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Sample records for exam mlc reserved

  1. Chapter 10. Markov chains. Manual for SOA Exam MLC.

    E-print Network

    Arcones, Miguel A.

    is called a state. If Xn = k, where k E, we say that the Markov chain {Xn} n=0 is at state k at stage n. c chains. Section 10.2. Markov chains. For a Markov chain the conditional distribution of any future state1/110 Chapter 10. Markov chains. Manual for SOA Exam MLC. Chapter 10. Markov chains. Section 10

  2. Functions of the Caenorhabditis elegans regulatory myosin light chain genes mlc-1 and mlc-2.

    PubMed Central

    Rushforth, A M; White, C C; Anderson, P

    1998-01-01

    Caenorhabditis elegans contains two muscle regulatory myosin light chain genes, mlc-1 and mlc-2. To determine their in vivo roles, we identified deletions that eliminate each gene individually and both genes in combination. Functions of mlc-1 are redundant to those of mlc-2 in both body-wall and pharyngeal muscle. mlc-1(0) mutants are wild type, but mlc-1(0) mlc-2(0) double mutants arrest as incompletely elongated L1 larvae, having both pharyngeal and body-wall muscle defects. Transgenic copies of either mlc-1(+) or mlc-2(+) rescue all defects of mlc-1(0) mlc-2(0) double mutants. mlc-2 is redundant to mlc-1 in body-wall muscle, but mlc-2 performs a nearly essential role in the pharynx. Approximately 90% of mlc-2(0) hermaphrodites arrest as L1 larvae due to pharyngeal muscle defects. Lethality of mlc-2(0) mutants is sex specific, with mlc-2(0) males being essentially wild type. Four observations suggest that hermaphrodite-specific lethality of mlc-2(0) mutants results from insufficient expression of the X-linked mlc-1(+) gene in the pharynx. First, mlc-1(0) mlc-2(0) double mutants are fully penetrant L1 lethals in both hermaphrodites and males. Second, in situ localization of mlc mRNAs demonstrates that both mlc-1 and mlc-2 are expressed in the pharynx. Third, transgenic copies of either mlc-1(+) or mlc-2(+) rescue the pharyngeal defects of mlc-1(0) mlc-2(0) hermaphrodites. Fourth, a mutation of the dosage compensation gene sdc-3 suppresses hermaphrodite-specific lethality of mlc-2(0) mutants. PMID:9799259

  3. Megalencephalic Leukoencephalopathy with Subcortical Cysts (MLC)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... new treatments for the disease. Are there other names for Megalencephalic Leukoencephalopathy with subcortical Cysts (MLC)? Other names for Megalencephalic Leukoencephalopathy with subcortical Cysts (MLC) include: ...

  4. 2010 Vision Service Plan. All rights reserved. VSP and WellVision Exam are registered trademarks of Vision Service Plan. All other company

    E-print Network

    , Michael Kors, Nike, Nine West, and more. Visit vsp.com to find a doctor who carries these brands. Plan©2010 Vision Service Plan. All rights reserved. VSP and WellVision Exam are registered trademarks of Vision Service Plan. All other company names and brands are trademarks or registered trademarks

  5. Chapter 4. Life Insurance. Manual for SOA Exam MLC.

    E-print Network

    Arcones, Miguel A.

    of the m­thly time interval in which failure occurs (if this death happens after n years). The present buys a whole life policy insurance which will pay $200,000 at the end of the month of her death a whole life policy insurance which will pay $200,000 at the end of the month of her death. Suppose

  6. Chapter 3. Life tables. Manual for SOA Exam MLC.

    E-print Network

    Arcones, Miguel A.

    by a certain age. Suppose that we start with [x] lives of a certain cohort at time x. The number of survivors subject to a special circumstance (disability, retirement, etc.). Usually, the cohort of people is given such that the select table is used is called the select period. A life table which does not use the select period

  7. Chapter 6. Benefit premiums. Manual for SOA Exam MLC.

    E-print Network

    Arcones, Miguel A.

    -level premiums and/or benefits. Example 1 For a special fully discrete 15-payment whole life insurance on (20.8. Non-level premiums and/or benefits. Example 2 Consider a whole life insurance policy to (40) with face paid during the each of the first 5 years is half of the benefit premium paid during the subsequent

  8. Radio frequency noise from an MLC: a feasibility study of the use of an MLC for linac-MR systems

    PubMed Central

    Lamey, M; Yun, J; Burke, B; Rathee, S; Fallone, B G

    2010-01-01

    Currently several groups are actively researching the integration of a megavoltage teletherapy unit with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging for real-time image-guided radiotherapy. The use of a multileaf collimator (MLC) for intensity-modulated radiotherapy for linac-MR units must be investigated. The MLC itself will likely reside in the fringe field of the MR and the motors will produce radio frequency (RF) noise. The RF noise power spectral density from a Varian 52-leaf MLC motor, a Varian Millennium MLC motor and a brushless fan motor has been measured as a function of the applied magnetic field using a near field probe set. For the Varian 52-leaf MLC system, the RF noise produced by 13 of 52 motors is studied as a function of distance from the MLC. Data are reported in the frequency range suitable for 0.2–1.5 T linac-MR systems. Below 40 MHz the Millennium MLC motor tested showed more noise than the Varian 52-leaf motor or the brushless fan motor. The brushless motor showed a small dependence on the applied magnetic field. Images of a phantom were taken by the prototype linac-MR system with the MLC placed in close proximity to the magnet. Several orientations of the MLC in both shielded and non-shielded configurations were studied. For the case of a non-shielded MLC and associated cables, the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) was reduced when 13 of 52 MLC leaves were moved during imaging. When the MLC and associated cables were shielded, the measured SNR of the images with 13 MLC leaves moving was experimentally the same as the SNR of the stationary MLC image. When the MLC and cables are shielded, subtraction images acquired with and without MLC motion contains no systematic signal. This study illustrates that the small RF noise produced by functioning MLC motors can be effectively shielded to avoid SNR degradation. A functioning MLC can be incorporated into a linac-MR unit. PMID:20090187

  9. Tolerances on MLC leaf position accuracy for IMRT delivery with a dynamic MLC

    SciTech Connect

    Rangel, Alejandra; Dunscombe, Peter

    2009-07-15

    The objective determination of performance standards for radiation therapy equipment requires, ideally, establishing the quantitative relationship between performance deviations and clinical outcome or some acceptable surrogate. In this simulation study the authors analyzed the dosimetric impact of random (leaf by leaf) and systematic (entire leaf bank) errors in the position of the MLC leaves on seven clinical prostate and seven clinical head and neck IMRT plans delivered using a dynamic MLC. In-house software was developed to incorporate normally distributed errors of up to {+-}2 mm in individual leaf position or systematic errors ({+-}1 and {+-}0.5 mm in all leaves of both leaf banks or +1 mm in one bank only) into the 14 plans, thus simulating treatment delivery using a suboptimally performing MLC. The dosimetric consequences of suboptimal MLC performance were quantified using the equivalent uniform doses (EUDs) of the clinical target volumes and important organs at risk (OARs). The deviation of the EUDs of the selected structures as the performance of the MLC deteriorated was used as the objective surrogate of clinical outcome. Random errors of 2 mm resulted in negligible changes for all structures of interest in both sites. In contrast, systematic errors can lead to potentially significant dosimetric changes that may compromise clinical outcome. If a 2% change in EUD of the target and 2 Gy for the OARs were adopted as acceptable levels of deviation in dose due to MLC effects alone, then systematic errors in leaf position will need to be limited to 0.3 mm. This study provides guidance, based on a dosimetric surrogate of clinical outcome, for the development of one component, leaf position accuracy of performance standards for multileaf collimators.

  10. Tolerances on MLC leaf position accuracy for IMRT delivery with a dynamic MLC.

    PubMed

    Rangel, Alejandra; Dunscombe, Peter

    2009-07-01

    The objective determination of performance standards for radiation therapy equipment requires, ideally, establishing the quantitative relationship between performance deviations and clinical outcome or some acceptable surrogate. In this simulation study the authors analyzed the dosimetric impact of random (leaf by leaf) and systematic (entire leaf bank) errors in the position of the MLC leaves on seven clinical prostate and seven clinical head and neck IMRT plans delivered using a dynamic MLC. In-house software was developed to incorporate normally distributed errors of up to +/- 2 mm in individual leaf position or systematic errors (+/- 1 and +/- 0.5 mm in all leaves of both leaf banks or +1 mm in one bank only) into the 14 plans, thus simulating treatment delivery using a suboptimally performing MLC. The dosimetric consequences of suboptimal MLC performance were quantified using the equivalent uniform doses (EUDs) of the clinical target volumes and important organs at risk (OARs). The deviation of the EUDs of the selected structures as the performance of the MLC deteriorated was used as the objective surrogate of clinical outcome. Random errors of 2 mm resulted in negligible changes for all structures of interest in both sites. In contrast, systematic errors can lead to potentially significant dosimetric changes that may compromise clinical outcome. If a 2% change in EUD of the target and 2 Gy for the OARs were adopted as acceptable levels of deviation in dose due to MLC effects alone, then systematic errors in leaf position will need to be limited to 0.3 mm. This study provides guidance, based on a dosimetric surrogate of clinical outcome, for the development of one component, leaf position accuracy of performance standards for multileaf collimators. PMID:19673226

  11. Testicular Exams

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for Kids for Teens Teens Home Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Q&A School & ... Meningitis Writing a Paper Testicular Exams KidsHealth > Teens > Sexual Health > For Guys > Testicular Exams Print A A A ...

  12. An independent dose calculation algorithm for MLC-based radiotherapy including the spatial dependence of MLC transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, Friedlieb; Nalichowski, Adrian; Rosca, Florin; Killoran, Joseph; Wenz, Frederik; Zygmanski, Piotr

    2008-02-01

    An analytical dose calculation algorithm was developed and commissioned to calculate dose delivered with both static and dynamic multileaf collimator (MLC) in a homogenous phantom. The algorithm is general; however, it was designed specifically to accurately model dose for large and complex IMRT fields. For such fields the delivered dose may have a considerable contribution from MLC transmission, which is dependent upon spatial considerations. Specifically, the algorithm models different MLC effects, such as interleaf transmission, the tongue-and-groove effect, rounded leaf ends, MLC scatter, beam hardening and divergence of the beam, which results in a gradual MLC transmission fall-off with increasing off-axis distance. The calculated dose distributions were compared to measured dose using different methods (film, ionization chamber array, single ionization chamber), and the differences among the treatment planning system, the measurements and the developed algorithm were analysed for static MLC and dynamic IMRT fields. It was found that the calculated dose from the developed algorithm agrees very well with the measurements (mostly within 1.5%) and that a constant value for MLC transmission is insufficient to accurately predict dose for large targets and complex IMRT plans with many monitor units.

  13. Optimizing MLC-based STT-RAM Caches by Dynamic Block Size Reconfiguration

    E-print Network

    Wong, Weng Fai

    Optimizing MLC-based STT-RAM Caches by Dynamic Block Size Reconfiguration Jianxing Wang, Pooja Roy that MLC STT-RAM can achieve 2× the storage density of SLC and thus improves system performance to the multi-step access scheme. Compared to SLC, a typical 2-bit MLC STT-RAM introduces an additional data

  14. Fast regional readout CMOS Image Sensor for dynamic MLC tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zin, H.; Harris, E.; Osmond, J.; Evans, P.

    2014-03-01

    Advanced radiotherapy techniques such as volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) require verification of the complex beam delivery including tracking of multileaf collimators (MLC) and monitoring the dose rate. This work explores the feasibility of a prototype Complementary metal-oxide semiconductor Image Sensor (CIS) for tracking these complex treatments by utilising fast, region of interest (ROI) read out functionality. An automatic edge tracking algorithm was used to locate the MLC leaves edges moving at various speeds (from a moving triangle field shape) and imaged with various sensor frame rates. The CIS demonstrates successful edge detection of the dynamic MLC motion within accuracy of 1.0 mm. This demonstrates the feasibility of the sensor to verify treatment delivery involving dynamic MLC up to ~400 frames per second (equivalent to the linac pulse rate), which is superior to any current techniques such as using electronic portal imaging devices (EPID). CIS provides the basis to an essential real-time verification tool, useful in accessing accurate delivery of complex high energy radiation to the tumour and ultimately to achieve better cure rates for cancer patients.

  15. Monte Carlo study of MLC fields for cobalt therapy machine

    PubMed Central

    Ayyangar, Komanduri M.; Rani, Roopa A.; Kumar, Anil; Reddy, A. R.

    2014-01-01

    An automated Multi-Leaf Collimator (MLC) system has been developed as add-on for the cobalt-60 teletherapy machines available in India. The goal of the present computational study is to validate the MLC design using Monte Carlo (MC) modeling. The study was based on the Kirloskar-supplied Phoenix model machines that closely match the Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) theratron-80 machine. The MLC is a retrofit attachment to the collimator assembly, with 14 non-divergent leaf pairs of 40 mm thick, 7 mm wide, and 150 mm long tungsten alloy plates with rounded edges and 20 mm tongue and 2 mm groove in each leaf. In the present work, the source and collimator geometry has been investigated in detail to arrive at a model that best represents the measured dosimetric data. The authors have studied in detail the proto-I MLC built for cobalt-60. The MLC field sizes were MC simulated for 2 × 2 cm2 to 14 × 14 cm2 square fields as well as irregular fields, and the percent depth dose (PDD) and profile data were compared with ROPS† treatment planning system (TPS). In addition, measured profiles using the IMATRIXX system‡ were also compared with the MC simulations. The proto-I MLC can define radiation fields up to 14 × 14 cm2 within 3 mm accuracy. The maximum measured leakage through the leaf ends in closed condition was 3.4% and interleaf leakage observed was 7.3%. Good agreement between MC results, ROPS and IMATRIXX results has been observed. The investigation also supports the hypothesis that optical and radiation field coincidence exists for the square fields studied with the MLC. Plots of the percent depth dose (PDD) data and profile data for clinically significant irregular fields have also been presented. The MC model was also investigated to speed up the calculations to allow calculations of clinically relevant conformal beams. †Radiation Oncology Planning System (ROPS) is supplied by Tirumala Jyothi Computer Systems described at https://sites.google.com/site/tjcsrops/ ‡IMATRIXX is supplied by IBA Dosimetry described at HYPERLINK http://www.iba-dosimetry.com PMID:24872604

  16. MLC1 protein: a likely link between leukodystrophies and brain channelopathies

    PubMed Central

    Brignone, Maria S.; Lanciotti, Angela; Camerini, Serena; De Nuccio, Chiara; Petrucci, Tamara C.; Visentin, Sergio; Ambrosini, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts (MLCs) disease is a rare inherited, autosomal recessive form of childhood-onset spongiform leukodystrophy characterized by macrocephaly, deterioration of motor functions, epileptic seizures and mental decline. Brain edema, subcortical fluid cysts, myelin and astrocyte vacuolation are the histopathological hallmarks of MLC. Mutations in either the MLC1 gene (>75% of patients) or the GlialCAM gene (<20% of patients) are responsible for the disease. Recently, the GlialCAM adhesion protein was found essential for the membrane expression and function of the chloride channel ClC-2 indicating MLC disease caused by mutation in GlialCAM as the first channelopathy among leukodystrophies. On the contrary, the function of MLC1 protein, which binds GlialCAM, its functional relationship with ClC-2 and the molecular mechanisms underlying MLC1 mutation-induced functional defects are not fully understood yet. The human MLC1 gene encodes a 377-amino acid membrane protein with eight predicted transmembrane domains which shows very low homology with voltage-dependent potassium (K+) channel subunits. The high expression of MLC1 in brain astrocytes contacting blood vessels and meninges and brain alterations observed in MLC patients have led to hypothesize a role for MLC1 in the regulation of ion and water homeostasis. Recent studies have shown that MLC1 establishes structural and/or functional interactions with several ion/water channels and transporters and ion channel accessory proteins, and that these interactions are affected by MLC1 mutations causing MLC. Here, we review data on MLC1 functional properties obtained in in vitro and in vivo models and discuss evidence linking the effects of MLC1 mutations to brain channelopathies. PMID:25883547

  17. Dynamic tumor tracking using the Elekta Agility MLC

    SciTech Connect

    Fast, Martin F. Nill, Simeon Bedford, James L.; Oelfke, Uwe

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the performance of the Elekta Agility multileaf collimator (MLC) for dynamic real-time tumor tracking. Methods: The authors have developed a new control software which interfaces to the Agility MLC to dynamically program the movement of individual leaves, the dynamic leaf guides (DLGs), and the Y collimators (“jaws”) based on the actual target trajectory. A motion platform was used to perform dynamic tracking experiments with sinusoidal trajectories. The actual target positions reported by the motion platform at 20, 30, or 40 Hz were used as shift vectors for the MLC in beams-eye-view. The system latency of the MLC (i.e., the average latency comprising target device reporting latencies and MLC adjustment latency) and the geometric tracking accuracy were extracted from a sequence of MV portal images acquired during irradiation for the following treatment scenarios: leaf-only motion, jaw + leaf motion, and DLG + leaf motion. Results: The portal imager measurements indicated a clear dependence of the system latency on the target position reporting frequency. Deducting the effect of the target frequency, the leaf adjustment latency was measured to be 38 ± 3 ms for a maximum target speed v of 13 mm/s. The jaw + leaf adjustment latency was 53 ± 3 at a similar speed. The system latency at a target position frequency of 30 Hz was in the range of 56–61 ms for the leaves (v ? 31 mm/s), 71–78 ms for the jaw + leaf motion (v ? 25 mm/s), and 58–72 ms for the DLG + leaf motion (v ? 59 mm/s). The tracking accuracy showed a similar dependency on the target position frequency and the maximum target speed. For the leaves, the root-mean-squared error (RMSE) was between 0.6–1.5 mm depending on the maximum target speed. For the jaw + leaf (DLG + leaf) motion, the RMSE was between 0.7–1.5 mm (1.9–3.4 mm). Conclusions: The authors have measured the latency and geometric accuracy of the Agility MLC, facilitating its future use for clinical tracking applications.

  18. TomoTherapy MLC verification using exit detector data

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Quan; Westerly, David; Fang Zhenyu; Sheng, Ke; Chen Yu

    2012-01-15

    Purpose: Treatment delivery verification (DV) is important in the field of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). While IMRT and image guided radiation therapy (IGRT), allow us to create more conformal plans and enables the use of tighter margins, an erroneously executed plan can have detrimental effects on the treatment outcome. The purpose of this study is to develop a DV technique to verify TomoTherapy's multileaf collimator (MLC) using the onboard mega-voltage CT detectors. Methods: The proposed DV method uses temporal changes in the MVCT detector signal to predict actual leaf open times delivered on the treatment machine. Penumbra and scattered radiation effects may produce confounding results when determining leaf open times from the raw detector data. To reduce the impact of the effects, an iterative, Richardson-Lucy (R-L) deconvolution algorithm is applied. Optical sensors installed on each MLC leaf are used to verify the accuracy of the DV technique. The robustness of the DV technique is examined by introducing different attenuation materials in the beam. Additionally, the DV technique has been used to investigate several clinical plans which failed to pass delivery quality assurance (DQA) and was successful in identifying MLC timing discrepancies as the root cause. Results: The leaf open time extracted from the exit detector showed good agreement with the optical sensors under a variety of conditions. Detector-measured leaf open times agreed with optical sensor data to within 0.2 ms, and 99% of the results agreed within 8.5 ms. These results changed little when attenuation was added in the beam. For the clinical plans failing DQA, the dose calculated from reconstructed leaf open times played an instrumental role in discovering the root-cause of the problem. Throughout the retrospective study, it is found that the reconstructed dose always agrees with measured doses to within 1%. Conclusions: The exit detectors in the TomoTherapy treatment systems can provide valuable information about MLC behavior during delivery. A technique to estimate the TomoTherapy binary MLC leaf open time from exit detector signals is described. This technique is shown to be both robust and accurate for delivery verification.

  19. Comparing dose in the build-up region between compensator- and MLC-based IMRT.

    PubMed

    Javedan, Khosrow; Zhang, Geoffrey G; Hoffe, Sarah; Feygelman, Vladimir; Forster, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    The build-up dose in the megavoltage photon beams can be a limiting factor in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatments. Excessive surface dose can cause patient discomfort and treatment interruptions, while underdosing may lead to tumor repopulation and local failure. Dose in the build-up region was investigated for IMRT delivery with solid brass compensator technique(compensator-based IMRT) and compared with that of multileaf collimator (MLC)-based IMRT. A Varian Trilogy linear accelerator equipped with an MLC was used for beam delivery. A special solid brass step-wise compensator was designed and built for testing purposes. Two step-and-shoot MLC fields were programmed to produce a similar modulated step-wise dose profile. The MLC and compensator dose profiles were measured and adjusted to match at the isocenter depth of 10 cm. Build-up dose in the 1-5 mm depth range was measured with an ultrathin window, fixed volume parallel plate ionization chamber. Monte Carlo simulations were used to model the brass compensator and step-and-shoot MLC fields. The measured and simulated profiles for the two IMRT techniques were matched at the isocenter depth of 10 cm. Different component contributions to the shallow dose, including the MLC scatter, were quantified. Mean spectral energies for the open and filtered beams were calculated. The compensator and MLC profiles at 10 cm depth were matched better than ± 1.5%. The build-up dose was up to 7% lower for compensator IMRT compared to MLC IMRT due to beam hardening in the brass. Low-energy electrons contribute 22% and 15% dose at 1 mm depth for compensator and MLC modalities, respectively. Compensator-based IMRT delivers less dose in the build-up region than MLC-based IMRT does, even though a compensator is closer to the skin than the MLC. PMID:22955641

  20. Positive effects of the traditional Chinese medicine MLC901 in cognitive tasks.

    PubMed

    Lorivel, T; Gandin, C; Veyssière, J; Lazdunski, M; Heurteaux, C

    2015-11-01

    MLC901 (NurAiDII) is used as a treatment for stroke patients. It has been shown that MLC901 improves motor and cognitive recovery in ischemic and traumatic brain-injured rodents. The present study seeks to delineate cognitive effects induced by MLC901 in normal, noninjured mice. To this end, the behaviors of vehicle- and MLC901-treated C57BL/6 mice in hippocampus-dependent (passive avoidance, Morris water maze) and hippocampus-independent (novel object recognition) cognitive tasks are compared. The potential influence of the compound on the anxiety level and nycthemeral rhythm of mice is also assessed. In addition, the long-term effects of MLC901 on hippocampal neurogenesis are measured. The results clearly demonstrate that MLC901 promotes extinction in passive avoidance and reversal learning in the Morris water maze and improves the performance of mice in novel object recognition. In parallel, this study shows the long-term proneurogenesis effects of MLC901 that result in the increase in the number of mature neurons in the hippocampus. If these observations can be extended to humans, then MLC901 could represent a promising therapeutic strategy. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Neuroscience Research Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25821139

  1. Combining MLC and SVM Classifiers for Learning Based Decision Making: Analysis and Evaluations.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Ren, Jinchang; Jiang, Jianmin

    2015-01-01

    Maximum likelihood classifier (MLC) and support vector machines (SVM) are two commonly used approaches in machine learning. MLC is based on Bayesian theory in estimating parameters of a probabilistic model, whilst SVM is an optimization based nonparametric method in this context. Recently, it is found that SVM in some cases is equivalent to MLC in probabilistically modeling the learning process. In this paper, MLC and SVM are combined in learning and classification, which helps to yield probabilistic output for SVM and facilitate soft decision making. In total four groups of data are used for evaluations, covering sonar, vehicle, breast cancer, and DNA sequences. The data samples are characterized in terms of Gaussian/non-Gaussian distributed and balanced/unbalanced samples which are then further used for performance assessment in comparing the SVM and the combined SVM-MLC classifier. Interesting results are reported to indicate how the combined classifier may work under various conditions. PMID:26089862

  2. Combining MLC and SVM Classifiers for Learning Based Decision Making: Analysis and Evaluations

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yi; Ren, Jinchang; Jiang, Jianmin

    2015-01-01

    Maximum likelihood classifier (MLC) and support vector machines (SVM) are two commonly used approaches in machine learning. MLC is based on Bayesian theory in estimating parameters of a probabilistic model, whilst SVM is an optimization based nonparametric method in this context. Recently, it is found that SVM in some cases is equivalent to MLC in probabilistically modeling the learning process. In this paper, MLC and SVM are combined in learning and classification, which helps to yield probabilistic output for SVM and facilitate soft decision making. In total four groups of data are used for evaluations, covering sonar, vehicle, breast cancer, and DNA sequences. The data samples are characterized in terms of Gaussian/non-Gaussian distributed and balanced/unbalanced samples which are then further used for performance assessment in comparing the SVM and the combined SVM-MLC classifier. Interesting results are reported to indicate how the combined classifier may work under various conditions. PMID:26089862

  3. The ?1 subunit of the Na,K-ATPase pump interacts with megalencephalic leucoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts protein 1 (MLC1) in brain astrocytes: new insights into MLC pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Brignone, Maria S.; Lanciotti, Angela; Macioce, Pompeo; Macchia, Gianfranco; Gaetani, Matteo; Aloisi, Francesca; Petrucci, Tamara C.; Ambrosini, Elena

    2011-01-01

    Megalencephalic leucoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts (MLC) is a rare congenital leucodystrophy caused by mutations in MLC1, a membrane protein of unknown function. MLC1 expression in astrocyte end-feet contacting blood vessels and meninges, along with brain swelling, fluid cysts and myelin vacuolation observed in MLC patients, suggests a possible role for MLC1 in the regulation of fluid and ion homeostasis and cellular volume changes. To identify MLC1 direct interactors and dissect the molecular pathways in which MLC1 is involved, we used NH2-MLC1 domain as a bait to screen a human brain library in a yeast two-hybrid assay. We identified the ?1 subunit of the Na,K-ATPase pump as one of the interacting clones and confirmed it by pull-downs, co-fractionation assays and immunofluorescence stainings in human and rat astrocytes in vitro and in brain tissue. By performing ouabain-affinity chromatography on astrocyte and brain extracts, we isolated MLC1 and the whole Na,K-ATPase enzyme in a multiprotein complex that included Kir4.1, syntrophin and dystrobrevin. Because Na,K-ATPase is involved in intracellular osmotic control and volume regulation, we investigated the effect of hypo-osmotic stress on MLC1/Na,K-ATPase relationship in astrocytes. We found that hypo-osmotic conditions increased MLC1 membrane expression and favoured MLC1/Na,K-ATPase-?1 association. Moreover, hypo-osmosis induced astrocyte swelling and the reversible formation of endosome-derived vacuoles, where the two proteins co-localized. These data suggest that through its interaction with Na,K-ATPase, MLC1 is involved in the control of intracellular osmotic conditions and volume regulation in astrocytes, opening new perspectives for understanding the pathological mechanisms of MLC disease. PMID:20926452

  4. Digital rectal exam

    MedlinePLUS

    A digital rectal exam is an examination of the lower rectum. The doctor uses a gloved, lubricated finger to ... or other changes of the prostate gland. A digital rectal exam may be done to collect stool ...

  5. Chapter 7. Derivatives markets. Manual for SOA Exam FM/CAS Exam 2.

    E-print Network

    Arcones, Miguel A.

    markets. Section 7.9. Risk Management. c 2009. Miguel A. Arcones. All rights reserved. Extract from/CAS Exam 2. #12;2/44 Chapter 7. Derivatives markets. Section 7.9. Risk Management. Risk Management The main;3/44 Chapter 7. Derivatives markets. Section 7.9. Risk Management. Firms do risk management to attain financial

  6. Exam 2 Memo

    E-print Network

    math

    2013-10-03

    Oct 15, 2013 ... Students will bubble in answers on ... actual exam. If you circle your answers on your exam, you can self-grade your exam ... distance formua (d = rt), the slope of a line formula, slope-intercept form of a line, point- slope form of ...

  7. Exam 3 Memo

    E-print Network

    math

    2014-04-04

    Apr 17, 2014 ... Students will bubble in answers ... actual exam. If you circle your answers on your exam, you can self-grade your exam ... standard form of a line, the basic derivative rules, the derivative of a product rule, and the derivative of a ...

  8. Challenges When Introducing Electronic Exam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuikka, Matti; Kitola, Markus; Laakso, Mikko-Jussi

    2014-01-01

    Time pressures often necessitate the use of more efficient exam tools, such as electronic exams (e-exams), instead of traditional paper exams. However, teachers may face challenges when introducing e-exams in a higher education context. This paper describes what kinds of challenges teachers may face when introducing e-exams, based on experiences…

  9. Megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts protein-1 modulates endosomal pH and protein trafficking in astrocytes: relevance to MLC disease pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Brignone, Maria S; Lanciotti, Angela; Visentin, Sergio; De Nuccio, Chiara; Molinari, Paola; Camerini, Serena; Diociaiuti, Marco; Petrini, Stefania; Minnone, Gaetana; Crescenzi, Marco; Laudiero, Luisa Bracci; Bertini, Enrico; Petrucci, Tamara C; Ambrosini, Elena

    2014-06-01

    Megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts (MLC) is a rare leukodystrophy caused by mutations in the gene encoding MLC1, a membrane protein mainly expressed in astrocytes in the central nervous system. Although MLC1 function is unknown, evidence is emerging that it may regulate ion fluxes. Using biochemical and proteomic approaches to identify MLC1 interactors and elucidate MLC1 function we found that MLC1 interacts with the vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase), the proton pump that regulates endosomal acidity. Because we previously showed that in intracellular organelles MLC1 directly binds Na, K-ATPase, which controls endosomal pH, we studied MLC1 endosomal localization and trafficking and MLC1 effects on endosomal acidity and function using human astrocytoma cells overexpressing wild-type (WT) MLC1 or MLC1 carrying pathological mutations. We found that WT MLC1 is abundantly expressed in early (EEA1(+), Rab5(+)) and recycling (Rab11(+)) endosomes and uses the latter compartment to traffic to the plasma membrane during hyposmotic stress. We also showed that WT MLC1 limits early endosomal acidification and influences protein trafficking in astrocytoma cells by stimulating protein recycling, as revealed by FITC-dextran measurement of endosomal pH and transferrin protein recycling assay, respectively. WT MLC1 also favors recycling to the plasma-membrane of the TRPV4 cation channel which cooperates with MLC1 to activate calcium influx in astrocytes during hyposmotic stress. Although MLC disease-causing mutations differentially affect MLC1 localization and trafficking, all the mutated proteins fail to influence endosomal pH and protein recycling. This study demonstrates that MLC1 modulates endosomal pH and protein trafficking suggesting that alteration of these processes contributes to MLC pathogenesis. PMID:24561067

  10. The first clinical implementation of electromagnetic transponder-guided MLC tracking

    SciTech Connect

    Keall, Paul J. O’Brien, Ricky; Ng, Jin Aun; Colvill, Emma; Poulsen, Per Rugaard; Eade, Thomas; Kneebone, Andrew; Booth, Jeremy T.

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: We report on the clinical process, quality assurance, and geometric and dosimetric results of the first clinical implementation of electromagnetic transponder-guided MLC tracking which occurred on 28 November 2013 at the Northern Sydney Cancer Centre. Methods: An electromagnetic transponder-based positioning system (Calypso) was modified to send the target position output to in-house-developed MLC tracking code, which adjusts the leaf positions to optimally align the treatment beam with the real-time target position. Clinical process and quality assurance procedures were developed and performed. The first clinical implementation of electromagnetic transponder-guided MLC tracking was for a prostate cancer patient being treated with dual-arc VMAT (RapidArc). For the first fraction of the first patient treatment of electromagnetic transponder-guided MLC tracking we recorded the in-room time and transponder positions, and performed dose reconstruction to estimate the delivered dose and also the dose received had MLC tracking not been used. Results: The total in-room time was 21 min with 2 min of beam delivery. No additional time was needed for MLC tracking and there were no beam holds. The average prostate position from the initial setup was 1.2 mm, mostly an anterior shift. Dose reconstruction analysis of the delivered dose with MLC tracking showed similar isodose and target dose volume histograms to the planned treatment and a 4.6% increase in the fractional rectal V{sub 60}. Dose reconstruction without motion compensation showed a 30% increase in the fractional rectal V{sub 60} from that planned, even for the small motion. Conclusions: The real-time beam-target correction method, electromagnetic transponder-guided MLC tracking, has been translated to the clinic. This achievement represents a milestone in improving geometric and dosimetric accuracy, and by inference treatment outcomes, in cancer radiotherapy.

  11. Dosimetric impact of the 160 MLC on head and neck IMRT treatments.

    PubMed

    Rassiah-Szegedi, Prema; Szegedi, Martin; Sarkar, Vikren; Streitmatter, Seth; Huang, Y Jessica; Zhao, Hui; Salter, Bill

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to investigate if the change in plan quality with the finer leaf resolution and lower leakage of the 160 MLC would be dosimetrically significant for head and neck intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treat- ment plans. The 160 MLC consisting of 80 leaves of 0.5 cm on each bank, a leaf span of 20 cm, and leakage of less than 0.37% without additional backup jaws was compared against the 120 Millennium MLC with 60 leaves of 0.5 and 1.0 cm, a leaf span of 14.5 cm, and leakage of 2.0%. CT image sets of 16 patients previously treated for stage III and IV head and neck carcinomas were replanned on Prowess 5.0 and Eclipse 11.0 using the 160 MLC and the 120 MLC. IMRT constraints for both sets of 6 MV plans were identical and based on RTOG 0522. Dose-volume histograms (DVHs), minimum dose, mean dose, maximum dose, and dose to 1 cc to the organ at risks (OAR) and the planning target volume, as recommended by QUANTEC 2010, were compared. Both collimators were able to achieve the target dose to the PTVs. The dose to the organs at risk (brainstem, spinal cord, parotids, and larynx) were 1%-12% (i.e., 0.5-8 Gy for a 70 Gy prescription) lower with the 160 MLC compared to the 120 MLC, depending on the proximity of the organ to the target. The large field HN plans generated with the 160 MLC were dosimetrically advantageous for critical structures, especially those located further away from the central axis, without compromising the target volume.  PMID:25493507

  12. Dynamic MLC leaf sequencing for integrated linear accelerator control systems

    SciTech Connect

    Popple, Richard A.; Brezovich, Ivan A.

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: Leaf positions for dynamic multileaf collimator (DMLC) intensity modulated radiation therapy must be closely synchronized with MU delivery. For the Varian C3 series MLC controller, if the planned trajectory (leaf position vs. MU) requires velocities exceeding the capability of the MLC, the leaves fall behind the planned positions, causing the controller to momentarily hold the beam and thereby introduce dosimetric errors. We investigated the merits of a new commercial linear accelerator, TrueBeam, that integrates MLC control with prospective dose rate modulation. If treatment is delivered at dose rates so high that leaves would fall behind, the controller reduces the dose rate such that harmony between MU and leaf position is preserved. Methods: For three sets of DMLC leaf trajectories, point doses and two-dimensional dose distributions were measured in phantom using an ionization chamber and film, respectively. The first set, delivered using both a TrueBeam and a conventional C3 controller, comprised a single leaf bank closing at planned velocities of 2.4, 7.1, and 14 cm/s. The maximum achievable leaf velocity for both systems was 3 cm/s. The remaining two sets were derived from clinical fluence maps using a commercial treatment planning system for a range of planned dose rates and were delivered using TrueBeam set to the maximum dose rate, 600 MU/min. Generating trajectories using a planned dose rate that is lower than the delivery dose rate effectively increased the leaf velocity constraint used by the planning system for trajectory calculation. The second set of leaf trajectories was derived from two fluence maps containing regions of zero fluence obtained from representative beams of two different patient treatment plans. The third set was obtained from all nine fields of a head and neck treatment plan. For the head and neck plan, dose-volume histograms of the spinal cord and target for each planned dose rate were obtained. Results: For the single closing leaf bank trajectories, the TrueBeam control system reduced the dose rate such that the leaf velocity was less than the maximum. Dose deviations relative to the 2.4 cm/s trajectory were less than 3%. For the conventional controller, the leaves repeatedly fell behind the planned positions until the beam hold threshold was reached, resulting in deviations of up to 19% relative to the 2.4 cm/s trajectory. For the two clinical fluence maps, reducing the planned dose rate reduced the dose in the zero fluence regions by 15% and 24% and increased the delivery time by 5 s and 14 s. No significant differences were noted in the high and intermediate dose regions measured using film. The DVHs for the head and neck plan showed a 10% reduction in cord dose for 20 MU/min relative to 600 MU/min sequencing dose rate, which was confirmed by measurement. No difference in target DVHs were observed. The reduction in cord dose increased total treatment time by 1.8 min. Conclusions: Leaf sequencing algorithms for integrated control systems should be modified to reflect the reduced importance of maximum leaf velocity for accurate dose delivery.

  13. Examining Exam Reviews: A Comparison of Exam Scores and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hackathorn, Jana; Cornell, Kathryn; Garczynski, Amy M.; Solomon, Erin D.; Blankmeyer, Katheryn E.; Tennial, Rachel E.

    2012-01-01

    Instructors commonly use exam reviews to help students prepare for exams and to increase student success. The current study compared the effects of traditional, trivia, and practice test-based exam reviews on actual exam scores, as well as students' attitudes toward each review. Findings suggested that students' exam scores were significantly…

  14. SU-E-T-195: Gantry Angle Dependency of MLC Leaf Position Error

    SciTech Connect

    Ju, S; Hong, C; Kim, M; Chung, K; Kim, J; Han, Y; Ahn, S; Chung, S; Shin, E; Shin, J; Kim, H; Kim, D; Choi, D

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the gantry angle dependency of the multileaf collimator (MLC) leaf position error. Methods: An automatic MLC quality assurance system (AutoMLCQA) was developed to evaluate the gantry angle dependency of the MLC leaf position error using an electronic portal imaging device (EPID). To eliminate the EPID position error due to gantry rotation, we designed a reference maker (RM) that could be inserted into the wedge mount. After setting up the EPID, a reference image was taken of the RM using an open field. Next, an EPID-based picket-fence test (PFT) was performed without the RM. These procedures were repeated at every 45° intervals of the gantry angle. A total of eight reference images and PFT image sets were analyzed using in-house software. The average MLC leaf position error was calculated at five pickets (-10, -5, 0, 5, and 10 cm) in accordance with general PFT guidelines using in-house software. This test was carried out for four linear accelerators. Results: The average MLC leaf position errors were within the set criterion of <1 mm (actual errors ranged from -0.7 to 0.8 mm) for all gantry angles, but significant gantry angle dependency was observed in all machines. The error was smaller at a gantry angle of 0° but increased toward the positive direction with gantry angle increments in the clockwise direction. The error reached a maximum value at a gantry angle of 90° and then gradually decreased until 180°. In the counter-clockwise rotation of the gantry, the same pattern of error was observed but the error increased in the negative direction. Conclusion: The AutoMLCQA system was useful to evaluate the MLC leaf position error for various gantry angles without the EPID position error. The Gantry angle dependency should be considered during MLC leaf position error analysis.

  15. PKM2 phosphorylates MLC2 and regulates cytokinesis of tumor cells

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yuhui; Wang, Yugang; Wang, Ting; Hawke, David H.; Zheng, Yanhua; Li, Xinjian; Zhou, Qin; Majumder, Sadhan; Bi, Erfei; Liu, David X.; Huang, Suyun; Lu, Zhimin

    2014-01-01

    Pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) is expressed at high levels during embryonic development and tumor progression and is important for cell growth. However, it is not known whether it directly controls cell division. Here, we found that Aurora B phosphorylates PKM2, but not PKM1, at T45; this phosphorylation is required for PKM2's localization and interaction with myosin light chain 2 (MLC2) in the contractile ring region of mitotic cells during cytokinesis. PKM2 phosphorylates MLC2 at Y118, which primes the binding of ROCK2 to MLC2 and subsequent ROCK2-dependent MLC2 S15 phosphorylation. PKM2-regulated MLC2 phosphorylation, which is greatly enhanced by EGF stimulation or EGFRvIII, K-Ras G12V, and B-Raf V600E mutant expression, plays a pivotal role in cytokinesis, cell proliferation, and brain tumor development. These findings underscore the instrumental function of PKM2 in oncogenic EGFR-, K-Ras-, and B-Raf-regulated cytokinesis and tumorigenesis. PMID:25412762

  16. My Favorite Exam Question

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Styer, Dan

    2015-01-01

    My favorite exam question comes from the final exam in an introductory mechanics course: "A rolling 31 ton railroad boxcar collides with a stationary flatcar. The coupling mechanism activates so the cars latch together and roll down the track attached. Of the initial kinetic energy, 38% dissipates as heat, sound, vibrations, mechanical…

  17. My Favorite Exam Question

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Styer, Dan

    2015-12-01

    My favorite exam question comes from the final exam in an introductory mechanics course: A rolling 31 ton railroad boxcar collides with a stationary flatcar. The coupling mechanism activates so the cars latch together and roll down the track attached. Of the initial kinetic energy, 38% dissipates as heat, sound, vibrations, mechanical deformation, and so forth. How much does the flatcar weigh?

  18. Skin self-exam

    MedlinePLUS

    Skin self-exam means checking your own skin regularly for any abnormal growths or unusual changes. A skin self-exam helps find any suspicious skin problems early. The earlier skin cancer is diagnosed, the better chance you will have ...

