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1

Chapter 10. Poisson processes. Manual for SOA Exam MLC.  

E-print Network

10.6. Compound Poisson process. c 2009. Miguel A. Arcones. All rights reserved. Extract from. Section 10.6. Compound Poisson process. Compound Poisson processes Definition 1 A stochastic process {X(t) : t 0} is said to be a compound Poisson process if it can be represented as X(t) = N(t) i=1 Yi if N

Arcones, Miguel A.

2

MLC++: A Machine Learning Library in C  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present MLC++ , a library of C++classes andtools for supervised Machine Learning. While MLC++provides general learning algorithms that can be usedby end users, the main objective is to provide researchersand experts with a wide variety of tools thatcan accelerate algorithm development, increase softwarereliability, provide comparison tools, and displayinformation visually. More than just a collection ofexisting algorithms, MLC++ is an

Ron Kohavi; George H. John; Richard Long; David Manley; Karl Pfleger

1994-01-01

3

Exam Anxiety Overcoming Exam Anxiety  

E-print Network

Overcoming Exam Anxiety #12;2 Overcoming Exam Anxiety "I've suffered a great many catastrophes preparation?" Can some exam anxiety be helpful? A certain amount of exam anxiety keeps us energized, motivated, alert, and focused. But too much anxiety can interfere with exam performance by blocking our recall

4

Exam #1  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The first exam in a class holds an opportunity for metacognitive teaching. At this point the student is open to hearing your message, especially if their outcome is less than they had hoped. This example walks through some strategies for implementing metacognitive teaching wrapped around the first exam.

Samson, Perry

5

Pelvic Exam  

MedlinePLUS

... Home About My Pictures Browse Search Quick Search Image Details Pelvic Exam View/Download: Small: 719x590 View ... Added: 2/22/2010 Reuse Restrictions: Yes - This image is copyright protected. Any use of this image ...

6

Localization and functional analyses of the MLC1 protein involved in megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mutations in the MLC1 gene are responsible for one form of the neurological disorder megalencephalic leuko- encephalopathy with subcortical cysts (MLC). The disease is a type of vacuolating myelinopathy. The biochemical properties and the function of the MLC1 protein are unknown. To characterize MLC1, we gener- ated polyclonal antibodies. The MLC1 protein was detected in the brain, assembled into higher

Oscar Teijido; Albert Martinez; Michael Pusch; Antonio Zorzano; Eduardo Soriano; Jose Antonio del Rio; Manuel Palacin; Raul Estevez

2004-01-01

7

Tolerances on MLC leaf position accuracy for IMRT delivery with a dynamic MLC  

SciTech Connect

The objective determination of performance standards for radiation therapy equipment requires, ideally, establishing the quantitative relationship between performance deviations and clinical outcome or some acceptable surrogate. In this simulation study the authors analyzed the dosimetric impact of random (leaf by leaf) and systematic (entire leaf bank) errors in the position of the MLC leaves on seven clinical prostate and seven clinical head and neck IMRT plans delivered using a dynamic MLC. In-house software was developed to incorporate normally distributed errors of up to {+-}2 mm in individual leaf position or systematic errors ({+-}1 and {+-}0.5 mm in all leaves of both leaf banks or +1 mm in one bank only) into the 14 plans, thus simulating treatment delivery using a suboptimally performing MLC. The dosimetric consequences of suboptimal MLC performance were quantified using the equivalent uniform doses (EUDs) of the clinical target volumes and important organs at risk (OARs). The deviation of the EUDs of the selected structures as the performance of the MLC deteriorated was used as the objective surrogate of clinical outcome. Random errors of 2 mm resulted in negligible changes for all structures of interest in both sites. In contrast, systematic errors can lead to potentially significant dosimetric changes that may compromise clinical outcome. If a 2% change in EUD of the target and 2 Gy for the OARs were adopted as acceptable levels of deviation in dose due to MLC effects alone, then systematic errors in leaf position will need to be limited to 0.3 mm. This study provides guidance, based on a dosimetric surrogate of clinical outcome, for the development of one component, leaf position accuracy of performance standards for multileaf collimators.

Rangel, Alejandra; Dunscombe, Peter [Department of Medical Physics, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, 1331-29 Street NW, Calgary, Alberta T2N 4N2 (Canada) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive NW, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4 (Canada); Department of Medical Physics, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, 1331-29 Street NW, Calgary, Alberta T2N 4N2 (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive NW, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4 (Canada) and Department of Oncology, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, 1331-29 Street NW, Calgary, Alberta T2N 4N2 (Canada)

2009-07-15

8

Targeted deletion of the MLC1f/3f downstream enhancer results in precocious MLC expression and mesoderm ablation.  

PubMed

The expression of skeletal muscle contractile proteins is tightly regulated during embryonic development. In the mouse, the myosin light chain (MLC) 1f/3f gene locus is not activated until E9.5, exclusively in skeletal muscle precursor cells. A potent enhancer downstream of the MLC1f/3f locus confers correct temporal and spatial activation of linked reporter gene in transgenic mouse embryos. To examine roles of the MLC downstream enhancer (MLCE) in its native context of the MLC1f/3f gene locus, we eliminated a 1.5-kb DNA segment containing the enhancer from the mouse genome by targeted deletion, leaving no exogenous sequences at the deletion site. Mouse embryos homozygous for the MLCE deletion were smaller and developmentally delayed, formed no mesoderm by E7.5, and were resorbed almost completely at E8.5. In situ hybridization and RT-PCR analyses of affected mutant embryos at E7.5 revealed ectopic MLC transcripts, whose products would be predicted to interfere with a variety of nonmuscle cell functions determining differentiation of mesoderm. These results suggest that the MLC downstream enhancer and its flanking sequences include negative regulatory elements which block precocious activation of MLC expression in mesodermal precursors during a critical window of development, as well as positive elements which subsequently permit tissue-restricted MLC transcription in differentiating skeletal muscles. PMID:11884037

Jiang, Ping; Song, Jihwan; Gu, Guoqing; Slonimsky, Esfir; Li, En; Rosenthal, Nadia

2002-03-15

9

Assignment of the human fast skeletal muscle myosin alkali light chains gene (MLC1 F \\/MLC3 F ) to 2q 32.1-2qter  

Microsoft Academic Search

A DNA probe derived from a mouse intronless pseudogene including coding regions for the myosin fast skeletal muscle alkali light chains, MLC1F\\/MLC3F (suggested HGM symbol, MYL1), was tested on a panel of 25 independent man-rodent somatic cell hybrids in order to assign the human MLC1F\\/MLC3F gene to a human chromosome. A 3.7-kb TaqI human fragment was found to correlate with

Odile Cohen-Haguenauer; Paul J. R. Barton; Nguyen Van Cong; Stéphane Serero; Marie-Sylvie Gross; Chantal Jegou-Foubert; Marie-France Tand; Benoit Robert; Margaret Buckingham; Jean Frézal

1988-01-01

10

Physics Olympiad Exams  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Physics Olympiad Screening Exams are used each year by the American Association of Physics Teachers to help select members for the United State Physics Team. Each year there are two or three rounds of exams consisting of both multiple choice and open response questions. The exams cover a broad range of topics in physics including mechanics, electricity and magnetism, thermodynamics, waves, and optics. The exams linked below provide examples of the Olympiad screening tests from several previous years. In most cases both exams and exams with solutions are provided.

2003-10-16

11

Exam Checklist 2014 1. Exam Timetables  

E-print Network

/ Schools / College; o Alternative arrangements (if applicable); o Exam regulations (printed on reverse); o an opportunity to familiarise yourself with Exam Schools and regulations or alternative arrangements. View passed Your candidate number. 2. Alternative Arrangements See the Alternative Arrangements for further

Jensen, Max

12

Data Mining Using MLC++: A Machine Learning Library in C  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data mining algorithms including machine learning, statistical analysis, and pattern recognition techniques can greatly improve our understanding of data warehouses that are now becoming more widespread. In this paper, we focus on classication algorithms and review the need for multiple classication algorithms. We describe a system calledMLC++, which was designed to help choose the appropriate classication algorithm for a given

Ron Kohavi; Dan Sommerfield; James Dougherty

1996-01-01

13

Monte Carlo study of MLC fields for cobalt therapy machine.  

PubMed

An automated Multi-Leaf Collimator (MLC) system has been developed as add-on for the cobalt-60 teletherapy machines available in India. The goal of the present computational study is to validate the MLC design using Monte Carlo (MC) modeling. The study was based on the Kirloskar-supplied Phoenix model machines that closely match the Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) theratron-80 machine. The MLC is a retrofit attachment to the collimator assembly, with 14 non-divergent leaf pairs of 40 mm thick, 7 mm wide, and 150 mm long tungsten alloy plates with rounded edges and 20 mm tongue and 2 mm groove in each leaf. In the present work, the source and collimator geometry has been investigated in detail to arrive at a model that best represents the measured dosimetric data. The authors have studied in detail the proto-I MLC built for cobalt-60. The MLC field sizes were MC simulated for 2 × 2 cm(2) to 14 × 14 cm(2) square fields as well as irregular fields, and the percent depth dose (PDD) and profile data were compared with ROPS(†) treatment planning system (TPS). In addition, measured profiles using the IMATRIXX system(‡) were also compared with the MC simulations. The proto-I MLC can define radiation fields up to 14 × 14 cm(2) within 3 mm accuracy. The maximum measured leakage through the leaf ends in closed condition was 3.4% and interleaf leakage observed was 7.3%. Good agreement between MC results, ROPS and IMATRIXX results has been observed. The investigation also supports the hypothesis that optical and radiation field coincidence exists for the square fields studied with the MLC. Plots of the percent depth dose (PDD) data and profile data for clinically significant irregular fields have also been presented. The MC model was also investigated to speed up the calculations to allow calculations of clinically relevant conformal beams. (†)Radiation Oncology Planning System (ROPS) is supplied by Tirumala Jyothi Computer Systems described at https://sites.google.com/site/tjcsrops/ (‡)IMATRIXX is supplied by IBA Dosimetry described at HYPERLINK http://www.iba-dosimetry.com. PMID:24872604

Ayyangar, Komanduri M; Rani, Roopa A; Kumar, Anil; Reddy, A R

2014-04-01

14

Monte Carlo study of MLC fields for cobalt therapy machine  

PubMed Central

An automated Multi-Leaf Collimator (MLC) system has been developed as add-on for the cobalt-60 teletherapy machines available in India. The goal of the present computational study is to validate the MLC design using Monte Carlo (MC) modeling. The study was based on the Kirloskar-supplied Phoenix model machines that closely match the Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) theratron-80 machine. The MLC is a retrofit attachment to the collimator assembly, with 14 non-divergent leaf pairs of 40 mm thick, 7 mm wide, and 150 mm long tungsten alloy plates with rounded edges and 20 mm tongue and 2 mm groove in each leaf. In the present work, the source and collimator geometry has been investigated in detail to arrive at a model that best represents the measured dosimetric data. The authors have studied in detail the proto-I MLC built for cobalt-60. The MLC field sizes were MC simulated for 2 × 2 cm2 to 14 × 14 cm2 square fields as well as irregular fields, and the percent depth dose (PDD) and profile data were compared with ROPS† treatment planning system (TPS). In addition, measured profiles using the IMATRIXX system‡ were also compared with the MC simulations. The proto-I MLC can define radiation fields up to 14 × 14 cm2 within 3 mm accuracy. The maximum measured leakage through the leaf ends in closed condition was 3.4% and interleaf leakage observed was 7.3%. Good agreement between MC results, ROPS and IMATRIXX results has been observed. The investigation also supports the hypothesis that optical and radiation field coincidence exists for the square fields studied with the MLC. Plots of the percent depth dose (PDD) data and profile data for clinically significant irregular fields have also been presented. The MC model was also investigated to speed up the calculations to allow calculations of clinically relevant conformal beams. †Radiation Oncology Planning System (ROPS) is supplied by Tirumala Jyothi Computer Systems described at https://sites.google.com/site/tjcsrops/ ‡IMATRIXX is supplied by IBA Dosimetry described at HYPERLINK http://www.iba-dosimetry.com PMID:24872604

Ayyangar, Komanduri M.; Rani, Roopa A.; Kumar, Anil; Reddy, A. R.

2014-01-01

15

Suitability of using multileaf collimator (MLC) for photon field matching.  

PubMed

This study evaluated and presented the results on the suitability of using a Siemens double-focused multileaf collimator (MLC) for photon field matching. The study was conducted using film-based dosimetry for measurements and a Theraplan Plus (version 3.8) treatment planning system (TPS) for planning comparisons and additional field matching investigations. In this study, it was found that the double-focused MLC field matching closely resembled that of the independent jaws, with the exception that the MLC had a nonuniform match line-a--match line formed by a different size leaf pair gap--overlap at a different join-up position. In addition, it was found that the dose change varied linearly with the MLC leaf pair gap-overlap (from 3-mm gap to 3-mm overlap) by 11 +/- 1%/mm. Using intrafraction "feathering" of the junction, a reduction of the dose change from 11 +/- 1%/mm to 6.5 +/- 1%/mm occurred when the junction was moved once and from 11 +/- 1%/mm to 4 +/- 1%/mm when moved twice. Based on the results, the study suggested that MLC positioning error tolerances of +/-2 mm might be too large for photon field matching. On the other hand, a combination of reducing the tolerance to +/-1 mm and intrafraction junction moves (twice by +/-1 cm off matching axis) could reduce the maximum peak height--trough low at the junction to within a required range of -5 to +7% in planning target volume (PTV) dose heterogeneity. PMID:15324915

Kwok, C B; Lam, G; El-Sayed, S

2004-01-01

16

An MLC calibration method using a detector array  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The authors have developed a quantitative calibration method for a multileaf collimator (MLC) which measures individual leaf positions relative to the MLC backup jaw on an Elekta Synergy linear accelerator. Methods: The method utilizes a commercially available two-axis detector array (Profiler 2; Sun Nuclear Corporation, Melbourne, FL). To calibrate the MLC bank, its backup jaw is positioned at the central axis and the opposing jaw is retracted to create a half-beam configuration. The position of the backup jaws field edge is then measured with the array to obtain what is termed the radiation defined reference line. The positions of the individual leaf ends relative to this reference line are then inferred by the detector response in the leaf end penumbra. Iteratively adjusting and remeasuring the leaf end positions to within specifications completes the calibration. Using the backup jaw as a reference for the leaf end positions is based on three assumptions: (1) The leading edge of an MLC leaf bank is parallel to its backup jaw's leading edge, (2) the backup jaw position is reproducible, and (3) the measured radiation field edge created by each leaf end is representative of that leaf's position. Data from an electronic portal imaging device (EPID) were used in a similar analysis to check the results obtained with the array. Results: The relative leaf end positions measured with the array differed from those measured with the EPID by an average of 0.11 {+-}0.09 mm per leaf. The maximum leaf positional change measured with the Profiler 2 over a 3 month period was 0.51 mm. A leaf positional accuracy of {+-}0.4 mm is easily attainable through the iterative calibration process. The method requires an average of 40 min to measure both leaf banks. Conclusions: This work demonstrates that the Profiler 2 is an effective tool for efficient and quantitative MLC quality assurance and calibration.

Simon, Thomas A.; Kahler, Darren; Simon, William E.; Fox, Christopher; Li, Jonathan; Palta, Jatinder; Liu, Chihray [Department of Nuclear and Radiological Engineering, University of Florida, 202 Nuclear Science Building, Gainesville, Florida 32611-8300 (United States); Sun Nuclear Corporation, 425-A Pineda Court, Melbourne, Florida 32940 (United States) and Department of Radiation Oncology, Health Science Center, University of Florida, P.O. Box 100385, Gainesville, Florida 32610-0385 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Health Science Center, University of Florida, P.O. Box 100385, Gainesville, Florida 32610-0385 (United States); Sun Nuclear Corporation, 425-A Pineda Court, Melbourne, Florida 32940 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Tulane University, 1415 Tulane Ave, HC65, New Orleans, Louisiana 70112 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Health Science Center, University of Florida, P.O. Box 100385, Gainesville, Florida 32610-0385 (United States)

2009-10-15

17

An MLC calibration method using a detector array  

PubMed Central

Purpose: The authors have developed a quantitative calibration method for a multileaf collimator (MLC) which measures individual leaf positions relative to the MLC backup jaw on an Elekta Synergy linear accelerator. Methods: The method utilizes a commercially available two-axis detector array (Profiler 2; Sun Nuclear Corporation, Melbourne, FL). To calibrate the MLC bank, its backup jaw is positioned at the central axis and the opposing jaw is retracted to create a half-beam configuration. The position of the backup jaws field edge is then measured with the array to obtain what is termed the radiation defined reference line. The positions of the individual leaf ends relative to this reference line are then inferred by the detector response in the leaf end penumbra. Iteratively adjusting and remeasuring the leaf end positions to within specifications completes the calibration. Using the backup jaw as a reference for the leaf end positions is based on three assumptions: (1) The leading edge of an MLC leaf bank is parallel to its backup jaw’s leading edge, (2) the backup jaw position is reproducible, and (3) the measured radiation field edge created by each leaf end is representative of that leaf’s position. Data from an electronic portal imaging device (EPID) were used in a similar analysis to check the results obtained with the array. Results: The relative leaf end positions measured with the array differed from those measured with the EPID by an average of 0.11 ±0.09 mm per leaf. The maximum leaf positional change measured with the Profiler 2 over a 3 month period was 0.51 mm. A leaf positional accuracy of ±0.4 mm is easily attainable through the iterative calibration process. The method requires an average of 40 min to measure both leaf banks. Conclusions: This work demonstrates that the Profiler 2 is an effective tool for efficient and quantitative MLC quality assurance and calibration. PMID:19928080

Simon, Thomas A.; Kahler, Darren; Simon, William E.; Fox, Christopher; Li, Jonathan; Palta, Jatinder; Liu, Chihray

2009-01-01

18

Examining Exam Reviews: A Comparison of Exam Scores and Attitudes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Instructors commonly use exam reviews to help students prepare for exams and to increase student success. The current study compared the effects of traditional, trivia, and practice test-based exam reviews on actual exam scores, as well as students' attitudes toward each review. Findings suggested that students' exam scores were significantly…

Hackathorn, Jana; Cornell, Kathryn; Garczynski, Amy M.; Solomon, Erin D.; Blankmeyer, Katheryn E.; Tennial, Rachel E.

2012-01-01

19

Exam Preparation Multiple Choice Exam Strategies  

E-print Network

should integrate material from different parts of the course. o Exchange your questions with classmates questions in mixed format exams (as these require some thinking through), for reviewing your answers, and thinking about the question if you don't know the answer; just mark it to come back to later. Don't read

20

Exam Preparation & Strategies for Exam Preparation  

E-print Network

and learning objectives on course outlines - Are previous exams available for review and practice? - Listen the meaning of what you are trying to learn; we tend to learn what we understand. · Comparing ­ notice similarities between new material and what you are learning · Contrasting ­ notice differences between new

21

Exam 2 Memo  

E-print Network

Oct 18, 2011 ... The instructors may not loan calculators to students. If any student is ... 2) There are fifteen multiple-choice problems on the exam. .... no later than two business days (Friday, October 14th) before the exam takes place. If you.

math

2011-10-07

22

AAPT Physics Bowl Exam Review  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The AAPT Physics Bowl is an annual contest sponsored by the American Association of Physics Teachers to generate interest in physics and to recognize outstanding high school physics students and their teachers. The exam consists of multiple choice questions and has a time limit of forty-five minutes. Copies of the 1994-2000 Physics Bowl exams have been provided here by the AAPT in the form of Adobe Acrobat .PDF files. The answers are provided at the end of each exam. The current exam may no longer be given in the format of the exams listed below. The CD available from the AAPT Store has questions and answers from 2001 through 2006. 1994 AAPT/Metrologic Physics Bowl Exam 1995 AAPT/Metrologic Physics Bowl Exam 1996 AAPT/Metrologic Physics Bowl Exam 1997 AAPT/Metrologic Physics Bowl Exam 1998 AAPT/Metrologic Physics Bowl Exam 1999 AAPT/Metrologic Physics Bowl Exam 2000 AAPT/Metrologic Physics Bowl Exam

2003-10-16

23

The transcription factor Mlc promotes Vibrio cholerae biofilm formation through repression of phosphotransferase system components.  

PubMed

The phosphoenol phosphotransferase system (PTS) is a multicomponent signal transduction cascade that regulates diverse aspects of bacterial cellular physiology in response to the availability of high-energy sugars in the environment. Many PTS components are repressed at the transcriptional level when the substrates they transport are not available. In Escherichia coli, the transcription factor Mlc (for makes large colonies) represses transcription of the genes encoding enzyme I (EI), histidine protein (HPr), and the glucose-specific enzyme IIBC (EIIBC(Glc)) in defined media that lack PTS substrates. When glucose is present, the unphosphorylated form of EIIBC(Glc) sequesters Mlc to the cell membrane, preventing its interaction with DNA. Very little is known about Vibrio cholerae Mlc. We found that V. cholerae Mlc activates biofilm formation in LB broth but not in defined medium supplemented with either pyruvate or glucose. Therefore, we questioned whether V. cholerae Mlc functions differently than E. coli Mlc. Here we have shown that, like E. coli Mlc, V. cholerae Mlc represses transcription of PTS components in both defined medium and LB broth and that E. coli Mlc is able to rescue the biofilm defect of a V. cholerae ?mlc mutant. Furthermore, we provide evidence that Mlc indirectly activates transcription of the vps genes by repressing expression of EI. Because activation of the vps genes by Mlc occurs under only a subset of the conditions in which repression of PTS components is observed, we conclude that additional inputs present in LB broth are required for activation of vps gene transcription by Mlc. PMID:24769694

Pickering, Bradley S; Lopilato, Jane E; Smith, Daniel R; Watnick, Paula I

2014-07-01

24

Dosimetric discrepancies caused by differing MLC parameters for dynamic IMRT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radiotherapy patients will from time to time be treated on another linac than originally planned due to service or logistical challenges. For patients treated with dynamic intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), extra care should be taken to make sure the delivered dose remains as planned. Four linacs with the same type of dynamic multileaf collimator (MLC) were compared to find a general prediction of the potential dosimetric error caused by treating IMRT patients on another linac without recalculating the treatment plan. The MLC parameters, transmission and dosimetric leaf separation (DLS) were measured for all four linacs. The dynamic fields that were measured to find the DLS value were imported into the treatment planning system to compare the calculated and measured doses. Measured values of transmission and DLS were used directly in the calculations to obtain dose differences of less than 1% between the calculated and measured doses at the reference setup. The dosimetric discrepancy between the linacs was acceptable for all but one linac. Recalculation of the treatment plan therefore remains as standard procedure for this linac when a planned patient must switch linac during the course of treatment. The depth and field size dependences of the MLC parameters were also tested, finding dose differences of up to 4%.

Wasbø, E.; Valen, H.

2008-01-01

25

Quizzes, Tests, and Exams  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website features information on strategies for testing, including choosing appropriate testing methodologies and developing a test that assesses students as accurately and fairly as possible. Topics include different types of tests, construction of effective exams and alternative testing methods.

Davis, Barbara G.; Honolulu, University O.

26

Exam 3 Memo  

E-print Network

Nov 29, 2011 ... The instructors may not loan calculators to students. If any student is ... 2) There are fifteen multiple-choice problems on the exam. .... coordinator know no later than two business days (Tuesday, November 22nd) before the.

math

2011-11-14

27

Testicular self-exam  

MedlinePLUS

... self-exam may be done to check for testicular cancer . Testicles have blood vessels and other structures that ... of the following risk factors: Family history of testicular cancer Past testicular tumor Undescended testicle Some, but not ...

28

Small field dosimetric characterization of a new 160-leaf MLC.  

PubMed

The goal of this work was to perform a 6 MV small field characterization of the new Agility 160-leaf multi-leaf collimator (MLC) from Elekta. This included profile measurement analysis and central axis relative output measurements using various diode detectors and an air-core fiber optic scintillation dosimeter (FOD). Data was acquired at a depth of 10.0 cm for field sizes of 1.0, 0.9, 0.8, 0.7, 0.6 and 0.5 cm. Three experimental data sets, comprised of five readings, were made for both the relative output and profile measurements. Average detector-specific output ratios (OR[overline](f(clin))(det))) were calculated with respect to a field size of 3.0 cm and small field replacement correction factors (k(f(clin),f(msr))(Q(clin),Q(msr))) derived for the diodes using the scintillation dosimeter readings as the baseline. The standard experimental uncertainty on OR[overline](f(clin))(det)) was calculated at a 90% confidence interval and the coefficient of variation (CV) used to characterize the detector-specific measurement precision. The positional accuracy of the collimation system was also investigated by analyzing the repeated profile measurements and field width constancy investigated as a function of collimator rotation. For comparison the output and profile measurements were repeated using the Elekta 80-leaf MLCi2 on a beam matched linac at 6 MV. The measured OR[overline](f(clin))(det)) varied as a function of detector and MLC design. At the smallest field size the standard experimental uncertainty on OR[overline](f(clin))(det)) was consistent across all detectors at approximately 0.5% and 1.0% for Agility and MLCi2 collimators respectively. The CV associated with the FOD measurements were greater than that of the diodes but did not translate into increased measurement uncertainty. At the smallest field size, the diode detector correction factors were approximately 2% greater for MLCi2 than that required for the Agility. Profile data revealed the Agility MLC to have a greater positional reproducibility than both the MLCi2 and the linac diaphragms (jaws), as also reflected in the experimental uncertainties on OR[overline](f(clin))(det)). The relative output, profile widths and associated uncertainties were all found to differ between the two MLC systems investigated, as were the field size specific diode detector replacement correction factors. The data also clearly showed that the Agility 160-leaf MLC performs to a tighter positional tolerance than the MLCi2. PMID:24077128

Cranmer-Sargison, G; Liu, P Z Y; Weston, S; Suchowerska, N; Thwaites, D I

2013-10-21

29

TomoTherapy MLC verification using exit detector data  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Treatment delivery verification (DV) is important in the field of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). While IMRT and image guided radiation therapy (IGRT), allow us to create more conformal plans and enables the use of tighter margins, an erroneously executed plan can have detrimental effects on the treatment outcome. The purpose of this study is to develop a DV technique to verify TomoTherapy's multileaf collimator (MLC) using the onboard mega-voltage CT detectors. Methods: The proposed DV method uses temporal changes in the MVCT detector signal to predict actual leaf open times delivered on the treatment machine. Penumbra and scattered radiation effects may produce confounding results when determining leaf open times from the raw detector data. To reduce the impact of the effects, an iterative, Richardson-Lucy (R-L) deconvolution algorithm is applied. Optical sensors installed on each MLC leaf are used to verify the accuracy of the DV technique. The robustness of the DV technique is examined by introducing different attenuation materials in the beam. Additionally, the DV technique has been used to investigate several clinical plans which failed to pass delivery quality assurance (DQA) and was successful in identifying MLC timing discrepancies as the root cause. Results: The leaf open time extracted from the exit detector showed good agreement with the optical sensors under a variety of conditions. Detector-measured leaf open times agreed with optical sensor data to within 0.2 ms, and 99% of the results agreed within 8.5 ms. These results changed little when attenuation was added in the beam. For the clinical plans failing DQA, the dose calculated from reconstructed leaf open times played an instrumental role in discovering the root-cause of the problem. Throughout the retrospective study, it is found that the reconstructed dose always agrees with measured doses to within 1%. Conclusions: The exit detectors in the TomoTherapy treatment systems can provide valuable information about MLC behavior during delivery. A technique to estimate the TomoTherapy binary MLC leaf open time from exit detector signals is described. This technique is shown to be both robust and accurate for delivery verification.

Chen Quan; Westerly, David; Fang Zhenyu; Sheng, Ke; Chen Yu [TomoTherapy Inc., 1240 Deming Way, Madison, Wisconsin 53717 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado 80045 (United States); Xinghua Cancer Hospital, Xinghua, Jiangsu 225700 (China); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California-Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); TomoTherapy Inc., 1240 Deming Way, Madison, Wisconsin 53717 (United States)

2012-01-15

30

Peer Tutoring Exam Reviews  

E-print Network

Social Media for events and updates Online exam reviews and workshops Online Whiteboard sessions http://iit.edu/arc/connect Contact Call: (312) 567-5216 Social Media: http://iit.edu/arc/connect http://facebook.com/arc.iit http--5pm #12;ARC Letter CHEMGroupTutoring Location & Hours Hermann Hall: HH-112 Monday - Thursday: 10 a

Heller, Barbara

31

Peer Tutoring Exam Reviews  

E-print Network

Social Media for events and updates Online exam reviews and workshops Online Whiteboard sessions http://iit.edu/arc/connect Contact Call: (312) 567-5216 Social Media: http://iit.edu/arc/connect http://facebook.com/arc.iit http Group: 5pm--6pm GENERAL PHYS II Group: 7pm--8pm #12;ARC Letter PHYSGroupTutoring Location & Hours

Heller, Barbara

32

Peer Tutoring Exam Reviews  

E-print Network

_exam_reviews.shtml ARConnect Combines all online resources TutorTrac for online appointments Social Media for events Call: (312) 567-5216 Social Media: http://iit.edu/arc/connect http://facebook.com/arc.iit http MMAEGroupTutoring Location & Hours Hermann Hall: HH-112 Monday - Thursday: 10 a.m. to 8p.m. Friday: 10 a

Heller, Barbara

33

Peer Tutoring Exam Reviews  

E-print Network

Social Media for events and updates Online exam reviews and workshops Online Whiteboard sessions http://iit.edu/arc/connect Contact Call: (312) 567-5216 Social Media: http://iit.edu/arc/connect http://facebook.com/arc.iit http DIFFERENTIAL EQ Group: 7pm--8pm @ LS 129 #12;ARC Letter MATHGroupTutoring Location & Hours Hermann Hall: HH-112

Heller, Barbara

34

Fuel Cell Final Exam  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This final exam could be used at the end of a class or unit on fuel cell technology. The test consists of multiple choice, true/false, fill in the blank and short answer questions. This document may be downloaded in Microsoft Word DOC file format.

2012-08-07

35

Exam Question Exchange.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two exam questions are presented. One suitable for advanced undergraduate or beginning graduate courses in organic chemistry, is on equivalent expressions for the description of several pericyclic reactions. The second, for general chemistry students, asks for an estimation of the rate of decay of a million-year-old Uranium-238 sample. (BB)

Alexander, John J., Ed.

1978-01-01

36

Identification of novel mutations in MLC1 responsible for megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts (MLC) is an inherited neurologic disorder with macrocephaly before the age of one and slowly progressive deterioration of motor functions. Magnetic resonance imaging shows diffusely abnormal and swollen white matter of the cerebral hemispheres and the presence of subcortical cysts in the anterior-temporal region and often also in the frontoparietal region. Mutations in the MLC1

P. A. J. Leegwater; P. K. I. Boor; B. Q. Yuan; J. van der Steen; A. Visser; A. A. M. Könst; C. B. M. Oudejans; R. B. H. Schutgens; J. C. Pronk; M. van der Knaap

2002-01-01

37

Simulations for inverse radiation therapy treatment planning using a dynamic MLC algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inverse radiation treatment planning model for a dynamic multileaf collimator (MLC) is used to find the optimal solution of planning problem. The model for dynamic MLC is explained in Tervo et al (2003 Appl. Math. Comput. 135 227-50). The advantage of this model is that it optimizes leaf velocity parameters directly. Our algorithm uses a gradient-based local optimization method.

E. Boman; T. Lyyra-Laitinen; P. Kolmonen; K. Jaatinen; J. Tervo

2003-01-01

38

[MLC positioning checks and calibration with a portal imaging system].  

PubMed

For checking the leaf positions of a MLC (Multi Leaf Collimator) images are acquired with an EPID (Electronic Portal Imaging Device) and then evaluated with a programme (MLC check) developed in-house. During image acquisition a Perspex tray with two metal markers of known position (in the radiation field) is inserted in the satellite tray holder. After determination of the marker positions within the image coordinate system, the image can be transformed to the radiation field coordinate system. This allows the exact determination of the leaf tip positions relative to the radiation field. This evaluation can be applied to images of arbitrary field shapes, provided they were acquired in the same geometry (EPID position, gantry and collimator angles). The entire measurement procedure is based on images in bmp (Windows Bitmap) format, with a 1024 x 1024 matrix and a pixel depth of 24 bit (8 bit per color channel). A suitable marker plate can be manufactured without sophisticated workload; thus the method may be easily and cost effectively adapted at other locations. PMID:18524388

Schiefer, Hans; Seelentag, Wolf W; Roth, Jakob; Krusche, Bernd

2008-01-01

39

Identification of novel mutations in MLC1 responsible for megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts.  

PubMed

Megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts (MLC) is an inherited neurologic disorder with macrocephaly before the age of one and slowly progressive deterioration of motor functions. Magnetic resonance imaging shows diffusely abnormal and swollen white matter of the cerebral hemispheres and the presence of subcortical cysts in the anterior-temporal region and often also in the frontoparietal region. Mutations in the MLC1 gene, encoding a putative membrane protein, have been recently identified as a cause for MLC. Here, we describe 14 new mutations in 18 patients. Two identified polymorphisms lead to alterations of amino acid residues. The role, suggested by others, of a mutation in the MLC1gene in catatonic schizophrenia and the possible function of the MLC1 protein as a cation channel are discussed. PMID:11935341

Leegwater, P A J; Boor, P K I; Yuan, B Q; van der Steen, J; Visser, A; Könst, A A M; Oudejans, C B M; Schutgens, R B H; Pronk, J C; van der Knaap, M S

2002-03-01

40

UBC Exam Timetabling Chris Fawcett  

E-print Network

UBC Exam Timetabling Chris Fawcett Presented for EARG 2010/11/24 Chris Fawcett (EARG) UBC Exam Timetabling 2010/11/24 1 / 26 #12;Introduction Outline Outline - background The general timetabling problem Post-enrollment course and exam timetabling History of timetabling in our group Our problem model Our

Hutter, Frank

41

Small field dosimetric characterization of a new 160-leaf MLC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goal of this work was to perform a 6 MV small field characterization of the new Agility 160-leaf multi-leaf collimator (MLC) from Elekta. This included profile measurement analysis and central axis relative output measurements using various diode detectors and an air-core fiber optic scintillation dosimeter (FOD). Data was acquired at a depth of 10.0 cm for field sizes of 1.0, 0.9, 0.8, 0.7, 0.6 and 0.5 cm. Three experimental data sets, comprised of five readings, were made for both the relative output and profile measurements. Average detector-specific output ratios (\\overline {OR} _{det}^{f_{clin} }) were calculated with respect to a field size of 3.0 cm and small field replacement correction factors (\\mathop k\

Cranmer-Sargison, G.; Liu, P. Z. Y.; Weston, S.; Suchowerska, N.; Thwaites, D. I.

2013-10-01

42

Competency Patient Care Sub Domain Physical Exam  

E-print Network

Competency Patient Care Sub Domain Physical Exam Learning Objective Performs comprehensive an internship in any specialty * #12;APPENDIX *Major Specialty Core Physical Diagnosis Competencies for Core Clerkships Internal Medicine: Neurological exam Head, ear, eye and throat exam (including fundoscopic exam

Leistikow, Bruce N.

43

Preparing Students for the AP Psychology Exam  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Advanced Placement Psychology exam is one of the fastest growing exams offered by the College Board. The average percent of change in the number of students taking this exam over the past five years is 12.4%. With 238,962 students taking the exam in 2013, the AP Psychology exam is the sixth largest exam, surpassing AP Biology and AP World…

Whitlock, Kristin

2013-01-01

44

Metastasis of aggressive amoeboid sarcoma cells is dependent on Rho/ROCK/MLC signaling  

PubMed Central

Background Although there is extensive evidence for the amoeboid invasiveness of cancer cells in vitro, much less is known about the role of amoeboid invasiveness in metastasis and the importance of Rho/ROCK/MLC signaling in this process. Results We analyzed the dependence of amoeboid invasiveness of rat and chicken sarcoma cells and the metastatic activity of chicken cells on individual elements of the Rho/ROCK/MLC pathway. In both animal models, inhibition of Rho, ROCK or MLC resulted in greatly decreased cell invasiveness in vitro, while inhibition of extracellular proteases using a broad spectrum inhibitor did not have a significant effect. The inhibition of both Rho activity and MLC phosphorylation by dominant negative mutants led to a decreased capability of chicken sarcoma cells to metastasize. Moreover, the overexpression of RhoA in non-metastatic chicken cells resulted in the rescue of both invasiveness and metastatic capability. Rho and ROCK, unlike MLC, appeared to be directly involved in the maintenance of the amoeboid phenotype, as their inhibition resulted in the amoeboid-mesenchymal transition in analyzed cell lines. Conclusion Taken together, these results suggest that protease-independent invasion controlled by elements of the Rho/ROCK/MLC pathway can be frequently exploited by metastatic sarcoma cells. PMID:23899007

2013-01-01

45

Normal - Mental Status Exam - Memory Sub-exam - Patient 1  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video shows an example of a 'normal' mental status exam of a patient. Patient is a female with no known neurological health problems who volunteered to act as a simulated patient in order to demonstrate 'normal' responses to exam techniques. Viewing the video requires installation of the free QuickTime Plug-in.

Pearson, John C.

2009-04-07

46

Normal - Mental Status Exam - Orientation Sub-exam - Patient 1  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video demonstrates a 'normal' mental status exam of a patient. The patient is a female with no known neurological health problems who volunteered to act as a simulated patient in order to demonstrate 'normal' responses to exam techniques. Viewing the video requires installation of the free QuickTime Plug-in.

Pearson, John C.

2009-01-02

47

Normal - Mental Status Exam - Attention Sub-exam - Patient 1  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this demonstration video, a patient is given a mental status exam. The patient is a female with no known neurological health problems who volunteered to act as a simulated patient in order to demonstrate 'normal' responses to exam techniques. Viewing the video requires installation of the free QuickTime Plug-in.

Pearson, John C.

2009-01-02

48

ACA Projects 20102011 Written ExamsWritten Exams  

E-print Network

ACA Projects 20102011 #12;Written ExamsWritten Exams · MONDAY June 27, 2011 h.13:00 · MONDAY JULYChip Architectures · Manycore Architectures · Reconfigurable Architectures · Subject: ACA Request of Oral PresentationSubject: ACA Request of Oral Presentation Topic #12;

Silvano, Cristina

49

Exam Preparation 8 Strategies for Reducing Exam Anxiety  

E-print Network

, sugar, nicotine and cannabis. 2. GET ACCURATE INFORMATION Check out the time and location of the exam the exam will cover, and how much it is worth etc. 3. STUDY EFFECTIVELY Reduce anxiety by being well.g., "I'm going to fail.") See students.sfu.ca/health/pdf/ThoughtRecord.pdf & http://students.sfu.ca/health

50

Megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts protein-1 modulates endosomal pH and protein trafficking in astrocytes: relevance to MLC disease pathogenesis.  

PubMed

Megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts (MLC) is a rare leukodystrophy caused by mutations in the gene encoding MLC1, a membrane protein mainly expressed in astrocytes in the central nervous system. Although MLC1 function is unknown, evidence is emerging that it may regulate ion fluxes. Using biochemical and proteomic approaches to identify MLC1 interactors and elucidate MLC1 function we found that MLC1 interacts with the vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase), the proton pump that regulates endosomal acidity. Because we previously showed that in intracellular organelles MLC1 directly binds Na, K-ATPase, which controls endosomal pH, we studied MLC1 endosomal localization and trafficking and MLC1 effects on endosomal acidity and function using human astrocytoma cells overexpressing wild-type (WT) MLC1 or MLC1 carrying pathological mutations. We found that WT MLC1 is abundantly expressed in early (EEA1(+), Rab5(+)) and recycling (Rab11(+)) endosomes and uses the latter compartment to traffic to the plasma membrane during hyposmotic stress. We also showed that WT MLC1 limits early endosomal acidification and influences protein trafficking in astrocytoma cells by stimulating protein recycling, as revealed by FITC-dextran measurement of endosomal pH and transferrin protein recycling assay, respectively. WT MLC1 also favors recycling to the plasma-membrane of the TRPV4 cation channel which cooperates with MLC1 to activate calcium influx in astrocytes during hyposmotic stress. Although MLC disease-causing mutations differentially affect MLC1 localization and trafficking, all the mutated proteins fail to influence endosomal pH and protein recycling. This study demonstrates that MLC1 modulates endosomal pH and protein trafficking suggesting that alteration of these processes contributes to MLC pathogenesis. PMID:24561067

Brignone, Maria S; Lanciotti, Angela; Visentin, Sergio; De Nuccio, Chiara; Molinari, Paola; Camerini, Serena; Diociaiuti, Marco; Petrini, Stefania; Minnone, Gaetana; Crescenzi, Marco; Laudiero, Luisa Bracci; Bertini, Enrico; Petrucci, Tamara C; Ambrosini, Elena

2014-06-01

51

Applying data structures in exams  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is important for students to be able to select and apply the appropriate data structure for the problem to be solved. Testing this knowledge on exams can be difficult, however. We examined 59 data structures final exams and found only 36 that contained questions involving the application of data structures. To promote assessment of this knowledge in the data

Briana B. Morrison; Mike Clancy; Robert McCartney; Brad Richards; Kate Sanders

2011-01-01

52

Experimental verification of a Monte Carlo-based MLC simulation model for IMRT dose calculation.  

