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1

2010 Vision Service Plan. All rights reserved. VSP and WellVision Exam are registered trademarks of Vision Service Plan. All other company  

E-print Network

©2010 Vision Service Plan. All rights reserved. VSP and WellVision Exam are registered trademarks of Vision Service Plan. All other company names and brands are trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective owners. Visit vsp.com or call 800.877.7195 for more details on your vision coverage and exclusive

Kay, Mark A.

2

MLC++: A Machine Learning Library in C  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present MLC++ , a library of C++classes andtools for supervised Machine Learning. While MLC++provides general learning algorithms that can be usedby end users, the main objective is to provide researchersand experts with a wide variety of tools thatcan accelerate algorithm development, increase softwarereliability, provide comparison tools, and displayinformation visually. More than just a collection ofexisting algorithms, MLC++ is an

Ron Kohavi; George H. John; Richard Long; David Manley; Karl Pfleger

1994-01-01

3

Pelvic Exam  

MedlinePLUS

... My Pictures Browse Search Quick Search Image Details Pelvic Exam View/Download: Small: 719x590 View Download Add to My Pictures Title: Pelvic Exam Description: Pelvic exam; drawing shows a side ...

4

Tolerances on MLC leaf position accuracy for IMRT delivery with a dynamic MLC  

SciTech Connect

The objective determination of performance standards for radiation therapy equipment requires, ideally, establishing the quantitative relationship between performance deviations and clinical outcome or some acceptable surrogate. In this simulation study the authors analyzed the dosimetric impact of random (leaf by leaf) and systematic (entire leaf bank) errors in the position of the MLC leaves on seven clinical prostate and seven clinical head and neck IMRT plans delivered using a dynamic MLC. In-house software was developed to incorporate normally distributed errors of up to {+-}2 mm in individual leaf position or systematic errors ({+-}1 and {+-}0.5 mm in all leaves of both leaf banks or +1 mm in one bank only) into the 14 plans, thus simulating treatment delivery using a suboptimally performing MLC. The dosimetric consequences of suboptimal MLC performance were quantified using the equivalent uniform doses (EUDs) of the clinical target volumes and important organs at risk (OARs). The deviation of the EUDs of the selected structures as the performance of the MLC deteriorated was used as the objective surrogate of clinical outcome. Random errors of 2 mm resulted in negligible changes for all structures of interest in both sites. In contrast, systematic errors can lead to potentially significant dosimetric changes that may compromise clinical outcome. If a 2% change in EUD of the target and 2 Gy for the OARs were adopted as acceptable levels of deviation in dose due to MLC effects alone, then systematic errors in leaf position will need to be limited to 0.3 mm. This study provides guidance, based on a dosimetric surrogate of clinical outcome, for the development of one component, leaf position accuracy of performance standards for multileaf collimators.

Rangel, Alejandra; Dunscombe, Peter [Department of Medical Physics, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, 1331-29 Street NW, Calgary, Alberta T2N 4N2 (Canada) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive NW, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4 (Canada); Department of Medical Physics, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, 1331-29 Street NW, Calgary, Alberta T2N 4N2 (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive NW, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4 (Canada) and Department of Oncology, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, 1331-29 Street NW, Calgary, Alberta T2N 4N2 (Canada)

2009-07-15

5

Exam Professor  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The average professor or lecturer in today's educational environment might be on the lookout for a helpful way to facilitate exams, and this application is just that type of application. With Exam Professor, users can create exams quickly, publish them online, and even mix up the questions. On their website, visitors can learn about all of the features of the program, and take a look at a demonstration exam. This version allows users to create one exam at no charge, and is compatible with computers running Windows 2000, XP and Mac OS X 10.4 and newer.

2006-01-01

6

Exam #1  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The first exam in a class holds an opportunity for metacognitive teaching. At this point the student is open to hearing your message, especially if their outcome is less than they had hoped. This example walks through some strategies for implementing metacognitive teaching wrapped around the first exam.

