    PubMed

    Tembine, Hamidou; Altman, Eitan; El-Azouzi, Rachid; Hayel, Yezekael

    2010-06-01

    We consider a noncooperative interaction among a large population of mobiles that interfere with each other through many local interactions. The first objective of this paper is to extend the evolutionary game framework to allow an arbitrary number of mobiles that are involved in a local interaction. We allow for interactions between mobiles that are not necessarily reciprocal. We study 1) multiple-access control in a slotted Aloha-based wireless network and 2) power control in wideband code-division multiple-access wireless networks. We define and characterize the equilibrium (called evolutionarily stable strategy) for these games and study the influence of wireless channels and pricing on the evolution of dynamics and the equilibrium. PMID:19963703

  8. Bacterial Actins? An Evolutionary Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doolittle, Russell F.; York, Amanda L.

    2003-01-01

    According to the conventional wisdom, the existence of a cytoskeleton in eukaryotes and its absence in prokaryotes constitute a fundamental divide between the two domains of life. An integral part of the dogma is that a cytoskeleton enabled an early eukaryote to feed upon prokaryotes, a consequence of which was the occasional endosymbiosis and the eventual evolution of organelles. Two recent papers present compelling evidence that actin, one of the principal components of a cytoskeleton, has a homolog in Bacteria that behaves in many ways like eukaryotic actin. Sequence comparisons reveml that eukaryotic actin and the bacterial homolog (mreB protein), unlike many other proteins common to eukaryotes and Bacteria, have very different and more highly extended evolutionary histories.

  9. Genomic clocks and evolutionary timescales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blair Hedges, S.; Kumar, Sudhir

    2003-01-01

    For decades, molecular clocks have helped to illuminate the evolutionary timescale of life, but now genomic data pose a challenge for time estimation methods. It is unclear how to integrate data from many genes, each potentially evolving under a different model of substitution and at a different rate. Current methods can be grouped by the way the data are handled (genes considered separately or combined into a 'supergene') and the way gene-specific rate models are applied (global versus local clock). There are advantages and disadvantages to each of these approaches, and the optimal method has not yet emerged. Fortunately, time estimates inferred using many genes or proteins have greater precision and appear to be robust to different approaches.

  10. The evolutionary origins of friendship.

    PubMed

    Seyfarth, Robert M; Cheney, Dorothy L

    2012-01-01

    Convergent evidence from many species reveals the evolutionary origins of human friendship. In horses, elephants, hyenas, dolphins, monkeys, and chimpanzees, some individuals form friendships that last for years. Bonds occur among females, among males, or between males and females. Genetic relatedness affects friendships. In species where males disperse, friendships are more likely among females. If females disperse, friendships are more likely among males. Not all friendships, however, depend on kinship; many are formed between unrelated individuals. Friendships often involve cooperative interactions that are separated in time. They depend, at least in part, on the memory and emotions associated with past interactions. Applying the term "friendship" to animals is not anthropomorphic: Many studies have shown that the animals themselves recognize others' relationships. Friendships are adaptive. Male allies have superior competitive ability and improved reproductive success; females with the strongest, most enduring friendships experience less stress, higher infant survival, and live longer. PMID:21740224

  11. Evolutionary Adaptations to Dietary Changes

    PubMed Central

    Luca, F.; Perry, G.H.; Di Rienzo, A.

    2014-01-01

    Through cultural innovation and changes in habitat and ecology, there have been a number of major dietary shifts in human evolution, including meat eating, cooking, and those associated with plant and animal domestication. The identification of signatures of adaptations to such dietary changes in the genome of extant primates (including humans) may shed light not only on the evolutionary history of our species, but also on the mechanisms that underlie common metabolic diseases in modern human populations. In this review, we provide a brief overview of the major dietary shifts that occurred during hominin evolution, and we discuss the methods and approaches used to identify signals of natural selection in patterns of sequence variation. We then review the results of studies aimed at detecting the genetic loci that played a major role in dietary adaptations and conclude by outlining the potential of future studies in this area. PMID:20420525