PubMed

Inter- and intra-leaf transmission and head scatter can play significant roles in intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT)-based treatment deliveries. In order to accurately calculate the dose in the IMRT planning process, it is therefore important that the detailed geometry of the multi-leaf collimator (MLC), in addition to other components in the accelerator treatment head, be accurately modeled. In this paper, we have used the Monte Carlo method (MC) to develop a comprehensive model of the Varian 120 leaf MLC and have compared it against measurements in homogeneous phantom geometries under different IMRT delivery circumstances. We have developed a geometry module within the DPM MC code to simulate the detailed MLC design and the collimating jaws. Tests consisting of leakage, leaf positioning and static MLC shapes were performed to verify the accuracy of transport within the MLC model. The calculations show agreement within 2% in the high dose region for both film and ion-chamber measurements for these static shapes. Clinical IMRT treatment plans for the breast [both segmental MLC (SMLC) and dynamic MLC (DMLC)], prostate (SMLC) and head and neck split fields (SMLC) were also calculated and compared with film measurements. Such a range of cases were chosen to investigate the accuracy of the model as a function of modulation in the beamlet pattern, beamlet width, and field size. The overall agreement is within 2% /2 mm of the film data for all IMRT beams except the head and neck split field, which showed differences up to 5% in the high dose regions. Various sources of uncertainties in these comparisons are discussed. PMID:17388183

Tyagi, Neelam; Moran, Jean M; Litzenberg, Dale W; Bielajew, Alex F; Fraass, Benedick A; Chetty, Indrin J

2007-02-01

53

Incorporation of realistic delivery limitations into dynamic MLC treatment delivery.  

PubMed

The clinical implementation of IMRT involves the use of a number of complex software-based systems, typically including an inverse planning system, a leaf sequencer, and a computer-controlled treatment delivery system. The inverse planning system determines the desired fluence patterns, the leaf sequencer translates those fluence maps into leaf trajectories, and the control system delivers those trajectories. While verification of intensity-modulated treatment fields has focused primarily on the dosimetric aspects of delivery, accurate delivery of the intended fluence distribution is dependent upon both the leaf sequencer and delivery control systems. Leaf sequencing algorithms typically do not incorporate many control system limitations, and this can lead to discrepancies between planned and delivered sequences. In this work, simple and complex fields were sequenced for the dynamic sliding window technique using different leaf speeds and tolerance settings to identify various limitations of the accelerator control system. This work was conducted on a Varian 2100 EX equipped with a Millennium 120 leaf MLC. The identified limitations were then incorporated into the sequencing algorithm using a limiting leaf velocity (less than the maximum leaf velocity), the leaf position tolerance, and the communications delay in the control system. Collision avoidance in leaf pairs was found to depend on a control system-enforced minimum gap between leaves and led to acceleration effects. By incorporating these effects into the leaf sequencing algorithm, dynamic sliding-window leaf sequences were produced which did not require beam interruptions or dose rate modulations for the parameter values used in calculating the sequence (dose rate, tolerance, leaf speed, and total monitor units). Incorporation of control system limitations into the leaf sequencing algorithm results in IMRT fields that are delivered with the prescribed constant dose rate, require less time to deliver, and have well-defined, calculable transmission dose characteristics. PMID:12033577

Litzenberg, Dale W; Moran, Jean M; Fraass, Benedick A

2002-05-01

54

What Is a Comprehensive Dilated Eye Exam?  

MedlinePLUS

... función de Escuchar . What is a comprehensive dilated eye exam? A comprehensive dilated eye exam is a ... seeing your best. What does a comprehensive dilated eye exam include? A comprehensive eye examination includes: dilation , ...

55

PKM2 phosphorylates MLC2 and regulates cytokinesis of tumour cells.  

PubMed

Pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) is expressed at high levels during embryonic development and tumour progression and is important for cell growth. However, it is not known whether it directly controls cell division. Here, we found that Aurora B phosphorylates PKM2, but not PKM1, at T45; this phosphorylation is required for PKM2's localization and interaction with myosin light chain 2 (MLC2) in the contractile ring region of mitotic cells during cytokinesis. PKM2 phosphorylates MLC2 at Y118, which primes the binding of ROCK2 to MLC2 and subsequent ROCK2-dependent MLC2 S15 phosphorylation. PKM2-regulated MLC2 phosphorylation, which is greatly enhanced by EGF stimulation or EGFRvIII, K-Ras G12V and B-Raf V600E mutant expression, plays a pivotal role in cytokinesis, cell proliferation and brain tumour development. These findings underscore the instrumental function of PKM2 in oncogenic EGFR-, K-Ras- and B-Raf-regulated cytokinesis and tumorigenesis. PMID:25412762

Jiang, Yuhui; Wang, Yugang; Wang, Ting; Hawke, David H; Zheng, Yanhua; Li, Xinjian; Zhou, Qin; Majumder, Sadhan; Bi, Erfei; Liu, David X; Huang, Suyun; Lu, Zhimin

2014-01-01

56

The suppression of myosin light chain (MLC) phosphorylation during the response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS): beneficial or detrimental to endothelial barrier?  

PubMed Central

Sepsis-induced vascular leakage is a major underlying cause of the respiratory dysfunction seen in severe sepsis. Here we studied the role of MLC phosphorylation in LPS-induced endothelial hyperpermeability and assessed how the changes in phospho-MLC distribution affect LPS-induced barrier dysfunction. We demonstrated that the changes in human lung microvascular endothelial permeability are preceded by the increase in intracellular calcium level, and increase in MYPT and MLC phosphorylation. Using the siRNA approach, we showed that both LPS-induced barrier dysfunction and MLC phosphorylation are attenuated by the depletion of the smooth muscle isoform of MLC kinase (MLCK) and Rho kinase ROCK2. Surprisingly, pharmacological inhibition of both ROCK1 and 2 with Y-27632 exacerbated LPS-induced drop in transendothelial resistance, although significantly decreasing MLC phosphorylation level. We next studied the involvement of protein kinase A (PKA)-dependent pathways in LPS-induced barrier dysfunction. We showed that LPS decreased the level of PKA-dependent phosphorylation in endothelial cells; and the pretreatment with forskolin or PKA activator bnz-cAMP counteracted this effect. Forskolin and bnz-cAMP also attenuated LPS-induced increase in MLC phosphorylation level. As we have shown earlier (Bogatcheva et al., 2009), forskolin and bnz-cAMP provide protection from LPS-induced barrier dysfunction. We compared the effects of bnz-cAMP and Y-27632 on phospho-MLC distribution and observed that while bnz-cAMP increased the association of the phospho-MLC signal with the cortical structures, Y-27632 decreased this association. These data indicate that an overall decrease in MLC phosphorylation could be either beneficial or detrimental to endothelial barrier, depending on the intracellular locale of major phospho-MLC changes. PMID:21302311

Bogatcheva, Natalia V.; Zemskova, Marina A.; Poirier, Christophe; Mirzapoiazova, Tamara; Kolosova, Irina; Bresnick, Anne R.; Verin, Alexander D.

2011-01-01

57

Developing On-line Exams.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses advantages and limitations of online exams, describes available software tools for creating computer-based tests (CGI, JavaScript, commercial programs, course authoring tools), and offers suggestions for implementation. (JOW)

Hartsell, Taralynn S.; Yuen, Steve Chi-Yin

2003-01-01

58

Your Daughter's First Gynecological Exam  

MedlinePLUS

... cancer not covered by the vaccine. Back Continue Sexually Transmitted Diseases Testing (Optional) Testing for STDs is not automatically ... Exam if I Had the HPV Vaccine? About Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) What Can I Expect From the Gynecologist? ...

59

Fast motion-including dose error reconstruction for VMAT with and without MLC tracking.  

PubMed

Multileaf collimator (MLC) tracking is a promising and clinically emerging treatment modality for radiotherapy of mobile tumours. Still, new quality assurance (QA) methods are warranted to safely introduce MLC tracking in the clinic. The purpose of this study was to create and experimentally validate a simple model for fast motion-including dose error reconstruction applicable to intrafractional QA of MLC tracking treatments of moving targets.MLC tracking experiments were performed on a standard linear accelerator with prototype MLC tracking software guided by an electromagnetic transponder system. A three-axis motion stage reproduced eight representative tumour trajectories; four lung and four prostate. Low and high modulation 6?MV single-arc volumetric modulated arc therapy treatment plans were delivered for each trajectory with and without MLC tracking, as well as without motion for reference. Temporally resolved doses were measured during all treatments using a biplanar dosimeter. Offline, the dose delivered to each of 1069 diodes in the dosimeter was reconstructed with 500?ms temporal resolution by a motion-including pencil beam convolution algorithm developed in-house. The accuracy of the algorithm for reconstruction of dose and motion-induced dose errors throughout the tracking and non-tracking beam deliveries was quantified.Doses were reconstructed with a mean dose difference relative to the measurements of -0.5% (5.5% standard deviation) for cumulative dose. More importantly, the root-mean-square deviation between reconstructed and measured motion-induced 3%/3?mm ? failure rates (dose error) was 2.6%. The mean computation time for each calculation of dose and dose error was 295?ms.The motion-including dose reconstruction allows accurate temporal and spatial pinpointing of errors in absorbed dose and is adequately fast to be feasible for online use. An online implementation could allow treatment intervention in case of erroneous dose delivery in both tracking and non-tracking treatments. PMID:25383729

Ravkilde, Thomas; Keall, Paul J; Grau, Cai; Høyer, Morten; Poulsen, Per R

2014-12-01

60

USEFUL: Ultrasound Exam for Underlying Lesions Incorporated into Physical Exam  

PubMed Central

Introduction: The Ultrasound Screening Exam for Underlying Lesions (USEFUL) was developed in an attempt to establish a role for bedside ultrasound in the primary and preventive care setting. It is the purpose of our pilot study to determine if students were first capable of performing all of the various scans required of our USEFUL while defining such an ultrasound-assisted physical exam that would supplement the standard hands-on physical exam in the same head-to-toe structure. We also aimed to assess the time needed for an adequate exam and analyze if times improved with repetition and previous ultrasound training. Methods: Medical students with ranging levels of ultrasound training received a 25-minute presentation on our USEFUL followed by a 30-minute hands-on session. Following the hands-on session, the students were asked to perform a timed USEFUL on 2–3 standardized subjects. All images were documented as normal or abnormal with the understanding that an official detailed exam would be performed if an abnormality were to be found. All images were read and deemed adequate by board eligible emergency medicine ultrasound fellows. Results: Twenty-six exams were performed by 9 students. The average time spent by all students per USEFUL was 11 minutes and 19 seconds. Students who had received the University of California, Irvine School of Medicine's integrated ultrasound curriculum performed the USEFUL significantly faster (p< 0.0025). The time it took to complete the USEFUL ranged from 6 minutes and 32 seconds to 17 minutes, and improvement was seen with each USEFUL performed. The average time to complete the USEFUL on the first standardized patient was 13 minutes and 20 seconds, while 11 minutes and 2 seconds, and 9 minutes and 20 seconds were spent performing the exam on the second and third patient, respectively. Conclusion: Students were able to effectively complete all scans required by the USEFUL in a timely manner. Students who have been a part of the integrated ultrasound in medicine curriculum performed the USEFUL significantly faster than students who had not. Students were able to significantly improve upon the time it took them to complete the USEFUL with successive attempts. Future endpoints are aimed at assessing the feasibility and outcomes of an ultrasound-assisted physical exam in a primary care setting and the exam's effect on doctor-patient satisfaction. [West J Emerg Med. 2014;15(3):260–266.] PMID:24868302

Steller, Jon; Russell, Bianca; Lotfipour, Shahram; Maldonado, Graciela; Siepel, Tim; Jakle, Halsey; Hata, Stacy; Chiem, Alan; Fox, John Christian

2014-01-01

61

Disrupting MLC1 and GlialCAM and ClC-2 interactions in leukodystrophy entails glial chloride channel dysfunction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Defects in the astrocytic membrane protein MLC1, the adhesion molecule GlialCAM or the chloride channel ClC-2 underlie human leukoencephalopathies. Whereas GlialCAM binds ClC-2 and MLC1, and modifies ClC-2 currents in vitro, no functional connections between MLC1 and ClC-2 are known. Here we investigate this by generating loss-of-function Glialcam and Mlc1 mouse models manifesting myelin vacuolization. We find that ClC-2 is unnecessary for MLC1 and GlialCAM localization in brain, whereas GlialCAM is important for targeting MLC1 and ClC-2 to specialized glial domains in vivo and for modifying ClC-2’s biophysical properties specifically in oligodendrocytes (OLs), the cells chiefly affected by vacuolization. Unexpectedly, MLC1 is crucial for proper localization of GlialCAM and ClC-2, and for changing ClC-2 currents. Our data unmask an unforeseen functional relationship between MLC1 and ClC-2 in vivo, which is probably mediated by GlialCAM, and suggest that ClC-2 participates in the pathogenesis of megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts.

Hoegg-Beiler, Maja B.; Sirisi, Sònia; Orozco, Ian J.; Ferrer, Isidre; Hohensee, Svea; Auberson, Muriel; Gödde, Kathrin; Vilches, Clara; de Heredia, Miguel López; Nunes, Virginia; Estévez, Raúl; Jentsch, Thomas J.

2014-03-01

62

Evaluation of two methods of predicting MLC leaf positions using EPID measurements  

SciTech Connect

In intensity modulated radiation treatments (IMRT), the position of the field edges and the modulation within the beam are often achieved with a multileaf collimator (MLC). During the MLC calibration process, due to the finite accuracy of leaf position measurements, a systematic error may be introduced to leaf positions. Thereafter leaf positions of the MLC depend on the systematic error introduced on each leaf during MLC calibration and on the accuracy of the leaf position control system (random errors). This study presents and evaluates two methods to predict the systematic errors on the leaf positions introduced during the MLC calibration. The two presented methods are based on a series of electronic portal imaging device (EPID) measurements. A comparison with film measurements showed that the EPID could be used to measure leaf positions without introducing any bias. The first method, referred to as the 'central leaf method', is based on the method currently used at this center for MLC leaf calibration. It mimics the manner in which leaf calibration parameters are specified in the MLC control system and consequently is also used by other centers. The second method, a new method proposed by the authors and referred to as the ''individual leaf method,'' involves the measurement of two positions for each leaf (-5 and +15 cm) and the interpolation and extrapolation from these two points to any other given position. The central leaf method and the individual leaf method predicted leaf positions at prescribed positions of -11, 0, 5, and 10 cm within 2.3 and 1.0 mm, respectively, with a standard deviation (SD) of 0.3 and 0.2 mm, respectively. The individual leaf method provided a better prediction of the leaf positions than the central leaf method. Reproducibility tests for leaf positions of -5 and +15 cm were performed. The reproducibility was within 0.4 mm on the same day and 0.4 mm six weeks later (1 SD). Measurements at gantry angles of 0 deg., 90 deg., and 270 deg. for leaf positions of -5 and +15 cm showed no significant effect of gravity. The individual leaf method could be used in various applications to improve the accuracy of radiotherapy treatment from planning to delivery. Three cases are discussed: IMRT beam verification, MLC calibration and dose calcula0010ti.

Parent, Laure; Seco, Joao; Evans, Phil M.; Dance, David R.; Fielding, Andrew [Joint Department of Physics, Institute of Cancer Research and Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Downs Road, Sutton, SM2 5PT (United Kingdom); Joint Department of Physics, Institute of Cancer Research and Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Fulham Road, London, SW3 6JJ (United Kingdom); School of Physical and Chemical Sciences, Queensland University of Technology, Q337 Gardens Point Campus, Brisbane, Queensland 4001 (Australia)

2006-09-15

63

Physics Exams That Promote Collaborative Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The two-stage exam is a relatively simple way to introduce collaborative learning and formative assessment into an exam. Their use is rapidly growing in the physics department at the University of British Columbia, as both students and faculty find them rewarding. In a two-stage exam students first complete and turn in the exam individually, and…

Wieman, Carl E.; Rieger, Georg W.; Heiner, Cynthia E.

2014-01-01

64

Student Exam Creation as a Learning Tool  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine if there is a relationship between: 1) comprehensiveness of student developed model tests and final exam score, 2) the quality of student developed model tests and answer keys combined, and final exam score, and 3) student developed model test similarity to instructor final exam and final exam score.…

Brink, Jan; Capps, Emerson; Sutko, Al

2004-01-01

65

MLC901, a Traditional Chinese Medicine induces neuroprotective and neuroregenerative benefits after traumatic brain injury in rats.  

PubMed

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a frequent and clinically highly heterogeneous neurological disorder with large socioeconomic consequences. NeuroAid (MLC601 and MLC901), a Traditional Medicine used in China for patients after stroke has been previously reported to induce neuroprotection and neuroplasticity. This study was designed to evaluate the neuroprotective and neuroregenerative effects of MLC901 in a rat model of TBI. TBI was induced by a moderate lateral fluid percussion applied to the right parietal cortex. MLC901 was injected intraperitoneally at 2h post-TBI, and then administered in drinking water at a concentration of 10mg/ml until sacrifice of the animals. The cognitive deficits induced by TBI were followed by using the "what-where-when" task, which allows the measurement of episodic-like memory. MLC901 treatment decreased brain lesions induced by TBI. It prevented the serum increase of S-100 beta (S100B) and neuron-specific enolase (NSE), which may be markers to predict the neurologic outcome in human patients with TBI. MLC901 reduced the infarct volume when injected up to 2h post-TBI, prevented edema formation and assisted its resolution, probably via the regulation of aquaporin 4. These positive MLC901 effects were associated with an upregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) as well as an increase of endogenous hippocampal neurogenesis and gliogenesis around the lesion. Furthermore, MLC901 reduced cognitive deficits induced by TBI. Rats subjected to TBI displayed a suppression of temporal order memory, which was restored by MLC901. This work provides evidence that MLC901 has neuroprotective and neurorestorative actions, which lead to an improvement in the recovery of cognitive functions in a model of traumatic brain injury. PMID:24993477

Quintard, H; Lorivel, T; Gandin, C; Lazdunski, M; Heurteaux, C

2014-09-26

66

Use of dMLC for implementation of dynamic respiratory-gated radiation therapy  

PubMed Central

Purpose: To simulate and evaluate the use of dynamic multileaf collimators (dMLC) in respiratory gating to compensate for baseline drift. Methods: Tumor motion tracking data from 30 lung tumors over 322 treatment fractions was analyzed with the finite state model. A dynamic respiratory gating window was established in real-time by determining the average positions during the previous two end-of-expiration breathing phases and centering the dMLC aperture on a weighted average of these positions. A simulated dMLC with physical motion constraints was used in dynamic gating treatment simulations. Fluence maps were created to provide a statistical description of radiation delivery for each fraction. Duty cycle was also calculated for each fraction. Results: The average duty cycle was 2.3% greater under dynamic gating conditions. Dynamic gating also showed higher fluences and less tumor obstruction. Additionally, dynamic gating required fewer beam toggles and each delivery period was longer on average than with static gating. Conclusions: The use of dynamic gating showed better performance than static gating and the physical constraints of a dMLC were shown to not be an impediment to dynamic gating. PMID:24089898

Pepin, Eric W.; Wu, Huanmei; Shirato, Hiroki

2013-01-01

67

The sliding slit test for dynamic IMRT: a useful tool for adjustment of MLC related parameters.  

PubMed

For treatments with dynamic intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), the adjustment of multileaf collimator (MLC) parameters affecting both the optimization algorithm and dose distributions is crucial. The main parameters characterizing the MLC are the transmission (T) and the dosimetric leaf separation (DLS). The aim of this study is twofold: a methodology based on the 'sliding slit' test is proposed to determine (T, DLS) combinations inducing the best conformity between calculations and measurements. Secondly, the effects of the MLC adjustment on measured dose and on optimization are presented for different configurations as the chair test and for the patient dosimetric quality control (DQC). Tests were performed with a Varian 23EX linac operated at 20 MV and equipped with a 120 leaf Millenium dynamic collimator. The treatment planning system was CadPlan/Helios (version 6.3.6). Results demonstrated that the sliding width (SW) strongly depends on the (T, DLS) combinations, and the measured dose is a linear function of the SW. Different (T, DLS) combinations induced a good agreement between calculations and measurements. The influence of the MLC calibration was found to be particularly important on the 'sliding slit' test (11.8% for a gap change of 0.8 mm) but not so much on the chair test and on the DQC. To detect small variations in leaf adjustment and to ensure consistency between calculation and actual dose delivered to patients, a daily check called IMRT MU check is proposed. PMID:15773620

Chauvet, I; Petitfils, A; Lehobey, C; Kristner, J Y; Brunet, Y; Lembrez, R; Gaboriaud, G; Mazal, A; Zefkili, S; Rosenwald, J C

2005-02-21

68

The sliding slit test for dynamic IMRT: a useful tool for adjustment of MLC related parameters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For treatments with dynamic intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), the adjustment of multileaf collimator (MLC) parameters affecting both the optimization algorithm and dose distributions is crucial. The main parameters characterizing the MLC are the transmission (T) and the dosimetric leaf separation (DLS). The aim of this study is twofold: a methodology based on the 'sliding slit' test is proposed to determine (T, DLS) combinations inducing the best conformity between calculations and measurements. Secondly, the effects of the MLC adjustment on measured dose and on optimization are presented for different configurations as the chair test and for the patient dosimetric quality control (DQC). Tests were performed with a Varian 23EX linac operated at 20 MV and equipped with a 120 leaf Millenium dynamic collimator. The treatment planning system was CadPlan/Helios (version 6.3.6). Results demonstrated that the sliding width (SW) strongly depends on the (T, DLS) combinations, and the measured dose is a linear function of the SW. Different (T, DLS) combinations induced a good agreement between calculations and measurements. The influence of the MLC calibration was found to be particularly important on the 'sliding slit' test (11.8% for a gap change of 0.8 mm) but not so much on the chair test and on the DQC. To detect small variations in leaf adjustment and to ensure consistency between calculation and actual dose delivered to patients, a daily check called IMRT MU check is proposed.

Chauvet, I.; Petitfils, A.; Lehobey, C.; Kristner, J. Y.; Brunet, Y.; Lembrez, R.; Gaboriaud, G.; Mazal, A.; Zefkili, S.; Rosenwald, J. C.

2005-02-01

69

Differential phosphorylation of LZ+/LZ- MYPT1 isoforms regulates MLC phosphatase activity.  

PubMed

The vascular response to NO is due, in part, to a Ca(2+) independent activation of myosin light chain (MLC) phosphatase, a trimeric enzyme of 20kDa, 38kDa catalytic and 110-130kDa myosin targeting (MYPT1) subunits. Alternative mRNA splicing produces MYPT1 isoforms that differ by the presence or absence of a central insert (CI) and a leucine zipper (LZ), and the presence of a LZ+ MYPT1 isoform is important for protein kinase G (PKG) mediated activation of MLC phosphatase. This study was designed to determine the molecular basis for the differential sensitivity of the vasculature to NO. Our results demonstrate that the presence of the MYPT1 LZ domain is required for PKG to both phosphorylate MYPT1 at S668 and activate MLC phosphatase. Further for LZ+ MYPT1 isoforms, an S668A MYPT1 mutation prevents the PKG mediated, Ca(2+) independent activation of MLC phosphatase. These data demonstrate that differential PKG mediated S668 phosphorylation of LZ+/LZ- MYPT1 isoforms could be important for determining the diversity in the sensitivity of the vasculature to NO mediated vasodilatation. Thus, the relative expression of LZ+/LZ- MYPT1 isoforms, in part, defines the vascular response to NO and NO based vasodilators, and therefore, plays a role in the regulation of vascular tone in both health and disease. PMID:25168281

Yuen, Samantha L; Ogut, Ozgur; Brozovich, Frank V

2014-11-15

70

Analytic IMRT dose calculations utilizing Monte Carlo to predict MLC fluence modulation  

PubMed Central

A hybrid dose-computation method is designed which accurately accounts for multileaf collimator (MLC)-induced intensity modulation in intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) dose calculations. The method employs Monte Carlo (MC) modeling to determine the fluence modulation caused by the delivery of dynamic or multisegmental (step-and-shoot) MLC fields, and a conventional dose-computation algorithm to estimate the delivered dose to a phantom or a patient. Thus, it determines the IMRT fluence prediction accuracy achievable by analytic methods in the limit that the analytic method includes all details of the MLC leaf transport and scatter. The hybrid method is validated and benchmarked by comparison with in-phantom film dose measurements, as well as dose calculations from two in-house, and two commercial treatment planning system analytic fluence estimation methods. All computation methods utilize the same dose algorithm to calculate dose to a phantom, varying only in the estimation of the MLC modulation of the incident photon energy fluence. Gamma analysis, with respect to measured two-dimensional (2D) dose planes, is used to benchmark each algorithm’s performance. The analyzed fields include static and dynamic test patterns, as well as fields from ten DMLC IMRT treatment plans (79 fields) and five SMLC treatment plans (29 fields). The test fields (fully closed MLC, picket fence, sliding windows of different size, and leaf-tip profiles) cover the extremes of MLC usage during IMRT, while the patient fields represent realistic clinical conditions. Of the methods tested, the hybrid method most accurately reproduces measurements. For the hybrid method, 79 of 79 DMLC field calculations have ? ?1 (3% /3 mm) for more than 95% of the points (per field) while for SMLC fields, 27 of 29 pass the same criteria. The analytic energy fluence estimation methods show inferior pass rates, with 76 of 79 DMLC and 24 of 29 SMLC fields having more than 95% of the test points with ? ?1 (3% /3 mm). Paired one-way ANOVA tests of the gamma analysis results found that the hybrid method better predicts measurements in terms of both the fraction of points with ? ?1 and the average gamma for both 2% /2 mm and 3% /3 mm criteria. These results quantify the enhancement in accuracy in IMRT dose calculations when MC is used to model the MLC field modulation. PMID:16696458

Mihaylov, I. B.; Lerma, F. A.; Wu, Y.; Siebers, J. V.

2007-01-01

71

Mutations of MLC1 (KIAA0027), Encoding a Putative Membrane Protein, Cause Megalencephalic Leukoencephalopathy with Subcortical Cysts  

PubMed Central

Megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts (MLC) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by macrocephaly, deterioration of motor functions with ataxia, and spasticity, eventuating in mental decline. The brain appears swollen on magnetic resonance imaging, with diffuse white-matter abnormalities and the invariable presence of subcortical cysts. MLC was recently localized on chromosome 22qtel. We have narrowed down the critical region by linkage analysis of 11 informative families with MLC to a region of ?250 kb, containing four known genes. One family with two patients who were siblings did not display linkage between the MLC phenotype and any of the analyzed microsatellite markers on chromosome 22qtel, suggesting genetic heterogeneity and the existence of at least a second MLC locus. The maximum two-point LOD score for the 11 families was 6.6 at recombination fraction .02. Twelve different mutations in seven informative and six uninformative families were found in one of the candidate genes, KIAA0027, which we renamed “MLC1.” The gene encodes a putative membrane protein with eight predicted transmembrane domains. The patients of one family were compound heterozygotes for mutations that both introduced stop codons. The mutations further included frameshifts, splice-acceptor mutations, a putative splice-donor mutation, and amino acid substitutions of residues in predicted transmembrane domains. These data provide strong evidence that mutations of MLC1 cause the disease. PMID:11254442

Leegwater, Peter A. J.; Yuan, Bao Qiang; van der Steen, Jeffrey; Mulders, Joyce; Konst, Andrea A. M.; Boor, P. K. Ilja; Mejaski-Bosnjak, Vlatka; van der Maarel, Silvere M.; Frants, Rune R.; Oudejans, Cees B. M.; Schutgens, Ruud B. H.; Pronk, Jan C.; van der Knaap, Marjo S.

2001-01-01

72

Mutations of MLC1 (KIAA0027), encoding a putative membrane protein, cause megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts.  

PubMed

Megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts (MLC) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by macrocephaly, deterioration of motor functions with ataxia, and spasticity, eventuating in mental decline. The brain appears swollen on magnetic resonance imaging, with diffuse white-matter abnormalities and the invariable presence of subcortical cysts. MLC was recently localized on chromosome 22q(tel). We have narrowed down the critical region by linkage analysis of 11 informative families with MLC to a region of approximately 250 kb, containing four known genes. One family with two patients who were siblings did not display linkage between the MLC phenotype and any of the analyzed microsatellite markers on chromosome 22q(tel), suggesting genetic heterogeneity and the existence of at least a second MLC locus. The maximum two-point LOD score for the 11 families was 6.6 at recombination fraction .02. Twelve different mutations in seven informative and six uninformative families were found in one of the candidate genes, KIAA0027, which we renamed "MLC1." The gene encodes a putative membrane protein with eight predicted transmembrane domains. The patients of one family were compound heterozygotes for mutations that both introduced stop codons. The mutations further included frameshifts, splice-acceptor mutations, a putative splice-donor mutation, and amino acid substitutions of residues in predicted transmembrane domains. These data provide strong evidence that mutations of MLC1 cause the disease. PMID:11254442

Leegwater, P A; Yuan, B Q; van der Steen, J; Mulders, J; Könst, A A; Boor, P K; Mejaski-Bosnjak, V; van der Maarel, S M; Frants, R R; Oudejans, C B; Schutgens, R B; Pronk, J C; van der Knaap, M S

2001-04-01

73

Mouse and computational models link Mlc2v dephosphorylation to altered myosin kinetics in early cardiac disease  

PubMed Central

Actin-myosin interactions provide the driving force underlying each heartbeat. The current view is that actin-bound regulatory proteins play a dominant role in the activation of calcium-dependent cardiac muscle contraction. In contrast, the relevance and nature of regulation by myosin regulatory proteins (for example, myosin light chain-2 [MLC2]) in cardiac muscle remain poorly understood. By integrating gene-targeted mouse and computational models, we have identified an indispensable role for ventricular Mlc2 (Mlc2v) phosphorylation in regulating cardiac muscle contraction. Cardiac myosin cycling kinetics, which directly control actin-myosin interactions, were directly affected, but surprisingly, Mlc2v phosphorylation also fed back to cooperatively influence calcium-dependent activation of the thin filament. Loss of these mechanisms produced early defects in the rate of cardiac muscle twitch relaxation and ventricular torsion. Strikingly, these defects preceded the left ventricular dysfunction of heart disease and failure in a mouse model with nonphosphorylatable Mlc2v. Thus, there is a direct and early role for Mlc2 phosphorylation in regulating actin-myosin interactions in striated muscle contraction, and dephosphorylation of Mlc2 or loss of these mechanisms can play a critical role in heart failure. PMID:22426213

Sheikh, Farah; Ouyang, Kunfu; Campbell, Stuart G.; Lyon, Robert C.; Chuang, Joyce; Fitzsimons, Dan; Tangney, Jared; Hidalgo, Carlos G.; Chung, Charles S.; Cheng, Hongqiang; Dalton, Nancy D.; Gu, Yusu; Kasahara, Hideko; Ghassemian, Majid; Omens, Jeffrey H.; Peterson, Kirk L.; Granzier, Henk L.; Moss, Richard L.; McCulloch, Andrew D.; Chen, Ju

2012-01-01

74

ELI Talent Show Final Exams  

E-print Network

Highlights ELI Talent Show Final Exams Scholarship Nominees Graduate Admissions Workshop Reminders from the Office Manners, Cultures, & Grammar TheELIWeekly ELI Talent Show It's going to be a blast! Come one, come all! The 2nd Annual ELI Talent Show will be on Tuesday, April 15th

Pilyugin, Sergei S.

75

Automatic Music Annotation Research Exam  

E-print Network

and sound effects. The music domain is interesting in that the audio content is rich with informationAutomatic Music Annotation Research Exam Spring 2005 Douglas Turnbull Department of Computer-based systems have been developed to automatically classify music according to a high-level musical concept

Elkan, Charles

76

Final Exam Memo/Preparation  

E-print Network

Dec 16, 2009 ... pressure on students to finish the exam in the 2 hours allotted is little ... The homework for the entire semester is your best guide to what could appear on the ... personally know and do not know pick and choose what sections ...

odavis

2009-11-30

77

Regents Exam Prep Center - Physics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the Regents Exam Prep Center site for Physics. It contains a large number of physics lectures, lesson plans, problem solving techniques, and demonstrations for a wide variety of high school and early college physics topics, ranging from basic kinematics to quantum theory.

2004-11-28

78

Quality assurance of MLC leaf position accuracy and relative dose effect at the MLC abutment region using an electronic portal imaging device  

PubMed Central

We investigated an electronic portal image device (EPID)-based method to see whether it provides effective and accurate relative dose measurement at abutment leaves in terms of positional errors of the multi-leaf collimator (MLC) leaf position. A Siemens ONCOR machine was used. For the garden fence test, a rectangular field (0.2 × 20 cm) was sequentially irradiated 11 times at 2-cm intervals. Deviations from planned leaf positions were calculated. For the nongap test, relative doses at the MLC abutment region were evaluated by sequential irradiation of a rectangular field (2 × 20 cm) 10 times with a MLC separation of 2 cm without a leaf gap. The integral signal in a region of interest was set to position A (between leaves) and B (neighbor of A). A pixel value at position B was used as background and the pixel ratio (A/B × 100) was calculated. Both tests were performed at four gantry angles (0, 90, 180 and 270°) four times over 1 month. For the nongap test the difference in pixel ratio between the first and last period was calculated. Regarding results, average deviations from planned positions with the garden fence test were within 0.5 mm at all gantry angles, and at gantry angles of 90 and 270° tended to decrease gradually over the month. For the nongap test, pixel ratio tended to increase gradually in all leaves, leading to a decrease in relative doses at abutment regions. This phenomenon was affected by both gravity arising from the gantry angle, and the hardware-associated contraction of field size with this type of machine. PMID:22843372

Sumida, Iori; Yamaguchi, Hajime; Kizaki, Hisao; Koizumi, Masahiko; Ogata, Toshiyuki; Takahashi, Yutaka; Yoshioka, Yasuo

2012-01-01

79

MLC quality assurance using EPID: A fitting technique with subpixel precision  

SciTech Connect

Amorphous silicon based electronic portal imaging devices (EPIDs) have been shown to be a good alternative to radiographic film for routine quality assurance (QA) of multileaf collimator (MLC) positioning accuracy. In this work, we present a method of acquiring an EPID image of a traditional strip-test image using analytical fits of the interleaf and leaf abutment image signatures. After exposure, the EPID image pixel values are divided by an open field image to remove EPID response and radiation field variations. Profiles acquired in the direction orthogonal to the leaf motion exhibit small peaks caused by interleaf leakage. Gaussian profiles are fitted to the interleaf leakage peaks, the results of which are, using multiobjective optimization, used to calculate the image rotational angle with respect to the collimator axis of rotation. The relative angle is used to rotate the image to align the MLC leaf travel to the image pixel axes. The leaf abutments also present peaks that are fitted by heuristic functions, in this case modified Lorentzian functions. The parameters of the Lorentzian functions are used to parameterize the leaf gap width and positions. By imaging a set of MLC fields with varying gaps forming symmetric and asymmetric abutments, calibration curves with regard to relative peak height (RPH) versus nominal gap width are obtained. Based on this calibration data, the individual leaf positions are calculated to compare with the nominal programmed positions. The results demonstrate that the collimator rotation angle can be determined as accurate as 0.01 deg. . A change in MLC gap width of 0.2 mm leads to a change in RPH of about 10%. For asymmetrically produced gaps, a 0.2 mm MLC leaf gap width change causes 0.2 pixel peak position change. Subpixel resolution is obtained by using a parameterized fit of the relatively large abutment peaks. By contrast, for symmetrical gap changes, the peak position remains unchanged with a standard deviation of 0.05 pixels, or 0.026 mm. A trial run of 36 test images, each with gap widths varying from 0.4 to 1.4 mm, were used to analyze 8640 abutments. The leaf position variations were detected with a precision of 0.1 mm at a 95% confidence level, with a mean of 0.04 mm and a standard deviation of 0.03 mm. The proposed method is robust and minimizes the effect of image noise and pixel size and may help physicists to establish reliable and reasonable action levels in routine MLC QA.

Mamalui-Hunter, Maria; Li, Harold; Low, Daniel A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, 4921 Parkview Place, St. Louis, Missouri 63110 (United States)

2008-06-15

80

Brushed permanent magnet DC MLC motor operation in an external magnetic field  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Linac-MR systems for real-time image-guided radiotherapy will utilize the multileaf collimators (MLCs) to perform conformal radiotherapy and tumor tracking. The MLCs would be exposed to the external fringe magnetic fields of the linac-MR hybrid systems. Therefore, an experimental investigation of the effect of an external magnetic field on the brushed permanent magnet DC motors used in some MLC systems was performed. Methods: The changes in motor speed and current were measured for varying external magnetic field strengths up to 2000 G generated by an EEV electromagnet. These changes in motor characteristics were measured for three orientations of the motor in the external magnetic field, mimicking changes in motor orientations due to installation and/or collimator rotations. In addition, the functionality of the associated magnetic motor encoder was tested. The tested motors are used with the Varian 120 leaf Millennium MLC (Maxon Motor half leaf and full leaf motors) and the Varian 52 leaf MKII MLC (MicroMo Electronics leaf motor) including a carriage motor (MicroMo Electronics). Results: In most cases, the magnetic encoder of the motors failed prior to any damage to the gearbox or the permanent magnet motor itself. This sets an upper limit of the external magnetic field strength on the motor function. The measured limits of the external magnetic fields were found to vary by the motor type. The leaf motor used with a Varian 52 leaf MKII MLC system tolerated up to 450{+-}10 G. The carriage motor tolerated up to 2000{+-}10 G field. The motors used with the Varian 120 leaf Millennium MLC system were found to tolerate a maximum of 600{+-}10 G. Conclusions: The current Varian MLC system motors can be used for real-time image-guided radiotherapy coupled to a linac-MR system, provided the fringe magnetic fields at their locations are below the determined tolerance levels. With the fringe magnetic fields of linac-MR systems expected to be larger than the tolerance levels determined, some form of magnetic shielding would be required.

Yun, J.; St Aubin, J.; Rathee, S.; Fallone, B. G. [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, 11322-89 Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2G7 (Canada) and Department of Oncology, Medical Physics Division, University of Alberta, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2 (Canada); Department of Medical Physics, Cross Cancer Institute, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2 (Canada) and Department of Oncology, Medical Physics Division, University of Alberta, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2 (Canada); Department of Physics, University of Alberta, 11322-89 Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2G7 (Canada); Department of Medical Physics, Cross Cancer Institute, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2 (Canada) and Department of Oncology, Medical Physics Division, University of Alberta, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2 (Canada)

2010-05-15

81

Exam 2 Memo (All day students read)  

E-print Network

Oct 17, 2011 ... The instructors may not loan calculators to students. ... 2) There are fifteen multiple-choice problems on the exam. The exam will be .... coordinator know no later than two business days (Thursday, October 13th) before the.

math

2011-10-07

82

Essentials for revision and exams Photocopiable resource  

E-print Network

of your exam with a banging headache and bleary- eyed from lack of sleep. #12;Exam help Essentials a balanced healthy diet, exercise well and get plenty of sleep. If it all gets too much, release that tension

Bristol, University of

83

How to Perform a Self-Exam  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... to perform a self-exam How to perform a self-exam You can catch skin cancer early ... back and buttocks with a hand mirror. Find a Dermatologist ZIP code: Radius: Search Advanced search » Find ...