Samson, Perry

7

Fast regional readout CMOS Image Sensor for dynamic MLC tracking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Advanced radiotherapy techniques such as volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) require verification of the complex beam delivery including tracking of multileaf collimators (MLC) and monitoring the dose rate. This work explores the feasibility of a prototype Complementary metal-oxide semiconductor Image Sensor (CIS) for tracking these complex treatments by utilising fast, region of interest (ROI) read out functionality. An automatic edge tracking algorithm was used to locate the MLC leaves edges moving at various speeds (from a moving triangle field shape) and imaged with various sensor frame rates. The CIS demonstrates successful edge detection of the dynamic MLC motion within accuracy of 1.0 mm. This demonstrates the feasibility of the sensor to verify treatment delivery involving dynamic MLC up to ~400 frames per second (equivalent to the linac pulse rate), which is superior to any current techniques such as using electronic portal imaging devices (EPID). CIS provides the basis to an essential real-time verification tool, useful in accessing accurate delivery of complex high energy radiation to the tumour and ultimately to achieve better cure rates for cancer patients.

Zin, H.; Harris, E.; Osmond, J.; Evans, P.

2014-03-01

8

Data Mining Using MLC++: A Machine Learning Library in C  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data mining algorithms including machine learning, statistical analysis, and pattern recognition techniques can greatly improve our understanding of data warehouses that are now becoming more widespread. In this paper, we focus on classication algorithms and review the need for multiple classication algorithms. We describe a system calledMLC++, which was designed to help choose the appropriate classication algorithm for a given

Ron Kohavi; Dan Sommerfield; James Dougherty

1996-01-01

9

Monte Carlo study of MLC fields for cobalt therapy machine  

PubMed Central

An automated Multi-Leaf Collimator (MLC) system has been developed as add-on for the cobalt-60 teletherapy machines available in India. The goal of the present computational study is to validate the MLC design using Monte Carlo (MC) modeling. The study was based on the Kirloskar-supplied Phoenix model machines that closely match the Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) theratron-80 machine. The MLC is a retrofit attachment to the collimator assembly, with 14 non-divergent leaf pairs of 40 mm thick, 7 mm wide, and 150 mm long tungsten alloy plates with rounded edges and 20 mm tongue and 2 mm groove in each leaf. In the present work, the source and collimator geometry has been investigated in detail to arrive at a model that best represents the measured dosimetric data. The authors have studied in detail the proto-I MLC built for cobalt-60. The MLC field sizes were MC simulated for 2 × 2 cm2 to 14 × 14 cm2 square fields as well as irregular fields, and the percent depth dose (PDD) and profile data were compared with ROPS† treatment planning system (TPS). In addition, measured profiles using the IMATRIXX system‡ were also compared with the MC simulations. The proto-I MLC can define radiation fields up to 14 × 14 cm2 within 3 mm accuracy. The maximum measured leakage through the leaf ends in closed condition was 3.4% and interleaf leakage observed was 7.3%. Good agreement between MC results, ROPS and IMATRIXX results has been observed. The investigation also supports the hypothesis that optical and radiation field coincidence exists for the square fields studied with the MLC. Plots of the percent depth dose (PDD) data and profile data for clinically significant irregular fields have also been presented. The MC model was also investigated to speed up the calculations to allow calculations of clinically relevant conformal beams. †Radiation Oncology Planning System (ROPS) is supplied by Tirumala Jyothi Computer Systems described at https://sites.google.com/site/tjcsrops/ ‡IMATRIXX is supplied by IBA Dosimetry described at HYPERLINK http://www.iba-dosimetry.com PMID:24872604

Ayyangar, Komanduri M.; Rani, Roopa A.; Kumar, Anil; Reddy, A. R.

2014-01-01

10

An MLC calibration method using a detector array  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The authors have developed a quantitative calibration method for a multileaf collimator (MLC) which measures individual leaf positions relative to the MLC backup jaw on an Elekta Synergy linear accelerator. Methods: The method utilizes a commercially available two-axis detector array (Profiler 2; Sun Nuclear Corporation, Melbourne, FL). To calibrate the MLC bank, its backup jaw is positioned at the central axis and the opposing jaw is retracted to create a half-beam configuration. The position of the backup jaws field edge is then measured with the array to obtain what is termed the radiation defined reference line. The positions of the individual leaf ends relative to this reference line are then inferred by the detector response in the leaf end penumbra. Iteratively adjusting and remeasuring the leaf end positions to within specifications completes the calibration. Using the backup jaw as a reference for the leaf end positions is based on three assumptions: (1) The leading edge of an MLC leaf bank is parallel to its backup jaw's leading edge, (2) the backup jaw position is reproducible, and (3) the measured radiation field edge created by each leaf end is representative of that leaf's position. Data from an electronic portal imaging device (EPID) were used in a similar analysis to check the results obtained with the array. Results: The relative leaf end positions measured with the array differed from those measured with the EPID by an average of 0.11 {+-}0.09 mm per leaf. The maximum leaf positional change measured with the Profiler 2 over a 3 month period was 0.51 mm. A leaf positional accuracy of {+-}0.4 mm is easily attainable through the iterative calibration process. The method requires an average of 40 min to measure both leaf banks. Conclusions: This work demonstrates that the Profiler 2 is an effective tool for efficient and quantitative MLC quality assurance and calibration.