  19. Potential regulation of human muscle plasticity by MLC2 post-translational modifications during bed rest and countermeasures.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Laurence; Bastide, Bruno; Hedou, Julie; Cieniewski-Bernard, Caroline; Montel, Valérie; Cochon, Laetitia; Dupont, Erwan; Mounier, Yvonne

    2013-12-01

    This study investigated the effects of a 60-day bed rest with or without countermeasures on muscular phenotype and post-translational modifications of the regulatory Myosin Light Chain 2 (MLC2) protein. Soleus biopsies were obtained from female subjects before and after bed rest. Control subjects were assigned only to bed rest (BR), BR+Ex subjects were submitted to combined aerobic and resistive exercises, and BR+Nut to nutritional leucine and valine diet. We determined Myosin Heavy Chains (MHC) and MLC2 composition of muscles using 1D SDS-PAGE. MLC2 phosphorylation was measured on 2D gels and O-N-Acetyl Glucosaminylation (O-GlcNAc) level of MLC2 was determined. Our results showed a slow-to-fast shift of MHC and MLC2 isoforms in BR and BR+Nut while BR+Ex combinations prevented these phenotype changes. After BR, the MLC2 phosphorylation state was increased while the global MLC2 glycosylation level was decreased. Exercises prevented the variations of phosphorylation and glycosylation observed after BR whereas nutrition had no effects. These results suggested an interplay between phosphorylation and glycosylation of MLC2, which might be involved in the development of muscle atrophy and associated changes. These findings of differential responses to exercises and nutrition protocols were discussed with implications for future prescription models to preserve muscle against long-term unloading. PMID:24184274

  20. Wogonin inhibits LPS-induced vascular permeability via suppressing MLCK/MLC pathway.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yujie; Luo, Xuwei; Li, Xiaorui; Song, Xiuming; Wei, Libin; Li, Zhiyu; You, Qidong; Guo, Qinglong; Lu, Na

    2015-09-01

    Wogonin, a naturally occurring monoflavonoid extracted from the root of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, has been shown to have anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor activities and inhibits oxidant stress-induced vascular permeability. However, the influence of wogonin on vascular hyperpermeability induced by overabounded inflammatory factors often appears in inflammatory diseases and tumor is not well known. In this study, we evaluate the effects of wogonin on LPS induced vascular permeability in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and investigate the underlying mechanisms. We find that wogonin suppresses the LPS-stimulated hyperactivity and cytoskeleton remodeling of HUVECs, promotes the expression of junctional proteins including VE-Cadherin, Claudin-5 and ZO-1, as well as inhibits the invasion of MDA-MB-231 across EC monolayer. Miles vascular permeability assay proves that wogonin can restrain the extravasated Evans in vivo. The mechanism studies reveal that the expressions of TLR4, p-PLC, p-MLCK and p-MLC are decreased by wogonin without changing the total steady state protein levels of PLC, MLCK and MLC. Moreover, wogonin can also inhibit KCl-activated MLCK/MLC pathway, and further affect vascular permeability. Significantly, compared with wortmannin, the inhibitor of MLCK/MLC pathway, wogonin exhibits similar inhibition effects on the expression of p-MLCK, p-MLC and LPS-induced vascular hyperpermeability. Taken together, wogonin can inhibit LPS-induced vascular permeability by suppressing the MLCK/MLC pathway, suggesting a therapeutic potential for the diseases associated with the development of both inflammatory and tumor. PMID:25956732

  1. Evaluation of two methods of predicting MLC leaf positions using EPID measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Parent, Laure; Seco, Joao; Evans, Phil M.; Dance, David R.; Fielding, Andrew

    2006-09-15

    In intensity modulated radiation treatments (IMRT), the position of the field edges and the modulation within the beam are often achieved with a multileaf collimator (MLC). During the MLC calibration process, due to the finite accuracy of leaf position measurements, a systematic error may be introduced to leaf positions. Thereafter leaf positions of the MLC depend on the systematic error introduced on each leaf during MLC calibration and on the accuracy of the leaf position control system (random errors). This study presents and evaluates two methods to predict the systematic errors on the leaf positions introduced during the MLC calibration. The two presented methods are based on a series of electronic portal imaging device (EPID) measurements. A comparison with film measurements showed that the EPID could be used to measure leaf positions without introducing any bias. The first method, referred to as the 'central leaf method', is based on the method currently used at this center for MLC leaf calibration. It mimics the manner in which leaf calibration parameters are specified in the MLC control system and consequently is also used by other centers. The second method, a new method proposed by the authors and referred to as the ''individual leaf method,'' involves the measurement of two positions for each leaf (-5 and +15 cm) and the interpolation and extrapolation from these two points to any other given position. The central leaf method and the individual leaf method predicted leaf positions at prescribed positions of -11, 0, 5, and 10 cm within 2.3 and 1.0 mm, respectively, with a standard deviation (SD) of 0.3 and 0.2 mm, respectively. The individual leaf method provided a better prediction of the leaf positions than the central leaf method. Reproducibility tests for leaf positions of -5 and +15 cm were performed. The reproducibility was within 0.4 mm on the same day and 0.4 mm six weeks later (1 SD). Measurements at gantry angles of 0 deg., 90 deg., and 270 deg. for leaf positions of -5 and +15 cm showed no significant effect of gravity. The individual leaf method could be used in various applications to improve the accuracy of radiotherapy treatment from planning to delivery. Three cases are discussed: IMRT beam verification, MLC calibration and dose calcula0010ti.

  2. Physical exam frequency

    MedlinePLUS

    How often you need a physical exam; Health maintenance visit; Health screening; Checkup ... All adults should visit their health care provider from time to time, even if they are healthy. The purpose of these visits is to: Screen for diseases ...

  3. Final Exam Memo

    E-print Network

    math

    2015-11-30

    Students will bubble in answers on an answer sheet (scantron sheet) as well as circle the answers on the actual exam. However, you cannot take this ... between exponential and logarithmic forms, the chain rule, and the derivative rules of.

  4. Exam 3 Memo

    E-print Network

    math

    2015-11-10

    Nov 18, 2015 ... Students will bubble in answers on an answer sheet (scantron sheet) as well as circle the answers on the actual exam. ... They need to know how to convert between exponential and logarithmic forms, the change of base ...

  5. Memo for Exam 3

    E-print Network

    math

    2013-03-20

    Students will bubble in answers on an answer ... (If you circle your answers, you can self-grade your exam later after the answers have been ... convert between logarithmic and exponential forms; how to use the properties of logarithms to ...

  6. Exam Question Exchange.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, John J.

    1980-01-01

    Provides exam questions and solutions for a problem in amplification sequence of reactions, and a problem in applying group theory techniques and making spectral assignments and structural determination by qualitative arguments in the bonding in metal complexes. (CS)

  7. Use of dMLC for implementation of dynamic respiratory-gated radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Pepin, Eric W.; Wu, Huanmei; Shirato, Hiroki

    2013-10-15

    Purpose: To simulate and evaluate the use of dynamic multileaf collimators (dMLC) in respiratory gating to compensate for baseline drift.Methods: Tumor motion tracking data from 30 lung tumors over 322 treatment fractions was analyzed with the finite state model. A dynamic respiratory gating window was established in real-time by determining the average positions during the previous two end-of-expiration breathing phases and centering the dMLC aperture on a weighted average of these positions. A simulated dMLC with physical motion constraints was used in dynamic gating treatment simulations. Fluence maps were created to provide a statistical description of radiation delivery for each fraction. Duty cycle was also calculated for each fraction.Results: The average duty cycle was 2.3% greater under dynamic gating conditions. Dynamic gating also showed higher fluences and less tumor obstruction. Additionally, dynamic gating required fewer beam toggles and each delivery period was longer on average than with static gating.Conclusions: The use of dynamic gating showed better performance than static gating and the physical constraints of a dMLC were shown to not be an impediment to dynamic gating.

  8. Mouse and computational models link Mlc2v dephosphorylation to altered myosin kinetics in early cardiac disease

    PubMed Central

    Sheikh, Farah; Ouyang, Kunfu; Campbell, Stuart G.; Lyon, Robert C.; Chuang, Joyce; Fitzsimons, Dan; Tangney, Jared; Hidalgo, Carlos G.; Chung, Charles S.; Cheng, Hongqiang; Dalton, Nancy D.; Gu, Yusu; Kasahara, Hideko; Ghassemian, Majid; Omens, Jeffrey H.; Peterson, Kirk L.; Granzier, Henk L.; Moss, Richard L.; McCulloch, Andrew D.; Chen, Ju

    2012-01-01

    Actin-myosin interactions provide the driving force underlying each heartbeat. The current view is that actin-bound regulatory proteins play a dominant role in the activation of calcium-dependent cardiac muscle contraction. In contrast, the relevance and nature of regulation by myosin regulatory proteins (for example, myosin light chain-2 [MLC2]) in cardiac muscle remain poorly understood. By integrating gene-targeted mouse and computational models, we have identified an indispensable role for ventricular Mlc2 (Mlc2v) phosphorylation in regulating cardiac muscle contraction. Cardiac myosin cycling kinetics, which directly control actin-myosin interactions, were directly affected, but surprisingly, Mlc2v phosphorylation also fed back to cooperatively influence calcium-dependent activation of the thin filament. Loss of these mechanisms produced early defects in the rate of cardiac muscle twitch relaxation and ventricular torsion. Strikingly, these defects preceded the left ventricular dysfunction of heart disease and failure in a mouse model with nonphosphorylatable Mlc2v. Thus, there is a direct and early role for Mlc2 phosphorylation in regulating actin-myosin interactions in striated muscle contraction, and dephosphorylation of Mlc2 or loss of these mechanisms can play a critical role in heart failure. PMID:22426213

  9. Impact of the MLC on the MRI field distortion of a prototype MRI-linac

    SciTech Connect

    Kolling, Stefan; Keall, Paul; Oborn, Brad

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: To cope with intrafraction tumor motion, integrated MRI-linac systems for real-time image guidance are currently under development. The multileaf collimator (MLC) is a key component in every state-of-the-art radiotherapy treatment system, allowing for accurate field shaping and tumor tracking. This work quantifies the magnetic impact of a widely used MLC on the MRI field homogeneity for such a modality.Methods: The finite element method was employed to model a MRI-linac assembly comprised of a 1.0?T split-bore MRI magnet and the key ferromagnetic components of a Varian Millennium 120 MLC, namely, the leaves and motors. Full 3D magnetic field maps of the system were generated. From these field maps, the peak-to-peak distortion within the MRI imaging volume was evaluated over a 30?cm diameter sphere volume (DSV) around the isocenter and compared to a maximum preshim inhomogeneity of 300??T. Five parametric studies were performed: (1) The source-to-isocenter distance (SID) was varied from 100 to 200?cm, to span the range of a compact system to that with lower magnetic coupling. (2) The MLC model was changed from leaves only to leaves with motors, to determine the contribution to the total distortion caused by MLC leaves and motors separately. (3) The system was configured in the inline or perpendicular orientation, i.e., the linac treatment beam was oriented parallel or perpendicular to the magnetic field direction. (4) The treatment field size was varied from 0 × 0 to 20×20?cm{sup 2}, to span the range of clinical treatment fields. (5) The coil currents were scaled linearly to produce magnetic field strengths B{sub 0} of 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5?T, to estimate how the MLC impact changes with B{sub 0}.Results: (1) The MLC-induced MRI field distortion fell continuously with increasing SID. (2) MLC leaves and motors were found to contribute to the distortion in approximately equal measure. (3) Due to faster falloff of the fringe field, the field distortion was generally smaller in the perpendicular beam orientation. The peak-to-peak DSV distortion was below 300??T at SID?130?cm (perpendicular) and SID?140?cm (inline) for the 1.0?T design. (4) The simulation of different treatment fields was identified to cause dynamic changes in the field distribution. However, the estimated residual distortion was below 1.2?mm geometric distortion at SID?120?cm (perpendicular) and SID?130?cm (inline) for a 10?mT/m frequency-encoding gradient. (5) Due to magnetic saturation of the MLC materials, the field distortion remained constant at B{sub 0}>1.0?T.Conclusions: This work shows that the MRI field distortions caused by the MLC cannot be ignored and must be thoroughly investigated for any MRI-linac system. The numeric distortion values obtained for our 1.0?T magnet may vary for other magnet designs with substantially different fringe fields, however the concept of modest increases in the SID to reduce the distortion to a shimmable level is generally applicable.

  10. SU-E-T-33: An EPID-Based Method for Testing Absolute Leaf Position for MLC Without Backup Jaws

    SciTech Connect

    Hancock, S; Whitaker, M

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Methods in common use for MLC leaf position QA are limited to measurements relative to an arbitrary reference position. The authors previously presented an EPID-based method for efficiently testing accuracy of leaf position relative to the mechanical isocenter for MLC with backup jaws. The purpose of this work is to extend that method to the general case of MLC without backup jaws. Methods: A pair of collimator walkout images is used to determine the location of the mechanical isocenter relative to the center of one field using a parameter called X-offset. The method allows for shift of the imager panel to cover subsets of MLC leaves within the limited field of view of the imager. For a shifted panel position, an image of three beam strips defined by a subset of MLC leaves allows determination of the position of each leaf relative to the isocenter. The location of the isocenter is determined by applying X-offset to an image of a single rectangular field obtained at that panel position. The method can also be used to test backup jaws instead of MLC leaves. A software tool was developed to efficiently analyze the images. Results: The software tool reports leaf position and deviation from nominal position, and provides visual displays to facilitate rapid qualitative interpretation. Test results using this method agree well with results using the previous method requiring backup jaws. Test results have been successfully used to recalibrate one model MLC (Elekta MLCi2™). Work in progress includes extension of the software tool to other MLC models, and quantification of reproducibility of the measurements. Conclusion: This work successfully demonstrates a method to efficiently and accurately measure MLC leaf position, or backup jaw position, relative to the mechanical isocenter of the collimator.

  11. Exam experience and some reactions to exam stress.

    PubMed

    Simi?, N; Manenica, I

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of previous exam experience on some psychophysiological reactions before, during and after repeated exams. A sample of 15 first year psychology students took part in the study. While the subjects were expecting a oral exam for the first time, their levels of exam apprehension, high activation and state anxiety were measured a day before, an hour before the exam and the following day. Furthermore, subjects' cardiac R-R intervals were continuously recorded from five minutes before the exam to five minutes after the exam. Four, out of 15 subjects, passed the exams at first sitting, while the rest of them failed and had to repeat it. These 11 students underwent the same procedure for the second time. The levels of exam apprehension, high activation and anxiety did not show any differences between the first and the second exam sittings. R-R interval parameters indicated a higher stress before and after the second exam sitting, while the stress level was more or less the same during both exams. PMID:22567840

  12. EPID-based verification of the MLC performance for dynamic IMRT and VMAT

    SciTech Connect

    Rowshanfarzad, Pejman; Sabet, Mahsheed; Barnes, Michael P.; O'Connor, Daryl J.; Greer, Peter B.

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: In advanced radiotherapy treatments such as intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT), verification of the performance of the multileaf collimator (MLC) is an essential part of the linac QA program. The purpose of this study is to use the existing measurement methods for geometric QA of the MLCs and extend them to more comprehensive evaluation techniques, and to develop dedicated robust algorithms to quantitatively investigate the MLC performance in a fast, accurate, and efficient manner. Methods: The behavior of leaves was investigated in the step-and-shoot mode by the analysis of integrated electronic portal imaging device (EPID) images acquired during picket fence tests at fixed gantry angles and arc delivery. The MLC was also studied in dynamic mode by the analysis of cine EPID images of a sliding gap pattern delivered in a variety of conditions including different leaf speeds, deliveries at fixed gantry angles or in arc mode, and changing the direction of leaf motion. The accuracy of the method was tested by detection of the intentionally inserted errors in the delivery patterns. Results: The algorithm developed for the picket fence analysis was able to find each individual leaf position, gap width, and leaf bank skewness in addition to the deviations from expected leaf positions with respect to the beam central axis with sub-pixel accuracy. For the three tested linacs over a period of 5 months, the maximum change in the gap width was 0.5 mm, the maximum deviation from the expected leaf positions was 0.1 mm and the MLC skewness was up to 0.2 Degree-Sign . The algorithm developed for the sliding gap analysis could determine the velocity and acceleration/deceleration of each individual leaf as well as the gap width. There was a slight decrease in the accuracy of leaf performance with increasing leaf speeds. The analysis results were presented through several graphs. The accuracy of the method was assessed as 0.01 mm for both the gap size and peak position determination. Conclusions: This study provides fast, easy, and accurate test methods for routine QA of the MLC performance and helps in faster troubleshooting of MLC problems in both IMRT and VMAT treatments.

  13. MLC quality assurance using EPID: A fitting technique with subpixel precision

    SciTech Connect

    Mamalui-Hunter, Maria; Li, Harold; Low, Daniel A.

    2008-06-15

    Amorphous silicon based electronic portal imaging devices (EPIDs) have been shown to be a good alternative to radiographic film for routine quality assurance (QA) of multileaf collimator (MLC) positioning accuracy. In this work, we present a method of acquiring an EPID image of a traditional strip-test image using analytical fits of the interleaf and leaf abutment image signatures. After exposure, the EPID image pixel values are divided by an open field image to remove EPID response and radiation field variations. Profiles acquired in the direction orthogonal to the leaf motion exhibit small peaks caused by interleaf leakage. Gaussian profiles are fitted to the interleaf leakage peaks, the results of which are, using multiobjective optimization, used to calculate the image rotational angle with respect to the collimator axis of rotation. The relative angle is used to rotate the image to align the MLC leaf travel to the image pixel axes. The leaf abutments also present peaks that are fitted by heuristic functions, in this case modified Lorentzian functions. The parameters of the Lorentzian functions are used to parameterize the leaf gap width and positions. By imaging a set of MLC fields with varying gaps forming symmetric and asymmetric abutments, calibration curves with regard to relative peak height (RPH) versus nominal gap width are obtained. Based on this calibration data, the individual leaf positions are calculated to compare with the nominal programmed positions. The results demonstrate that the collimator rotation angle can be determined as accurate as 0.01 deg. . A change in MLC gap width of 0.2 mm leads to a change in RPH of about 10%. For asymmetrically produced gaps, a 0.2 mm MLC leaf gap width change causes 0.2 pixel peak position change. Subpixel resolution is obtained by using a parameterized fit of the relatively large abutment peaks. By contrast, for symmetrical gap changes, the peak position remains unchanged with a standard deviation of 0.05 pixels, or 0.026 mm. A trial run of 36 test images, each with gap widths varying from 0.4 to 1.4 mm, were used to analyze 8640 abutments. The leaf position variations were detected with a precision of 0.1 mm at a 95% confidence level, with a mean of 0.04 mm and a standard deviation of 0.03 mm. The proposed method is robust and minimizes the effect of image noise and pixel size and may help physicists to establish reliable and reasonable action levels in routine MLC QA.

  14. Brushed permanent magnet DC MLC motor operation in an external magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Yun, J.; St Aubin, J.; Rathee, S.; Fallone, B. G.

    2010-05-15

    Purpose: Linac-MR systems for real-time image-guided radiotherapy will utilize the multileaf collimators (MLCs) to perform conformal radiotherapy and tumor tracking. The MLCs would be exposed to the external fringe magnetic fields of the linac-MR hybrid systems. Therefore, an experimental investigation of the effect of an external magnetic field on the brushed permanent magnet DC motors used in some MLC systems was performed. Methods: The changes in motor speed and current were measured for varying external magnetic field strengths up to 2000 G generated by an EEV electromagnet. These changes in motor characteristics were measured for three orientations of the motor in the external magnetic field, mimicking changes in motor orientations due to installation and/or collimator rotations. In addition, the functionality of the associated magnetic motor encoder was tested. The tested motors are used with the Varian 120 leaf Millennium MLC (Maxon Motor half leaf and full leaf motors) and the Varian 52 leaf MKII MLC (MicroMo Electronics leaf motor) including a carriage motor (MicroMo Electronics). Results: In most cases, the magnetic encoder of the motors failed prior to any damage to the gearbox or the permanent magnet motor itself. This sets an upper limit of the external magnetic field strength on the motor function. The measured limits of the external magnetic fields were found to vary by the motor type. The leaf motor used with a Varian 52 leaf MKII MLC system tolerated up to 450{+-}10 G. The carriage motor tolerated up to 2000{+-}10 G field. The motors used with the Varian 120 leaf Millennium MLC system were found to tolerate a maximum of 600{+-}10 G. Conclusions: The current Varian MLC system motors can be used for real-time image-guided radiotherapy coupled to a linac-MR system, provided the fringe magnetic fields at their locations are below the determined tolerance levels. With the fringe magnetic fields of linac-MR systems expected to be larger than the tolerance levels determined, some form of magnetic shielding would be required.

  15. SU-E-T-01: 2-D Characterization of DLG Among All MLC Leaf Pairs

    SciTech Connect

    Kumaraswamy, L; Xu, Z; Podgorsak, M; Schmitt, J; Bailey, D

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to evaluate the variation of dosimetric leaf-gap (DLG) along the travel path of each MLC leaf pair. This study evaluates whether the spatial variations in DLG could cause dose differences between TPS-calculated and measured dose. Methods: The 6MV DLG values were measured for all leaf pairs in the direction of leaf motion using a 2-D diode array and 0.6cc ion chamber. These measurements were performed on two Varian Linacs, employing the Millennium 120-leaf MLC and a 2-D-DLG variation map was created via in-house software. Several test plans were created with sweeping MLC fields using constant gaps from 2mm to 10mm and corrected for 2-D variation utilizing in-house software. Measurements were performed utilizing the MapCHECK at 5.0cm depth for plans with and without the 2-D DLG correction and compared to the TPS calculated dose via gamma analysis (3%/3mm). Results: The measured DLGs for the middle 40 MLC leaf pairs (0.5cm width) were very similar along the central superior-inferior axis, with maximum variation of 0.2mm. The outer 20 MLC leaf pairs (1.0cm width) have DLG values from 0.32mm (mean) to 0.65mm (maximum) lower than the central leaf-pair, depending on off-axis distance. Gamma pass rates for the 2mm, 4mm, and 6mm sweep plans increased by 23.2%, 28.7%, and 26.0% respectively using the 2-D-DLG correction. The most improved dose points occur in areas modulated by the 1.0cm leaf-pairs. The gamma pass rate for the 10mm sweep plan increased by only 7.7%, indicating that the 2D variation becomes less significant for dynamic plans with larger MLC gaps. Conclusion: Fluences residing significantly off-axis with narrow sweeping gaps may exhibit significant variations from planned dose due to large differences between the true DLG exhibited by the 1.0cm leaf-pairs versus the constant DLG value utilized by the TPS for dose calculation.

  16. Motion management during IMAT treatment of mobile lung tumors—A comparison of MLC tracking and gated delivery

    PubMed Central

    Falk, Marianne; Pommer, Tobias; Keall, Paul; Korreman, Stine; Persson, Gitte; Poulsen, Per; Munck af Rosenschöld, Per

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To compare real-time dynamic multileaf collimator (MLC) tracking, respiratory amplitude and phase gating, and no compensation for intrafraction motion management during intensity modulated arc therapy (IMAT). Methods: Motion management with MLC tracking and gating was evaluated for four lung cancer patients. The IMAT plans were delivered to a dosimetric phantom mounted onto a 3D motion phantom performing patient-specific lung tumor motion. The MLC tracking system was guided by an optical system that used stereoscopic infrared (IR) cameras and five spherical reflecting markers attached to the dosimetric phantom. The gated delivery used a duty cycle of 35% and collected position data using an IR camera and two reflecting markers attached to a marker block. Results: The average gamma index failure rate (2% and 2 mm criteria) was <0.01% with amplitude gating for all patients, and <0.1% with phase gating and <3.7% with MLC tracking for three of the four patients. One of the patients had an average failure rate of 15.1% with phase gating and 18.3% with MLC tracking. With no motion compensation, the average gamma index failure rate ranged from 7.1% to 46.9% for the different patients. Evaluation of the dosimetric error contributions showed that the gated delivery mainly had errors in target localization, while MLC tracking also had contributions from MLC leaf fitting and leaf adjustment. The average treatment time was about three times longer with gating compared to delivery with MLC tracking (that did not prolong the treatment time) or no motion compensation. For two of the patients, the different motion compensation techniques allowed for approximately the same margin reduction but for two of the patients, gating enabled a larger reduction of the margins than MLC tracking. Conclusions: Both gating and MLC tracking reduced the effects of the target movements, although the gated delivery showed a better dosimetric accuracy and enabled a larger reduction of the margins in some cases. MLC tracking did not prolong the treatment time compared to delivery with no motion compensation while gating had a considerably longer delivery time. In a clinical setting, the optical monitoring of the patients breathing would have to be correlated to the internal movements of the tumor. PMID:25281946

  17. Exhausting treadmill running causes dephosphorylation of sMLC2 and reduced level of myofilament MLCK2 in slow twitch rat soleus muscle

    PubMed Central

    Hortemo, Kristin Halvorsen; Aronsen, Jan Magnus; Lunde, Ida G; Sjaastad, Ivar; Lunde, Per Kristian; Sejersted, Ole M

    2015-01-01

    Myosin light chain 2 (MLC2) is a small protein in the myosin complex, regulating muscle contractile function by modulating Ca2+ sensitivity of myofilaments. MLC2 can be modified by phosphorylation and O-GlcNAcylation, two reversible and dynamic posttranslational modifications. The slow isoform of MLC2 (sMLC2) is dephosphorylated in soleus muscle during in situ loaded shortening contractions, which correlates with reduction in shortening capacity. Here, we hypothesize that exhausting in vivo treadmill running induces dephosphorylation of MLC2 in slow twitch soleus, but not in fast twitch EDL muscle, and that there are reciprocal changes in MLC2 O-GlcNAcylation. At rest, both phosphorylation and O-GlcNAcylation of MLC2 were lower in slow than fast twitch muscles. One bout of exhausting treadmill running induced dephosphorylation of sMLC2 in soleus, paralleled by reduced levels of the kinase MLCK2 associated to myofilaments, suggesting that the acute reduction in phosphorylation is mediated by dissociation of MLCK2 from myofilaments. O-GlcNAcylation of MLC2 did not change significantly, and seems of limited importance in the regulation of MLC2 phosphorylation during in vivo running. After 6 weeks of treadmill running, the dephosphorylation of sMLC2 persisted in soleus along with reduction in MLCK2 both in myofilament- and total protein fraction. In EDL on the contrary, phosphorylation of MLC2 was not altered after one exercise bout or after 6 weeks of treadmill running. Thus, in contrast to fast twitch muscle, MLC2 dephosphorylation occurs in slow twitch muscle during in vivo exercise and may be linked to reduced myofilament-associated MLCK2 and reduced shortening capacity. PMID:25713325

  18. MA 152 Exam 1 Memo

    E-print Network

    math

    2015-04-10

    paper exams are kept as a back-up should your scantron be accidently lost or destroyed ... calculus, arithmetic, or calculator help during the exam. ... is recommended that students arrive at least 10-15 minutes prior to the start of the exam.

  19. Preparing Students for the AP Psychology Exam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitlock, Kristin

    2013-01-01

    The Advanced Placement Psychology exam is one of the fastest growing exams offered by the College Board. The average percent of change in the number of students taking this exam over the past five years is 12.4%. With 238,962 students taking the exam in 2013, the AP Psychology exam is the sixth largest exam, surpassing AP Biology and AP World…

  20. SU-E-T-430: Modeling MLC Leaf End in 2D for Sliding Window IMRT and Arc Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, X; Zhu, T

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To develop a 2D geometric model for MLC accounting for leaf end dose leakage for dynamic IMRT and Rapidarc therapy. Methods: Leaf-end dose leakage is one of the problems for MLC dose calculation and modeling. Dosimetric leaf gap used to model the MLC and to count for leakage in dose calculation, but may not be accurate for smaller leaf gaps. We propose another geometric modeling method to compensate for the MLC round-shape leaf ends dose leakage, and improve the accuracy of dose calculation and dose verification. A triangular function is used to geometrically model the MLC leaf end leakage in the leaf motion direction, and a step function is used in the perpendicular direction. Dose measurements with different leaf gap, different window width, and different window height were conducted, and the results were used to fit the analytical model to get the model parameters. Results: Analytical models have been obtained for stop-and-shoot and dynamic modes for MLC motion. Parameters a=0.4, lw'=5.0 mm for 6X and a=0.54, lw'=4.1 mm for 15x were obtained from the fitting process. The proposed MLC leaf end model improves the dose profile at the two ends of the sliding window opening. This improvement is especially significant for smaller sliding window openings, which are commonly used for highly modulated IMRT plans and arc therapy plans. Conclusion: This work models the MLC round leaf end shape and movement pattern for IMRT dose calculation. The theory, as well as the results in this work provides a useful tool for photon beam IMRT dose calculation and verification.

  1. Exam Question Exchange.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramette, R. W.

    1988-01-01

    Describes a take-home exam story problem based on stoichiometry. Requires the student to determine the percentage of phosphoric acid in a large container of nitric acid if a man fell into it. Provides assumptions, clues, and an acceptable solution. (MVL)

  2. Final Exam Memo

    E-print Network

    math

    2014-12-02

    Students will bubble in answers on an answer sheet (scantron sheet) as well as circle the answers on the actual exam. You cannot ... the distance formua (d = rt), slope-intercept form of a line, standard form of a line, the basic derivative rules ...

  3. Exam 2 Memo

    E-print Network

    math

    2015-10-06

    Oct 26, 2015 ... Students will bubble in answers on an answer sheet (scantron sheet) as well as circle the answers on the actual exam. ... will be provided (including the quadratic formula and point-slope form for a line). 6) Students must bring ...

  4. Memo for Exam 2

    E-print Network

    math

    2013-02-19

    Mar 5, 2013 ... Students will bubble in answers on an answer sheet (scantron sheet) as well as circle the answers on the actual exam. ... formula, slope-intercept form of a line, equation forms for vertical or horizontal lines, the average rate of ...

  5. Exam 2 Memo

    E-print Network

    math

    2014-03-03

    Mar 6, 2014 ... Students will bubble in answers on an answer sheet (scantron sheet) as well as circle the answers on the actual exam. ... of a line, general or standard form of a line, all procedures for finding limits that we have discussed, the ...

  6. Exam Question Exchange.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, John J., Ed.

    1978-01-01

    Two exam questions are presented. One suitable for advanced undergraduate or beginning graduate courses in organic chemistry, is on equivalent expressions for the description of several pericyclic reactions. The second, for general chemistry students, asks for an estimation of the rate of decay of a million-year-old Uranium-238 sample. (BB)

  7. Final Exams Scholarship Winners

    E-print Network

    Sin, Peter

    TheELIWeekly Final and Exit Exams A necessary evil, we know This coming weekend, Saturday, July 26th similarity is there are people who practice Islam in both cultures. Russian culture, on the other hand, has people who practice Orthodox Christianity, Judaism, Buddhism, and many other religions. Second, Saudi

  8. On the suitability of Elekta’s Agility 160 MLC for tracked radiation delivery: closed-loop machine performance.

    PubMed

    Glitzner, M; Crijns, S P M; de Senneville, B Denis; Lagendijk, J J W; Raaymakers, B W

    2015-03-01

    For motion adaptive radiotherapy, dynamic multileaf collimator tracking can be employed to reduce treatment margins by steering the beam according to the organ motion. The Elekta Agility 160 MLC has hitherto not been evaluated for its tracking suitability. Both dosimetric performance and latency are key figures and need to be assessed generically, independent of the used motion sensor. In this paper, we propose the use of harmonic functions directly fed to the MLC to determine its latency during continuous motion. Furthermore, a control variable is extracted from a camera system and fed to the MLC. Using this setup, film dosimetry and subsequent ? statistics are performed, evaluating the response when tracking (MRI)-based physiologic motion in a closed-loop. The delay attributed to the MLC itself was shown to be a minor contributor to the overall feedback chain as compared to the impact of imaging components such as MRI sequences. Delay showed a linear phase behaviour of the MLC employed in continuously dynamic applications, which enables a general MLC-characterization. Using the exemplary feedback chain, dosimetry showed a vast increase in pass rate employing ? statistics. In this early stage, the tracking performance of the Agility using the test bench yielded promising results, making the technique eligible for translation to tracking using clinical imaging modalities. PMID:25675279

  9. On the suitability of Elekta’s Agility 160 MLC for tracked radiation delivery: closed-loop machine performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glitzner, M.; Crijns, S. P. M.; de Senneville, B. Denis; Lagendijk, J. J. W.; Raaymakers, B. W.

    2015-03-01

    For motion adaptive radiotherapy, dynamic multileaf collimator tracking can be employed to reduce treatment margins by steering the beam according to the organ motion. The Elekta Agility 160 MLC has hitherto not been evaluated for its tracking suitability. Both dosimetric performance and latency are key figures and need to be assessed generically, independent of the used motion sensor. In this paper, we propose the use of harmonic functions directly fed to the MLC to determine its latency during continuous motion. Furthermore, a control variable is extracted from a camera system and fed to the MLC. Using this setup, film dosimetry and subsequent ? statistics are performed, evaluating the response when tracking (MRI)-based physiologic motion in a closed-loop. The delay attributed to the MLC itself was shown to be a minor contributor to the overall feedback chain as compared to the impact of imaging components such as MRI sequences. Delay showed a linear phase behaviour of the MLC employed in continuously dynamic applications, which enables a general MLC-characterization. Using the exemplary feedback chain, dosimetry showed a vast increase in pass rate employing ? statistics. In this early stage, the tracking performance of the Agility using the test bench yielded promising results, making the technique eligible for translation to tracking using clinical imaging modalities.

  10. Word line program disturbance based data retention error recovery strategy for MLC NAND Flash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Haozhi; Pan, Liyang; Song, Changlai; Gao, Zhongyi; Wu, Dong; Xu, Jun

    2015-07-01

    NAND Flash has been widely used as storage solutions for portable system due to improvement on data throughput, power consumption and mechanical reliability. However, NAND Flash presents inevitable decline in reliability due to scaling down and multi-level cell (MLC) technology. High data retention error rate in highly stressed blocks causes a trend of stronger ECC deployed in system, with higher hardware overhead and spare bits cost. In this paper, a word line program disturbance (WPD) based data retention error recovery strategy, which induces extra electron injection to compensate floating gate electron leakage during long retention time, is proposed to reduce the data retention error rate and improve the retention reliability of highly scaled MLC NAND Flash memories. The proposed strategy is applied on 2×-nm MLC NAND Flash and the device one-year retention error rate after 3 K, 4 K, 5 K and 6 K P/E cycled decreases by 75.7%, 79.3%, 82.3% and 83.3%, respectively.

  11. Effect of MLC leaf width on treatment adaptation and accuracy for concurrent irradiation of prostate and pelvic lymph nodes

    SciTech Connect

    Shang Qingyang; Qi Peng; Ferjani, Samah; Xia Ping

    2013-06-15

    Purpose: The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of multileaf collimator (MLC) leaf width on treatment adaptation and delivery accuracy for concurrent treatment of the prostate and pelvic lymph nodes with intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Methods: Seventy-five kilovoltage cone beam CTs (KV-CBCT) from six patients were included for this retrospective study. For each patient, three different IMRT plans were created based on a planning CT using three different MLC leaf widths of 2.5, 5, and 10 mm, respectively. For each CBCT, the prostate displacement was determined by a dual image registration. Adaptive plans were created by shifting selected MLC leaf pairs to compensate for daily prostate movements. To evaluate the impact of MLC leaf width on the adaptive plan for each daily CBCT, three MLC shifted plans were created using three different leaf widths of MLCs (a total of 225 adaptive treatment plans). Selective dosimetric endpoints for the tumor volumes and organs at risk (OARs) were evaluated for these adaptive plans. Using the planning CT from a selected patient, MLC shifted plans for three hypothetical longitudinal shifts of 2, 4, and 8 mm were delivered on the three linear accelerators to test the deliverability of the shifted plans and to compare the dose accuracy of the shifted plans with the original IMRT plans. Results: Adaptive plans from 2.5 and 5 mm MLCs had inadequate dose coverage to the prostate (D99 < 97%, or D{sub mean} < 99% of the planned dose) in 6%-8% of the fractions, while adaptive plans from 10 mm MLC led to inadequate dose coverage to the prostate in 25.3% of the fractions. The average V{sub 56Gy} of the prostate over the six patients was improved by 6.4% (1.6%-32.7%) and 5.8% (1.5%-35.7%) with adaptive plans from 2.5 and 5 mm MLCs, respectively, when compared with adaptive plans from 10 mm MLC. Pelvic lymph nodes were well covered for all MLC adaptive plans, as small differences were observed for D99, D{sub mean}, and V{sub 50.4Gy}. Similar OAR sparing could be achieved for the bladder and rectum with all three MLCs for treatment adaptation. The MLC shifted plans can be accurately delivered on all three linear accelerators with accuracy similar to their original IMRT plans, where gamma (3%/3 mm) passing rates were 99.6%, 93.0%, and 92.1% for 2.5, 5, and 10 mm MLCs, respectively. The percentages of pixels with dose differences between the measurement and calculation being less than 3% of the maximum dose were 85.9%, 82.5%, and 70.5% for the original IMRT plans from the three MLCs, respectively. Conclusions: Dosimetric advantages associated with smaller MLC leaves were observed in terms of the coverage to the prostate, when the treatment was adapted to account for daily prostate movement for concurrent irradiation of the prostate and pelvic lymph nodes. The benefit of switching the MLC from 10 to 5 mm was significant (p Much-Less-Than 0.01); however, switching the MLC from 5 to 2.5 mm would not gain significant (p= 0.15) improvement. IMRT plans with smaller MLC leaf widths achieved more accurate dose delivery.

  12. SU-E-T-506: Dosimetric Verification of Photon MLC Delivered Electron Fields for Implementing MERT On An Artiste Linac

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, L; Eldib, A; Li, J; Wang, L; Ma, C; Fan, J

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To verify the dose accuracy of photon MLC delivered electron fields for implementing energy-intensity modulated electron radiotherapy (MERT) on an Artiste linac. Methods: It was proposed to deliver MERT on an Artiste linac at a short SSD (60 cm) to reduce beam penumbra caused by electron scatters. An in-house developed Monte Carlo (MC)-based dose calculation/optimization planning code was used for treatment planning. Our previous study showed that the measured dose distribution of a breast plan showed good agreement with the calculations in low-medium dose regions while the differences in high dose regions were outstanding. A continuous work found that the discrepancy is mainly caused by improper modeling in MC for the single focused MLC in the Artiste which was simplified as double focused in the previous MC simulations. With this remodeled MLC in the calculations, an energy-intensity modulated electron plan using 6, 9, 12 and 15 MeV was generated for a breast treatment on a breast phantom at a 60 cm SSD and recalculated regarding a solid water phantom. For a test study, four of MLC segments (each with a different energy) generated in the plan were delivered to the phantom and a film measurement was performed at the depth of 2 cm. The measured 2D dose distribution was then compared with calculations. Results: For composite doses of the four segments, measured 2D dose distributions overall agree well with the calculations (3mm/3%) in most area. The separate measurement for a single MLC segment for each of energies also showed the consistence with the calculations. Conclusion: After remodeling MLC in the MC calculations, the measured dose distribution for a subset of MLC segments from a MERT plan showed good agreement. Further detailed verification for the full plan will be the work in the next step.

  13. Monitoring daily MLC positional errors using trajectory log files and EPID measurements for IMRT and VMAT deliveries.

    PubMed

    Agnew, A; Agnew, C E; Grattan, M W D; Hounsell, A R; McGarry, C K

    2014-05-01

    This work investigated the differences between multileaf collimator (MLC) positioning accuracy determined using either log files or electronic portal imaging devices (EPID) and then assessed the possibility of reducing patient specific quality control (QC) via phantom-less methodologies. In-house software was developed, and validated, to track MLC positional accuracy with the rotational and static gantry picket fence tests using an integrated electronic portal image. This software was used to monitor MLC daily performance over a 1 year period for two Varian TrueBeam linear accelerators, with the results directly compared with MLC positions determined using leaf trajectory log files. This software was validated by introducing known shifts and collimator errors. Skewness of the MLCs was found to be 0.03 ± 0.06° (mean ±1 standard deviation (SD)) and was dependent on whether the collimator was rotated manually or automatically. Trajectory log files, analysed using in-house software, showed average MLC positioning errors with a magnitude of 0.004 ± 0.003 mm (rotational) and 0.004 ± 0.011 mm (static) across two TrueBeam units over 1 year (mean ±1 SD). These ranges, as indicated by the SD, were lower than the related average MLC positioning errors of 0.000 ± 0.025 mm (rotational) and 0.000 ± 0.039 mm (static) that were obtained using the in-house EPID based software. The range of EPID measured MLC positional errors was larger due to the inherent uncertainties of the procedure. Over the duration of the study, multiple MLC positional errors were detected using the EPID based software but these same errors were not detected using the trajectory log files. This work shows the importance of increasing linac specific QC when phantom-less methodologies, such as the use of log files, are used to reduce patient specific QC. Tolerances of 0.25 mm have been created for the MLC positional errors using the EPID-based automated picket fence test. The software allows diagnosis of any specific leaf that needs repair and gives an indication as to the course of action that is required. PMID:24732210

  14. SU-E-T-583: Optimizing the MLC Model Parameters for IMRT in the RayStation Treatment Planning System

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, S; Yi, B; Xu, H; Yang, X; Prado, K; D'Souza, W

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To optimize the MLC model parameters for IMRT in the RayStation v.4.0 planning system and for a Varian C-series Linac with a 120-leaf Millennium MLC. Methods: The RayStation treatment planning system models rounded leaf-end MLC with the following parameters: average transmission, leaf-tip width, tongue-and-groove, and position offset. The position offset was provided by Varian. The leaf-tip width was iteratively evaluated by comparing computed and measured transverse dose profiles of MLC-defined fields at dmax in water. The profile comparison was also used to verify the MLC position offset. The transmission factor and leaf tongue width were derived iteratively by optimizing five clinical patient IMRT QA Results: brain, lung, pancreas, head-and-neck (HN), and prostate. The HN and prostate cases involved splitting fields. Verifications were performed with Mapcheck2 measurements and Monte Carlo calculations. Finally, the MLC model was validated using five test IMRT cases from the AAPM TG119 report. Absolute gamma analyses (3mm/3% and 2mm/2%) were applied. In addition, computed output factors for MLC-defined small fields (2×2, 3×3, 4×4, 6×6cm) of both 6MV and 18MV were compared to those measured by the Radiological Physics Center (RPC). Results: Both 6MV and 18MV models were determined to have the same MLC parameters: 2.5% transmission, tongue-and-groove 0.05cm, and leaftip 0.3cm. IMRT QA analysis for five cases in TG119 resulted in a 100% passing rate with 3mm/3% gamma analysis for 6MV, and >97.5% for 18MV. With 2mm/2% gamma analysis, the passing rate was >94.6% for 6MV and >90.9% for 18MV. The difference between computed output factors in RayStation and RPC measurements was less than 2% for all MLCdefined fields, which meets the RPC's acceptance criterion. Conclusion: The rounded leaf-end MLC model in RayStation 4.0 planning system was verified and IMRT commissioning was clinically acceptable. The IMRT commissioning was well validated using guidance from the AAPMTG119 protocol.