84

Exit Exam as Academic Performance Indicator  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper focuses on the impact of exit exams on different elements of the educational process, namely: curriculum development, students and instructors. A 50-question multiple-choice Exit Exam was prepared by Electrical Engineering (EE) faculty members covering a poll of questions from EE core courses. A copy of the Exit Exam applied during each…

Al Ahmad, Mahmoud; Al Marzouqi, Ali H.; Hussien, Mousa

2014-01-01

85

152X sp11 Exam 3 Memo  

E-print Network

Apr 19, 2011 ... Your instructor may not loan calculators to students. ... 2) There are fifteen multiple-choice problems on the exam. The exam will be .... than two business days (Friday, April 15th) before the exam takes place If you have an.

odavis

2011-04-05

86

UBC Biochemistry Comprehensive Exam Guidelines Biochemistry and Molecular Biology  

E-print Network

UBC Biochemistry Comprehensive Exam Guidelines Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Comprehensive Examination Guidelines 20132014 #12;UBC Biochemistry Comprehensive Exam Guidelines Table #12;UBC Biochemistry Comprehensive Exam Guidelines

Strynadka, Natalie

87

Phospho-GlcNAc modulation of slow MLC2 during soleus atrophy through a multienzymatic and sarcomeric complex.  

PubMed

Although calcium is the major regulator of excitation-contraction coupling, myofilament function can also be modulated through post-translational modifications. In particular, phosphorylation and O-GlcNAcylation are key modulators of calcium activation parameters. Among the regulatory proteins of skeletal muscle contraction, the myosin light chain 2 (MLC2) can undergo both types of post-translational modification. During aging or physical inactivity, the phosphorylation status of the slow isoform of MLC2 (sMLC2) does not correlate with calcium sensitivity, suggesting that the O-GlcNAcylation might modulate sMLC2 activity. To increase understanding of the contractile dysfunction associated with muscle atrophy, we studied the phosphorylation/O-GlcNAcylation interplay on the sMLC2. We demonstrate a two-fold decrease of O-GlcNAcylation level on sMLC2 in a rat model of skeletal muscle atrophy (hindlimb unloading), while phosphorylation increased. Both post-translational modifications were mutually exclusive. Their interplay reversed during reloading. The expression of enzymes involved in the phosphorylation and O-GlcNAcylation interplay on sMLC2 was modified on whole protein pattern as well as on myofilament, and was load-dependent. All enzymes were colocalized on the contractile apparatus. Finally, we describe a multienzymatic complex which might finely modulate the phosphorylation/dephosphorylation and O-GlcNAcylation/de-O-GlcNAcylation of sMLC2 that could be involved in the contractile dysfunction of atrophied muscle. Importantly, this complex was localized at the Z-disk, a nodal point of signalling in skeletal muscle. PMID:24477671

Cieniewski-Bernard, Caroline; Dupont, Erwan; Richard, Elodie; Bastide, Bruno

2014-11-01

88

Gene duplication and conversion events shaped three homologous, differentially expressed myosin regulatory light chain (MLC2) genes.  

PubMed

Myosin II is a hexameric protein complex consisting of two myosin heavy chains, two myosin essential light chains and two myosin regulatory light chains. Multiple subunit isoforms exist, allowing great diversity in myosin II composition which likely impacts on its contractile properties. Little is known about the evolutionary origin, expression pattern and function of myosin regulatory light chain (MLC2) isoforms. We analysed the evolutionary relationship between smooth muscle (sm), nonmuscle (nm) and nonmuscle-like (nml) MLC2 genes, which encode three homologous proteins expressed in nonmuscle cells. The three genes arose by successive gene duplication events. The high sequence similarity between the tandemly arranged nm- and nml-MLC2 genes is best explained by gene conversion. Urea/glycerol-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and RNA analysis were employed to monitor expression of sm-, nm- and nml-MLC2 in human and mouse cell lines. Conspicuous differences between transformed and non-transformed cells were observed, with sm-MLC2 being suppressed in Ras-transformed cells. Our findings shed light on the evolutionary history of three homologous MLC2 proteins and point to isoform-specific cell growth-related roles in nonmuscle cell myosin II contractility. PMID:22425609

Gerrits, Lieke; Overheul, Gijs J; Derks, Ronny C; Wieringa, Bé; Hendriks, Wiljan J A J; Wansink, Derick G

2012-08-01

89

IMRT Treatment Planning on 4D Geometries for the Era of Dynamic MLC Tracking.  

PubMed

The problem addressed here was to obtain optimal and deliverable dynamic multileaf collimator (MLC) leaf sequences from four-dimensional (4D) geometries for dynamic MLC tracking delivery. The envisaged scenario was where respiratory phase and position information of the target was available during treatment, from which the optimal treatment plan could be further adapted in real time. A tool for 4D treatment plan optimization was developed that integrates a commercially available treatment planning system and a general-purpose optimization system. The 4D planning method was applied to the 4D computed tomography planning scans of three lung cancer patients. The optimization variables were MLC leaf positions as a function of monitor units and respiratory phase. The objective function was the deformable dose-summed 4D treatment plan score. MLC leaf motion was constrained by the maximum leaf velocity between control points in terms of monitor units for tumor motion parallel to the leaf travel direction and between phases for tumor motion parallel to the leaf travel direction. For comparison and a starting point for the 4D optimization, three-dimensional (3D) optimization was performed on each of the phases. The output of the 4D IMRT planning process is a leaf sequence which is a function of both monitor unit and phase, which can be delivered to a patient whose breathing may vary between the imaging and treatment sessions. The 4D treatment plan score improved during 4D optimization by 34%, 4%, and 50% for Patients A, B, and C, respectively, indicating 4D optimization generated a better 4D treatment plan than the deformable sum of individually optimized phase plans. The dose-volume histograms for each phase remained similar, indicating robustness of the 4D treatment plan to respiratory variations expected during treatment delivery. In summary, 4D optimization for respiratory phase-dependent treatment planning with dynamic MLC motion tracking improved the 4D treatment plan score by 4-50% compared with 3D optimization. The 4D treatment plans had leaf sequences that varied from phase to phase to account for anatomic motion, but showed similar target dose distributions in each phase. The current method could in principle be generalized for use in offline replanning between fractions or for online 4D treatment planning based on 4D cone-beam CT images. Computation time remains a challenge. PMID:24354751

Suh, Y; Murray, W; Keall, P J

2014-12-01

90

Mlc of Thermus thermophilus: a glucose-specific regulator for a glucose/mannose ABC transporter in the absence of the phosphotransferase system.  

PubMed

We report the presence of Mlc in a thermophilic bacterium. Mlc is known as a global regulator of sugar metabolism in gram-negative enteric bacteria that is controlled by sequestration to a glucose-transporting EII(Glc) of the phosphotransferase system (PTS). Since thermophilic bacteria do not possess PTS, Mlc in Thermus thermophilus must be differently controlled. DNA sequence alignments between Mlc from T. thermophilus (Mlc(Tth)) and Mlc from E. coli (Mlc(Eco)) revealed that Mlc(Tth) conserved five residues of the glucose-binding motif of glucokinases. Here we show that Mlc(Tth) is not a glucokinase but is indeed able to bind glucose (K(D) = 20 microM), unlike Mlc(Eco). We found that mlc of T. thermophilus is the first gene within an operon encoding an ABC transporter for glucose and mannose, including a glucose/mannose-binding protein and two permeases. malK1, encoding the cognate ATP-hydrolyzing subunit, is located elsewhere on the chromosome. The system transports glucose at 70 degrees C with a K(m) of 0.15 microM and a V(max) of 4.22 nmol per min per ml at an optical density (OD) of 1. Mlc(Tth) negatively regulates itself and the entire glucose/mannose ABC transport system operon but not malK1, with glucose acting as an inducer. MalK1 is shared with the ABC transporter for trehalose, maltose, sucrose, and palatinose (TMSP). Mutants lacking malK1 do not transport either glucose or maltose. The TMSP transporter is also able to transport glucose with a K(m) of 1.4 microM and a V(max) of 7.6 nmol per min per ml at an OD of 1, but it does not transport mannose. PMID:16952948

Chevance, Fabienne F V; Erhardt, Marc; Lengsfeld, Christina; Lee, Sung-Jae; Boos, Winfried

2006-09-01

91

Monitoring daily MLC positional errors using trajectory log files and EPID measurements for IMRT and VMAT deliveries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work investigated the differences between multileaf collimator (MLC) positioning accuracy determined using either log files or electronic portal imaging devices (EPID) and then assessed the possibility of reducing patient specific quality control (QC) via phantom-less methodologies. In-house software was developed, and validated, to track MLC positional accuracy with the rotational and static gantry picket fence tests using an integrated electronic portal image. This software was used to monitor MLC daily performance over a 1 year period for two Varian TrueBeam linear accelerators, with the results directly compared with MLC positions determined using leaf trajectory log files. This software was validated by introducing known shifts and collimator errors. Skewness of the MLCs was found to be 0.03 ± 0.06° (mean ±1 standard deviation (SD)) and was dependent on whether the collimator was rotated manually or automatically. Trajectory log files, analysed using in-house software, showed average MLC positioning errors with a magnitude of 0.004 ± 0.003 mm (rotational) and 0.004 ± 0.011 mm (static) across two TrueBeam units over 1 year (mean ±1 SD). These ranges, as indicated by the SD, were lower than the related average MLC positioning errors of 0.000 ± 0.025 mm (rotational) and 0.000 ± 0.039 mm (static) that were obtained using the in-house EPID based software. The range of EPID measured MLC positional errors was larger due to the inherent uncertainties of the procedure. Over the duration of the study, multiple MLC positional errors were detected using the EPID based software but these same errors were not detected using the trajectory log files. This work shows the importance of increasing linac specific QC when phantom-less methodologies, such as the use of log files, are used to reduce patient specific QC. Tolerances of 0.25 mm have been created for the MLC positional errors using the EPID-based automated picket fence test. The software allows diagnosis of any specific leaf that needs repair and gives an indication as to the course of action that is required.

Agnew, A.; Agnew, C. E.; Grattan, M. W. D.; Hounsell, A. R.; McGarry, C. K.

2014-05-01

92

Monitoring daily MLC positional errors using trajectory log files and EPID measurements for IMRT and VMAT deliveries.  

PubMed

This work investigated the differences between multileaf collimator (MLC) positioning accuracy determined using either log files or electronic portal imaging devices (EPID) and then assessed the possibility of reducing patient specific quality control (QC) via phantom-less methodologies. In-house software was developed, and validated, to track MLC positional accuracy with the rotational and static gantry picket fence tests using an integrated electronic portal image. This software was used to monitor MLC daily performance over a 1 year period for two Varian TrueBeam linear accelerators, with the results directly compared with MLC positions determined using leaf trajectory log files. This software was validated by introducing known shifts and collimator errors. Skewness of the MLCs was found to be 0.03 ± 0.06° (mean ±1 standard deviation (SD)) and was dependent on whether the collimator was rotated manually or automatically. Trajectory log files, analysed using in-house software, showed average MLC positioning errors with a magnitude of 0.004 ± 0.003 mm (rotational) and 0.004 ± 0.011 mm (static) across two TrueBeam units over 1 year (mean ±1 SD). These ranges, as indicated by the SD, were lower than the related average MLC positioning errors of 0.000 ± 0.025 mm (rotational) and 0.000 ± 0.039 mm (static) that were obtained using the in-house EPID based software. The range of EPID measured MLC positional errors was larger due to the inherent uncertainties of the procedure. Over the duration of the study, multiple MLC positional errors were detected using the EPID based software but these same errors were not detected using the trajectory log files. This work shows the importance of increasing linac specific QC when phantom-less methodologies, such as the use of log files, are used to reduce patient specific QC. Tolerances of 0.25 mm have been created for the MLC positional errors using the EPID-based automated picket fence test. The software allows diagnosis of any specific leaf that needs repair and gives an indication as to the course of action that is required. PMID:24732210

Agnew, A; Agnew, C E; Grattan, M W D; Hounsell, A R; McGarry, C K

2014-05-01

93

Triptolide induces apoptosis in human leukemia cells through caspase-3-mediated ROCK1 activation and MLC phosphorylation  

PubMed Central

The diterpene triepoxide triptolide is a major active component of Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F, a popular Chinese herbal medicine with the potential to treat hematologic malignancies. In this study, we investigated the roles of triptolide in apoptosis and cell signaling events in human leukemia cell lines and primary human leukemia blasts. Triptolide selectively induced caspase-dependent cell death that was accompanied by the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, cytochrome c release, and Bax translocation from the cytosol to the mitochondria. Furthermore, we found that triptolide dramatically induced ROCK1 cleavage/activation and MLC and MYPT phosphorylation. ROCK1 was cleaved and activated by caspase-3, rather than RhoA. Inhibiting MLC phosphorylation by ML-7 significantly attenuated triptolide-mediated apoptosis, caspase activation, and cytochrome c release. In addition, ROCK1 inhibition also abrogated MLC and MYPT phosphorylation. Our in vivo study showed that both ROCK1 activation and MLC phosphorylation were associated with the tumor growth inhibition caused by triptolide in mouse leukemia xenograft models. Collectively, these findings suggest that triptolide-mediated ROCK1 activation and MLC phosphorylation may be a novel therapeutic strategy for treating hematological malignancies. PMID:24309928

Liu, L; Li, G; Li, Q; Jin, Z; Zhang, L; Zhou, J; Hu, X; Zhou, T; Chen, J; Gao, N

2013-01-01

94

An EPID response calculation algorithm using spatial beam characteristics of primary, head scattered and MLC transmitted radiation.  

PubMed

We have developed an independent algorithm for the prediction of electronic portal imaging device (EPID) response. The algorithm uses a set of images [open beam, closed multileaf collimator (MLC), various fence and modified sweeping gap patterns] to separately characterize the primary and head-scatter contributions to EPID response. It also characterizes the relevant dosimetric properties of the MLC: Transmission, dosimetric gap, MLC scatter [P. Zygmansky et al., J. Appl. Clin. Med. Phys. 8(4) (2007)], inter-leaf leakage, and tongue and groove [F. Lorenz et al., Phys. Med. Biol. 52, 5985-5999 (2007)]. The primary radiation is modeled with a single Gaussian distribution defined at the target position, while the head-scatter radiation is modeled with a triple Gaussian distribution defined downstream of the target. The distances between the target and the head-scatter source, jaws, and MLC are model parameters. The scatter associated with the EPID is implicit in the model. Open beam images are predicted to within 1% of the maximum value across the image. Other MLC test patterns and intensity-modulated radiation therapy fluences are predicted to within 1.5% of the maximum value. The presented method was applied to the Varian aS500 EPID but is designed to work with any planar detector with sufficient spatial resolution. PMID:18649452

Rosca, Florin; Zygmanski, Piotr

2008-06-01

95

Dosimetric and mechanical characteristics of a commercial dynamic {mu}MLC used in SRS  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The aim of this work is to carry out mechanical and dosimetric assessments on a commercial dynamic micromulti leaf collimator system to be used for stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT). Mechanical parameters such as leaf position accuracy with different gantry angles and leaf position reproducibility were measured. Also dosimetric measurements of the interleaf leakage, intraleaf transmission, penumbra width, and light field alignment were carried out. Furthermore, measurements of output factors (S{sub cp}) and in-air factors (S{sub c}) for the {mu}MLC system will be reported. Methods: EBT2 films were used to assess the leaf position error with gantry angle and after stress test, penumbra width and light field alignment. Leaf leakage was quantified using both EBT2 film and a pinpoint ion chamber. With regard to output factors, the pinpoint chamber was placed in a water phantom at 10 cm depth and 100 cm SSD. For in-air output factor measurements, 0.2 cm of brass was placed above the photon diode as build-up. Results: Measurements of mechanical parameters gave values of 0.05 cm (SD 0.035) for the average leaf position accuracy for different gantry angles and after stress test. Dosimetric measurements, yielded values of 0.22 {+-} 0.01 and 0.24 {+-} 0.01 cm, respectively, for side and head leaf penumbras. Also, average leaf abutting, leakage and transmission were found to be 0.65, 0.91, and 0.20%, respectively. Conclusions: (a) The add-on {mu}MLC system in combination with our LINAC has been commissioned to be used for clinical purposes and showed good agreement with published results for different {mu}MLC types. (b) This work has lead to the recommendation that leaves should be recalibrated after ten static beams or after each dynamic arc.

Galal, Mohamed M.; Keogh, Sinead; Khalil, Sultan [Physics Department, Hermitage Medical Clinic, Dublin 20, Ireland and Physics Unit, Kasr El-Aini Center of Oncology and Nuclear Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University (Egypt); Physics Department, Hermitage Medical Clinic, Dublin 20 (Ireland)

2011-07-15

96

Improving IMRT-plan quality with MLC leaf position refinement post plan optimization  

PubMed Central

Purpose: In intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) planning, reducing the pencil-beam size may lead to a significant improvement in dose conformity, but also increase the time needed for the dose calculation and plan optimization. The authors develop and evaluate a postoptimization refinement (POpR) method, which makes fine adjustments to the multileaf collimator (MLC) leaf positions after plan optimization, enhancing the spatial precision and improving the plan quality without a significant impact on the computational burden. Methods: The authors’ POpR method is implemented using a commercial treatment planning system based on direct aperture optimization. After an IMRT plan is optimized using pencil beams with regular pencil-beam step size, a greedy search is conducted by looping through all of the involved MLC leaves to see if moving the MLC leaf in or out by half of a pencil-beam step size will improve the objective function value. The half-sized pencil beams, which are used for updating dose distribution in the greedy search, are derived from the existing full-sized pencil beams without need for further pencil-beam dose calculations. A benchmark phantom case and a head-and-neck (HN) case are studied for testing the authors’ POpR method. Results: Using a benchmark phantom and a HN case, the authors have verified that their POpR method can be an efficient technique in the IMRT planning process. Effectiveness of POpR is confirmed by noting significant improvements in objective function values. Dosimetric benefits of POpR are comparable to those of using a finer pencil-beam size from the optimization start, but with far less computation and time. Conclusions: The POpR is a feasible and practical method to significantly improve IMRT-plan quality without compromising the planning efficiency. PMID:22894437

Niu, Ying; Zhang, Guowei; Berman, Barry L.; Parke, William C.; Yi, Byongyong; Yu, Cedric X.

2012-01-01

97

Improving the performance of BICM-ID and MLC systems with different FEC codes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In bandwidth limited communication systems, the high data rate transmission with performance close to capacity limits is achieved by applying multilevel modulation schemes in association with powerful forward error correction (FEC) coding, i.e. coded modulation systems. The most important practical approaches to coded modulation systems are multilevel coding with multistage decoding (MLC/MSD) and bit interleaved coded modulation with iterative demapping and decoding (BICM-ID). Multilevel modulation formats such as M-QAM, which can be used as a part of coded modulation systems, have the capability of multilevel protection. Based on this fact, we investigate the methods to improve the performance of BICM-ID using multiple interleavers with different binary channel coding schemes such as convolutional codes, turbo codes and low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes. Moreover, an MLC system with parallel decoding on levels (PDL) at the receiver is considered. In our contribution, we propose to design the individual coding schemes using the extrinsic information transfer (EXIT) charts for individual bit levels in the constellation. Our simulation results show that the BICM-ID systems, taking into account different bit-level protections, can provide an improvement of 0.65 dB, 1.2 dB and 1.5 dB for 256-QAM with turbo, LDPC and convolutional codes, respectively. On the other hand, MLC systems with PDL designed using EXIT charts for individual bit levels can slightly improve the performance and eliminate the error floor compared to the systems with MSD.

Arafa, T.; Sauer-Greff, W.; Urbansky, R.

2013-07-01

98

Oil reserve  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on the crisis in the Persian Gulf which has renewed interest in the ability of the Department of Energy's Strategic Petroleum Reserve to counter disruptions in the supply of oil to the United States. To provide this protection, DOE must be able to offset the supplies lost by quickly drawing down reserve oil from its storage sites and distributing it to purchasers. This report reviews DOE's current and planned capability for removing oil from reserve sites and getting it to users via oil distribution networks, examines the Strategic Petroleum Reserve's compliance with pipeline safety requirements, and discusses DOE's efforts to correct problems that GAO previously reported. GAO concludes that a major distribution could be hampered because buyers of Strategic Petroleum Reserve oil are required to use U.S.-flag tankers to ship the oil between U.S. ports. DOE and industry officials doubt whether enough U.S.-flag vessels are available to do the job, and questions remain about the efficiency of procedures to authorize the use of foreign vessels.

Not Available

1991-01-01

99

Instructions of the NTU Health Exam for Incoming Exchange Students (Health Exam Time)  

E-print Network

) 2 () Department of Family Medicine, Health Exam Register, 2F of the older wing of the National to the waiting area near the Department of Family Medicine for blood test. 6Exam items by doctor; submit the health check form Complete the health exam in examine room No.5 in the Department of Family Medicine

Wu, Yih-Min

100

MA 15200X Exam 2 Memo Exam 2: During Regular Class Time (6 ...  

E-print Network

Mar 8, 2011 ... Your instructor may not loan calculators to students. 1). Exam 2 covers ... There are fifteen multiple-choice problems on the exam. The exam will be .... coordinator know no later than two business days (Friday, March 4 th. ) ...

charlotb

2011-02-24

101

Dr. Campbell's Bio111 Exam #1 Fall 2003 Fall 2003 Biology 111 Exam #1 -Cellular Communications  

E-print Network

). #12;Dr. Campbell's Bio111 Exam #1 ­ Fall 2003 4 6 pts. 8) Explain the concepts of voltage and currentDr. Campbell's Bio111 Exam #1 ­ Fall 2003 1 Fall 2003 Biology 111 Exam #1 - Cellular Communications There is no time limit on this test, though I have tried to design one that you should be able to complete within 2

Campbell, A. Malcolm

102

The dosimetric impact of inversely optimized arc radiotherapy plan modulation for real-time dynamic MLC tracking delivery  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Real-time dynamic multileaf collimator (MLC) tracking for management of intrafraction tumor motion can be challenging for highly modulated beams, as the leaves need to travel far to adjust for target motion perpendicular to the leaf travel direction. The plan modulation can be reduced by using a leaf position constraint (LPC) that reduces the difference in the position of adjacent MLC leaves in the plan. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of the LPC on the quality of inversely optimized arc radiotherapy plans and the effect of the MLC motion pattern on the dosimetric accuracy of MLC tracking delivery. Specifically, the possibility of predicting the accuracy of MLC tracking delivery based on the plan modulation was investigated. Methods: Inversely optimized arc radiotherapy plans were created on CT-data of three lung cancer patients. For each case, five plans with a single 358 deg. arc were generated with LPC priorities of 0 (no LPC), 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1 (highest possible LPC), respectively. All the plans had a prescribed dose of 2 Gy x 30, used 6 MV, a maximum dose rate of 600 MU/min and a collimator angle of 45 deg. or 315 deg. To quantify the plan modulation, an average adjacent leaf distance (ALD) was calculated by averaging the mean adjacent leaf distance for each control point. The linear relationship between the plan quality [i.e., the calculated dose distributions and the number of monitor units (MU)] and the LPC was investigated, and the linear regression coefficient as well as a two tailed confidence level of 95% was used in the evaluation. The effect of the plan modulation on the performance of MLC tracking was tested by delivering the plans to a cylindrical diode array phantom moving with sinusoidal motion in the superior-inferior direction with a peak-to-peak displacement of 2 cm and a cycle time of 6 s. The delivery was adjusted to the target motion using MLC tracking, guided in real-time by an infrared optical system. The dosimetric results were evaluated using gamma index evaluation with static target measurements as reference. Results: The plan quality parameters did not depend significantly on the LPC (p {>=} 0.066), whereas the ALD depended significantly on the LPC (p < 0.001). The gamma index failure rate depended significantly on the ALD, weighted to the percentage of the beam delivered in each control point of the plan (ALD{sub w}) when MLC tracking was used (p < 0.001), but not for delivery without MLC tracking (p {>=} 0.342). The gamma index failure rate with the criteria of 2% and 2 mm was decreased from > 33.9% without MLC tracking to <31.4% (LPC 0) and <2.2% (LPC 1) with MLC tracking. Conclusions: The results indicate that the dosimetric robustness of MLC tracking delivery of an inversely optimized arc radiotherapy plan can be improved by incorporating leaf position constraints in the objective function without otherwise affecting the plan quality. The dosimetric robustness may be estimated prior to delivery by evaluating the ALD{sub w} of the plan.

Falk, Marianne; Larsson, Tobias; Keall, Paul; Chul Cho, Byung; Aznar, Marianne; Korreman, Stine; Poulsen, Per; Munck af Rosenschoeld, Per [Radiation Medicine Research Center, Department of Radiation Oncology - 3994, Rigshospitalet, Blegdamsvej 9, DK - 2100 Copenhagen (Denmark) and Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen (Denmark); Radiation Medicine Research Center, Department of Radiation Oncology, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospital (Denmark); Radiation Physics Laboratory, Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney (Australia); Department of Radiation Oncology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Radiation Medicine Research Center, Department of Radiation Oncology, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospital, Denmark and Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen (Denmark); Radiation Medicine Research Center, Department of Radiation Oncology, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospital (Denmark); Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen (Denmark) and Department of Science, Systems and Models, Roskilde University (Denmark); Department of Oncology, Aarhus University Hospital (Denmark); Radiation Medicine Research Center, Department of Radiation Oncology, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospital (Denmark) and Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen (Denmark)

2012-03-15

103

From Exam Factories to Communities of Discovery  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The British current model of education has turned schools into exam factories and further education colleges and universities into skills factories for British industry. In their book, "From Exam Factories to Communities of Discovery: the Democratic Route," the authors offer an alternative way of thinking and talking about education, as well as…

Coffield, Frank; Williamson, Bill

2011-01-01

104

Making Exam Preparation An Enjoyable Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During oral exams at the German distance learning university, we noticed that students fear that they will be faced with questions that they have not anticipated. In our opinion, this is mainly because students have no chance to train and thereby gather positive experiences with exam situations as they are distributed all over Germany and thus it…

Lukosch, Stephan; Schummer, Till

2006-01-01

105

CS Systems Qualifying Exam 2014 Important Dates  

E-print Network

: Principles, Techniques, & Tools (Second Edition), Alfred V. Aho, Monica S. Lam, Ravi Sethi, Jeffrey D and Professor Philip Levis. Exams Architecture Kunle Olukotun Compilers Alex Aiken Databases Hector Garcia;Compilers Qualifying Exam Details and Reading List Examiner: Professor Alex Aiken Reading List Compilers

Thrun, Sebastian

106

Network+ Certification Exam Prep 28 hours, $1495  

E-print Network

technicians. During class, you will benefit from hands-on exercises and exam question practice in a lab of the exam in December 2011. Potential jobs include network administrator, network technician, network installer, help desk technician, and IT cable installer. Prerequisite:Technical networking experience

Alabama in Huntsville, University of

107

Physics Exams that Promote Collaborative Learning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The two-stage exam is a relatively simple way to introduce collaborative learning and formative assessment into an exam. Their use is rapidly growing in the physics department at the University of British Columbia, as both students and faculty find them rewarding. In a two-stage exam students first complete and turn in the exam individually, and then, working in small groups, answer the exam questions again. During the second stage, the room is filled with spirited and effective debate with nearly every student participating. This provides students with immediate targeted feedback supplied by discussions with their peers. Furthermore, we see indications that the use of this exam format not only ensures consistency across interactive course components, but it also positively impacts how students approach the other collaborative course components. This is accomplished without losing the summative assessment of individual performance that is the expectation of exams for most instructors. In this paper we describe how to implement two-stage exams and provide arguments why they should be part of physics courses that use interactive engagement and social/collaborative learning methods.

Wieman, Carl E.; Rieger, Georg W.; Heiner, Cynthia E.

2014-01-01

108

Tailoring the Preparticipation Exam to Female Athletes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the basics of the preparticipation exam, focusing on aspects specific to females, such as menstrual dysfunction, disordered eating, and orthopedic problems such as scoliosis and patellofemoral pain. Health history questionnaire and other parts of the exam are included in six tables. (SM)

Johnson, Mimi D.

1992-01-01

109

Exam Frequency Comparison in Introductory Soil Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article describes a study in which the number of exams administered in a semester was examined to determine its impact on students' grades and on course evaluations regarding their recommendation of the course and the instructor to other students. The course was an introductory soil science course in which, over 3 semesters, 5 exams were given per semester. For the next 5 semesters, the number of exams was increased to 10 per semester. For the most recent semesters, students responded that they preferred more frequent exams. Grouping of the semesters into those with either 5 or 10 tests showed a higher overall class grade-point average for the semesters with more tests, and a Chi-square test showed that the higher grades were due to an increase in the proportion of A's. This grouping also showed that giving more exams did not significantly affect the students' response concerning recommendations of the course or the instructor to other students.

Barbarick, K.

110

Effect of MLC leaf position, collimator rotation angle, and gantry rotation angle errors on intensity-modulated radiotherapy plans for nasopharyngeal carcinoma  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of multileaf collimator (MLC) leaf position, collimator rotation angle, and accelerator gantry rotation angle errors on intensity-modulated radiotherapy plans for nasopharyngeal carcinoma. To compare dosimetric differences between the simulating plans and the clinical plans with evaluation parameters, 6 patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma were selected for simulation of systematic and random MLC leaf position errors, collimator rotation angle errors, and accelerator gantry rotation angle errors. There was a high sensitivity to dose distribution for systematic MLC leaf position errors in response to field size. When the systematic MLC position errors were 0.5, 1, and 2 mm, respectively, the maximum values of the mean dose deviation, observed in parotid glands, were 4.63%, 8.69%, and 18.32%, respectively. The dosimetric effect was comparatively small for systematic MLC shift errors. For random MLC errors up to 2 mm and collimator and gantry rotation angle errors up to 0.5°, the dosimetric effect was negligible. We suggest that quality control be regularly conducted for MLC leaves, so as to ensure that systematic MLC leaf position errors are within 0.5 mm. Because the dosimetric effect of 0.5° collimator and gantry rotation angle errors is negligible, it can be concluded that setting a proper threshold for allowed errors of collimator and gantry rotation angle may increase treatment efficacy and reduce treatment time.

Bai, Sen; Li, Guangjun; Wang, Maojie; Jiang, Qinfeng; Zhang, Yingjie [State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Cancer Center, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan (China); Wei, Yuquan, E-mail: yuquawei@vip.sina.com [State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Cancer Center, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan (China)

2013-07-01

111

Development of a Monte Carlo model for the Brainlab microMLC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stereotactic radiosurgery with several static conformal beams shaped by a micro multileaf collimator (?MLC) is used to treat small irregularly shaped brain lesions. Our goal is to perform Monte Carlo calculations of dose distributions for certain treatment plans as a verification tool. A dedicated ?MLC component module for the BEAMnrc code was developed as part of this project and was incorporated in a model of the Varian CL2300 linear accelerator 6 MV photon beam. As an initial validation of the code, the leaf geometry was visualized by tracing particles through the component module and recording their position each time a leaf boundary was crossed. The leaf dimensions were measured and the leaf material density and interleaf air gap were chosen to match the simulated leaf leakage profiles with film measurements in a solid water phantom. A comparison between Monte Carlo calculations and measurements (diode, radiographic film) was performed for square and irregularly shaped fields incident on flat and homogeneous water phantoms. Results show that Monte Carlo calculations agree with measured dose distributions to within 2% and/or 1 mm except for field size smaller than 1.2 cm diameter where agreement is within 5% due to uncertainties in measured output factors.

Belec, Jason; Patrocinio, Horacio; Verhaegen, Frank

2005-03-01

112

Profile of State High School Exit Exam Policies. New Mexico  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This individual profile provides information on New Mexico's high school exit exam standards and policies. Some of the categories presented include: (1) State exit exam policy; (2) Type of Test; (3) Purpose; (4) Major changes in exit exam policy since the 2009-10 school year for financial reasons; (5) Subjects tested on exam; (6) Grade exam first…

Center on Education Policy, 2011

2011-01-01

113

Theoretical and experimental validation of treatment planning for narrow MLC defined photon fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), the use of small fields where electronic equilibrium does not exist is becoming more common and presents difficulties for both the measurement and calculation of dose to such fields. Pinnacle3 (Version 6.2b) allows the user to specify a total minimum open area for each IMRT segment, which can result in sub-segments with widths of only a few millimetres. The dose for 6 MV narrow MLC defined fields between 0.1 and 3 cm in width was investigated using Kodak extended dose range film (EDR2), ionization chamber and MOSFET dosimeters and BEAMnrc Monte Carlo calculations, and these results were used to determine the accuracy of Pinnacle3 dose calculation for narrow MLC segments. The incident fluences calculated by Pinnacle3 and BEAMnrc were also compared. Results show that if a fluence and dose grid resolution of 0.1 cm is used, Pinnacle3 dose agrees with the EDR2 and BEAMnrc to within 5% for field widths between 0.5 and 3.0 cm. However, Pinnacle3 will underestimate the dose by up to 45% for the 0.1 and 0.3 cm wide fields. It is shown that the source size in the Pinnacle3 beam model and both the fluence and dose grid resolutions have a significant effect on the accuracy of dose calculation for field widths of 1.0 cm and less. For single segment fields, Pinnacle3 agrees with EDR2 and BEAMnrc to within 0.1 cm at the field edges and underestimates the penumbra width by up to 0.08 cm. Results for multiple segment fields showed that an MLC transmission of 1.7% and a 0.06 cm inward shift of MLCs prior to beam delivery gave the closest agreement between Pinnacle3 and measurement. The multiple segment fields also revealed a pattern of low dose troughs of up to 7% in the Pinnacle3 dose profiles.

Lydon, J. M.

2005-06-01

114

GRADING POLICIES Two closed-book exams will be given during the semester. The exam dates are Tuesday, February  

E-print Network

of the class period that the graded exam is returned to students; exam grades become "carved in stone" after: The above exam and presentation schedule is "carved in granite." The above lecture schedule is only

Houston, Paul L.

115

Taking Exams (Black Box Software Testing classes)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This subset of the Black Box Software Testing collection includes lecture videos, slides, suggested readings, and study questions focusing on skills needed for Taking Exams - especially answering essay questions.

Kaner, Cem; Fiedler, Rebecca L.

2011-06-01

116

Studying For Exams SEVEN DAY STUDY GUIDE  

E-print Network

your performance. Lack of sleep diminishes one's effectiveness while taking an exam. Study a maximum of yourself physically, especially the week before a test. Eating regularly and getting good sleep will boost

Barrash, Warren

117

Mlc Is a Transcriptional Activator with a Key Role in Integrating Cyclic AMP Receptor Protein and Integration Host Factor Regulation of Leukotoxin RNA Synthesis in Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans  

PubMed Central

Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, a periodontal pathogen, synthesizes leukotoxin (LtxA), a protein that helps the bacterium evade the host immune response. Transcription of the ltxA operon is induced during anaerobic growth. The cyclic AMP (cAMP) receptor protein (CRP) indirectly increases ltxA expression, but the intermediary regulator is unknown. Integration host factor (IHF) binds to and represses the leukotoxin promoter, but neither CRP nor IHF is responsible for the anaerobic induction of ltxA RNA synthesis. Thus, we have undertaken studies to identify other regulators of leukotoxin transcription and to demonstrate how these proteins work together to modulate leukotoxin synthesis. First, analyses of ltxA RNA expression from defined leukotoxin promoter mutations in the chromosome identify positions ?69 to ?35 as the key control region and indicate that an activator protein modulates leukotoxin transcription. We show that Mlc, which is a repressor in Escherichia coli, functions as a direct transcriptional activator in A. actinomycetemcomitans; an mlc deletion mutant reduces leukotoxin RNA synthesis, and recombinant Mlc protein binds specifically at the ?68 to ?40 region of the leukotoxin promoter. Furthermore, we show that CRP activates ltxA expression indirectly by increasing the levels of Mlc. Analyses of ?mlc, ?ihf, and ?ihf ?mlc strains demonstrate that Mlc can increase RNA polymerase (RNAP) activity directly and that IHF represses ltxA RNA synthesis mainly by blocking Mlc binding. Finally, a ?ihf ?mlc mutant still induces ltxA during anaerobic growth, indicating that there are additional factors involved in leukotoxin transcriptional regulation. A model for the coordinated regulation of leukotoxin transcription is presented. PMID:23475968

Childress, Catherine; Feuerbacher, Leigh A.; Phillips, Linda; Burgum, Alex

2013-01-01

118

Physics Exam Preparation: A Comparison of Three Methods  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this clinical study on helping students prepare for an exam, we compared three different treatments. All students were asked to take a practice exam. One group was then given worked-out solutions for that exam, another group was given the solutions and targeted exercises to do as homework based on the result of their practice exam, and the…

Fakcharoenphol, Witat; Stelzer, Timothy

2014-01-01

119

Normal - Cranial Nerves Exam - Vestibulocochlear (CN VIII) Nerve Sub-exam - Patient 1  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video depicts the 'normal' patient responses that should occur during a cranial nerves exam. The patient in the video is a female with no known neurological health problems who volunteered to act as a simulated patient in order to demonstrate 'normal' responses to exam techniques. Viewing the video requires installation of the free QuickTime Plug-in.

Pearson, John C.

2009-06-08

120

Normal - Cranial Nerves Exam - Oculomotor, Trochlear, Abducens (CN III, IV, VI) Nerves Sub-exam  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video depicts a 'normal' cranial nerves exam. Patient is a female with no known neurological health problems who volunteered to act as a simulated patient in order to demonstrate 'normal' responses to exam techniques. Viewing the video requires installation of the free QuickTime Plug-in.

Pearson, John C.

2009-09-21

121

Can Students Predict Their Scores in Exams?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article describes a statistical study in which students were asked to predict their own exam scores. The actual and predicted scores of 61 students in 6 years of an advanced plant genetics course and the differences between their actual and predicted scores were analyzed by various statistical measures. An overall mean difference between actual and predicted scores showed that the students, on average, were able to predict their scores within 5 percent of the actual value. However, students were not able to predict their exam scores accurately or precisely; the difference between actual and predicted scores was statistically different from zero. In addition, student demographic types such as age, GPA, or level of education were not significant factors for accuracy in predicting marks on the exam.

Sharma, H.

122

Federal Reserve Banks: Federal Reserve System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Feds on the Web site was developed by the Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis to provide easy access to information from the Federal Reserve System. At the site, visitors may link to each of the twelve Federal Reserve Banks and Board of Governors via a short list of unique types of information available at each site. A map of the Federal Reserve districts, mailing addresses and phone numbers are also available at the site.

123

Matching marine reserve design to reserve objectives.  

PubMed Central

Recent interest in using marine reserves for marine resource management and conservation has largely been driven by the hope that reserves might counteract declines in fish populations and protect the biodiversity of the seas. However, the creation of reserves has led to dissension from some interested groups, such as fishermen, who fear that reserves will do more harm than good. These perceived differences in the effect of marine reserves on various stakeholder interests has led to a contentious debate over their merit. We argue here that recent findings in marine ecology suggest that this debate is largely unnecessary, and that a single general design of a network of reserves of moderate size and variable spacing can meet the needs and goals of most stakeholders interested in marine resources. Given the high fecundity of most marine organisms and recent evidence for limited distance of larval dispersal, it is likely that reserves can both maintain their own biodiversity and service nearby non-reserve areas. In particular, spillover of larger organisms and dispersal of larvae to areas outside reserves can lead to reserves sustaining or even increasing local fisheries. Ultimately, the success of any reserve network requires attention to the uncertainty and variability in dispersal patterns of marine organisms, clear statements of goals by all stakeholder groups and proper evaluation of reserve performance. PMID:14561299

Halpern, Benjamin S; Warner, Robert R

2003-01-01

124

AFFORDABLE MULTI-LAYER CERAMIC (MLC) MANUFACTURING FOR POWER SYSTEMS (AMPS)  

SciTech Connect

McDermott Technology, Inc. (MTI) is attempting to develop high-performance, cost-competitive solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) power systems. Recognizing the challenges and limitations facing the development of SOFC stacks comprised of electrode-supported cells and metallic interconnects, McDermott Technology, Inc. (MTI) has chosen to pursue an alternate path to commercialization. MTI is developing a multi-layer, co-fired, planar SOFC stack that will provide superior performance and reliability at reduced costs relative to competing designs. The MTI approach combines state-of-the-art SOFC materials with the manufacturing technology and infrastructure established for multi-layer ceramic (MLC) packages for the microelectronics industry. The rationale for using MLC packaging technology is that high quality, low-cost manufacturing has been demonstrated at high volumes. With the proper selection of SOFC materials, implementation of MLC fabrication methods offers unique designs for stacks (cells and interconnects) that are not possible through traditional fabrication methods. The MTI approach eliminates use of metal interconnects and ceramic-metal seals, which are primary sources of stack performance degradation. Co-fired cells are less susceptible to thermal cycling stresses by using material compositions that have closely matched coefficients of thermal expansion between the cell and the interconnect. The development of this SOFC stack technology was initiated in October 1999 under the DOE cosponsored program entitled ''Affordable Multi-layer Ceramic Manufacturing for Power Systems (AMPS)''. The AMPS Program was conducted as a two-phase program: Phase I--Feasibility Assessment (10/99--9/00); and Phase II--Process Development for Co-fired Stacks (10/00-3/02). This report provides a summary of the results from Phase I and a more detailed review of the results for Phase II. Phase I demonstrated the feasibility for fabricating multi-layer, co-fired cells and interconnects and resulted in selection of the most promising configuration for high-performance, low-cost SOFC stacks. During Phase II, the MTI Team successfully refined the fabrication processes and achieved low-rate production of cells and interconnects (about 100 per month). Short stacks (3-10 cells) using co-fired cells and interconnects were assembled and tested to validate the MTI multi-layer SOFC design. The team successfully demonstrated co-fired repeat units, comprised of a cell and the interconnect layers. Development of co-fired cells and multi-layer interconnects based on the new stack design was completed; all component fabrication and stack testing efforts were redirected to the new design toward the end of Phase II. Finally, low-cost alternate materials for the interconnect body and conductors within the interconnect were identified. At the end of Phase II, the MTI Team successfully transitioned the multi-layer SOFC stack development effort to the Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) program.