  12. Evolutionary adaptations to dietary changes.

    PubMed

    Luca, F; Perry, G H; Di Rienzo, A

    2010-08-21

    Through cultural innovation and changes in habitat and ecology, there have been a number of major dietary shifts in human evolution, including meat eating, cooking, and those associated with plant and animal domestication. The identification of signatures of adaptations to such dietary changes in the genome of extant primates (including humans) may shed light not only on the evolutionary history of our species, but also on the mechanisms that underlie common metabolic diseases in modern human populations. In this review, we provide a brief overview of the major dietary shifts that occurred during hominin evolution, and we discuss the methods and approaches used to identify signals of natural selection in patterns of sequence variation. We then review the results of studies aimed at detecting the genetic loci that played a major role in dietary adaptations and conclude by outlining the potential of future studies in this area. PMID:20420525

  13. Evolutionary engineering to enhance starter culture performance in food fermentations.

    PubMed

    Bachmann, Herwig; Pronk, Jack T; Kleerebezem, Michiel; Teusink, Bas

    2015-04-01

    Microbial starter cultures are essential for consistent product quality and functional properties such as flavor, texture, pH or the alcohol content of various fermented foods. Strain improvement programs to achieve desired properties in starter cultures are diverse, but developments in next-generation sequencing lead to an increased interest in evolutionary engineering of desired phenotypes. We here discuss recent developments of strain selection protocols and how computational approaches can assist such experimental design. Furthermore the analysis of evolved phenotypes and possibilities with complex consortia are highlighted. Studies carried out with mainly yeast and lactic acid bacteria demonstrate the power of evolutionary engineering to deliver strains with novel phenotypes as well as insight into underlying mechanisms. PMID:25269887

  14. Available Transfer Capability Determination Using Hybrid Evolutionary Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jirapong, Peeraool; Ongsakul, Weerakorn

    2008-10-01

    This paper proposes a new hybrid evolutionary algorithm (HEA) based on evolutionary programming (EP), tabu search (TS), and simulated annealing (SA) to determine the available transfer capability (ATC) of power transactions between different control areas in deregulated power systems. The optimal power flow (OPF)-based ATC determination is used to evaluate the feasible maximum ATC value within real and reactive power generation limits, line thermal limits, voltage limits, and voltage and angle stability limits. The HEA approach simultaneously searches for real power generations except slack bus in a source area, real power loads in a sink area, and generation bus voltages to solve the OPF-based ATC problem. Test results on the modified IEEE 24-bus reliability test system (RTS) indicate that ATC determination by the HEA could enhance ATC far more than those from EP, TS, hybrid TS/SA, and improved EP (IEP) algorithms, leading to an efficient utilization of the existing transmission system.

  15. Evolutionary origin of cardiac malformations.

    PubMed

    Taussig, H B

    1988-10-01

    The author has proposed in previous publications that isolated cardiac malformations have an evolutionary origin. This is partly supported by the fact that isolated cardiac malformations found in humans occur also in other placental mammals as well as in birds. External gross examination of the heart in just over 5,000 birds was carried out during a 3 year period. Anomalies included one instance of duplicate hearts, two specimens in which no heart could be identified and in a fourth, a yellow-rumped warbler, the heart lay in the neck outside of the thoracic cavity. Published reports of similar occurrences of an ectopically placed heart concern birds, cattle and humans. The fact that various species of both placental mammals and birds show evidence of heritability for heart defects, and that these species cannot interbreed, combined with the fact that birds and mammals have many similar malformations, points to either a common external causative factor or a common origin. Genes that code the malformed heart must be transmitted with that part of the genetic makeup common to all birds and mammals. Malformations caused by teratogens produce widespread organ injury to a potentially normal embryo whereas the evolutionary malformation is an organ-specific anomaly in an otherwise normal mammal or bird and occurs in widely separated species. The implications of this theory are important for parents of children with an isolated congenital heart defect who may have ingested one or another drug or chemical or have been exposed to toxins or infectious agents before or after conception of the affected offspring. PMID:3047192