  15. Effectiveness and Safety of MLC601 in the Treatment of Mild to Moderate Alzheimer's Disease: A Multicenter, Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Pakdaman, Hossein; Harandi, Ali Amini; Hatamian, Hamidreza; Tabatabae, Mojgan; Delavar Kasmaei, Hosein; Ghassemi, Amirhossein; Gharagozli, Koroush; Ashrafi, Farzad; Emami Naeini, Pardis; Tavakolian, Mehrnaz; Shahin, Darush

    2015-01-01

    Background MLC601 is a possible modulator of amyloid precursor protein processing, and in a clinical trial study MLC601 showed some effectiveness in cognitive function in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of MLC601 in the treatment of mild to moderate AD as compared to 3 approved cholinesterase inhibitors (ChEIs) including donepezil, rivastigmine and galantamine. Methods In a multicenter, nonblinded, randomized controlled trial, 264 volunteers with AD were randomly divided into 4 groups of 66; groups 1, 2, 3 and 4 received donepezil, rivastigmine, MLC601 and galantamine, respectively. Subjects underwent a clinical diagnostic interview and a cognitive/functional battery including the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale – Cognitive subscale (ADAS-Cog). Patients were visited every 4 months, and the score of cognition was recorded by the neurologists. Results There were no significant differences in age, sex, marital status and baseline score of cognition among the 4 groups. In total, 39 patients (14.7%) left the study. Trend of cognition changes based on the modifications over the time for MMSE and ADAS-cog scores did not differ significantly among groups (p = 0.92 for MMSE and p = 0.87 for ADAS-Cog). Conclusion MLC601 showed a promising safety profile and also efficacy compared to 3 FDA-approved ChEIs. PMID:25873931

  16. College Library Reserves Guidelines Lists are processed in the order of date received. The minimum processing time is ten

    E-print Network

    California at Los Angles, University of

    . Exams, Class Notes, Links to Web Pages College Reserves will scan and mount instructors' exams, solution sets, overheads, and class notes on the Reserves Web site in compliance with U.S. copyright law and UC periodically during the quarter but must include a note stating the week they correspond to. · World Wide Web

  17. Improving IMRT-plan quality with MLC leaf position refinement post plan optimization

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Ying; Zhang, Guowei; Berman, Barry L.; Parke, William C.; Yi, Byongyong; Yu, Cedric X.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: In intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) planning, reducing the pencil-beam size may lead to a significant improvement in dose conformity, but also increase the time needed for the dose calculation and plan optimization. The authors develop and evaluate a postoptimization refinement (POpR) method, which makes fine adjustments to the multileaf collimator (MLC) leaf positions after plan optimization, enhancing the spatial precision and improving the plan quality without a significant impact on the computational burden. Methods: The authors’ POpR method is implemented using a commercial treatment planning system based on direct aperture optimization. After an IMRT plan is optimized using pencil beams with regular pencil-beam step size, a greedy search is conducted by looping through all of the involved MLC leaves to see if moving the MLC leaf in or out by half of a pencil-beam step size will improve the objective function value. The half-sized pencil beams, which are used for updating dose distribution in the greedy search, are derived from the existing full-sized pencil beams without need for further pencil-beam dose calculations. A benchmark phantom case and a head-and-neck (HN) case are studied for testing the authors’ POpR method. Results: Using a benchmark phantom and a HN case, the authors have verified that their POpR method can be an efficient technique in the IMRT planning process. Effectiveness of POpR is confirmed by noting significant improvements in objective function values. Dosimetric benefits of POpR are comparable to those of using a finer pencil-beam size from the optimization start, but with far less computation and time. Conclusions: The POpR is a feasible and practical method to significantly improve IMRT-plan quality without compromising the planning efficiency. PMID:22894437

  18. Improving IMRT-plan quality with MLC leaf position refinement post plan optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Niu Ying; Zhang Guowei; Berman, Barry L.; Parke, William C.; Yi Byongyong; Yu, Cedric X.

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: In intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) planning, reducing the pencil-beam size may lead to a significant improvement in dose conformity, but also increase the time needed for the dose calculation and plan optimization. The authors develop and evaluate a postoptimization refinement (POpR) method, which makes fine adjustments to the multileaf collimator (MLC) leaf positions after plan optimization, enhancing the spatial precision and improving the plan quality without a significant impact on the computational burden. Methods: The authors' POpR method is implemented using a commercial treatment planning system based on direct aperture optimization. After an IMRT plan is optimized using pencil beams with regular pencil-beam step size, a greedy search is conducted by looping through all of the involved MLC leaves to see if moving the MLC leaf in or out by half of a pencil-beam step size will improve the objective function value. The half-sized pencil beams, which are used for updating dose distribution in the greedy search, are derived from the existing full-sized pencil beams without need for further pencil-beam dose calculations. A benchmark phantom case and a head-and-neck (HN) case are studied for testing the authors' POpR method. Results: Using a benchmark phantom and a HN case, the authors have verified that their POpR method can be an efficient technique in the IMRT planning process. Effectiveness of POpR is confirmed by noting significant improvements in objective function values. Dosimetric benefits of POpR are comparable to those of using a finer pencil-beam size from the optimization start, but with far less computation and time. Conclusions: The POpR is a feasible and practical method to significantly improve IMRT-plan quality without compromising the planning efficiency.

  19. Quantification of the impact of MLC modeling and tissue heterogeneities on dynamic IMRT dose calculations.

    PubMed

    Mihaylov, I B; Lerma, F A; Fatyga, M; Siebers, J V

    2007-04-01

    This study quantifies the dose prediction errors (DPEs) in dynamic IMRT dose calculations resulting from (a) use of an intensity matrix to estimate the multi-leaf collimator (MLC) modulated photon fluence (DPE(IGfluence) instead of an explicit MLC particle transport, and (b) handling of tissue heterogeneities (DPE(hetero)) by superposition/convolution (SC) and pencil beam (PB) dose calculation algorithms. Monte Carlo (MC) computed doses are used as reference standards. Eighteen head-and-neck dynamic MLC IMRT treatment plans are investigated. DPEs are evaluated via comparing the dose received by 98% of the GTV (GTV D 98%), the CTV D 95%, the nodal D 90%, the cord and the brainstem D 02%, the parotid D 50%, the parotid mean dose (D (Mean)), and generalized equivalent uniform doses (gEUDs) for the above structures. For the MC-generated intensity grids, DPE(IGfluence) is within +/- 2.1% for all targets and critical structures. The SC algorithm DPE(hetero) is within +/- 3% for 98.3% of the indices tallied, and within +/- 3.4% for all of the tallied indices. The PB algorithm DPE(hetero) is within +/- 3% for 92% of the tallied indices. Statistical equivalence tests indicate that PB DPE(hetero) requires a +/- 3.6% interval to state equivalence with the MC standard, while the intervals are < 1.5% for SC DPE(hetero) and DPE(IGfluence). Overall, these results indicate that SC and MC IMRT dose calculations which use MC-derived intensity matrices for fluence prediction do not introduce significant dose errors compared with full Monte Carlo dose computations; however, PB algorithms may result in clinically significant dose deviations. PMID:17500456

  20. Determination of the optimal tolerance for MLC positioning in sliding window and VMAT techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez, V. Abella, R.; Calvo, J. F.; Jurado-Bruggemann, D.; Sancho, I.; Carrasco, P.

    2015-04-15

    Purpose: Several authors have recommended a 2 mm tolerance for multileaf collimator (MLC) positioning in sliding window treatments. In volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) treatments, however, the optimal tolerance for MLC positioning remains unknown. In this paper, the authors present the results of a multicenter study to determine the optimal tolerance for both techniques. Methods: The procedure used is based on dynalog file analysis. The study was carried out using seven Varian linear accelerators from five different centers. Dynalogs were collected from over 100?000 clinical treatments and in-house software was used to compute the number of tolerance faults as a function of the user-defined tolerance. Thus, the optimal value for this tolerance, defined as the lowest achievable value, was investigated. Results: Dynalog files accurately predict the number of tolerance faults as a function of the tolerance value, especially for low fault incidences. All MLCs behaved similarly and the Millennium120 and the HD120 models yielded comparable results. In sliding window techniques, the number of beams with an incidence of hold-offs >1% rapidly decreases for a tolerance of 1.5 mm. In VMAT techniques, the number of tolerance faults sharply drops for tolerances around 2 mm. For a tolerance of 2.5 mm, less than 0.1% of the VMAT arcs presented tolerance faults. Conclusions: Dynalog analysis provides a feasible method for investigating the optimal tolerance for MLC positioning in dynamic fields. In sliding window treatments, the tolerance of 2 mm was found to be adequate, although it can be reduced to 1.5 mm. In VMAT treatments, the typically used 5 mm tolerance is excessively high. Instead, a tolerance of 2.5 mm is recommended.

  1. Dosimetric and mechanical characteristics of a commercial dynamic {mu}MLC used in SRS

    SciTech Connect

    Galal, Mohamed M.; Keogh, Sinead; Khalil, Sultan

    2011-07-15

    Purpose: The aim of this work is to carry out mechanical and dosimetric assessments on a commercial dynamic micromulti leaf collimator system to be used for stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT). Mechanical parameters such as leaf position accuracy with different gantry angles and leaf position reproducibility were measured. Also dosimetric measurements of the interleaf leakage, intraleaf transmission, penumbra width, and light field alignment were carried out. Furthermore, measurements of output factors (S{sub cp}) and in-air factors (S{sub c}) for the {mu}MLC system will be reported. Methods: EBT2 films were used to assess the leaf position error with gantry angle and after stress test, penumbra width and light field alignment. Leaf leakage was quantified using both EBT2 film and a pinpoint ion chamber. With regard to output factors, the pinpoint chamber was placed in a water phantom at 10 cm depth and 100 cm SSD. For in-air output factor measurements, 0.2 cm of brass was placed above the photon diode as build-up. Results: Measurements of mechanical parameters gave values of 0.05 cm (SD 0.035) for the average leaf position accuracy for different gantry angles and after stress test. Dosimetric measurements, yielded values of 0.22 {+-} 0.01 and 0.24 {+-} 0.01 cm, respectively, for side and head leaf penumbras. Also, average leaf abutting, leakage and transmission were found to be 0.65, 0.91, and 0.20%, respectively. Conclusions: (a) The add-on {mu}MLC system in combination with our LINAC has been commissioned to be used for clinical purposes and showed good agreement with published results for different {mu}MLC types. (b) This work has lead to the recommendation that leaves should be recalibrated after ten static beams or after each dynamic arc.

  2. SU-E-T-425: Spherical Dose Distributions for Radiosurgery Using a Standardized MLC Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Popple, R; Brezovich, I; Wu, X; Fiveash, J

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To investigate a standardized MLC treatment plan to generate small spherical dose distributions. Methods: The static virtual cone plan comprised six table positions with clockwise and counterclockwise arcs having collimator angles 45 and 135 degrees, respectively, at each position. The central two leaves of a 2.5 mm leaf width MLC were set to a constant gap. Control points were weighted proportional to the sine of the gantry angle. Plans were created for the 10 MV flattening-filter-free beam of a TrueBeam STx (Varian Medical Systems) with gaps of 1, 1.5, 2, and 3 mm and were delivered to a phantom containing radiochromic film. Dose was calculated using the Eclipse AAA (Varian Medical Systems). A dynamic plan in which the table and gantry moved simultaneously with 1.5 mm gap was also created and delivered using the TrueBeam developer mode. Results: The full-width-half-max (FWHM) varied with leaf gap, ranging from 5.2 to 6.2 mm. Calculated FWHM was smaller than measured by 0.7 mm for the 1 mm gap and ? 0.4 mm for the larger gaps. The measured-to-calculated dose ratio was 0.93, 0.96, 1.01, and 0.99 for 1 mm, 1.5 mm, 2 mm, and 3 mm gaps, respectively. The dynamic results were the same as the static. The position deviations between the phantom target position and the center of the dose distribution were < 0.4 mm. Conclusion: The virtual cone can deliver spherical dose distributions suitable for radio surgery of small targets such as the trigeminal nerve. The Eclipse AAA accurately calculates the expected dose, particularly for leaf gap ? 1.5 mm. The measured dose distribution is slightly larger than the calculation, which is likely due to systematic leaf position error, isocenter variation due to gantry sag and table eccentricity, and inaccuracy in MLC leaf end modeling.

  3. X-Ray Exam: Femur (Upper Leg)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Sports: Keeping Kids Safe Concussions: What to Know X-Ray Exam: Femur (Upper Leg) KidsHealth > Parents > Doctors & Hospitals > Medical Tests & Exams > X-Ray Exam: Femur (Upper Leg) Print A A A ...

  4. The dosimetric impact of inversely optimized arc radiotherapy plan modulation for real-time dynamic MLC tracking delivery

    SciTech Connect

    Falk, Marianne; Larsson, Tobias; Keall, Paul; Chul Cho, Byung; Aznar, Marianne; Korreman, Stine; Poulsen, Per; Munck af Rosenschoeld, Per

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: Real-time dynamic multileaf collimator (MLC) tracking for management of intrafraction tumor motion can be challenging for highly modulated beams, as the leaves need to travel far to adjust for target motion perpendicular to the leaf travel direction. The plan modulation can be reduced by using a leaf position constraint (LPC) that reduces the difference in the position of adjacent MLC leaves in the plan. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of the LPC on the quality of inversely optimized arc radiotherapy plans and the effect of the MLC motion pattern on the dosimetric accuracy of MLC tracking delivery. Specifically, the possibility of predicting the accuracy of MLC tracking delivery based on the plan modulation was investigated. Methods: Inversely optimized arc radiotherapy plans were created on CT-data of three lung cancer patients. For each case, five plans with a single 358 deg. arc were generated with LPC priorities of 0 (no LPC), 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1 (highest possible LPC), respectively. All the plans had a prescribed dose of 2 Gy x 30, used 6 MV, a maximum dose rate of 600 MU/min and a collimator angle of 45 deg. or 315 deg. To quantify the plan modulation, an average adjacent leaf distance (ALD) was calculated by averaging the mean adjacent leaf distance for each control point. The linear relationship between the plan quality [i.e., the calculated dose distributions and the number of monitor units (MU)] and the LPC was investigated, and the linear regression coefficient as well as a two tailed confidence level of 95% was used in the evaluation. The effect of the plan modulation on the performance of MLC tracking was tested by delivering the plans to a cylindrical diode array phantom moving with sinusoidal motion in the superior-inferior direction with a peak-to-peak displacement of 2 cm and a cycle time of 6 s. The delivery was adjusted to the target motion using MLC tracking, guided in real-time by an infrared optical system. The dosimetric results were evaluated using gamma index evaluation with static target measurements as reference. Results: The plan quality parameters did not depend significantly on the LPC (p {>=} 0.066), whereas the ALD depended significantly on the LPC (p < 0.001). The gamma index failure rate depended significantly on the ALD, weighted to the percentage of the beam delivered in each control point of the plan (ALD{sub w}) when MLC tracking was used (p < 0.001), but not for delivery without MLC tracking (p {>=} 0.342). The gamma index failure rate with the criteria of 2% and 2 mm was decreased from > 33.9% without MLC tracking to <31.4% (LPC 0) and <2.2% (LPC 1) with MLC tracking. Conclusions: The results indicate that the dosimetric robustness of MLC tracking delivery of an inversely optimized arc radiotherapy plan can be improved by incorporating leaf position constraints in the objective function without otherwise affecting the plan quality. The dosimetric robustness may be estimated prior to delivery by evaluating the ALD{sub w} of the plan.

  5. Effect of MLC leaf position, collimator rotation angle, and gantry rotation angle errors on intensity-modulated radiotherapy plans for nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Bai, Sen; Li, Guangjun; Wang, Maojie; Jiang, Qinfeng; Zhang, Yingjie; Wei, Yuquan

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of multileaf collimator (MLC) leaf position, collimator rotation angle, and accelerator gantry rotation angle errors on intensity-modulated radiotherapy plans for nasopharyngeal carcinoma. To compare dosimetric differences between the simulating plans and the clinical plans with evaluation parameters, 6 patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma were selected for simulation of systematic and random MLC leaf position errors, collimator rotation angle errors, and accelerator gantry rotation angle errors. There was a high sensitivity to dose distribution for systematic MLC leaf position errors in response to field size. When the systematic MLC position errors were 0.5, 1, and 2 mm, respectively, the maximum values of the mean dose deviation, observed in parotid glands, were 4.63%, 8.69%, and 18.32%, respectively. The dosimetric effect was comparatively small for systematic MLC shift errors. For random MLC errors up to 2 mm and collimator and gantry rotation angle errors up to 0.5°, the dosimetric effect was negligible. We suggest that quality control be regularly conducted for MLC leaves, so as to ensure that systematic MLC leaf position errors are within 0.5 mm. Because the dosimetric effect of 0.5° collimator and gantry rotation angle errors is negligible, it can be concluded that setting a proper threshold for allowed errors of collimator and gantry rotation angle may increase treatment efficacy and reduce treatment time.

  6. Being Successful in Tertiary Exams

    E-print Network

    Wapstra, Erik

    . Compromising healthy sleep patterns during exam times is rarely helpful. Exercise ­ Research links a healthy Planner). Managing space ­ Physical space and effective study go together. Just as it is hard to sleep't compromise at exam time when you most need that fuel. Sleep ­ Routine and regularity is a key with good

  7. SU-E-T-405: Robustness of Volumetric-Modulated Arc Therapy (VMAT) Plans to Systematic MLC Positional Errors

    SciTech Connect

    Qi, P; Xia, P

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the dosimetric impact of systematic MLC positional errors (PEs) on the quality of volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) plans. Methods: Five patients with head-and-neck cancer (HN) and five patients with prostate cancer were randomly chosen for this study. The clinically approved VMAT plans were designed with 2–4 coplanar arc beams with none-zero collimator angles in the Pinnacle planning system. The systematic MLC PEs of 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 mm on both MLC banks were introduced into the original VMAT plans using an in-house program, and recalculated with the same planned Monitor Units in the Pinnacle system. For each patient, the original VMAT plans and plans with MLC PEs were evaluated according to the dose-volume histogram information and Gamma index analysis. Results: For one primary target, the ratio of V100 in the plans with 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 mm MLC PEs to those in the clinical plans was 98.8 ± 2.2%, 97.9 ± 2.1%, 90.1 ± 9.0% for HN cases and 99.5 ± 3.2%, 98.9 ± 1.0%, 97.0 ± 2.5% for prostate cases. For all OARs, the relative difference of Dmean in all plans was less than 1.5%. With 2mm/2% criteria for Gamma analysis, the passing rates were 99.0 ± 1.5% for HN cases and 99.7 ± 0.3% for prostate cases between the planar doses from the original plans and the plans with 1.0 mm MLC errors. The corresponding Gamma passing rates dropped to 88.9 ± 5.3% for HN cases and 83.4 ± 3.2% for prostate cases when comparing planar doses from the original plans and the plans with 2.0 mm MLC errors. Conclusion: For VMAT plans, systematic MLC PEs up to 1.0 mm did not affect the plan quality in term of target coverage, OAR sparing, and Gamma analysis with 2mm/2% criteria.

  8. In vitro study of cell survival following dynamic MLC intensity-modulated radiation therapy dose delivery

    SciTech Connect

    Moiseenko, Vitali; Duzenli, Cheryl; Durand, Ralph E.

    2007-04-15

    The possibility of reduced cell kill following intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) compared to conventional radiation therapy has been debated in the literature. This potential reduction in cell kill relates to prolonged treatment times typical of IMRT dose delivery and consequently increased repair of sublethal lesions. While there is some theoretical support to this reduction in cell kill published in the literature, direct experimental evidence specific to IMRT dose delivery patterns is lacking. In this study we present cell survival data for three cell lines: Chinese hamster V79 fibroblasts, human cervical carcinoma, SiHa and colon adenocarcinoma, WiDr. Cell survival was obtained for 2.1 Gy delivered as acute dose with parallel-opposed pair (POP), irradiation time 75 s, which served as a reference; regular seven-field IMRT, irradiation time 5 min; and IMRT with a break for multiple leaf collimator (MLC) re-initialization after three fields were delivered, irradiation time 10 min. An actual seven-field dynamic MLC IMRT plan for a head and neck patient was used. The IMRT plan was generated for a Varian EX or iX linear accelerator with 120 leaf Millenium MLC. Survival data were also collected for doses 1x, 2x, 3x, 4x, and 5x 2.1 Gy to establish parameters of the linear-quadratic equation describing survival following acute dose delivery. Cells were irradiated inside an acrylic cylindrical phantom specifically designed for this study. Doses from both IMRT and POP were validated using ion chamber measurements. A reproducible increase in cell survival was observed following IMRT dose delivery. This increase varied from small for V79, with a surviving fraction of 0.8326 following POP vs 0.8420 following uninterrupted IMRT, to very pronounced for SiHa, with a surviving fraction of 0.3903 following POP vs 0.5330 for uninterrupted IMRT. When compared to IMRT or IMRT with a break for MLC initialization, cell survival following acute dose delivery was significantly different, p<0.05, in three out of six cases. In contrast, when cell survival following IMRT was compared to that following IMRT with a break for MLC initialization the difference was always statistically insignificant. When projected to a 30 fraction treatment, dose deficit to bring cell survival to the same value as in POP was calculated as 4.1, 24.9, and 31.1 Gy for V79, WiDr, and SiHa cell lines, respectively. The dose deficit did not relate to the {alpha}/{beta} ratio obtained in this study for the three cell lines. Clinical data do not show reduction in local control following IMRT. Possible reasons for this are discussed. The obtained data set can serve as a test data set for models designed to explore the effect of dose delivery prolongation/fractionation in IMRT on radiation therapy outcome.

  9. Biological consequences of MLC calibration errors in IMRT delivery and QA

    SciTech Connect

    Moiseenko, Vitali; LaPointe, Vincent; James, Kerry; Yin Lingshu; Liu, Mitchell; Pawlicki, Todd

    2012-04-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this work is threefold: (1) to explore biological consequences of the multileaf collimator (MLC) calibration errors in intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) of prostate and head and neck cancers, (2) to determine levels of planning target volume (PTV) and normal tissue under- or overdose flagged with clinically used QA action limits, and (3) to provide biologically based input for MLC QA and IMRT QA action limits. Methods: Ten consecutive prostate IMRT cases and ten consecutive head and neck IMRT cases were used. Systematic MLC offsets (i.e., calibration error) were introduced for each control point of the plan separately for X1 and X2 leaf banks. Offsets were from - 2 to 2 mm with a 0.5 mm increment. The modified files were imported into the planning system for forward dose recalculation. The original plan served as the reference. The generalized equivalent uniform dose (gEUD) was used as the biological index for the targets, rectum, parotid glands, brainstem, and spinal cord. Each plan was recalculated on a CT scan of a 27 cm diameter cylindrical phantom with a contoured 0.6 cc ion chamber. Dose to ion chamber and 3D gamma analysis were compared to the reference plan. QA pass criteria: (1) at least 95% of voxels with a dose cutoff of 50% of maximum dose have to pass at 3 mm/3% and (2) dose to chamber within 2% of the reference dose. Results: For prostate cases, differences in PTV and rectum gEUD greater than 2% were identified. However, a larger proportion of plans leading to greater than 2% difference in prostate PTV gEUD passed the ion chamber QA but not 3D gamma QA. A similar trend was found for the rectum gEUD. For head and neck IMRT, the QA pass criteria flagged plans leading to greater than 4% differences in PTV gEUD and greater than 5% differences in the maximum dose to brainstem. If pass criteria were relaxed to 90% for gamma and 3% for ion chamber QA, plans leading to a 5% difference in PTV gEUD and a 5%-8% difference in brainstem maximum dose would likely pass IMRT QA. A larger proportion of head and neck plans with greater than 2% PTV gEUD difference passed 3D gamma QA compared to ion chamber QA. Conclusions: For low modulation plans, there is a better chance to catch MLC calibration errors with 3D gamma QA rather than ion chamber QA. Conversely, for high modulation plans, there is a better chance to catch MLC calibration errors with ion chamber QA rather than with 3D gamma QA. Ion chamber and 3D gamma analysis IMRT QA can detect greater than 2% change in gEUD for PTVs and critical structures for low modulation treatment plans. For high modulation treatment plans, ion chamber and 3D gamma analysis can detect greater than 2% change in gEUD for PTVs and a 5% change in critical structure gEUD since either QA methods passes the QA criteria. For gEUD changes less than those listed above, either QA method has the same proportion of passing rate.

  10. EXAM 4 INFORMATION AND INSTALLATION INSTRUCTIONS EXAM 4 Requirements

    E-print Network

    Shyu, Mei-Ling

    . Pro) - Virtual operating systems (VMs) - Apple iDevices (iPad, iPhone, etc.) - #12;EXAM 4 Installation/have your Anonymous Grading Number (AGN) available and handy. - Charge your laptop's battery. - Bring your

  11. February 10, 2015 MA 161 -EXAM # 1

    E-print Network

    Brown, Johnny E.

    the exam, hand in your scantron and your test booklet to your recitation instructor. ACADEMIC DISHONESTY 1February 10, 2015 MA 161 - EXAM # 1 GREEN Exam - Test Version 01 INSTRUCTIONS 1. Make sure scantron and fill in the circles. The GREEN exam is Test 01 . Your PUID and your 4-digit section number

  12. Are Online Exams an Invitation to Cheat?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harmon, Oskar R.; Lambrinos, James; Kennedy, Peter, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the authors use data from two online courses in principles of economics to estimate a model that predicts exam scores from independent variables of student characteristics. In one course, the final exam was proctored, and in the other course, the final exam was not proctored. In both courses, the first three exams were unproctored.…

  13. SU-E-T-122: Dosimetric Comparison Between Cone, HDMLC and MicroMLC for the Treatment of Trigeminal Neuralgia

    SciTech Connect

    Vacca, N; Caussa, L; Filipuzzi, M; Garrigo, E; Venencia, C

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this work was to evaluate the dosimetric characteristics of three collimation systems, 5mm circular cone (Brainlab) and square fields of 5mm with HDMLC (Varian) and microMLC Moduleaf, Siemens) for trigeminal neuralgia treatment. Methods: A TPS Iplan v4.5 BrainLAB was used to do treatment plans for each collimations system in a square solid water phantom with isocenter at 5cm depth. Single field and treatment plan including 11 arcs with fix field and 100° gantry range was made for each collimation systems. EBT3 films were positioned at isocenter in a coronal plane to measured dose distribution for all geometries. Films were digitized with a Vidar DosimetryPro Red scanner with a resolution of 89dpi and RIT113v6.1 software was used for analysis. Penumbra region (80%–20%), FWHM and dose percentage at 5mm and 10mm from CAX were determined. All profiles were normalized at CAX. Results: For single beam the penumbra (FWHM) was 1.5mm (5.3mm) for the cone, 1.9mm (5.5mm) for HDMLC and 1.8mm (5.4mm) for the microMLC. Dose percentage at 5mm was 6.9% for cone, 12.5% for HDMLC and 8.7% for the microMLC. For treatment plan the penumbra (FWHM) was 2.58mm (5.47mm) for the cone, 2.8mm (5.84mm) for HDMLC and 2.58mm (6.09mm) for the microMLC. Dose perecentage at 5mm was 13.1% for cone, 16.1% for HDMLC, 15.2% for the microMLC. Conclusion: The cone has a dose falloff larger than the microMLC and HDMLC, by its reduced penumbra, this translates into better protection of surrounding healthy tissue, however, the microMLC and HDMLC have similar accuracy to cone.

  14. SU-E-T-633: Dose Differences in Lung Cancer SBRT: The Influences of MLC Width

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, J; Yin, Y

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: The aim is to compare the plan dose distribution of lung SBRT with MLCs in different width. Methods: Cases with phase INSCLC were enrolled. 9 cases were undergone 4D-CT scanning in the supine position with both arms raised. 3D-CT images without IV contrast were afterwards acquired with 3mm thickness and used for dose calculations. ITV was generated by using the inspiration and expiration images. The ITV can be expanded by geometric set-up uncertainty (5 mm) to generate the PTV. All chest normal tissues including chest wall were contoured by doctors. A total dose of 55 Gy will be given in 5 fractions within 10–14 days with an inter fraction interval of 2–3 days. Guided by the RTOG trial 3502 protocol, 11–13 non-coplanar fields with 6MV photon were arranged. Three types of MLCs with width of 3mm, 5mm and 10mm at isocenter position, were used separately to generate a CRT plan for each case. Monte Carlo algorithm was applied to dose calculation. All plans were adjusted as possible to meet the dose constraints. Dose-volume parameters from plans as followed were compared and analysized: PTV V55Gy, COMPTV D70% (70% of normalization dose), volume A (body minus PTV), and R100% and R50% (the ratio of x% of prescription dose isoline volume to PTV volume). Results: MLCs, 3mm and 5mm wide, played the identical roles on dosimetry of the plans, excluding the parameter volume A (p<0.05). On the contrary, MLC with width of 10mm was significantly inferior to the other two types on most parameters (p<0.05). For R50%, all types contributed equally (p>0.05). Conclusion: For lung cancer SBRT, MLC width had influence to dosimetry, especially in irradiation area. Small size MLC, e.g. 3mm and 5mm, are helpful to generate a high quality treatment plan, which could meet the strict criteria for targets and OAR.

  15. SU-E-T-613: Dosimetric Consequences of Systematic MLC Leaf Positioning Errors

    SciTech Connect

    Kathuria, K; Siebers, J

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to determine the dosimetric consequences of systematic MLC leaf positioning errors for clinical IMRT patient plans so as to establish detection tolerances for quality assurance programs. Materials and Methods: Dosimetric consequences were simulated by extracting mlc delivery instructions from the TPS, altering the file by the specified error, reloading the delivery instructions into the TPS, recomputing dose, and extracting dose-volume metrics for one head-andneck and one prostate patient. Machine error was simulated by offsetting MLC leaves in Pinnacle in a systematic way. Three different algorithms were followed for these systematic offsets, and are as follows: a systematic sequential one-leaf offset (one leaf offset in one segment per beam), a systematic uniform one-leaf offset (same one leaf offset per segment per beam) and a systematic offset of a given number of leaves picked uniformly at random from a given number of segments (5 out of 10 total). Dose to the PTV and normal tissue was simulated. Results: A systematic 5 mm offset of 1 leaf for all delivery segments of all beams resulted in a maximum PTV D98 deviation of 1%. Results showed very low dose error in all reasonably possible machine configurations, rare or otherwise, which could be simulated. Very low error in dose to PTV and OARs was shown in all possible cases of one leaf per beam per segment being offset (<1%), or that of only one leaf per beam being offset (<.2%). The errors resulting from a high number of adjacent leaves (maximum of 5 out of 60 total leaf-pairs) being simultaneously offset in many (5) of the control points (total 10–18 in all beams) per beam, in both the PTV and the OARs analyzed, were similarly low (<2–3%). Conclusions: The above results show that patient shifts and anatomical changes are the main source of errors in dose delivered, not machine delivery. These two sources of error are “visually complementary” and uncorrelated (albeit not additive in the final error) and one can easily incorporate error resulting from machine delivery in an error model based purely on tumor motion.

  16. EXPOSURE ANALYSIS MODELING SYSTEM (EXAMS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Exposure Analysis Modeling System (EXAMS), first published in 1982 (EPA-600/3-82-023), provides interactive computer software for formulating aquatic ecosystem models and rapidly evaluating the fate, transport, and exposure concentrations of synthetic organic chemicals--pesti...

  17. Developing On-line Exams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartsell, Taralynn S.; Yuen, Steve Chi-Yin

    2003-01-01

    Discusses advantages and limitations of online exams, describes available software tools for creating computer-based tests (CGI, JavaScript, commercial programs, course authoring tools), and offers suggestions for implementation. (JOW)

  18. High-Dose Spatially Fractionated GRID Radiation Therapy (SFGRT): A Comparison of Treatment Outcomes With Cerrobend vs. MLC SFGRT

    SciTech Connect

    Neuner, Geoffrey; Mohiuddin, Majid M.; Vander Walde, Noam; Goloubeva, Olga; Ha, Jonathan; Yu, Cedric X.; Regine, William F.

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: Spatially fractionated GRID radiotherapy (SFGRT) using a customized Cerrobend block has been used to improve response rates in patients with bulky tumors. The clinical efficacy of our own multileaf collimator (MLC) technique is unknown. We undertook a retrospective analysis to compare clinical response rates attained using these two techniques. Methods and Materials: Seventy-nine patients with bulky tumors (median diameter, 7.6 cm; range, 4-30 cm) treated with SFGRT were reviewed. Between 2003 and late 2005, the Cerrobend block technique (n = 39) was used. Between late 2005 and 2008, SFGRT was delivered using MLC-shaped fields (n = 40). Dose was prescribed to dmax (depth of maximum dose) and was typically 15 Gy. Eighty percent of patients in both groups received external beam radiotherapy in addition to SFGRT. The two-sided Fisher-Freeman-Halton test was used to compare pain and mass effect response rates between the two groups. Results: Sixty-one patients (77%) were treated for palliative intent and 18 (23%) for curative intent. The majority of patients had either lung or head-and-neck primaries in both groups; the most frequent site of SFGRT application was the neck. The majority of patients complained of either pain (65%) or mass effect (58%) at intake. Overall response rates for pain and mass response were no different between the Cerrobend and MLC groups: pain, 75% and 74%, respectively (p = 0.50), and mass effect, 67% and 73%, respectively (p = 0.85). The majority of toxicities were Grade 1 or 2, and only 3 patients had late Grade 3-4 toxicities. Conclusions: MLC-based and Cerrobend-based SFGRT have comparable and encouraging response rates when used either in the palliative or curative setting. MLC-based SGFRT should allow clinics to more easily adopt this novel treatment approach for the treatment of bulky tumors.

  19. Beamlet based direct aperture optimization for MERT using a photon MLC

    SciTech Connect

    Henzen, D. Manser, P.; Frei, D.; Volken, W.; Born, E. J.; Joosten, A.; Lössl, K.; Aebersold, D. M.; Chatelain, C.; Fix, M. K.; Neuenschwander, H.; Stampanoni, M. F. M.

    2014-12-15

    Purpose: A beamlet based direct aperture optimization (DAO) for modulated electron radiotherapy (MERT) using photon multileaf collimator (pMLC) shaped electron fields is developed and investigated. Methods: The Swiss Monte Carlo Plan (SMCP) allows the calculation of dose distributions for pMLC shaped electron beams. SMCP is interfaced with the Eclipse TPS (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA) which can thus be included into the inverse treatment planning process for MERT. This process starts with the import of a CT-scan into Eclipse, the contouring of the target and the organs at risk (OARs), and the choice of the initial electron beam directions. For each electron beam, the number of apertures, their energy, and initial shape are defined. Furthermore, the DAO requires dose–volume constraints for the structures contoured. In order to carry out the DAO efficiently, the initial electron beams are divided into a grid of beamlets. For each of those, the dose distribution is precalculated using a modified electron beam model, resulting in a dose list for each beamlet and energy. Then the DAO is carried out, leading to a set of optimal apertures and corresponding weights. These optimal apertures are now converted into pMLC shaped segments and the dose calculation for each segment is performed. For these dose distributions, a weight optimization process is launched in order to minimize the differences between the dose distribution using the optimal apertures and the pMLC segments. Finally, a deliverable dose distribution for the MERT plan is obtained and loaded back into Eclipse for evaluation. For an idealized water phantom geometry, a MERT treatment plan is created and compared to the plan obtained using a previously developed forward planning strategy. Further, MERT treatment plans for three clinical situations (breast, chest wall, and parotid metastasis of a squamous cell skin carcinoma) are created using the developed inverse planning strategy. The MERT plans are compared to clinical standard treatment plans using photon beams and the differences between the optimal and the deliverable dose distributions are determined. Results: For the idealized water phantom geometry, the inversely optimized MERT plan is able to obtain the same PTV coverage, but with an improved OAR sparing compared to the forwardly optimized plan. Regarding the right-sided breast case, the MERT plan is able to reduce the lung volume receiving more than 30% of the prescribed dose and the mean lung dose compared to the standard plan. However, the standard plan leads to a better homogeneity within the CTV. The results for the left-sided thorax wall are similar but also the dose to the heart is reduced comparing MERT to the standard treatment plan. For the parotid case, MERT leads to lower doses for almost all OARs but to a less homogeneous dose distribution for the PTV when compared to a standard plan. For all cases, the weight optimization successfully minimized the differences between the optimal and the deliverable dose distribution. Conclusions: A beamlet based DAO using multiple beam angles is implemented and successfully tested for an idealized water phantom geometry and clinical situations.

  20. Pig KALRN, MYH1, MLC2V, SNX13, AK1, and PPIA loci RH mapping and chromosome position refining.

    PubMed

    Gorni, C; Iacuaniello, S; Castiglioni, B; Pagnacco, G; Mariani, P

    2008-01-01

    The suppressive subtractive hybridization technique was previously used by the authors to identify candidate genes for meat quality in pig. A set of ESTs homologous (>95%) to genes involved in muscle metabolism is reported in the present paper. Four ESTs homologous to MYH1, KALRN, MLC2V, and SNX13 genes plus two genes (AK1, PPIA) used as housekeeping for muscle tissue were assigned to porcine chromosomes using the INRA-Minnesota 7000 rads radiation hybrid panel (IMpRH). Our data confirm and refine the cytogenetic position of the KALRN, AK1, PPIA genes, improve the existing physical map of MYH1 and assign two new genes (MLC2V and SNX13) to swine chromosomes. PMID:19048477

  1. Essentials for revision and exams Photocopiable resource

    E-print Network

    Wiesner, Karoline

    a balanced healthy diet, exercise well and get plenty of sleep. If it all gets too much, release that tension of your exam with a banging headache and bleary- eyed from lack of sleep. #12;Exam help Essentials

  2. AFFORDABLE MULTI-LAYER CERAMIC (MLC) MANUFACTURING FOR POWER SYSTEMS (AMPS)

    SciTech Connect

    E.A. Barringer, Ph.D.

    2002-11-27

    McDermott Technology, Inc. (MTI) is attempting to develop high-performance, cost-competitive solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) power systems. Recognizing the challenges and limitations facing the development of SOFC stacks comprised of electrode-supported cells and metallic interconnects, McDermott Technology, Inc. (MTI) has chosen to pursue an alternate path to commercialization. MTI is developing a multi-layer, co-fired, planar SOFC stack that will provide superior performance and reliability at reduced costs relative to competing designs. The MTI approach combines state-of-the-art SOFC materials with the manufacturing technology and infrastructure established for multi-layer ceramic (MLC) packages for the microelectronics industry. The rationale for using MLC packaging technology is that high quality, low-cost manufacturing has been demonstrated at high volumes. With the proper selection of SOFC materials, implementation of MLC fabrication methods offers unique designs for stacks (cells and interconnects) that are not possible through traditional fabrication methods. The MTI approach eliminates use of metal interconnects and ceramic-metal seals, which are primary sources of stack performance degradation. Co-fired cells are less susceptible to thermal cycling stresses by using material compositions that have closely matched coefficients of thermal expansion between the cell and the interconnect. The development of this SOFC stack technology was initiated in October 1999 under the DOE cosponsored program entitled ''Affordable Multi-layer Ceramic Manufacturing for Power Systems (AMPS)''. The AMPS Program was conducted as a two-phase program: Phase I--Feasibility Assessment (10/99--9/00); and Phase II--Process Development for Co-fired Stacks (10/00-3/02). This report provides a summary of the results from Phase I and a more detailed review of the results for Phase II. Phase I demonstrated the feasibility for fabricating multi-layer, co-fired cells and interconnects and resulted in selection of the most promising configuration for high-performance, low-cost SOFC stacks. During Phase II, the MTI Team successfully refined the fabrication processes and achieved low-rate production of cells and interconnects (about 100 per month). Short stacks (3-10 cells) using co-fired cells and interconnects were assembled and tested to validate the MTI multi-layer SOFC design. The team successfully demonstrated co-fired repeat units, comprised of a cell and the interconnect layers. Development of co-fired cells and multi-layer interconnects based on the new stack design was completed; all component fabrication and stack testing efforts were redirected to the new design toward the end of Phase II. Finally, low-cost alternate materials for the interconnect body and conductors within the interconnect were identified. At the end of Phase II, the MTI Team successfully transitioned the multi-layer SOFC stack development effort to the Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) program.

  3. Immunosuppressant MPA Modulates Tight Junction through Epigenetic Activation of MLCK/MLC-2 Pathway via p38MAPK

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Niamat; Pantakani, D. V. Krishna; Binder, Lutz; Qasim, Muhammad; Asif, Abdul R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Mycophenolic acid (MPA) is an important immunosuppressive drug (ISD) prescribed to prevent graft rejection in the organ transplanted patients, however, its use is also associated with adverse side effects like sporadic gastrointestinal (GI) disturbances. Recently, we reported the MPA induced tight junctions (TJs) deregulation which involves MLCK/MLC-2 pathway. Here, we investigated the global histone acetylation as well as gene-specific chromatin signature of several genes associated with TJs regulation in Caco-2 cells after MPA treatment. Results: The epigenetic analysis shows that MPA treatment increases the global histone acetylation levels as well as the enrichment for transcriptional active histone modification mark (H3K4me3) at promoter regions of p38MAPK, ATF-2, MLCK, and MLC-2. In contrast, the promoter region of occludin was enriched for transcriptional repressive histone modification mark (H3K27me3) after MPA treatment. In line with the chromatin status, MPA treatment increased the expression of p38MAPK, ATF-2, MLCK, and MLC-2 both at transcriptional and translational level, while occludin expression was negatively influenced. Interestingly, the MPA induced gene expression changes and functional properties of Caco-2 cells could be blocked by the inhibition of p38MAPK using a chemical inhibitor (SB203580). Conclusions: Collectively, our results highlight that MPA disrupts the structure of TJs via p38MAPK-dependent activation of MLCK/MLC-2 pathway that results in decreased integrity of Caco-2 monolayer. These results led us to suggest that p38MAPK-mediated lose integrity of epithelial monolayer could be the possible cause of GI disturbance (barrier dysfunction) in the intestine, leading to leaky style diarrhea observed in the organ-transplanted patients treated with MPA.