E.A. Barringer, Ph.D.

2002-11-27

125

A Zeroing Cell-to-Cell Interference Page Architecture With Temporary LSB Storing and Parallel MSB Program Scheme for MLC NAND Flash Memories  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new MLC NAND page architecture is presented as a breakthrough solution for sub-40-nm MLC NAND flash memories and beyond. To reduce cell-to-cell interference which is well known as the most critical scaling barrier for NAND flash memories, a novel page architecture including temporary LSB storing program and parallel MSB program schemes is proposed. A BL voltage modulated ISPP scheme

Ki-Tae Park; Myounggon Kang; Doogon Kim; Soon-Wook Hwang; Byung Yong Choi; Yeong-Taek Lee; Changhyun Kim; Kinam Kim

2008-01-01

126

A Monte Carlo investigation of fluence profiles collimated by an electron specific MLC during beam delivery for modulated electron radiation therapy.  

PubMed

Modulated electron radiation therapy (MERT) is able to deliver conformal dose to shallow tumors while significantly reducing dose to distal structures and surrounding tissues. An electron specific multileaf collimator (eMLC) has been proposed and constructed as an effective means of delivering electron beams for MERT. The aim of this work is to apply the Monte Carlo method to investigate the fluence profiles collimated by the eMLC in order to achieve accurate beam delivery for MERT. In this work, the EGS4/BEAM code was used to simulate the eMLC collimated electron beams of 6-20 MeV generated from a Varian Clinac 2100C linear accelerator. An attempt was made to describe the fluence profiles with an analytic Sigmoid function. The function parameters were determined by the fittings of the Monte Carlo simulated fluence profiles. How the function parameters depend on the eMLC aperture size, the off-axis location, and the electron beam energy has been investigated. It has been found that the eMLC collimated fluence profiles are dependent on beam energy, while almost independent of leaf location or dimension of MLC aperture. There is little difference in the fluence profiles collimated by the leaf side and the leaf end for the straight-edged leaves. It is possible that these energy-dependent Sigmoid functions can serve as operators to account for the energy dependence of the eMLC collimated fluence profiles. These operators can be incorporated into the inverse planning algorithm to derive desired dose distributions using a set of electron beams of variable energy and field size suitable for delivery by the eMLC. PMID:12462711

Deng, Jun; Lee, Michael C; Ma, C M

2002-11-01

127

Comparison of two Classification methods (MLC and SVM) to extract land use and land cover in Johor Malaysia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mapping is essential for the analysis of the land use and land cover, which influence many environmental processes and properties. For the purpose of the creation of land cover maps, it is important to minimize error. These errors will propagate into later analyses based on these land cover maps. The reliability of land cover maps derived from remotely sensed data depends on an accurate classification. In this study, we have analyzed multispectral data using two different classifiers including Maximum Likelihood Classifier (MLC) and Support Vector Machine (SVM). To pursue this aim, Landsat Thematic Mapper data and identical field-based training sample datasets in Johor Malaysia used for each classification method, which results indicate in five land cover classes forest, oil palm, urban area, water, rubber. Classification results indicate that SVM was more accurate than MLC. With demonstrated capability to produce reliable cover results, the SVM methods should be especially useful for land cover classification.

Rokni Deilmai, B.; Ahmad, B. Bin; Zabihi, H.

2014-06-01

128

Effects of static dosimetric leaf gap on MLC-based small-beam dose distribution for intensity-modulated radiosurgery.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of various specific dosimetric leaf gaps on the multileaf collimator (MLC)-based small-beam dose distribution. The dosimetric static leaf gap was determined by comparing the profiles of small MLC-based beams with those of small collimated fields (square fields of 1, 2, 3, and 4 cm). The results showed that an approximately 2-mm gap was optimal with the Millennium 120-leaf MLC (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA) and a Varian 21EX 6-MV photon beam. We also investigated how much the leaf gap affects the planning results and the actual dose distribution. A doughnut-shaped planning target volume (PTV, 6.1 cm3) and inner organ at risk (OAR, 0.3 cm3) were delineated for delicate intensity-modulated radiosurgery test planning. The applied leaf gaps were 0, 1, and 2 mm. The measured dose distributions were compared with the dose distribution in the treatment planning system. The maximum dose differences at inside PTV, outside PTV, and inner OAR were, respectively, 22.3%, 20.2%, and 35.2% for the 0-mm leaf gap; 17.8%, 22.8%, and 30.8% for the 1-mm leaf gap; and 5.5%, 8.5%, and 6.3% for the 2-mm leaf gap. In a human head phantom (model 605: CIRS, Norfolk, VA) study, large dose differences of 1.3%-12.7% were noted for the measurements made using the MLC files generated by the three different leaf gaps. The planned results were similar, and measurements showed a large dose difference associated with the various leaf gaps. These results strongly suggest that plans generated by a commercial inverse planning system commissioned using general collimated field data will probably demonstrate discrepancies between the planned treatments and the measured results. PMID:18449146

Lee, Jeong-Woo; Choi, Kyoung-Sik; Hong, Semie; Kim, Yon-Lae; Chung, Jin-Beom; Lee, Doo-Hyun; Choe, Bo-Young; Jang, Hong-Seok; Suh, Tae-Suk

2007-01-01

129

Dosimetric comparison between two MLC systems commonly used for stereotactic radiosurgery and radiotherapy: a Monte Carlo and experimental study.  

PubMed

In this work dosimetric parameters of two multi-leaf collimator (MLC) systems, namely the beam modulator (BM), which is the MLC commercial name for Elekta "Synergy S" linear accelerator and Radionics micro-MLC (MMLC), are compared using measurements and Monte Carlo simulations. Dosimetric parameters, such as percentage depth doses (PDDs), in-plane and cross-plane dose profiles, and penumbras for different depths and field sizes of the 6 MV photon beams were measured using ionization chamber and a water tank. The collimator leakages were measured using radiographic films. MMLC and BM were modeled using the EGSnrc-based BEAMnrc Monte Carlo code and above dosimetric parameters were calculated. The energy fluence spectra for the two MLCs were also determined using the BEAMnrc and BEAMDP. Dosimetric parameters of the two MLCs were similar, except for penumbras. Leaf-side and leaf-end 80-20% dose penumbras at 10 cm depth for a 10×10 cm(2) field size were 4.8 and 5.1mm for MMLC and 5.3 mm and 6.3 mm for BM, respectively. Both Radionics MMLC and Elekta BM can be used effectively based on their dosimetric characteristics for stereotactic radiosurgery and radiotherapy, although the former showed slightly sharper dose penumbra especially in the leaf-end direction. PMID:22658764

Asnaashari, K; Chow, James C L; Heydarian, Mostafa

2013-06-01

130

Redesigning the MCAT exam: balancing multiple perspectives.  

PubMed

The authors of this commentary discuss the recently completed review of the current Medical College Admission Test (MCAT), which has been used since 1991, and describe the blueprint for the new test that will be introduced in 2015. The design of the MCAT exam reflects changes in medical education, medical science, health care delivery, and the needs of the populations served by graduates of U.S. and Canadian medical schools. The authors describe how balancing the ambitious goals for the new exam and the varying priorities of the testing program's many stakeholders made blueprint design complex. They discuss the tensions and trade-offs that characterized the design process as well as the deliberations and data that shaped the blueprint.The blueprint for the MCAT exam balances the assessment of a broad range of competencies in the natural, social, and behavioral sciences and critical analysis and reasoning skills that are essential to entering students' success in medical school. The exam will include four sections: Biological and Biochemical Foundations of Living Systems; Chemical and Physical Foundations of Biological Systems; Psychological, Social, and Biological Foundations of Behavior; and Critical Analysis and Reasoning Skills.The authors also offer recommendations for admission committees, advising them to review applicants' test scores, course work, and other academic, personal, and experiential credentials as part of a holistic admission process and in relation to their institutions' educational, scientific, clinical, and service-oriented goals. PMID:23524933

Schwartzstein, Richard M; Rosenfeld, Gary C; Hilborn, Robert; Oyewole, Saundra Herndon; Mitchell, Karen

2013-05-01

131

English-Spanish Verbatim Translation Exam.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The development and validation of the English-Spanish Verbatim Translation Exam (ESVTE) is described. The test is for use by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) in the selection of applicants for the positions of Language Specialist or Contract Linguist. The report is divided into eight sections. Section 1 describes the need for the test,…

Stansfield, Charles W.; And Others

132

Exam Conflict form Genome 361, Spring 2014  

E-print Network

to take a make-up exam for one of only a few reasons: · Medical/family emergencies · Academic events ­ the student must be interviewing for a job or medical/graduate school, or presenting academic research be part of a University sponsored team. University clubs do not count as University-sponsored sports teams

Dunham, Maitreya

133

Systems Comprehensive Exams Topics Patrick G. Bridges  

E-print Network

Systems Comprehensive Exams Topics Patrick G. Bridges November 23, 2004 1 Introduction I've divided, servers, device drivers, interrupt processing) · Scheduling · Memory-management (e.g. virtual memory switched networks · Basic characteristics of physical networks like Ethernet · Routing basics · TCP

Maccabe, Barney

134

A Memetic Algorithm for University Exam Timetabling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: The scheduling of exams in institutions of higher education is knownto be a highly constrained problem. The advent of modularity in many institutionsin the UK has resulted in a significant increase in its complexity, imposing evenmore difficulties on university administrators who must find a solution, oftenwithout any computer aid.

Edmund K. Burke; James P. Newall; Rupert F. Weare

1995-01-01

135

Exam Preparation Identifying Levels of Learning  

E-print Network

, identify, label, list, match, name, recall, select, show, state, translate, true/false, who, what, where you to employ certain criteria in order to appraise the degree to which a concept (e.g. ideas, solutions, work, and theory) is satisfying, effective or valid. Typical exam wording includes: appraise

136

Statistics Masters Comprehensive Exam July 31, 2012  

E-print Network

(r). #12;5. An urn has M white marbles and 10 - M black marbles. To test H0 : M = 5 versus H0 : M = 6Statistics Masters Comprehensive Exam July 31, 2012 Student Name: 1. Answer 8 out of 12 problems Scores 2. Write your answer right after each problem selected, attach more pages if necessary. Do

Hagen, Thomas

137

Automatic Assessment of 3D Modeling Exams  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Computer-based assessment of exams provides teachers and students with two main benefits: fairness and effectiveness in the evaluation process. This paper proposes a fully automatic evaluation tool for the Graphic and Virtual Design (GVD) curriculum at the First School of Architecture of the Politecnico di Torino, Italy. In particular, the tool is…

Sanna, A.; Lamberti, F.; Paravati, G.; Demartini, C.

2012-01-01

138

UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON DIVING MEDICAL EXAM OVERVIEW  

E-print Network

UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON DIVING MEDICAL EXAM OVERVIEW FOR THE EXAMINING PHYSICIAN ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH & SAFETY To the EXAMINING PHYSICIAN: A medical examination is required to assess the fitness Medicine physician and the Diving Medical Officer (DMO) for the University of Washington, Seattle, WA

Wilcock, William

139

Engineering PROCEDURES FOR ADMINISTERING THE EXAM  

E-print Network

the time lost. · Verify the identity of the student through a picture identification. Acceptable ID are not allowed in the testing room. · Personal items and unauthorized materials such as coats, hats, books devices, etc...) or books and notes may be used unless instructed on the exam. · Review any special

Velev, Orlin D.

140

Oral Exam Syllabus 1 Lie Groups  

E-print Network

Oral Exam Syllabus 1 Lie Groups #15; De#12;nition of a Lie group; examples (including classical Lie groups) #15; Lie algebras and their relation to Lie groups Exponential mapping Adjoint and co-adjoint representation #15; Representations of compact, connected Lie groups Peter-Weyl theorem Maximal Tori: existence

141

Introducing Standardized EFL/ESL Exams  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents the features, and a brief comparison, of some of the most well-known high-stakes exams. They are classified in the following fashion: tests that only include multiple-choice questions, tests that include writing and multiple-choice questions, and tests that include speaking questions. The tests reviewed are: BULATS, IELTS,…

Laborda, Jesus Garcia

2007-01-01

142

Exam Return Form Food Safety Programs  

E-print Network

(Please provide credit card information below) MasterCard Visa American Express Card number: Expiration enclosed **Personal checks not accepted** Purchase Order Attached Only for 10 exams or more Credit card are the card holder and authorize Prometric to charge your credit card. Please Read and Sign: Print Proctor

143

Sample Exam Printout (shortened) Examination Services  

E-print Network

.0 MCFLY MARTY 6.0 WILSON BRENT 10.0 RUTH'S CHART OF OMITTED RESPONSES AND CINDY'S STAR CHART Name I correlation. ITEMS MISSED BY STUDENTS Name Total and Sub Scores I.D. Number Responses ( "." means a correct;3 STUDENT EXAM SCORES BY NAME Name I.D. Number Total and Subscores CONTRARY MARY Q 5.0 DOSTOEVSKY FYODOR 2

Farritor, Shane

144

Monte Carlo simulation of MLC-shaped TrueBeam electron fields benchmarked against measurement  

E-print Network

Modulated electron radiotherapy (MERT) and combined, modulated photon/electron radiotherapy (MPERT) have received increased research attention, having shown capacity for reduced low dose exposure to healthy tissue and comparable, if not improved, target coverage for a number of treatment sites. Accurate dose calculation tools are necessary for clinical treatment planning, and Monte Carlo (MC) is the gold standard for electron field simulation. With many clinics replacing older accelerators, MC source models of the new machines are needed for continued development, however, Varian has kept internal schematics of the TrueBeam confidential and electron phase-space sources have not been made available. TrueBeam electron fields are not substantially different from those generated by the Clinac 21EX, so we have modified the internal schematics of the Clinac 21EX to simulate TrueBeam electrons. BEAMnrc/DOSXYZnrc were used to simulate 5x5 and 20x20 cm$^2$ electron fields with MLC-shaped apertures. Secondary collimati...

Lloyd, Samantha AM; Zavgorodni, Sergei

2014-01-01

145

Experimental investigation of a moving averaging algorithm for motion perpendicular to the leaf travel direction in dynamic MLC target tracking  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: In dynamic multileaf collimator (MLC) motion tracking with complex intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) fields, target motion perpendicular to the MLC leaf travel direction can cause beam holds, which increase beam delivery time by up to a factor of 4. As a means to balance delivery efficiency and accuracy, a moving average algorithm was incorporated into a dynamic MLC motion tracking system (i.e., moving average tracking) to account for target motion perpendicular to the MLC leaf travel direction. The experimental investigation of the moving average algorithm compared with real-time tracking and no compensation beam delivery is described. Methods: The properties of the moving average algorithm were measured and compared with those of real-time tracking (dynamic MLC motion tracking accounting for both target motion parallel and perpendicular to the leaf travel direction) and no compensation beam delivery. The algorithm was investigated using a synthetic motion trace with a baseline drift and four patient-measured 3D tumor motion traces representing regular and irregular motions with varying baseline drifts. Each motion trace was reproduced by a moving platform. The delivery efficiency, geometric accuracy, and dosimetric accuracy were evaluated for conformal, step-and-shoot IMRT, and dynamic sliding window IMRT treatment plans using the synthetic and patient motion traces. The dosimetric accuracy was quantified via a {gamma}-test with a 3%/3 mm criterion. Results: The delivery efficiency ranged from 89 to 100% for moving average tracking, 26%-100% for real-time tracking, and 100% (by definition) for no compensation. The root-mean-square geometric error ranged from 3.2 to 4.0 mm for moving average tracking, 0.7-1.1 mm for real-time tracking, and 3.7-7.2 mm for no compensation. The percentage of dosimetric points failing the {gamma}-test ranged from 4 to 30% for moving average tracking, 0%-23% for real-time tracking, and 10%-47% for no compensation. Conclusions: The delivery efficiency of moving average tracking was up to four times higher than that of real-time tracking and approached the efficiency of no compensation for all cases. The geometric accuracy and dosimetric accuracy of the moving average algorithm was between real-time tracking and no compensation, approximately half the percentage of dosimetric points failing the {gamma}-test compared with no compensation.

Yoon, Jai-Woong; Sawant, Amit; Suh, Yelin; Cho, Byung-Chul; Suh, Tae-Suk; Keall, Paul [Department of Biomedical Engineering, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea 131-700 and Research Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, 131-700 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States) and Department of Radiation Oncology, Asan Medical Center, Seoul, 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Biomedical Engineering, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, 131-700 and Research Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, 131-700 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States) and Radiation Physics Laboratory, Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, 2006 (Australia)

2011-07-15

146

X-Ray Exam: Lower Leg (Tibia and Fibula)  

MedlinePLUS

X-Ray Exam: Lower Leg (Tibia and Fibula) KidsHealth > Parents > Doctors & Hospitals > Medical Tests & Exams > X-Ray Exam: Lower Leg (Tibia and Fibula) Print ... If You Have Questions What It Is An X-ray of the tibia and fibula is a ...

147

The Effect of Announced Quizzes on Exam Performance: II  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

I administered announced, multiple-choice quizzes to 1 of 2 sections of a Psychology of Learning class in each of 2 consecutive fall semesters. The quizzes were administered between the first and second exams which were also multiple-choice. Quizzes were discontinued after the second exam. After the second exam, students completed a questionnaire…

Azorlosa, Julian L.

2011-01-01

148

Exit Exams: Decreases or Increases the Dropout Rate  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this paper was to examine the impact of exit exams on the dropout rate. Data was gathered from several research articles. The most impressionable research revealed exit exams have a negative effect on minorities, especially black males. Results indicate by 2012, that exit exams in 25 states will affect 81 percent of minority high…

Barnes, Teresa A.

2009-01-01

149

Supporting exam revision via Google talk and Examopedia wiki  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work highlights the benefits of tapping into one of many informal learning activities in which students engage, namely use of past papers for exam revision. Exams can be both stressful and isolating for students. This paper presents a novel approach to exam revision via a `wiki' and `Google talk' which the author calls `Examopedia'. This approach benefits both from

Manish Malik

2010-01-01

150

ExamNet asynchronous learning network: augmenting face-to-face courses with student-developed exam questions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates how students' attitude and performance are affected by using an asynchronous learning network (ALN) to augment exams in a traditional lecture\\/lab course. Students used the ExamNet ALN to create, critique, and revise a database of questions that subsequently was drawn upon for course exams. Overall, students considered ExamNet to be useful and important in understanding course material,

E. Vance Wilson

2004-01-01

151

Direct and Indirect Effects of Completion Versus Accuracy Contingencies on Practice-Exam and Actual-Exam Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Students in four sections of an undergraduate educational course (two large and two small sections) took out-of-class practice exams prior to actual exams for each of five course units. Each course unit consisted of five class sessions focusing on a specific developmental theme. Some sections received practice-exam credit based on the number of items completed, whereas other sections received practice-exam

Renee Oliver; Robert L. Williams

2005-01-01

152

IOB Comprehensive Exams The comprehensive exam will be composed of a written part and an oral part.  

E-print Network

that they are consistent with the student's background and interests. The major professor may request a change in form coursework or directed reading and retake a portion of the exam. If the committee decides that the student. Timing of Written exam All students must take the written exam by the end of July after their second

Arnold, Jonathan

153

Dr. Campbell's Bio111 Exam #3 Spring 2007 Spring 2007 Biology 111 Take Home Exam #3 BioEnergetics  

E-print Network

conditions not used in the study guide. #12;Dr. Campbell's Bio111 Exam #3 ­ Spring 2007 3 6 pts. 5) Explain with anyone until all exams are turned in at 10:30 am on Wednesday April 18. EXAMS ARE DUE AT CLASS TIME features that are important to its overall function in glycolysis. 10 pts. 3) Consider the evolution

Campbell, A. Malcolm

154

Federal Reserve Bulletin  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Federal Reserve Bulletin is a monthly publication written and compiled by staff members of the Federal Reserve Board of Governors, reporting and analyzing economic developments, data, and bank regulatory issues.

1997-01-01

155

What students learn when studying physics practice exam problems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We developed a web-based tool to provide students with access to old exam problems and solutions. By controlling the order in which students saw the problems, as well as their access to solutions, we obtained data about student learning by studying old exam problems. Our data suggest that in general students learn from doing old exam problems, and that having access to the problem solutions increases their learning. However, the data also suggest the depth of learning may be relatively shallow. In addition, the data show that doing old exam problems provides important formative assessment about the studentâs overall preparedness for the exam and their particular areas of strength and weakness.

Fakcharoenphol, Witat; Potter, Eric; Stelzer, Timothy

2012-05-09

156

Physics exam preparation: A comparison of three methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this clinical study on helping students prepare for an exam, we compared three different treatments. All students were asked to take a practice exam. One group was then given worked-out solutions for that exam, another group was given the solutions and targeted exercises to do as homework based on the result of their practice exam, and the third group was given the solutions, homework, and also an hour of one-on-one tutoring. Participants from all three conditions significantly outperformed the control group on the midterm exam. However, participants that had one-on-one tutoring did not outperform the other two participant groups.

Fakcharoenphol, Witat; Stelzer, Timothy

2014-06-01

157

Comparison of secondary neutron dose in proton therapy resulting from the use of a tungsten alloy MLC or a brass collimator system  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To apply the dual ionization chamber method for mixed radiation fields to an accurate comparison of the secondary neutron dose arising from the use of a tungsten alloy multileaf collimator (MLC) as opposed to a brass collimator system for defining the shape of a therapeutic proton field. Methods: Hydrogenous and nonhydrogenous ionization chambers were constructed with large volumes to enable measurements of absorbed doses below 10{sup -4} Gy in mixed radiation fields using the dual ionization chamber method for mixed-field dosimetry. Neutron dose measurements were made with a nominal 230 MeV proton beam incident on a closed tungsten alloy MLC and a solid brass block. The chambers were cross-calibrated against a {sup 60}Co-calibrated Farmer chamber in water using a 6 MV x-ray beam and Monte Carlo simulations were performed to account for variations in ionization chamber response due to differences in secondary neutron energy spectra. Results: The neutron and combined proton plus {gamma}-ray absorbed doses are shown to be nearly equivalent downstream from either a closed tungsten alloy MLC or a solid brass block. At 10 cm downstream from the distal edge of the collimating material the neutron dose from the closed MLC was (5.3 {+-} 0.4) x 10{sup -5} Gy/Gy. The neutron dose with brass was (6.4 {+-} 0.7) x 10{sup -5} Gy/Gy. Further from the secondary neutron source, at 50 cm, the neutron doses remain close for both the MLC and brass block at (6.9 {+-} 0.6) x 10{sup -6} Gy/Gy and (6.3 {+-} 0.7) x 10{sup -6} Gy/Gy, respectively. Conclusions: The dual ionization chamber method is suitable for measuring secondary neutron doses resulting from proton irradiation. The results of measurements downstream from a closed tungsten alloy MLC and a brass block indicate that, even in an overly pessimistic worst-case scenario, secondary neutron production in a tungsten alloy MLC leads to absorbed doses that are nearly equivalent to those seen from brass collimators. Therefore, the choice of tungsten alloy in constructing the leaves of a proton MLC is appropriate, and does not lead to a substantial increase in the secondary neutron dose to the patient compared to that generated in a brass collimator.

Diffenderfer, Eric S.; Ainsley, Christopher G.; Kirk, Maura L.; McDonough, James E.; Maughan, Richard L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States)

2011-11-15

158

Gi-coupled receptors mediate phosphorylation of CPI-17 and MLC20 via preferential activation of the PI3K/ILK pathway.  

PubMed

Sustained smooth-muscle contraction or its experimental counterpart, Ca2+ sensitization, by G(q/13)-coupled receptor agonists is mediated via RhoA-dependent inhibition of MLC (myosin light chain) phosphatase and MLC20 (20 kDa regulatory light chain of myosin II) phosphorylation by a Ca2+-independent MLCK (MLC kinase). The present study identified the corresponding pathways initiated by G(i)-coupled receptors. Somatostatin acting via G(i)1-coupled sstr3 receptor, DPDPE ([D-Pen2,D-Pen5]enkephalin; where Pen is penicillamine) acting via G(i)2-coupled delta-opioid receptors, and cyclopentyl adenosine acting via G(i)3-coupled adenosine A1 receptors preferentially activated PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase) and ILK (integrin-linked kinase), whereas ACh (acetylcholine) acting via G(i)3-coupled M2 receptors preferentially activated PI3K, Cdc42 (cell division cycle 42)/Rac1, PAK1 (p21-activated kinase 1) and p38 MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase). Only agonists that activated ILK induced sustained CPI-17 (protein kinase C potentiated inhibitor 17 kDa protein) phosphorylation at Thr38, MLC20 phosphorylation at Ser19, and contraction, consistent with recent evidence that ILK can act as a Ca2+-independent MLCK capable of phosphorylating the MLC phosphatase inhibitor, CPI-17, at Thr38. ILK activity, and CPI-17 and MLC20 phosphorylation were inhibited by LY294002 and in muscle cells expressing ILK(R211A) or treated with siRNA (small interfering RNA) for ILK. ACh acting via M2 receptors activated ILK, and induced CPI-17 and MLC20 phosphorylation and muscle contraction, but only after inhibition of p38 MAPK; all these responses were inhibited in cells expressing ILK(R211A). Conversely, ACh activated PAK1, a step upstream of p38 MAPK, whereas the three other agonists did so only in cells transfected with ILK(R211A) or siRNA for ILK. The results demonstrate reciprocal inhibition between two pathways downstream of PI3K, with ILK inhibiting PAK1, and p38 MAPK inhibiting ILK. Sustained contraction via G(i)-coupled receptors is dependent on CPI-17 and MLC20 phosphorylation by ILK. PMID:16472257

Huang, Jiean; Mahavadi, Sunila; Sriwai, Wimolpak; Hu, Wenhui; Murthy, Karnam S

2006-05-15

159

LI-MLC: A Label Inference Methodology for Addressing High Dimensionality in the Label Space for Multilabel Classification.  

PubMed

Multilabel classification (MLC) has generated considerable research interest in recent years, as a technique that can be applied to many real-world scenarios. To process them with binary or multiclass classifiers, methods for transforming multilabel data sets (MLDs) have been proposed, as well as adapted algorithms able to work with this type of data sets. However, until now, few studies have addressed the problem of how to deal with MLDs having a large number of labels. This characteristic can be defined as high dimensionality in the label space (output attributes), in contrast to the traditional high dimensionality problem, which is usually focused on the feature space (by means of feature selection) or sample space (by means of instance selection). The purpose of this paper is to analyze dimensionality in the label space in MLDs, and to present a transformation methodology based on the use of association rules to discover label dependencies. These dependencies are used to reduce the label space, to ease the work of any MLC algorithm, and to infer the deleted labels in a final postprocessing stage. The proposed process is validated in an extensive experimentation with several MLDs and classification algorithms, resulting in a statistically significant improvement of performance in some cases, as will be shown. PMID:25291737

Charte, Francisco; Rivera, Antonio J; Del Jesus, Maria J; Herrera, Francisco

2014-10-01

160

Asymmetric Programming: A Highly Reliable Metadata Allocation Strategy for MLC NAND Flash Memory-Based Sensor Systems.  

PubMed

While the NAND flash memory is widely used as the storage medium in modern sensor systems, the aggressive shrinking of process geometry and an increase in the number of bits stored in each memory cell will inevitably degrade the reliability of NAND flash memory. In particular, it's critical to enhance metadata reliability, which occupies only a small portion of the storage space, but maintains the critical information of the file system and the address translations of the storage system. Metadata damage will cause the system to crash or a large amount of data to be lost. This paper presents Asymmetric Programming, a highly reliable metadata allocation strategy for MLC NAND flash memory storage systems. Our technique exploits for the first time the property of the multi-page architecture of MLC NAND flash memory to improve the reliability of metadata. The basic idea is to keep metadata in most significant bit (MSB) pages which are more reliable than least significant bit (LSB) pages. Thus, we can achieve relatively low bit error rates for metadata. Based on this idea, we propose two strategies to optimize address mapping and garbage collection. We have implemented Asymmetric Programming on a real hardware platform. The experimental results show that Asymmetric Programming can achieve a reduction in the number of page errors of up to 99.05% with the baseline error correction scheme. PMID:25310473

Huang, Min; Liu, Zhaoqing; Qiao, Liyan

2014-01-01

161

Asymmetric Programming: A Highly Reliable Metadata Allocation Strategy for MLC NAND Flash Memory-Based Sensor Systems  

PubMed Central

While the NAND flash memory is widely used as the storage medium in modern sensor systems, the aggressive shrinking of process geometry and an increase in the number of bits stored in each memory cell will inevitably degrade the reliability of NAND flash memory. In particular, it's critical to enhance metadata reliability, which occupies only a small portion of the storage space, but maintains the critical information of the file system and the address translations of the storage system. Metadata damage will cause the system to crash or a large amount of data to be lost. This paper presents Asymmetric Programming, a highly reliable metadata allocation strategy for MLC NAND flash memory storage systems. Our technique exploits for the first time the property of the multi-page architecture of MLC NAND flash memory to improve the reliability of metadata. The basic idea is to keep metadata in most significant bit (MSB) pages which are more reliable than least significant bit (LSB) pages. Thus, we can achieve relatively low bit error rates for metadata. Based on this idea, we propose two strategies to optimize address mapping and garbage collection. We have implemented Asymmetric Programming on a real hardware platform. The experimental results show that Asymmetric Programming can achieve a reduction in the number of page errors of up to 99.05% with the baseline error correction scheme. PMID:25310473

Huang, Min; Liu, Zhaoqing; Qiao, Liyan

2014-01-01

162

ARF1 regulates the Rho/MLC pathway to control EGF-dependent breast cancer cell invasion  

PubMed Central

Invasion of tumor cells is a key step in metastasis that depends largely on the ability of these cells to degrade the extracellular matrix. Although we have showed that the GTPase ADP-ribosylation factor 1 (ARF1) is overexpressed in highly invasive breast cancer cell lines and that epidermal growth factor stimulation can activate this ARF isoform to regulate migration as well as proliferation, the role of this small GTP-binding protein has not been addressed in the context of invasiveness. Here we report that modulation of ARF1 expression and activity markedly impaired the ability of M.D. Anderson-metastatic breast-231 cells, a prototypical highly invasive breast cancer cell line, to degrade the extracellular matrix by controlling metalloproteinase-9 activity. In addition, we demonstrate that this occurs through inhibition of invadopodia maturation and shedding of membrane-derived microvesicles, the two key structures involved in invasion. To further define the molecular mechanisms by which ARF1 controls invasiveness, we show that ARF1 acts to modulate RhoA and RhoC activity, which in turn affects myosin light-chain (MLC) phosphorylation. Together our findings underscore for the first time a key role for ARF1 in invasion of breast cancer cells and suggest that targeting the ARF/Rho/MLC signaling axis might be a promising strategy to inhibit invasiveness and metastasis. PMID:24196838

Schlienger, Sabrina; Campbell, Shirley; Claing, Audrey

2014-01-01

163

The effect of electron collimator leaf shape on the build-up dose in narrow electron MLC fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previously, we have found that the build-up dose from abutting narrow electron beams formed with unfocussed electron multi-leaf collimator (eMLC) steal leaves was higher than with the respective open field. To investigate more closely the effect of leaf material and shape on dose in the build-up region, straight, round (radius 1.5 cm) and leaf ends with a different front face angle of ? (leaf front face pointing towards the beam axis at an angle of 90 - ?) made of steel, brass and tungsten were modelled using the BEAMnrc code. Based on a treatment head simulation of a Varian 2100 C/D linac, depth-dose curves and profiles in water were calculated for narrow 6, 12 and 20 MeV eMLC beams (width 1.0 cm, length 10 cm) at source-to-surface distances (SSD) of 102 and 105 cm. The effects of leaf material and front face angle were evaluated based on electron fluence, angle and energy spectra. With a leaf front face angle of 15°, the dose in the build-up region of the 6 MeV field varied between 91 and 100%, while for straight and round leaf shapes the dose varied between 89 and 100%. The variation was between 94 and 100% for 12 and 20 MeV. For abutting narrow 6 MeV fields with total field size 5 × 10 cm2, the build-up doses at 5 mm depth for the face angle 15° and straight and round leaf shapes were 96% and 86% (SSD 102 cm) and 89% and 85% (SSD 105 cm). With higher energies, the effect of eMLC leaf shape on dose at 5 mm was slight (3-4% units with 12 MeV) and marginal with 20 MeV. The fluence, energy and angle spectra for total and leaf scattered electrons were practically the same for different leaf materials with 6 MeV. With high energies, the spectra for tungsten were more peaked due to lower leaf transmission. Compared with straight leaf ends, the face angle of 15° and round leaf ends led to a 1 mm (for 6 MeV) and between 1 and 5 mm (12 and 20 MeV at a SSD of 105 cm) decrease of therapeutic range and increase of the field size, respectively. However, profile flatness was better for abutting 6 MeV beams with round (2.5%) and face angle 15° leaves (3.0%) compared to straight leaf shape (5.2%). The eMLC leaves with a face angle of 15° resulted in a marked increase in the build-up dose for the single narrow eMLC beam and thus in the dose in the build-up region from matched abutting fields.

Vatanen, T.; Traneus, E.; Väänänen, A.; Lahtinen, T.

2009-12-01

164

Normal - Cranial Nerves Exam - Facial Nerve (CN VII) Sub-exam - Patient 1  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video provides a demonstration of a patient's facial nerve examination. The patient is a female with no known neurological health problems who volunteered to act as a simulated patient in order to demonstrate 'normal' responses to exam techniques. Viewing the video requires installation of the free QuickTime Plug-in.

Pearson, John C.

2009-01-02

165

Engagement with Online Pre-Exam Formative Tests Improves Exam Performance and Feedback Satisfaction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The National Union of Students (NUS) National Student Experience Report identified examination feedback as an area where students had particular concerns. This finding was echoed in the authors' institution and triggered an action research project to investigate ways of improving students' perceptions of pre- and post-exam feedback. We report the…

Hope, Sheila A.; Polwart, Anthony

2012-01-01

166

Optimization Qualifer Exam University of Wisconsin-Madison Fall 2012 Qualifier Exam  

E-print Network

" triangles. (c) Write the full mathematical (or GAMS) model which finds a solution to the game. (d) Suppose such "symmetries" from your search. (f) Write pseudo-code (GAMS or similar for example) that shows the sequence on the cover of each book the area of the exam, your code number, and the question answered in that book

Liblit, Ben

167

Exam Technique Many students in University Mathematics exams seem to lack appropriate examination  

E-print Network

courses as well. Preparation You will doubtless have been told this many times, but the best and most the final exam timetable to be the same as the draft through most of your time at UNSW. Allow yourself some the parts of each question that you think will be easiest, or you know you can do. Think about how you would

Steele, John

168

State High School Exit Exams: A Move toward End-of-Course Exams  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since 2002, the Center on Education Policy (CEP), an independent nonprofit organization, has been studying state high school exit examinations--tests students must pass to receive a high school diploma. This is CEP's seventh annual report on exit exams. The information in this report comes from several sources: our survey of states that have…

Zabala, Dalia; Minnici, Angela; McMurrer, Jennifer; Briggs, Liza

2008-01-01

169

Exam Report Order Form 103 University Stores South  

E-print Network

, electronic transfer, and timely exam processing. Then please select report recipients (Provide TA information ________________________________________________ T.A. (Last, First) ____________________ Phone ________________________ x500 Email Department

Amin, S. Massoud

170

A Multistage Longitudinal Comparative (MLC) Design Stage II: Evaluation of the Changing Lives Program (CLP)--The Possible Selves Questionnaire-Qualitative Extensions (PSQ-QE)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study reported in this paper, a Multistage Longitudinal Comparative (MLC) Design Stage II evaluation conducted as a planned preliminary efficacy evaluation (psychometric evaluation of measures, short-term controlled outcome studies, etc.) of the Changing Lives Program (CLP), provided evidence for the reliability and validity of qualitative…

Kortsch, Gabrielle; Kurtines, William M.; Montgomery, Marilyn J.

2008-01-01

171

Potential of discrete Gaussian edge feathering method for improving abutment dosimetry in eMLC-delivered segmented-field electron conformal therapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The purpose of this work was to investigate the potential of discrete Gaussian edge feathering of the higher energy electron fields for improving abutment dosimetry in the planning volume when using an electron multileaf collimator (eMLC) to deliver segmented-field electron conformal therapy (ECT). Methods: A discrete (five-step) Gaussian edge spread function was used to match dose penumbras of differing beam energies (6-20 MeV) at a specified depth in a water phantom. Software was developed to define the leaf eMLC positions of an eMLC that most closely fit each electron field shape. The effect of 1D edge feathering of the higher energy field on dose homogeneity was computed and measured for segmented-field ECT treatment plans for three 2D PTVs in a water phantom, i.e., depth from the water surface to the distal PTV surface varied as a function of the x-axis (parallel to leaf motion) and remained constant along the y-axis (perpendicular to leaf motion). Additionally, the effect of 2D edge feathering was computed and measured for one radially symmetric, 3D PTV in a water phantom, i.e., depth from the water surface to the distal PTV surface varied as a function of both axes. For the 3D PTV, the feathering scheme was evaluated for 0.1-1.0-cm leaf widths. Dose calculations were performed using the pencil beam dose algorithm in the Pinnacle{sup 3} treatment planning system. Dose verification measurements were made using a prototype eMLC (1-cm leaf width). Results: 1D discrete Gaussian edge feathering reduced the standard deviation of dose in the 2D PTVs by 34, 34, and 39%. In the 3D PTV, the broad leaf width (1 cm) of the eMLC hindered the 2D application of the feathering solution to the 3D PTV, and the standard deviation of dose increased by 10%. However, 2D discrete Gaussian edge feathering with simulated eMLC leaf widths of 0.1-0.5 cm reduced the standard deviation of dose in the 3D PTV by 33-28%, respectively. Conclusions: A five-step discrete Gaussian edge spread function applied in 2D improves the abutment dosimetry but requires an eMLC leaf resolution better than 1 cm.

Eley, John G.; Hogstrom, Kenneth R.; Matthews, Kenneth L.; Parker, Brent C.; Price, Michael J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College, 202 Nicholson Hall, Tower Drive, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803-4001 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College, 202 Nicholson Hall, Tower Drive, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803-4001 (United States) and Mary Bird Perkins Cancer Center, 4950 Essen Lane, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70809-3482 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College, 202 Nicholson Hall, Tower Drive, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803-4001 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College, 202 Nicholson Hall, Tower Drive, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803-4001 (United States) and Mary Bird Perkins Cancer Center, 4950 Essen Lane, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70809-3482 (United States)

2011-12-15

172

Pennogenin Tetraglycoside Induces Rat Myometrial Contraction and MLC20 Phosphorylation via PLC-IP3 and RhoA/Rho Kinase Signaling Pathways  

PubMed Central

Background Total steroidal saponins extracted from the rhizome of Paris polyphylla Sm. var. yunnanensis (TSSPs) have been widely used in China for the treatment of abnormal uterine bleeding. We previously studied the main active constituents of TSSPs and their structure-activity relationships with respect to rat myometrial contractions. Tg (pennogenin tetraglycoside) was identified as one of the active ingredients in TSSPs able to induce rat myometrial contractions. However, the mechanisms underlying the pharmacological actions on uterine activity have not been described clearly. Methods Here Tg was screened for effects on contractile activity in isolated uterine strips from estrogen-primed rats and on MLC20 phosphorylation and related signaling pathways in cultured rat myometrial cells as determined by Western blot. Intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) was monitored under a confocal microscope using Fluo-4 AM-loaded myometrial cells. Results Tg dose-dependently stimulated rat myometrial contractions as well as MLC20 phosphorylation in vitro, which could be completely suppressed by an inhibitor of myosin light chain kinase (MLCK). Use of Ca2+ channel blockers and kinase inhibitors demonstrated that Tg-induced myometrial contractions are mediated by activation of the phospholipase C (PLC)-inositol triphosphate (IP3) signaling pathway, resulting in increased MLC20 phosphorylation. Furthermore, Y27632, a specific inhibitor of Rho kinase (ROK), notably suppressed Tg-stimulated myometrial contractions and decreased MLC20 phosphorylation. Conclusions These data provide evidence that rat myometrial contractility induced by Tg results from enhanced MLC20 phosphorylation, while both PLC-IP3 and RhoA/ROK signaling pathways mediate the process. These mechanisms may be responsible for the therapeutic effects of TSSPs on abnormal uterine bleeding. PMID:23251567

Liu, Xiaolan; Kang, Liping; Cong, Yue; Shan, Yajun; Zhao, Zhenhu; Ma, Baiping; Cong, Yuwen

2012-01-01

173

Should I Give the Exam before or after the Break?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was designed to help faculty make decisions about when to administer an exam in relation to an in-semester break. Students in multiple sections of an undergraduate educational psychology class were assigned to take an exam either before or after a scheduled 5-day break (Thursday-Monday). A multiple regression analysis revealed the break…

O'Connor, Kevin J.