  16. Evolutionary History of Tissue Kallikreins

    PubMed Central

    Pavlopoulou, Athanasia; Pampalakis, Georgios; Michalopoulos, Ioannis; Sotiropoulou, Georgia

    2010-01-01

    The gene family of human kallikrein-related peptidases (KLKs) encodes proteins with diverse and pleiotropic functions in normal physiology as well as in disease states. Currently, the most widely known KLK is KLK3 or prostate-specific antigen (PSA) that has applications in clinical diagnosis and monitoring of prostate cancer. The KLK gene family encompasses the largest contiguous cluster of serine proteases in humans which is not interrupted by non-KLK genes. This exceptional and unique characteristic of KLKs makes them ideal for evolutionary studies aiming to infer the direction and timing of gene duplication events. Previous studies on the evolution of KLKs were restricted to mammals and the emergence of KLKs was suggested about 150 million years ago (mya). In order to elucidate the evolutionary history of KLKs, we performed comprehensive phylogenetic analyses of KLK homologous proteins in multiple genomes including those that have been completed recently. Interestingly, we were able to identify novel reptilian, avian and amphibian KLK members which allowed us to trace the emergence of KLKs 330 mya. We suggest that a series of duplication and mutation events gave rise to the KLK gene family. The prominent feature of the KLK family is that it consists of tandemly and uninterruptedly arrayed genes in all species under investigation. The chromosomal co-localization in a single cluster distinguishes KLKs from trypsin and other trypsin-like proteases which are spread in different genetic loci. All the defining features of the KLKs were further found to be conserved in the novel KLK protein sequences. The study of this unique family will further assist in selecting new model organisms for functional studies of proteolytic pathways involving KLKs. PMID:21072173

  17. Evolutionary primacy of sodium bioenergetics

    PubMed Central

    Mulkidjanian, Armen Y; Galperin, Michael Y; Makarova, Kira S; Wolf, Yuri I; Koonin, Eugene V

    2008-01-01

    Background The F- and V-type ATPases are rotary molecular machines that couple translocation of protons or sodium ions across the membrane to the synthesis or hydrolysis of ATP. Both the F-type (found in most bacteria and eukaryotic mitochondria and chloroplasts) and V-type (found in archaea, some bacteria, and eukaryotic vacuoles) ATPases can translocate either protons or sodium ions. The prevalent proton-dependent ATPases are generally viewed as the primary form of the enzyme whereas the sodium-translocating ATPases of some prokaryotes are usually construed as an exotic adaptation to survival in extreme environments. Results We combine structural and phylogenetic analyses to clarify the evolutionary relation between the proton- and sodium-translocating ATPases. A comparison of the structures of the membrane-embedded oligomeric proteolipid rings of sodium-dependent F- and V-ATPases reveals nearly identical sets of amino acids involved in sodium binding. We show that the sodium-dependent ATPases are scattered among proton-dependent ATPases in both the F- and the V-branches of the phylogenetic tree. Conclusion Barring convergent emergence of the same set of ligands in several lineages, these findings indicate that the use of sodium gradient for ATP synthesis is the ancestral modality of membrane bioenergetics. Thus, a primitive, sodium-impermeable but proton-permeable cell membrane that harboured a set of sodium-transporting enzymes appears to have been the evolutionary predecessor of the more structurally demanding proton-tight membranes. The use of proton as the coupling ion appears to be a later innovation that emerged on several independent occasions. Reviewers This article was reviewed by J. Peter Gogarten, Martijn A. Huynen, and Igor B. Zhulin. For the full reviews, please go to the Reviewers' comments section. PMID:18380897