  4. Experimental verification of a Monte Carlo-based MLC simulation model for IMRT dose calculations in heterogeneous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyagi, N.; Curran, B. H.; Roberson, P. L.; Moran, J. M.; Acosta, E.; Fraass, B. A.

    2008-02-01

    IMRT often requires delivering small fields which may suffer from electronic disequilibrium effects. The presence of heterogeneities, particularly low-density tissues in patients, complicates such situations. In this study, we report on verification of the DPM MC code for IMRT treatment planning in heterogeneous media, using a previously developed model of the Varian 120-leaf MLC. The purpose of this study is twofold: (a) design a comprehensive list of experiments in heterogeneous media for verification of any dose calculation algorithm and (b) verify our MLC model in these heterogeneous type geometries that mimic an actual patient geometry for IMRT treatment. The measurements have been done using an IMRT head and neck phantom (CIRS phantom) and slab phantom geometries. Verification of the MLC model has been carried out using point doses measured with an A14 slim line (SL) ion chamber inside a tissue-equivalent and a bone-equivalent material using the CIRS phantom. Planar doses using lung and bone equivalent slabs have been measured and compared using EDR films (Kodak, Rochester, NY).

  5. SU-E-T-119: Dosimetric and Mechanical Characteristics of Elekta Infinity LINAC with Agility MLC

    SciTech Connect

    Park, J; Xu, Q; Xue, J; Zhai, Y; An, L; Chen, Y

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Elekta Infinity is the one of the latest generation LINAC with unique features. Two Infinity LINACs are recently commissioned at our institution. The dosimetric and mechanical characteristics of the machines are presented. Methods: Both Infinity LINACs with Agility MLC (160 leaves with 0.5 cm leaf width) are configured with five electron energies (6, 9, 12, 15, and 18 MeV) and two photon energies (6 and 15 MV). One machine has additional photon energy (10 MV). The commissioning was performed by following the manufacturer's specifications and AAPM TG recommendations. Beam data of both electron and photon beams are measured with scanning ion chambers and linear diode array. Machines are adjusted to have the dosimetrically equivalent characteristics. Results: The commissioning of mechanical and imaging system meets the tolerances by TG recommendations. The PDD{sub 10} of various field sizes for 6 and 15 MV shows < 0.5% difference between two machines. For each electron beams, R{sub 80} matches with < 0.4 mm difference. The symmetry and flatness agree within 0.8% and 0.9% differences for photon beams, respectively. For electron beams, the differences of the symmetry and flatness are within 1.2% and 0.8%, respectively. The mean inline penumbras for 6, 10, and 15 MV are respectively 5.1±0.24, 5.6±0.07, and 5.9±0.10 mm for 10x10 cm at 10 cm depth. The crossline penumbras are larger than inline penumbras by 2.2, 1.4, and 1.0 mm, respectively. The MLC transmission factor with interleaf leakage is 0.5 % for all photon energies. Conclusion: The dosimetric and mechanical characteristics of two Infinity LINACs show good agreements between them. Although the Elekta Infinity has been used in many institutions, the detailed characteristics of the machine have not been reported. This study provides invaluable information to understand the Infinity LINAC and to compare the quality of commissioning data for other LINACs.

  6. Exam 3 Memo (all students read)

    E-print Network

    math

    2014-11-12

    Nov 17, 2014 ... Students will bubble in answers on an ... If you circle your answers on your exam, you can self-grade your exam after the exam ... rule, how to convert between exponential and logarithmic forms, the chain rule, derivative rules ...

  7. Exit Exam as Academic Performance Indicator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Ahmad, Mahmoud; Al Marzouqi, Ali H.; Hussien, Mousa

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on the impact of exit exams on different elements of the educational process, namely: curriculum development, students and instructors. A 50-question multiple-choice Exit Exam was prepared by Electrical Engineering (EE) faculty members covering a poll of questions from EE core courses. A copy of the Exit Exam applied during each…

  8. MA 152 Exam 1 Memo

    E-print Network

    math

    2015-08-26

    Sep 28, 2015 ... Students will bubble in answers on an answer sheet (scantron sheet) as well as circle the answers on the actual exam. ... provided (including the quadratic formula, point-slope form for a line, and area formula for a triangle). 6).

  9. Final Exam: solutions and comments

    E-print Network

    May 4, 2004 ... NAME o No Calculators, books, notes, or any other aids may be used. 0 Don't ... In (a), (b), and (c), translate the bulleted formulas into colloquial English, ... 0 Every student solves some problem on each exam he/she takes.

  10. An MLC-based linac QA procedure for the characterization of radiation isocenter and room lasers' position

    SciTech Connect

    Rosca, Florin; Lorenz, Friedlieb; Hacker, Fred L.; Chin, Lee M.; Ramakrishna, Naren; Zygmanski, Piotr

    2006-06-15

    We have designed and implemented a new stereotactic linac QA test with stereotactic precision. The test is used to characterize gantry sag, couch wobble, cone placement, MLC offsets, and room lasers' positions relative to the radiation isocenter. Two MLC star patterns, a cone pattern, and the laser line patterns are recorded on the same imaging medium. Phosphor plates are used as imaging medium due to their sensitivity to red light. The red light of room lasers erases some of the irradiation information stored on the phosphor plates enabling accurate and direct measurements for the position of room lasers and radiation isocenter. Using film instead of the phosphor plate as imaging medium is possible, however, it is less practical. The QA method consists of irradiating four phosphor plates that record the gantry sag between the 0 deg.and 180 deg.gantry angles, the position and stability of couch rotational axis, the sag between the 90 deg.and 270 deg.gantry angles, the accuracy of cone placement on the collimator, the MLC offsets from the collimator rotational axis, and the position of laser lines relative to the radiation isocenter. The estimated accuracy of the method is {+-}0.2 mm. The observed reproducibility of the method is about {+-}0.1 mm. The total irradiation/illumination time is about 10 min per image. Data analysis, including the phosphor plate scanning, takes less than 5 min for each image. The method characterizes the radiation isocenter geometry with the high accuracy required for the stereotactic radiosurgery. In this respect, it is similar to the standard ball test for stereotactic machines. However, due to the usage of the MLC instead of the cross-hair/ball, it does not depend on the cross-hair/ball placement errors with respect to the lasers and it provides more information on the mechanical integrity of the linac/couch/laser system. Alternatively, it can be used as a highly accurate QA procedure for the nonstereotactic machines. Noteworthy is its ability to characterize the MLC position accuracy, which is an important factor in IMRT delivery.

  11. Experimental investigation of a moving averaging algorithm for motion perpendicular to the leaf travel direction in dynamic MLC target tracking

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Jai-Woong; Sawant, Amit; Suh, Yelin; Cho, Byung-Chul; Suh, Tae-Suk; Keall, Paul

    2011-07-15

    Purpose: In dynamic multileaf collimator (MLC) motion tracking with complex intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) fields, target motion perpendicular to the MLC leaf travel direction can cause beam holds, which increase beam delivery time by up to a factor of 4. As a means to balance delivery efficiency and accuracy, a moving average algorithm was incorporated into a dynamic MLC motion tracking system (i.e., moving average tracking) to account for target motion perpendicular to the MLC leaf travel direction. The experimental investigation of the moving average algorithm compared with real-time tracking and no compensation beam delivery is described. Methods: The properties of the moving average algorithm were measured and compared with those of real-time tracking (dynamic MLC motion tracking accounting for both target motion parallel and perpendicular to the leaf travel direction) and no compensation beam delivery. The algorithm was investigated using a synthetic motion trace with a baseline drift and four patient-measured 3D tumor motion traces representing regular and irregular motions with varying baseline drifts. Each motion trace was reproduced by a moving platform. The delivery efficiency, geometric accuracy, and dosimetric accuracy were evaluated for conformal, step-and-shoot IMRT, and dynamic sliding window IMRT treatment plans using the synthetic and patient motion traces. The dosimetric accuracy was quantified via a {gamma}-test with a 3%/3 mm criterion. Results: The delivery efficiency ranged from 89 to 100% for moving average tracking, 26%-100% for real-time tracking, and 100% (by definition) for no compensation. The root-mean-square geometric error ranged from 3.2 to 4.0 mm for moving average tracking, 0.7-1.1 mm for real-time tracking, and 3.7-7.2 mm for no compensation. The percentage of dosimetric points failing the {gamma}-test ranged from 4 to 30% for moving average tracking, 0%-23% for real-time tracking, and 10%-47% for no compensation. Conclusions: The delivery efficiency of moving average tracking was up to four times higher than that of real-time tracking and approached the efficiency of no compensation for all cases. The geometric accuracy and dosimetric accuracy of the moving average algorithm was between real-time tracking and no compensation, approximately half the percentage of dosimetric points failing the {gamma}-test compared with no compensation.

  12. Role of connexin 43 in vascular hyperpermeability and relationship to Rock1-MLC20 pathway in septic rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Yang, Guang-Ming; Zhu, Yu; Peng, Xiao-Yong; Li, Tao; Liu, Liang-Ming

    2015-12-01

    Connexin (Cx)43 has been shown to participate in several cardiovascular diseases. Increased vascular permeability is a common and severe complication in sepsis or septic shock. Whether or not Cx43 takes part in the regulation of vascular permeability in severe sepsis is not known, and the underlying mechanism has not been described. With cecal ligation and puncture-induced sepsis in rats and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated vascular endothelial cells (VECs) from pulmonary veins, the role of Cx43 in increased vascular permeability and its relationship to the RhoA/Rock1 pathway were studied. It was shown that vascular permeability in the lungs, kidneys, and mesentery in sepsis rats and LPS-stimulated monolayer pulmonary vein VECs was significantly increased and positively correlated with the increased expression of Cx43 and Rock1 in these organs and cultured pulmonary vein VECs. The connexin inhibitor carbenoxolone (10 mg/kg iv) and the Rock1 inhibitor Y-27632 (2 mg/kg iv) alleviated the vascular leakage of lung, mesentery, and kidney in sepsis rats. Overexpressed Cx43 increased the phosphorylation of 20-kDa myosin light chain (MLC20) and the expression of Rock1 and increased the vascular permeability and decreased the transendothelial electrical resistance of pulmonary vein VECs. Cx43 RNA interference decreased the phosphorylation of MLC20 and the expression of Rock1 and decreased LPS-stimulated hyperpermeability of cultured pulmonary vein VECs. The Rock1 inhibitor Y-27632 alleviated LPS- and overexpressed Cx43-induced hyperpermeability of monolayer pulmonary vein VECs. This report shows that Cx43 participates in the regulation of vascular permeability in sepsis and that the mechanism is related to the Rock1-MLC20 phosphorylation pathway. PMID:26342084

  13. Determination of kQ using MLC-collimated rectangular fields for absolute dosimetry of the CyberKnife.

    PubMed

    Gersh, Jacob A; Willett, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Traditional CyberKnife (CK) calibration uses TG-51, which requires kQ to be defined using the standard reference condition of 100 cm SSD in a 10 cm × 10 cm field. Since the CK is calibrated using a 6 cm fixed-aperture collimating cone at 80 cm SAD, the BJR-25 method is commonly used to relate circular-field PDDs to square-field PDDs for kQ determination. Using the InCise MLC system, the CK is able to deliver rectangular fields, allowing a more direct measurement of %dd(10cm) using conventional reference conditions. We define the PDD correction factor (CPDD) as the ratio of %dd(10 cm) measured using CK reference conditions to that measured using standard TG-51 reference conditions. Using four ionization chambers (A1SL, CC08, CC13, and A19), %dd(10 cm) is measured using a 6 cm fixed cone at 80 cm SSD and at 100 cm SSD using an effective 10 cm × 10 cm MLC-collimated field. These values are used to calculate CPDD, while the latter is used to directly calculate a kQ value. This direct kQ value is then compared to values determined using the BJR-25 method. Using the MLC system, this study demonstrates conversion between the %dd(10 cm) measured using CyberKnife reference conditions and TG-51 reference conditions. These values provide the means for derivation of a kQ curve as a function of direct measurements of %dd(10cm) using a 6 cm fixed-aperture collimating cone at 80 cm SSD. PMID:26699583

  14. The impact of continuously-variable dose rate VMAT on beam stability, MLC positioning, and overall plan dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Boylan, Christopher; McWilliam, Alan; Johnstone, Emily; Rowbottom, Carl

    2012-01-01

    A recent control system update for Elekta linear accelerators includes the ability to deliver volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) with continuously variable dose rate (CVDR), rather than a number of fixed binned dose rates (BDR). The capacity to select from a larger range of dose rates allows the linac to maintain higher gantry speeds, resulting in faster, smoother deliveries. The purpose of this study is to investigate two components of CVDR delivery - the increase in average dose rate and gantry speed, and a determination of their effects on beam stability, MLC positioning, and overall plan dosimetry. Initially, ten VMAT plans (5 prostate, 5head and neck) were delivered to a Delta4 dosimetric phantom using both the BDR and CVDR systems. The plans were found to be dosimetrically robust using both delivery methods, although CVDR was observed to give higher gamma pass rates at the 2%/2 mm gamma level for prostates (p < 0.01). For the dual arc head-and-neck plans, CVDR delivery resulted in improved pass rates at all gamma levels (2%/2 mm to 4%/4 mm) for individual arc verifications (p < 0.01), but gave similar results to BDR when both arcs were combined. To investigate the impact of increased gantry speed on MLC positioning, a dynamic leaf-tracking tool was developed using the electronic portal imaging device (EPID). Comparing the detected MLC positions to those expected from the plan, CVDR was observed to result in a larger mean error compared to BDR (0.13 cm and 0.06 cm, respectively, p < 0.01). The EPID images were also used to monitor beam stability during delivery. It was found that the CVDR deliveries had a lower standard deviation of the gun-target (GT) and transverse (AB) profiles (p < 0.01). This study has determined that CVDR may offer a dosimetric advantage for VMAT plans. While the higher gantry speed of CVDR appears to increase deviations in MLC positioning, the relative effect on dosimetry is lower than the positive impact of a flatter and more stable beam profile. PMID:23149797

  15. TU-C-17A-05: Dose Domain Optimization of MLC Leaf Patterns for Highly Complicated 4Ï€ IMRT Plans

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, D; Yu, V; Ruan, D; Semwal, H; Cao, M; Low, D; Sheng, K; O’Connor, D

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Highly conformal non-coplanar 4? radiotherapy plans typically require more than 20 intensity-modulated fields to deliver. A novel method to calculate multileaf collimator (MLC) leaf patterns is introduced to maximize delivery efficiency, accuracy and plan quality. Methods: 4 GBM patients, with a prescription dose of 59.4 Gy or 60 Gy, were evaluated using the 4? algorithm using 20 beams. The MLC calculation utilized a least square minimization of the dose distribution, with an anisotropic total variation regularization term to encourage piecewise continuity in the fluence maps. Transforming the fluence to the dose domain required multiplying the fluence with a sparse matrix. Exploiting this property made it feasible to solve the problem using CVX, a MATLAB-based convex modeling framework. The fluence was stratified into even step sizes, and the MLC segments, limited to 300, were calculated. The patients studied were replanned using Eclipse with the same beam angles. Results: Compared to the original 4? plan, the stratified 4? plan increased the maximum/mean dose for, in Gy, by 1.0/0.0 (brainstem), 0.5/0.2 (chiasm), 0.0/0.0 (spinal cord), 1.9/0.3 (L eye), 0.7/0.2 (R eye), 0.4/0.4 (L lens), 0.3/0.3 (R lens), 1.0/0.8 (L Optical Nerve), 0.5/0.3 (R Optical Nerve), 0.3/0.2 (L Cochlea), 0.1/0.1 (R Cochlea), 4.6/0.2 (brain), 2.4/0.1 (brain-PTV), 5.1/0.9 (PTV). Compared to Eclipse, which generated an average of 607 segments, the stratified plan reduced (?) or increased (+) the maximum/mean dose, in Gy, by ?10.2/?4.1 (brainstem), ?10.5/?8.9 (chiasm), +0.0/?0.1 (spinal cord), ?4.9/?3.4 (L eye), ?4.1/?2.5 (R eye), ?2.8/?2.7 (L lens), ?2.1/?1.9 (R lens), ?7.6/?6.5 (L Optical Nerve), ?8.9/?6.1 (R Optical Nerve), ?1.3/?1.9 (L Cochlea), ?1.8/?1.8 (R Cochlea), +1.7/?2.1 (brain), +3.2/?2.6 (brain-PTV), +1.8/+0.3 Gy (PTV. The stratified plan was also more homogeneous in the PTV. Conclusion: This novel solver can transform complicated fluence maps into significantly fewer deliverable MLC segments than the commercial system while achieving superior dosimetry. Funding support partially contributed by Varian.

  16. Implementation of Hospital Examination Reservation System Using Data Mining Technique

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Hyo Soung; Yoon, Tae Sik; Ryu, Ki Chung; Shin, Il Won; Choe, Yang Hyo; Lee, Kyoung Yong; Lee, Jae Dong; Ryu, Keun Ho

    2015-01-01

    Objectives New methods for obtaining appropriate information for users have been attempted with the development of information technology and the Internet. Among such methods, the demand for systems and services that can improve patient satisfaction has increased in hospital care environments. Methods In this paper, we proposed the Hospital Exam Reservation System (HERS), which uses the data mining method. First, we focused on carrying clinical exam data and finding the optimal schedule for generating rules using the multi-examination pattern-mining algorithm. Then, HERS was applied by a rule master and recommending system with an exam log. Finally, HERS was designed as a user-friendly interface. Results HERS has been applied at the National Cancer Center in Korea since June 2014. As the number of scheduled exams increased, the time required to schedule more than a single condition decreased (from 398.67% to 168.67% and from 448.49% to 188.49%; p < 0.0001). As the number of tests increased, the difference between HERS and non-HERS increased (from 0.18 days to 0.81 days). Conclusions It was possible to expand the efficiency of HERS studies using mining technology in not only exam reservations, but also the medical environment. The proposed system based on doctor prescription removes exams that were not executed in order to improve recommendation accuracy. In addition, we expect HERS to become an effective system in various medical environments. PMID:25995961

  17. Profile of State High School Exit Exam Policies. Nevada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This individual profile provides information on Nevada's high school exit exam standards and policies. Some of the categories presented include: (1) State exit exam policy; (2) Type of Test; (3) Purpose; (4) Major changes in exit exam policy since the 2009-10 school year for financial reasons; (5) Subjects tested on exam; (6) Grade exam first…

  18. Essentials for revision and exams Photocopiable resource

    E-print Network

    Bristol, University of

    .ac.uk/ug-factsheets Factsheet 3 Version 2.0 Revision can be stressful, daunting or just plain boring, but we all have to do for revision and exams bristol.ac.uk Exam stress Most of us get stressed about exams but this can affect us in different ways. For some people the adrenalin and pressure can have a positive effect, but others may find

  19. Examining the Exam: A Critical Look at the Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal Exam.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fawkes, Don; Adajian, Tom; Flage, Dan; Hoeltzel, Steven; Knorpp, Bill; O'Meara, Bill; Weber, Dave

    2001-01-01

    Examines the content of the Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal exam (1980). Finds the content of this exam defective in a number of areas. Notes that the exam creates confusion and makes basic errors in critical thinking, and therefore, lacks content quality in these areas. Recommends the use of several tests, rather than one. (SG)

  20. Comparison of secondary neutron dose in proton therapy resulting from the use of a tungsten alloy MLC or a brass collimator system

    SciTech Connect

    Diffenderfer, Eric S.; Ainsley, Christopher G.; Kirk, Maura L.; McDonough, James E.; Maughan, Richard L.

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: To apply the dual ionization chamber method for mixed radiation fields to an accurate comparison of the secondary neutron dose arising from the use of a tungsten alloy multileaf collimator (MLC) as opposed to a brass collimator system for defining the shape of a therapeutic proton field. Methods: Hydrogenous and nonhydrogenous ionization chambers were constructed with large volumes to enable measurements of absorbed doses below 10{sup -4} Gy in mixed radiation fields using the dual ionization chamber method for mixed-field dosimetry. Neutron dose measurements were made with a nominal 230 MeV proton beam incident on a closed tungsten alloy MLC and a solid brass block. The chambers were cross-calibrated against a {sup 60}Co-calibrated Farmer chamber in water using a 6 MV x-ray beam and Monte Carlo simulations were performed to account for variations in ionization chamber response due to differences in secondary neutron energy spectra. Results: The neutron and combined proton plus {gamma}-ray absorbed doses are shown to be nearly equivalent downstream from either a closed tungsten alloy MLC or a solid brass block. At 10 cm downstream from the distal edge of the collimating material the neutron dose from the closed MLC was (5.3 {+-} 0.4) x 10{sup -5} Gy/Gy. The neutron dose with brass was (6.4 {+-} 0.7) x 10{sup -5} Gy/Gy. Further from the secondary neutron source, at 50 cm, the neutron doses remain close for both the MLC and brass block at (6.9 {+-} 0.6) x 10{sup -6} Gy/Gy and (6.3 {+-} 0.7) x 10{sup -6} Gy/Gy, respectively. Conclusions: The dual ionization chamber method is suitable for measuring secondary neutron doses resulting from proton irradiation. The results of measurements downstream from a closed tungsten alloy MLC and a brass block indicate that, even in an overly pessimistic worst-case scenario, secondary neutron production in a tungsten alloy MLC leads to absorbed doses that are nearly equivalent to those seen from brass collimators. Therefore, the choice of tungsten alloy in constructing the leaves of a proton MLC is appropriate, and does not lead to a substantial increase in the secondary neutron dose to the patient compared to that generated in a brass collimator.

  1. SU-E-T-128: Dosimetric Evaluation of MLC Modeling in Pinnacle V9.2 for Varian TrueBeam STx

    SciTech Connect

    Otageri, P; Grant, E; Maricle, S; Mathews, B

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effects of MLC modeling after commissioning the Varian TrueBeam LINAC in Pinnacle version 9.2. Methods: Stepand-shoot IMRT QAs were investigated when we observed our measured absolute dose results using ion chamber (Capintec PR-05P) were uncharacteristically low; about 4–5% compared to doses calculated by Pinnacle{sup 3} (Phillips, Madison, WI). This problem was predominant for large and highly modulated head and neck (HN) treatments. Intuitively we knew this had to be related to shortcomings in the MLC modeling in Pinnacle. Using film QA we were able to iteratively adjust the MLC parameters. We confirmed results by re-testing five failed IMRT QA patients; and ion chamber measurements were verified in Quasar anthropomorphic phantom. Results: After commissioning the LINAC in Pinnacle version 9.2, the MLC transmission for 6X, 10X and 15X were 2.0%, 1.7% and 2.0%, respectively, and additional Interleaf leakage for all three energies was 0.5%. These parameters were obtained from profiles scanned with an Edge detector (Sun Nuclear, Melbourne, FL) during machine commissioning. A Verification testing with radiographic EDR2 film (Kodak, Rochester, NY) measurement was performed by creating a closed MLC leaf pattern and analyzing using RIT software (RIT, Colorado Springs, CO). This reduced MLC transmission for 6X, 10X and 15X to 0.7%, 0.9% and 0.9%, respectively; while increasing additional Interleaf leakage for all three energies to 1.0%. Conclusion: Radiographic film measurements were used to correct MLC transmission values for step and shoot IMRT fields used in Pinnacle version 9.2. After adjusting the MLC parameters to correlate with the film QA, there was still very good agreement between the Pinnacle model and commissioning data. Using the same QA methodology, we were also able to improve the beam models for the Varian C-series linacs, Novalis-Tx, and TrueBeam M-120 linacs.

  2. X-Ray Exam: Lower Leg (Tibia and Fibula)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Deal With Bullies Pregnant? What to Expect X-Ray Exam: Lower Leg (Tibia and Fibula) KidsHealth > Parents > Doctors & Hospitals > Medical Tests & Exams > X-Ray Exam: Lower Leg (Tibia and Fibula) Print A ...

  3. Asymmetric programming: a highly reliable metadata allocation strategy for MLC NAND flash memory-based sensor systems.

    PubMed

    Huang, Min; Liu, Zhaoqing; Qiao, Liyan

    2014-01-01

    While the NAND flash memory is widely used as the storage medium in modern sensor systems, the aggressive shrinking of process geometry and an increase in the number of bits stored in each memory cell will inevitably degrade the reliability of NAND flash memory. In particular, it's critical to enhance metadata reliability, which occupies only a small portion of the storage space, but maintains the critical information of the file system and the address translations of the storage system. Metadata damage will cause the system to crash or a large amount of data to be lost. This paper presents Asymmetric Programming, a highly reliable metadata allocation strategy for MLC NAND flash memory storage systems. Our technique exploits for the first time the property of the multi-page architecture of MLC NAND flash memory to improve the reliability of metadata. The basic idea is to keep metadata in most significant bit (MSB) pages which are more reliable than least significant bit (LSB) pages. Thus, we can achieve relatively low bit error rates for metadata. Based on this idea, we propose two strategies to optimize address mapping and garbage collection. We have implemented Asymmetric Programming on a real hardware platform. The experimental results show that Asymmetric Programming can achieve a reduction in the number of page errors of up to 99.05% with the baseline error correction scheme. PMID:25310473

  4. Asymmetric Programming: A Highly Reliable Metadata Allocation Strategy for MLC NAND Flash Memory-Based Sensor Systems

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Min; Liu, Zhaoqing; Qiao, Liyan

    2014-01-01

    While the NAND flash memory is widely used as the storage medium in modern sensor systems, the aggressive shrinking of process geometry and an increase in the number of bits stored in each memory cell will inevitably degrade the reliability of NAND flash memory. In particular, it's critical to enhance metadata reliability, which occupies only a small portion of the storage space, but maintains the critical information of the file system and the address translations of the storage system. Metadata damage will cause the system to crash or a large amount of data to be lost. This paper presents Asymmetric Programming, a highly reliable metadata allocation strategy for MLC NAND flash memory storage systems. Our technique exploits for the first time the property of the multi-page architecture of MLC NAND flash memory to improve the reliability of metadata. The basic idea is to keep metadata in most significant bit (MSB) pages which are more reliable than least significant bit (LSB) pages. Thus, we can achieve relatively low bit error rates for metadata. Based on this idea, we propose two strategies to optimize address mapping and garbage collection. We have implemented Asymmetric Programming on a real hardware platform. The experimental results show that Asymmetric Programming can achieve a reduction in the number of page errors of up to 99.05% with the baseline error correction scheme. PMID:25310473

  5. The effect of electron collimator leaf shape on the build-up dose in narrow electron MLC fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vatanen, T.; Traneus, E.; Väänänen, A.; Lahtinen, T.

    2009-12-01

    Previously, we have found that the build-up dose from abutting narrow electron beams formed with unfocussed electron multi-leaf collimator (eMLC) steal leaves was higher than with the respective open field. To investigate more closely the effect of leaf material and shape on dose in the build-up region, straight, round (radius 1.5 cm) and leaf ends with a different front face angle of ? (leaf front face pointing towards the beam axis at an angle of 90 - ?) made of steel, brass and tungsten were modelled using the BEAMnrc code. Based on a treatment head simulation of a Varian 2100 C/D linac, depth-dose curves and profiles in water were calculated for narrow 6, 12 and 20 MeV eMLC beams (width 1.0 cm, length 10 cm) at source-to-surface distances (SSD) of 102 and 105 cm. The effects of leaf material and front face angle were evaluated based on electron fluence, angle and energy spectra. With a leaf front face angle of 15°, the dose in the build-up region of the 6 MeV field varied between 91 and 100%, while for straight and round leaf shapes the dose varied between 89 and 100%. The variation was between 94 and 100% for 12 and 20 MeV. For abutting narrow 6 MeV fields with total field size 5 × 10 cm2, the build-up doses at 5 mm depth for the face angle 15° and straight and round leaf shapes were 96% and 86% (SSD 102 cm) and 89% and 85% (SSD 105 cm). With higher energies, the effect of eMLC leaf shape on dose at 5 mm was slight (3-4% units with 12 MeV) and marginal with 20 MeV. The fluence, energy and angle spectra for total and leaf scattered electrons were practically the same for different leaf materials with 6 MeV. With high energies, the spectra for tungsten were more peaked due to lower leaf transmission. Compared with straight leaf ends, the face angle of 15° and round leaf ends led to a 1 mm (for 6 MeV) and between 1 and 5 mm (12 and 20 MeV at a SSD of 105 cm) decrease of therapeutic range and increase of the field size, respectively. However, profile flatness was better for abutting 6 MeV beams with round (2.5%) and face angle 15° leaves (3.0%) compared to straight leaf shape (5.2%). The eMLC leaves with a face angle of 15° resulted in a marked increase in the build-up dose for the single narrow eMLC beam and thus in the dose in the build-up region from matched abutting fields.

  6. Novel Hyper-heuristic in Exam Timetabling

    E-print Network

    Qu, Rong

    Novel Hyper-heuristic Approaches in Exam Timetabling Amr Soghier, MSc. Thesis submitted an investigation into the use of hyper-heuristic ap- proaches to construct and improve solutions for exam of potential solutions to a problem. However, a hyper-heuristic is a heuristic which acts on a space

  7. Chemistry 223: 2015 Midterm Exam David Ronis

    E-print Network

    Ronis, David M.

    × 105 Pa Avogadro's Number 6. 0225 × 1023 1 cal 4.184 J 7. You may need the following results from questions and the exam has 2 pages including this one. 5. Be sure to indicate the total number of exam books for the average number of reactive collisions on a surface per unit area per unit time. Assume that the normal

  8. Making Exam Preparation An Enjoyable Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lukosch, Stephan; Schummer, Till

    2006-01-01

    During oral exams at the German distance learning university, we noticed that students fear that they will be faced with questions that they have not anticipated. In our opinion, this is mainly because students have no chance to train and thereby gather positive experiences with exam situations as they are distributed all over Germany and thus it…

  9. X-Ray Exam: Neck (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Doctors & Hospitals > Medical Tests & Exams > X-Ray Exam: Neck Print A A A Text Size What's in this article? What It Is Why It's Done Preparation Procedure What to Expect Getting the Results Risks Helping Your Child If You Have Questions What It Is A neck X-ray is a safe and painless test ...

  10. From Exam Factories to Communities of Discovery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coffield, Frank; Williamson, Bill

    2011-01-01

    The British current model of education has turned schools into exam factories and further education colleges and universities into skills factories for British industry. In their book, "From Exam Factories to Communities of Discovery: the Democratic Route," the authors offer an alternative way of thinking and talking about education, as well as…

  11. Space Systems Field Exam January 2009

    E-print Network

    de Weck, Olivier L.

    Space Systems Field Exam January 2009 There are three possible questions in this exam: · the Core question; · an Elective question in Space Systems Engineering · an Elective question in Space content (either Space Systems Engineering or Space Systems Architecture and Design). Therefore, only two

  12. Tailoring the Preparticipation Exam to Female Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Mimi D.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the basics of the preparticipation exam, focusing on aspects specific to females, such as menstrual dysfunction, disordered eating, and orthopedic problems such as scoliosis and patellofemoral pain. Health history questionnaire and other parts of the exam are included in six tables. (SM)

  13. MLC Libraries--A School Library's Journey with Students, Staff and Web 2.0 Technologies: Blogs, Wikis and E-Books--Where Are We Going Next?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viner, Jane; Lucas, Amanda; Ricchini, Tracey; Ri, Regina

    2010-01-01

    This workshop paper explores the Web 2.0 journey of the MLC Libraries' teacher-librarians, librarian, library and audio visual technicians. Our journey was initially inspired by Will Richardson and supported by the School Library Association of Victoria (SLAV) Web 2.0 professional development program. The 12 week technological skills program "23…

  14. A Multistage Longitudinal Comparative (MLC) Design Stage II: Evaluation of the Changing Lives Program (CLP)--The Possible Selves Questionnaire-Qualitative Extensions (PSQ-QE)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kortsch, Gabrielle; Kurtines, William M.; Montgomery, Marilyn J.

    2008-01-01

    The study reported in this paper, a Multistage Longitudinal Comparative (MLC) Design Stage II evaluation conducted as a planned preliminary efficacy evaluation (psychometric evaluation of measures, short-term controlled outcome studies, etc.) of the Changing Lives Program (CLP), provided evidence for the reliability and validity of qualitative…

  15. An improved MLC segmentation algorithm and software for step-and-shoot IMRT delivery without tongue-and-groove error

    SciTech Connect

    Luan Shuang; Wang Chao; Chen, Danny Z.; Hu, Xiaobo S.; Naqvi, Shahid A.; Wu Xingen; Yu, Cedric X.

    2006-05-15

    We present an improved multileaf collimator (MLC) segmentation algorithm, denoted by SLS{sub NOTG} (static leaf sequencing with no tongue-and-groove error), for step-and-shoot intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) delivery. SLS{sub NOTG} is an improvement over the MLC segmentation algorithm called SLS that was developed by Luan et al. [Med. Phys. 31(4), 695-707 (2004)], which did not consider tongue-and-groove error corrections. The aims of SLS{sub NOTG} are (1) shortening the treatment times of IMRT plans by minimizing their numbers of segments and (2) minimizing the tongue-and-groove errors of the computed IMRT plans. The input to SLS{sub NOTG} is intensity maps (IMs) produced by current planning systems, and its output is (modified) optimized leaf sequences without tongue-and-groove error. Like the previous SLS algorithm [Luan et al., Med. Phys. 31(4), 695-707 (2004)], SLS{sub NOTG} is also based on graph algorithmic techniques in computer science. It models the MLC segmentation problem as a weighted minimum-cost path problem, where the weight of the path is the number of segments and the cost of the path is the amount of tongue-and-groove error. Our comparisons of SLS{sub NOTG} with CORVUS indicated that for the same intensity maps, the numbers of segments computed by SLS{sub NOTG} are up to 50% less than those by CORVUS 5.0 on the Elekta LINAC system. Our clinical verifications have shown that the dose distributions of the SLS{sub NOTG} plans do not have tongue-and-groove error and match those of the corresponding CORVUS plans, thus confirming the correctness of SLS{sub NOTG}. Comparing with existing segmentation methods, SLS{sub NOTG} also has two additional advantages: (1) SLS{sub NOTG} can compute leaf sequences whose tongue-and-groove error is minimized subject to a constraint on the maximum allowed number of segments, which may be desirable in clinical situations where a treatment with the complete correction of tongue-and-groove error takes too much time, and (2) SLS{sub NOTG} can be used to minimize a more general type of error called the tongue-or-groove error.

  16. The use of intensity-modulated radiation therapy photon beams for improving the dose uniformity of electron beams shaped with MLC

    SciTech Connect

    Mosalaei, Homeira; Karnas, Scott; Shah, Sheel; Van Doodewaard, Sharon; Foster, Tim; Chen, Jeff

    2012-04-01

    Electrons are ideal for treating shallow tumors and sparing adjacent normal tissue. Conventionally, electron beams are collimated by cut-outs that are time-consuming to make and difficult to adapt to tumor shape throughout the course of treatment. We propose that electron cut-outs can be replaced using photon multileaf collimator (MLC). Two major problems of this approach are that the scattering of electrons causes penumbra widening because of a large air gap, and available commercial treatment planning systems (TPSs) do not support MLC-collimated electron beams. In this study, these difficulties were overcome by (1) modeling electron beams collimated by photon MLC for a commercial TPS, and (2) developing a technique to reduce electron beam penumbra by adding low-energy intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) photons (4 MV). We used blocks to simulate MLC shielding in the TPS. Inverse planning was used to optimize boost photon beams. This technique was applied to a parotid and a central nervous system (CNS) clinical case. Combined photon and electron plans were compared with conventional plans and verified using ion chamber, film, and a 2D diode array. Our studies showed that the beam penumbra for mixed beams with 90 cm source to surface distance (SSD) is comparable with electron applicators and cut-outs at 100 cm SSD. Our mixed-beam technique yielded more uniform dose to the planning target volume and lower doses to various organs at risk for both parotid and CNS clinical cases. The plans were verified with measurements, with more than 95% points passing the gamma criteria of 5% in dose difference and 5 mm for distance to agreement. In conclusion, the study has demonstrated the feasibility and potential advantage of using photon MLC to collimate electron beams with boost photon IMRT fields.

  17. SU-E-J-109: Testing the KV Imaging Center Congruence with Radiation Isocenter of Small MLC and SRS Cone Field On Two Machines

    SciTech Connect

    Fu,; Chen, Y; Yu, Y; Liu, H

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Orthogonal kV image pairs are used for target localization when fiducial markers are implanted. CBCT is used to verify cone SRS setup. Therefore it is necessary to evaluate the isocenter congruence between radiation fields and kV imaging center. This study used a simple method to evaluate the isocenter congruence, and compared the results for MLC and cone fields on two different Linacs. Methods: Varian OBI block was attached on the couch. It has a central 1mm BB with markers on three surfaces to align with laser. KV and MV images were taken at four cardinal angles. A 3x3cm2 MLC field and a 20mm cone field were irradiated respectively. On each kV image, the distance from BB center to the kV graticule center were measured. On the MV image of MLC field, the center of radiation field was determined manually, while for cone field, the Varian AM maintenance software was used to analyze the distance between BB and radiation field. The subtraction of the two distances gives the discrepancy between kV and radiation centers. Each procedure was repeated on five days at Trilogy and TrueBeam respectively. Results: The maximum discrepancy was found in the longitudinal direction at 180° gantry angel. It was 1.5±0.1mm for Trilogy and 0.6±0.1mm for TrueBeam. For Trilogy, although radiation center wobbled only 0.7mm and image center wobbled 0.8mm, they wobbled to the opposite direction. KV Pair using gantry 180° should be avoided in this case. Cone vs. kV isocenter has less discrepancy than MLC for Trilogy. Conclusion: Radiation isocenter of MLC and cone field is different, so is between Trilogy and TrueBeam. The method is simple and reproducible to check kV and radiation isocenter congruence.

  18. Preliminary Exam Timeline TIME STUDENT ADVISOR COMMITTEE MEMBERS DEPARTMENT OFFICE

    E-print Network

    Collett Jr., Jeffrey L.

    Preliminary Exam Timeline TIME STUDENT ADVISOR COMMITTEE MEMBERS DEPARTMENT OFFICE Up to 3 months of 3 questions, confirm date of written exam Prepare potential written questions and submit to advisor of written exam At least 2 weeks prior to written exam Submit written prospectus to advisor, committee

  19. Oral Exams as a Tool for Teaching and Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sayre, Eleanor C.

    2014-01-01

    Oral exams are a fruitful and practical alternative to written exams in small-enrolment Science classes. In an oral exam, the instructor can assess conceptual understanding, problem-solving, scientific communication skills, and a student's philosophy of science. In contrast, a written exam gives a much poorer picture of how students learn and…

  20. PROFESSIONAL ENGINEER LICENSE NCEES FUNDAMENTALS OF ENGINEERING (FE) EXAM

    E-print Network

    Krovi, Venkat

    PROFESSIONAL ENGINEER LICENSE NCEES FUNDAMENTALS OF ENGINEERING (FE) EXAM Please take the time Jan 2104. You are eligible to take the FE Exam, if you are a SENIOR in your last semester, with 20 taking the exam, you will receive an email in 7 to 10 days advising you of the results of the FE exam

  1. Fundamentals of Engineering Exam Ready Reference C-8

    E-print Network

    & Technology Career Services What is the FE? The Fundamentals of Engineering exam tests almost everything you. Examinees select the module that corresponds with their major. After passing the F.E. exam, you are known are the pass rates for the April 2010 F.E. exam: Exam Module First Time Takers Repeat Takers Chemical 86% 46

  2. Physics Exam Preparation: A Comparison of Three Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fakcharoenphol, Witat; Stelzer, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    In this clinical study on helping students prepare for an exam, we compared three different treatments. All students were asked to take a practice exam. One group was then given worked-out solutions for that exam, another group was given the solutions and targeted exercises to do as homework based on the result of their practice exam, and the…

  3. SU-E-T-475: An Accurate Linear Model of Tomotherapy MLC-Detector System for Patient Specific Delivery QA

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Y; Mo, X; Chen, M; Olivera, G; Parnell, D; Key, S; Lu, W; Reeher, M; Galmarini, D

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: An accurate leaf fluence model can be used in applications such as patient specific delivery QA and in-vivo dosimetry for TomoTherapy systems. It is known that the total fluence is not a linear combination of individual leaf fluence due to leakage-transmission, tongue-and-groove, and source occlusion effect. Here we propose a method to model the nonlinear effects as linear terms thus making the MLC-detector system a linear system. Methods: A leaf pattern basis (LPB) consisting of no-leaf-open, single-leaf-open, double-leaf-open and triple-leaf-open patterns are chosen to represent linear and major nonlinear effects of leaf fluence as a linear system. An arbitrary leaf pattern can be expressed as (or decomposed to) a linear combination of the LPB either pulse by pulse or weighted by dwelling time. The exit detector responses to the LPB are obtained by processing returned detector signals resulting from the predefined leaf patterns for each jaw setting. Through forward transformation, detector signal can be predicted given a delivery plan. An equivalent leaf open time (LOT) sinogram containing output variation information can also be inversely calculated from the measured detector signals. Twelve patient plans were delivered in air. The equivalent LOT sinograms were compared with their planned sinograms. Results: The whole calibration process was done in 20 minutes. For two randomly generated leaf patterns, 98.5% of the active channels showed differences within 0.5% of the local maximum between the predicted and measured signals. Averaged over the twelve plans, 90% of LOT errors were within +/?10 ms. The LOT systematic error increases and shows an oscillating pattern when LOT is shorter than 50 ms. Conclusion: The LPB method models the MLC-detector response accurately, which improves patient specific delivery QA and in-vivo dosimetry for TomoTherapy systems. It is sensitive enough to detect systematic LOT errors as small as 10 ms.

  4. Construction and Evaluation of Actuarial Models Exam

    E-print Network

    SOA USER

    2011-12-05

    This three-and-a-half hour exam consists of 35 multiple-choice questions. Also, a preview ... A thorough knowledge of calculus, probability, and mathematical statistics is .... Introduction to Credibility Theory (Fourth Edition), 2010, Herzog, T.N..

  5. April 2015 Financial Mathematics Exam Syllabus

    E-print Network

    Society of Actuaries

    2014-12-18

    valuation, pricing, asset/liability management, investment income, capital budgeting, ... The Financial Mathematics Exam assumes a basic knowledge of calculus and an introductory .... through working out problems based on those concepts.