2014-01-01

174

Systems Comprehensive Exam, Spring 2005 January 11, 2005  

E-print Network

these questions. Please direct any questions about this exam to Professor Bridges. Professor Bridges may at bridges@cs.unm.edu. Turn your exam in to Professor Bridges or the front office by 5:00 PM MDT on Tuesday Bridges. Type or write your answers to the stated number of questions in each of the following three

Maccabe, Barney

175

EXPOSURE ANALYSIS MODELING SYSTEM (EXAMS): USER MANUAL AND SYSTEM DOCUMENTATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The Exposure Analysis Modeling System (EXAMS) was designed for rapid evaluation of the behavior of synthetic organic chemicals in aquatic ecosystems. From the chemistry of a compound and the relevant transport and physical/chemical characteristics of the ecosystem, EXAMS computes...

176

Adaptive Selection of Heuristics for Improving Constructed Exam Timetables  

E-print Network

Adaptive Selection of Heuristics for Improving Constructed Exam Timetables Edmund K. Burke, Rong Qu constructed timetables. The constructed timetable is analysed and the exams causing a soft are rescheduled in the timetable affect the quality of the solution produced. Af- ter testing different

Qu, Rong

177

SIMILARITY MEASURES FOR EXAM TIMETABLING E. K. Burke  

E-print Network

SIMILARITY MEASURES FOR EXAM TIMETABLING PROBLEMS E. K. Burke , A. J. Eckersley , B. Mc the years which have been aimed at solving examination timetabling problems. However, many given any exam timetabling problem, will produce results which are comparative to those of a specially

McCollum, Barry

178

Does the Answer Order Matter on Multiple-Choice Exams?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Surprising version-dependent differences are noted in student performance on certain questions in a standardized general chemistry exam. The exam in question has two versions, on which both questions and answers are ordered differently. For the questions suspected of answer-order bias, the performance is better in ten of twelve cases when students…

Tellinghuisen, Joel; Sulikowski, Michelle M.

2008-01-01

179

High School Exit Exam Scores and University Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many U.S. students must pass a standards-based exit exam to earn a high school diploma. The degree to which exit exams and state standards properly signal to students their preparedness for postsecondary schooling has been questioned. The alignment of test scores with college grades for students at the University of Arizona (n = 2,667) who took…

D'Agostino, Jerome V.; Bonner, Sarah M.

2009-01-01

180

Biochemistry and Molecular Biology PhD Comprehensive Exam  

E-print Network

Biochemistry and Molecular Biology PhD Comprehensive Exam Form One Suggested Examination Topics Examination Topics: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Suggested Examiners: 1) Dr. 2) Dr. 3) Dr. 4) Dr. #12;Biochemistry. Dr. 3. Dr. 4. Dr. Exam Chair #12;Biochemistry

Strynadka, Natalie

181

Reworking Exams to Teach Chemistry Content and Reinforce Student Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One meaningful approach to demonstrate to students the value of reworking exams is to offer an incentive to do so. This paper describes the strategy and effects of offering partial credit to students who rework answers originally answered incorrectly on an exam. This has proved largely successful for the last 10 years in several classes at the…

Risley, John M.

2007-01-01

182

A Virtual Reality Based Simulator for Gynecologic Exam Training  

Microsoft Academic Search

Training is an effective way to acquire knowledge. In the last years, realistic training has been proposed and offered by the use of virtual reality (VR) systems. This work presents a VR based simulator for gynecologic exam training - the SITEG. This system integrates stereoscopic view and touch to simulate a real exam in a virtual environment. In this environment

Ronei M. Moraes; Daniel F. L. Souza; Milane C. O. Valdek; Liliane S. Machado

2006-01-01

183

COGNITIVE RESERVE IN AGING  

PubMed Central

Cognitive reserve explains why those with higher IQ, education, occupational attainment, or participation in leisure activities evidence less severe clinical or cognitive changes in the presence of age-related or Alzheimer’s disease pathology. Specifically, the cognitive reserve hypothesis is that individual differences in how tasks are processed provide reserve against brain pathology. Cognitive reserve may allow for more flexible strategy usage, an ability thought to be captured by executive functions tasks. Additionally, cognitive reserve allows individuals greater neural efficiency, greater neural capacity, and the ability for compensation via the recruitment of additional brain regions. Taking cognitive reserve into account may allow for earlier detection and better characterization of age-related cognitive changes and Alzheimer’s disease. Importantly, cognitive reserve is not fixed but continues to evolve across the lifespan. Thus, even late-stage interventions hold promise to boost cognitive reserve and thus reduce the prevalence of Alzheimer’s disease and other age-related problems. PMID:21222591

Tucker, Adrienne M.; Stern, Yaakov

2011-01-01

184

San Diego County Reservation  

E-print Network

San Diego County Brenda Pisgah Iron Mountain Riverside East Imperial East Morongo Reservation) Reservation 60 95 95 95 115 San Diego Banning Yucca Valley Twentynine Palms Desert Hot Springs Palm Springs and Implement Agency-Specific Programs for Solar Energy Development San Francisco San Diego Los Angeles

Laughlin, Robert B.

185

Does requiring graded online homework improve physics exam performance?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a first experiment with using Mastering Physics in a first semester calculus-based course, homework and exam performance was tracked periodically during the semester. As expected, the use of novel technology (and its ability to track which students were persistently working at problem exercises) motivated many students to become more involved with work on assigned physics problems. Although there did appear to be a significant correlation between exam averages and homework scores in the upper half of the exam average distribution, individuals spanning the full range of exam averages (down to 45 percent) earned homework scores as high as those who had performed outstandingly well in exams. In this work, we present results and proposed plausible explanations for the apparent anomaly.

Chase, Norma

2012-02-01

186

Dr. Campbell's Bio111 Exam #3 Spring 2007 Spring 2007 Biology 111 Take Home Exam #3 BioEnergetics  

E-print Network

conditions not used in the study guide. If you have no oxygen but need energy (e.g. swimming away from with anyone until all exams are turned in at 10:30 am on Wednesday April 18. EXAMS ARE DUE AT CLASS TIME the evolution of chloroplasts and mitochondria. List 5 characteristics/traits they have in common, explain them

Campbell, A. Malcolm

187

Dr. Campbell's Bio111 Exam #4 Spring 2007 Biology 111 In-Class Exam #4 Cancer, HIV, & Genetic Engineering  

E-print Network

Dr. Campbell's Bio111 Exam #4 � Spring 2007 1 Biology 111 In-Class Exam #4 � Cancer, HIV, & Genetic may find the cure for cancer." 6 pts. 4) List all the molecules carried by HIV inside its capsid. #12

Campbell, A. Malcolm

188

Dr. Campbell's Bio111 Exam #4 Spring 2007 Biology 111 Take-Home Exam #4 Cancer, HIV, & Genetic Engineering  

E-print Network

Dr. Campbell's Bio111 Exam #4 ­ Spring 2007 1 Biology 111 Take-Home Exam #4 ­ Cancer, HIV, & Genetic Engineering There is no time limit on this test, though I have tried to design one that you should example for each type. 6 pts. 4) Here are some western blot data for a cancer patient. a. What is wrong

Campbell, A. Malcolm

189

Dr. Campbell's Bio111 Exam #2 Fall 2010 Biology 111 Closed Book Take-Home Exam #2 Evolution & Cells  

E-print Network

Dr. Campbell's Bio111 Exam #2 � Fall 2010 1 Biology 111 Closed Book Take-Home Exam #2 � Evolution & Cells There is no time limit on this test, though I have tried to design one that you should be able answers to a maximum of 6 sentences total. Propose a mechanism for the origin of primitive cells from

Campbell, A. Malcolm

190

Dr. Campbell's Bio111 Exam #2 Fall 2010 Biology 111 Closed Book Take-Home Exam #2 Evolution & Cells  

E-print Network

to a maximum of 6 sentences total. Propose a mechanism for the evolution of primitive cells from abioticDr. Campbell's Bio111 Exam #2 ­ Fall 2010 1 Biology 111 Closed Book Take-Home Exam #2 ­ Evolution & Cells There is no time limit on this test, though I have tried to design one that you should be able

Campbell, A. Malcolm

191

Review for Midterm Exam #1 Midterm Exam #1 will be given 1:30-2:20pm, on Wednesday, February  

E-print Network

, 2011, in class (Room C-141). It will be an open text book (Andrew S. Tanenbaum, Structured Computer their Exam Pads and their Exam Books when the time is up for the test. Chapters of the text to be reviewed: 1.1 Structured Computer Organization 1.2 Milestones in Computer Architecture 1.3 The Computer Zoo 1.4 Example

Grantner, Janos L.

192

Dr. Campbell's Bio111 Exam #2 Spring 2007 Spring 2007 Biology 111 In-Class Exam #2 Classical Genetics  

E-print Network

Lecture Questions: 6 pts. 2) List the mechanisms used in meiosis that result in diversity for the F1Dr. Campbell's Bio111 Exam #2 ­ Spring 2007 1 Spring 2007 Biology 111 In-Class Exam #2 ­ Classical are not allowed to use your notes, old tests, the internet, or any books, nor are you allowed to discuss the test

Campbell, A. Malcolm

193

Do Open-Book Exams Impede Long-Term Learning in Introductory Biology Courses?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students in an introductory biology course who were given open-book exams during the semester earned significantly higher grades on these exams, but significantly lower grades on the closed-book final exam, than students who took in-class, closed-book exams throughout the semester. Exam format was also associated with changes in academic behavior;…

Moore, Randy; Jensen, Philip A.

2007-01-01

194

National strategic petroleum reserve.  

PubMed

The Strategic Petroleum Reserve is intended to reduce the vulnerability of the United States to interruptions in the oil supply from foreign sources. Storage for 248 million barrels of crude oil in salt caverns and mines, with equipment for pumping and distribution, was constructed and operationally tested in a 4-year period. Its present inventory is the largest known crude oil reserve in the world. Facilities for expanding the reserve's capacity by another 290 million barrels are being developed by solution-mining in salt domes. PMID:17847458

Davis, R M

1981-08-01

195

Overseas trained doctors. How to prepare for a fellowship exam.  

PubMed

Exam preparation is a stressful time and everyone wants to prepare effectively to do as well as they can. It is a personal challenge that, successfully overcome, carries the reward of peer recognition and acceptance. However, for the overseas trained doctor it is not easy to write a fellowship exam when one is not sure either where or how to start, where to get help and resources, and how to proceed. I encountered many difficulties in preparing for the Fellowship of The Royal Australian College of General Practitioner (FRACGP) exam, and in overcoming these difficulties, thought the knowledge acquired may be useful to others facing the same task. PMID:15487372

Bhuiyan, A K M Fakhruzzaman

2004-09-01

196

Interpretation of Biosphere Reserves.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduces the Man and the Biosphere Programme (MAB) to monitor the 193 biogeographical provinces of the Earth and the creation of biosphere reserves. Highlights the need for interpreters to become familiar or involved with MAB program activities. (LZ)

Merriman, Tim

1994-01-01

197

Strategic Petroleum Reserve  

SciTech Connect

According to amendments to the Energy Policy and Conservation Act the target size of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve is increased to 1 billion barrels, storage of oil not owned by the Federal Government is authorized, and the Reserve may be drawn down to alleviate an interruption in domestic supply. Congress appropriated $200.6 million for Strategic Petroleum Reserve storage facilities development, operation, and management during FY 1991. During calendar year 1990, 9.8 million barrels of crude oil were acquired for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. However, this quantity was offset by the sale of 3.9 million barrels during a test sale of the Reserve's oil in the fourth quarter. As of December 31, 1990, the Strategic Petroleum Reserve crude oil inventory was 585.7 million barrels, a net increase of 5.8 million barrels over the 1989 year-end inventory of 579.9 million barrels. The Department has completed all major surface construction at the six SPR facilities, and cavern development is in progress to achieve 750 million barrels of storage by the end of 1991. During 1990, the Department of Energy conducted a test sale of Strategic Petroleum Reserve crude oil (TEST SALE-90) to demonstrate the Reserve's drawdown and distribution capabilities. The test commenced on September 28, 1990, with the issuance of a Notice of Sale. Offers to purchase the oil were received on October 5, 1990 and contracts were awarded to eleven companies for a total of 3.925 million barrels by October 18, 1990. Deliveries of the oil to the purchasers commenced on October 19, 1990, and all deliveries were completed by December 2, 1990. The report gives details on all of these activities. 8 figs., 11 tabs.

Not Available

1991-02-15

198

Do Open-Book Exams Impede Long-Term Learning in Introductory Biology Courses?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students in an introductory biology course who were given open-book exams during the semester earned significantly higher grades on these exams, but significantly lower grades on the closed-book final exam, than students who took in-class, closed-book exams throughout the semester. Exam format was also associated with changes in academic behavior; students who had upcoming open-book exams attended fewer lectures and help sessions and submitted fewer extra-credit assignments than students who had upcoming closed-book exams. These results suggest that open-book exams diminish long-term learning and promote academic behaviors that typify lower levels of academic achievement.

Jensen, Philip A.; Moore, Randy

2007-07-01

199

Review topics for 161 Exam 1 ! free fall motion  

E-print Network

Review topics for 161 Exam 1 Chapter 2 ! free fall motion ! Example 2.8 (parts a and b) Chapter 3 ! projectile motion ! no problems on relative velocity ! Example 3.8 Chapter 4 ! Newton's Second Law ! free

Glashausser, Charles

200

How to Study for Qualifying Exams SIAM Student Chapter  

E-print Network

look back over what you have written and fine tune it, you can be a much more exacting grader, and within it. For each exam you will probably need to adopt somewhat different strategies. Start early, plan

Maryland, Baltimore County, University of

201

Stat 231 Final Exam December 16, 1997 Professor Vardeman  

E-print Network

to this exam summarizes some data (collected by a student group) on the diameters of holes bored in certain and there is interest in estimating how much the holes bored in these housings actually vary in diameter (where

Vardeman, Stephen B.

202

Remedial Study plus Retake Exams Equals Better Grades.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes adaptation of the Retake System to larger lecture classes and tests the importance of remedial study in improving exam performance for 410 students enrolled in an interdisciplinary (chemistry, physics, and biology) science course for nonscience majors. (HM)

Van Winkle, Lon J.

1978-01-01

203

INDIVIDUAL REFORM ELEMENTS .63Average course exam score  

E-print Network

INDIVIDUAL REFORM ELEMENTS .63Average course exam score .11In class clicker score .02Lecture: · Correlations with effort/curricular elements are positive but not high, indicating no individual course reform

Colorado at Boulder, University of

204

Effects of tertiary MLC configuration on secondary neutron spectra from 18 MV x-ray beams for the Varian 21EX linear accelerator  

PubMed Central

The effect of the jaw configuration and the presence and configuration of the tertiary multileaf collimator (MLC) on the secondary neutron spectra for an 18 MV Varian 21EX linear accelerator (linac) is investigated in detail. The authors report the measured spectra for four collimator (jaw-and-MLC) configurations. These configurations represent the extreme settings of the jaws and MLC and should therefore describe the range of possible fluence and spectra that may be encountered during use of this linac. In addition to measurements, a Monte Carlo model was used to simulate the four collimator configurations and calculate the energy spectra and fluence at the same location as it was measured. The Monte Carlo model was also used to calculate the sources of neutron production in the linac head for each collimator configuration. They found that photoneutron production in the linac treatment head is dominated by the order in which the primary photon beam intercepts the high-Z material. The primary collimator, which has the highest position in the linac head (in a fixed location), is the largest source of secondary neutrons. Thereafter, the collimator configuration plays a role in where the neutrons originate. For instance, if the jaws are closed, they intercept the beam and contribute substantially to the secondary neutron production. Conversely, if the jaws are open, the MLC plays a larger role in neutron production (assuming, of course, that it intercepts the beam). They found that different collimator configurations make up to a factor of 2 difference in the ambient dose equivalent. PMID:19810476

Howell, Rebecca M.; Kry, Stephen F.; Burgett, Eric; Followill, David; Hertel, Nolan E.

2009-01-01

205

Supernormal functional reserve of apical segments in elite soccer players: an ultrasound speckle tracking handgrip stress study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Ultrasound speckle tracking from grey scale images allows the assessment of regional strain derived from 2D regardless of angle intonation, and it is highly reproducible. The study aimed to evaluate regional left ventricular functional reserve in elite soccer players. METHODS: 50 subjects (25 elite athletes and 25 sedentary controls), aged 26 ± 3.5, were submitted to an echo exam,

Laura Stefani; Loira Toncelli; Valentina Di Tante; Maria Concetta Roberta Vono; Brunello Cappelli; Gianni Pedrizzetti; Giorgio Galanti

2008-01-01

206

Some Observations about GA-Based Exam Timetabling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although many people have tried using genetic algorithms (GAs) for exam timetabling, far fewer have done systematic investigations\\u000a to try to determine whether a GA is a good choice of method or not. We have extensively studied GAs that use one particular\\u000a kind of direct encoding for exam timetabling. Perhaps not surprisingly, it emerges that this approach is not very

Peter Ross; Emma Hart; David Corne

1997-01-01

207

Again, Maryland Ranks #1 in Advanced Placement (AP) Exam Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For a second year in a row, Maryland ranked first nationwide in the percentage of public school students scoring 3 or higher on at least one AP (Advanced Placement) exam. A score of 3 or higher on the 5-point scale is considered mastery of college-level work. Maryland also continues to show strong gains in the number of students taking an AP exam,…

Maryland State Department of Education, 2010

2010-01-01

208

Are study strategies related to medical licensing exam performance?  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To examine the relationship between study strategies and performance on a high stakes medical licensing exam entitled the United States Medical Licensing Examination Step 1. Methods: The action research project included seventy nine student participants at the Texas A&M Health Science Center College of Medicine during their pre-clinical education. Data collection included pre-matriculation and matriculation academic performance data, standardized exam data, and the Learning and Study Strategies Instrument. Multiple regression analyses were conducted. For both models, the dependent variable was the Step 1 score, and the independent variables included Medical College Admission Test, Undergraduate Grade Point Average, Year 1 Average, Year 2 Average, Customized National Board of Medical Examiners Average, Comprehensive Basic Science Exam score, and Learning and Study Strategy Instrument sub-scores. Model 2 added Comprehensive Basic Science Self-Assessment average. Results: Concentration (Model 1 - ? = .264; Model 2 - ? = .254) was the only study strategy correlated with Step 1 performance. The other statistically significant predictors were Customized National Board of Medical Examiners Average (? = .315) and Year 2 Average (? = .280) in Model 1 and Comprehensive Basic Science Self-Assessment Average (? = .338) in Model 2. Conclusions: There does appear to be a relationship between the study strategy concentration and Step 1 licensing exam performance. Teaching students to practice and utilize certain techniques to improve concentration skills when preparing for and taking exams may help improve licensing exam scores. PMID:25362627

West, Courtney; Kurz, Terri; Smith, Sherry; Graham, Lori

2014-01-01

209

What provides cerebral reserve?  

PubMed

The cerebral reserve hypothesis is a heuristic concept used to explain apparent protection from the onset of cerebral disease and/or cognitive decline in old age. A significant obstacle when investigating the reserve hypothesis is the absence of baseline data with which to compare current cognitive status. We tested the influence of three hypothesized proxies of reserve (education, head size and occupational attainment [OCC]) in 92 volunteers born in 1921, whose cognitive function was measured at age 11 and 79 years, and who underwent brain MRI. The association between each proxy and old age cognitive function was tested, adjusting for variance contributed by childhood mental ability and detrimental age-related pathological changes measured using MRI. The results showed that education and OCC, but not total intracranial volume (TICV), contribute to cerebral reserve and help retain cognitive function in old age. Education was found to contribute between 5 and 6% of the variance found in old age memory function but was found to have no significant association with reasoning abilities. OCC was found to contribute around 5% of the variance found in old age memory function and between 6 and 8% of the variance found in old age reasoning abilities. We conclude that the intellectual challenges experienced during life, such as education and occupation, accumulate reserve and allow cognitive function to be maintained in old age. PMID:15047587

Staff, Roger T; Murray, Alison D; Deary, Ian J; Whalley, Lawrence J

2004-05-01

210

Federal Reserve Education  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Federal Reserve is the central bank of the United States, and there are twelve Federal Reserve districts that range from Hawaii to Maine. This website was created by the Federal Reserve to provide high-quality educational resources about economics, personal finance, public policy and other subjects to students and the general public. First-time visitors can peruse some of the videos on the homepage, find their Reserve district via an interactive map, and also learn about the history of colonial money. Educators can use the Find Resources area to look for items of note, and they can search by keyword, title, grade, topic, or document type. Some of the most compelling material can be found in the Games & Simulations area. Here visitors will find an economic literacy test and a fun game called "Show Business: The Economics of Entertainment." The site is rounded out by the Public Resources area, which includes links to material on public tours, economic indicators and other materials on the day-to-day activities of the Federal Reserve.

2012-06-08

211

Dr. Campbell's Bio111 Exam #2.5 Fall 2002 Fall 2002 Biology 111 Exam #2.5 -Molecular Genetics Half Exam  

E-print Network

, any electronic sources, any books, nor are you allowed to discuss the test with anyone until all exams the mode of inheritance for this disease. This is a sex-linked recessive disease and the recessive allele on the line below. For partial credit options, include any scrap paper you use. MR is a recessive disease

Campbell, A. Malcolm

212

Dr. Campbell's Bio111 In-Class Exam #2.5 Spring 2008 Spring 2008 Biology 111 Exam #2.5 -Molecular Genetics In-Class Exam  

E-print Network

, any electronic sources (except as directed by this exam), any books, nor are you allowed to discuss 2008 2 3 pts. 1) Draw a picture that illustrates the molecular cause for Huntington's disease. 5 pts. 2) Draw a picture of two lung cells, one with CF and one wild-type. In each picture, include mucus

Campbell, A. Malcolm

213

Dr. Campbell's Bio111 In-Class Exam #2.5 Spring 2008 Spring 2008 Biology 111 Exam #2.5 KEY -Molecular Genetics In-Class Exam  

E-print Network

, any electronic sources (except as directed by this exam), any books, nor are you allowed to discuss 2008 2 3 pts. 1) Draw a picture that illustrates the molecular cause for huntington's disease. Looking is too tight or protracted. 5 pts. 2) Draw a picture of two lung cells, one with CF and one wild

Campbell, A. Malcolm

214

Wetlands Reserve Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Recognizing that the health of the nation's wetlands depends on the fate of private (as well as public-owned) wetlands, the Wetlands Reserve Program is an important, voluntary initiative led by the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) to provide "technical and financial support" to help private landowners restore their wetlands. This straightforward site describes the Wetlands Reserve Program (WRP), including a map showing national WRP acreage, several question/ answer fact sheets, state programs and contacts, and a slide show (PowerPoint) entitled Producing Wildlife Habitat Results. Although the site targets the general public, students and educators will find it useful and instructive.

215

Going Green and Using Less Paper to Print Exams: Student Performance, Completion Time, and Preference  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two studies measured the impact on student exam performance and exam completion time of strategies aimed to reduce the amount of paper used for printing multiple-choice course exams. Study 1 compared single-sided to double-sided printed exams. Study 2 compared a single-column arrangement of multiple-choice answer options to a space (and paper)…

O'Connor, Kevin J.

2014-01-01

216

Exam 2: Effective Supply Management Performance Location: Rutgers University, (Building TBA)  

E-print Network

Exam 2: Effective Supply Management Performance Location: Rutgers University, (Building TBA) Date the content and organization of Exam 2: Effective Supply Management Performance of the Professional in Supply Management certification exam series. Each attendee will be provided a full set of Exam Study Guides

Lin, Xiaodong

217

The Coordinators of Psychiatric Education (COPE) Residency In-Training Exam: A Preliminary Psychometric Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The Coordinators of Psychiatric Education (COPE) Residency In-Training Exam is a formative exam for Canadian psychiatric residents that was reconstructed using assessment best practices. An assessment of psychometric properties was subsequently performed on the exam to ensure preliminary validity and reliability. Methods: An exam

Montgomery, Gregory P. J.; Crockford, David N.; Hecker, Kent

2010-01-01

218

Dalhousie Libraries Reserves Service Traditional In-Library Reserves  

E-print Network

number of students 4. Select the academic term 5. Select Fill-in the form for traditional In- Library Sexton Design & Technology Library Sandra Dwyer Mary MacDonald Amanda Sparks sandra.dwyer@dal.ca 494Dalhousie Libraries Reserves Service Traditional In-Library Reserves #12;Course Reserves Faculty

Dellaire, Graham

219

Astronomy and Cosmology -spring 2003 -final exam Take this exam on Friday 6 June 2003, and turn it in by 5 pm.  

E-print Network

Astronomy and Cosmology - spring 2003 - final exam Take this exam on Friday 6 June 2003, and turn (Sky), 3 (Moon), 4 (Gravity), 5 (Light), 18 (Sun), 28 (Cosmology) 5. How did you do on the quizzes? Did

220

Strategic Petroleum Reserve quarterly report  

SciTech Connect

This August 15, 1989, Strategic Petroleum Reserve Quarterly Report describes activities related to the site development, oil acquisition, budget and cost of the Reserve during the period April 1, 1989 through June 30, 1989.

Not Available

1989-08-15

221

Strategic petroleum reserve: Quarterly report  

SciTech Connect

This November 15, 1988, Strategic Petroleum Reserve Quarterly Report describes activities related to the site development, oil acquisition, budget and cost of the Reserve during the period July 1, 1988 through September 30, 1988.

Not Available

1988-11-15

222

Strategic petroleum reserve: Quarterly report  

SciTech Connect

This May 15, 1989, Strategic Petroleum Reserve Quarterly Report describes activities related to the site development, oil acquisition, budget and cost of the Reserve during the period January 1, 1989 through March 31, 1989.

Not Available

1989-05-15

223

Strategic Petroleum Reserve quarterly report  

SciTech Connect

The Strategic Petroleum Reserve Quarterly Report is submitted in accordance with section 165(b) of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act, as amended, which requires that the Secretary of Energy submit quarterly reports to Congress on Activities undertaken with respect to the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. This August 15, 1990, Strategic Petroleum Reserve Quarterly Report describes activities related to the site development, oil acquisition, budget and cost of the Reserve during the period April 1, 1990, through June 30, 1990. 3 tabs.

Not Available

1990-08-15

224

School Shootings Stun Reservation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article deals with the impact brought by the school shootings at Red Lake Indian Reservation in Minnesota to the school community. A deeply troubled 16-year-old student shot and killed seven other people and himself at a high school. The nation's deadliest school attack since the 1999 slayings at Colorado's suburban Columbine High School took…

Borja, Rhea R.; Cavanagh, Sean

2005-01-01

225

National Strategic Petroleum Reserve  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Strategic Petroleum Reserve is intended to reduce the vulnerability of the United States to interruptions in the oil supply from foreign sources. Storage for 248 million barrels of crude oil in salt caverns and mines, with equipment for pumping and distribution, was constructed and operationally tested in a 4-year period. Its present inventory is the largest known crude oil

R. M. Davis

1981-01-01

226

Strategic petroleum reserve expansion  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes SPR benefits and proposes a general paradigm for Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) decision-making. It presents two modeling approaches to the general decision problem, each simplifying the problem in a different way and offering a distinct perspective. The first is the Teisberg model approach, applying dynamic programming, and we present some recent numerical results on the value of

P. N. Leiby; R. Lee

1989-01-01

227

Washington: Hanford Nuclear Reservation  

... area around the Hanford Nuclear Reservation near Richland, Washington. On June 27, 2000, a fire in the dry sagebrush was sparked by an ... Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington, D.C. The Terra spacecraft is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight ...

2014-05-15

228

World Uranium Reserves  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This American Energy Independence website provides a brief overview of potential supplies of uranium for nuclear energy. The author, nuclear engineer James Hopf, believes that there are large reserves of uranium available, and that more will be discovered if needed. Links to literature cited and related resources are included.

Hopf, James; Independence, American E.

229

Electronic Reserve and Copyright.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the copyright implications of the practice in some academic libraries of converting reserve materials to electronic format to make more copies available to patrons. Issues considered include fair use, public display, remote availability, character of use, and substantiality of copying. (seven references/notes) (EA)

Jensen, Mary Brandt

1993-01-01

230

Using collaborative group exams to investigate students' ability to learn  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of our primary learning goals for our students is: we would like them to be able to learn physics on their own. Unfortunately few existing assessments can assess students' ability to learn without being taught. We are developing a new format of exam which challenges students to work together as a class to tackle a difficult problem that requires them to learn new physics. Rather than restrict their activities, we offer them a resource-rich environment of textbooks and internet access. Students are required to transfer their knowledge by answering a related question on a more standard "individual exam" two days later. In this paper we will discuss the format of the exams, background theory, and present evidence of how students are able to learn new physics on their own. Our results show that although students struggle at first, they do surprisingly well once they get used to the format.

Lin, Yuhfen; Brookes, David T.

2013-01-01

231

Student Health Plan Vision Coverage 2012 2013 Policy Year Student only may use the Vision Benefit to cover routine vision exam(s),  

E-print Network

Student Health Plan Vision Coverage 2012 ­ 2013 Policy Year Student only may use the Vision Benefit to cover routine vision exam(s), eyeglasses, and/or contact lens up to $300 per policy year. Vision Exams and prescription eyewear are subject to $15 co-pay. Present insurance card at the time of visit Clemson Area Vision

Stuart, Steven J.

232

The Efficacy of Final Examinations: A Comparative Study of Closed-Book, Invigilated Exams and Open-Book, Open-Web Exams  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educators have long debated the usefulness (or otherwise) of final examinations; a debate that has typically revolved around the relative merits of closed-book exams, open-book exams, take-home exams or their substitution by some other assessment format (e.g., project work). This paper adds a new dimension to the debate by considering how the…

Williams, Jeremy B.; Wong, Amy

2009-01-01

233

Reservation DOE/ORO/2204  

E-print Network

2 0 0 4 Reservation DOE/ORO/2204 Reservation #12;Justasthebeautifulredfox pupfocusesonthedandelion'sEnvironment--Today'sFocus ORRASER2004 ABOUTTHECOVER: #12;DOE/ORO/2204 Oak Ridge Reservation Annual Site Environmental Report Ridge National Laboratory East Tennessee Technology Park Electronic publisher Coordinating editor

Pennycook, Steve

234

Accuracy of ovarian reserve tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several tests predict ovarian reserve in women undergoing assess response to gonadotrophins and chances of conception. assisted reproductive technologies. However, the accuracy Unfortunately, all the above tests are indirect measurements of these tests in assessing the number of the remaining of ovarian reserve. Previous studies have assessed the role of follicles within the ovary (ovarian reserve) has not been these

Kutsal Yorukoglu; Cemal Posaci; Namik Demir; Oktay Erten

235

A final-exam comparison involving computer-based instruction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In an introductory classical mechanics course, the same final exams were given to 540 students taught in the usual way and to 486 students who received computer-based instruction. All students scored better on problems which had been made up by their own lecturer. Students in the computer-based course scored better overall. These statistically significant results are of interest not only for comparing the two forms of instruction but also for their implications on the use of exam scores for such comparisons.

Jones, Lorella; Kane, Dennis; Avner, R. A.; Sherwood, Bruce

2005-10-27

236

Strategic Petroleum Reserve quarterly report  

SciTech Connect

The Strategic Petroleum Reserve Quarterly Report is submitted in accordance with section 165(b) of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act, as amended, which requires that the Secretary of Energy submit quarterly reports to Congress on activities undertaken with respect to the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Since the Strategic Petroleum Reserve crude oil storage facilities program for the 750 million barrels was completed in 1991, this November 15, 1992, Strategic Petroleum Reserve Quarterly Report focuses on activities related primarily to the status of storage facilities, oil acquisition, budget and costs of the Reserve during the period July 1, 1992, through September 30, 1992.

Not Available

1992-11-15

237

UNC Charlotte 2013 Algebra Exam March 4, 2013  

E-print Network

UNC Charlotte 2013 Algebra Exam March 4, 2013 1. Mystery gifts are offered for sale in boxes, bags needs the edges for the cube. A big sign says edges are on sale for 2 ISD (interstellar dollar) each evenly and apologized to Ms Blue for messing things up. Certainly, at least one of them lost money. Did

Reiter, Harold

238

The Dead Grandmother/Exam Syndrome and the Potential Downfall  

E-print Network

;tension that presumably causes premature death. Since such behavior is most likely to result in high blood 1, when no exam is imminent the family death rate per 100 students (FDR) is low and is not related pressure, leading to stroke and heart attacks, this would also explain why these deaths seem to occur so

Lee, Dongwon

239

Spanish-English Verbatim Translation Exam. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The development and validation of the Spanish-English Verbatim Translation Exam (SEVTE) is described. The test is for use by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) in the selection of applicants for the positions of Language Specialist or Contract Linguist. The report is divided into eight sections. Section 1 describes the need for the test,…

Stansfield, Charles W.; And Others

240

Cognitive-behavioral treatment for exam phobia: Single case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports a single clinical case study on the effectiveness of Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment (CBT) in treating exam phobia in a local health psychology clinic. P.M., a 16 year old female complained of tension, trembling, frequently going to the toilet, sleeping difficulties, heart palpitations, poor appetite, tried and unable to concentrated during the examination period until the results came out.

S. Ponnusamy; M. Raynuha; Jalan Yaacob Latif; Bandar Tun Razak

241

Case Based Heuristic Selection for Exam Timetabling Problems  

E-print Network

1 1 Case Based Heuristic Selection for Exam Timetabling Problems Rong Qu ASAP Group, School of CSi Timetabling 2 Content n Introduction n Case based reasoning n Timetabling problems n Objective/motivation n for Examination Timetabling 3 Introduction - Case-based reasoning (CBR) Case-Based Heuristic Selection

Qu, Rong

242

Study Questions for Exam 2: Population Genetics, Evolution, and Speciation  

E-print Network

1 Study Questions for Exam 2: Population Genetics, Evolution, and Speciation Conservation Biology some. This is intended to give you something to think about and not be an exhaustive study guide. Also please note that this is not a list of terminology ­ you should know all terms for the reading and class

Prestwich, Ken

243

Stat 447 Final Exam May 6, 2002 Prof. Vardeman  

E-print Network

in Moore's Basic Practice of Statistics gives heating degree days ix and natural gas consumption iy (in 1001 Stat 447 Final Exam May 6, 2002 Prof. Vardeman 1. An example in Moore's Basic Practice of Statistics concerns the deterioration of synthetic fiber when buried in a landfill. A total of 10 strips

Vardeman, Stephen B.

244

Assessment in undergraduate medical education: a review of course exams  

PubMed Central

Introduction The purpose of this study is to describe an approach for evaluating assessments used in the first 2 years of medical school and report the results of applying this method to current first and second year medical student examinations. Methods Three faculty members coded all exam questions administered during the first 2 years of medical school. The reviewers discussed and compared the coded exam questions. During the bi-monthly meetings, all differences in coding were resolved with consensus as the final criterion. We applied Moore's framework to assist the review process and to align it with National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME) standards. Results The first and second year medical school examinations had 0% of competence level questions. The majority, more than 50% of test questions, were at the NBME recall level. Conclusion It is essential that multiple-choice questions (MCQs) test the attitudes, skills, knowledge, and competency in medical school. Based on our findings, it is evident that our exams need to be improved to better prepare our medical students for successful completion of NBME step exams. PMID:23469935

Vanderbilt, Allison A.; Feldman, Moshe; Wood, Isaac K.

2013-01-01

245

Page 1 of 3 Field Exam: Air-Breathing Propulsion  

E-print Network

Page 1 of 3 Field Exam: Air-Breathing Propulsion The Cambridge-MIT `silent aircraft' has engines only the drag associated with the airframe boundary layers. A) In case A, below, the engine ingests air and exit of the fan is axial. The fan pressure rise and all relevant velocities in the problem are small

de Weck, Olivier L.

246

Using Oral Exams to Assess Communication Skills in Business Courses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Business, like many other fields in higher education, continues to rely largely on conventional testing methods for assessing student learning. In the current article, another evaluation approach--the oral exam--is examined as a means for building and evaluating the professional communication and oral dialogue skills needed and utilized by…

Burke-Smalley, Lisa A.

2014-01-01

247

State High School Tests: Exit Exams and Other Assessments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since 2002, the Center on Education Policy (CEP), an independent nonprofit organization, has been studying state high school exit examinations--tests students must pass to receive a high school diploma. This is CEP's ninth annual report on exit exams. The information in this report comes from several sources: CEP's survey of states that have…

Dietz, Shelby

2010-01-01

248

Cheating on Exams: The Case of Israeli Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The phenomenon of cheating on exams, which harms both the reputation of an academic institution and the students who don't cheat, is becoming increasingly common. We attempt to shed light on this phenomenon using data from a survey of graduates of the College of Management Academic Studies in Israel. Three aspects of the problem are examined:…

Siniver, Erez

2013-01-01

249

Cheating: A Problem with Take-Home Exams?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using multiple choice tests and a statistical method designed to identify flagrant cheaters, the authors undertook to determine (1) the magnitude of cheating on take-home and open-book exams; (2) whether the amount of cheating varied according to three types of examinations (closed-book, open-book or take-home); and (3) if cheating was affected by…

Weber, Larry J.; McBee, Janice K.

250

Study questions for Exam 2 What causes the coriolis effect?  

E-print Network

Study questions for Exam 2 What causes the coriolis effect? How does the coriolis effect vary in the very middle of a high-pressure center? What causes monsoons in India? Read a weather map. Indicate directions of airflow. Where is it likely to rain? Why? What causes an onshore breeze? What is the energy

Shull, David H.

251

Updated August 2012 DEB Qualifying Exam Guidelines for DEB Faculty  

E-print Network

on the students PhD Qualifying exam should question the student on topics related to material covered in MCB 263 MCB 263 curriculum A. Molecular Biology: Expression of Recombinant Proteins of Medical, Industrial. 2. Strategies for optimizing recombinant protein expression 3. Addressing issues of post

Ferrara, Katherine W.