Simon, Thomas A.; Kahler, Darren; Simon, William E.; Fox, Christopher; Li, Jonathan; Palta, Jatinder; Liu, Chihray [Department of Nuclear and Radiological Engineering, University of Florida, 202 Nuclear Science Building, Gainesville, Florida 32611-8300 (United States); Sun Nuclear Corporation, 425-A Pineda Court, Melbourne, Florida 32940 (United States) and Department of Radiation Oncology, Health Science Center, University of Florida, P.O. Box 100385, Gainesville, Florida 32610-0385 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Health Science Center, University of Florida, P.O. Box 100385, Gainesville, Florida 32610-0385 (United States); Sun Nuclear Corporation, 425-A Pineda Court, Melbourne, Florida 32940 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Tulane University, 1415 Tulane Ave, HC65, New Orleans, Louisiana 70112 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Health Science Center, University of Florida, P.O. Box 100385, Gainesville, Florida 32610-0385 (United States)

2009-10-15

11

TomoTherapy MLC verification using exit detector data  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Treatment delivery verification (DV) is important in the field of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). While IMRT and image guided radiation therapy (IGRT), allow us to create more conformal plans and enables the use of tighter margins, an erroneously executed plan can have detrimental effects on the treatment outcome. The purpose of this study is to develop a DV technique to verify TomoTherapy's multileaf collimator (MLC) using the onboard mega-voltage CT detectors. Methods: The proposed DV method uses temporal changes in the MVCT detector signal to predict actual leaf open times delivered on the treatment machine. Penumbra and scattered radiation effects may produce confounding results when determining leaf open times from the raw detector data. To reduce the impact of the effects, an iterative, Richardson-Lucy (R-L) deconvolution algorithm is applied. Optical sensors installed on each MLC leaf are used to verify the accuracy of the DV technique. The robustness of the DV technique is examined by introducing different attenuation materials in the beam. Additionally, the DV technique has been used to investigate several clinical plans which failed to pass delivery quality assurance (DQA) and was successful in identifying MLC timing discrepancies as the root cause. Results: The leaf open time extracted from the exit detector showed good agreement with the optical sensors under a variety of conditions. Detector-measured leaf open times agreed with optical sensor data to within 0.2 ms, and 99% of the results agreed within 8.5 ms. These results changed little when attenuation was added in the beam. For the clinical plans failing DQA, the dose calculated from reconstructed leaf open times played an instrumental role in discovering the root-cause of the problem. Throughout the retrospective study, it is found that the reconstructed dose always agrees with measured doses to within 1%. Conclusions: The exit detectors in the TomoTherapy treatment systems can provide valuable information about MLC behavior during delivery. A technique to estimate the TomoTherapy binary MLC leaf open time from exit detector signals is described. This technique is shown to be both robust and accurate for delivery verification.

Chen Quan; Westerly, David; Fang Zhenyu; Sheng, Ke; Chen Yu [TomoTherapy Inc., 1240 Deming Way, Madison, Wisconsin 53717 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado 80045 (United States); Xinghua Cancer Hospital, Xinghua, Jiangsu 225700 (China); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California-Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); TomoTherapy Inc., 1240 Deming Way, Madison, Wisconsin 53717 (United States)