  6. Midterm Exam 1 Friday, February 1, 2008

    E-print Network

    Ward, Mark Daniel

    STAT 516 Midterm Exam 1 Friday, February 1, 2008 Name Purdue student ID (10 digits) 1. The testing Professional TI-30Xa TI-30X IIS (solar) TI-30X IIB (battery) The memory of the calculator should be cleared

  7. What Is a Comprehensive Dilated Eye Exam?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... changes in the shape and color of the optic nerve fibers. The exam may also show excessive cupping of the optic disc, the place where the optic nerve fibers exit the eye and enter the brain. Tonometry ...

  8. A New Comprehensive Final Exam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhavsar, Suketu P.

    2015-01-01

    Instructors aspire for students to master all the material covered. The final exam should assess the breadth and depth of their learning and be a significant basis for the final grade. I insist on a comprehensive final because I want students to review early material in light of later topics. I believe that this helps students create connections, integrate understanding, and retain knowledge for the long term. For non-science majors, reviewing and retaining the large amount of astronomy material is daunting. I experimented with a final exam format that calmed their fears and encouraged thorough review. It is only practical for a class of about twenty students or less. I provided a number of challenging conceptual and problem solving questions (at least as many as there were students), crafted to interconnect and span the entire range of topics. The order of the questions reflected the sequence in which the topics had been discussed. Students received these questions in ample time to prepare prior to the final. A student could bring up to 5 standard sheets of notes to the final. At the final, each student picked a number out of a hat. This was the question they had to answer in a 5-minute presentation. They were allowed 15 minutes for a final preparation during which they could use their 5 pages of notes. The presentations were given in order, 1- 20. Written comments on at least 10 other talks, explaining what was missed or correcting a mistake were required. They were graded both on their talk and on their comments. This format required students to be prepared for any question and encouraged interaction and communication while studying. Knowing the questions beforehand provided a guide to their studying as well as allayed their fears about what could be asked. The students also received guidance to what constituted a good answer, namely accuracy (correct scientific argument, appropriate facts, no irrelevant material), thoroughness (answered the complete questions, covered relevant material) and the quality of the presentation (polished, professional, use of demonstrations, graphs, pictures etc. and time appropriately to present a clear answer). I will describe this first attempt.

  9. Dr. Campbell's Bio111 Exam #3 Fall 2014 Biology 113 Closed Book Take-Home Exam #3 Chapters 8 -11

    E-print Network

    Campbell, A. Malcolm

    Dr. Campbell's Bio111 Exam #3 ­ Fall 2014 1 Biology 113 Closed Book Take-Home Exam #3 ­ Chapters 8 of the Honor Code by others. How long did this exam take you to complete? #12;Dr. Campbell's Bio111 Exam #3 site to analyze the data I recorded on my cell phone: http

  10. Dr. Campbell's Bio111 Exam #3 Fall 2003 Fall 2003 Biology 111 Exam #3 BioEnergetics ANSWER KEY

    E-print Network

    Campbell, A. Malcolm

    Dr. Campbell's Bio111 Exam #3 ­ Fall 2003 1 Fall 2003 Biology 111 Exam #3 ­ BioEnergetics ANSWER long did this exam take you to complete (excluding typing)? #12;Dr. Campbell's Bio111 Exam #3 ­ Fall-type Drug 1 Drug 2 Drug 3 Lab Question: 10 pts. 1) Interpret these data for the four cell populations

  11. Dr. Campbell's Bio111 Exam #2 Fall 2010 Biology 111 Closed Book Take-Home Exam #2 Evolution & Cells

    E-print Network

    Campbell, A. Malcolm

    Dr. Campbell's Bio111 Exam #2 ­ Fall 2010 1 Biology 111 Closed Book Take-Home Exam #2 ­ Evolution & Cells There is no time limit on this test, though I have tried to design one that you should be able this exam take you to complete? #12;Dr. Campbell's Bio111 Exam #2 ­ Fall 2010 2 Lab Questions: You must show

  12. Dr. Campbell's Bio111 Exam #3 Fall 2013 Biology 113 Closed Book Take-Home Exam #3 Evolution

    E-print Network

    Campbell, A. Malcolm

    Dr. Campbell's Bio111 Exam #3 ­ Fall 2013 1 Biology 113 Closed Book Take-Home Exam #3 ­ Evolution by others. How long did this exam take you to complete? #12;Dr. Campbell's Bio111 Exam #3 ­ Fall 2013 2 Lab evolution experiment, cell growth was inhibited by the antibiotic. How do cell populations become resistant

  13. Dr. Campbell's Bio111 Exam #2 Fall 2010 Biology 111 Closed Book Take-Home Exam #2 Evolution & Cells

    E-print Network

    Campbell, A. Malcolm

    Dr. Campbell's Bio111 Exam #2 ­ Fall 2010 1 Biology 111 Closed Book Take-Home Exam #2 ­ Evolution & Cells There is no time limit on this test, though I have tried to design one that you should be able of the Honor Code by others. How long did this exam take you to complete? #12;Dr. Campbell's Bio111 Exam #2

  14. Strategy for taking the FE Exam This is the Federal Engineering Exam administered and governed by the Utah State

    E-print Network

    Rahmeyer, William J.

    Strategy for taking the FE Exam This is the Federal Engineering Exam administered and governed by the Utah State Licensing Agency and the Federal FE Exam Board. It may be given by USU personnel from of the equations, figures, and tables. · Different variables or symbols may be used in the exam questions than

  15. 1 FE Exam Instructions To graduate, you must take the FE Exam your senior year during your last semester*.

    E-print Network

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    1 FE Exam Instructions To graduate, you must take the FE Exam your senior year ­ during your last the FE Exam to get a P-grade for the class. You just have to take the FE and make a good effort. * If you register Cost will be $225.00 to register through NCEES For more information and registration go to: http://ncees.org/exams/fe-exam

  16. From Exam to Education: The Math Exam/Educational Resources wiki

    E-print Network

    Fournier, John J.F.

    From Exam to Education: The Math Exam/Educational Resources wiki Abstract: The Math Educational Resources (MER) wiki is an open online learning resource hosted at The University of British Columbia (UBC will discuss the motivation for creating this resource on the MediaWiki platform, key features of our

  17. Scientific Diving Exam Page 1 Rev. 3/15/2012 Diving Safety Scientific Diving Exam

    E-print Network

    Boynton, Walter R.

    Scientific Diving Exam Page 1 Rev. 3/15/2012 Diving Safety ­ Scientific Diving Exam 1. The effect to check on your air supply while diving is: a. Depth gauge b. Stem gauge c. Submersible gauge d. Tank weight and looks good 6. The SCUBA diver breathes air at about a. 14.7 psi b. Gauge pressure c. Ambient

  18. FUNDAMENTALS OF ENGINEERING EXAM Exam Site: CSU Testing Center, 203 General Services Building

    E-print Network

    Schumacher, Russ

    Fall 2015 FUNDAMENTALS OF ENGINEERING EXAM Exam Site: CSU Testing Center, 203 General Services-based test offered during the following months: January-February, April-May, July-August, October- November (DORA) Division of Registrations Office of Licensing-Professional Engineers/Engineer Interns 1560

  19. Melatonin Attenuates Aortic Endothelial Permeability and Arteriosclerosis in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats: Possible Role of MLCK- and MLCP-Dependent MLC Phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Tang, Song-Tao; Su, Huan; Zhang, Qiu; Tang, Hai-Qin; Wang, Chang-Jiang; Zhou, Qing; Wei, Wei; Zhu, Hua-Qing; Wang, Yuan

    2016-01-01

    The development of diabetic macrovascular complications is a multifactorial process, and melatonin may possess cardiovascular protective properties. This study was designed to evaluate whether melatonin attenuates arteriosclerosis and endothelial permeability by suppressing the myosin light-chain kinase (MLCK)/myosin light-chain phosphorylation (p-MLC) system via the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway or by suppressing the myosin phosphatase-targeting subunit phosphorylation (p-MYPT)/p-MLC system in diabetes mellitus (DM). Rats were randomly divided into 4 groups, including control, high-fat diet, DM, and DM + melatonin groups. Melatonin was administered (10 mg/kg/d) by gavage for 12 weeks. The DM significantly increased the serum fasting blood glucose and lipid levels, as well as insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction, which were attenuated by melatonin therapy to various extents. Importantly, the aortic endothelial permeability was significantly increased in DM rats but was dramatically reversed following treatment with melatonin. Our findings further indicated that hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia enhanced the expressions of MLCK, p-MYPT, and p-MLC, which were partly associated with decreased membrane type 1 expression, increased extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation, and increased p38 expression. However, these changes in protein expression were also significantly reversed by melatonin. Thus, our results are the first to demonstrate that the endothelial hyperpermeability induced by DM is associated with increased expressions of MLCK, p-MYPT, and p-MLC, which can be attenuated by melatonin at least partly through the ERK/p38 signaling pathway. PMID:25944844

  20. SU-E-T-569: Evaluation of VMAT Plans Generated with HD120 and Millennium 120 MLC Between Two Matched Linacs

    SciTech Connect

    Cui, G; Ballas, L; Chang, E; Chung, E; Chiu, R; Cummings, D; Shiu, A

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate VMAT treatment plans generated with HD120 MLC and Millennium 120 MLC between two matched linacs and to determine if one can back up the other. Methods: The 6x photon beams are matched for our Varian TrueBeam STx and Trilogy linacs, which are equipped with HD120 MLC and Millennium 120 MLC, respectively. Three prostate and three brain VMAT plans were used for the evaluation. Five plans (three prostate and two brain plans) were originally generated with the TrueBeam STx and re-computed with the Trilogy. One brain plan was evaluated the other way around. For each plan, the PTV coverage of V95 was made the same between two linacs. The dosimetric differences associated with the plans were compared using: 1) Percentage mean dose differences to the PTV, 2) Homogeneity index, HI = (Dmax ? Dmin)/Dmean for the PTV. For prostate plans, the mean dose differences to the rectum were evaluated. While for brain plans, the percentage max dose differences to the lenses (left and right lens) were evaluated. Results: For three prostate plans, the average of the percentage mean dose differences to the PTV was 0.5 ± 0.1% and the HI was 0.1 ± 0.0%. The average of the percentage mean dose difference to the rectum was 3.5 ± 0.5%. For three brain plans, the average of the percentage mean dose differences to the PTV was 0.2 ± 1.1% and the HI was 0.2 ± 0.1%. The average of the percentage max dose differences to the lenses was 22.9 ± 4.0%. Conclusion: For prostate VMAT plans, changing the treatment from the TrueBeam STx to the Trilogy does not necessarily need re-optimization. But for brain plans, in order to minimize dose to the lenses, it is recommended to re-optimize the plan if changing the treatment between these two linacs.

  1. PKC-? exacerbates in vitro brain barrier damage in hyperglycemic settings via regulation of RhoA/Rho-kinase/MLC2 pathway

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Kirtiman; Shao, Beili; Bayraktutan, Ulvi

    2013-01-01

    Stroke patients with hyperglycemia (HG) develop higher volumes of brain edema emerging from disruption of blood–brain barrier (BBB). This study explored whether inductions of protein kinase C-? (PKC-?) and RhoA/Rho-kinase/myosin-regulatory light chain-2 (MLC2) pathway may account for HG-induced barrier damage using an in vitro model of human BBB comprising human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC) and astrocytes. Hyperglycemia (25?mmol/L D-glucose) markedly increased RhoA/Rho-kinase protein expressions (in-cell westerns), MLC2 phosphorylation (immunoblotting), and PKC-? (PepTag assay) and RhoA (Rhotekin-binding assay) activities in HBMEC while concurrently reducing the expression of tight junction protein occludin. Hyperglycemia-evoked in vitro barrier dysfunction, confirmed by decreases in transendothelial electrical resistance and concomitant increases in paracellular flux of Evan's blue-labeled albumin, was accompanied by malformations of actin cytoskeleton and tight junctions. Suppression of RhoA and Rho-kinase activities by anti-RhoA immunoglobulin G (IgG) electroporation and Y-27632, respectively prevented morphologic changes and restored plasma membrane localization of occludin. Normalization of glucose levels and silencing PKC-? activity neutralized the effects of HG on occludin and RhoA/Rho-kinase/MLC2 expression, localization, and activity and consequently improved in vitro barrier integrity and function. These results suggest that HG-induced exacerbation of the BBB breakdown after an ischemic stroke is mediated in large part by activation of PKC-?. PMID:23963366

  2. PKC-? exacerbates in vitro brain barrier damage in hyperglycemic settings via regulation of RhoA/Rho-kinase/MLC2 pathway.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Kirtiman; Shao, Beili; Bayraktutan, Ulvi

    2013-12-01

    Stroke patients with hyperglycemia (HG) develop higher volumes of brain edema emerging from disruption of blood-brain barrier (BBB). This study explored whether inductions of protein kinase C-? (PKC-?) and RhoA/Rho-kinase/myosin-regulatory light chain-2 (MLC2) pathway may account for HG-induced barrier damage using an in vitro model of human BBB comprising human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC) and astrocytes. Hyperglycemia (25?mmol/L D-glucose) markedly increased RhoA/Rho-kinase protein expressions (in-cell westerns), MLC2 phosphorylation (immunoblotting), and PKC-? (PepTag assay) and RhoA (Rhotekin-binding assay) activities in HBMEC while concurrently reducing the expression of tight junction protein occludin. Hyperglycemia-evoked in vitro barrier dysfunction, confirmed by decreases in transendothelial electrical resistance and concomitant increases in paracellular flux of Evan's blue-labeled albumin, was accompanied by malformations of actin cytoskeleton and tight junctions. Suppression of RhoA and Rho-kinase activities by anti-RhoA immunoglobulin G (IgG) electroporation and Y-27632, respectively prevented morphologic changes and restored plasma membrane localization of occludin. Normalization of glucose levels and silencing PKC-? activity neutralized the effects of HG on occludin and RhoA/Rho-kinase/MLC2 expression, localization, and activity and consequently improved in vitro barrier integrity and function. These results suggest that HG-induced exacerbation of the BBB breakdown after an ischemic stroke is mediated in large part by activation of PKC-?. PMID:23963366

  3. Physics 228 -Second Common Hour Exam March 26, 2006

    E-print Network

    Coleman, Piers

    sticker with exam code = Your signature Turn off and put away cell phones now! 1. The exam will last from of the following statements about the photoelectric ef- fect is FALSE: a) The photocurrent increases

  4. NEVADA INDIAN RESERVATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polygon coverage of all Indian Reservations in Nevada. Reservation boundaries are compiled from multiple sources and are derived from several different source scales. Information such as reservation type, primary tribe name and location source are included with the coverage. As...

  5. ARIZONA INDIAN RESERVATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polygon coverage of all Indian Reservations in Arizona. Reservation boundaries are compiled from multiple sources and are derived from several different source scales. Information such as reservation type, primary tribe name and location source are included with the coverage. A...

  6. REGION 9 INDIAN RESERVATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polygon coverage of all Indian Reservations in US EPA Region 9 (California, Arizona and Nevada). Reservation boundaries are compiled from multiple sources and are derived from several different source scales. Information such as reservation type, primary tribe name and location...

  7. The Effect of Announced Quizzes on Exam Performance: Quiz Content

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azorlosa, Julian L.

    2012-01-01

    I administered quizzes to two sections of a course named "The Psychology of Learning." There were three multiple choice exams during the semester. Quizzes were given between exam 1 and exam 2. For one section, (lecture) quizzes occurred after the material had been covered in lecture. For the other section, quizzes were based on material not yet…

  8. Enhanced Security for Online Exams Using Group Cryptography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, I. Y.; Yeom, H. Y.

    2009-01-01

    While development of the Internet has contributed to the spread of online education, online exams have not been widely adopted. An online exam is defined here as one that takes place over the insecure Internet, and where no proctor is in the same location as the examinees. This paper proposes an enhanced secure online exam management environment…

  9. Effect of Paper Color and Question Order on Exam Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tal, Ilanit R.; Akers, Katherine G.; Hodge, Gordon K.

    2008-01-01

    To deter cheating, teachers commonly use exams printed on differently colored paper or with varied question orders. Previous studies, however, reported that paper color and question order affect exam performance and suggested that teachers should adjust students' scores accordingly and discontinue the use of alternate exam forms. We conducted 2…

  10. The Effect of Announced Quizzes on Exam Performance: II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azorlosa, Julian L.

    2011-01-01

    I administered announced, multiple-choice quizzes to 1 of 2 sections of a Psychology of Learning class in each of 2 consecutive fall semesters. The quizzes were administered between the first and second exams which were also multiple-choice. Quizzes were discontinued after the second exam. After the second exam, students completed a questionnaire…

  11. Exam Jam is Coming! Review Sessions for Various Classes

    E-print Network

    Northern British Columbia, University of

    Exam Jam is Coming! Review Sessions for Various Classes Watch for official schedules soon Food For Posters Advertising The Official Schedule ! Exam Jam is presented in partnership with the Academic Success Questions D A T E S T O R E M E M B E R ! December 2 Last day of classes December 3 Exam Jam December 5

  12. EXAM NUMBER: MODULE 0230725: CELLULAR AND MOLECULAR NEUROSCIENCE

    E-print Network

    Elliott, Chris

    EXAM NUMBER: MODULE 0230725: CELLULAR AND MOLECULAR NEUROSCIENCE - turn over -1 Part i: Short be sufficient for your answer #12;EXAM NUMBER: MODULE 0230725: CELLULAR AND MOLECULAR NEUROSCIENCE - turn over and other relevant detail. (4 marks) #12;EXAM NUMBER: MODULE 0230725: CELLULAR AND MOLECULAR NEUROSCIENCE

  13. Math Credit-By-Exam Procedures Fall Semester, 2015

    E-print Network

    Math Credit-By-Exam Procedures Fall Semester, 2015 Credit-By-Exams will be available the first week of the Fall 2015 semester for the following courses: MATH 1014, 1025, 1026, 1114, 1224, 1225, and 1226 Spa and register for the appropriate course. Credit-By-Exam for Math 1014, 1025, 1026, 1114, or 1224

  14. Exam Card Procedure Guide Duke University Graduate School

    E-print Network

    Exam Card Procedure Guide Duke University Graduate School 2127 Campus Drive, Box 90068 Durham after their initial submission. Students will receive their exam card during this appointment along the Graduate School website for Graduation deadline dates. 4. Prior to the exam card appointment, defense

  15. Dr. Campbell's Bio111 Exam #4 Fall 2001 Fall 2001 Biology 111 Exam #4 Genetic Engineering and Final Roundup

    E-print Network

    Campbell, A. Malcolm

    Dr. Campbell's Bio111 Exam #4 ­ Fall 2001 1 Fall 2001 Biology 111 Exam #4 ­ Genetic Engineering of genetic changes must be present in these genes in order for cancer to arise? 6 pts. 6) How does the long

  16. Dr. Campbell's Bio111 Exam #4 Spring 2007 Biology 111 In-Class Exam #4 Cancer, HIV, & Genetic Engineering

    E-print Network

    Campbell, A. Malcolm

    Dr. Campbell's Bio111 Exam #4 ­ Spring 2007 1 Biology 111 In-Class Exam #4 ­ Cancer, HIV, & Genetic Engineering There is no time limit on this test, though I have tried to design one that you should be able

  17. Exam 2 Review Spring 2010 Note: This is NOT a practice exam. It is ...

    E-print Network

    rroames

    2010-03-04

    of the material for the exam and to practice some kinds of problems. ... Name by type (e.g., triangular prism) what kind of polyhedron would have the features .... Identify which transformation (translation, reflection, or rotation) would change ...

  18. End of Semester BBQ Final Exams

    E-print Network

    Sin, Peter

    will have free barbecue food! What to Bring: Bring an appetite for good food and fun!! Also, dress warmly will be administering final exams this week and next week. In addition, you will be taking the CELT in your Listening textbooks, clothes, bedding, non-perishable food items, etc. Everything will be donated to the local St

  19. Scholars Probe Diverse Effects of Exit Exams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viadero, Debra

    2009-01-01

    The author reports on a study released in April 2009 that suggests that California's high school exit exams are affecting some student demographic groups more than others. The California study, which was released by the Institute for Research on Education Policy and Practice at Stanford University, is the latest in a small spate of studies…

  20. Exam FM Sample Solutions Financial Economics

    E-print Network

    Society of Actuaries

    2014-10-22

    sitting for the Financial Mathematics (FM) Exam. These questions ... Answer D is false because repeating the calculation shown for Answer C, but with 10% as a .... It is a box spread, which has no price risk; thus, the payoff is the same (1,000.

  1. Undergraduate range management exam: 1999-2014

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Undergraduate Range Management Exam (URME) has been administered to undergraduate students at the Annual Meeting of the Society for Range Management since 1983, with students demonstrating their higher order learning skills and synthesis knowledge of the art and science of rangeland management. ...

  2. Introducing Standardized EFL/ESL Exams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laborda, Jesus Garcia

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the features, and a brief comparison, of some of the most well-known high-stakes exams. They are classified in the following fashion: tests that only include multiple-choice questions, tests that include writing and multiple-choice questions, and tests that include speaking questions. The tests reviewed are: BULATS, IELTS,…

  3. Automatic Assessment of 3D Modeling Exams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanna, A.; Lamberti, F.; Paravati, G.; Demartini, C.

    2012-01-01

    Computer-based assessment of exams provides teachers and students with two main benefits: fairness and effectiveness in the evaluation process. This paper proposes a fully automatic evaluation tool for the Graphic and Virtual Design (GVD) curriculum at the First School of Architecture of the Politecnico di Torino, Italy. In particular, the tool is…

  4. English-Spanish Verbatim Translation Exam.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stansfield, Charles W.; And Others

    The development and validation of the English-Spanish Verbatim Translation Exam (ESVTE) is described. The test is for use by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) in the selection of applicants for the positions of Language Specialist or Contract Linguist. The report is divided into eight sections. Section 1 describes the need for the test,…

  5. Dr. Campbell's Bio111 Exam #2 Spring 2008 Spring 2008 Biology 111 In-Class Exam #2 Classical Genetics

    E-print Network

    Campbell, A. Malcolm

    Dr. Campbell's Bio111 Exam #2 ­ Spring 2008 1 Spring 2008 Biology 111 In-Class Exam #2 ­ Classical;Dr. Campbell's Bio111 Exam #2 ­ Spring 2008 2 Lab Question: 3 pts. 1) List the steps a PCR machine) Draw a picture of metaphase I. Your diagram must be for a diploid cell with chromosomes numbered 1, 2

  6. Dr. Campbell's Bio111 Exam #3 Spring 2007 Spring 2007 Biology 111 Take Home Exam #3 BioEnergetics

    E-print Network

    Campbell, A. Malcolm

    Dr. Campbell's Bio111 Exam #3 ­ Spring 2007 1 Spring 2007 Biology 111 Take Home Exam #3 ­ Bio;Dr. Campbell's Bio111 Exam #3 ­ Spring 2007 2 Lab Question: 6 pts. 1) Interpret these data for the 3 cell populations shown in the graph. This was a normal flagella regeneration experiment except one

  7. Dr. Campbell's Bio111 Exam #3 Spring 2008 Spring 2008 Biology 111 Take Home Exam #3 BioEnergetics

    E-print Network

    Campbell, A. Malcolm

    Dr. Campbell's Bio111 Exam #3 ­ Spring 2008 1 Spring 2008 Biology 111 Take Home Exam #3 ­ Bio;Dr. Campbell's Bio111 Exam #3 ­ Spring 2008 2 Lab Question: 6 pts. 1) control A B Length of Flagella in the graph above. The two cell populations were deflagellated at exactly the same time but given two

  8. Dr. Campbell's Bio111 Exam #4 Spring 2007 Biology 111 Take-Home Exam #4 Cancer, HIV, & Genetic Engineering

    E-print Network

    Campbell, A. Malcolm

    Dr. Campbell's Bio111 Exam #4 ­ Spring 2007 1 Biology 111 Take-Home Exam #4 ­ Cancer, HIV to complete (excluding typing)? #12;Dr. Campbell's Bio111 Exam #4 ­ Spring 2007 2 Lab Questions: 7 pts. 1 staining of wild-type molecules affected in the patient; only one cell is pictured here. 6 pts. 5) Once

  9. Dr. Campbell's Bio111 Exam #3 Fall 2003 Fall 2003 Biology 111 Exam #3 BioEnergetics

    E-print Network

    Campbell, A. Malcolm

    Dr. Campbell's Bio111 Exam #3 ­ Fall 2003 1 Fall 2003 Biology 111 Exam #3 ­ Bio;Dr. Campbell's Bio111 Exam #3 ­ Fall 2003 2 Flagella Regeneration -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 15 30 45 60 75 90 these data for the four cell populations as shown in the graph. This was a normal flagella regeneration

  10. Dr. Campbell's Bio111 Exam #2 Spring 2008 Spring 2008 Biology 111 In-Class Exam #2 Classical Genetics

    E-print Network

    Campbell, A. Malcolm

    Dr. Campbell's Bio111 Exam #2 ­ Spring 2008 1 Spring 2008 Biology 111 In-Class Exam #2 ­ Classical;Dr. Campbell's Bio111 Exam #2 ­ Spring 2008 2 Lab Question: 3 pts. 1) List the steps a PCR machine for each amino acid): 10 pts. 3) Draw a picture of metaphase I. Your diagram must be for a diploid cell

  11. Dr. Campbell's Bio111 Exam #1 Fall 2011 Biology 111 Closed Book Take-Home Exam #1 Information

    E-print Network

    Campbell, A. Malcolm

    Dr. Campbell's Bio111 Exam #1 ­ Fall 2011 1 Biology 111 Closed Book Take-Home Exam #1 ­ Information to complete? #12;Dr. Campbell's Bio111 Exam #1 ­ Fall 2011 2 Lab Questions: 6 pts. 1) List the four major and transform into E. coli D. measure cell density and fluorescence (fluor/density) and graph 4 pts. 2) Describe

  12. UM,CP Dive Manual Exam Page 1 Rev. 3/15/2012 Diving Safety Diving Manual Exam

    E-print Network

    Boynton, Walter R.

    UM,CP Dive Manual Exam Page 1 Rev. 3/15/2012 Diving Safety ­ Diving Manual Exam 1. AAUS records of dives equipment inspection and testing records all of the above #12;UM,CP Dive Manual Exam Page 2 Rev. 3/15/2012 8. Before conducting any diving operation under the auspices of the UM,CP

  13. Exam 2 -Review The second exam will cover section 3.9 and chapter 4 of Stewart's text, Single Variable

    E-print Network

    Schmitt, John R.

    Calculus I Exam 2 - Review The second exam will cover section 3.9 and chapter 4 of Stewart's text source of problems for practice and consideration. As you prepare for the exam, please remember. · Find critical points. Use the first derivative test and/or second derivative test deter- mine nature

  14. SU-E-T-282: Remove Field-Size Limitation Using the Combination of Collimator Rotation and Jaw Tracking with MLC Aperture

    SciTech Connect

    Shiu, A; Chiu, R; Cumming, D; Chung, E; Ragab, O; Cui, G

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: this study is to investigate the use of variable-collimators and/or collimator-rotation to overcome the field-size limitation on TrueBeamSTX. Methods: The maximum static field-size is 22- × 40-cm for TrueBeamSTX and 40- × 40-cm for Trilogy. Maximum displacement between adjacent leaf ends at a single carriage position is 15-cm for TBSTX and 14-cm for Trilogy. Our current practice for IMRT treatment at Trilogy is as follows, if MLC leaves travel more than 13.5 cm in the MLC traveling direction, the treatment fields will be split at isocenter to two groups of IMRT fields to cover the large tumors. However, TrueBeamSTX is not limited in this way because the jaws can track each segments of the MLC aperture. Radiation treatment plans for ten patients (different tumor sites) treated at Trilogy with one dimension of the field is greater than 22 cm and the other dimension is less than or equal to 22 cm. All the plans will be converted with jaws tracking each segment's MLC aperture. If necessary, the collimator rotation will also be applied for the planning. Comparison of the converted plans with the original clinical plans will be evaluated and based on the following criterion: (1) tumor coverage; (2) dose sparing to the critical structures; and (3) treatment time. Results: The tumor coverage is compatible between two plans. The dose of critical structures was evaluated in the cumulative DVH for spinal cord, parotids, and brainstem at V20 and V5. In all patients, the maximum reduction in V20 was never more than 5% and was typically less than 1%. In V5, the maximum reduction was 10% and 3% respectively. The significant difference can be found in using the variable collimator to shorten the treatment time. Conclusion: We conclude that we will use the variable-collimator for all IMRT cases on TrueBeamSTX and as a potential backup machine for Trilogy.

  15. Rev 5-5-2011 Exam Number

    E-print Network

    Feeny, Brian

    Rev 5-5-2011 Exam Number: Department of Mechanical Engineering Michigan State University Ph 2011 2 of 5 rev 5-5-11 1) Consider the following R-C circuit. a) Compute the transfer functions from((tt)) RR22 RR11 VVcc((tt))CC VVrr22((tt)) #12;System Dynamics and Control August 2011 3 of 5 rev 5-5-11 2

  16. Impact of MLC leaf width on volumetric-modulated arc therapy planning for head and neck cancers.

    PubMed

    Lafond, Caroline; Chajon, Enrique; Devillers, Anne; Louvel, Guillaume; Toublanc, Sandra; Olivier, Mickael; Simon, Antoine; De Crevoisier, Renaud; Manens, Jean-Pierre

    2013-01-01

    This dosimetric study investigated the impact of multileaf collimators (MLC) leaf width in volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) for head and neck cancers (HNC), either with a "standard" simultaneously integrated boost technique (S-SIB) or with a "dose painting" SIB technique (DP-SIB). HNC patients were planned either with an S-SIB comprising three dose levels, from 56 to 70 Gy (16 patients), or with a DP-SIB comprising five dose levels, from 56 to 84 Gy (8 patients), in 35 fractions. Two VMAT plans were calculated for each SIB technique using two Elekta MLCs: MLCi2 with 10 mm leaf width and Beam Modulator (BM) with 4 mm leaf width. Dose distributions were evaluated by comparing doses on PTVs, main OARs, and healthy tissue, and by comparing conformation indexes. Treatment efficiencies were evaluated by comparing the number of monitor units and the number of needed arcs. Comparisons of the two MLCs depending on the two SIB techniques showed: i) Regarding PTVs: Dmean and D2% on lower doses PTV decreased respectively by 0.5 Gy (p = 0.01) and 0.9 Gy (p = 0.01) with BM than with MLCi2 for S-SIB; no significant difference was found for DP-SIB;ii) Regarding OARs: for spinal cord and brainstem, D2% decreased respectively by 1.2 Gy (p = 0.03) and 4.2 Gy (p = 0.04) with BM than with MLCi2 for S-SIB; for controlateral parotid, D50% decreased by 1.5 Gy (p = 0.01) with BM than with MLCi2 for S-SIB; iii) Regarding treatment efficiency: the number of monitor units was 44% (p = 0.00) and 51% (p = 0.01) higher with BM for S-SIB and DP-SIB, respectively. Two arcs were more frequently needed with BM to reach an acceptable dose distribution. This study demonstrated that Beam Modulator (4 mm leaf width) and MLCi2 (10 mm leaf width) MLCs from Elekta provided satisfactory dose distributions for treatment delivery with VMAT technique for complex HNC cases with standard and dose painting prescriptions. OAR sparing was better with BM, mainly for brainstem and spinal cord. However, delivery efficiency of VMAT plans was better with MLCi2. PMID:24257269

  17. BEYOND ORIENTATION TO EXAM JAM How do we support students as they begin

    E-print Network

    Northern British Columbia, University of

    BEYOND ORIENTATION TO EXAM JAM How do we support students as they begin final exams? P R E S E N issues as they enter into the final exam period. tutoring Workshops Study tips #12;EXAM JAM HISTORY to the `Exam Jam' presentation while I chose assessment (guess who had more fun ) · Dec 2010 we initiated

  18. Midterm Exam: Chemistry 223 McGill University

    E-print Network

    Ronis, David M.

    . 998 × 108 m/sec Faraday, F 96,484.6 Coul/mole Standard Atmosphere 1. 01325 × 105 Pa Avogadro's Number and each is of equal value. 5. Be sure to indicate the total number of exam books handed in on your exam Exam -3- Chemistry 223 d) Use the speed distribution to derive an expression for ZA,B, the number of A

  19. Oil reserve

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-08-01

    Argonne National Laboratory a facility run for the Department of Energy prepared a supplemental environmental impact statements for Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 (NPR-1) near Bakersfield, California. This paper concludes that NPR-1 might contribute to the decline of an endangered species the San Joaquin kit fox and contaminate nearby ground water. However, DOE disagreed with Argonne about the impact of NPR-1 operations on the endangered fox and nearby ground water. Because these disagreements were unresolved when DOE took over the preparation of the supplemental environmental impact statement the official draft of which is not yet completed it is unclear how Argonne's views will be reflected in the document when it is published for comment. DOE has not taken sufficient action to ensure that NPR-1 operations have complied with environmental laws and regulations governing endangered species, historic preservation, and wastewater sumping. Noncompliance with these requirements could result in legal action, fines, and even a possible shutdown of NPR-1 operations until compliance is achieved. The Department of Interior is investigating to see if prosecution is warranted for possible endangered species violations. Although DOE is trying to address possible problems, similar problems may occur at NPR-1 in the future unless DOE management controls are improved.

  20. Dr. Campbell's Bio111 Exam #2 Fall 2001 Fall 2001 Biology 111 Exam #2 Classical Genetics

    E-print Network

    Campbell, A. Malcolm

    boy. The boy and the middle girl have retinitis pigmentosa. Neither Brumhilda nor Bubba had mother had retinitis pigmentosa as did Brumhilda's father. Finally, the mother in the P generation also had retinitis pigmentosa. Brumhilda Bubba #12;Dr. Campbell's Bio111 Exam #2 ­ Fall 2001 3 8 pts. 4

  1. EXAM 2 Practice questions Remember: This practice set is not comprehensive. Exam questions may also be

    E-print Network

    Nuismer, Scott L.

    be drawn from lectures, laboratories, past exams, or past practice sets. 1. Define gene flow, explain how gene flow influences genetic variation within populations, and explain how gene flow influences genetic with the predicted `Lack Clutch' size. In order to accomplish this, the team of scientists artificially manipulated

  2. EXAM 2 Practice questions Remember: This practice set is not comprehensive. Exam questions may also be

    E-print Network

    Nuismer, Scott L.

    to accomplish this, the team of scientists artificially manipulated the number of eggs in the nests be drawn from lectures, laboratories, past exams, or past practice sets. 1. Define gene flow, explain how gene flow influences genetic variation within populations, and explain how gene flow influences genetic

  3. A real-time dynamic-MLC control algorithm for delivering IMRT to targets undergoing 2D rigid motion in the beam's eye view

    SciTech Connect

    McMahon, Ryan; Berbeco, Ross; Nishioka, Seiko; Ishikawa, Masayori; Papiez, Lech

    2008-09-15

    An MLC control algorithm for delivering intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) to targets that are undergoing two-dimensional (2D) rigid motion in the beam's eye view (BEV) is presented. The goal of this method is to deliver 3D-derived fluence maps over a moving patient anatomy. Target motion measured prior to delivery is first used to design a set of planned dynamic-MLC (DMLC) sliding-window leaf trajectories. During actual delivery, the algorithm relies on real-time feedback to compensate for target motion that does not agree with the motion measured during planning. The methodology is based on an existing one-dimensional (1D) algorithm that uses on-the-fly intensity calculations to appropriately adjust the DMLC leaf trajectories in real-time during exposure delivery [McMahon et al., Med. Phys. 34, 3211-3223 (2007)]. To extend the 1D algorithm's application to 2D target motion, a real-time leaf-pair shifting mechanism has been developed. Target motion that is orthogonal to leaf travel is tracked by appropriately shifting the positions of all MLC leaves. The performance of the tracking algorithm was tested for a single beam of a fractionated IMRT treatment, using a clinically derived intensity profile and a 2D target trajectory based on measured patient data. Comparisons were made between 2D tracking, 1D tracking, and no tracking. The impact of the tracking lag time and the frequency of real-time imaging were investigated. A study of the dependence of the algorithm's performance on the level of agreement between the motion measured during planning and delivery was also included. Results demonstrated that tracking both components of the 2D motion (i.e., parallel and orthogonal to leaf travel) results in delivered fluence profiles that are superior to those that track the component of motion that is parallel to leaf travel alone. Tracking lag time effects may lead to relatively large intensity delivery errors compared to the other sources of error investigated. However, the algorithm presented is robust in the sense that it does not rely on a high level of agreement between the target motion measured during treatment planning and delivery.

  4. OK State Profile. Oklahoma: End-of-Instruction (EOI) Exams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides information about Oklahoma's End-of-Instruction Exams. The purpose of the exam is to: (1) Determine prospective high school graduates' knowledge and skill levels relative to those needed for entry-level employment aligned to the American Diploma Project (ADP) benchmarks; (2) Determine prospective high school graduates'…

  5. Midterm Exam: Chemistry 243 McGill University

    E-print Network

    Ronis, David M.

    . 998 × 108 m/sec Faraday, F 96,484.6 Coul/mole Standard Atmosphere 1. 01325 × 105 Pa Avogadro's Number and each is of equal value. 5. Be sure to indicate the total number of exam books handed in on your exam number of phases that coexist in a two component system? 2. (25%) Assume that Raoult's law holds for both

  6. Preparing Students to Take SOA/CAS Exam FM/2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchand, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides suggestions for preparing students to take the actuarial examination on financial mathematics, SOA/CAS Exam FM/2. It is based on current practices employed at Slippery Rock University, a small public liberal arts university. Detailed descriptions of our Theory of Interest course and subsequent Exam FM/2 prep course are provided…

  7. EXPOSURE ANALYSIS MODELING SYSTEM (EXAMS): USER MANUAL AND SYSTEM DOCUMENTATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Exposure Analysis Modeling System (EXAMS) was designed for rapid evaluation of the behavior of synthetic organic chemicals in aquatic ecosystems. From the chemistry of a compound and the relevant transport and physical/chemical characteristics of the ecosystem, EXAMS computes...

  8. Should I Give the Exam before or after the Break?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Kevin J.

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to help faculty make decisions about when to administer an exam in relation to an in-semester break. Students in multiple sections of an undergraduate educational psychology class were assigned to take an exam either before or after a scheduled 5-day break (Thursday-Monday). A multiple regression analysis revealed the break…

  9. Computer Grading of Open Ended Pharmaceutical Calculations Exams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zatz, Joel L.

    1982-01-01

    A method for computer grading pharmaceutical calculations exams in which students convert their answers into scientific notation and enter their solutions onto a mark sense form is described. A table is generated and then posted listing student identification numbers, exam grades, and which problems were missed. (Author/MLW)

  10. Gender Differences in STEM Related Advanced Placement Exams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Jill B.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine differences between boys and girls in their performance on STEM related AP exams. Specifically, gender differences were examined for the following STEM related AP exams: Calculus AB, Calculus BC, Physics B, Physics C: Electricity and Magnetism, Physics C: Mechanics, Chemistry, and Computer Science…

  11. An Expanded Framework for Analyzing General Chemistry Exams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, K. Christopher; Nakhleh, Mary B.; Bretz, Stacey Lowery

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes an expanded framework to aid chemical educators in constructing exams for their courses. The framework has three primary levels: definition, algorithmic, and conceptual. These primary levels have often been used in chemical education research to analyze and describe exam questions, but in this study the definition,…

  12. CSci 5511 Spring 2003 1st Midterm Exam

    E-print Network

    Gini, Maria

    CSci 5511 Spring 2003 1st Midterm Exam Tuesday February 24 75 minutes == 75 points open book) and an h value. A number along an arc indicates the cost of the arc. A C D FE G 2 10 10 h=1B h=12 h=6 h=1h apple) (id 120452))) 120455 You reached the end of the exam #12;

  13. The Red Effect, Anxiety, and Exam Performance: A Multistudy Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smajic, Adnan; Merritt, Stephanie; Banister, Christina; Blinebry, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    Laboratory studies have established a negative relationship between the color red and academic performance. This research examined whether this effect would generalize to classroom performance and whether anxiety and negative affect might mediate the effect. In two studies, students taking classroom exams were randomly assigned an exam color. We…

  14. Standards and Excellence: Evidence from Advanced Placement (AP) Exams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dee, Thomas S.; Jacob, Brian A.

    2009-01-01

    This study assesses the effects of state exit exams on the student utilization of and performance on Advanced Placement (AP) exams. AP programs have become an increasingly popular way of providing fairly standardized and academically rigorous academic experiences that can prepare high school students for the transition to post-secondary schooling.…

  15. Does the Answer Order Matter on Multiple-Choice Exams?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tellinghuisen, Joel; Sulikowski, Michelle M.