  18. Algorithmic Mechanism Design of Evolutionary Computation

    PubMed Central

    Pei, Yan

    2015-01-01

    We consider algorithmic design, enhancement, and improvement of evolutionary computation as a mechanism design problem. All individuals or several groups of individuals can be considered as self-interested agents. The individuals in evolutionary computation can manipulate parameter settings and operations by satisfying their own preferences, which are defined by an evolutionary computation algorithm designer, rather than by following a fixed algorithm rule. Evolutionary computation algorithm designers or self-adaptive methods should construct proper rules and mechanisms for all agents (individuals) to conduct their evolution behaviour correctly in order to definitely achieve the desired and preset objective(s). As a case study, we propose a formal framework on parameter setting, strategy selection, and algorithmic design of evolutionary computation by considering the Nash strategy equilibrium of a mechanism design in the search process. The evaluation results present the efficiency of the framework. This primary principle can be implemented in any evolutionary computation algorithm that needs to consider strategy selection issues in its optimization process. The final objective of our work is to solve evolutionary computation design as an algorithmic mechanism design problem and establish its fundamental aspect by taking this perspective. This paper is the first step towards achieving this objective by implementing a strategy equilibrium solution (such as Nash equilibrium) in evolutionary computation algorithm. PMID:26257777

  19. Toward a unifying framework for evolutionary processes

    PubMed Central

    Paixão, Tiago; Badkobeh, Golnaz; Barton, Nick; Çörüş, Doğan; Dang, Duc-Cuong; Friedrich, Tobias; Lehre, Per Kristian; Sudholt, Dirk; Sutton, Andrew M.; Trubenová, Barbora

    2015-01-01

    The theory of population genetics and evolutionary computation have been evolving separately for nearly 30 years. Many results have been independently obtained in both fields and many others are unique to its respective field. We aim to bridge this gap by developing a unifying framework for evolutionary processes that allows both evolutionary algorithms and population genetics models to be cast in the same formal framework. The framework we present here decomposes the evolutionary process into its several components in order to facilitate the identification of similarities between different models. In particular, we propose a classification of evolutionary operators based on the defining properties of the different components. We cast several commonly used operators from both fields into this common framework. Using this, we map different evolutionary and genetic algorithms to different evolutionary regimes and identify candidates with the most potential for the translation of results between the fields. This provides a unified description of evolutionary processes and represents a stepping stone towards new tools and results to both fields. PMID:26215686

  20. Escaping from an evolutionary prison cell.

    PubMed

    Randerson, J

    2000-11-01

    To a maternally transmitted parasite, male hosts are evolutionary prison cells. This is because passage into the next host generation is only possible via egg cytoplasm and not sperm. However, these parasites have come up with a neat array of evolutionary tricks to make the best of their custodial sentence. PMID:11153134

  1. Oversimplifying Evolutionary Psychology Leads to Explanatory Gaps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tate, Chuck; Ledbetter, Jay N.

    2010-01-01

    Comments on Evolutionary psychology: Controversies, questions, prospects, and limitations by Confer et al. They argued that SST cannot explain the existence of either homosexuality or suicide within the human species. We contend that a sufficiently nuanced evolutionary position has no difficulties explaining either phenomenon. Also in this…

  2. Algorithmic Mechanism Design of Evolutionary Computation.

    PubMed

    Pei, Yan

    2015-01-01

    We consider algorithmic design, enhancement, and improvement of evolutionary computation as a mechanism design problem. All individuals or several groups of individuals can be considered as self-interested agents. The individuals in evolutionary computation can manipulate parameter settings and operations by satisfying their own preferences, which are defined by an evolutionary computation algorithm designer, rather than by following a fixed algorithm rule. Evolutionary computation algorithm designers or self-adaptive methods should construct proper rules and mechanisms for all agents (individuals) to conduct their evolution behaviour correctly in order to definitely achieve the desired and preset objective(s). As a case study, we propose a formal framework on parameter setting, strategy selection, and algorithmic design of evolutionary computation by considering the Nash strategy equilibrium of a mechanism design in the search process. The evaluation results present the efficiency of the framework. This primary principle can be implemented in any evolutionary computation algorithm that needs to consider strategy selection issues in its optimization process. The final objective of our work is to solve evolutionary computation design as an algorithmic mechanism design problem and establish its fundamental aspect by taking this perspective. This paper is the first step towards achieving this objective by implementing a strategy equilibrium solution (such as Nash equilibrium) in evolutionary computation algorithm. PMID:26257777