2012-01-15

12

An experimental evaluation of the Agility MLC for motion-compensated VMAT delivery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An algorithm for dynamic multileaf-collimator (dMLC) tracking of a target performing a known a priori, rigid-body motion during volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT), has been experimentally validated and applied to investigate the potential of the Agility (Elekta AB, Stockholm, Sweden) multileaf-collimator (MLC) for use in motion-compensated VMAT delivery. For five VMAT patients, dosimetric measurements were performed using the Delta4 radiation detector (ScandiDos, Uppsala, Sweden) and the accuracy of dMLC tracking was evaluated using a gamma-analysis, with threshold levels of 3% for dose and 3 mm for distance-to-agreement. For a motion trajectory with components in two orthogonal directions, the mean gamma-analysis pass rate without tracking was found to be 58.0%, 59.0% and 60.9% and was increased to 89.1%, 88.3% and 93.1% with MLC tracking, for time periods of motion of 4 s, 6 s and 10 s respectively. Simulations were performed to compare the efficiency of the Agility MLC with the MLCi MLC when used for motion-compensated VMAT delivery for the same treatment plans and motion trajectories. Delivery time increases from a static-tumour to dMLC-tracking VMAT delivery were observed in the range 0%-20% for the Agility, and 0%-57% with the MLCi, indicating that the increased leaf speed of the Agility MLC is beneficial for MLC tracking during lung radiotherapy.

Davies, G. A.; Clowes, P.; Bedford, J. L.; Evans, P. M.; Webb, S.; Poludniowski, G.

2013-07-01

13

Quantitative measurement of MLC leaf displacements using an electronic portal image device  

Microsoft Academic Search

The success of an IMRT treatment relies on the positioning accuracy of the MLC (multileaf collimator) leaves for both step-and-shoot and dynamic deliveries. In practice, however, there exists no effective and quantitative means for routine MLC QA and this has become one of the bottleneck problems in IMRT implementation. In this work we present an electronic portal image device (EPID)

Yong Yang; Lei Xing

2004-01-01

14

Functional analysis of mlcR, a regulatory gene for ML-236B (compactin) biosynthesis in Penicillium citrinum.  

PubMed

The mlcR gene encodes a putative 50.2-kDa protein with a Zn(II)(2)Cys(6) DNA-binding domain, which may be involved in the regulation of ML-236B biosynthesis in Penicillium citrinum. The induction of ML-236B production appears to correlate with the expression of mlcR, and the ML-236B biosynthetic genes mlcA- mlcH, and occurs mostly during the stationary phase. The present study was designed to examine the effects of alterations in mlcR expression on ML-236B biosynthesis. We first set out to increase the mlcR copy number in the chromosome of P. citrinum. Transformants with additional copies of native mlcR showed increased transcription of mlcR and produced larger amounts of ML-236B than the parent strain. Altered mlcR expression was also achieved by introducing a construct, designated pgkA(P)::mlcR, that contained the mlcR coding region fused to the (constitutively active) promoter and terminator sequences of the Aspergillus nidulans 3-phospho-glycerate kinase (pgkA) gene. Transformants carrying the pgkA(P)::mlcR construct expressed mlcR constitutively, and produced ML-236B during the exponential growth phase, suggesting that the pgkA(P)::mlcR construct does affect the regulation of ML-236B biosynthesis. Comparative expression analysis by RT-PCR showed that altering the expression profile of mlcR influenced the expression of some of the ML-236B biosynthetic genes. The evidence suggests that mlcR may indeed be involved in the transcriptional activation of some of the pathway-specific genes required for ML-236B biosynthesis. PMID:12436257

Abe, Y; Ono, C; Hosobuchi, M; Yoshikawa, H

2002-11-01

15

Leadership & Multicultural Development Programs Carmen Curiel, Director, Multicultural Leadership Center June 2, 2011 www.fullerton.edu/deanofstudents/mlc  

E-print Network

Leadership & Multicultural Development Programs Carmen Curiel, Director, Multicultural Leadership of the Multicultural Leadership Center (MLC) is to develop leaders who will understand and embrace diversity. The MLC Leadership Institute and the MLC that provides training in leadership as it relates to cultural sensitivity

de Lijser, Peter

16

Testicular self-exam  

MedlinePLUS

Testicular self-exam is an examination of the testicles that you do on yourself. ... A testicular self-exam may be done to check for testicular cancer . Testicles have blood vessels and other structures that can ...