    2008-01-01

    Surprising version-dependent differences are noted in student performance on certain questions in a standardized general chemistry exam. The exam in question has two versions, on which both questions and answers are ordered differently. For the questions suspected of answer-order bias, the performance is better in ten of twelve cases when students…

  16. Probability Exam Questions with Solutions by Henk Tijms1

    E-print Network

    Bernardin, Cedric

    are also given, but of course you should first try to solve the problems on your own! c 2013 by Henk TijmsProbability Exam Questions with Solutions by Henk Tijms1 December 15, 2013 This note gives a large number of exam problems for a first course in prob- ability. Fully worked-out solutions of these problems

  17. Advanced Placement Exams (AP) and International Baccalaureate Higher Level Exams (IBH) 2015-2016 (General Education Requirements)

    E-print Network

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    and Composition and Literature and Composition exams 4,5 8 C1 Literature & Composition 3 8 4,5 8 C1 AP Page 3 AP Exams Subject Score Qtr Units Gen Ed UCSC Course Equivalency Notes: AP Spanish Literature Applied Mathematics and Statistics 3 Mathematics 3. Allows enrollment in Math 11A or 19A. Maximum of 8

  18. Dr. Campbell's Bio111 Exam #3 Fall 2013 Biology 113 Closed Book Take-Home Exam #3 Evolution

    E-print Network

    Campbell, A. Malcolm

    Dr. Campbell's Bio111 Exam #3 ­ Fall 2013 1 Biology 113 Closed Book Take-Home Exam #3 ­ Evolution started your bacterial evolution experiment, cell growth was inhibited by the antibiotic. How do cell hypothesis for global coral bleaching is increased water temperature. Use one example of correlational data

  19. Dr. Campbell's Bio111 Exam #4 Fall 2002 Fall 2002 Biology 111 Exam #4 Cancer, HIV and Final Roundup

    E-print Network

    Campbell, A. Malcolm

    Dr. Campbell's Bio111 Exam #4 ­ Fall 2002 1 Fall 2002 Biology 111 Exam #4 ­ Cancer, HIV and Final for cancer to arise? 5 pts. 8) Based on the mode of HIV transmission, explain to someone with little biology knowledge why HIV is not a punishment from God against homosexuals. 8 pts. 9) There are two arms

  20. Dr. Campbell's Bio111 Exam #3 Fall 2011 Biology 111 Closed Book Take-Home Exam #3 Emergent Properties

    E-print Network

    Campbell, A. Malcolm

    Dr. Campbell's Bio111 Exam #3 ­ Fall 2011 1 Biology 111 Closed Book Take-Home Exam #3 ­ Emergent) In the figure to the right, How many mL of oxygen would be delivered to muscles by hemoglobin if it were: A complete hemoglobin saturation carries 25 mL of oxygen. Support your answer numerically. Limit your answer

  1. Dr. Campbell's Bio111 Exam #3 Fall 2011 Biology 111 Closed Book Take-Home Exam #3 Emergent Properties

    E-print Network

    Campbell, A. Malcolm

    Dr. Campbell's Bio111 Exam #3 ­ Fall 2011 1 Biology 111 Closed Book Take-Home Exam #3 ­ EmergentL of oxygen would be delivered to muscles by hemoglobin if it were: A) high affinity binding protein; B) lowL of oxygen. Support your answer numerically. Limit your answer to 1 sentence each. (type your answer below) A

  2. The Impact of Statewide Exit Exams: A Descriptive Case Study of Three German States with Differing Low Stakes Exam Regimes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Ackeren, Isabell; Block, Rainer; Klein, E. Dominique; Kuhn, Svenja M.

    2012-01-01

    In this article we present results from a study investigating the impact of three state exit exam systems on teaching and learning in college-preparatory schools. The study compares one state with a traditionally more centralized exam regime, one state that is more de-centralized and one state that has recently switched to more centralized…

  3. The Effects of Lactobacillus acidophilus on the Intestinal Smooth Muscle Contraction through PKC/MLCK/MLC Signaling Pathway in TBI Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Huan; Zhu, Lina; Gao, Ning; Zhu, Jingci

    2015-01-01

    Clinical studies have shown that probiotics influence gastrointestinal motility. However, the molecular mechanisms by which probiotic Lactobacillus modulates intestinal motility in traumatic brain injury (TBI) mouse model have not been explored. In the present study, we provided evidence showing that treatment of TBI mice with Lactobacillus acidophilus significantly improved the terminal ileum villus morphology, restored the impaired interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) and the disrupted ICC networks after TBI, and prevented TBI-mediated inhibition of contractile activity in intestinal smooth muscle. Mechanistically, the decreased concentration of MLCK, phospho-MLC20 and phospho-MYPT1 and increased concentration of MLCP and PKC were observed after TBI, and these events mediated by TBI were efficiently prevented by Lactobacillus acidophilus application. These findings may provide a novel mechanistic basis for the application of Lactobacillus acidophilus in the treatment of TBI. PMID:26030918

  4. Performance Analysis of Exam Gloves Used for Aseptic Rodent Surgery

    PubMed Central

    LeMoine, Dana M; Bergdall, Valerie K; Freed, Carrie

    2015-01-01

    Aseptic technique includes the use of sterile surgical gloves for survival surgeries in rodents to minimize the incidence of infections. Exam gloves are much less expensive than are surgical gloves and may represent a cost-effective, readily available option for use in rodent surgery. This study examined the effectiveness of surface disinfection of exam gloves with 70% isopropyl alcohol or a solution of hydrogen peroxide and peracetic acid (HP–PA) in reducing bacterial contamination. Performance levels for asepsis were met when gloves were negative for bacterial contamination after surface disinfection and sham ‘exertion’ activity. According to these criteria, 94% of HP–PA-disinfected gloves passed, compared with 47% of alcohol-disinfected gloves. In addition, the effect of autoclaving on the integrity of exam gloves was examined, given that autoclaving is another readily available option for aseptic preparation. Performance criteria for glove integrity after autoclaving consisted of: the ability to don the gloves followed by successful simulation of wound closure and completion of stretch tests without tearing or observable defects. Using this criteria, 98% of autoclaved nitrile exam gloves and 76% of autoclaved latex exam gloves met performance expectations compared with the performance of standard surgical gloves (88% nitrile, 100% latex). The results of this study support the use of HP–PA-disinfected latex and nitrile exam gloves or autoclaved nitrile exam gloves as viable cost-effective alternatives to sterile surgical gloves for rodent surgeries. PMID:26045458

  5. The Provision of Diabetes-Monitoring Exams to Older Latinos

    PubMed Central

    Herrera, Angelica P.; Lee Smith, Matthew; Ory, Marcia G.; Rodriguez, Hector P.; Warre, Ruth; Thompson, Wesley K.; Azcue, Annette; Romero, Jairo A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To explore factors associated with the provision of diabetes-monitoring practices among older Latinos with type 2 diabetes. Method Data from 547 Latinos (?55 years) were analyzed from the 2007 California Health Interview Survey. Multivariate logistic regression modeled the relationship between health status and sociodemographic factors and the receipt of semiannual HbA1c tests, annual foot exams, and annual retinal exams. Results The majority of older Latino diabetics received foot exams (87%) and retinal exams (77%), but the provision of semiannual HbA1c tests (30%) was low. Higher English-language proficiency and health insurance coverage were associated with the provision of HbA1c tests and foot exams, but not retinal exams. Insulin therapy was positively associated with semiannual HbA1c testing, but negatively associated with foot exams. Discussion There are considerable missed opportunities in the provision of diabetes monitoring for older Latinos, particularly those with limited English proficiency, less comprehensive insurance, and noninsulin therapy. PMID:21948771

  6. Performance analysis of exam gloves used for aseptic rodent surgery.

    PubMed

    LeMoine, Dana M; Bergdall, Valerie K; Freed, Carrie

    2015-05-01

    Aseptic technique includes the use of sterile surgical gloves for survival surgeries in rodents to minimize the incidence of infections. Exam gloves are much less expensive than are surgical gloves and may represent a cost-effective, readily available option for use in rodent surgery. This study examined the effectiveness of surface disinfection of exam gloves with 70% isopropyl alcohol or a solution of hydrogen peroxide and peracetic acid (HP-PA) in reducing bacterial contamination. Performance levels for asepsis were met when gloves were negative for bacterial contamination after surface disinfection and sham 'exertion' activity. According to these criteria, 94% of HP-PA-disinfected gloves passed, compared with 47% of alcohol-disinfected gloves. In addition, the effect of autoclaving on the integrity of exam gloves was examined, given that autoclaving is another readily available option for aseptic preparation. Performance criteria for glove integrity after autoclaving consisted of: the ability to don the gloves followed by successful simulation of wound closure and completion of stretch tests without tearing or observable defects. Using this criteria, 98% of autoclaved nitrile exam gloves and 76% of autoclaved latex exam gloves met performance expectations compared with the performance of standard surgical gloves (88% nitrile, 100% latex). The results of this study support the use of HP-PA-disinfected latex and nitrile exam gloves or autoclaved nitrile exam gloves as viable cost-effective alternatives to sterile surgical gloves for rodent surgeries. PMID:26045458

  7. FLEX: A Modular Software Architecture for Flight License Exam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arsan, Taner; Saka, Hamit Emre; Sahin, Ceyhun

    This paper is about the design and implementation of an examination system based on World Wide Web. It is called FLEX-Flight License Exam Software. We designed and implemented flexible and modular software architecture. The implemented system has basic specifications such as appending questions in system, building exams with these appended questions and making students to take these exams. There are three different types of users with different authorizations. These are system administrator, operators and students. System administrator operates and maintains the system, and also audits the system integrity. The system administrator can not be able to change the result of exams and can not take an exam. Operator module includes instructors. Operators have some privileges such as preparing exams, entering questions, changing the existing questions and etc. Students can log on the system and can be accessed to exams by a certain URL. The other characteristic of our system is that operators and system administrator are not able to delete questions due to the security problems. Exam questions can be inserted on their topics and lectures in the database. Thus; operators and system administrator can easily choose questions. When all these are taken into consideration, FLEX software provides opportunities to many students to take exams at the same time in safe, reliable and user friendly conditions. It is also reliable examination system for the authorized aviation administration companies. Web development platform - LAMP; Linux, Apache web server, MySQL, Object-oriented scripting Language - PHP are used for developing the system and page structures are developed by Content Management System - CMS.

  8. Math 308, Spring 2012, Exam 1 1 MATH 308, Spring 2012

    E-print Network

    Zelenko, Igor

    Math 308, Spring 2012, Exam 1 1 MATH 308, Spring 2012 EXAM 1 - VERSION A LAST NAME (print) FIRST 10 14 100 GRADE: #12;Math 308, Spring 2012, Exam 1 2 1. [12pts] Determine whether the differential, Spring 2012, Exam 1 3 2. Consider differential equations y + 4y + y = 0, where is a parameter. (a) [15

  9. The Coordinators of Psychiatric Education (COPE) Residency In-Training Exam: A Preliminary Psychometric Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, Gregory P. J.; Crockford, David N.; Hecker, Kent

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The Coordinators of Psychiatric Education (COPE) Residency In-Training Exam is a formative exam for Canadian psychiatric residents that was reconstructed using assessment best practices. An assessment of psychometric properties was subsequently performed on the exam to ensure preliminary validity and reliability. Methods: An exam

  10. Going Green and Using Less Paper to Print Exams: Student Performance, Completion Time, and Preference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Kevin J.

    2014-01-01

    Two studies measured the impact on student exam performance and exam completion time of strategies aimed to reduce the amount of paper used for printing multiple-choice course exams. Study 1 compared single-sided to double-sided printed exams. Study 2 compared a single-column arrangement of multiple-choice answer options to a space (and paper)…

  11. Reservations to human rights treaties 

    E-print Network

    McCall-Smith, Kasey Lowe

    2012-06-26

    This thesis examines the default application of the 1969 Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties reservation rules to reservations to human rights treaties. The contemporary practice of formulating reservations allows ...

  12. Will students pass a competitive exam that they failed in their dreams?

    PubMed

    Arnulf, Isabelle; Grosliere, Laure; Le Corvec, Thibault; Golmard, Jean-Louis; Lascols, Olivier; Duguet, Alexandre

    2014-10-01

    We tested whether dreams can anticipate a stressful exam and how failure/success in dreams affect next-day performance. We collected information on students' dreams during the night preceding the medical school entrance exam. Demographic, academic, sleep and dream characteristics were compared to the students' grades on the exam. Of the 719 respondents to the questionnaire (of 2324 total students), 60.4% dreamt of the exam during the night preceding it. Problems with the exam appeared in 78% of dreams and primarily involved being late and forgetting answers. Reporting a dream about the exam on the pre-exam night was associated with better performance on the exam (p=.01). The frequency of dreams concerning the exam during the first term predicted proportionally higher performance on the exam (R=0.1, p=.01). These results suggest that the negative anticipation of a stressful event in dreams is common and that this episodic simulation provides a cognitive gain. PMID:25108280

  13. Solid and Structural Mechanics January 2010 Exam Number: ------------------------------

    E-print Network

    Feeny, Brian

    Solid and Structural Mechanics January 2010 Exam Number: ------------------------------ Department the reaction at the roller support. #12;4. A steel rod of diameter d=50 mm (yield strength, y = 260 MPa

  14. UCF Computer Science Foundation Exam Guide August 17, 2014

    E-print Network

    Stanley, Kenneth O.

    one exam. If you have procrastination problems, do whatever it takes to get rid of them. Internet bothering you? Unplug your modem, or leave the house and study in the library. Addicted to your mobile

  15. Keep Your Vision Healthy: Learn About Comprehensive Dilated Eye Exams

    MedlinePLUS

    ... please review our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Keep Your Vision Healthy Learn About Comprehensive Dilated Eye Exams People ... should have their eyesight tested to keep their vision at its best. Children usually have vision screening ...

  16. Dept of Aeronautics and Astronautics Qualifying Exam , January 2014

    E-print Network

    de Weck, Olivier L.

    MIT Dept of Aeronautics and Astronautics Qualifying Exam , January 2014 Humans and Aerospace Humans and Automation Question Historically, astronauts conditions in space, in both the astronaut corp. and through the burgeoning

  17. Math 302 Exam 1 Solutions Feb 21, 2007

    E-print Network

    Tuba, Imre

    Math 302 Exam 1 Solutions Feb 21, 2007 1. (10 pts) Consider the sentence "If the sky is blue it into symbols. P = The sky is blue. Q = Giraffes eat lions. R = Elephants are pink. S = Chickens have teeth. (P

  18. Astronomy and Cosmology -spring 2003 -final exam Take this exam on Friday 6 June 2003, and turn it in by 5 pm.

    E-print Network

    Astronomy and Cosmology - spring 2003 - final exam Take this exam on Friday 6 June 2003, and turn (Sky), 3 (Moon), 4 (Gravity), 5 (Light), 18 (Sun), 28 (Cosmology) 5. How did you do on the quizzes? Did

  19. MATH 121 FINAL EXAM FALL 1996 The exam consists of 15 problems. Each problem is worth 12 points except for 2 (16

    E-print Network

    Baldwin, John T.

    MATH 121 FINAL EXAM FALL 1996 Name: SSN: The exam consists of 15 problems. Each problem is worth 12, all real solutions). Give exact values of the solutions with complex numbers written in standard form

  20. Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Subtype-Specific Regional and Temporal Regulation of ADP Ribosylation Factor-1-Dependent Rho/MLC Pathway at Pre-Clinical Stage.

    PubMed

    Zafar, Saima; Schmitz, Matthias; Younus, Neelam; Tahir, Waqas; Shafiq, Mohsin; Llorens, Franc; Ferrer, Isidre; Andéoletti, Olivier; Zerr, Inga

    2015-06-01

    Small GTPases of the Arf family mainly activate the formation of coated carrier vesicles. We showed that class-I Arf1 interacts specifically with full length GPI-anchored cellular prion protein (PrP(C)). Several recent reports have also demonstrated a missing link between the endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi-complex role for proper folding, but the exact molecular mechanism is not yet fully understood. In the present study, we identified and characterized the interactive role of Arf1 during PrP(C) intracellular distribution under pathophysiological conditions. PrP(C) interaction with Arf1 was investigated in cortical primary neuronal cultures of PrP(C) wild type and knockout mice (PrP(-/-)). Arf1 and PrP(C) co-binding affinity was confirmed using reverse co-immunoprecipitation, co-localization affinity using confocal laser-scanning microscopy. Treatment with brefeldin-A modulated Arf1 expression and resulted in down-regulation and redistribution of PrP(C) into cytosolic region. In the pre-symptomatic stage of the disease, Arf1 expression was significantly downregulated in the frontal cortex in tg340 mice expressing about fourfold of human PrP-M129 with PrP null background that had been inoculated with human sCJD MM1 brain tissue homogenates (sCJD MM1 mice). In addition, the frontal cortex of CJD human brain demonstrated significant binding capacity of Arf1 protein using co-immunoprecipitation analysis. We also examined Arf1 expression in the brain of CJD patients with the subtypes MM1 and VV2 and found that it was regulated in a region-specific manner. In the frontal cortex, Arf1 expression was not significantly changed in either MM1 or VV2 subtype. Interestingly, Arf1 expression was significantly reduced in the cerebellum in both subtypes as compared to controls. Furthermore, we observed altered RhoA activity, which in turn affects myosin light-chain (MLC) phosphorylation and Arf1-dependent PI3K pathway. Together, our findings underscore a key early symptomatic role of Arf1 in neurodegeneration. Targeting the Arf/Rho/MLC signaling axis might be a promising strategy to uncover the missing link which probably influences disease progression and internal homeostasis of misfolded proteins. PMID:25896910

  1. The University of Aberdeen is a charity registered in Scotland, No SC013683 Exam Papers -how do I find past exam papers?

    E-print Network

    Neri, Peter

    guide The University of Aberdeen is a charity registered in Scotland, No SC013683 Exam Papers - how do I find past exam papers? Emma Francis, June 2014 QG DBS007 [https://www.abdn.ac.uk/library/documents/guides/dbs/qgdbs007.pdf] Exam papers can be accessed either through the For Students link in the Learning and Teaching

  2. The Efficacy of Final Examinations: A Comparative Study of Closed-Book, Invigilated Exams and Open-Book, Open-Web Exams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Jeremy B.; Wong, Amy

    2009-01-01

    Educators have long debated the usefulness (or otherwise) of final examinations; a debate that has typically revolved around the relative merits of closed-book exams, open-book exams, take-home exams or their substitution by some other assessment format (e.g., project work). This paper adds a new dimension to the debate by considering how the…

  3. Dr. Campbell's Bio111 Exam #2.5 Fall 2003 Fall 2003 Biology 111 Exam #2.5 -Molecular Genetics Half Exam

    E-print Network

    Campbell, A. Malcolm

    to complete (excluding typing)? #12;Dr. Campbell's Bio111 Exam #2.5 ­ Fall 2003 2 10 pts. 1) Three recessive traits exist in a species that has orange, round heads. The recessive traits are triangle eyes, pyramid pts. 3) Go to this and determine the gene, accession number

  4. Ovarian reserve tests

    PubMed Central

    Jirge, Padma Rekah

    2011-01-01

    Ovarian reserve plays a crucial role in achieving pregnancy following any treatment in subfertile women. The estimation of ovarian reserve is routinely performed through various ovarian reserve tests (ORTs) in an effort to predict the response and outcome in couples prior to In Vitro Fertilization and counsel them. Most widely used tests are basal follicle stimulating hormone and anti-Mullerian hormone and antral follicle count. The role of ORTs in our routine practice is discussed in this article. A MEDLINE search was done to identify suitable articles for review. PMID:22346076

  5. Ovarian reserve tests.

    PubMed

    Jirge, Padma Rekah

    2011-09-01

    Ovarian reserve plays a crucial role in achieving pregnancy following any treatment in subfertile women. The estimation of ovarian reserve is routinely performed through various ovarian reserve tests (ORTs) in an effort to predict the response and outcome in couples prior to In Vitro Fertilization and counsel them. Most widely used tests are basal follicle stimulating hormone and anti-Mullerian hormone and antral follicle count. The role of ORTs in our routine practice is discussed in this article. A MEDLINE search was done to identify suitable articles for review. PMID:22346076

  6. Interpretation of Biosphere Reserves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merriman, Tim

    1994-01-01

    Introduces the Man and the Biosphere Programme (MAB) to monitor the 193 biogeographical provinces of the Earth and the creation of biosphere reserves. Highlights the need for interpreters to become familiar or involved with MAB program activities. (LZ)

  7. 76 FR 46897 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam Toll...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-03

    ...Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam Toll Free Project Committee AGENCY: Internal...Business/ Self Employed Correspondence Exam Toll Free Project Committee will be conducted...Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam Toll Free Project Committee will be held...

  8. 76 FR 63716 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam Toll...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-13

    ...Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam Toll Free Project Committee AGENCY: Internal...Business/ Self Employed Correspondence Exam Toll Free Project Committee will be conducted...Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam Toll Free Project Committee will be held...

  9. 76 FR 2196 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam Toll...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-12

    ...Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam Toll Free AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service...Business/ Self Employed Correspondence Exam Toll Free will be conducted. The Taxpayer Advocacy...Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam Toll Free will be held Tuesday, February...

  10. 76 FR 56880 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam Toll...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-14

    ...Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam Toll Free Project Committee AGENCY: Internal...Business/ Self Employed Correspondence Exam Toll Free Project Committee will be conducted...Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam Toll Free Project Committee will be held...

  11. 76 FR 22170 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam Toll...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-20

    ...Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam Toll Free Project Committee AGENCY: Internal...Business/ Self Employed Correspondence Exam Toll Free Project Committee will be conducted...Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam Toll Free Project Committee will be held...

  12. 76 FR 17996 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam Toll...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-31

    ...Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam Toll Free Project Committee AGENCY: Internal...Business/ Self Employed Correspondence Exam Toll Free Project Committee will be conducted...Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam Toll Free Project Committee will be held...

  13. 76 FR 37893 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam Toll...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-28

    ...Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam Toll Free Project Committee AGENCY: Internal...Business/ Self Employed Correspondence Exam Toll Free Project Committee will be conducted...Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam Toll Free Project Committee will be held...

  14. 76 FR 37196 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam Toll...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-24

    ...Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam Toll Free Project Committee AGENCY: Internal...Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam Toll Free Project Committee will be conducted...Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam Toll Free Project Committee will be held...

  15. 76 FR 6190 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam Toll...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-03

    ...Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam Toll Free Project Committee AGENCY: Internal...Business/ Self Employed Correspondence Exam Toll Free Project Committee will be conducted...Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam Toll Free Project Committee will be held...

  16. 76 FR 10942 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam Toll...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-28

    ...Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam Toll Free Project Committee AGENCY: Internal...Business/ Self Employed Correspondence Exam Toll Free Project Committee will be conducted...Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam Toll Free Project Committee will be held...

  17. 76 FR 46897 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-03

    ...Correspondence Exam Practitioner Engagement Project Committee AGENCY...Correspondence Exam Practitioner Engagement Project Committee will be...and suggestions on improving customer service at the Internal Revenue...Correspondence Exam Practitioner Engagement Project Committee will...

  18. 76 FR 56879 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-14

    ...Correspondence Exam Practitioner Engagement Project Committee AGENCY...Correspondence Exam Practitioner Engagement Project Committee will be...and suggestions on improving customer service at the Internal Revenue...Correspondence Exam Practitioner Engagement Project Committee will...

  19. 76 FR 37200 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-24

    ...Correspondence Exam Practitioner Engagement Project Committee AGENCY...Correspondence Exam Practitioner Engagement Project Committee will be...and suggestions on improving customer service at the Internal Revenue...Correspondence Exam Practitioner Engagement Project Committee will...

  20. 76 FR 2193 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-12

    ...Correspondence Exam Practitioner Engagement AGENCY: Internal Revenue...Correspondence Exam Practitioner Engagement will be conducted. The Taxpayer...and suggestions on improving customer service at the Internal Revenue...Correspondence Exam Practitioner Engagement will be held Wednesday,...

  1. 76 FR 63715 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-13

    ...Correspondence Exam Practitioner Engagement Project Committee AGENCY...Correspondence Exam Practitioner Engagement Project Committee will be...and suggestions on improving customer service at the Internal Revenue...Correspondence Exam Practitioner Engagement Project Committee will...

  2. 76 FR 6189 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-03

    ...Correspondence Exam Practitioner Engagement Project Committee AGENCY...Correspondence Exam Practitioner Engagement Project Committee will be...and suggestions on improving customer service at the Internal Revenue...Correspondence Exam Practitioner Engagement Project Committee will...

  3. 76 FR 22170 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-20

    ...Correspondence Exam Practitioner Engagement Project Committee AGENCY...Correspondence Exam Practitioner Engagement Project Committee will be...and suggestions on improving customer service at the Internal Revenue...Correspondence Exam Practitioner Engagement Project Committee will...

  4. 76 FR 10942 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-28

    ...Correspondence Exam Practitioner Engagement Project Committee AGENCY...Correspondence Exam Practitioner Engagement Project Committee will be...and suggestions on improving customer service at the Internal Revenue...Correspondence Exam Practitioner Engagement Project Committee will...

  5. Database trial impact on graduate nursing comprehensive exams.

    PubMed

    Pionke, Katharine; Huckstadt, Alicia

    2015-10-01

    While the authors were doing a test period of databases, the question of whether or not databases affect outcomes of graduate nursing comprehensive examinations came up. This study explored that question through using citation analysis of exams that were taken during a database trial and exams that were not. The findings showed no difference in examination pass/fail rates. While the pass/fail rates did not change, a great deal was learned in terms of citation accuracy and types of materials that students used, leading to discussions about changing how citation and plagiarism awareness were taught. PMID:26512218

  6. Database trial impact on graduate nursing comprehensive exams

    PubMed Central

    Pionke, Katharine; Huckstadt, Alicia

    2015-01-01

    While the authors were doing a test period of databases, the question of whether or not databases affect outcomes of graduate nursing comprehensive examinations came up. This study explored that question through using citation analysis of exams that were taken during a database trial and exams that were not. The findings showed no difference in examination pass/fail rates. While the pass/fail rates did not change, a great deal was learned in terms of citation accuracy and types of materials that students used, leading to discussions about changing how citation and plagiarism awareness were taught. PMID:26512218

  7. ACS exams as an example of scholarship-based assessment in a discipline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holme, Thomas; Grunert, Megan

    2012-02-01

    The Examinations Institute of the American Chemical Society has been producing norm-referenced exams for over 75 years and these efforts are reviewed here. The process by which exam-writing committees produce these exams involves both the setting of the content and trial testing of items prior to establishing the released exam. Beyond this process, the Institute has engaged in research based on data derived from various tests.

  8. AL State Profile. Alabama: Alabama High School Graduation Exam (AHSGE), 3rd Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides information about Alabama High School Graduation Exam, 3rd Edition, a comprehensive standards-based exam. The purpose of the exam is to: (1) Provide schools with student academic diagnostic information; (2) Determine prospective high school graduates' mastery of the state curriculum; (3) Increase alignment of local curriculum…

  9. How Does Student Performance on Formative Assessments Relate to Learning Assessed by Exams?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Gary

    2007-01-01

    A retrospective analysis examines the relationships between formative assessments and exam grades in two undergraduate geoscience courses. Pair and group-work grades correlate weakly with individual exam grades. Exam performance correlates to individual, weekly online assessments. Student attendance and use of assessment feedback are also…

  10. Space Propulsion Field Exam: Space Propulsion/Plasma Physics REQUIRED BY ALL STUDENTS

    E-print Network

    de Weck, Olivier L.

    ? #12;Space Propulsion Field Exam: Rocket Propulsion elective The schematic shows the pressurizationSpace Propulsion Field Exam: Space Propulsion/Plasma Physics REQUIRED BY ALL STUDENTS From). #12;Space Propulsion Field Exam: Astrodynamics elective A satellite is initially in an elliptic

  11. IRT Modeling of Tutor Performance To Predict End-of-year Exam Scores

    E-print Network

    used sources of student work is benchmark exams. Benchmark ex- ams are typically paper and pencil exams on the benchmark exam, and Yim are other variables used in the regression such as subject or school level not take into account the difficulty of the problems. For example, if two students see 10 different

  12. CPA exam pass rates for UT COBI graduates exceed state and national averages

    E-print Network

    Azad, Abdul-Majeed

    CPA exam pass rates for UT COBI graduates exceed state and national averages Individuals who want to be certified public accountants know that preparation for the CPA exam is of paramount importance. Where you successfully passing the CPA exam. According to the recently released report (for 2009) from the National

  13. CPA EXAM: Sections and Relevant Graduate Classes at MSU Auditing and Attestation (AUD) --ACTG 521 (spring)

    E-print Network

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    CPA EXAM: Sections and Relevant Graduate Classes at MSU Auditing and Attestation (AUD) - - ACTG 521 planning (about 12%) · Operations management #12;CPA EXAM: Content and Weights The relative weights to Sit for the CPA Exam in Montana Meeting the requirements for the Master of Professional Accountancy

  14. Customized versus Standardized Exams for Learning Outcomes Assessment in an Undergraduate Business Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelps, Amy L.; Spangler, William E.

    2013-01-01

    A standardized exam for program-level assessment can take the form of 1) a customized exam developed in-house by faculty and linked explicitly to program-level learning goals; or 2) a standardized exam developed externally by assessment experts and linked to a set of somewhat broader and more generalizable learning goals. This article discusses…

  15. Like Climbing Jacob's Ladder: An Art-Based Exploration of the Comprehensive Exam Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shields, Sara Scott

    2015-01-01

    The comprehensive exam process is a rite of passage in the scholarly world, and as such the movements of this process often feel like a guarded secret to graduate students. As a PhD candidate, I left the comprehensive exam process feeling both initiated and inundated. This article is an attempt to uncover the secret that is the comprehensive exam

  16. Assessing Conceptual and Algorithmic Knowledge in General Chemistry with ACS Exams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holme, Thomas; Murphy, Kristen

    2011-01-01

    In 2005, the ACS Examinations Institute released an exam for first-term general chemistry in which items are intentionally paired with one conceptual and one traditional item. A second-term, paired-questions exam was released in 2007. This paper presents an empirical study of student performances on these two exams based on national samples of…

  17. Building the ACS Exams Anchoring Concept Content Map for Undergraduate Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Kristen; Holme, Thomas; Zenisky, April; Caruthers, Heather; Knaus, Karen

    2012-01-01

    The ability to coherently assess content knowledge throughout an entire undergraduate career represents a significant advantage for programmatic assessment strategies. Chemistry, as a discipline, has an unusual tool in this regard because of the nationally standardized exams from the ACS Exams Institute. These exams are norm-referenced and allow…

  18. Hispanic Student Performance on Advanced Placement Exams: A Multiyear, National Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jara, Teresa Dianne

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to analyze the Advanced Placement exams that Hispanic students complete and to compare their overall performance with the performance of White students from 2000 to 2012. A second purpose was to determine which Advanced Placement exams were the most difficult exams for Hispanic students and which Advanced…

  19. IE 361 Exam 1 October 18, 2000 Prof. Vardeman

    E-print Network

    Vardeman, Stephen B.

    . IE 361 students Bander, Brenner, Kerdis and Tierney studied a testing machine used by a manufacturer1 IE 361 Exam 1 October 18, 2000 Prof. Vardeman 1. A data set in Brownlee's Statistical Theory under whatin a randomly determined order &! the manufacturer believed to be the most homogeneous

  20. Psychosocial Factors Associated with Skin Self-Exam Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Jakob D.; Moriarty, Cortney M.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors examined psychosocial factors associated with skin self-exam (SSE) performance by young adults. Participants and Methods: The authors administered surveys to 218 US college students (aged 18-26 years) attending a large midwestern university. Results: Contrary to prior research, men (44%) and women (49%) were relatively…

  1. Case Based Heuristic Selection for Exam Timetabling Problems

    E-print Network

    Qu, Rong

    1 1 Case Based Heuristic Selection for Exam Timetabling Problems E. Burke, A. Eckersley, S Case-Based Heuristic Selection for Examination Timetabling 2 Content n Case-Based Reasoning n Case-Based Heuristic Selection System n System overall n Preparation n Training n Experiments on both random and real

  2. Midterm Exam: Chemistry 223 McGill University

    E-print Network

    Ronis, David M.

    × 105 Pa Avogadro's Number 6. 0225 × 1023 1 cal 4.184 J 7. You may need the following results from. There are 5 questions and the exam has 3 pages including this one. 5. Be sure to indicate the total number

  3. Math 413 Exam 1 Solutions Oct 9, 2007

    E-print Network

    Tuba, Imre

    Math 413 Exam 1 Solutions Oct 9, 2007 1. (10 pts) A prince picked a basketful of golden apples payment of one-half of the apples plus two more. The prince gave him the apples and set off again. A little further on, he was stopped by a second troll, who demanded one-half of the apples the prince now

  4. AME 101, Fall 2014 Midterm exam #2 review

    E-print Network

    ;· Drag coefficient for spheres and cylinders with laminar and turbulent flow · Friction factor (f devices. The material covered on the exam will emphasize stresses/materials and fluid mechanics (Chapters 6 and 7) but may include Units and Scrutiny (which are always important) as well. The material

  5. Page 1 of 3 Rutgers University Physics Graduate Qualifying Exam

    E-print Network

    Gustafsson, Torgny

    Determine the eigenstates and eigenvalues of (bosonic) creation and annihilation operators a^ and ^aPage 1 of 3 Rutgers University ­ Physics Graduate Qualifying Exam Quantum Mechanics ­ August 29 physical quantity, i.e., that the quantum mechanical average is conserved by the evolution. Compare

  6. Student Code Number:_____________ Ph.D. Qualifying Exam

    E-print Network

    Feeny, Brian

    Student Code Number:_____________ Ph.D. Qualifying Exam: Dynamics and Vibrations August 2012 T J mass M. End A is free to slide in a horizontal track (massless roller). The system is released from at the roller and the angular acceleration of the bar at the instant of release. 75% (B) Find the reaction

  7. Factors Distinguishing Exceptional Performance on the Uniform CPA Exam.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashbaugh, Donald L.; Thompson, A. Frank

    1993-01-01

    Analysis of data from 234 Certified Public Accountant (CPA) candidates (98 of whom failed at least 1 part of the exam) showed that higher grades in the CPA review course correlated with passing the first time. Higher high school class rank and larger high school class size influenced exceptional test performance. (SK)

  8. Rutgers -Physics Graduate Qualifying Exam Electricity & Magnetism: August 30, 2006

    E-print Network

    Gustafsson, Torgny

    of the magnetic field is B0, the velocity of the particle makes angle with the magnetic field. FindRutgers - Physics Graduate Qualifying Exam Electricity & Magnetism: August 30, 2006 EA current I is flowing along the x direction in the slab. A uniform magnetic field B is applied in the z

  9. Advisory Council for Clinical Research Clinical Research Coordinator Certification Exam

    E-print Network

    Chisholm, Rex L.

    Email Job functions performed in this position: Yes No Document adverse events Prepare or review, auditors, etc. Participate in consent process Please attach: Your current resume Your current job Explaining why you want to take the exam o Describing how being certified can help you in your current

  10. Efficient Execution of Declarative Programs (Area Exam Report)

    E-print Network

    Frank, Matthew I.

    as dynamic programs [7]. On the other hand, if the performance or memory costs of using the declarativeEfficient Execution of Declarative Programs (Area Exam Report) Matthew Frank February 9, 2001 of the benefits of dynamic programming. Memoization, however, trades off reduced execution time for additional

  11. Using Oral Exams to Assess Communication Skills in Business Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke-Smalley, Lisa A.

    2014-01-01

    Business, like many other fields in higher education, continues to rely largely on conventional testing methods for assessing student learning. In the current article, another evaluation approach--the oral exam--is examined as a means for building and evaluating the professional communication and oral dialogue skills needed and utilized by…

  12. Examination of the Factors Influencing the Exam Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sitku-Görömbei, Cecília

    2009-01-01

    The defectiveness of the effectiveness of the Hungarian general education revealed in the PISA survey appears in the higher education as well. The "Introduction to Informatics" subject has one of the lowest exam results among the students of the College of Nyíregyháza majoring in Computer Program Designer and Teacher of Computer Science.…

  13. Cheating on Exams: The Case of Israeli Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siniver, Erez

    2013-01-01

    The phenomenon of cheating on exams, which harms both the reputation of an academic institution and the students who don't cheat, is becoming increasingly common. We attempt to shed light on this phenomenon using data from a survey of graduates of the College of Management Academic Studies in Israel. Three aspects of the problem are examined:…

  14. The CPA Exam as a Postcurriculum Accreditation Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barilla, Anthony G.; Jackson, Robert E.; Mooney, J. Lowell

    2008-01-01

    Business schools often attain accreditation to demonstrate program efficacy. J. A. Marts, J. D. Baker, and J. M. Garris (1988) hypothesized that candidates from Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business International (AACSB)-accredited accounting programs perform better on the CPA exam than do candidates from non-AACSB-accredited…

  15. University of Hawaii Diving Safety Program DIVING MEDICAL EXAM

    E-print Network

    Wiegner, Tracy N.

    health or safety risks as noted. Your evaluation is requested on the attached Scuba Diving Fitness: (808) 587-3425 SCUBA AND OTHER MODES OF COMPRESSED-GAS DIVING CAN BE STRENUOUS AND HAZARDOUS. A special1 APPENDIX 1 University of Hawaii Diving Safety Program DIVING MEDICAL EXAM INSTRUCTIONS

  16. Explaining the Pap and Pelvic... Your First Pelvic Exam

    E-print Network

    Hill, Wendell T.

    are having sex · Menstrual cramps so bad that you miss school Remember, it doesn't matter how old you sex, use vaginal creams or douche for 24 hours before the exam. #12;What kinds of questions will my sex or have been sexually abused · If you have vaginal itchiness or an unusual discharge (drainage

  17. Applied Bayesian Statistics Mid-term Take-home Exam

    E-print Network

    Reich, Brian J.

    downloaded from http://www.basketball-reference.com/leagues/NBA_2014.html#all_team_stats For each National for the exam together. HAVE FUN! #12;VARIABLE DESCRIPTIONS FOR THE NBA DATASET 1. Team: Team 2. Year: Year 3 these variables, see http://www.basketball-reference.com/leagues/NBA_2014.html#all_team_stats #12;M - 1 (ANSWER) 1

  18. Doppler ultrasound exam of an arm or leg

    MedlinePLUS

    The test is done in the ultrasound or radiology department or in a peripheral vascular lab. During the exam: A water-soluble gel is placed on a handheld device called a transducer. This device directs high-frequency sound waves to the artery or veins being ...

  19. Probability (MATH 4733 -01) Fall 2011 Exam 2 -Practice Problems

    E-print Network

    Martin, Kimball

    Probability (MATH 4733 - 01) Fall 2011 Exam 2 - Practice Problems Due: never, but think Wed., Nov 9. Define V ar(X). 7. Suppose X is continuous. Define the pdf of X. (Bonus: What to the letters "pdf" stand on n independent random trials each with success probability p. Determine (a) the pdf of X; (b) the cdf

  20. CSci 5511 Spring 2003 Key for 1st Midterm Exam

    E-print Network

    Gini, Maria

    CSci 5511 Spring 2003 Key for 1st Midterm Exam 1. 15 points You are given the following graph of the arc. A C D FE G 2 10 10 h=1B h=12 h=6 h=1h=1 h=0 20 6 2 2 20 (a) Show in what order A* expands nodes

  1. The Effect of Announced Quizzes on Exam Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azorlosa, Julian L.; Renner, Catherine H.

    2006-01-01

    We administered announced, multiple-choice quizzes to 1 of 2 sections of a Psychology of Learning course in each of 2 consecutive semesters. We administered the quizzes between the first and second exams and discontinued them between the second and third. At the end of each semester, students completed a questionnaire about their studying and…

  2. MA 16500 EXAM 3 INSTRUCTIONS VERSEON 01 November 12 ...

    E-print Network

    Nov 12, 2014 ... NO calculators. electronic device. books. or papers are allowed. ... No student may leave in the ?rst 20 min or in the last 5 min of the exam. .... A eerie—shaped drinking cup is made from a circular piece of paper of radius 3 by ...

  3. Spanish-English Verbatim Translation Exam. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stansfield, Charles W.; And Others

    The development and validation of the Spanish-English Verbatim Translation Exam (SEVTE) is described. The test is for use by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) in the selection of applicants for the positions of Language Specialist or Contract Linguist. The report is divided into eight sections. Section 1 describes the need for the test,…

  4. Fundamentals of Engineering (FE) Exam Fluid Mechanics Review

    E-print Network

    Provancher, William

    Fundamentals of Engineering (FE) Exam Fluid Mechanics Review Steven Burian Civil & Environmental Engineering March 22, 2013 #12;Morning (Fluid Mechanics) A. Flow measurement B. Fluid properties C. Fluid and mechanical energy balance B. Hydrostatic pressure C. Dimensionless numbers (e.g., Reynolds Number) D. Laminar

  5. Class Attendance and Exam Performance: A Randomized Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Jennjou; Lin, Tsui-Fang

    2008-01-01

    The determination of college students' academic performance is an important issue in higher education. Whether students' attendance at lectures affects students' exam performance has received considerable attention. The authors conduct a randomized experiment to study the average attendance effect for students who choose to attend lectures, which…

  6. Exame de Admisso 16/12/2013 Nome do Candidato

    E-print Network

    atentamente) · O tempo total de duração do exame será de 2 horas. · Você receberá uma Folha de Respostas junto examinador avisará quando estiver faltando 15 minutos para terminar o tempo, e novamente quando o tempo terminar. · Ao terminar o tempo, pare imediatamente de escrever. Não se levante até que todas as provas

  7. Exame de Admisso 19/01/2013 Nome do Candidato

    E-print Network

    atentamente) · O tempo total de duração do exame será de 2 horas. · Você receberá uma Folha de Respostas junto examinador avisará quando estiver faltando 15 minutos para terminar o tempo, e novamente quando o tempo terminar. · Ao terminar o tempo, pare imediatamente de escrever. Não se levante até que todas as provas

  8. Residency Applicants Misinterpret Their United States Medical Licensing Exam Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Roger C.; Desbiens, Norman A.

    2009-01-01

    Proper interpretation of the results of the United States Medical Licensing Exam (USMLE) is important for program directors, residents, and faculty who advise applicants about applying for residency positions. We suspected that applicants often misinterpreted their performance in relationship to others who took the same examination. In 2005, 54…

  9. Strategic Petroleum Reserve quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-08-15

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve Quarterly Report is submitted in accordance with section 165(b) of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act, as amended, which requires that the Secretary of Energy submit quarterly reports to Congress on Activities undertaken with respect to the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. This August 15, 1990, Strategic Petroleum Reserve Quarterly Report describes activities related to the site development, oil acquisition, budget and cost of the Reserve during the period April 1, 1990, through June 30, 1990. 3 tabs.