  3. Effects of Inertia on Evolutionary Prisoner's Dilemma Game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Wen-Bo; Cao, Xian-Bin; Liu, Run-Ran; Wang, Zhen

    2012-09-01

    Considering the inertia of individuals in real life, we propose a modified Fermi updating rule, where the inertia of players is introduced into evolutionary prisoner's dilemma game (PDG) on square lattices. We mainly focus on how the inertia affects the cooperative behavior of the system. Interestingly, we find that the cooperation level has a nonmonotonic dependence on the inertia: with small inertia, cooperators will soon be invaded by defectors; with large inertia, players are unwilling to change their strategies and the cooperation level remains the same as the initial state; while a moderate inertia can induce the highest cooperation level. Moreover, effects of environmental noise and individual inertia are studied. Our work may be helpful in understanding the emergence and persistence of cooperation in nature and society.

  4. Chemical society hosts biotech gathering

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, R.

    1992-08-28

    Last week more than 1,200 scientists attended the Ninth International Biotechnology Symposium sponsored by the American Chemical Society (ACS) in Crystal City, Virginia. The conference, held every 4 years, ranged from basic science topics (such as finding structural motifs in protein data banks) to applied work (including the latest advances in making human proteins in transgenic animals).

  5. The American Montessori Society, Inc.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donahue, Gilbert E.

    2010-01-01

    This article offers a brief history of the establishment of the American Montessori Society (AMS) and takes a closer look at its structure. The history of AMS has essentially been a search for standards and a search for community in its efforts to further the welfare of children in America. It has been an indigenous effort by American parents, and…

  6. Credentialism in Our Ignorant Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marien, Michael

    All societies have procedures for selecting who will occupy important positions. The use of credentials characterizes our system of social selection, and our worship of them has created the following problems: an artificial demand for education, artificial restraints to learning, the overlooking of obsolescence, generational inversion (wherein the…

  7. Values in Education and Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feather, Norman T.

    Based on six years of research, this book is an interdisciplinary investigation of human values and value systems. The author believes that the concept of values enables the social scientist to bridge the gap between the analysis of the individual and the analysis of the society in which that individual lives. Chapter 1 discusses value systems and…

  8. Shapes of a Renewable Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deudney, Daniel; Flavin, Christopher

    1983-01-01

    To rely on coal and nuclear power as sources of energy is to narrow society's future options and to present numerous problems. Renewable solar energy, on the other hand, can preserve rather than reduce options. More jobs, rising self-reliance, and new equalities between nations will be the result. (RM)

  9. Information Epochs and Human Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masuda, Yoneji

    1982-01-01

    Mankind has experienced three societal transformations in the course of history. A new information epoch has served as a precondition for social change. The current information society is post-industrial and will lead to change in the socioeconomic structure and in social values. (KC)

  10. Society Membership Survey: 1986 Salaries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skelton, W. Keith; And Others

    The fourth in a series of reports produced by the Education and Employment Statistics division of the American Insititute of Physics (AIP) is presented. Data are based on a stratified random sample survey of one-sixth of the U.S. and Canadian membership of the AIP member societies. In the spring of 1986, every individual in the sample received a…

  11. The Society and the Discipline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosvenor, Gilbert M.

    1985-01-01

    In this speech delivered at the 1984 meeting of the Association of American Geographers, the president of the National Geographic Society (NGS) discusses what geography needs to stay on its feet as an independent and useful discipline and what the NGS is doing to support geography. (RM)

  12. Reconstructing Death in Postmodern Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kastenbaum, Robert

    1993-01-01

    Examines interaction between emerging thanatological movement and its sociohistorical context. Notes that thanatology will take on new shape as individuals and society attempt to cope with postmodernistic forces and deconstructive mentality. Considers prospect for authentic solidarity against distress in reconstructed death system. (Author/NB)

  13. Science in Society, Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Science Education, Cambridge (England).

    This teacher's guide was designed for use in a course developed by The Science in Society Project. The aims of the project, course description and content, and suggestions for introducing the course are included in a general introduction. Objectives, content, commentary on supplementary reading materials developed specifically for the course,…

  14. American Chemical Society, Preprints symposia

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    The Division of Petroleum Chemistry of the American Chemical Society met August 30-September 4, 1987, in New Orleans and presented symposia on advances in fluid cracking catalysts, advances in naphtha reforming, refinery waste cleanup, hydrocarbon oxidation, and methane conversion. Forty-two abstracts were prepared.