252

Math 365-501 Exam 3 April 17, 2009  

E-print Network

Math 365-501 Exam 3 April 17, 2009 S. Witherspoon Name There are 9 questions, for a total of 100, and c, if ac = bc, then a = b. (b) For all integers a and b, |a + b| = |a| + |b|. (c) For all integers a numbers a, b, and c, ab + bc b = a + c. 5 #12;

Witherspoon, Sarah

253

ORAL QUALIFYING EXAM SYLLABUS DESCRIPTIVE SET THEORY; CLASSICAL GROUPS  

E-print Network

ORAL QUALIFYING EXAM SYLLABUS DESCRIPTIVE SET THEORY; CLASSICAL GROUPS SCOTT SCHNEIDER Classical Descriptive Set Theory · Basic Set Theory (Jech 1-8). Polish and Standard Borel Spaces. · Basic definitions Theorem for analytic sets. 1 #12;2 SCOTT SCHNEIDER Geometry of the Classical Groups. Chapters 1-5, 7

254

ORAL QUALIFYING EXAM SYLLABUS DESCRIPTIVE SET THEORY; CLASSICAL GROUPS  

E-print Network

ORAL QUALIFYING EXAM SYLLABUS DESCRIPTIVE SET THEORY; CLASSICAL GROUPS SCOTT SCHNEIDER Classical Descriptive Set Theory #15; Basic Set Theory (Jech 1-8). Polish and Standard Borel Spaces. #15; Basic de#12; 2 SCOTT SCHNEIDER Geometry of the Classical Groups. Chapters 1-5, 7-8 of Taylor. #15; Group Actions

255

Physics 228 -Second Common Hour Exam March 26, 2006  

E-print Network

the answer to a question, you should make an educated guess. At the end of the exam, hand in the answer sheet increases with increasing photon frequency. 3. An astronaunt travels from the earth to a star 4.8 light years away (as seen by an observer on the earth). Then he returns to the earth. His outbound and return

Coleman, Piers

256

AME 436, 2nd Midterm Exam Study Guide  

E-print Network

:20 PM. Material covered The exam may cover any material through the end of section on Unsteady Flow at 0.05 MPa (0.5 earth atmospheres) total pressure at a temperature of 250K. Deep underground compression ratio and rotation rate) on earth burning a stoichiometric methane + earth air mixture? Or would

257

Graduate School Report on Qualifying Exam/Request for Applicancy  

E-print Network

Graduate School Report on Qualifying Exam/Request for Applicancy Submit typed original and one copy to be taken Total I hereby petition the Graduate School for admission for applicancy __________________________________ ________________________________ Graduate Coordinator Date Department Chair Date Dean of the Graduate School Date Years of residence

Kulp, Mark

258

TAKE HOME EXAM "USE OF STATISTICS IN COURT January 2011  

E-print Network

TAKE HOME EXAM "USE OF STATISTICS IN COURT CASES" January 2011 Exercise 1. Consider the following: A report (Nov 10) comparing moral values in Britain and the United States omitted a note making clear case. Exercise 5. One of the lessons we have learned from the Sally Clark case is that the bare fact

Meester, Ronald

259

State High School Exit Exams: A Policy in Transition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since 2002, the Center on Education Policy (CEP) at The George Washington University, a national advocate for public education and improving public schools, has been studying state high school exit examinations--tests students must pass to receive a high school diploma. This year marks the 11th year CEP has reported on exit exams in order to help…

McIntosh, Shelby

2012-01-01

260

The New AP Chemistry Exam: Its Rationale, Content, and Scoring  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 2013-2014 academic year marks the rollout of the redesigned advanced placement (AP) chemistry course and exam. There have been many questions as to why the course was redesigned and how the new examination will differ from its legacy version. In this article we give a brief overview of the legacy course and examine why a redesign occurred in…

Price, Paul D.; Kugel, Roger W.

2014-01-01

261

Strategic Petroleum Reserve  

SciTech Connect

The Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) facilities development for the authorized 750 million barrel program was completed in 1991. Expansion of the SPR's offsite commercial distribution capacity to 4.3 million barrels per day is in progress. During calendar year 1991, the SPR's crude oil storage capacity increased by 61 million barrels with the completion of caverns at the Big Hill and Bayou Choctaw sites. On January 16, 1991, in conjunction with the beginning of Operation Desert Storm, President Bush ordered a drawdown and distribution of Strategic Petroleum Reserve oil as part of a coordinated contingency plan agreed to by member countries of the International Energy Agency. The Department successfully conducted the drawdown during the period January 17 through March 31 and delivered a total of 17.2 million barrels of crude oil to 13 purchasers. There were no crude oil deliveries to the SPR during the year ending December 31, 1991. Acquisition of crude oil for the Reserve has been suspended since August 2, 1990, following the invasion of Kuwait by Iraq. As of December 31, 1991, the SPR inventory was 568.5 million barrels.

Not Available

1992-02-17

262

Dr. Campbell's Bio111 Exam #3 Spring 2008 Spring 2008 Biology 111 In-Class Exam #3 BioEnergetics  

E-print Network

. Campbell's Bio111 Exam #3 ­ Spring 2008 3 3 pts. 5) In the presence of oxygen, eukaryotic yeast cells organisms extract more or less energy than bacterial cells do that only catabolize glucose via cellular respiration? Explain your answer in two sentences or less. 7 pts. 6) Draw a picture that tracks the movement

Campbell, A. Malcolm

263

Dr. Campbell's Bio111 Exam #4 Fall 2002 Fall 2002 Biology 111 Exam #4 Cancer, HIV and Final Roundup  

E-print Network

in the resulting cell. 8 pts. 5) a) Why is it difficult to demonstrate that a virus caused a particular patient's cancer? b) If you knew one virus was associated with causing the patient's type of cancer, design an experiment to determine if this virus is a provirus in the cancer. #12;Dr. Campbell's Bio111 Exam #4 ­ Fall

Campbell, A. Malcolm

264

The Role of End-of-Course Exams and Minimum Competency Exams in Standards-Based Reforms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the authors looked at the effects of one old-style educational reform--higher course graduation requirements--and five standard-based reforms--(1) school report cards; (2) rewards for school improvement; (3) sanctions for failing schools; (4) minimum competency examinations; and (5) hybrid minimum competency exam

Bishop, John H.; Mane, Ferran; Bishop, Michael; Moriarty, Joan Y.

2001-01-01

265

Strategic Petroleum Reserve quarterly report  

SciTech Connect

This August 15, 1991, Strategic Petroleum Reserve Quarterly Report describes activities related to the site development, oil acquisition, budget and cost of the Reserve during the period April 1, 1991, through June 30, 1991. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve storage facilities development program is proceeding on schedule. The Reserve's capacity is currently 726 million barrels. A total of 5.5 million barrels of new gross cavern volume was developed at Big Hill and Bayou Choctaw during the quarter. There were no crude oil deliveries to the Strategic Petroleum Reserve during the calendar quarter ending June 30, 1991. Acquisition of crude oil for the Reserve has been suspended since August 2, 1990, following the invasion of Kuwait by Iraq. As of June 30, 1991, the Strategic Petroleum Reserve inventory was 568.5 million barrels. The reorganization of the Office of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve became effective June 28, 1991. Under the new organization, the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Project Management Office in Louisiana will report to the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Program Office in Washington rather than the Oak Ridge Field Office in Tennessee. 2 tabs.

Not Available

1991-08-15

266

Application for admission to exam Please register online! Use this form only if registering online is not possible.  

E-print Network

Application for admission to exam Please register online! Use this form only if registering online is not possible. Matrikelnummer: Name, first name: Study programme: Final degree: Phone: E-mail: Date, Signature: Exam no./exam name: Exam date: Time: Examiner: Signature of examiner: (with oral exams only) yes no

Pfeifer, Holger

267

Strategic Petroleum Reserve quarterly report  

SciTech Connect

The Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) was created to reduce the impact of disruptions in petroleum supplies and to carry out obligations of the United States under the Agreement on an International Energy Program. This May 15, 1990, Strategic Petroleum Reserve Quarterly Report describes activities related to the site development, oil acquisition, budget and cost of the Reserve during the period January 1, 1990 through March 31, 1990. 3 tabs.

Not Available

1990-05-15

268

Investigating the Effects of Exam Length on Performance and Cognitive Fatigue  

PubMed Central

This study examined the effects of exam length on student performance and cognitive fatigue in an undergraduate biology classroom. Exams tested higher order thinking skills. To test our hypothesis, we administered standard- and extended-length high-level exams to two populations of non-majors biology students. We gathered exam performance data between conditions as well as performance on the first and second half of exams within conditions. We showed that lengthier exams led to better performance on assessment items shared between conditions, possibly lending support to the spreading activation theory. It also led to greater performance on the final exam, lending support to the testing effect in creative problem solving. Lengthier exams did not result in lower performance due to fatiguing conditions, although students perceived subjective fatigue. Implications of these findings are discussed with respect to assessment practices. PMID:23950918

Jensen, Jamie L.; Berry, Dane A.; Kummer, Tyler A.

2013-01-01

269

Copyright 2012 The City University of New York CUNY Elementary Algebra Final Exam  

E-print Network

Copyright © 2012 The City University of New York CUNY Elementary Algebra Final Exam Problem Sets Algebra Final Exam Format: 25 multiple choice questions (4 choices each) Students will have 100 minutes

Qiu, Weigang

270

ExamSoft Instructions: Mac How to download SofTest for Mac  

E-print Network

ExamSoft Instructions: Mac How to download SofTest for Mac For best performance, complete the disclaimer. 6. Click Save File. This file will save to the browser Downloads. #12;ExamSoft Instructions: Mac

271

Strategic petroleum reserve expansion  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes SPR benefits and proposes a general paradigm for Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) decision-making. It presents two modeling approaches to the general decision problem, each simplifying the problem in a different way and offering a distinct perspective. The first is the Teisberg model approach, applying dynamic programming, and we present some recent numerical results on the value of SPR capacity expansion. The shortcomings of the Teisberg approach are then highlighted, motivating the application of an alternative modeling method. We use the second modeling method, called the Hogan-Leiby Risk Analysis model, to obtain some comparative results on SPR expansion benefits. 6 refs., 7 figs.

Leiby, P.N.; Lee, R. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

1989-01-01

272

Does the Number of Hours Studied Affect Exam Performance?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article describes a study in which the number of hours that students studied (determined by askng them) was examined to see how it affected exam performance. The study covered two courses at different institutions over a total of six semesters. Using the overall exam averages and regression analysis, the researchers calculated that students needed to invest from 3.0 to 4.4 hours to earn an average score and from 4.5 to 6.4 hours to earn an A (90 percent or 45 points out of 50) on average. In addition, they determined that the ratio of hours studied to lecture hours needed to earn a score of 90 percent ranged from 1.5 to 2.1 hours with a mean of 1.7, less than the "Carnegie Rule" of 2 hours of outside study time per week for each course credit (where a course credit is equivalent to 1 hour of lecture).

Barbarick, K.

273

Using Collaborative Group Exams to Investigate Studentsâ Ability to Learn  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

One of our primary learning goals for our students is: we would like them to be able to learn physics on their own. Unfortunately few existing assessments can assess studentsâ ability to learn without being taught. We are developing a new format of exam which challenges students to work together as a class to tackle a difficult problem that requires them to learn new physics. Rather than restrict their activities, we offer them a resource-rich environment of textbooks and internet access. Students are required to transfer their knowledge by answering a related question on a more standard âindividual examâ two days later. In this paper we will discuss the format of the exams, background theory, and present evidence of how students are able to learn new physics on their own. Our results show that although students struggle at first, they do surprisingly well once they get used to the format.

Lin, Yuhfen; Brookes, David T.

2014-02-19

274

MATH 052: INTRODUCTION TO PROOFS REVIEW, EXAM #1  

E-print Network

MATH 052: INTRODUCTION TO PROOFS REVIEW, EXAM #1 SOLUTIONS Problem 1. Give the truth table for Q is in the form P Q. Write each of the corresponding statements and determine their truth value. (a) Q P. (b) Q, but nothing you can't handle!). First suppose A B = A; we show that B A. Let x B. Then x A B. Since A B

Voight, John

275

AME 101, Fall 2013 Midterm exam #1 review  

E-print Network

or need more space, use the back sides of the pages. Problem #1 (units) (30 points total, 10 points each change of the water is given by mass � CP � T where CP = 4.184 Joule gram°C is the heat capacity of water't really ask you about this on an in-class exam...) #12;First midterm from 2011 (the problems should look

276

How Does Student Performance on Formative Assessments Relate to Learning Assessed by Exams?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A retrospective analysis examines the relationships between formative assessments and exam grades in two undergraduate geoscience courses. Pair and group-work grades correlate weakly with individual exam grades. Exam performance correlates to individual, weekly online assessments. Student attendance and use of assessment feedback are also essential factors.

Smith, Gary

2007-07-01

277

C:\\Documents and Settings\\Dennis\\Desktop\\Exam Typing Instructions.doc  

E-print Network

C:\\Documents and Settings\\Dennis\\Desktop\\Exam Typing Instructions.doc Page 1 of 4 Examinations BY HAND to - Examinations Office, Student Centre, Level 3 Jane Foss Russell Building G02 (Sign on the front page of the exam typescript. #12;C:\\Documents and Settings\\Dennis\\Desktop\\Exam Typing Instructions

Viglas, Anastasios

278

The use of standardized patients for mock oral board exams in neurology: a pilot study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Mock oral board exams, fashioned after the live patient hour of the American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology exam, are commonly part of resident assessment during residency training. Exams using real patients selected from clinics or hospitals are not standardized and do not allow comparisons of resident performance across the residency program. We sought to create a standardized patient

Brett Kissela; Steven Harris; Dawn Kleindorfer; Christopher Lindsell; Robert Pascuzzi; Daniel Woo; Jerzy Szaflarski; Daniel Kanter; Alex Schneider; Michael Sostok; Joseph Broderick

2006-01-01

279

Assessing Conceptual and Algorithmic Knowledge in General Chemistry with ACS Exams  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2005, the ACS Examinations Institute released an exam for first-term general chemistry in which items are intentionally paired with one conceptual and one traditional item. A second-term, paired-questions exam was released in 2007. This paper presents an empirical study of student performances on these two exams based on national samples of…

Holme, Thomas; Murphy, Kristen

2011-01-01

280

ON THE EFFECT OF THE ORDERING OF QUESTIONS IN EXAMS | A VISUAL ANALYSIS  

E-print Network

di cult) exam questions until the very end? As it turned out, many students answer exam questions (easier material discussed early in the semester being assessed rst, and more di cult material dis- cussed. One of the examsappeared far more di cult than the other exam because several of the more di cult

Symanzik, Jürgen

281

Multiple-Choice and Short-Answer Exam Performance in a College Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors experimentally investigated the effects of multiple-choice and short-answer format exam items on exam performance in a college classroom. They randomly assigned 50 students to take a 10-item short-answer pretest or posttest on two 50-item multiple-choice exams in an introduction to personality course. Students performed significantly…

Funk, Steven C.; Dickson, K. Laurie

2011-01-01

282

Exam and units for UCSD course university credit (or use on major)  

E-print Network

of focus. A exam: 2 units of elective credit; score of 4 on AB exam: · A (Java Programming)--2 Score of 5 on AB exam meets · AB (Java Programming, and Data Structures and Object-Oriented Programming--4 Score

283

Effects of the Implementation of State-Wide Exit Exams on Students' Self-Regulated Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Whereas several studies investigated the effects of implementation of state-wide exit exams on student achievement, there is still little known about the impacts of the exams on students' self-regulated learning. This paper examines the question as to whether the implementation of state-wide high school exit exams is associated with a change in…

Merki, Katharina Maag

2011-01-01

284

Combined Online and In-Class Pretesting Improves Exam Performance in General Psychology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the effect of distributed questioning on learning and retention in a college lecture course. A total of 48 question pairs were presented over four exams. The 16 question pairs associated with each of the three blocks of the course appeared on the block exams, and all 48 appeared on the final exam. The two questions in each pair…

Glass, Arnold Lewis; Brill, Gary; Ingate, Margaret

2008-01-01

285

Test Anxiety Anxiety during an exam is perfectly normal. But if anxiety severely affects your  

E-print Network

Test Anxiety Anxiety during an exam is perfectly normal. But if anxiety severely affects your Test Anxiety. This problem needs to be dealt with in a professional way. If you "blank out" during exams, please seek professional help. How to reduce levels of anxiety: Prepare for your exam

Shihadeh, Alan

286

Characteristics of North Sea oil reserve appreciation  

E-print Network

In many petroleum basins, and especially in more mature areas, most reserve additions consist of the growth over time of prior discoveries, a phenomenon termed reserve appreciation. This paper concerns crude oil reserve ...

Watkins, G. C.

2000-01-01

287

21 CFR 211.170 - Reserve samples.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Reserve samples. 211.170 Section 211.170 Food...Laboratory Controls § 211.170 Reserve samples. (a) An appropriately identified reserve sample that is representative of each lot in...

2012-04-01

288

21 CFR 211.170 - Reserve samples.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Reserve samples. 211.170 Section 211.170 Food...Laboratory Controls § 211.170 Reserve samples. (a) An appropriately identified reserve sample that is representative of each lot in...

2013-04-01

289

Estimation of resource and reserves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The economics of resource and reserve estimation are analyzed. The economic theory of natural resources and exhaustible resources are discussed. The measurement of already discovered deposits, undiscovered deposits, coal resource and reserve estimation, uranium, and a cumulative cost curve are also discussed.

Adelman, M. A.; Houghton, J. C.; Kaufman, G.; Zimmerman, M.

1982-03-01

290

Uranium: where are the reserves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The total non-communist world uranium reserve is about two million tons, but large portions of this are producible at very low rates. The U. S., with only 12 percent of the reserves, accounts for 50 percent of current production, will account for 40 percent of production by 1980, and thereafter will decline rapidly as a producer without major additions to

1976-01-01

291

Operating Reserves and Variable Generation  

SciTech Connect

This report tries to first generalize the requirements of the power system as it relates to the needs of operating reserves. It also includes a survey of operating reserves and how they are managed internationally in system operations today and then how new studies and research are proposing they may be managed in the future with higher penetrations of variable generation.

Ela, E.; Milligan, M.; Kirby, B.

2011-08-01

292

Greenhouse effect and nature reserves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global warming would diminish biological diversity by causing extinctions among reserve species. Patterns of climatic change are discussed, including global patterns of surface temperature increase, as predicted by the Goddard Institute for Space Studies, and global changes in moisture patterns. The concept of biological reserves (essentially the same concept as biological refugia) is discussed, and the effect of climatic changes

Robert L. Peters; Joan D. S. Darling

1985-01-01

293

Modelling Federal Reserve Discount Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We employ threshold cointegration methodology to model the policy problem solved by the Federal Reserve System in their manipulation of the discount rate under a reserves target operating procedure utilized since October 1979. The infrequent and discrete adjustments that characterize movements in the discount rate instrument vis-a- vis the Federal Funds rate do not lend themselves to a linear cointegration

Christopher F. Baum; Meral Karasulu

1996-01-01

294

Modelling Federal Reserve Discount Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We employ threshold cointegration methodology to model the policy problem solved by the Federal Reserve System in their manipulation of the discount rate under a reserves target operating procedure utilized since October 1979. The infrequent and discrete adjustments that characterize movements in the discount rate instrument vis-a-vis the Federal Funds rate do not lend themselves to a linear cointegration framework.

Christopher F. Baum; Meral Karasulu

1998-01-01

295

Modelling Federal Reserve Discount Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We employ threshold cointegration methodology to model the policy problem solved by the Federal Reserve System in their manipulation of the discount rate under a reserves target operating procedure utilized since October 1979. The infrequent and discrete adjustments that characterize movements in the discount rate instrument vis-a-vis the Federal Funds rate do not lend themselves to a linear cointegration framework.

Christopher F. Baum; Meral Karasulu

1997-01-01

296

Strategic petroleum reserves in Maine  

Microsoft Academic Search

An evaluation was made to determine if the State of Maine should develop a State petroleum storage reserve to protect its economic and social vitality against future petroleum shortages. The requirements for residual oil are delineated and alternate storage options are described. The adequacy of the National Strategic Petroleum Reserve Program (S.P.R.) as a tool for alleviating shortfalls of residual

Tibbetts

1977-01-01

297

Strategic petroleum reserve quarterly report  

SciTech Connect

This Strategic Petroleum Reserve Quarterly Report describes activities related to the site development, oil acquisition, budget and cost of the Reserve during the period January 1, 1991, through March 31, 1991. A special section is also included discussing the January 1991 drawdown and distribution of crude oil. 8 tabs.

Not Available

1991-05-15

298

Oak Ridge Reservation Annual Site  

E-print Network

Oak Ridge Reservation Annual Site Environmental Report DOE/ORO/2445 2012 #12;Cover Image Jeff Riggs Annual Site Environmental Report 2012 #12;DOE/ORO/2445 Oak Ridge Reservation Annual Site Environmental Complex Oak Ridge National Laboratory East Tennessee Technology Park Electronic publisher Editors Graphic

Pennycook, Steve

299

A real-time dynamic-MLC control algorithm for delivering IMRT to targets undergoing 2D rigid motion in the beam's eye view  

SciTech Connect

An MLC control algorithm for delivering intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) to targets that are undergoing two-dimensional (2D) rigid motion in the beam's eye view (BEV) is presented. The goal of this method is to deliver 3D-derived fluence maps over a moving patient anatomy. Target motion measured prior to delivery is first used to design a set of planned dynamic-MLC (DMLC) sliding-window leaf trajectories. During actual delivery, the algorithm relies on real-time feedback to compensate for target motion that does not agree with the motion measured during planning. The methodology is based on an existing one-dimensional (1D) algorithm that uses on-the-fly intensity calculations to appropriately adjust the DMLC leaf trajectories in real-time during exposure delivery [McMahon et al., Med. Phys. 34, 3211-3223 (2007)]. To extend the 1D algorithm's application to 2D target motion, a real-time leaf-pair shifting mechanism has been developed. Target motion that is orthogonal to leaf travel is tracked by appropriately shifting the positions of all MLC leaves. The performance of the tracking algorithm was tested for a single beam of a fractionated IMRT treatment, using a clinically derived intensity profile and a 2D target trajectory based on measured patient data. Comparisons were made between 2D tracking, 1D tracking, and no tracking. The impact of the tracking lag time and the frequency of real-time imaging were investigated. A study of the dependence of the algorithm's performance on the level of agreement between the motion measured during planning and delivery was also included. Results demonstrated that tracking both components of the 2D motion (i.e., parallel and orthogonal to leaf travel) results in delivered fluence profiles that are superior to those that track the component of motion that is parallel to leaf travel alone. Tracking lag time effects may lead to relatively large intensity delivery errors compared to the other sources of error investigated. However, the algorithm presented is robust in the sense that it does not rely on a high level of agreement between the target motion measured during treatment planning and delivery.

McMahon, Ryan; Berbeco, Ross; Nishioka, Seiko; Ishikawa, Masayori; Papiez, Lech [School of Health Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Division of Medical Physics, Dana-Farber/Brigham and Women's Cancer Center and Harvard Medical School, 75 Francis Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States); NTT East-Japan Sapporo Hospital, Sapporo (Japan); Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo (Japan); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas-Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75390 (United States)

2008-09-15

300

Electrochemical reserve battery  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an electrochemical reserve battery comprising in combination: a housing including a separating wall forming two sealed chambers; a stack of dry cells disposed in one of the chambers; an expandable container occupying a portion of the space within the other of the chambers; an electrolyte completely filling the unoccupied space at a pressure sufficient to collapse the container; a source of high pressure gas within the container; frangible means operatively connected between the source and the container for releasing the gas into the container at a preselected expansion thereof; and actuating means operatively connected to the separating wall for selectively establishing communication between the chambers for permitting the electrolyte to transfer to the cells.

Koper, K.T.; Willard, S.L.; Abramowski, L.

1987-09-22

301

Federal Reserve Rate Cuts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This week's In the News chronicles recent Federal Reserve Board decisions to lower interest rates. The eleven resources discussed provide news, opinion, and consumer information on the FRB BOG action. Following the first US interest rate cut in three years on September 29, 1998, FED Chairman Alan Greenspan caught fire from Wall Street. "Traders were disappointed" in the mere quarter point drop, according to Time business reporter Bernard Baumohl, but "Greenspan will have to make do with the gratitude of the rest of the world." Although the DOW initially fell 54 points Tuesday, a second 0.25% cut to short-term interest rates on October 15, 1998 sent stocks soaring 330 points--the third largest one-day point gain in history. Analysts now hope that US investor optimism--coupled with IMF and World Bank action in Brazil, Russia, and Asia--will ease the world-wide economic crises.

Waters, Megan.

1998-01-01

302

Investigating the Variables in a Mock Exam Study Session Designed to Improve Student Exam Performance in an Undergraduate Behavior Modification and Therapy Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the present study was to identify components of an optional mock exam review session (e.g. requiring students to write answers, providing students grading keys for questions) responsible for improvements in student performance on application-based short-essay exams in an undergraduate behavior modification course. Both…

Dotson, Wesley H.

2010-01-01

303

77 FR 21846 - Reserve Requirements of Depository Institutions: Reserves Simplification  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...creates a penalty-free band around reserve balance requirements in place of carryover and...and eliminates the contractual clearing balance program. The amendments are designed...Regulation D currently, transaction account balances maintained at each depository...

2012-04-12

304

National Estuarine Research Reserve System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Established in 1972 through the Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA), the National Estuarine Research Reserve System (NERR) is a network of protected areas representing different types of estuaries and biogeographic regions. Operated by coastal states with input from local communities and regional groups, NERR studies address coastal watershed management issues. The homepage provides an overview of the NERR System with links to specific information on (most) reserves, detailed case studies on six focal reserves, publications and research resources, educational materials, and links to related resources.

305

Library Reserved Room Policy All Meeting Spaces  

E-print Network

to the walls or doors of the room or Library public areas without explicit permission from the Library. AllLibrary Reserved Room Policy All Meeting Spaces Room reservation To make a reservation for any Library meeting space, complete the room reservation form at http://library

Mather, Patrick T.

306

Valuing Petroleum Reserves Using Current Net Price  

Microsoft Academic Search

Merton H. Miller and Charles W. Upton propose the 'Hotelling Valuation Principle': producing mineral reserves can be valued by multiplying the mineral's current net price by the reserve estimate. M. A. Adelman argues that, by omitting production constraints, the Hotelling value provides an upper bound on oil reserve value. Others claim oil reserves are options on oil, with the Hotelling

Graham A. Davis; Robert D. Cairns

1999-01-01

307

24 CFR 891.405 - Replacement reserve.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...monthly deposits to the replacement reserve in an amount determined by HUD. (c) Level of reserve. The reserve must be built up to and maintained at a level determined by HUD to be sufficient to meet projected requirements. Should the reserve...

2013-04-01

308

24 CFR 891.405 - Replacement reserve.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...monthly deposits to the replacement reserve in an amount determined by HUD. (c) Level of reserve. The reserve must be built up to and maintained at a level determined by HUD to be sufficient to meet projected requirements. Should the reserve...

2011-04-01

309

24 CFR 891.405 - Replacement reserve.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...monthly deposits to the replacement reserve in an amount determined by HUD. (c) Level of reserve. The reserve must be built up to and maintained at a level determined by HUD to be sufficient to meet projected requirements. Should the reserve...

2012-04-01

310

46 CFR Appendix A - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MERCHANT MARINE OFFICERS AND SEAMEN CHEMICAL TESTING Management Information System Management Information System requirements. Appendix A [Reserved] 46 CFR Ch. I (10-1-10 Edition) Coast...

2010-10-01

311

Strategic Petroleum Reserve quarterly report  

SciTech Connect

The Strategic Petroleum Reserve was created pursuant to the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of December 22, 1975 (Public Law 94-163). Its purposes are to reduce the impact of disruptions in supplies of petroleum products and to carry out obligations of the United States under the Agreement on an International Energy Program. Section 165(a) of the Act requires the submission of Annual Reports and Section 165(b)(1) requires the submission of Quarterly Reports. This Quarterly Report highlights activities undertaken during the third quarter of calendar year 1995, including: inventory of petroleum products stored in the Reserve; current storage capacity and ullage available; current status of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve storage facilities, major projects and the acquisition of petroleum products; funds obligated by the Secretary from the SPR Petroleum Account and the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Account during the prior calendar quarter and in total; and major environmental actions completed, in progress, or anticipated.

NONE

1995-11-15

312

Estimation of resources and reserves  

E-print Network

This report analyzes the economics of resource and reserve estimation. Current concern about energy problems has focused attention on how we measure available energy resources. One reads that we have an eight-year oil ...

Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Energy Laboratory.

1982-01-01

313

The Effect of Using Water-based Gel Lubricant During a Speculum Exam On Pap Smear Results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Cervical cancer is a pervasive yet preventable killer. Although routine screening exams are available to aid in the early detection of cervical cancer, women often avoid getting their routine annual screening exams. One explanation of this could be due to the discomfort of speculum exams. One way to minimize the discomfort of the speculum exam is to use gel-lubricant.

Jessica L. Wright

2010-01-01

314

Strategic petroleum reserve: Quarterly report  

SciTech Connect

The August 15, 1987, Strategic Petroleum Reserve Quarterly Report describes activities undertaken with respect to the development of the Reserve during the period April 1, 1987 through June 30, 1987. The program background and major activities of this quarter are briefly discussed. Other topics are site development; oil acquisition; information on the budget and cost of the reserve; and other program items. During the second quarter of 1987, Strategic Petroleum Reserve storage capacity reached 570 million barrels. At Bryan Mound, final corrective leaching was completed in Cavern 5 whose conversion from sweet to sour crude oil storage is proceeding on schedule. At West Hackberry, leaching was completed for Cavern 115 and proceeded in the four remaining caverns still under development. At the Bayou Choctaw site, Cavern 17 oil fill was initiated; this 10-million-barrel cavern currently contains over five million barrels of oil. At Big Hill, construction has progressed to the point that attainment of leaching capability by the end of September is on schedule. The total inventory of crude oil stored in the Strategic Petroleum Reserve reached 527,186,515 barrels during the quarter ending June 30, 1987. The average fill rate during the quarter was 79,119 barrels per day, and the weighted average delivered price during this quarter was $19.17 per barrel. Funds available for obligation in fiscal year 1987 include $526 million in the SPR Petroleum Account for the acquisition and transportation of crude oil and $262 million in the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Account for activities associated with storage facilities development and the operation and management of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Approximately $23 million of Strategic Petroleum Reserve Account funds will be carried over to reduce new budget authority required for the account in fiscal year 1988.

Not Available

1987-11-15

315

Alaska tops in oil reserves  

SciTech Connect

Alaska ranks second to Texas in daily oil production, putting out 1.6 million barrels/day. Alaska stands at the top for oil reserves, with Texas second, and California third. Prudhoe Bay is at the top with reserves of 7819 billion barrels. Alaska is exploring the icy waters of the Beaufort Sea for new giant fields. Eight exploratory wells are on slate for winter's drilling season. (DP)

Not Available

1982-02-01

316

Strategic Petroleum Reserve quarterly report  

SciTech Connect

The Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) was created pursuant to the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA) Public Law 94-163, approved on December 22, 1975, and extended in July 1985, June 1989, March 1990, and September 1990, to reduce the impact of disroptions in petroleum supplies and to carry out obligations of the United States under the Agreement on an International Energy Program. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve Quarterly Report is submitted in accordance with section 165(b) of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act, as amended, which requires that the Secretary of Energy submit quarterly reports to Congress on activities undertaken with respect to the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Since the Strategic Petroleum Reserve crude oil storage facilities program for the 750 minion barrels was completed in 1991, this August 15, 1992, Strategic Petroleum Reserve Quarterly Report focuses on activities related primarily to the storage facilities status, oil acquisition, budget, and cost of the Reserve during the period April 1, 1992, through June 30, 1992.

Not Available

1992-08-15

317

Strategic petroleum reserve: Quarterly report  

SciTech Connect

This report describes activities undertaken with respect to the development of the Reserve. The introduction and summary briefly discuss program background and major activities of the quarter. Section II describes site development. Oil acquisition activities are reported in Section III. Information on the budget and cost of the Reserve is contained in Section IV. Strategic Petroleum Reserve storage capacity reached 581.3 million barrels. The total inventory of crude oil stored in the Strategic Petroleum Reserve reached 550, 055,724 barrels. The average fill rate during the quarter was 56,239 barrels per day, and the weighted average delivered price during this quarter was $15.99 per barrel. The average fill rate through the third quarter of fiscal year 1988 was 59,000 barrels per day. Funds available for obligation in fiscal year 1988 include $439 million in the SPR Petroleum Account for the acquisition and transportation of crude oil and $232 million in the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Account for activities associated with storage facilities development and the operation and management of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve.

Not Available

1988-08-15

318

Cognitive reserve and brain reserve in prodromal Huntington's disease.  

PubMed

Huntington disease (HD) is associated with decline in cognition and progressive morphological changes in brain structures. Cognitive reserve may represent a mechanism by which disease-related decline may be delayed or slowed. The current study examined the relationship between cognitive reserve and longitudinal change in cognitive functioning and brain volumes among prodromal (gene expansion-positive) HD individuals. Participants were genetically confirmed individuals with prodromal HD enrolled in the PREDICT-HD study. Cognitive reserve was computed as the composite of performance on a lexical task estimating premorbid intellectual level, occupational status, and years of education. Linear mixed effects regression (LMER) was used to examine longitudinal changes on four cognitive measures and three brain volumes over approximately 6 years. Higher cognitive reserve was significantly associated with a slower rate of change on one cognitive measure (Trail Making Test, Part B) and slower rate of volume loss in two brain structures (caudate, putamen) for those estimated to be closest to motor disease onset. This relationship was not observed among those estimated to be further from motor disease onset. Our findings demonstrate a relationship between cognitive reserve and both a measure of executive functioning and integrity of certain brain structures in prodromal HD individuals. PMID:23702309

Bonner-Jackson, Aaron; Long, Jeffrey D; Westervelt, Holly; Tremont, Geoffrey; Aylward, Elizabeth; Paulsen, Jane S

2013-08-01

319

Protein and lipid oxidative damage in healthy students during and after exam stress.  

PubMed

Oxidative damage at cellular level is thought to be one of the mechanisms in the pathogenesis of psychological stress (anxiety). The aim of this study was to investigate lipid and protein oxidative damage in exam anxiety conditions. Blood samples were collected in two stages (during the exam period and post vacation) from 51 healthy female students after responding to Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) and test anxiety questionnaire. Protein carbonyl, total thiol and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were determined in serum. Participants reported significantly higher levels of subjective anxiety during the exam period than post vacation. Also the level of total thiol was significantly lower during the exam period compared with post vacation (p<0.001). Meanwhile, protein carbonyl and MDA levels during the exams were significantly higher than those in post-exam period (p<0.01). During the exam period, there was a negative correlation between serum total thiol levels and the severity of anxiety (r=-0.45, p<0.01). A significant positive correlation between the changes in serum protein carbonyl and MDA levels, also between those markers and anxiety score was found during the exam period. The high level of protein carbonyl and MDA, also low level of total thiol during the exam period demonstrated an oxidative damage to proteins and lipids in stress conditions. Our results suggest that oxidative damage to cellular compounds may be one of the mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of anxiety. PMID:23688949

Nakhaee, Alireza; Shahabizadeh, Fatemeh; Erfani, Mozhgan

2013-06-13

320

Want to Reduce Guessing and Cheating While Making Students Happier? Give More Exams!  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is almost universally agreed that more frequent formative assessment (homework, clicker questions, practice tests, etc.) leads to better student performance and generally better course evaluations. There is, however, only anecdotal evidence that the same would be true for more frequent summative assessment (exams). There maybe many arguments against giving more exams, including the general "pain" associated with examinations, as well as reduced teaching time, since classroom sessions are dedicated to exams rather than lecturing. We present evidence that increasing the number of exams in fact does lead to better learning success, less cheating and guessing on homework, and better student course evaluations.

Laverty, James T.; Bauer, Wolfgang; Kortemeyer, Gerd; Westfall, Gary

2012-12-01

321

A history of interpersonal trauma and the gynecological exam.  

PubMed

Cervical cancer is preventable, in part, by routine Papanicolaou (Pap) testing, but some women avoid routine screening. African American women have the greatest mortality among all groups of women in the United States. Personal reasons have been found to contribute to screening avoidance behavior, such as a history of sexual abuse and intimate partner violence. Fifteen African American women with a trauma history participated in personal interviews. The Interaction Model of Client Behavior was employed for exploring the women's social influence, previous health care experience, cognitive appraisal, affective response, and motivation associated with routine Pap testing. Study findings suggest that providers need to assess and provide accurate information about Pap testing and cervical cancer to increase patients' knowledge. Personally reflecting on one's approach to conducting a woman's gynecologic exam (and how it is performed) might prevent triggering unwanted memories, making that visit a positive experience and facilitating repeat screening behavior. PMID:22068042

Ackerson, Kelly

2012-05-01

322

Predicting NCLEX-PN success with the HESI Exit Exam.  

PubMed

Surveys were mailed to directors of 72 randomly selected practical nursing (PN) schools that administered Elsevier's HESI Exit Exam for Practical Nurses (E2-PN) during the 2006-2007 academic year. Data were collected regarding students' NCLEX-PN outcomes and the schools' benchmarking and remediation policies. The first version of the E2-PN was 99.48% accurate in predicting NCLEX-PN success. Versions two and three of the E2-PN, which were administered to students who were remediated because they did not achieve the faculty-designated benchmark, were also highly accurate in predicting NCLEX-PN success. Most faculties set 850 as their school's E2-PN benchmark, and 73% of the respondents required remediation for students who did not achieve the benchmark score. The most frequently cited remediation strategy was tutoring. PMID:21534440

Young, Anne; Willson, Pamela

2010-01-01

323

Spinning Reserve From Responsive Loads  

SciTech Connect

Responsive load is the most underutilized reliability resource available to the power system today. It is currently not used at all to provide spinning reserve. Historically there were good reasons for this, but recent technological advances in communications and controls have provided new capabilities and eliminated many of the old obstacles. North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC), Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), Northeast Power Coordinating Council (NPCC), New York State Reliability Council (NYSRC), and New York Independent System Operator (NYISO) rules are beginning to recognize these changes and are starting to encourage responsive load provision of reliability services. The Carrier ComfortChoice responsive thermostats provide an example of these technological advances. This is a technology aimed at reducing summer peak demand through central control of residential and small commercial air-conditioning loads. It is being utilized by Long Island Power Authority (LIPA), Consolidated Edison (ConEd), Southern California Edison (SCE), and San Diego Gas and Electric (SDG&E). The technology is capable of delivering even greater response in the faster spinning reserve time frame (while still providing peak reduction). Analysis of demand reduction testing results from LIPA during the summer of 2002 provides evidence to back up this claim. It also demonstrates that loads are different from generators and that the conventional wisdom, which advocates for starting with large loads as better ancillary service providers, is flawed. The tempting approach of incrementally adapting ancillary service requirements, which were established when generators were the only available resources, will not work. While it is easier for most generators to provide replacement power and non-spinning reserve (the slower response services) than it is to supply spinning reserve (the fastest service), the opposite is true for many loads. Also, there is more financial reward for supplying spinning reserve than for supplying the other reserve services as a result of the higher spinning reserve prices. The LIPAedge program (LIPA's demand reduction program using Carrier ComfortChoice thermostats) provides an opportunity to test the use of responsive load for spinning reserve. With potentially 75 MW of spinning reserve capability already installed, this test program can also make an important contribution to the capacity needs of Long Island during the summer of 2003. Testing could also be done at ConEd ({approx}30 MW), SCE ({approx}15 MW), and/or SDG&E ({approx}15 MW). This paper is divided into six chapters. Chapter 2 discusses the contingency reserve ancillary services, their functions in supporting power system reliability, and their technical requirements. It also discusses the policy and tariff requirements and attempts to distinguish between ones that are genuinely necessary and ones that are artifacts of the technologies that were historically used to provide the services. Chapter 3 discusses how responsive load could provide contingency reserves (especially spinning reserve) for the power system. Chapter 4 specifically discusses the Carrier ComfortChoice responsive thermostat technology, the LIPAedge experience with that technology, and how the technology could be used to supply spinning reserve. Chapter 5 discusses a number of unresolved issues and suggests areas for further research. Chapter 6 offers conclusions and recommendations.

Kirby, B.J.