  10. Oak Ridge Reservation Annual Site

    E-print Network

    Pennycook, Steve

    Oak Ridge Reservation Annual Site Environmental Report DOE/ORO-2473 2013 #12;Cover Image & Design Creative Media Communications Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge Reservation Annual Site Environmental Report 2013 #12;DOE/ORO/2473 Oak Ridge Reservation Annual Site Environmental Report for 2013 on the World

  11. Dr. Campbell's Bio111 Exam #2 Spring 2007 Spring 2007 Biology 111 In-Class Exam #2 Classical Genetics

    E-print Network

    Campbell, A. Malcolm

    Genetics The in-class portion of this exam is designed so that you can complete it in 20 minutes, but you. The female has a brown nose and the male has a brown tail. All their babies are white with brown tails

  12. Dr. Campbell's Bio111 Exam #1 Spring 2008 Spring 2008 Biology 111 In-Class Exam #1 -Cellular Communications

    E-print Network

    Campbell, A. Malcolm

    are not allowed to use your notes, consult old tests, look at another person's test, check the internet, or any books, nor are you allowed to discuss the test with anyone until the in-class exam is completed at 1 pts. 5) List two reasons why it is adaptive for glycogen phosphorylase NOT to be activated directly

  13. Dr. Campbell's Bio111 Exam #1 Spring 2008 Spring 2008 Biology 111 In-Class Exam #1 -Cellular Communications

    E-print Network

    Campbell, A. Malcolm

    are not allowed to use your notes, consult old tests, look at another person's test, check the internet, or any books, nor are you allowed to discuss the test with anyone until the in-class exam is completed at 1 objects. 4 pts. 5) List two reasons why it is adaptive for glycogen phosphorylase NOT to be activated

  14. Review for Midterm Exam #1 Midterm Exam #1 will be given 1:30-2:20pm, on Wednesday, February

    E-print Network

    Grantner, Janos L.

    .1 Structured Computer Organization 1.2 Milestones in Computer Architecture 1.3 The Computer Zoo 1.4 Example, 2011, in class (Room C-141). It will be an open text book (Andrew S. Tanenbaum, Structured Computer Organization, 5th Ed., Pearson Prentice Hall, 2006) and open notes test. The exam will be made up of short

  15. Language Placement and Beyond: Guidelines for the Design and Implementation of a Computerized Spanish Heritage Language Exam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaudrie, Sara M.; Ducar, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    This paper outlines the design, implementation, and analysis of a computerized Spanish heritage language (SHL) placement exam. The exam created by the authors exemplifies how to design a simple yet effective placement exam with limited resources. It is suggested that an SHL placement exam should be developed in-house due not only to the diversity…

  16. KEY POLICY CHANGES: 1. Clarifies that student must be enrolled in a program to be eligible for these exams.

    E-print Network

    Minnesota, University of

    for proficiency or credit. ADMINISTRATIVE POLICY Departmental Exams for Proficiency or Credit for Undergraduate degree- seeking student an exams to either demonstrate proficiency or earn course credit. Departments may establish eligibility criteria for an exam for proficiency or credit. The format of these exams

  17. School Shootings Stun Reservation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borja, Rhea R.; Cavanagh, Sean

    2005-01-01

    This article deals with the impact brought by the school shootings at Red Lake Indian Reservation in Minnesota to the school community. A deeply troubled 16-year-old student shot and killed seven other people and himself at a high school. The nation's deadliest school attack since the 1999 slayings at Colorado's suburban Columbine High School took…

  18. Washington: Hanford Nuclear Reservation

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    ... area around the Hanford Nuclear Reservation near Richland, Washington. On June 27, 2000, a fire in the dry sagebrush was sparked by an ... CA, for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington, D.C. The Terra spacecraft is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, ...

  19. 26 CFR 27 - Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reserved 27 PARTS 27-29 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ESTATE AND GIFT TAXES GENERATION-SKIPPING TRANSFER TAX REGULATIONS UNDER THE TAX REFORM ACT OF 1986 PARTS 27-29...

  20. White Sands Reservation

    E-print Network

    Laughlin, Robert B.

    Sands National Monument New Mexico Lincoln National Forest Mescalero Apache Reservation 54 82 54 54 70 54 70 85 Otero County Sierra County Luna County Dona Ana County SAN ANDRES NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE Spaceport City Dona Ana Sunland Park Strauss Hatch Valmont Salem Boles Acres Grama La Union Garfield Arrey

  1. Your First Pelvic Exam: A Guide for Teens

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Adult Medicine and the Division of Gynecology at Boston Children’s Hospital. The Center is an educational entity ... Youtube © 1998-2015 | Center for Young Women's Health, Boston Children's Hospital. All rights reserved.

  2. Uncovering an Existential Barrier to Breast Self-exam Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Goldenberg, Jamie L.; Arndt, Jamie; Hart, Joshua; Routledge, Clay

    2008-01-01

    The present research applies an analysis derived from terror management theory to the health domain of breast examination, and in doing so uncovers previously unrecognized factors that may contribute to women’s reluctance to perform breast self-examinations (BSEs). In Study 1, when concerns about mortality were primed, reminders of human beings’ physical nature (i.e., creatureliness) reduced intentions to conduct BSEs compared to reminders of humans’ uniqueness. In Study 2, women conducted shorter exams on a breast model (an experience found to increase death-thought accessibility) when creatureliness was primed compared to a uniqueness and no essay condition. In Study 3, after a creatureliness prime, women performed shorter BSEs when a placebo did not provide an alternative explanation for their discomfort compared to when it did. Advances for theory and breast self-exam promotion are discussed. PMID:19255593

  3. Midterm Exam: Chemistry 223 McGill University

    E-print Network

    Ronis, David M.

    . There are 5 questions and each is of equal value. 5. Be sure to indicate the total number of exam books handed in Vacuum 2. 998 × 108 m/sec Faraday, F 96,484.6 Coul/mole Standard Atmosphere 1. 01325 × 105 Pa Avogadro's Number 6. 0225 × 1023 1 cal 4.184 J 7. You may need the following results from calculus: - e-ax2 /2 dx

  4. Physics 228 -Final Exam Solutions May 9, 2006

    E-print Network

    Coleman, Piers

    .10 cm b) 0.50 cm c) 1.0 cm d) 0.05 cm e) 0.25 cm Solution: 4. A glass (n = 1.6) lens is coated Solution: 6. A spacecraft in its own rest frame is shaped like an ellipse, with one axis twice as longPhysics 228 - Final Exam Solutions May 9, 2006 Prof. Coleman, Dr. Francis, Prof. Bronzan, Prof

  5. Correlates of Performance Anxiety in Practical Music Exams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rae, Gordon; McCambridge, Karen

    2004-01-01

    A sample of 120 young musicians (36 males and 84 females) aged between 15 and 18 years (M = 16.5, SD = 0.97) were administered the EPQ-R short scale and a revised PAI-R, a self-report measure of performance anxiety in practical music exams. Principal components analysis indicated that the PAI-R scores were best represented by a single component…

  6. MIME 3370 Exam 2 Fall 2004 Please sign the honor pledge: I have not given nor received any help in this exam

    E-print Network

    Nikolaidis, Efstratios

    MIME 3370 Exam 2 Fall 2004 Please sign the honor pledge: I have not given nor received any help in this exam Name __________________, Signature ____________________, Date ______________ Answer to all and is left free to oscillate. Find the displacement of the mass, x(t). 2. (45 points) A sinusoidal force Fe

  7. Development of the Exams Data Analysis Spreadsheet as a Tool to Help Instructors Conduct Customizable Analyses of Student ACS Exam Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandriet, Alexandra; Holme, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The American Chemical Society Examinations Institute (ACS-EI) has recently developed the Exams Data Analysis Spread (EDAS) as a tool to help instructors conduct customizable analyses of their student data from ACS exams. The EDAS calculations allow instructors to analyze their students' performances both at the total score and individual item…

  8. 21-720 Measure and Integration Midterm Exam, Fall 2009 The midterm exam is scheduled for Tuesday, October 27 at 7pm in the

    E-print Network

    Pego, Robert

    21-720 Measure and Integration Midterm Exam, Fall 2009 The midterm exam is scheduled for Tuesday measure Open cells in Rp, Lebesgue outer measure. Carath´eodory's condition, Lebesgue measurable sets, Lebesgue measure. Measurability of Borel sets. Abstract measures and measurability -algebras, measures

  9. Can formative quizzes predict or improve summative exam performance?*

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Niu; Henderson, Charles N.R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Despite wide use, the value of formative exams remains unclear. We evaluated the possible benefits of formative assessments in a physical examination course at our chiropractic college. Methods Three hypotheses were examined: (1) Receiving formative quizzes (FQs) will increase summative exam (SX) scores, (2) writing FQ questions will further increase SE scores, and (3) FQs can predict SX scores. Hypotheses were tested across three separate iterations of the class. Results The SX scores for the control group (Class 3) were significantly less than those of Classes 1 and 2, but writing quiz questions and taking FQs (Class 1) did not produce significantly higher SX scores than only taking FQs (Class 2). The FQ scores were significant predictors of SX scores, accounting for 52% of the SX score. Sex, age, academic degrees, and ethnicity were not significant copredictors. Conclusion Our results support the assertion that FQs can improve written SX performance, but students producing quiz questions didn't further increase SX scores. We concluded that nonthreatening FQs may be used to enhance student learning and suggest that they also may serve to identify students who, without additional remediation, will perform poorly on subsequent summative written exams. PMID:25517737

  10. Strategic Petroleum Reserve quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-08-15

    This August 15, 1991, Strategic Petroleum Reserve Quarterly Report describes activities related to the site development, oil acquisition, budget and cost of the Reserve during the period April 1, 1991, through June 30, 1991. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve storage facilities development program is proceeding on schedule. The Reserve's capacity is currently 726 million barrels. A total of 5.5 million barrels of new gross cavern volume was developed at Big Hill and Bayou Choctaw during the quarter. There were no crude oil deliveries to the Strategic Petroleum Reserve during the calendar quarter ending June 30, 1991. Acquisition of crude oil for the Reserve has been suspended since August 2, 1990, following the invasion of Kuwait by Iraq. As of June 30, 1991, the Strategic Petroleum Reserve inventory was 568.5 million barrels. The reorganization of the Office of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve became effective June 28, 1991. Under the new organization, the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Project Management Office in Louisiana will report to the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Program Office in Washington rather than the Oak Ridge Field Office in Tennessee. 2 tabs.

  11. Emergency medicine residents’ attitudes and opinions of in-training exam preparation

    PubMed Central

    Eastin, Travis R; Bernard, Aaron W

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Emergency Medicine (EM) residents take the American Board of Emergency Medicine (ABEM) in-training exam, and performance on this exam has been shown to correlate to performance on the ABEM qualifying exam. Though many residencies have in-training exam preparation activities, there is little data on the effectiveness of these efforts. This study aimed to elicit resident perspectives about the exam and exam preparation in order to generate hypotheses and better inform future preparation efforts. Methods Second- and third-year EM residents at a single institution were interviewed using a semi-structured format. Qualitative methodology was used to analyze the data. Results Thirteen EM residents participated in the study. Eight major themes and 18 sub-themes were identified. These were further characterized as relating to the exam itself or to exam preparation. Residents generally value the in-training exam. Sixty-nine percent noted that it provided an assessment of their current knowledge and deficiencies. Thirty-eight percent noted that it improved familiarity with the qualifying exam. Regarding exam preparation, residents stated that a question format was preferred, especially when accompanying explanations were of high quality. Additionally, practical considerations, such as portability, impacted resident selection of study tools. Conclusion Residents value the in-training exam as a marker of their academic progress and for their ability to gain familiarity with the qualifying exam. They prefer question-based preparation over text-based learning, as long as there is a detailed explanation of each answer. Educators creating structured in-training review may want to focus on question-based material with detailed explanations. PMID:24062620

  12. Investigation into the need for ingesting foreign imaging exams into local systems and evaluation of the design challenges of Foreign Exam Management (FEM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milovanovic, Lazar; Agrawal, Arun; Bak, Peter; Bender, Duane; Koff, David

    2015-03-01

    The deployment of regional and national Electronic Health Record solutions has been a focus of many countries throughout the past decade. Most of these deployments have taken the approach of "sharing" imaging exams via portals and web-based viewers. The motivation of portal/web-based access is driven by a) the perception that review of imaging exams via portal methods is satisfactory to all users and b) the perceived complexity of ingesting foreign exams into local systems. This research project set out to objectively evaluate who really needs foreign exams within their local systems, what those systems might be and how often this is required. Working on the belief that Foreign Exam Management (FEM) is required to support clinical workflow, the project implemented a FEM capability within an XDSI. b domain to identify the design challenges and nuances associated with FEM.

  13. Coronary fractional flow reserve.

    PubMed

    Shantouf, Ronney S; Mehra, Anil

    2015-03-01

    OBJECTIVE. This article presents the basic definitions and concepts of fractional flow reserve (FFR), a focused understanding of the need for hyperemia during assessment, key clinical studies supporting its use, and an introduction to newer noninvasive methods using FFR CT. CONCLUSION. Although it is still a new procedure, FFR CT may prove to be of tremendous use as the computational processing improves to reduce calculation times and enhance accuracy. PMID:25714310

  14. 7 CFR 3560.306 - Reserve account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reserve account. 3560.306 Section 3560... Financial Management § 3560.306 Reserve account. (a) Purpose. To meet...borrowers must establish and maintain a reserve account. (b) Financial...

  15. 24 CFR 891.605 - Replacement reserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Replacement reserve. 891.605 Section 891.605 Housing...Handicapped-Section 8 Assistance § 891.605 Replacement reserve. (a) Establishment of reserve. The Borrower shall establish and...

  16. 24 CFR 891.405 - Replacement reserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Replacement reserve. 891.405 Section 891.405 Housing...Project Management § 891.405 Replacement reserve. (a) Establishment of reserve. The Owner shall establish and maintain...

  17. 24 CFR 904.112 - Operating reserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Operating reserve. 904.112 Section 904.112 Housing and...III Program Description § 904.112 Operating reserve. (a) Purpose of reserve. To the extent that total operating...

  18. 7 CFR 993.56 - Reserve obligation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reserve obligation. 993.56 Section 993.56 Agriculture...PRODUCED IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Reserve Control § 993.56 Reserve obligation. Whenever salable and...

  19. 7 CFR 3560.306 - Reserve account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Reserve account. 3560.306 Section 3560... Financial Management § 3560.306 Reserve account. (a) Purpose. To meet...borrowers must establish and maintain a reserve account. (b) Financial...

  20. 24 CFR 891.605 - Replacement reserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Replacement reserve. 891.605 Section 891.605 Housing...Handicapped-Section 8 Assistance § 891.605 Replacement reserve. (a) Establishment of reserve. The Borrower shall establish and...

  1. 24 CFR 880.602 - Replacement reserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Replacement reserve. 880.602 Section 880.602 Housing and...CONSTRUCTION Management § 880.602 Replacement reserve. (a) A replacement reserve must be established and maintained in an...

  2. 75 FR 4349 - National Estuarine Reserve System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-27

    ...Atmospheric Administration National Estuarine Reserve System AGENCY: Estuarine Reserves Division, Office of Ocean and Coastal Resource...solicitation period for the National Estuarine research Reserve Land Acquisition and Construction Program...

  3. 24 CFR 880.602 - Replacement reserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Replacement reserve. 880.602 Section 880.602 Housing and...CONSTRUCTION Management § 880.602 Replacement reserve. (a) A replacement reserve must be established and maintained in an...

  4. 7 CFR 993.56 - Reserve obligation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Reserve obligation. 993.56 Section 993.56 Agriculture...PRODUCED IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Reserve Control § 993.56 Reserve obligation. Whenever salable and...

  5. 24 CFR 904.112 - Operating reserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Operating reserve. 904.112 Section 904.112 Housing and...III Program Description § 904.112 Operating reserve. (a) Purpose of reserve. To the extent that total operating...

  6. Small fields output factors measurements and correction factors determination for several detectors for a CyberKnife{sup Registered-Sign} and linear accelerators equipped with microMLC and circular cones

    SciTech Connect

    Bassinet, C.; Huet, C.; Derreumaux, S.; Baumann, M.; Trompier, F.; Roch, P.; Clairand, I.; Brunet, G.; Gaudaire-Josset, S.; Chea, M.; Boisserie, G.

    2013-07-15

    Purpose: The use of small photon fields is now an established practice in stereotactic radiosurgery and radiotherapy. However, due to a lack of lateral electron equilibrium and high dose gradients, it is difficult to accurately measure the dosimetric quantities required for the commissioning of such systems. Moreover, there is still no metrological dosimetric reference for this kind of beam today. In this context, the first objective of this work was to determine and to compare small fields output factors (OF) measured with different types of active detectors and passive dosimeters for three types of facilities: a CyberKnife{sup Registered-Sign} system, a dedicated medical linear accelerator (Novalis) equipped with m3 microMLC and circular cones, and an adaptive medical linear accelerator (Clinac 2100) equipped with an additional m3 microMLC. The second one was to determine the k{sub Q{sub c{sub l{sub i{sub n,Q{sub m{sub s{sub r}{sup f{sub c}{sub l}{sub i}{sub n},f{sub m}{sub s}{sub r}}}}}}}}} correction factors introduced in a recently proposed small field dosimetry formalism for different active detectors.Methods: Small field sizes were defined either by microMLC down to 6 Multiplication-Sign 6 mm{sup 2} or by circular cones down to 4 mm in diameter. OF measurements were performed with several commercially available active detectors dedicated to measurements in small fields (high resolution diodes: IBA SFD, Sun Nuclear EDGE, PTW 60016, PTW 60017; ionizing chambers: PTW 31014 PinPoint chamber, PTW 31018 microLion liquid chamber, and PTW 60003 natural diamond). Two types of passive dosimeters were used: LiF microcubes and EBT2 radiochromic films.Results: Significant differences between the results obtained by several dosimetric systems were observed, particularly for the smallest field size for which the difference in the measured OF reaches more than 20%. For passive dosimeters, an excellent agreement was observed (better than 2%) between EBT2 and LiF microcubes for all OF measurements. Moreover, it has been shown that these passive dosimeters do not require correction factors and can then be used as reference dosimeters. Correction factors for the active detectors have then been determined from the mean experimental OF measured by the passive dosimeters.Conclusions: Four sets of correction factors needed to apply the new small field dosimetry formalism are provided for several active detectors. A protocol for small photon beams OF determination based on passive dosimeters measurements has been recently proposed to French radiotherapy treatment centers.

  7. Want to Reduce Guessing and Cheating While Making Students Happier? Give More Exams!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laverty, James T.; Bauer, Wolfgang; Kortemeyer, Gerd; Westfall, Gary

    2012-12-01

    It is almost universally agreed that more frequent formative assessment (homework, clicker questions, practice tests, etc.) leads to better student performance and generally better course evaluations. There is, however, only anecdotal evidence that the same would be true for more frequent summative assessment (exams). There maybe many arguments against giving more exams, including the general "pain" associated with examinations, as well as reduced teaching time, since classroom sessions are dedicated to exams rather than lecturing. We present evidence that increasing the number of exams in fact does lead to better learning success, less cheating and guessing on homework, and better student course evaluations.

  8. Operating Reserves and Variable Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Ela, E.; Milligan, M.; Kirby, B.

    2011-08-01

    This report tries to first generalize the requirements of the power system as it relates to the needs of operating reserves. It also includes a survey of operating reserves and how they are managed internationally in system operations today and then how new studies and research are proposing they may be managed in the future with higher penetrations of variable generation.

  9. Oak Ridge Reservation Annual Site

    E-print Network

    Pennycook, Steve

    Logistical Services Design Creative Media Communications Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge Reservation Complex Oak Ridge National Laboratory East Tennessee Technology Park Electronic publisher Editors GraphicOak Ridge Reservation Annual Site Environmental Report DOE/ORO/2445 2012 #12;Cover Image Jeff Riggs

  10. Youth Problems on Indian Reservations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Underhill, Ruth M., Ed.

    Juvenile delinquency was identified as the major problem affecting youth on Indian reservations. Causes for delinquency which were discussed included culture conflict, expectation of failure, unemployment, failure of homes and parents, discrimination, inadequate education, off-reservation schools, and alcoholism. Needs identified by tribal leaders…

  11. 77 FR 40253 - Reserve Account

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-09

    ...Through this action, the Rural Housing Service (RHS) is amending its regulation to change the Reserve Account for new construction for the Sections 514/516 Farm Labor Housing (FLH) program and the Section 515 Rural Rental Housing (RRH) program. This action will not affect reserve accounts for existing...

  12. SU-E-T-545: A MLC-Equipped Robotic Radiosurgery-Radiotherapy Combined System in Treating Hepatic Lesions: Delivery Efficiency as Compared to a Standard Linac for Treating Hepatic Lesions

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, L; Price, R; Wang, L; Meyer, J; Ma, C; Fan, J

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The CyberKnife (CK) M6 Series introduced a mulitleaf collimator (MLC) beam for extending its capability to the conventional radiotherapy. This work is to investigate delivery efficiency of this system as compared to a standard Varian linac when treating hepatic lesions. Methods: Nine previously treated patients were divided into three groups with three patients in each. Group one: fractionated radiotherapy; Group two: SBRT-like treatments and Group three: fractionated radiotherapy targeting two PTVs. The clinically used plans were generated with the Eclipse treatment planning system (TPS). We re-planned these cases using a Mulitplan (MP) TPS for the CK M6 and normalized to the same PTV dose coverage. CK factors (CF) (defined as modulation scaling factor in this work), number of nodes (NN), number of MLC segments (NS) and beam delivery time (BT) with an estimated image interval of 60 seconds, were used for evaluation of delivery efficiency. Results: Generated plans from the MP and Eclipse TPS demonstrated the similar quality in terms of PTV confomality index, minimum and maximum PTV doses, and doses received by critical structures. Group one: CF ranged from 8.1 to 8.7, NN from 30 to 40, NS from 120 to 155 and BT from 20 to 23 minutes; group two: CF from 4.7 to 8.5, NN from 15 to 19, NS from 82 to 141 and BT from 18 to 24 minutes; and group three: CF from 7.9 to 10, NN from 47 to 49, NS from 110 to 113 and BT from 20 to 22 minutes. Conclusions: Delivery time is longer for the CK M6 than for the Varian linac (7.8 to 13.7 minutes). Further investigation will be necessary to determine if a PTV reduction from the tracking feature will shorten the delivery time without decreasing plan quality.

  13. Academic integrity, homework and exam policy, Special Relativity and Waves (171.201/171.207), Fall 2015 --N.L.Zakamska

    E-print Network

    Weaver, Harold A. "Hal"

    Academic integrity, homework and exam policy, Special Relativity and Waves (171.201/171.207), Fall. · Collaboration is not allowed during exams and for Special Relativity Competition. · Exams are open book. · One

  14. Advanced Ultrasonic Diagnosis of Extremity Trauma: The Faster Exam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dulchavsky, S. A.; Henry, S. E.; Moed, B. R.; Diebel, L. N.; Marshburn, T.; Hamilton, D. R.; Logan, J.; Kirkpatrick, A. W.; Williams, D. R.

    2002-01-01

    Ultrasound is of prO)len accuracy in abdominal and thoracic trauma and may be useful to diagnose extremity injury in situations where radiography is not available such as military and space applications. We prospectively evaluated the utility of extremity , ultrasound performed by trained, non-physician personnel in patients with extremity trauma, to simulate remote aerospace or military applications . Methods: Patients with extremity trauma were identified by history, physical examination, and radiographic studies. Ultrasound examination was performed bilaterally by nonphysician personnel with a portable ultrasound device using a 10-5 MHz linear probe, Images were video-recorded for later analysis against radiography by Fisher's exact test. The average time of examination was 4 minutes. Ultrasound accurately diagnosed extremity, injury in 94% of patients with no false positive exams; accuracy was greater in mid-shaft locations and least in the metacarpa/metatarsals. Soft tissue/tendon injury was readily visualized . Extremity ultrasound can be performed quickly and accurately by nonphysician personnel with excellent accuracy. Blinded verification of the utility of ultrasound in patients with extremity injury should be done to determine if Extremity and Respiratory evaluation should be added to the FAST examination (the FASTER exam) and verify the technique in remote locations such as military and aerospace applications.

  15. Dr. Campbell's Bio111 Exam #2 KEY Spring 2007 Spring 2007 Biology 111 In-Class Exam #2 KEY Classical Genetics

    E-print Network

    Campbell, A. Malcolm

    ­ Classical Genetics The in-class portion of this exam is designed so that you can complete it in 20 minutes and the male has a brown tail. All their babies are white with brown tails and brown noses. All

  16. Providing the Answers Does Not Improve Performance on a College Final Exam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, Arnold Lewis; Sinha, Neha

    2013-01-01

    In the context of an upper-level psychology course, even when students were given an opportunity to refer to text containing the answers and change their exam responses in order to improve their exam scores, their performance on these questions improved slightly or not at all. Four experiments evaluated competing explanations for the students'…

  17. Training Metacognition in the Classroom: The Influence of Incentives and Feedback on Exam Predictions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Tyler M.; Geraci, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    In two semester-long studies, we examined whether college students could improve their ability to accurately predict their own exam performance across multiple exams. We tested whether providing concrete feedback and incentives (i.e., extra credit) for accuracy would improve predictions by improving students' metacognition, or awareness of their…

  18. Knowledge Assessment of Food Safety Managers in Utah and Its Implications on the Exam and Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nummer, Brian A.; Guy, Stanley M.; Bentley, Joanne P. H.

    2010-01-01

    Food Safety Manager's Certification is offered through a state-local Extension partnership in Utah using an online course management system. Exams and course materials were created by an Extension Specialist at Utah State Univ. Extension Agents provide exam and curriculum facilitation in each county. This form of distance education enables access…

  19. Scholars Probe Diverse Effects of Exit Exams: State Graduation Tests Found to Hit Certain Groups Harder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viadero, Debra

    2009-01-01

    A study released last week suggesting that California's high school exit exams are affecting some student demographic groups more than others is the latest in a small spate of studies pointing to trade-offs from policies that require high school students to pass state tests to graduate. Twenty-six states have exit exams in place or will by 2012,…

  20. Validating the Use of AP® Exam Scores for College Course Placement. Research Report 2013-2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Brian F.; Ewing, Maureen

    2013-01-01

    The Advanced Placement Program® (AP®) was created to provide access to rigorous, college-level curricula to motivated and prepared high school students. This study evaluated whether the AP Exam scores from the summative exams associated with 10 courses were valid for the placement of students into higher-level college courses in the subject area…

  1. The Impact of Assessment Policy on Learning: Replacement Exams or Grade Dropping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDermott, Raymond J.

    2013-01-01

    Instructors often debate the merits of alternate grading policies such as dropping the lowest exam or offering an additional exam to replace the lowest score. To date, there has been little research conducted on the impact of these policies on performance. In this study, the author investigates student performance in intermediate macroeconomics…

  2. Personal Final Exam Schedule ISIS Web Delivery Access Instructions for Students

    E-print Network

    Personal Final Exam Schedule ISIS Web Delivery Access Instructions for Students 1.) Go to ISIS (Iowa Student Information System) at http://isis.uiowa.edu 2.) Login using your HawkID and password 3 May). - Individual final exam schedules for students are accessible online through the ISIS using

  3. Including an Exam P/1 Prep Course in a Growing Actuarial Science Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wakefield, Thomas P.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the actuarial science program at our university and the development of a course to enhance students' problem solving skills while preparing them for Exam P/1 of the Society of Actuaries (SOA) and the Casualty Actuary Society (CAS). The Exam P/1 prep course, formally titled Mathematical Foundations of…

  4. MCS 261, May 3, 2002 Name: There are nine (9) problems on this exam.

    E-print Network

    Baldwin, John T.

    is worth 20 points. Write your solutions in your exam book. Turn in this sheet along with your solutions draw your spanning tree on this sheet. In your exam book, state which algorithm you use and the order . Use the definition of Big Oh (not a theorem, property, or limit) to prove that f = O(g) but g = O

  5. AK State Profile. Alaska: Alaska High School Graduation Qualifying Exam (HSGOE)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides information about Alaska High School Graduation Qualifying Exam (HSGQE), a comprehensive standards-based exam. Its purpose is to meet a state mandate. A bill to remove the HSGQE as a graduation requirement by July 1, 2011 was presented to the state legislature as SB 109. However, it did not pass both houses of the legislature.…

  6. Introduction to Cryptography 89-656 Final Exam, Moed Aleph 2009

    E-print Network

    Lindell, Yehuda

    Introduction to Cryptography 89-656 Final Exam, Moed Aleph 2009 Exam instructions: 1. Open book. Prove that there exist public-key encryption schemes that are CPA-secure but are not secure under your definition. (In order to do this, you must present a scheme and prove that (a) it is CPA secure, and (b

  7. Improving Consistency in Large Laboratory Courses: A Design for a Standardized Practical Exam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Xinnian; Graesser, Donnasue; Sah, Megha

    2015-01-01

    Laboratory courses serve as important gateways to science, technology, engineering, and mathematics education. One of the challenges in assessing laboratory learning is to conduct meaningful and standardized practical exams, especially for large multisection laboratory courses. Laboratory practical exams in life sciences courses are frequently…

  8. The Road to Redemption: Reclaiming the Value in Assessment Retention Exams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stohlman, Trey

    2015-01-01

    A good assessment plan combines many direct and indirect measures to validate the collected data. One often controversial assessment measure comes in the form of retention exams. Although assessment retention exams may come with faults, others advocate for their inclusion in program assessment. Objective-based tests may offer insight to…

  9. Does Missing Classes Decelerate Student Exam Performance Progress? Empirical Evidence and Policy Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Tin-Chun

    2014-01-01

    A total of 389 business students in undergraduate introductory microeconomics classes in spring 2007, 2009, and 2011, and fall 2012 participated in an exam performance progress study. Empirical evidence suggested that missing classes decelerates and hampers high-performing students' exam performance progress. Nevertheless, the evidence does…

  10. Does Failing a Placement Exam Discourage Underprepared Students from Going to College?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martorell, Paco; McFarlin, Isaac, Jr.; Xue, Yu

    2015-01-01

    About one third of college students are required to take remedial courses. Assignment to remediation is generally made on the basis of performance on a placement exam. When students are required to take a placement exam "prior" to enrolling in college-level courses, assignment to remediation may dissuade students from actually going to…

  11. A Study of the Relationship between Student Final Exam Performance and Simulation Game Participation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whiteley, T. R.; Faria, A. J.

    1989-01-01

    Describes study that investigated the relationship between participation in a business simulation game and performance on a final exam in a principles of marketing course. Past research on business games is reviewed; the use of midterm exam performance level as a pretest variable is explained; and question classification is described. (44…

  12. Multiple-Choice Exam Question Order Influences on Student Performance, Completion Time, and Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettijohn, Terry F., II; Sacco, Matthew F.

    2007-01-01

    We conducted 2 studies to investigate undergraduate performance, perceptions, and time required in completing sequentially ordered, randomly ordered, or reverse ordered exams in introductory psychology classes. Study 1 compared the outcomes and perceptions of students (N = 66) on 3 non-comprehensive multiple-choice exams which were sequentially,…

  13. Effects of Online Testing on Student Exam Performance and Test Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stowell, Jeffrey R.; Bennett, Dan

    2010-01-01

    Increased use of course management software to administer course exams online for face-to-face classes raises the question of how well test anxiety and other emotions generalize from the classroom to an online setting. We hypothesized that administering regular course exams in an online format would reduce test anxiety experienced at the time of…

  14. CHEN 3AA0 Chemical Engineering Progress Assessment II (Concepts Inventory Exam)

    E-print Network

    Ashurst, W. Robert

    CHEN 3AA0 Chemical Engineering Progress Assessment II (Concepts Inventory Exam) Instructions in chemical engineering principles and concepts. Furthermore, information from this exam process will allow engineering concepts. Administration: The CIE is offered in CHEN 3AA0 and is part of the passing criteria

  15. Developing an Online Placement Exam for Spanish Heritage Speakers and L2 Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potowski, Kim; Parada, MaryAnn; Morgan-Short, Kara

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on the development and piloting of an adaptive, online placement exam that will be administered to L2 and heritage learners of Spanish at the University of Illinois at Chicago. Particular attention is given to the structure of the exam and the linguistic strategies employed to distinguish heritage speakers from L2 learners.…

  16. Democracy in the Israeli Education System: The Case of the English Matriculation Exam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaher, Rana

    2012-01-01

    This research investigates the extent to which indices of social justice and democratic rights are expressed in Israel in the crucial national English matriculation exam, as perceived by Palestinian Arab high school pupils studying for these exams and their English teachers. The research employed Critical Theory as a paradigm, case study as a…

  17. Two-Stage Exams Improve Student Learning in an Introductory Geology Course: Logistics, Attendance, and Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knierim, Katherine; Turner, Henry; Davis, Ralph K.

    2015-01-01

    Two-stage exams--where students complete part one of an exam closed book and independently and part two is completed open book and independently (two-stage independent, or TS-I) or collaboratively (two-stage collaborative, or TS-C)--provide a means to include collaborative learning in summative assessments. Collaborative learning has been shown to…

  18. A Multi-Year Analysis of Asian Gender Differences on Advanced Placement Exams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, George; Slate, John R.

    2011-01-01

    The performance of Asian boys and girls on Advanced Placement (AP) exam overall scores across the United States for the past 14 years was analyzed. For each of the 14 years of data analyzed, Asian boys had statistically significant higher percentages of overall AP exam scores of 5 than did Asian girls. In addition, the gap between the mean…

  19. DIFFERENTIAL AND INTEGRAL GEOMETRY (1 rst PART) PROBLEMS FOR THE EXAM

    E-print Network

    Yakovenko, Sergei

    DIFFERENTIAL AND INTEGRAL GEOMETRY (1 rst PART) PROBLEMS FOR THE EXAM The assignment is given . The Christoffel symbols are defined as r ek e j = P n i=1 \\Gamma i jk e i , where fe i g are the coordinate fields PROBLEMS FOR THE EXAM Problem 4. Let ! 2 \\Lambda 1 (R 3 ) be a form. Consider the distribution of 2­planes

  20. High School Exit Exam: Remediation for Another High-Stakes Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Misco, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Now administered in 27 states and affecting 65 percent of all students, high school exit exams are gaining influence on teaching and learning because they constitute tests with extraordinarily high stakes. But what happens when students fail a high school exit exam? Few studies address the best way to remediate students in these situations.…

  1. The Effect of Tutoring on Math Scores for the Praxis I Exam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longwell-Grice, Robert; McIlheran, Janine; Schroeder, Mark; Scheele, Steve

    2013-01-01

    The Praxis test is one of a series of national teacher certification exams written and administered by the Education Testing Service (ETS) since 1947. Currently, forty states now require some form of the Praxis Series (Educational Testing Service, 2011). Using pre- and post-tests similar to the Praxis I math exam, this study examined the affect…

  2. Ethnic and Gender Differences in Advanced Placement Exam Performance: A Multiyear National Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Maria Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to analyze ethnic and gender differences in Advanced Placement (AP) exam performance of U.S. high school students. Specifically, the extent to which differences exist in overall AP exam performance scores within and between four ethnic groups (i.e., Asian, Black, Hispanic, and White) was investigated. Within…

  3. What Does a Student Know Who Earns a Top Score on the Advanced Placement Chemistry Exam?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claesgens, Jennifer; Daubenmire, Paul L.; Scalise, Kathleen M.; Balicki, Scott; Gochyyev, Perman; Stacy, Angelica M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper compares the performance of students at a high-performing U.S. public school (n = 64) on the advanced placement (AP) chemistry exam to their performance on the ChemQuery assessment system. The AP chemistry exam was chosen because, as the National Research Council acknowledges, it is the "perceived standard of excellence and school…

  4. The ACS Exams Institute Undergraduate Chemistry Anchoring Concepts Content Map I: General Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holme, Thomas; Murphy, Kristen

    2012-01-01

    To provide tools for programmatic assessment related to the use of ACS Exams in undergraduate chemistry courses, the ACS Exams Institute has built a content map that applies to the entire undergraduate curriculum. At the top two levels, the grain size of the content classification is large and spans the entire undergraduate curriculum. At the…

  5. Vocabulary Development and Performance on Multiple-Choice Exams in Large Entry-level Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Haley; Williams, Robert L.

    2007-01-01

    Scores on a vocabulary test given at the beginning of two semesters in a large entry-level course predicted performance on multiple-choice exams more strongly than pre-course knowledge and critical thinking. Words on the vocabulary instrument were derived from multiple-choice exam items in the course. Although commonly used in the course, these…

  6. Re-Examining Exit Exams: New Findings from the Education Longitudinal Study of 2002

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shuster, Kate

    2012-01-01

    Using the nationally representative, cohort-based data of the Education Longitudinal Study of 2002 (ELS:02), this study employs multiple regression to examine the effects of exit exams on student achievement and school completion. This study finds that exit exams as a whole do not have substantial effects on student achievement in mathematics,…

  7. Verbal Final Exam in Introductory Biology Yields Gains in Student Content Knowledge and Longitudinal Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luckie, Douglas B.; Rivkin, Aaron M.; Aubry, Jacob R.; Marengo, Benjamin J.; Creech, Leah R.; Sweeder, Ryan D.

    2013-01-01

    We studied gains in student learning over eight semesters in which an introductory biology course curriculum was changed to include optional verbal final exams (VFs). Students could opt to demonstrate their mastery of course material via structured oral exams with the professor. In a quantitative assessment of cell biology content knowledge,…

  8. High School Exit Exams and Dropout in an Era of Increased Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemelt, Steven W.; Marcotte, Dave E.

    2013-01-01

    A key form of student-level accountability is the requirement for students to pass high school exit exams (HSEEs) in order to receive a diploma. In this paper, we examine the impact of HSEEs on dropout during a period when these exams became more common and rigorous. Further, we study whether offering alternate pathways to graduation for students…

  9. Sample Problems for Exam 3 Course : Introduction to Probability and Statistics, Math 113 Section 3234

    E-print Network

    Champanerkar, Abhijit

    Sample Problems for Exam 3 Course : Introduction to Probability and Statistics, Math 113 Section 26th. · Best way to prepare for the midterm is to solve the Sample problems and MyStatLab problems. 1 to pass the exam ? 4. Normal distribution (Draw pictures to solve the problems) (a) In a standard normal

  10. Exam 1. Name (please print) ---~r_E__Y_______ Math 382 Fall 2015. September 18, 2015

    E-print Network

    Borchers, Brian

    Exam 1. Name (please print) ---~r_E__Y_______ Math 382 Fall 2015. September 18, 2015 Show work;Exam 1. Name (please print) ----'-k_E'__y_______ Math 382 Fall 2015. September 18, 2015 Show work_ 1- !? 26 {r) ~ 7-S- ±. 9 (b) A magazine rack contains 5 magazines in English and 3 magazines

  11. MA 111 Review for Exam 2 Exam 2 will be given in class on Monday, October 3. I will provide a formula sheet. You

    E-print Network

    Lee, Carl

    MA 111 Review for Exam 2 Exam 2 will be given in class on Monday, October 3. I will provide.95, and the sales tax is 6%, what amount do you owe? 7. In 2000, tuition at UK was $6550. In 2001, tuition increased by 7%. How much was tuition at UK in 2001? 8. A computer that usually sells for $830 is on sale for 15

  12. Natural Reserve System UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA

    E-print Network

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    Natural Reserve System UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA The UC Natural Reserve System provides a library more than 756,000 acres across the state. The NRS is the world's largest university- operated system Reserve Natural Reserve System university of california 1111 Franklin St., 6th Floor Oakland, CA 94607

  13. Online Course Reserves and Graduate Student Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isenberg, Laurie

    2006-01-01

    This study assesses student satisfaction with online course reserves in a graduate environment. Surveys indicated that students prefer online course reserves over in-library print course reserves. Pre-printed course readers are preferred when the purchase price of the reader is less than the cost of printing online reserves. Graduate students are…

  14. Veterinary Science Students, Center Changing a Reservation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackwater, Jasmine

    2011-01-01

    Kayenta is a rural community located in northeastern Arizona on a Navajo reservation. On the reservation, many families rely on their livestock for income, and as a result, many reservation high school students show a great interest in agricultural education. Having livestock on the reservation is not just a source of income, but also part of a…

  15. Experience using radio frequency laptops to access the electronic medical record in exam rooms.

    PubMed Central

    Dworkin, L. A.; Krall, M.; Chin, H.; Robertson, N.; Harris, J.; Hughes, J.

    1999-01-01

    Kaiser Permanente, Northwest, evaluated the use of laptop computers to access our existing comprehensive Electronic Medical Record in exam rooms via a wireless radiofrequency (RF) network. Eleven of 22 clinicians who were offered the laptops successfully adopted their use in the exam room. These clinicians were able to increase their exam room time with the patient by almost 4 minutes (25%), apparently without lengthening their overall work day. Patient response to exam room computing was overwhelmingly positive. The RF network response time was similar to the hardwired network. Problems cited by some laptop users and many of the eleven non-adopters included battery issues, different equipment layout and function, and inadequate training. IT support needs for the RF laptops were two to four times greater than for hardwired desktops. Addressing the reliability and training issues should increase clinician acceptance, making a successful general roll-out for exam room computing more likely. PMID:10566458

  16. 77 FR 21846 - Reserve Requirements of Depository Institutions: Reserves Simplification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-12

    ...creates a penalty-free band around reserve balance requirements in place of carryover and...and eliminates the contractual clearing balance program. The amendments are designed...Regulation D currently, transaction account balances maintained at each depository...

  17. Will I Do as Well on the Final Exam as I Expect? An Examination of Students' Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, David J.

    2008-01-01

    Immediately prior to an exam, it is common to hear students commenting on whether they anticipate doing as well on the exam as they expect (or, in other words, whether they anticipate performing as well on the exam as the standard at which they believe they should be performing). These anticipations have received little past research attention. In…

  18. The Elite Illusion: Achievement Effects at Boston and New York Exam Schools. NBER Working Paper No. 17264

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdulkadiroglu, Atila; Angrist, Joshua D.; Pathak, Parag A.

    2011-01-01

    Talented students compete fiercely for seats at Boston and New York exam schools. These schools are characterized by high levels of peer achievement and a demanding curriculum tailored to each district's highest achievers. While exam school students clearly do very well in school, the question of whether an exam school education adds value…

  19. Predictors of Academic Success for the National Board Dental Hygiene Examination and the Southern Regional Testing Agency Clinical Exam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Efurd, Melissa G.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose for conducting this study was to investigate and describe the relationship between applicant criteria for a dental hygiene program and subsequent outcomes on credentialing exams: the National Board Dental Hygiene Exam and the Southern Regional Testing Agency clinical exam. Because admission criteria play a crucial role in applicant…

  20. Electrochemical reserve battery

    SciTech Connect

    Koper, K.T.; Willard, S.L.; Abramowski, L.