  15. White Resentment in Settler Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schick, Carol

    2014-01-01

    Teaching about the history and culture of aboriginal peoples in schools of white settler societies can serve as a counter to the dominant story that serves as the national narrative. Even though the actual teaching may well be among the least political and least disruptive type of curricular knowledge on offer, the inclusion of counter stories can…

  16. Evolutionary theory in letters to the editor.

    PubMed

    Silva, Eric Orion; Lowe, Clayton Cory

    2015-05-01

    This research note presents the results of a content analysis of 234 letters to the editors that discuss evolutionary theory and were published in American newspapers. We find that letters to the editor both support and hinder the cause of teaching evolutionary theory in American secondary schools. On the one hand, anti-evolutionary theory messages are marginalized in the letters section. This marginalization signals a low level of legitimacy for creationism. It might also contribute to the sense of tension that sustains creationist identities. On the other hand, relatively few letters explicitly note the fact that scientists or the scientific community accept evolution. Interestingly, the obscuration of the scientific community's support for evolutionary theory occurs both in letters supporting and opposing evolutionary theory. PMID:25540333

  17. Sexual division of labor: energetic and evolutionary scenarios.

    PubMed

    Panter-Brick, Catherine

    2002-01-01

    This article examines comparative energetic data on hunter-gatherers in the context of evolutionary scenarios of the sexual division of labor, with respect to both specific task allocation and overall levels of daily physical activity. The division of labor between men and women, well marked in contemporary foraging societies, was once posited as the "true watershed" for the evolution of the genus Homo. Some research on brain-wiring even links sex differences in cognitive and spatial abilities to sex-specific foraging activities. Most recent evolutionary arguments posit that men focus on hunting and women on gathering activities to realize potentially conflicting mating and parenting goals. A range of cooperative strategies (male/female and female/female) for child provisioning is also under investigation. Attention to energetic and reproductive trade-offs has usefully challenged the proposition that women are excluded from big-game hunting due to constraints of foraging ecology and reproduction. Simplistic assumptions about gender roles are thus increasingly questioned in anthropology, as well as in archaeology. Current models in behavioral ecology explore ways in which foraging practices vary with ecological circumstances, aiming to derive testable hypotheses from fine-grained data on the behavior of contemporary hunter-gatherers. Data on overall physical activity levels (PAL) can also serve to evaluate relative male/female workloads in modern groups, reconstruct hominid energy requirements and activity profiles, and examine changes with subsistence intensification. Male/female PAL ratios show that a task-specific division of labor does not readily extrapolate to 24-hour energy expenditure and that male/female differences in workloads were not necessarily reduced with the transition to agriculture. With respect to gender roles and PAL, a shift away from facile stereotypes of human behavior is evident. The challenge is to incorporate a range of behavioral

  18. Evolutionary demography of agricultural expansion in preindustrial northern Finland.

    PubMed

    Helle, Samuli; Brommer, Jon E; Pettay, Jenni E; Lummaa, Virpi; Enbuske, Matti; Jokela, Jukka