2003-04-08

324

A unified optimization platform comparison of three radiosurgery techniques: Gamma Knife, BrainLAB micro-MLC, and NOMOS MIMiC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this research is to build a unified optimization treatment planning system in order to accurately compare the three modalities unburdened by underlying assumptions that could alter the outcome of the comparison. The hypothesis for the dissertation is: Three photon radiosurgery delivery mechanisms are utilized for the delivery of necrotic radiation doses to a cranial lesion: the Gamma Knife, micro-MLC intensity modulated radiosurgery, and MIMiC based intensity modulated radiosurgery. Each modality has its own strength and weaknesses in their ability to deliver radiosurgery treatments. We hypothesize the MIMiC based intensity modulated radiosurgery will allow improvements to radiosurgery treatments compared to the conventional Gamma Knife and micro-MLC, as quantified by the following metrics: isodose line display, dose volume histograms, Ian Paddick conformality index, homogeneity index, and objective function score. The specific aims for the dissertation are: (1) Develop a radiosurgery treatment planning software platform to import image and structure data and to offer evaluation tools. The evaluation tools will include isodose line display, dose volume histogram, Ian Paddick conformality index, homogeneity index, and objective function score. (2) Develop a simulated annealing optimization routine, with an associated objective function, that will determine the optimal treatment plan for the defined solution space. The objective, or cost function will be based on Ian Paddick conformality index. (3) Perform multiple repeat optimizations of each modality for a given lesion in order to gather statistical information about the minimum solution found. This test will quantify the ability of the optimization routine to arrive at a similar local minimum and therefore quantify the reliability of the comparison performed in specific aim five. (4) Investigate the affect of the Gamma Knife's shot limitation on the resulting dose distribution for a given lesion. Five optimizations will be performed with a shot limit of 5, 10, 25, 50, and unlimited. This comparison will help facilitate the appropriate shot limit for the comparison of the three methodologies in specific aim five. (5) Perform a comparison of the three delivery modalities based on three clinical targets: 1.4cc Acoustic Neuroma, 0.71cc Arteriovenous Malformation, and 0.77cc Metastatic disease. The comparison will be based on dose volume histograms, Ian Paddick conformality index, objective function score, homogeneity index, and physician's judgment. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Cheek, Dennis Allen

325

Question-writing as a learning tool for students - outcomes from curricular exams  

PubMed Central

Background Writing exam questions can be a valuable learning tool. We asked students to construct multiple choice questions for curricular exams in Internal Medicine. The questions for the particular exams were chosen from a pool of at least 300 student-written questions. The uncorrected pool was accessible to all students. We studied the influence of this approach on the students’ learning habits and their test results. We hypothesized that creating a pool of their own questions for the exams could encourage students to discuss the learning material. Methods All students had to pass 4 exams in 7 fields of Internal Medicine. Three exams were comprised of 20 questions, and we applied the new method in one of these exams. The fourth exam was comprised of 30 questions, 15 of which were chosen from a students’ pool. After all exams had been completed we asked the students to fill in a web-based questionnaire on their learning habits and their views on the new approach. The test-results were compared to the results of the lecturers’ questions that defined high and low performing students. Results A total of 102 students completed all four exams in a row, 68 of whom filled in the questionnaire. Low performing students achieved significantly better results in the students’ questions. There was no difference in the number of constructed questions between both groups of students. The new method did not promote group work significantly. However, high performing students stated a stronger wish to be rewarded by good performance. Conclusions Creating a curricular exam by choosing questions from a pool constructed by students did not influence the learning habits significantly and favored low performing students. Since the high performing students sought to be rewarded for their efforts, we do not consider the approach applied in our study to be appropriate. PMID:23787038

2013-01-01

326

Coal Reserves Data Base report  

SciTech Connect

The Coal Reserves Data Base (CRDB) Program is a cooperative data base development program sponsored by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). The objective of the CRDB Program is to involve knowledgeable coal resource authorities from the major coal-bearing regions in EIA's effort to update the Nation's coal reserves data. This report describes one of two prototype studies to update State-level reserve estimates. The CRDB data are intended for use in coal supply analyses and to support analyses of policy and legislative issues. They will be available to both Government and non-Government analysts. The data also will be part of the information used to supply United States energy data for international data bases and for inquiries from private industry and the public. (VC)

Jones, R.W.; Glass, G.B.

1991-12-05

327

Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Quarterly report  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the activities undertaken by the Strategic Petroleum Reserve during the third quarter of calendar year 1994. It addresses issues relative to storage facilities in Texas and Louisiana and include information on fill rate; average price of products purchased; current and projected storage capacity of each facility; analyses of existing or anticipated problems with the acquisition and storage or petroleum products; budgets established for the operation of each facility during the quarter and total; and major environmental actions completed, in progress, or anticipated. The report also briefly discusses two problems which have temporarily reduced the Reserve`s oil inventory for drawdown. These problems are a higher-than-normal gas content and elevated temperatures of crude at other facilities.

Not Available

1994-11-15

328

Detecting larval export from marine reserves  

PubMed Central

Marine reserve theory suggests that where large, productive populations are protected within no-take marine reserves, fished areas outside reserves will benefit through the spillover of larvae produced in the reserves. However, empirical evidence for larval export has been sparse. Here we use a simple idealized coastline model to estimate the expected magnitude and spatial scale of larval export from no-take marine reserves across a range of reserve sizes and larval dispersal scales. Results suggest that, given the magnitude of increased production typically found in marine reserves, benefits from larval export are nearly always large enough to offset increased mortality outside marine reserves due to displaced fishing effort. However, the proportional increase in recruitment at sites outside reserves is typically small, particularly for species with long-distance (on the order of hundreds of kilometers) larval dispersal distances, making it very difficult to detect in field studies. Enhanced recruitment due to export may be detected by sampling several sites at an appropriate range of distances from reserves or at sites downcurrent of reserves in systems with directional dispersal. A review of existing empirical evidence confirms the model's suggestion that detecting export may be difficult without an exceptionally large differential in production, short-distance larval dispersal relative to reserve size, directional dispersal, or a sampling scheme that encompasses a broad range of distances from the reserves. PMID:20181570

Pelc, R. A.; Warner, R. R.; Gaines, S. D.; Paris, C. B.

2010-01-01

329

Instructions of the NTU Health Exam for Incoming Exchange Students at NTU Hospital  

E-print Network

Instructions of the NTU Health Exam for Incoming Exchange Students at NTU Hospital (Health Exam Hospital (1 Chan-der Street, Taipei. Near MRT National Taiwan University Hospital Station) (Items at the Department of Family Medicine, examine room No.13, National Taiwan University Hospital. Tel: (02

Wu, Yih-Min

330

Training Metacognition in the Classroom: The Influence of Incentives and Feedback on Exam Predictions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In two semester-long studies, we examined whether college students could improve their ability to accurately predict their own exam performance across multiple exams. We tested whether providing concrete feedback and incentives (i.e., extra credit) for accuracy would improve predictions by improving students' metacognition, or awareness of their…

Miller, Tyler M.; Geraci, Lisa

2011-01-01

331

Verbal Final Exam in Introductory Biology Yields Gains in Student Content Knowledge and Longitudinal Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We studied gains in student learning over eight semesters in which an introductory biology course curriculum was changed to include optional verbal final exams (VFs). Students could opt to demonstrate their mastery of course material via structured oral exams with the professor. In a quantitative assessment of cell biology content knowledge,…

Luckie, Douglas B.; Rivkin, Aaron M.; Aubry, Jacob R.; Marengo, Benjamin J.; Creech, Leah R.; Sweeder, Ryan D.

2013-01-01

332

Use of a Consumer-Grade Digital Camera to Archive Written Exams  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of a photocopier to archive exams consumes photocopier resources and generates a large amount of waste. As an alternative, I have been using a consumer-grade digital camera to document exams in an upper-division biology course. The approach is inexpensive and offers a number of advantages over photocopies. (Contains 2 figures.)

Maduro, Morris

2006-01-01

333

Service Learning in Life-Span Developmental Psychology: Higher Exam Scores and Increased Empathy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes research conducted to evaluate the impact of service learning on exam scores and emotional empathy in a life-span development course. Service learning was 1 of 3 project options offered in the course; others included an interview project and a research paper. With the exception of the first exam, scores were significantly…

Lundy, Brenda L.

2007-01-01

334

A Study of the Relationship between Student Final Exam Performance and Simulation Game Participation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes study that investigated the relationship between participation in a business simulation game and performance on a final exam in a principles of marketing course. Past research on business games is reviewed; the use of midterm exam performance level as a pretest variable is explained; and question classification is described. (44…

Whiteley, T. R.; Faria, A. J.

1989-01-01

335

The Dead Grandmother/Exam Syndrome and the Potential Downfall Of American Society.  

E-print Network

. Since such behavior is most likely to result in high blood pressure, leading to stroke and heart attacks 1, when no exam is imminent the family death rate per 100 students (FDR) is low and is not related the exam, the more the family worries; and it is the ensuing tension that presumably causes premature death

Pugh, Mary

336

Helping Students Prepare for Qualifying Exams; A Summary of WCRA Institute III.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes several learning laboratory program approaches to teaching students how to prepare for professional school admission exams. That these exams are true aptitude tests is a myth repeatedly deflated when students study for the tests and manage to score significantly higher on a second testing. Factors in addition to intelligence…

Parmer, Lorraine

337

AK State Profile. Alaska: Alaska High School Graduation Qualifying Exam (HSGOE)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper provides information about Alaska High School Graduation Qualifying Exam (HSGQE), a comprehensive standards-based exam. Its purpose is to meet a state mandate. A bill to remove the HSGQE as a graduation requirement by July 1, 2011 was presented to the state legislature as SB 109. However, it did not pass both houses of the legislature.…

Center on Education Policy, 2010

2010-01-01

338

Does Eating Breakfast Affect the Performance of College Students on Biology Exams?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the breakfast eating habits of 1,259 college students over an eleven year period to determine if eating breakfast had an impact upon their grade on a General Biology exam. The study determined that there was a significant difference in the performance on the exam with a higher percent of the participants, who had eaten…

Phillips, Gregory W.

2005-01-01

339

Pick-N Multiple Choice-Exams: A Comparison of Scoring Algorithms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To compare different scoring algorithms for Pick-N multiple correct answer multiple-choice (MC) exams regarding test reliability, student performance, total item discrimination and item difficulty. Data from six 3rd year medical students' end of term exams in internal medicine from 2005 to 2008 at Munich University were analysed (1,255 students,…

Bauer, Daniel; Holzer, Matthias; Kopp, Veronika; Fischer, Martin R.

2011-01-01

340

Instructions: Physical Exam HIRING PROCEDURES: Instructions and List of Class Titles  

E-print Network

Human Resources website at http://hr.ucf.edu/files/USPSPhysicalExamForm.pdf The following positions of Human Resources at 407-823-2771. #12; regarding typing and/or physical exams for prospective employees, please contact the Recruitment section

Wu, Shin-Tson

341

Clinical Assessment of Gang Violence Risk Through History and Physical Exam  

Microsoft Academic Search

:Primary-care clinicians can assess gang involvement and gang violence risk during the routine history and physical exam. This paper forwards a model for history and risk assessment. The objective of creating the model was to develop a practical prototype for clinicians to use in this assessment. The history and physical exam variables were determined by a study of the etiology

Delfi Mondragon

1995-01-01

342

Clinical Assessment of Gang Violence Risk Through History and Physical Exam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Primary-care clinicians can assess gang involvement and gang violence risk during the routine history and physical exam. This paper forwards a model for history and risk assessment. The objective of creating the model was to develop a practical prototype for clinicians to use in this assessment. The history and physical exam variables were determined by a study of the etiology

1995-01-01

343

High School Exit Exam: Remediation for Another High-Stakes Test  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Now administered in 27 states and affecting 65 percent of all students, high school exit exams are gaining influence on teaching and learning because they constitute tests with extraordinarily high stakes. But what happens when students fail a high school exit exam? Few studies address the best way to remediate students in these situations.…

Misco, Thomas

2010-01-01

344

The Use of Orally Recorded Exam Feedback as a Supplement to Written Comments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While written comments are a popular and potentially effective method of student exam feedback, these comments are often overshadowed by students' focus on their grades. In this paper I discuss the additional use of orally recorded exam feedback in introductory statistics classes of 40 or fewer students. While grading and writing comments on a…

Jordan, Joy

2004-01-01

345

Frequently Asked Questions What is the purpose of the placement exams?  

E-print Network

they come to orientation. For more information, contact your college student services advising office: CBS testing is to determine accurately the level of students' prior learning in order to place students in appropriate level courses. Why are the placement exams important for students? Placement exams help students

Amin, S. Massoud

346

Knowledge Assessment of Food Safety Managers in Utah and Its Implications on the Exam and Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Food Safety Manager's Certification is offered through a state-local Extension partnership in Utah using an online course management system. Exams and course materials were created by an Extension Specialist at Utah State Univ. Extension Agents provide exam and curriculum facilitation in each county. This form of distance education enables access…

Nummer, Brian A.; Guy, Stanley M.; Bentley, Joanne P. H.

2010-01-01

347

A Valid and Reliable Instrument for Cognitive Complexity Rating Assignment of Chemistry Exam Items  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The design and use of a valid and reliable instrument for the assignment of cognitive complexity ratings to chemistry exam items is described in this paper. Use of such an instrument provides a simple method to quantify the cognitive demands of chemistry exam items. Instrument validity was established in two different ways: statistically…

Knaus, Karen; Murphy, Kristen; Blecking, Anja; Holme, Thomas

2011-01-01

348

The Effects of High School Exit Exam Performance: New Evidence from Florida  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents new evidence on the effects of exit exam performance on high school persistence and completion as well as on college attendance using data on students from Florida. Specifically, they examine whether initial exit exam performance causes students to drop out of school, changes the likelihood of graduating from high school, and…

Clark, Damon; Martorell, Paco; Yang, Muzhe

2009-01-01

349

Certified Professional in Supply Management (CPSM) & Certified in Supply Management (CSM) Exam Preparation Series  

E-print Network

: Effective Supply Management Performance of the Professional in Supply Management certification exam seriesCertified Professional in Supply Management (CPSM) & Certified in Supply Management (CSM) Exam for member companies of the Rutgers Center for Supply Chain Management. $425 for non-members This one day

Lin, Xiaodong

350

Certified Professional in Supply Management (CPSM) Review Series: Exam 2: Effective Supply Management Performance  

E-print Network

Management Performance Dates: October 28, 2011 Location: Rutgers University­ Livingston Campus, Tillett Hall in understanding both the content and organization of Exam 2: Effective Supply Management PerformanceCertified Professional in Supply Management (CPSM) Review Series: Exam 2: Effective Supply

351

Design and implementation to intelligent online exam system for course Information Resource Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compared with the traditional exam, online examination system can greatly enhance the evaluation capacities, reduce the human input and improve the work efficiencies. So it has considerable economical efficiency and broad prospect. Examination is used in course Information Resource Management in order to solve the problems in evaluating. An intelligent online exam system is developed and the examination library of

Ming Xiao; Liyang He

2010-01-01

352

Maryland Ranks #1 in the Nation on Advanced Placement Exams for Participation and Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Maryland public high school students outperformed all others in the nation on the rigorous Advanced Placement (AP) exams, according to the College Board's fifth annual analysis of the AP program. Maryland ranked first nationwide in the percentage of public school students scoring 3 or higher on at least one AP exam. A score of 3 or higher on the…

Maryland State Department of Education, 2009

2009-01-01

353

Use of a Consumer-Grade Digital Camera to Archive Written Exams  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The use of a photocopier to archive exams consumes photocopier resources and generates a large amount of waste. As an alternative, one instructor uses a consumer-grade digital camera to document exams in an upper-division biology course. The approach is inexpensive and offers a number of advantages over photocopies.

Maduro, Morris

2006-01-01

354

Continued on back ... Earn Your Degree in up to Half the Time With CLEP Exams  

E-print Network

and three to six credits on certain subject examinations. You are required to score at least 50 points or more on each exam you take in order to receive credit from CGS. A score of fewer than 50 points and subject exams) that are accepted by CGS, the minimum score required, and the number of credits and CGS

Sibille, Etienne

355

High School Exit Exams and Dropout in an Era of Increased Accountability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A key form of student-level accountability is the requirement for students to pass high school exit exams (HSEEs) in order to receive a diploma. In this paper, we examine the impact of HSEEs on dropout during a period when these exams became more common and rigorous. Further, we study whether offering alternate pathways to graduation for students…

Hemelt, Steven W.; Marcotte, Dave E.

2013-01-01

356

The Impact of Assessment Policy on Learning: Replacement Exams or Grade Dropping  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Instructors often debate the merits of alternate grading policies such as dropping the lowest exam or offering an additional exam to replace the lowest score. To date, there has been little research conducted on the impact of these policies on performance. In this study, the author investigates student performance in intermediate macroeconomics…

MacDermott, Raymond J.

2013-01-01

357

Examining the Effects of Flexible Online Exams on Students' Engagement in E-Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Online assessments are essential parts of online learning. There are some debates on quality of online assessments. Nevertheless the study considered online exams as an instructional activity and aimed to examine the effects of online exams on students' engagements related to course goals. The study was conducted on two cases, which are…

Karaman, Selcuk

2011-01-01

358

Student Grade Motivation as a Determinant of Performance on the Business Major Field ETS Exam  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the determinants of performance on the business major field achievement ETS exam with a focus on the impact of applying ETS exam scores to part of the capstone course grade as a performance incentive. The sample consists of 150 students at a midsized regional institution located in the Southwestern region of the United States.…

Terry, Neil; Mills, LaVelle; Sollosy, Marc

2008-01-01

359

An Exploration of the Effects of Mentoring on Post-16 Chemistry Students' Exam Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In response to a concern about the persistent underachievement in exams of Chemistry students in one school, a pilot study was carried out to see if mentoring-style intervention could improve exam performance. Individual personalised interviews were offered to a class, during which support for the development of the skills and subject knowledge…

Essex, Jane

2011-01-01

360

The Effect of Tutoring on Math Scores for the Praxis I Exam  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Praxis test is one of a series of national teacher certification exams written and administered by the Education Testing Service (ETS) since 1947. Currently, forty states now require some form of the Praxis Series (Educational Testing Service, 2011). Using pre- and post-tests similar to the Praxis I math exam, this study examined the affect…

Longwell-Grice, Robert; McIlheran, Janine; Schroeder, Mark; Scheele, Steve

2013-01-01

361

Exam High Schools and Academic Achievement: Evidence from New York City. NBER Working Paper No. 17286  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Publicly funded exam schools educate many of the world's most talented students. These schools typically contain higher achieving peers, more rigorous instruction, and additional resources compared to regular public schools. This paper uses a sharp discontinuity in the admissions process at three prominent exam schools in New York City to provide…

Dobbie, Will; Fryer, Roland G., Jr.

2011-01-01

362

Including an Exam P/1 Prep Course in a Growing Actuarial Science Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this article is to describe the actuarial science program at our university and the development of a course to enhance students' problem solving skills while preparing them for Exam P/1 of the Society of Actuaries (SOA) and the Casualty Actuary Society (CAS). The Exam P/1 prep course, formally titled Mathematical Foundations of…

Wakefield, Thomas P.

2014-01-01

363

Do Graduation Tests Measure Up? A Closer Look at State High School Exit Exams  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

High school graduation exams are in place in nearly half the states, and more than half the nation's high school students have to pass them to earn a diploma. After a detailed analysis of the mathematics and English language arts exams in Florida, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Jersey, Ohio and Texas, Achieve reached three conclusions: (1) Tests are…

Achieve, Inc., 2004

2004-01-01

364

The impact of exams anxiety on the level of triglycerides in university female students.  

PubMed

Anxiety affects the level of blood fats such as the triglycerides according to several studies conducted in various conditions causing anxiety as exam for the university students. The health experts suggested that the anxiety works to stimulate the autonomic nervous system which in turn leads to the appearance of a group of physiologic symptoms. The current study showed the changes happened in the triglycerides' levels in the female university students before and after exams at the intermediate anxiety level compared to other high and low levels of anxiety. In addition, there was a difference in triglycerides' levels in female students of college of Science before and after exam. This difference did not appear in case of other colleges. The exam type had an impact as the significant difference appeared in the triglycerides' levels during the periodical tests and these differences did not appear in the final exam. PMID:20503603

Maimanee, Tahia A

2010-04-01

365

ENVIRONMENTAL BASELINE SURVEY NAVAL INTELLIGENCE RESERVE COMMAND  

E-print Network

ENVIRONMENTAL BASELINE SURVEY NAVAL INTELLIGENCE RESERVE COMMAND 14950 AKRON AVENUE ROSEMOUNT. Quality Assurance Program. UMP009144 #12;Environmental Baseline Survey Naval Intelligence Reserve Command .............................................................................................................10 3.3 NEPA Database

Netoff, Theoden

366

48 CFR 49.109-2 - Reservations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...109-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TERMINATION OF CONTRACTS General Principles 49.109-2 Reservations. (a) The TCO shall— (1) Reserve in the...

2010-10-01

367

Cognitive Reserve: Implications for Assessment and Intervention  

PubMed Central

The concept of reserve is used to explain the observation that some individuals function better than others in the presence of brain pathology. This paper reviews the concept of reserve from its theoretical basis to the implication of reserve for clinical practice. A distinction between brain reserve, referring to individual differences in the anatomic substrate, and cognitive reserve, referring to differences in the flexibility or adaptivity of cognitive networks, is useful. Epidemiologic evidence indicates that a set of life exposures including higher educational and occupational attainment, and engaging in leisure activities is associated with a lower risk of incident dementia, suggesting that these life exposures may enhance cognitive reserve. This provides a basis for controlled clinical studies can test specific exposures that may enhance reserve. The concept of cognitive reserve also has important implications for clinical practice in terms of diagnosis and prognosis. PMID:23941972

Stern, Yaakov

2014-01-01

368

28 CFR 115.135 - [Reserved  

...false [Reserved] 115.135 Section 115.135 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Lockups Training and Education § 115.135 [Reserved]...

2014-07-01

369

28 CFR 115.173 - [Reserved  

...false [Reserved] 115.173 Section 115.173 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Lockups Investigations § 115.173 [Reserved]...

2014-07-01

370

5 CFR 890.503 - Reserves.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...reserve; and (v) Any return of reserves of the plan...subscription charges at the average recurring monthly rate paid from the Employees...equal to the sum of an average month's paid claims plus an average month's...

2010-01-01

371

37 CFR 1.15 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false [Reserved] 1.15 Section 1.15 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights...GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES General Provisions Records and...Patent and Trademark Office § 1.15 [Reserved] Fees and...

2010-07-01

372

37 CFR 1.15 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false [Reserved] 1.15 Section 1.15 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights...GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES General Provisions Records and...Patent and Trademark Office § 1.15 [Reserved] Fees and...

2012-07-01

373

37 CFR 1.15 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false [Reserved] 1.15 Section 1.15 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights...GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES General Provisions Records and...Patent and Trademark Office § 1.15 [Reserved] Fees and...

2011-07-01

374

37 CFR 1.15 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false [Reserved] 1.15 Section 1.15 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights...GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES General Provisions Records and...Patent and Trademark Office § 1.15 [Reserved] Fees and...

2013-07-01

375

28 CFR 115.173 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false [Reserved] 115.173 Section 115.173 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Lockups Investigations § 115.173 [Reserved]...

2013-07-01

376

28 CFR 115.135 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false [Reserved] 115.135 Section 115.135 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Lockups Training and Education § 115.135 [Reserved]...

2013-07-01

377

28 CFR 115.173 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false [Reserved] 115.173 Section 115.173 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Lockups Investigations § 115.173 [Reserved]...

2012-07-01

378

28 CFR 115.135 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false [Reserved] 115.135 Section 115.135 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Lockups Training and Education § 115.135 [Reserved]...

2012-07-01

379

Natural Reserve System UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA  

E-print Network

of ecosystems throughout California. Reserves offer outdoor laboratories to field scientists, classrooms without Eastern Sierra Reserves: 34 Sierra Nevada Aquatic Research Laboratory 35 Valentine Camp Santa Cruz 36 Año build nest mounds beneath oaks dripping with lic

California at Santa Cruz, University of

380

24 CFR 891.405 - Replacement reserve.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...HOUSING FOR PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES PROGRAM) SUPPORTIVE HOUSING FOR THE ELDERLY AND PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES Project Management § 891.405 Replacement reserve. (a) Establishment of reserve. The Owner shall establish and...

2010-04-01

381

12 CFR 210.4 - Sending items to Reserve Banks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Sending items to Reserve Banks. 210.4 Section 210.4 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM COLLECTION OF CHECKS AND OTHER ITEMS BY FEDERAL RESERVE BANKS AND FUNDS...

2010-01-01

382

12 CFR 204.4 - Computation of required reserves.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Computation of required reserves. 204.4 Section 204.4 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM RESERVE REQUIREMENTS OF DEPOSITORY INSTITUTIONS (REGULATION D) § 204.4...

2010-01-01

383

12 CFR 204.6 - Charges for reserve deficiencies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Charges for reserve deficiencies. 204.6 Section 204.6 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM RESERVE REQUIREMENTS OF DEPOSITORY INSTITUTIONS (REGULATION D) § 204.6...

2010-01-01

384

12 CFR 204.5 - Maintenance of required reserves.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Maintenance of required reserves. 204.5 Section 204.5 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM RESERVE REQUIREMENTS OF DEPOSITORY INSTITUTIONS (REGULATION D) § 204.5...

2010-01-01

385

12 CFR 204.9 - Emergency reserve requirement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Emergency reserve requirement. 204.9 Section 204.9 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM RESERVE REQUIREMENTS OF DEPOSITORY INSTITUTIONS (REGULATION D) § 204.9...

2010-01-01

386

12 CFR 204.7 - Supplemental reserve requirement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Section 204.7 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM RESERVE REQUIREMENTS OF DEPOSITORY...requirement shall be maintained by the Federal Reserve Banks in an Earnings Participation...

2010-01-01

387

32 CFR 728.23 - Reserve Officers' Training Corps (ROTC).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Reserve Officers' Training Corps (ROTC). 728.23 Section...Reserve Components, Reserve Officers' Training Corps, Navy and Marine Corps Officer...Personnel § 728.23 Reserve Officers' Training Corps (ROTC). (a) Eligible...

2013-07-01

388

32 CFR 728.23 - Reserve Officers' Training Corps (ROTC).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Reserve Officers' Training Corps (ROTC). 728.23 Section...Reserve Components, Reserve Officers' Training Corps, Navy and Marine Corps Officer...Personnel § 728.23 Reserve Officers' Training Corps (ROTC). (a) Eligible...

2010-07-01

389

32 CFR 728.23 - Reserve Officers' Training Corps (ROTC).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Reserve Officers' Training Corps (ROTC). 728.23 Section...Reserve Components, Reserve Officers' Training Corps, Navy and Marine Corps Officer...Personnel § 728.23 Reserve Officers' Training Corps (ROTC). (a) Eligible...

2012-07-01

390

32 CFR 728.23 - Reserve Officers' Training Corps (ROTC).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Reserve Officers' Training Corps (ROTC). 728.23 Section...Reserve Components, Reserve Officers' Training Corps, Navy and Marine Corps Officer...Personnel § 728.23 Reserve Officers' Training Corps (ROTC). (a) Eligible...

2011-07-01

391

Reserve components' perceptions and changing roles.  

PubMed

This article reviews the historical background of Reserve and National Guard forces, total force policy, types of reserve personnel, perceptions and attitudes of reservists, morale and unit cohesion, perceived preparedness for mobilization, mobilizations and demobilizations, current downsizing and reorganizations, operations other than war, and readiness. The majority of the studies report reservists' perceptions and attitudes. Because the majority of the Army's war-making capability is found in the reserves, how well the reserves function has national security implications. PMID:10544626

Mangelsdorff, A D

1999-10-01

392

The Federal Reserve in crisis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since August 2007 the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (Fed) has approached near panic in their adoption of multiple and inconsistent traditional policy measures and, since December 2007, they have multiplied these efforts by adopting major new policy tools, some of which may go well beyond their congressional mandate. These actions have been motivated, in the first

John Tatom

2008-01-01

393

Strategic petroleum reserve annual report  

SciTech Connect

Section 165 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (Public Law 94- 163), as amended, requires the Secretary of Energy to submit annual reports to the President and the Congress on activities of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). This report describes activities for the year ending December 31, 1995.

NONE

1996-02-15

394

Strategic petroleum reserve. Quarterly report  

SciTech Connect

The Strategic Petroleum Reserve serves as one of our most important investments in reducing the Nation`s vulnerability to oil supply disruptions. Its existence provides an effective response mechanism should a disruption occur and a formidable deterrent to the use of oil as a political instrument. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve was created pursuant to the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of December 22, 1975, (Public Law 94-163) as amended, to reduce the impact of disruptions in supplies of petroleum products and to carry out obligations of the United States under the Agreement on an International Energy Program. Section 165(a) of the Act requires the submission of Annual Reports and Section 165(b)(1) requires the submission of Quarterly Reports. This Quarterly Report highlights activities undertaken during the first quarter of calendar year 1994, including: (1) inventory of petroleum products stored in the Reserve, under contract and in transit at the end of the calendar quarter; (2) fill rate for the current quarter and projected fill rate for the next calendar quarter; (3) average price of the petroleum products acquired during the calendar quarter; (4) current and projected storage capacity; (5) analysis of existing or anticipated problems with the acquisition and storage of petroleum products, and future expansion of storage capacity; (6) funds obligated by the Secretary from the SPR Petroleum Account and the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Account during the prior calendar quarter and in total; and (7) major environmental actions completed, in progress, or anticipated.

Not Available

1994-05-15

395

Strategic petroleum reserve. Quarterly report  

SciTech Connect

The Strategic Petroleum Reserve reduces the Nation`s vulnerability to oil supply disruptions. Its existence provides a formidable deterrent to the use of oil as a political instrument and an effective response mechanism should a disruption occur. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve was created pursuant to the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of December 22, 1975 (Public Law 94-163). Its purposes are to reduce the impact of disruptions in supplies of petroleum products and to carry out obligations of the United States under the Agreement on an International Energy Program. Section 165(a) of the Act requires the submission of Annual Reports and Section 165(b)(1) requires the submission of Quarterly Reports. This Quarterly Report highlights activities undertaken during the second quarter of calendar year 1995, including: inventory of petroleum products stored in the Reserve; current and projected storage capacity, analysis of existing or anticipated problems with the acquisition and storage of petroleum products, and future expansion of storage capacity; funds obligated by the Secretary from the SPR Petroleum Account and the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Account during the prior calendar quarter and in total; and major environmental actions completed, in progress, or anticipated.

NONE

1995-08-15

396

Development of the Hopi Reservation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Repeated encroachments by Mormons and Navajos upon Arizona lands traditionally inhabited by the Hopi American Indians occasioned the Executive Order of December 16, 1882 and creation of the Executive Order Reservation. However, assignment of lands was not limited to the Hopi, for the Order stated that the lands should be "set apart for the use and…

Seig, Louis

397

Teaching Sherman Alexie's "Reservation Blues."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A college teacher discusses his experiences of departing from the established literary canon to teach Sherman Alexie's "Reservation Blues" as part of an upper-level American literature survey class. Students reacted to the novel and its characters, evaluated Alexie's writing techniques, and discussed their personal experiences with Native…

McFarland, Ronald E.

2001-01-01

398

India's demand for international reserve and monetary disequilibrium: Reserve adequacy under floating regime  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main aim of this study is to investigate India's demand for international reserve by focusing on the role of national monetary disequilibrium and to present new benchmarks for assessing the adequacy of international reserves. We assessed India's position in terms of reserve adequacy and found that India is well placed and has sufficient stock of international reserves to meet

Ritesh Kumar Mishra; Chandan Sharma

2011-01-01

399

Seamless insertion of real pulmonary nodules in chest CT exams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The availability of large medical image datasets is critical in many applications such as training and testing of computer aided diagnosis (CAD) systems, evaluation of segmentation algorithms, and conducting perceptual studies. However, collection of large repositories of clinical images is hindered by the high cost and difficulties associated with both the accumulation of data and establishment of the ground truth. To address this problem, we are developing an image blending tool that allows users to modify or supplement existing datasets by seamlessly inserting a real lesion extracted from a source image into a different location on a target image. In this study we focus on the application of this tool to pulmonary nodules in chest CT exams. We minimize the impact of user skill on the perceived quality of the blended image by limiting user involvement to two simple steps: the user first draws a casual boundary around the nodule of interest in the source, and then selects the center of desired insertion area in the target. We demonstrate examples of the performance of the proposed system on samples taken from the Lung Image Database Consortium (LIDC) dataset, and compare the noise power spectrum (NPS) of blended nodules versus that of native nodules in simulated phantoms.

Pezeshk, Aria; Sahiner, Berkman; Zeng, Rongping; Wunderlich, Adam; Chen, Weijie; Petrick, Nicholas

2014-03-01

400

Predicting early academic success: HESI Admissions Assessment Exam.  

PubMed

Student retention is a major challenge for undergraduate nursing programs, with the highest attrition occurring in the first year of the nursing curriculum. Admission criteria have been studied extensively but usually as related to end-of-program outcomes such as National Council Licensure Examination for Registered Nurses success. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between HESI Admission Assessment (A(2)) scores and academic performance in the 2 first-semester nursing courses of an associate degree program, Nursing-1 and Nursing-2. Findings indicated that the composite A(2) scores were strongly correlated with both Nursing-1 and Nursing-2 final course grades. Of the scores on the 4 component A(2) exams completed by the sample students (basic math skills, reading comprehension, vocabulary/general knowledge, and grammar), vocabulary/general knowledge scores had the strongest relationship to final course grades in both nursing courses. The authors concluded that A(2) scores facilitated evidence-based admission decisions. PMID:23566503

Knauss, Parry J; Willson, Pamela

2013-01-01

401

ENERGY FROM URANIUM AND COAL RESERVES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tables of estimates are presented of domestic and world uranium reserves ; and resources. Tables are also given that show estimated coal reserves ; recoverable at various price levels for the U. S., the Free World, and the entire ; world. Calculations were made of the heat energy available from the estimated ; uranium and coal reserves. The data are

R. D. Nininger; C. I. Gardner; M. F. Searl; D. W. Kuhn

1960-01-01

402

Mark Redekopp, All rights reserved Electrical Engineering  

E-print Network

© Mark Redekopp, All rights reserved Electrical Engineering at USC What it means to you... Mark Redekopp redekopp@usc.edu ENGR 101 #12;© Mark Redekopp, All rights reserved What is Electrical Engineering #12;© Mark Redekopp, All rights reserved What is Electrical Engineering · The key partner and enabling

Leahy, Richard M.

403

24 CFR 891.605 - Replacement reserve.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...under §§ 891.655 through 891.790 are provided in § 891.745. (c) Level of reserve. The reserve must be built up to and maintained at a level determined by HUD to be sufficient to meet projected requirements. Should the reserve...

2013-04-01

404

24 CFR 891.605 - Replacement reserve.  

...under §§ 891.655 through 891.790 are provided in § 891.745. (c) Level of reserve. The reserve must be built up to and maintained at a level determined by HUD to be sufficient to meet projected requirements. Should the reserve...

2014-04-01

405

24 CFR 891.605 - Replacement reserve.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...under §§ 891.655 through 891.790 are provided in § 891.745. (c) Level of reserve. The reserve must be built up to and maintained at a level determined by HUD to be sufficient to meet projected requirements. Should the reserve...

2010-04-01

406

24 CFR 891.605 - Replacement reserve.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...under §§ 891.655 through 891.790 are provided in § 891.745. (c) Level of reserve. The reserve must be built up to and maintained at a level determined by HUD to be sufficient to meet projected requirements. Should the reserve...

2012-04-01

407

24 CFR 891.605 - Replacement reserve.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...under §§ 891.655 through 891.790 are provided in § 891.745. (c) Level of reserve. The reserve must be built up to and maintained at a level determined by HUD to be sufficient to meet projected requirements. Should the reserve...

2011-04-01

408

7 CFR 984.26 - Reserve walnuts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reserve walnuts. 984.26 Section 984.26 Agriculture...Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 984.26 Reserve walnuts. Reserve walnuts means those...

2010-01-01

409

75 FR 67731 - Federal Reserve Bank Services  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...balances to estimate net income on clearing balances...through 2009, the Reserve Banks recovered 97.8 percent...held with the Reserve Banks. 1. Net Income on Clearing Balances...assumption that the Reserve Banks invest clearing balances net of an imputed...

2010-11-03

410

SUBJECT EXAM TESTING DATES BY CLERKSHIP -2012-2013 FAMILY MEDICINE NEUROLOGY PEDIATRICS PSYCHIATRY SURGERY INTERNAL MED. OB/GYN  

E-print Network

SUBJECT EXAM TESTING DATES BY CLERKSHIP -2012-2013 FAMILY MEDICINE NEUROLOGY PEDIATRICS PSYCHIATRY SUBJECT EXAM SCHEDULE 8:00 AM ­ Pediatrics, Family Medicine, Psychiatry and Surgery 11:00 AM ­ Medicine

Berdichevsky, Victor

411

Review Sheet for First Exam, Ecology Spring 2011. Bring a # 2 lead pencil The goal of this exam is to test your understanding of the information and concepts presented in  

E-print Network

is to test your understanding of the information and concepts presented in this course. The examReview Sheet for First Exam, Ecology Spring 2011. Bring a # 2 lead pencil The goal of this exam/definitional questions, and questions that require application of concepts and facts to solve problems. Multiple

Mitchell, Randall J.

412

Multiple-choice exams: an obstacle for higher-level thinking in introductory science classes.  

PubMed

Learning science requires higher-level (critical) thinking skills that need to be practiced in science classes. This study tested the effect of exam format on critical-thinking skills. Multiple-choice (MC) testing is common in introductory science courses, and students in these classes tend to associate memorization with MC questions and may not see the need to modify their study strategies for critical thinking, because the MC exam format has not changed. To test the effect of exam format, I used two sections of an introductory biology class. One section was assessed with exams in the traditional MC format, the other section was assessed with both MC and constructed-response (CR) questions. The mixed exam format was correlated with significantly more cognitively active study behaviors and a significantly better performance on the cumulative final exam (after accounting for grade point average and gender). There was also less gender-bias in the CR answers. This suggests that the MC-only exam format indeed hinders critical thinking in introductory science classes. Introducing CR questions encouraged students to learn more and to be better critical thinkers and reduced gender bias. However, student resistance increased as students adjusted their perceptions of their own critical-thinking abilities. PMID:22949426

Stanger-Hall, Kathrin F

2012-01-01

413

The use of formative online quizzes to enhance class preparation and scores on summative exams  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Online quizzes were introduced into an undergraduate Exercise Physiology course to encourage students to read ahead and think critically about the course material before coming to class. The purpose of the study was to determine if the use of the online quizzes was associated with improvements in summative exam scores and if the online quizzes were valid predictors of summative exam performance. A retrospective analysis was performed on the course scores from three different groups of Exercise Physiology students. Students in group 1 completed the original version of the course, those in group 2 completed an updated version of the course that included more rigorous exam questions, and those in group 3 completed the same updated version of the course but with the addition of 10 required online quizzes. Results showed that the overall mean summative exam score from group 3 was significantly higher than that from group 2 (81.79 ñ 8.26 and 78.72 ñ 9.61, respectively). A significant positive correlation (r = 0.50) was also found between individual mean online quiz scores and individual mean exam scores for those students in group 3. It was concluded that the formative online quizzes did enhance summative exam performance and that the online quizzes were valid predictors of exam performance.

2008-12-01

414

Exam anxiety induces significant blood pressure and heart rate increase in college students.  