    1987-09-22

    This patent describes an electrochemical reserve battery comprising in combination: a housing including a separating wall forming two sealed chambers; a stack of dry cells disposed in one of the chambers; an expandable container occupying a portion of the space within the other of the chambers; an electrolyte completely filling the unoccupied space at a pressure sufficient to collapse the container; a source of high pressure gas within the container; frangible means operatively connected between the source and the container for releasing the gas into the container at a preselected expansion thereof; and actuating means operatively connected to the separating wall for selectively establishing communication between the chambers for permitting the electrolyte to transfer to the cells.

  1. Strategic Petroleum Reserve quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-15

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve was created pursuant to the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of December 22, 1975 (Public Law 94-163). Its purposes are to reduce the impact of disruptions in supplies of petroleum products and to carry out obligations of the United States under the Agreement on an International Energy Program. Section 165(a) of the Act requires the submission of Annual Reports and Section 165(b)(1) requires the submission of Quarterly Reports. This Quarterly Report highlights activities undertaken during the third quarter of calendar year 1995, including: inventory of petroleum products stored in the Reserve; current storage capacity and ullage available; current status of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve storage facilities, major projects and the acquisition of petroleum products; funds obligated by the Secretary from the SPR Petroleum Account and the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Account during the prior calendar quarter and in total; and major environmental actions completed, in progress, or anticipated.

  2. Estimation of resources and reserves

    E-print Network

    Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Energy Laboratory.

    1982-01-01

    This report analyzes the economics of resource and reserve estimation. Current concern about energy problems has focused attention on how we measure available energy resources. One reads that we have an eight-year oil ...

  3. Oil and gas reserves estimates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harrell, R.; Gajdica, R.; Elliot, D.; Ahlbrandt, T.S.; Khurana, S.

    2005-01-01

    This article is a summary of a panel session at the 2005 Offshore Technology Conference. Oil and gas reserves estimates are further complicated with the expanding importance of the worldwide deepwater arena. These deepwater reserves can be analyzed, interpreted, and conveyed in a consistent, reliable way to investors and other stakeholders. Continually improving technologies can lead to improved estimates of production and reserves, but the estimates are not necessarily recognized by regulatory authorities as an indicator of "reasonable certainty," a term used since 1964 to describe proved reserves in several venues. Solutions are being debated in the industry to arrive at a reporting mechanism that generates consistency and at the same time leads to useful parameters in assessing a company's value without compromising confidentiality. Copyright 2005 Offshore Technology Conference.

  4. Reserves, resilience and dynamic landscapes.

    PubMed

    Bengtsson, Janne; Angelstam, Per; Elmqvist, Thomas; Emanuelsson, Urban; Folke, Carl; Ihse, Margareta; Moberg, Fredrik; Nyström, Magnus

    2003-09-01

    In a world increasingly modified by human activities, the conservation of biodiversity is essential as insurance to maintain resilient ecosystems and ensure a sustainable flow of ecosystem goods and services to society. However, existing reserves and national parks are unlikely to incorporate the long-term and large-scale dynamics of ecosystems. Hence, conservation strategies have to actively incorporate the large areas of land that are managed for human use. For ecosystems to reorganize after large-scale natural and human-induced disturbances, spatial resilience in the form of ecological memory is a prerequisite. The ecological memory is composed of the species, interactions and structures that make ecosystem reorganization possible, and its components may be found within disturbed patches as well in the surrounding landscape. Present static reserves should be complemented with dynamic reserves, such as ecological fallows and dynamic successional reserves, that are part of ecosystem management mimicking natural disturbance regimes at the landscape level. PMID:14627367

  5. SISS Orientation Accommodation & Meal Reservation

    E-print Network

    Yoo, S. J. Ben

    status, age, sexual orientation, citizenship or status as covered veteran (special disabled veteranSISS Orientation Accommodation & Meal Reservation University of California, Davis September 15 for guests attending the SISS Orientation Program. Your accommodations include lodging, meals, and access

  6. Correlation Between Students' Dental Admission Test Scores and Performance on a Dental School's Competency Exam.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Alexander M; Schuster, Gregory M

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether there was a statistically significant positive correlation between dental students' Dental Admission Test (DAT) scores, particularly on the Perceptual Ability Test (PAT), and their performance on a dental school's competency exam. Scores from the written and clinical competency exam administered in the fall quarter of the fourth year of the curriculum at Midwestern University College of Dental Medicine-Arizona were compared to DAT scores of all 216 members of the graduating classes of 2012 and 2013. It was hypothesized that students who performed highly on one or more sections of the DAT would perform highly on the competency exam. Backward stepwise regression analyses were used to analyze the data. The results showed that the PAT scores were most strongly correlated with the competency exam scores and were a positive predictor for all three clinical sections of the exam (operative dentistry, periodontics, and endodontics). Positive predictors for the written portion of the exam were total DAT score for patient assessment and treatment planning and the DAT reading comprehension score for prosthodontics; there were no predictors for periodontics. The total variance explained by the results ranged from 4% to 15%. While statistically significant relationships were found between the students' PAT scores and clinical performance, DAT scores explained relatively little variance in the competency exam scores. According to these findings, neither the PAT nor any of the DAT components contributed to predicting these students' clinical performance. PMID:26522638

  7. Introducing Computer-Based Testing in High-Stakes Exams in Higher Education: Results of a Field Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Boevé, Anja J.; Meijer, Rob R.; Albers, Casper J.; Beetsma, Yta; Bosker, Roel J.

    2015-01-01

    The introduction of computer-based testing in high-stakes examining in higher education is developing rather slowly due to institutional barriers (the need of extra facilities, ensuring test security) and teacher and student acceptance. From the existing literature it is unclear whether computer-based exams will result in similar results as paper-based exams and whether student acceptance can change as a result of administering computer-based exams. In this study, we compared results from a computer-based and paper-based exam in a sample of psychology students and found no differences in total scores across the two modes. Furthermore, we investigated student acceptance and change in acceptance of computer-based examining. After taking the computer-based exam, fifty percent of the students preferred paper-and-pencil exams over computer-based exams and about a quarter preferred a computer-based exam. We conclude that computer-based exam total scores are similar as paper-based exam scores, but that for the acceptance of high-stakes computer-based exams it is important that students practice and get familiar with this new mode of test administration. PMID:26641632

  8. 12 CFR 204.7 - Supplemental reserve requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Supplemental reserve requirement. 204.7 Section 204.7 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM RESERVE REQUIREMENTS OF DEPOSITORY...

  9. 12 CFR 204.7 - Supplemental reserve requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Supplemental reserve requirement. 204.7 Section 204.7 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM RESERVE REQUIREMENTS OF DEPOSITORY...

  10. 12 CFR 204.5 - Maintenance of required reserves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maintenance of required reserves. 204.5 Section 204.5 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM RESERVE REQUIREMENTS OF DEPOSITORY...

  11. 12 CFR 204.6 - Charges for reserve deficiencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Charges for reserve deficiencies. 204.6 Section 204.6 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM RESERVE REQUIREMENTS OF DEPOSITORY...

  12. 12 CFR 204.9 - Emergency reserve requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Emergency reserve requirement. 204.9 Section 204.9 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM RESERVE REQUIREMENTS OF DEPOSITORY...

  13. 12 CFR 204.4 - Computation of required reserves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Computation of required reserves. 204.4 Section 204.4 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM RESERVE REQUIREMENTS OF DEPOSITORY...

  14. 12 CFR 204.4 - Computation of required reserves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Computation of required reserves. 204.4 Section 204.4 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM RESERVE REQUIREMENTS OF DEPOSITORY...

  15. 12 CFR 204.5 - Maintenance of required reserves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Maintenance of required reserves. 204.5 Section 204.5 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM RESERVE REQUIREMENTS OF DEPOSITORY...

  16. 7 CFR 993.156 - Application of reserve percentage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2011-01-01 false Application of reserve percentage. 993.156 Section 993.156...CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules and Regulations Reserve Control § 993.156 Application of reserve percentage. The reserve obligation...

  17. 12 CFR 204.6 - Charges for reserve deficiencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Charges for reserve deficiencies. 204.6 Section 204.6 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM RESERVE REQUIREMENTS OF DEPOSITORY...

  18. 7 CFR 993.156 - Application of reserve percentage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2010-01-01 false Application of reserve percentage. 993.156 Section 993.156...CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules and Regulations Reserve Control § 993.156 Application of reserve percentage. The reserve obligation...

  19. 12 CFR 204.9 - Emergency reserve requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Emergency reserve requirement. 204.9 Section 204.9 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM RESERVE REQUIREMENTS OF DEPOSITORY...

  20. Cognitive reserve and brain reserve in prodromal Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Bonner-Jackson, Aaron; Long, Jeffrey D; Westervelt, Holly; Tremont, Geoffrey; Aylward, Elizabeth; Paulsen, Jane S

    2013-08-01

    Huntington disease (HD) is associated with decline in cognition and progressive morphological changes in brain structures. Cognitive reserve may represent a mechanism by which disease-related decline may be delayed or slowed. The current study examined the relationship between cognitive reserve and longitudinal change in cognitive functioning and brain volumes among prodromal (gene expansion-positive) HD individuals. Participants were genetically confirmed individuals with prodromal HD enrolled in the PREDICT-HD study. Cognitive reserve was computed as the composite of performance on a lexical task estimating premorbid intellectual level, occupational status, and years of education. Linear mixed effects regression (LMER) was used to examine longitudinal changes on four cognitive measures and three brain volumes over approximately 6 years. Higher cognitive reserve was significantly associated with a slower rate of change on one cognitive measure (Trail Making Test, Part B) and slower rate of volume loss in two brain structures (caudate, putamen) for those estimated to be closest to motor disease onset. This relationship was not observed among those estimated to be further from motor disease onset. Our findings demonstrate a relationship between cognitive reserve and both a measure of executive functioning and integrity of certain brain structures in prodromal HD individuals. PMID:23702309

  1. ENROLMENT IN EXAMS FOR ERASMUS STUDENTS If you are attending a period at Sapienza University as part of a mobility program, you will receive a

    E-print Network

    Di Pillo, Gianni

    Page 1 ENROLMENT IN EXAMS FOR ERASMUS STUDENTS If you are attending a period at Sapienza University the following services: DATI UTENTE (student's personal data), PRENOTAZIONE ESAME (enrolment in exams. In the section PRENOTAZIONE ESAME, you can enrol in exams. In the section VISUALIZZA ESAMI, the exams you have

  2. Potential Danger in Pre-populating Exam Note Sheets with Formulas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCaskey, Timothy L.

    2015-09-01

    In previous work, I allowed students in my introductory physics course to write note sheets to prepare for exams, and I analyzed the contents as a way of determining what students saw as important in my course. In the present study, I tried a new note sheet approach where I supplied some equations for their notes in advance, thinking that doing so would focus students on other important conceptual aspects of the course. In all cases, I gave a brief survey to get student perspectives on their exam preparation. In addition, I introduced an online pre-exam forum asking students to respond to two short questions about how they might prepare their notes for the exam.

  3. Expedition 35/36 Final Exams - Duration: 4 minutes, 50 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    Three Expedition 35/36 crew members prepare for their final exams in their Sokol launch and entry suits at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center in Star City, Russia. NASA astronaut Chris Cassidy a...

  4. [A retrospective study analysis of urinary hippuric acid levels in occupational toxicology exams].

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Kelly Cristina; Sagebin, Fernando Rodrigues; Oliveira, Paola Garcia; Glock, Luiz; Thiesen, Flavia Valladão

    2010-06-01

    Hippuric acid is the primary metabolite of toluene, a solvent widely used in industrial processes with considerable toxic effects, a fact which justifies regularly monitoring individuals with occupational exposure to this solvent. This work aims at evaluating urinary hippuric acid levels found in workers subject to biological monitoring. A retrospective study was carried out with data referring from 2002 to 2005, in which exams results and employment status were analyzed (periodic, post-employment, and pre-employment exams). Results indicate a significant reduction in hippuric acid levels for 2005. Periodic exams presented higher results than pre-employment and post-employment exams. No significant difference was found in individuals grouped according to their status in each of the established intervals, their reference numbers, and maximum biological levels allowed. Hippuric acid levels detected indicate low risk of toluene exposure for the population under evaluation, probably due to a growing concern with the deployment of measures regarding occupational hygiene. PMID:20640325

  5. Some Comments on the Candidacy Exam Colleen Cassady St. Clair 14 Nov 2006

    E-print Network

    Creel, Scott

    . Those who enjoy studying for the exam tend to enjoy taking it and do well. Those who resent the distraction from thesis work, fear the stern judgment of committee members, and lack genuine confidence

  6. Testing the test: an examination of the Freshman English Equivalency Exam 

    E-print Network

    Ashe, Diana Lynne

    1994-01-01

    This study evaluates the validity, reliability, fairness, and effects of the Freshman English Equivalency Exam at Texas A&M University after one year of use. Consistency of scores across test administrations, raters, and social groups is examined...

  7. Gender Differences in Introductory Atmospheric and Oceanic Science Exams: Multiple Choice versus Constructed Response Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Andrew J.; Raptis, Helen

    2001-01-01

    Analyzes 295 male and 194 female examinations from introductory atmospheric and oceanic science courses to determine whether or not there exist gender differences in the performance on multiple choice versus constructed response sections of the exams. (Author/SAH)

  8. Expedition 32 Final Soyuz Qualification Exams - Duration: 4 minutes, 35 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    Expedition 32 Flight Engineers Suni Williams, Yuri Malenchenko and Aki Hoshide take their final Soyuz systems qualification exams at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center in Star City, Russia. The ...

  9. Extractive reserves in Brazilian Amazonia

    SciTech Connect

    Fearnside, P.M )

    1989-06-01

    In 1985 an opportunity arose for maintaining tracts of Amazonian forest under sustainable use. Brazil's National Council of Rubber Tappers and the Rural Worker's Union proposed the creation of a set of reserves of a new type, called extractive reserves. The first six are being established in one of the Brazilian states most threatened by deforestatation. The creation of extractive reserves grants legal protection to forest land traditionally used by rubber tappers, Brazil-nut gatherers, and other extractivists. The term extrativismo (extractivism) in Brazil refers to removing nontimber forest products, such as latex, resins, and nuts, without felling the trees. Approximately 30 products are collected for commercial sale. Many more types of forest materials are gathered, for example as food and medicines, for the extractivists' own use. The reserve proposal is attractive for several reasons related to social problems. It allows the rubber tappers to continue their livelihood rather than be expelled by deforestation. However, it is unlikely that sufficient land will be set aside as extractive reserves to employ all the tappers. Displaced rubber tappers already swell the ranks of urban slum dwellers in Brazil's Amazonian cities, and they have become refugees to continue their profession in the forests of neighboring countries, such as Bolivia.

  10. Sustainable growth and valuation of mineral reserves

    E-print Network

    Adelman, Morris Albert

    1994-01-01

    The annual change in the value of an in-ground mineral is equal to the increase or decrease of inventories ("reserves"), multiplied by the market value of a reserve unit. The limited shrinking resource base does not exist. ...

  11. 24 CFR 891.405 - Replacement reserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...HOUSING FOR PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES PROGRAM) SUPPORTIVE HOUSING FOR THE ELDERLY AND PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES Project Management § 891.405 Replacement reserve. (a) Establishment of reserve. The Owner shall establish and...

  12. Reserve Growth of Alberta Oil Pools

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Verma, Mahendra K.; Cook, Troy

    2008-01-01

    This Open-File Report is based on a presentation delivered at the Fourth U.S. Geological Survey Workshop on Reserve Growth on March 10-11, 2008. It summarizes the results of a study of reserve growth of oil pools in Alberta Province, Canada. The study is part of a larger effort involving similar studies of fields in other important petroleum provinces around the world, with the overall objective of gaining a better understanding of reserve growth in fields with different geologic/reservoir parameters and different operating environments. The goals of the study were to: 1. Evaluate historical oil reserve data and assess reserve growth. 2. Develop reserve growth models/functions to help forecast hydrocarbon volumes. 3. Study reserve growth sensitivity to various parameters ? for example, pool size, porosity, oil gravity, and lithology. 4. Compare reserve growth in oil pools/fields of Alberta provinces with those from other large petroleum provinces.

  13. 28 CFR 115.135 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...false [Reserved] 115.135 Section 115.135 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Lockups Training and Education § 115.135 [Reserved]...

  14. 28 CFR 115.135 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...false [Reserved] 115.135 Section 115.135 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Lockups Training and Education § 115.135 [Reserved]...

  15. 28 CFR 115.173 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...false [Reserved] 115.173 Section 115.173 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Lockups Investigations § 115.173 [Reserved]...

  16. 28 CFR 115.173 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...false [Reserved] 115.173 Section 115.173 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Lockups Investigations § 115.173 [Reserved]...

  17. 28 CFR 115.173 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...false [Reserved] 115.173 Section 115.173 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Lockups Investigations § 115.173 [Reserved]...

  18. 28 CFR 115.135 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...false [Reserved] 115.135 Section 115.135 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Lockups Training and Education § 115.135 [Reserved]...

  19. Cognitive Reserve: Implications for Assessment and Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Stern, Yaakov

    2014-01-01

    The concept of reserve is used to explain the observation that some individuals function better than others in the presence of brain pathology. This paper reviews the concept of reserve from its theoretical basis to the implication of reserve for clinical practice. A distinction between brain reserve, referring to individual differences in the anatomic substrate, and cognitive reserve, referring to differences in the flexibility or adaptivity of cognitive networks, is useful. Epidemiologic evidence indicates that a set of life exposures including higher educational and occupational attainment, and engaging in leisure activities is associated with a lower risk of incident dementia, suggesting that these life exposures may enhance cognitive reserve. This provides a basis for controlled clinical studies can test specific exposures that may enhance reserve. The concept of cognitive reserve also has important implications for clinical practice in terms of diagnosis and prognosis. PMID:23941972

  20. 40 CFR 35.2020 - Reserves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... availability of the annual allotment. (f) Nonpoint source reserve. Each State shall reserve 1 percent of its annual allotment or $100,000, whichever is greater, for development and implementation of a...

  1. 7 CFR 25.500 - Indian reservations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...false Indian reservations. 25.500 Section 25.500 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture RURAL EMPOWERMENT ZONES AND ENTERPRISE COMMUNITIES Special Rules § 25.500 Indian reservations. (a) An area in an Indian...

  2. 7 CFR 25.500 - Indian reservations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...false Indian reservations. 25.500 Section 25.500 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture RURAL EMPOWERMENT ZONES AND ENTERPRISE COMMUNITIES Special Rules § 25.500 Indian reservations. (a) An area in an Indian...

  3. The Impact of Genital Self-Image on Gynecological Exam Behaviors of College-Aged Women 

    E-print Network

    DeMaria, Andrea Laine

    2012-07-16

    -1 THE IMPACT OF GENITAL SELF-IMAGE ON GYNECOLOGICAL EXAM BEHAVIORS OF COLLEGE-AGED WOMEN A Dissertation by ANDREA LAINE DEMARIA Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY May 2011 Major Subject: Health Education The Impact of Genital Self-Image on Gynecological Exam Behaviors of College-Aged Women Copyright May 2011 Andrea Laine De...

  4. Name ____key_______________ This is an open-book, open notes exam.

    E-print Network

    Taber, Douglass

    Name ____key_______________ This is an open-book, open notes exam. 1. (20 points) The reactions shown would not proceed as indicated. Draw the actual products. You do not need to draw mechanisms. Exam 111.1, d 55.1, q 35.1, t 33.5, t 6.4, t NO2 Br Br HNO3 H2SO4 MgBr NO2 Br2 FeBr3 NO2 Br Fe HCl e

  5. Test Anxiety Levels of Board Exam Going Students in Tamil Nadu, India

    PubMed Central

    Ann Mary, Revina; Marslin, Gregory; Franklin, Gregory; Sheeba, Caroline J.

    2014-01-01

    The latest report by the National Crime Records Bureau has positioned Tamil Nadu as the Indian state with highest suicide rate. At least in part, this is happening due to exam pressure among adolescents, emphasizing the imperative need to understand the pattern of anxiety and various factors contributing to it among students. The present study was conducted to analyze the level of state anxiety among board exam attending school students in Tamil Nadu, India. A group of 100 students containing 50 boys and 50 girls from 10th and 12th grades participated in the study and their state anxiety before board exams was measured by Westside Test Anxiety Scale. We found that all board exam going students had increased level of anxiety, which was particularly higher among boys and 12th standard board exam going students. Analysis of various demographic variables showed that students from nuclear families presented higher anxiety levels compared to their desired competitive group. Overall, our results showing the prevalence of state anxiety among board exam going students in Tamil Nadu, India, support the recent attempt taken by Tamil Nadu government to improve student's academic performance in a healthier manner by appointing psychologists in all government schools. PMID:25143938

  6. Sleep Quality during Exam Stress: The Role of Alcohol, Caffeine and Nicotine

    PubMed Central

    Zunhammer, Matthias; Eichhammer, Peter; Busch, Volker

    2014-01-01

    Academic exam stress is known to compromise sleep quality and alter drug consumption in university students. Here we evaluated if sleeping problems and changes in legal drug consumption during exam stress are interrelated. We used the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) to survey sleep quality before, during, and after an academic exam period in 150 university students in a longitudinal questionnaire study. Self-reports of alcohol, caffeine, and nicotine consumption were obtained. The Perceived Stress Questionnaire (PSQ-20) was used as a measure of stress. Sleep quality and alcohol consumption significantly decreased, while perceived stress and caffeine consumption significantly increased during the exam period. No significant change in nicotine consumption was observed. In particular, students shortened their time in bed and showed symptoms of insomnia. Mixed model analysis indicated that sex, age, health status, as well as the amounts of alcohol and caffeine consumed had no significant influence on global sleep quality. The amount of nicotine consumed and perceived stress were identified as significant predictors of diminished sleep quality. Nicotine consumption had a small-to-very-small effect on sleep quality; perceived stress had a small-to-moderate effect. In conclusion, diminished sleep quality during exam periods was mainly predicted by perceived stress, while legal drug consumption played a minor role. Exam periods may pose an interesting model for the study of stress-induced sleeping problems and their mechanisms. PMID:25279939

  7. Test anxiety levels of board exam going students in Tamil Nadu, India.

    PubMed

    Mary, Revina Ann; Marslin, Gregory; Franklin, Gregory; Sheeba, Caroline J

    2014-01-01

    The latest report by the National Crime Records Bureau has positioned Tamil Nadu as the Indian state with highest suicide rate. At least in part, this is happening due to exam pressure among adolescents, emphasizing the imperative need to understand the pattern of anxiety and various factors contributing to it among students. The present study was conducted to analyze the level of state anxiety among board exam attending school students in Tamil Nadu, India. A group of 100 students containing 50 boys and 50 girls from 10th and 12th grades participated in the study and their state anxiety before board exams was measured by Westside Test Anxiety Scale. We found that all board exam going students had increased level of anxiety, which was particularly higher among boys and 12th standard board exam going students. Analysis of various demographic variables showed that students from nuclear families presented higher anxiety levels compared to their desired competitive group. Overall, our results showing the prevalence of state anxiety among board exam going students in Tamil Nadu, India, support the recent attempt taken by Tamil Nadu government to improve student's academic performance in a healthier manner by appointing psychologists in all government schools. PMID:25143938

  8. Coal Reserves Data Base report

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, R.W.; Glass, G.B.

    1991-12-05

    The Coal Reserves Data Base (CRDB) Program is a cooperative data base development program sponsored by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). The objective of the CRDB Program is to involve knowledgeable coal resource authorities from the major coal-bearing regions in EIA's effort to update the Nation's coal reserves data. This report describes one of two prototype studies to update State-level reserve estimates. The CRDB data are intended for use in coal supply analyses and to support analyses of policy and legislative issues. They will be available to both Government and non-Government analysts. The data also will be part of the information used to supply United States energy data for international data bases and for inquiries from private industry and the public. (VC)

  9. The new AP Physics exams: Integrating qualitative and quantitative reasoning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elby, Andrew

    2015-04-01

    When physics instructors and education researchers emphasize the importance of integrating qualitative and quantitative reasoning in problem solving, they usually mean using those types of reasoning serially and separately: first students should analyze the physical situation qualitatively/conceptually to figure out the relevant equations, then they should process those equations quantitatively to generate a solution, and finally they should use qualitative reasoning to check that answer for plausibility (Heller, Keith, & Anderson, 1992). The new AP Physics 1 and 2 exams will, of course, reward this approach to problem solving. But one kind of free response question will demand and reward a further integration of qualitative and quantitative reasoning, namely mathematical modeling and sense-making--inventing new equations to capture a physical situation and focusing on proportionalities, inverse proportionalities, and other functional relations to infer what the equation ``says'' about the physical world. In this talk, I discuss examples of these qualitative-quantitative translation questions, highlighting how they differ from both standard quantitative and standard qualitative questions. I then discuss the kinds of modeling activities that can help AP and college students develop these skills and habits of mind.

  10. Seamless insertion of real pulmonary nodules in chest CT exams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pezeshk, Aria; Sahiner, Berkman; Zeng, Rongping; Wunderlich, Adam; Chen, Weijie; Petrick, Nicholas

    2014-03-01

    The availability of large medical image datasets is critical in many applications such as training and testing of computer aided diagnosis (CAD) systems, evaluation of segmentation algorithms, and conducting perceptual studies. However, collection of large repositories of clinical images is hindered by the high cost and difficulties associated with both the accumulation of data and establishment of the ground truth. To address this problem, we are developing an image blending tool that allows users to modify or supplement existing datasets by seamlessly inserting a real lesion extracted from a source image into a different location on a target image. In this study we focus on the application of this tool to pulmonary nodules in chest CT exams. We minimize the impact of user skill on the perceived quality of the blended image by limiting user involvement to two simple steps: the user first draws a casual boundary around the nodule of interest in the source, and then selects the center of desired insertion area in the target. We demonstrate examples of the performance of the proposed system on samples taken from the Lung Image Database Consortium (LIDC) dataset, and compare the noise power spectrum (NPS) of blended nodules versus that of native nodules in simulated phantoms.

  11. 7 CFR 984.26 - Reserve walnuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Reserve walnuts. 984.26 Section 984.26 Agriculture...NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 984.26 Reserve walnuts. Reserve walnuts means those...

  12. 7 CFR 984.26 - Reserve walnuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reserve walnuts. 984.26 Section 984.26 Agriculture...Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 984.26 Reserve walnuts. Reserve walnuts means those...

  13. 7 CFR 984.26 - Reserve walnuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Reserve walnuts. 984.26 Section 984.26 Agriculture...NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 984.26 Reserve walnuts. Reserve walnuts means those...

  14. 7 CFR 984.26 - Reserve walnuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Reserve walnuts. 984.26 Section 984.26 Agriculture...Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 984.26 Reserve walnuts. Reserve walnuts means those...

  15. 7 CFR 984.26 - Reserve walnuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Reserve walnuts. 984.26 Section 984.26 Agriculture...Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 984.26 Reserve walnuts. Reserve walnuts means those...

  16. 7 CFR 984.26 - Reserve walnuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Reserve walnuts. 984.26 Section 984.26 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 984.26 Reserve walnuts. Reserve walnuts means those walnuts which are...

  17. 7 CFR 984.26 - Reserve walnuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Reserve walnuts. 984.26 Section 984.26 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 984.26 Reserve walnuts. Reserve walnuts means those walnuts which are...

  18. 7 CFR 984.26 - Reserve walnuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reserve walnuts. 984.26 Section 984.26 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 984.26 Reserve walnuts. Reserve walnuts means those walnuts which are...

  19. 7 CFR 984.26 - Reserve walnuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Reserve walnuts. 984.26 Section 984.26 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 984.26 Reserve walnuts. Reserve walnuts means those walnuts which are...

  20. 7 CFR 984.26 - Reserve walnuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Reserve walnuts. 984.26 Section 984.26 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 984.26 Reserve walnuts. Reserve walnuts means those walnuts which are...

  1. 40 CFR 35.2123 - Reserve capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reserve capacity. 35.2123 Section 35... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2123 Reserve capacity. EPA will limit grant assistance for reserve capacity as follows: (a) If EPA awarded a grant for a Step...

  2. 7 CFR 3560.614 - Reserve accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Reserve accounts. 3560.614 Section 3560.614... AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS On-Farm Labor Housing § 3560.614 Reserve accounts... to comply with the reserve account requirements in § 3560.65....

  3. 7 CFR 3560.306 - Reserve account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... reserve account is subject to the requirements of 7 CFR part 1902, subpart A regarding supervised bank... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Reserve account. 3560.306 Section 3560.306... AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Financial Management § 3560.306 Reserve account....

  4. 7 CFR 3560.306 - Reserve account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... reserve account is subject to the requirements of 7 CFR part 1902, subpart A regarding supervised bank... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reserve account. 3560.306 Section 3560.306... AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Financial Management § 3560.306 Reserve account....

  5. 7 CFR 3560.614 - Reserve accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Reserve accounts. 3560.614 Section 3560.614... AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS On-Farm Labor Housing § 3560.614 Reserve accounts... to comply with the reserve account requirements in § 3560.65....

  6. 7 CFR 3560.614 - Reserve accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Reserve accounts. 3560.614 Section 3560.614... AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS On-Farm Labor Housing § 3560.614 Reserve accounts... to comply with the reserve account requirements in § 3560.65....

  7. 7 CFR 3560.65 - Reserve account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Reserve account. 3560.65 Section 3560.65 Agriculture... DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Direct Loan and Grant Origination § 3560.65 Reserve account... establish and fund a reserve account that meets the requirements of § 3560.306. The applicant must agree...

  8. 7 CFR 3560.614 - Reserve accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Reserve accounts. 3560.614 Section 3560.614... AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS On-Farm Labor Housing § 3560.614 Reserve accounts... to comply with the reserve account requirements in § 3560.65....

  9. 7 CFR 3560.65 - Reserve account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Reserve account. 3560.65 Section 3560.65 Agriculture... DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Direct Loan and Grant Origination § 3560.65 Reserve account... establish and fund a reserve account that meets the requirements of § 3560.306. The applicant must agree...

  10. 7 CFR 3560.306 - Reserve account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... reserve account is subject to the requirements of 7 CFR part 1902, subpart A regarding supervised bank... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Reserve account. 3560.306 Section 3560.306... AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Financial Management § 3560.306 Reserve account....

  11. 7 CFR 3560.614 - Reserve accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reserve accounts. 3560.614 Section 3560.614... AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS On-Farm Labor Housing § 3560.614 Reserve accounts... to comply with the reserve account requirements in § 3560.65....

  12. 7 CFR 3560.306 - Reserve account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... reserve account is subject to the requirements of 7 CFR part 1902, subpart A regarding supervised bank... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Reserve account. 3560.306 Section 3560.306... AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Financial Management § 3560.306 Reserve account....

  13. 7 CFR 3560.306 - Reserve account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... reserve account is subject to the requirements of 7 CFR part 1902, subpart A regarding supervised bank... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Reserve account. 3560.306 Section 3560.306... AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Financial Management § 3560.306 Reserve account....

  14. 5 CFR 890.503 - Reserves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Reserves. 890.503 Section 890.503 ...Contributions and Withholdings § 890.503 Reserves. (a) The enrollment charge consists...which one part is for an administrative reserve and 3 parts are for a contingency...

  15. 75 FR 79286 - Designated Reserve Ratio

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-20

    ...3064-AD69 Designated Reserve Ratio AGENCY: Federal Deposit...comprehensive, long-range management plan for the Deposit...the designated reserve ratio (DRR) at 2 percent...the Designated Reserve Ratio setting out a comprehensive, long-range management plan for the DIF...

  16. 77 FR 66361 - Reserve Requirements of Depository Institutions: Reserves Simplification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-05

    ... FR 21846, is delayed from January 24, 2013, until June 27, 2013. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT... Regulation D, 12 CFR part 204, on April 12, 2012, (77 FR 21846) to implement the following four... period for all depository institutions; 2. Create a penalty-free band around reserve balance...

  17. Physics 214 Alternate Final Exam Winter 2013 This is an open book exam with a time limit of three hours. You may refer to Jackson's text,

    E-print Network

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    pulsars is believed to be due to this mechanism. #12; 2. Newton's second law in non­relativistic mechanics of the exam. 1. A magnetic dipole # m undergoes precessional motion with angular frequency # and angle # 0 . For circular motion, one can easily relate d#/dt to the velocity v of the electron. (b) Determine

  18. Math 310-1 Exam 1 10.27.2009 Directions: Write your name and your TA's name on the cover of your exam

    E-print Network

    McClendon, David M.

    exam booklet. Show all work and clearly mark your final answers. Answers must be sim- plified unless pts) Let Y = X if X 3 4 if X 4 . Find the density function of Y . 5. Suppose you deal a six-card hand from a standard 52-card deck. (a) (6 pts) What is the probability that your six-card hand

  19. Physics 208 Exam 2 Name_______________________________________________ You are graded on your work, with partial credit. See the last pages of the exam for formula sheets.

    E-print Network

    Allen, Roland E.

    Physics 208 Exam 2 Name_______________________________________________ You are graded on your work of selenium. #12;2. Electronic flash units for cameras contain a capacitor for storing the energy used to produce the flash. (a) (9) Suppose that the charge stored on the capacitor is 0.5 C when the applied

  20. Exam 1 is Wed. Sept. 22. You are allowed 3? sheets of notes and a calculator. The exam covers survey sampling.

    E-print Network

    Olive, David

    survey sampling. Numbers refer to types of problems on exam. A population is the entire set of (potential the people easiest to reach (often bring surveys to a location). Know that the above two sample designs) measurements of interest while the sample is the subset actually studied. A voluntary response sample consists

  1. Systematic Comparison of Operating Reserve Methodologies: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Ibanez, E.; Krad, I.; Ela, E.

    2014-04-01

    Operating reserve requirements are a key component of modern power systems, and they contribute to maintaining reliable operations with minimum economic impact. No universal method exists for determining reserve requirements, thus there is a need for a thorough study and performance comparison of the different existing methodologies. Increasing penetrations of variable generation (VG) on electric power systems are posed to increase system uncertainty and variability, thus the need for additional reserve also increases. This paper presents background information on operating reserve and its relationship to VG. A consistent comparison of three methodologies to calculate regulating and flexibility reserve in systems with VG is performed.

  2. Principles of classification of reserves resources

    SciTech Connect

    Diatchkov, S.A.

    1993-02-01

    The principles of classification of mineral reserves and resources in the former Soviet Union were first developed in 1960. Mineral reserve calculations were reviewed by the State Committee on reserves for approval, then registered in the State List of Mineral Deposits and included in the State Balance of Reserves. However, in 1981 a new {open_quotes}System of Classification of Reserves and Resources of Mineral Deposits{close_quotes} was adopted. This classification system, which is still used today in the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), subdivides mineral deposits into seven categories in three major groups, based on the level of exploration performed.

  3. Strategic petroleum reserve. Quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-15

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve reduces the Nation`s vulnerability to oil supply disruptions. Its existence provides a formidable deterrent to the use of oil as a political instrument and an effective response mechanism should a disruption occur. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve was created pursuant to the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of December 22, 1975 (Public Law 94-163). Its purposes are to reduce the impact of disruptions in supplies of petroleum products and to carry out obligations of the United States under the Agreement on an International Energy Program. Section 165(a) of the Act requires the submission of Annual Reports and Section 165(b)(1) requires the submission of Quarterly Reports. This Quarterly Report highlights activities undertaken during the second quarter of calendar year 1995, including: inventory of petroleum products stored in the Reserve; current and projected storage capacity, analysis of existing or anticipated problems with the acquisition and storage of petroleum products, and future expansion of storage capacity; funds obligated by the Secretary from the SPR Petroleum Account and the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Account during the prior calendar quarter and in total; and major environmental actions completed, in progress, or anticipated.

  4. Reservation Phone Number/website

    E-print Network

    Rental Car Vendor Account Number Reservation Phone Number/website Contact Name Coverage Enterprise Rent-A-Car NSHE XZ54080 PIN # NSH 1-800-499-8370 Rose Marie Cramer (702) 597-4554 Statewide and Nationwide Enterprise Rent-A-Car State of Nevada XZ54WNV PIN # STA Nat'l One Way XZ54097 1-800-499-8370 Rose

  5. RENTAL CAR VENDOR ACCOUNT# RESERVATION

    E-print Network

    RENTAL CAR VENDOR ACCOUNT# RESERVATION PHONE # CONTACT NAME COVERAGE ENTERPRISE RENT-A-CAR -OR- ENTERPRISE RENT-A-CAR NSHE - 54C3133 PIN # is "UNR" -OR- State of Nevada- NA5473 PIN # is "NSH" 1 (775) 338-0242 STATEWIDE & NATIONWIDE Rental Car Exclusions For All Contracts: · Driving under

  6. Oak Ridge Reservation Annual Site

    E-print Network

    Pennycook, Steve

    National Security Complex Oak Ridge National Laboratory East Tennessee Technology Park Electronic publisherOak Ridge Reservation Annual Site Environmental Report DOE/ORO/2502 2014 #12;Cover Image Tammy Sue Reed Computer Science and Mathematics Division Design Creative Media Communications Oak Ridge National

  7. Strategic petroleum reserve. Quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-15

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve serves as one of our most important investments in reducing the Nation`s vulnerability to oil supply disruptions. Its existence provides an effective response mechanism should a disruption occur and a formidable deterrent to the use of oil as a political instrument. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve was created pursuant to the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of December 22, 1975, (Public Law 94-163) as amended, to reduce the impact of disruptions in supplies of petroleum products and to carry out obligations of the United States under the Agreement on an International Energy Program. Section 165(a) of the Act requires the submission of Annual Reports and Section 165(b)(1) requires the submission of Quarterly Reports. This Quarterly Report highlights activities undertaken during the first quarter of calendar year 1994, including: (1) inventory of petroleum products stored in the Reserve, under contract and in transit at the end of the calendar quarter; (2) fill rate for the current quarter and projected fill rate for the next calendar quarter; (3) average price of the petroleum products acquired during the calendar quarter; (4) current and projected storage capacity; (5) analysis of existing or anticipated problems with the acquisition and storage of petroleum products, and future expansion of storage capacity; (6) funds obligated by the Secretary from the SPR Petroleum Account and the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Account during the prior calendar quarter and in total; and (7) major environmental actions completed, in progress, or anticipated.

  8. Strategic petroleum reserve annual report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-15

    Section 165 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (Public Law 94- 163), as amended, requires the Secretary of Energy to submit annual reports to the President and the Congress on activities of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). This report describes activities for the year ending December 31, 1995.

  9. FEA Reports on Proved Reserves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geotimes, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Explains the way in which oil and gas reserves are estimated, and the variation in these estimates according to the year of the resources' estimation and the group undertaking the survey. A recent Federal Energy Administration study suggests that recoverable oil and gas resources have limits that may be approached in the next 50 years. (MLH)

  10. Strategic Petroleum Reserve annual/quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-16

    During 1992 the Department continued planning activities for the expansion of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve to one billion barrels. A draft Environmental Impact Statement for the five candidate sites was completed in October 1992, and a series of public hearings was held during December 1992. Conceptual design engineering activities, life cycle cost estimates and geotechnical studies to support the technical requirements for an Strategic Petroleum Reserve Plan Amendment were essentially completed in December 1992. At the end of 1992, the Strategic Petroleum Reserve crude oil inventory was 574.7 million barrels and an additional 1.7 million barrels was in transit to the Reserve. During 1992 approximately 6.2 million barrels of crude oil were acquired for the Reserve. A Department of Energy Tiger Team Environmental, Safety and Health (ES&H) Assessment was conducted at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve from March 9 through April 10, 1992. In general, the Tiger Team found that Strategic Petroleum Reserve activities do not pose undue environmental, safety or health risks. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve`s Final Corrective Action Plan, prepared in response to the Tiger Team assessment, was submitted for Department approval in December 1992. On November 18, 1992, the Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy selected DynMcDennott Petroleum Operations Company to provide management and operating services for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve for a period of 5 years commencing April 1, 1993. DynMcDermott will succeed Boeing Petroleum Services, Inc.

  11. 12 CFR Appendix F to Part 208... - Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Reserved F Appendix F to Part 208 Reserved Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM MEMBERSHIP OF... concerning institutional customers. Appendix F to Part 208Reserved...

  12. 76 FR 68064 - Reserve Requirements of Depository Institutions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-03

    ...The Board is amending Regulation D, Reserve Requirements of Depository Institutions, to reflect the annual indexing of the reserve requirement exemption amount and the low reserve tranche for 2012. The Regulation D amendments set the amount of total reservable liabilities of each depository institution that is subject to a zero percent reserve requirement in 2012 at $11.5 million (up from......

  13. 75 FR 65563 - Reserve Requirements of Depository Institutions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-26

    ...The Board is amending Regulation D, Reserve Requirements of Depository Institutions, to reflect the annual indexing of the reserve requirement exemption amount and the low reserve tranche for 2011. The Regulation D amendments set the amount of total reservable liabilities of each depository institution that is subject to a zero percent reserve requirement in 2011 at $10.7 million, unchanged......

  14. Research Division Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

    E-print Network

    Fernandez, Thomas

    Research Division Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis Working Paper Series The Adaptive Markets March 2007 FEDERAL RESERVE BANK OF ST. LOUIS Research Division P.O. Box 442 St. Louis, MO 63166 of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, the Federal Reserve System, or the Board of Governors. Federal Reserve

  15. 24 CFR 982.154 - ACC reserve account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    .... This reserve is called the “ACC reserve account” (formerly “project reserve”). There is a single ACC... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false ACC reserve account. 982.154... and PHA Administration of Program § 982.154 ACC reserve account. (a) HUD may establish and maintain...

  16. Strategic Petroleum Reserve quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-15

    This Quarterly Report highlights activities undertaken during the second quarter of calendar year 1993, including: inventory of petroleum products stored in the Reserve, under contract and in transit at the end of the calendar quarter; fill rate for the current quarter and projected fill rate for the next calendar quarter; average price of the petroleum products acquired during the calendar quarter; current and projected storage capacity and plans to accelerate the acquisition or construction of such capacity; analysis of existing or anticipated problems with the acquisition and storage of petroleum products, and future expansion of storage capacity; funds obligated by the Secretary from the SPR Petroleum Account and the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Account during the prior calendar quarter and in total; and major environmental actions completed, in progress, or anticipated.

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    Chiao, Jung-Chih

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    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

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    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

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