    2014-11-01

    A shift from nomadic foraging to sedentary agriculture was a major turning point in human evolutionary history, increasing our population size and eventually leading to the development of modern societies. We however lack understanding of the changes in life histories that contributed to the increased population growth rate of agriculturalists, because comparable individual-based reproductive records of sympatric populations of agriculturalists and foragers are rarely found. Here, we compared key life-history traits and population growth rate using comprehensive data from the seventieth to nineteenth century Northern Finland: indigenous Sami were nomadic hunter-fishers and reindeer herders, whereas sympatric agricultural Finns relied predominantly on animal husbandry. We found that agriculture-based families had higher lifetime fecundity, faster birth spacing and lower maternal mortality. Furthermore, agricultural Finns had 6.2% higher annual population growth rate than traditional Sami, which was accounted by differences between the subsistence modes in age-specific fecundity but not in mortality. Our results provide, to our knowledge, the most detailed demonstration yet of the demographic changes and evolutionary benefits that resulted from agricultural revolution. PMID:25232134

  19. Evolutionary demography of agricultural expansion in preindustrial northern Finland

    PubMed Central

    Helle, Samuli; Brommer, Jon E.; Pettay, Jenni E.; Lummaa, Virpi; Enbuske, Matti; Jokela, Jukka

    2014-01-01

    A shift from nomadic foraging to sedentary agriculture was a major turning point in human evolutionary history, increasing our population size and eventually leading to the development of modern societies. We however lack understanding of the changes in life histories that contributed to the increased population growth rate of agriculturalists, because comparable individual-based reproductive records of sympatric populations of agriculturalists and foragers are rarely found. Here, we compared key life-history traits and population growth rate using comprehensive data from the seventieth to nineteenth century Northern Finland: indigenous Sami were nomadic hunter-fishers and reindeer herders, whereas sympatric agricultural Finns relied predominantly on animal husbandry. We found that agriculture-based families had higher lifetime fecundity, faster birth spacing and lower maternal mortality. Furthermore, agricultural Finns had 6.2% higher annual population growth rate than traditional Sami, which was accounted by differences between the subsistence modes in age-specific fecundity but not in mortality. Our results provide, to our knowledge, the most detailed demonstration yet of the demographic changes and evolutionary benefits that resulted from agricultural revolution. PMID:25232134

  20. Fewer invited talks by women in evolutionary biology symposia

    PubMed Central

    Schroeder, J; Dugdale, H L; Radersma, R; Hinsch, M; Buehler, D M; Saul, J; Porter, L; Liker, A; De Cauwer, I; Johnson, P J; Santure, A W; Griffin, A S; Bolund, E; Ross, L; Webb, T J; Feulner, P G D; Winney, I; Szulkin, M; Komdeur, J; Versteegh, M A; Hemelrijk, C K; Svensson, E I; Edwards, H; Karlsson, M; West, S A; Barrett, E L B; Richardson, D S; van den Brink, V; Wimpenny, J H; Ellwood, S A; Rees, M; Matson, K D; Charmantier, A; dos Remedios, N; Schneider, N A; Teplitsky, C; Laurance, W F; Butlin, R K; Horrocks, N P C

    2013-01-01

    Lower visibility of female scientists, compared to male scientists, is a potential reason for the under-representation of women among senior academic ranks. Visibility in the scientific community stems partly from presenting research as an invited speaker at organized meetings. We analysed the sex ratio of presenters at the European Society for Evolutionary Biology (ESEB) Congress 2011, where all abstract submissions were accepted for presentation. Women were under-represented among invited speakers at symposia (15% women) compared to all presenters (46%), regular oral presenters (41%) and plenary speakers (25%). At the ESEB congresses in 2001–2011, 9–23% of invited speakers were women. This under-representation of women is partly attributable to a larger proportion of women, than men, declining invitations: in 2011, 50% of women declined an invitation to speak compared to 26% of men. We expect invited speakers to be scientists from top ranked institutions or authors of recent papers in high-impact journals. Considering all invited speakers (including declined invitations), 23% were women. This was lower than the baseline sex ratios of early-mid career stage scientists, but was similar to senior scientists and authors that have published in high-impact journals. High-quality science by women therefore has low exposure at international meetings, which will constrain Evolutionary Biology from reaching its full potential. We wish to highlight the wider implications of turning down invitations to speak, and encourage conference organizers to implement steps to increase acceptance rates of invited talks. PMID:23786459