PubMed

To investigate the relationship between the anxiety and blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) increase in peri-exam period. Sixty-four college students(20.0 ± 0.1 year old) were included in this study. The BP and HR were measured in the morning and in the evening for 3 days during the prereview (ba), review, and exam periods. The BP and HR increase amplitudes (HRIA) of review and exam periods were from the difference of corresponding values and basic values, and the BPIA/baBP and HRIA/baHR were calculated. All of the students completed the Self-Rating Anxiety score (SAS) questionnaire the first day of the exam period. Scores over 50 points were used as the standard for anxiety. From the prereview to exam periods, the BP and HR increased gradually. The exam SBPIA (4.3 ± 1.3 vs. 0.3 ± 0.5 mmHg, P < 0.05) and DBPIA (4.4 ± 1.5 vs. 1.0 ± 0.5 mmHg, P < 0.05) were significantly higher in the anxiety group than in the no-anxiety group. The SBPIA/DBPIA and HRIA showed a similar profile also(9.7 ± 2.1 vs. 1.9 ± 0.9 bpm, P < 0.05). Strong positive correlations were found between the SAS score and BPIA and HRIA both in the review and exam period. The smoking group and family hypertension group had higher anxiety score; meanwhile, their exam BPIAs and HRIAs were significantly higher than their corresponding group. The BP and HR increase in the review and exam period, anxiety is an important factor of BP and HR increase. PMID:21787237

Zhang, Zhihong; Su, Hai; Peng, Qiang; Yang, Qing; Cheng, Xiaoshu

2011-01-01

415

Teaching About Substance Abuse with Objective Structured Clinical Exams  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Although residents commonly manage substance abuse disorders, optimal approaches to teaching these specialized interviewing and intervention skills are unknown. OBJECTIVE We developed a Substance Abuse Objective Structured Clinical Exam (OSCE) to teach addiction medicine competencies using immediate feedback. In this study we evaluated OSCE performance, examined associations between performance and self-assessed interest and competence in substance abuse, and assessed learning during the OSCE. DESIGN Five-station OSCE, including different substance abuse disorders and readiness to change stages, administered during postgraduate year-3 ambulatory rotations for 2 years. PARTICIPANTS One hundred and thirty-one internal and family medicine residents. MEASUREMENTS Faculty and standardized patients (SPs) assessed residents' general communication, assessment, management, and global skills using 4-point scales. Residents completed a pre-OSCE survey of experience, interest and competence in substance abuse, and a post-OSCE survey evaluating its educational value. Learning during the OSCE was also assessed by measuring performance improvement from the first to the final OSCE station. RESULTS Residents performed better (P<.001) in general communication (mean ± SD across stations = 3.12 ± 0.35) than assessment (2.65 ± 0.32) or management (2.58 ± 0.44), and overall ratings were lowest in the contemplative alcohol abuse station (2.50 ± 0.83). Performance was not associated with residents' self-assessed interest or competence. Perceived educational value of the OSCE was high, and feedback improved subsequent performance. CONCLUSIONS Although internal and family medicine residents require additional training in specialized substance abuse skills, immediate feedback provided during an OSCE helped teach needed skills for assessing and managing substance abuse disorders. PMID:16704387

Parish, Sharon J; Ramaswamy, Megha; Stein, Melissa R; Kachur, Elizabeth K; Arnsten, Julia H

2006-01-01

416

Cognitive reserve in ageing and Alzheimer's disease  

PubMed Central

The concept of reserve accounts for individual differences in susceptibility to age-related brain changes or Alzheimer's disease-related pathology. There is evidence that some people can tolerate more of these changes than others and still maintain function. Epidemiologic studies suggest that lifetime exposures including educational and occupational attainment, and leisure activities in late life, can increase this reserve. For example, there is a reduced risk of developing Alzheimer's disease in individuals with higher educational or occupational attainment. It is convenient to think of two types of reserve: brain reserve, which refers to actual differences in the brain itself that may increase tolerance of pathology, and cognitive reserve. Cognitive reserve refers to individual differences in how tasks are performed that may allow some people to be more resilient than others. The concept of cognitive reserve holds out the promise of interventions that could slow cognitive aging or reduce the risk of dementia. PMID:23079557

Stern, Yaakov

2012-01-01

417

1/17/2012 Day Date Course Room/Exam Type  

E-print Network

/16 5pm ­ 3/2 10pm: SA Endocrine VM745 RamCT Tue 2/28: Midterm Exam #1 VM737 In Class ­ Path 109 March 5 In Class ­ Path 101 April 2-8 Wed-Fri 4/4 5pm ­ 4/6 11pm: Exam #2 VM726 RamCT Respiratory System 9-15 Tue 4: Endocrine VM742 RamCT Wed-Sat 5/2 5pm ­ 5/5 11pm: Final Exam Cardiovascular & Comprehensive VM726 Ram

418

1/17/2012 Day Date Course Room/Exam Type  

E-print Network

April 2-8 Tue-Tue 3/27 11pm­4/3 11pm: Exam #2 VM730 RamCT Thu 4/5: Exam #2 - Respiratory, Meidcal Care-Mon 2/8 11pm­2/13 11pm: Cardiology VM773 RamCT 13-19 20-26 Thu-Tue 2/16 11pm­2/21 11pm: Respiratory Medpm: Respiratory Surgery VM773 RamCT 27-Mar 4 Tue-Tue 2/21 11pm­2/28 11pm: Exam #1 VM730 RamCT Fri

419

Will I do as well on the final exam as I expect? An examination of students' expectations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Immediately prior to an exam, it is common to hear students commenting on whether they anticipate doing as well on the exam as they expect (or, in other words, whether they anticipate performing as well on the exam as the standard at which they believe they should be performing). These anticipations have received little past research attention. In this study,

David J. Burns

2008-01-01

420

The Elite Illusion: Achievement Effects at Boston and New York Exam Schools. NBER Working Paper No. 17264  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Talented students compete fiercely for seats at Boston and New York exam schools. These schools are characterized by high levels of peer achievement and a demanding curriculum tailored to each district's highest achievers. While exam school students clearly do very well in school, the question of whether an exam school education adds value…

Abdulkadiroglu, Atila; Angrist, Joshua D.; Pathak, Parag A.

2011-01-01

421

Strategic Petroleum Reserve quarterly report  

SciTech Connect

This Quarterly Report highlights activities undertaken during the second quarter of calendar year 1993, including: inventory of petroleum products stored in the Reserve, under contract and in transit at the end of the calendar quarter; fill rate for the current quarter and projected fill rate for the next calendar quarter; average price of the petroleum products acquired during the calendar quarter; current and projected storage capacity and plans to accelerate the acquisition or construction of such capacity; analysis of existing or anticipated problems with the acquisition and storage of petroleum products, and future expansion of storage capacity; funds obligated by the Secretary from the SPR Petroleum Account and the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Account during the prior calendar quarter and in total; and major environmental actions completed, in progress, or anticipated.

Not Available

1993-08-15

422

Strategic Petroleum Reserve annual report  

SciTech Connect

During 1980, the significant events for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Program (SPR) included the resumption of oil acquisition, the completion of Phase I facilities, oil withdrawal testing, and commencement of Phase II leaching. The report includes the following contents: introduction and program background; SPR plan and amendments; status of the strategic petroleum reserve which includes program definition, organization, site development, program and project management, budget and cost, real estate, environmental compliance, and permits, and crude oil logistics, distribution, and inventory; drawdown system and vulnerability impact; energy security act implementation; SPR relations with state and local governments; and appendices - SPR site status of Bayou Choctaw, Weeks Island, Bryan Mound, Sulphur Mines, West Hackberry, and St. James Terminal.

Not Available

1981-02-16

423

Indian Reserves: Canada's Developing Nations  

PubMed Central

Indian reserves are the most visible reminder of the separation of aboriginal people from the rest of Canada and other Canadians. Illness patterns and social conditions in Native communities closely parallel those in developing nations. While they continue to have a large burden of infectious diseases, these groups also have an increased incidence of chronic and lifestyle diseases as well as environment-related conditions. Similarities can be seen in urban areas between immigrants from abroad and people from reserves. Barriers impede full access to and benefit from the Canadian health care system. The author reviews the evidence behind these comparisons and lists some resources that can help physicians meet the challenge of cross-cultural care to aboriginal Canadians. PMID:21249110

Musto, Richard J.

1990-01-01

424

Demand Response Spinning Reserve Demonstration  

SciTech Connect

The Demand Response Spinning Reserve project is a pioneeringdemonstration of how existing utility load-management assets can providean important electricity system reliability resource known as spinningreserve. Using aggregated demand-side resources to provide spinningreserve will give grid operators at the California Independent SystemOperator (CAISO) and Southern California Edison (SCE) a powerful, newtool to improve system reliability, prevent rolling blackouts, and lowersystem operating costs.

Eto, Joseph H.; Nelson-Hoffman, Janine; Torres, Carlos; Hirth,Scott; Yinger, Bob; Kueck, John; Kirby, Brendan; Bernier, Clark; Wright,Roger; Barat, A.; Watson, David S.

2007-05-01

425

FRED: Federal Reserve Economic Data  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis provides this clearinghouse of financial and economic data. Central to this site are the data files, a compendium of hundreds of daily, weekly, monthly, and quarterly time series on financial, monetary, interest rate, producer and consumer price, employment, population, and exchange rate data, among others. Some files are in .zip or compressed format. The site also offers FRBSTL growth rate macros (Excel and Lotus formats) and a selection of the Bank's online publications.

426

Relationship of the Gesell Developmental Exam and the Bracken Basic Concept Scale to Academic Achievement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Administered the Gesell Development Exam and the Bracken Basic Concept Scale (BBCS) to kindergarten graduates (N=80). Found the BBCS may be a better predictor of achievement from a current state of readiness. (Author/ABL)

Sterner, Anne G.; McCallum, R. Steve

1988-01-01

427

Microsoft Word - App 9-22 Exam Results Sent Summary Report.doc  

Cancer.gov

Lung Screening Study Version 3.0 Manual of Operations and Procedures 11/15/00 Appendix 9-22 Lung Screening Study EXAM RESULTS SENT - SUMMARY REPORT Report as of Date: ____________________________ Georgetown Henry Ford Minnesota Wash U Marshfield

428

A Comparison of In-Class Quizzes vs. Online Quizzes on Student Exam Performance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compared undergraduates who took online quizzes using Mallard with students taking traditional paper-and-pencil quizzes. Found that Mallard students performed significantly better on in-class exams than non-Mallard students. (EV)

Derouza, Eros; Fleming, Matthew

2003-01-01

429

Testing the test: an examination of the Freshman English Equivalency Exam  

E-print Network

This study evaluates the validity, reliability, fairness, and effects of the Freshman English Equivalency Exam at Texas A&M University after one year of use. Consistency of scores across test administrations, raters, and social groups is examined...

Ashe, Diana Lynne

2012-06-07

430

1 Exam 3 Review Ch 9a: Key Question: "Are you Rational?" Ans: no (subjective,  

E-print Network

1 Exam 3 Review Ch 9a: Key Question: "Are you Rational?" Ans: no (subjective, psychic budgets, loss account ­ $ is not just $ (psychic budgets). #12;9 Relativity Effects Another version of $ is not just

O'Reilly, Randall C.

431

ExamSoft Instructions: Mac How to download SofTest for Mac  

E-print Network

ExamSoft Instructions: Mac How to download SofTest for Mac For best performance, completeSoft Instructions: Mac 7. Click the arrow to open this folder; then click the install SofTesticon. 8. The install

432

Duke study finds rectal exams may benefit obese men more than normal-weight peers:  

Cancer.gov

Researchers at the Duke Cancer Institute and elsewhere have found that the doctors' office exam may be better at detecting advanced prostate tumors in heavy men than in their normal-weight counterparts.

433

Reserve selection with land market feedbacks.  

PubMed

How to best site reserves is a leading question for conservation biologists. Recently, reserve selection has emphasized efficient conservation: maximizing conservation goals given the reality of limited conservation budgets, and this work indicates that land market can potentially undermine the conservation benefits of reserves by increasing property values and development probabilities near reserves. Here we propose a reserve selection methodology which optimizes conservation given both a budget constraint and land market feedbacks by using a combination of econometric models along with stochastic dynamic programming. We show that amenity based feedbacks can be accounted for in optimal reserve selection by choosing property price and land development models which exogenously estimate the effects of reserve establishment. In our empirical example, we use previously estimated models of land development and property prices to select parcels to maximize coarse woody debris along 16 lakes in Vilas County, WI, USA. Using each lake as an independent experiment, we find that including land market feedbacks in the reserve selection algorithm has only small effects on conservation efficacy. Likewise, we find that in our setting heuristic (minloss and maxgain) algorithms perform nearly as well as the optimal selection strategy. We emphasize that land market feedbacks can be included in optimal reserve selection; the extent to which this improves reserve placement will likely vary across landscapes. PMID:23141878

Butsic, Van; Lewis, David J; Radeloff, Volker C

2013-01-15

434

Strategic Petroleum Reserve annual/quarterly report  

SciTech Connect

During 1992 the Department continued planning activities for the expansion of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve to one billion barrels. A draft Environmental Impact Statement for the five candidate sites was completed in October 1992, and a series of public hearings was held during December 1992. Conceptual design engineering activities, life cycle cost estimates and geotechnical studies to support the technical requirements for an Strategic Petroleum Reserve Plan Amendment were essentially completed in December 1992. At the end of 1992, the Strategic Petroleum Reserve crude oil inventory was 574.7 million barrels and an additional 1.7 million barrels was in transit to the Reserve. During 1992 approximately 6.2 million barrels of crude oil were acquired for the Reserve. A Department of Energy Tiger Team Environmental, Safety and Health (ES&H) Assessment was conducted at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve from March 9 through April 10, 1992. In general, the Tiger Team found that Strategic Petroleum Reserve activities do not pose undue environmental, safety or health risks. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve`s Final Corrective Action Plan, prepared in response to the Tiger Team assessment, was submitted for Department approval in December 1992. On November 18, 1992, the Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy selected DynMcDennott Petroleum Operations Company to provide management and operating services for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve for a period of 5 years commencing April 1, 1993. DynMcDermott will succeed Boeing Petroleum Services, Inc.

Not Available

1993-02-16

435

The effect of marriage on utilization of colorectal endoscopy exam in the United States  

PubMed Central

Purpose This study examines the association between marriage and colorectal endoscopy exam, and whether this association varies by gender and financial benefits of marriage including improved access to health insurance and pooled family income. Methods Representative survey data of the non-institutionalized United States population were used from the 2000, 2005, and 2008 National Health Interview Survey. Analyses targeted persons 50–85 years of age without a personal history of cancer and with complete information on all study variables (n = 21,760). Multivariate logistic regression was used to model marital status differences in the probability of undergoing a colorectal endoscopy exam with interaction effects used to model variation over time by gender, health insurance, and poverty level. Results Married persons were more likely than unmarried persons to report ever having undergone a colorectal endoscopy exam (odds ratio [OR], 1.21; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.12–1.29), and the difference between married and unmarried persons in the probability of undergoing a colorectal endoscopy exam remained stable over time. Married persons were more likely than unmarried persons to report having undergone a colorectal endoscopy exam within the past 10 years (OR, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.15–1.95). For each survey year, married men were significantly more likely than women and unmarried men to report having undergone a colorectal endoscopy exam. For example, in 2008, 56% of married men reported having undergone a colorectal endoscopy exam, compared to 49% of unmarried men, 52% of married women, and 50% of unmarried women. Among persons with health insurance, married persons were significantly more likely than unmarried persons to have undergone a colorectal endoscopy exam. Among persons who were poor, there was no difference by marital status in the likelihood of having undergone a colorectal endoscopy exam. However, among persons who were not poor, married persons were more likely than unmarried persons to have undergone a colorectal endoscopy exam. Conclusion Given that colorectal endoscopy exams are a potentially life-saving procedure, persistently higher uptake of colorectal endoscopy for married persons over time may be an important health promoting benefit of marriage. Therefore, clinicians and policy makers should focus on improving the use of cancer prevention services among unmarried persons. PMID:22633538

Wilson, Fernando A.; Watanabe-Galloway, Shinobu; Peek, M. Kristen

2012-01-01

436

Discovering Computer-Assisted Learning Processes based on Objective Exam Score Transformations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the implementation of a newly developed e-learning technology which features Reproducible Computing (www.wessa.net and www.freestatistics.org), it is investigated how the relationships between learning outcomes (as measured by exam questions) and objectively measured, computer-assisted learning activities can be investigated. The main contribution of this paper is that objective exam score transformations can have a huge effect on our ability

Patrick Wessa

2009-01-01

437

Sleep Quality during Exam Stress: The Role of Alcohol, Caffeine and Nicotine  

PubMed Central

Academic exam stress is known to compromise sleep quality and alter drug consumption in university students. Here we evaluated if sleeping problems and changes in legal drug consumption during exam stress are interrelated. We used the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) to survey sleep quality before, during, and after an academic exam period in 150 university students in a longitudinal questionnaire study. Self-reports of alcohol, caffeine, and nicotine consumption were obtained. The Perceived Stress Questionnaire (PSQ-20) was used as a measure of stress. Sleep quality and alcohol consumption significantly decreased, while perceived stress and caffeine consumption significantly increased during the exam period. No significant change in nicotine consumption was observed. In particular, students shortened their time in bed and showed symptoms of insomnia. Mixed model analysis indicated that sex, age, health status, as well as the amounts of alcohol and caffeine consumed had no significant influence on global sleep quality. The amount of nicotine consumed and perceived stress were identified as significant predictors of diminished sleep quality. Nicotine consumption had a small-to-very-small effect on sleep quality; perceived stress had a small-to-moderate effect. In conclusion, diminished sleep quality during exam periods was mainly predicted by perceived stress, while legal drug consumption played a minor role. Exam periods may pose an interesting model for the study of stress-induced sleeping problems and their mechanisms. PMID:25279939

Zunhammer, Matthias; Eichhammer, Peter; Busch, Volker

2014-01-01

438

Classification and analysis of multiple sclerosis lesions in spin-echo MR exams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The high resolution and excellent soft tissue contrast of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) have enabled direct, non- invasive visualization of Multiple Sclerosis (MS) lesions in vivo. This has allowed quantification of changes in the appearance of lesions in MR exams to be used as a measure of disease state. Nevertheless, accurate quantification techniques are subject to inter- and intra-operator variability, which may hinder monitoring of disease progression. We have developed a computer program to aid an experienced operator in the quantification of MS lesions in spin-echo MR exams. Assisted and manual quantification were used to study inter-operator and intra-operator variability under known conditions in exams of a test phantom, and under clinical conditions in 1.5T and 0.5T exams of an MS patient. Results of the phantom study show that accuracy was improved by assisted quantification. The patient exam results indicate that assisted quantification reduced both inter-operator and intra-operator variability, while quantification in 0.5T exams reduced the variability of manual quantification, but had no significant effect upon assisted quantification. Application of assisted quantification to the analysis and visualization of two large periventricular lesions reveals subtle changes over time in the internal composition of these apparently static lesions.

Mitchell, Ross; Karlik, Stephen J.; Lee, Donald H.; Fenster, Aaron

1994-09-01

439

Sleep quality during exam stress: the role of alcohol, caffeine and nicotine.  

PubMed

Academic exam stress is known to compromise sleep quality and alter drug consumption in university students. Here we evaluated if sleeping problems and changes in legal drug consumption during exam stress are interrelated. We used the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) to survey sleep quality before, during, and after an academic exam period in 150 university students in a longitudinal questionnaire study. Self-reports of alcohol, caffeine, and nicotine consumption were obtained. The Perceived Stress Questionnaire (PSQ-20) was used as a measure of stress. Sleep quality and alcohol consumption significantly decreased, while perceived stress and caffeine consumption significantly increased during the exam period. No significant change in nicotine consumption was observed. In particular, students shortened their time in bed and showed symptoms of insomnia. Mixed model analysis indicated that sex, age, health status, as well as the amounts of alcohol and caffeine consumed had no significant influence on global sleep quality. The amount of nicotine consumed and perceived stress were identified as significant predictors of diminished sleep quality. Nicotine consumption had a small-to-very-small effect on sleep quality; perceived stress had a small-to-moderate effect. In conclusion, diminished sleep quality during exam periods was mainly predicted by perceived stress, while legal drug consumption played a minor role. Exam periods may pose an interesting model for the study of stress-induced sleeping problems and their mechanisms. PMID:25279939

Zunhammer, Matthias; Eichhammer, Peter; Busch, Volker

2014-01-01

440

Sample Questions from Past Qualifying Exams This list may give the impression that the exams consist of a series of questions fired at  

E-print Network

consist of a series of questions fired at the student one after another. In fact most exams have more accurately the difficulties involved. The list indicates the professor associated to each question where] � What is chilling? What is heating? What is overheating? [Berlekamp] � What is the kernel of freezing

Wolfe, Patrick J.

441

Physics 214 Alternate Final Exam Winter 2013 This is an open book exam with a time limit of three hours. You may refer to Jackson's text,  

E-print Network

of the exam. 1. A magnetic dipole m undergoes precessional motion with angular frequency and angle 0 be used to define the three-vector force in relativistic mechanics if p is interpreted as the relativistic-vector acceleration, a dv/dt. (b) A particle of mass m moving at velocity v is acted on by a force F . In non

California at Santa Cruz, University of

442

Physics 214 Alternate Final Exam Winter 2013 This is an open book exam with a time limit of three hours. You may refer to Jackson's text,  

E-print Network

of the exam. 1. A magnetic dipole # m undergoes precessional motion with angular frequency # and angle # 0 useful form, since it can be used to define the three­vector force in relativistic mechanics if # p is acted on by a force # F . In non­relativistic mechanics, the power is equal to the rate at which work

California at Santa Cruz, University of

443

Dr. Campbell's Bio111 Exam #2 KEY Spring 2007 Spring 2007 Biology 111 In-Class Exam #2 KEY Classical Genetics  

E-print Network

­ 222) ÷ 6 = 13 13 Lecture Questions: 6 pts. 2) List the mechanisms used in meiosis that result ­ Classical Genetics The in-class portion of this exam is designed so that you can complete it in 20 minutes are not allowed to use your notes, old tests, the internet, or any books, nor are you allowed to discuss the test

Campbell, A. Malcolm

444

Reserve valuation in electric power systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Operational reliability is provided in part by scheduling capacity in excess of the load forecast. This reserve capacity balances the uncertain power demand with the supply in real time and provides for equipment outages. Traditionally, reserve scheduling has been ensured by enforcing reserve requirements in the operations planning. An alternate approach is to employ a stochastic formulation, which allows the explicit modeling of the sources of uncertainty. This thesis compares stochastic and reserve methods and evaluates the benefits of a combined approach for the efficient management of uncertainty in the unit commitment problem. Numerical studies show that the unit commitment solutions obtained for the combined approach are robust and superior with respect to the traditional approach. These robust solutions are especially valuable in areas with a high proportion of wind power, as their built-in flexibility allows the dispatch of practically all the available wind power while minimizing the costs of operation. The scheduled reserve has an economic value since it reduces the outage costs. In several electricity markets, reserve demand functions have been implemented to take into account the value of reserve in the market clearing process. These often take the form of a step-down function at the reserve requirement level, and as such they may not appropriately represent the reserve value. The value of reserve is impacted by the reliability, dynamic and stochastic characteristics of system components, the system operation policies, and the economic aspects such as the risk preferences of the demand. In this thesis, these aspects are taken into account to approximate the reserve value and construct reserve demand functions. Illustrative examples show that the demand functions constructed have similarities with those implemented in some markets.

Ruiz, Pablo Ariel

445

7 CFR 984.456 - Disposition of reserve walnuts and walnuts used for reserve disposition credit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disposition of reserve walnuts and walnuts used for reserve disposition credit. 984.456...Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules and...

2010-01-01

446

Reserve a seat! Intelligent transportation reservation system for tourists  

SciTech Connect

Providing safe, predictable, and efficient transportation for tourists to and from various venues presents a major challenge. Special-event transportation is notoriously unreliable and usually congested at peak times. The rural nature of certain tourist locations (e.g., the Grand Canyon) further complicates the problem. The proposed Intelligent Transportation Reservation System will have three components, each of which performs different functions. On-vehicle component: this component has three purposes: (1) to keep a running count of the passengers on the bus in order to determine how many additional passengers can be accommodated based on the total capacity of the vehicle; (2) through use of Global Positioning Satellite (GPS) technology, to be able to determine the location of the bus at all times; (3) to transmit information to a central data facility. Together these three features provide location, available-space, and condition information to controllers at a central data facility and to prospective riders of the bus. Kiosk component: located at every loading/unloading point, the purpose is to allow passengers-to-be to determine when the next bus (or buses) will arrive and the availability of seating. Individuals can make a reservation for the next bus with sufficient seating and will know when that bus will arrive at the kiosk. Information component: located within hotels and at venue sites, this component will provide information on the buses in the system (e.g. route and current capacity), and loading/unloading locations throughout the network at any point in time.

Truett, L.F.; Tonn, B. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Conley, T. [GTE Wireless, Nashville, TN (United States)

1998-07-01

447

Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Quarterly report  

SciTech Connect

The Strategic Petroleum Reserve serves as one of the most important investments in reducing the Nation`s vulnerability to oil supply disruptions. This Quarterly Report highlights activities undertaken during the third quarter of calendar year 1993, including: inventory of petroleum products stored in the Reserve, under contract and in transit at the end of the calendar quarter; fill rate for the quarter and projected fill rate for the next calendar quarter; average price of the petroleum products acquired during the calendar quarter; current and projected storage capacity and plans to accelerate the acquisition or construction of such capacity; analysis of existing or anticipated problems with the acquisition and storage of petroleum products and future expansion of storage capacity; funds obligated by the Secretary from the SPR Petroleum Account and the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Account during the prior calendar quarter and in total; and major environmental actions completed, in progress, or anticipated. Samples of the oil revealed two problems that, although readily correctable, have reduced the availability of some of the oil inventory for drawdown in the near-term. These problems are: (1) a higher-than-normal gas content in some of the crude oil, apparently from years of intrusion of methane form the surrounding salt formation; and (2) elevated temperatures of some of the crude oil, due to geothermal heating, that has increased the vapor pressure of the oil. Investigations are proceeding to determine the extent to which gas intrusion and geothermal heating are impacting the availability of oil for drawdown. Preliminary designs have been developed for systems to mitigate both problems.

Not Available

1993-11-15

448

30 CFR 585.911 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Environmental and Safety Management, Inspections, and Facility Assessments for Activities Conducted Under SAPs, COPs and GAPs Facility Removal § 585.911 [Reserved] Decommissioning...

2012-07-01

449

30 CFR 585.814 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Environmental and Safety Management, Inspections, and Facility Assessments for Activities Conducted Under SAPs, COPs and GAPs Maintenance and Shutdowns § 585.814 [Reserved] Equipment Failure and Adverse Environmental...

2012-07-01

450

30 CFR 285.814 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Environmental and Safety Management, Inspections, and Facility Assessments for Activities Conducted Under SAPs, COPs and GAPs Maintenance and Shutdowns § 285.814 [Reserved] Equipment Failure and Adverse Environmental...

2011-07-01

451

30 CFR 285.814 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Environmental and Safety Management, Inspections, and Facility Assessments for Activities Conducted Under SAPs, COPs and GAPs Maintenance and Shutdowns § 285.814 [Reserved] Equipment Failure and Adverse Environmental...

2010-07-01

452

30 CFR 285.812 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...CONTINENTAL SHELF Environmental and Safety Management, Inspections, and Facility Assessments for Activities Conducted Under SAPs, COPs and GAPs Safety Management Systems § 285.812 [Reserved] Maintenance and...

2011-07-01

453

30 CFR 285.812 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...CONTINENTAL SHELF Environmental and Safety Management, Inspections, and Facility Assessments for Activities Conducted Under SAPs, COPs and GAPs Safety Management Systems § 285.812 [Reserved] Maintenance and...

2010-07-01

454

30 CFR 585.812 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...CONTINENTAL SHELF Environmental and Safety Management, Inspections, and Facility Assessments for Activities Conducted Under SAPs, COPs and GAPs Safety Management Systems § 585.812 [Reserved] Maintenance and...

2012-07-01

455

7 CFR 205.669 - [Reserved  

...SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Administrative Compliance § 205.669 [Reserved] Inspection and...

2014-01-01

456

7 CFR 205.669 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Administrative Compliance § 205.669 [Reserved] Inspection and...

2011-01-01

457

7 CFR 205.669 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Administrative Compliance § 205.669 [Reserved] Inspection and...

2012-01-01

458

HOTEL RESERVATION FORM INFRASOUND TECHNOLOGY WORKSHOP 2002  

E-print Network

HOTEL RESERVATION FORM INFRASOUND TECHNOLOGY WORKSHOP 2002 28 ­ 31 OCTOBER 2002 Park Plaza Utrecht:.................................................................................................................................. Date of arrival:............................................... Date of departure:........................................................................................... Expiry date

Evers, Läslo G.

459

29 CFR 1926.401 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Electrical General § 1926.401 [Reserved] Installation Safety...

2010-07-01

460

29 CFR 1926.401 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Electrical General § 1926.401 [Reserved] Installation Safety...

2012-07-01

461

29 CFR 1926.401 - [Reserved  

...Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Electrical General § 1926.401 [Reserved] Installation Safety...

2014-07-01

462

29 CFR 1926.401 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Electrical General § 1926.401 [Reserved] Installation Safety...

2013-07-01

463

29 CFR 1926.401 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Electrical General § 1926.401 [Reserved] Installation Safety...

2011-07-01

464

Fiji's largest marine reserve benefits reef sharks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To provide more information about whether sharks benefit from no-take marine reserves, we quantified the relative abundance and biomass of reef sharks inside and outside of Namena, Fiji's largest reserve (60.6 km2). Using stereo baited remote underwater video systems (stereo-BRUVs), we found that the abundance and biomass of sharks was approximately two and four times greater in shallow and deep locations, respectively, within the Namena reserve compared to adjacent fished areas. The greater abundance and biomass of reef sharks inside Namena is likely a result of greater prey availability rather than protection from fishing. This study demonstrates that marine reserves can benefit sharks.

Goetze, J. S.; Fullwood, L. A. F.

2013-03-01

465

Spinning Reserve from Responsive Load  

SciTech Connect

As power system costs rise and capacity is strained demand response can provide a significant system reliability benefit at a potentially attractive cost. The 162 room Music Road Hotel in Pigeon Forge Tennessee agreed to host a spinning reserve test. The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) supplied real-time metering and monitoring expertise to record total hotel load during both normal operations and testing. Preliminary testing showed that hotel load can be curtailed by 22% to 37% depending on the outdoor temperature and the time of day. The load drop was very rapid, essentially as fast as the 2 second metering could detect.

Kueck, John D [ORNL] [ORNL; Kirby, Brendan J [ORNL] [ORNL; Laughner, T [Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA)] [Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA); Morris, K [Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA)] [Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA)

2009-01-01

466

Banks' Reserve Management, Transaction Costs, and the Timing of Federal Reserve Intervention.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We use daily data on bank reserves and overnight interest rates to document a striking pattern in the high-frequency behavior of the U.S. market for federal funds: depository institutions tend to hold more reserves during the last few days of each 'reserv...

L. Bartolini, G. Bertola, A. Prati

2000-01-01

467

Managing exam stress using UMTS phones: the advantage of portable audio/video support.  

PubMed

Test-taking anxiety or stress is very common among university students. It can be very distressing and sometimes debilitating. Exam anxiety involves physical components and emotional components that may be taken into account for managing and reducing anxiety. An approach to control exam anxiety is to learn how to regulate emotions. To help students in managing exam stress we developed a specific protocol based on mobile narratives--multimedia narratives experienced on UMTS/3G phones. 30 female university students (M=23.48; sd=1.24) who were going to perform an exam within a week were included in the trial. They were randomly divided in five groups according to the type and mobility of the medium used: (1) audio only narrative (CD at home); (2) audio only narrative (portable MP3); (3) audio and video narrative (DVD at home); (4) audio and video narrative (UMTS based); (5) control group. Audio/video narratives induced a reduction in exam anxiety in more than 80% of the sample vs 50% of the MP3 sample and 0% of the CD sample. Further, all the users who experienced mobile narratives on UMTS phones were able to relax before the exam, against 50% of DVD users and 33% of audio-only users. The trial showed a better efficacy of mobile narratives experienced on UMTS phones in reducing the level of exam stress and in helping the student to relax. These results suggest that for the specific sample considered--Italian university students--the media used for providing an anti-stress protocol has a clear impact on its efficacy. PMID:17377312

Riva, Giuseppe; Grassi, Alessandra; Villani, Daniela; Gaggioli, Andrea; Preziosa, Alessandra

2007-01-01

468

Genomic Markers of Ovarian Reserve  

PubMed Central

Ovarian reserve and its utilization, over a reproductive life span, are determined by genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors. The establishment of the primordial follicle pool and the rate of primordial follicle activation have been under intense study to determine genetic factors that affect reproductive lifespan. Much has been learned from transgenic animal models about the developmental origins of the primordial follicle pool and mechanisms that lead to primordial follicle activation, folliculogenesis, and the maturation of a single oocyte with each menstrual cycle. Recent genome-wide association studies on the age of human menopause have identified approximately 20 loci, and shown the importance of factors involved in double-strand break repair and immunology. Studies to date from animal models and humans show that many genes determine ovarian aging, and that there is no single dominant allele yet responsible for depletion of the ovarian reserve. Personalized genomic approaches will need to take into account the high degree of genetic heterogeneity, family pedigree, and functional data of the genes critical at various stages of ovarian development to predict women's reproductive life span. PMID:24101221

Wood, Michelle A.; Rajkovic, Aleksandar

2014-01-01

469

PROVOST RULES GOVERNING FINAL EXAMINATIONS 1. No instructor may hold a final examination nor require the submission of a take-home final exam except  

E-print Network

and not #12;the exams of other students. Therefore, for example, it is not permissible to leave student exams student privacy. 11. Final exams for College of Liberal and Professional Studies (LPS) courses must require the submission of a take-home final exam except during the period in which final examinations

Chai, Ching-Li

470

College students' ratings of student effort, student ability and teacher input as correlates of student performance on multiple-choice exams  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the class session following feedback regarding their scores on multiple-choice exams, undergraduate students in a large human development course rated the strength of possible contributors to their exam performance. Students rated items related to their personal effort in preparing for the exam (identified as student effort in the paper), their ability to perform well on the exams (identified as

Robert L. Williams; Lloyd Clark

2004-01-01

471

7 CFR 623.13 - Wetlands reserve plan of operations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Wetlands reserve plan of operations. 623.13 Section...OF AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES EMERGENCY WETLANDS RESERVE PROGRAM § 623.13 Wetlands reserve plan of operations. (a)...

2013-01-01

472

12 CFR 211.43 - Allocated transfer risk reserve.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Allocated transfer risk reserve. 211.43 Section 211.43 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM INTERNATIONAL BANKING OPERATIONS (REGULATION K) International Lending...

2010-01-01

473

12 CFR 209.3 - Cancellation of Reserve Bank stock.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Bank stock. 209.3 Section 209.3 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM ISSUE AND CANCELLATION OF FEDERAL RESERVE BANK CAPITAL STOCK (REGULATION I) § 209.3...

2010-01-01

474

12 CFR 615.5456 - Authority of Federal Reserve Banks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Authority of Federal Reserve Banks. 615.5456 Section 615.5456...Securities § 615.5456 Authority of Federal Reserve Banks. (a) Each Federal Reserve Bank is hereby authorized as...

2010-01-01

475

76 FR 35191 - Reserve Forces Policy Board (RFPB)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of Defense Reserve Forces Policy Board. ACTION...Pursuant to the Federal Advisory...following Federal advisory...meeting of the Reserve Forces Policy Board (RFPB...submitted to the Reserve Forces Policy Board's Designated Federal...

2011-06-16

476

40 CFR 73.26 - Conservation and renewable energy reserve.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Conservation and renewable energy reserve. 73.26 Section...73.26 Conservation and renewable energy reserve. The Administrator...allowances to the Conservation and Renewable Energy Reserve subaccount of...

2010-07-01

477

14 CFR 23.904 - Automatic power reserve system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Automatic power reserve system. 23.904 Section...AIRPLANES Powerplant General § 23.904 Automatic power reserve system. If installed, an automatic power reserve (APR) system that...

2010-01-01

478

Site Plan: Real Estate, Custer Reserve Forces Training Area, Military ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Site Plan: Real Estate, Custer Reserve Forces Training Area, Military Reservation, USACOE, 20 July 1948 - Fort Custer Military Reservation, Bounded by Territorial, Dickman, & Longman Roads & Route 94 Business, Battle Creek, Calhoun County, MI

479

40 CFR 73.26 - Conservation and renewable energy reserve.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Conservation and renewable energy reserve. 73.26 Section...73.26 Conservation and renewable energy reserve. The Administrator...allowances to the Conservation and Renewable Energy Reserve subaccount of...

2013-07-01

480

40 CFR 73.26 - Conservation and renewable energy reserve.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Conservation and renewable energy reserve. 73.26 Section...73.26 Conservation and renewable energy reserve. The Administrator...allowances to the Conservation and Renewable Energy Reserve subaccount of...

2012-07-01

481

40 CFR 73.26 - Conservation and renewable energy reserve.  

...2014-07-01 false Conservation and renewable energy reserve. 73.26 Section...73.26 Conservation and renewable energy reserve. The Administrator...allowances to the Conservation and Renewable Energy Reserve subaccount of...

2014-07-01

482

40 CFR 73.26 - Conservation and renewable energy reserve.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Conservation and renewable energy reserve. 73.26 Section...73.26 Conservation and renewable energy reserve. The Administrator...allowances to the Conservation and Renewable Energy Reserve subaccount of...

2011-07-01

483

5 CFR 842.210 - Military reserve technicians.  

... 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Military reserve technicians. 842.210 Section...SYSTEM-BASIC ANNUITY Eligibility § 842.210 Military reserve technicians. (a) A military reserve technician as defined in 5...

2014-01-01

484

24 CFR 982.155 - Administrative fee reserve.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...PROGRAM Annual Contributions Contract and PHA Administration of Program § 982.155 Administrative fee reserve. (a) The PHA must maintain an administrative fee reserve...single administrative fee reserve for the PHA program. The PHA must credit to the...

2010-04-01

485

40 CFR 49.9901-49.9920 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Chehalis Reservation, Washington §§ 49.9901-49.9920 [Reserved] Implementation Plan for the Coeur D'Alene Tribe of the Coeur D'Alene Reservation, Idaho Source: 70 FR 18111, Apr. 8, 2005, unless otherwise...

2010-07-01

486

Estimating U.S. uranium reserves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article presents information on the Energy Information Administration’s (U.S. Department of Energy) annual estimates of U.S. uranium reserves. Encompassed is information for year-end 1997’s uranium reserves, which were estimated by employing numerous resources.

Smith, L. L.

1998-12-01

487

Estimating U.S. uranium reserves  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents information on the Energy Information Administration’s (U.S. Department of Energy) annual estimates\\u000a of U.S. uranium reserves. Encompassed is information for year-end 1997’s uranium reserves, which were estimated by employing\\u000a numerous resources.

Luther L. Smith

1998-01-01

488

Ancillary-service details: operating reserves.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Operating reserves are the front lines in the defense of bulk-power systems against major generation and transmission outages. Operating reserves are provided by generating units that can increase their output rapidly to restore the system to generation/l...

E. Hirst, B. Kirby

1997-01-01

489

Einstein Room Reservations Rules and Regulations  

E-print Network

in accordance to Albert Einstein College of Medicine's Alcohol Policy. Before your request is confirmed you mustEinstein Room Reservations Rules and Regulations Before Reservation: Requests are not confirmed Activities, Joan Junger, (718) 430-2105 or student.activities@einstein.yu.edu. A meeting or conversation

Yates, Andrew

490

Energy resources are not all fuel reserves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fraction of the supposed worldwide coal resources which are proved reserves, recoverable from known, defined deposits under current economic and operational conditions is examined. Various estimates of the world's energy reserves and resources are compared, and the main energy resources that might be available in practice in the 1990's are estimated. It is concluded that the portion of the

D. Ion

1976-01-01

491

Strategic petroleum reserve data acquisition system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Strategic Petroleum Reserve Data Acquisition System is a general purpose, digital data acquisition system designed for field use in the DOE's Strategic Petroleum Reserve testing and monitoring program. The system is computer driven, under the control of an operator. The system is designed to allow the operator to perform pre-test system configuration; test monitoring and control; and post test

P. D. Merillat; A. G. Bauer

1980-01-01

492

24 CFR 880.602 - Replacement reserve.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...annual adjustment factor. (ii) The reserve must be built up to and maintained at a level determined by HUD to be...annual adjustment factor. (ii) The reserve must be built up to and maintained at a level determined to be...

2010-04-01

493

24 CFR 880.602 - Replacement reserve.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...annual adjustment factor. (ii) The reserve must be built up to and maintained at a level determined by HUD to be sufficient...annual adjustment factor. (ii) The reserve must be built up to and maintained at a level determined to be...

2013-04-01

494

24 CFR 880.602 - Replacement reserve.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...annual adjustment factor. (ii) The reserve must be built up to and maintained at a level determined by HUD to be sufficient...annual adjustment factor. (ii) The reserve must be built up to and maintained at a level determined to be...

2012-04-01

495

24 CFR 880.602 - Replacement reserve.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...annual adjustment factor. (ii) The reserve must be built up to and maintained at a level determined by HUD to be sufficient...annual adjustment factor. (ii) The reserve must be built up to and maintained at a level determined to be...

2011-04-01

496

A Guide to Federal Reserve Regulations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System and the Federal Reserve Banks administer more than two dozen regulations affecting a wide variety of financial activities. The regulations concern the functions of the central bank and its relationships with financial institutions, the activities of commercial banks and bank holding companies,…

Federal Reserve Bank of New York, NY.

497

7 CFR 3560.306 - Reserve account.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Financial Management § 3560.306...a reserve account. (b) Financial management of the reserve account...may not be used to pay for a financial advisor. (g) Use of the...meet anticipated “life-cycle” needs, including...

2010-01-01

498

The Determinants of the Reservation Wage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most theories of involuntary unemployment predict that the equilibrium wage in the labor market will be greater than the reservation wage of the unemployed. Those theories concentrate on explaining why the labor market does not clear, with the market wage falling to the level of the reservation wage, as predicted by the classical paradigm. Relatively little, however, has been said

V. Hogan

1999-01-01

499

The Determinants of the Reservation Wage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most theories of involuntary unemployment predict that the equilibrium wage in the labor market will be greater than the reservation wage of the unemployed. These theories concentrate on explaining why the labor market does not clear, with the market wage falling to the level of the reservation wage, as predicted by the classical paradigm. Relatively little, however, has been said

Vincent Hogan

1999-01-01

500

Introduction The Tortugas Ecological Reserve is  

E-print Network

and formation of relict reef communities following sea level lowstands some 18,000 years ago, pro- vide48 Introduction The Tortugas Ecological Reserve is located 225 km west of Key West, Florida, at the western terminus of the Florida Keys island chain (Fig. 1). The reserve was implemented in July 2001