17

Challenges When Introducing Electronic Exam  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Time pressures often necessitate the use of more efficient exam tools, such as electronic exams (e-exams), instead of traditional paper exams. However, teachers may face challenges when introducing e-exams in a higher education context. This paper describes what kinds of challenges teachers may face when introducing e-exams, based on experiences…

Kuikka, Matti; Kitola, Markus; Laakso, Mikko-Jussi

2014-01-01

18

The ?1 subunit of the Na,K-ATPase pump interacts with megalencephalic leucoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts protein 1 (MLC1) in brain astrocytes: new insights into MLC pathogenesis  

PubMed Central

Megalencephalic leucoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts (MLC) is a rare congenital leucodystrophy caused by mutations in MLC1, a membrane protein of unknown function. MLC1 expression in astrocyte end-feet contacting blood vessels and meninges, along with brain swelling, fluid cysts and myelin vacuolation observed in MLC patients, suggests a possible role for MLC1 in the regulation of fluid and ion homeostasis and cellular volume changes. To identify MLC1 direct interactors and dissect the molecular pathways in which MLC1 is involved, we used NH2-MLC1 domain as a bait to screen a human brain library in a yeast two-hybrid assay. We identified the ?1 subunit of the Na,K-ATPase pump as one of the interacting clones and confirmed it by pull-downs, co-fractionation assays and immunofluorescence stainings in human and rat astrocytes in vitro and in brain tissue. By performing ouabain-affinity chromatography on astrocyte and brain extracts, we isolated MLC1 and the whole Na,K-ATPase enzyme in a multiprotein complex that included Kir4.1, syntrophin and dystrobrevin. Because Na,K-ATPase is involved in intracellular osmotic control and volume regulation, we investigated the effect of hypo-osmotic stress on MLC1/Na,K-ATPase relationship in astrocytes. We found that hypo-osmotic conditions increased MLC1 membrane expression and favoured MLC1/Na,K-ATPase-?1 association. Moreover, hypo-osmosis induced astrocyte swelling and the reversible formation of endosome-derived vacuoles, where the two proteins co-localized. These data suggest that through its interaction with Na,K-ATPase, MLC1 is involved in the control of intracellular osmotic conditions and volume regulation in astrocytes, opening new perspectives for understanding the pathological mechanisms of MLC disease. PMID:20926452

Brignone, Maria S.; Lanciotti, Angela; Macioce, Pompeo; Macchia, Gianfranco; Gaetani, Matteo; Aloisi, Francesca; Petrucci, Tamara C.; Ambrosini, Elena

2011-01-01

19

The beta1 subunit of the Na,K-ATPase pump interacts with megalencephalic leucoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts protein 1 (MLC1) in brain astrocytes: new insights into MLC pathogenesis.  

PubMed

Megalencephalic leucoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts (MLC) is a rare congenital leucodystrophy caused by mutations in MLC1, a membrane protein of unknown function. MLC1 expression in astrocyte end-feet contacting blood vessels and meninges, along with brain swelling, fluid cysts and myelin vacuolation observed in MLC patients, suggests a possible role for MLC1 in the regulation of fluid and ion homeostasis and cellular volume changes. To identify MLC1 direct interactors and dissect the molecular pathways in which MLC1 is involved, we used NH2-MLC1 domain as a bait to screen a human brain library in a yeast two-hybrid assay. We identified the ?1 subunit of the Na,K-ATPase pump as one of the interacting clones and confirmed it by pull-downs, co-fractionation assays and immunofluorescence stainings in human and rat astrocytes in vitro and in brain tissue. By performing ouabain-affinity chromatography on astrocyte and brain extracts, we isolated MLC1 and the whole Na,K-ATPase enzyme in a multiprotein complex that included Kir4.1, syntrophin and dystrobrevin. Because Na,K-ATPase is involved in intracellular osmotic control and volume regulation, we investigated the effect of hypo-osmotic stress on MLC1/Na,K-ATPase relationship in astrocytes. We found that hypo-osmotic conditions increased MLC1 membrane expression and favoured MLC1/Na,K-ATPase-?1 association. Moreover, hypo-osmosis induced astrocyte swelling and the reversible formation of endosome-derived vacuoles, where the two proteins co-localized. These data suggest that through its interaction with Na,K-ATPase, MLC1 is involved in the control of intracellular osmotic conditions and volume regulation in astrocytes, opening new perspectives for understanding the pathological mechanisms of MLC disease. PMID:20926452

Brignone, Maria S; Lanciotti, Angela; Macioce, Pompeo; Macchia, Gianfranco; Gaetani, Matteo; Aloisi, Francesca; Petrucci, Tamara C; Ambrosini, Elena

2011-01-01

20

Examining Exam Reviews: A Comparison of Exam Scores and Attitudes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Instructors commonly use exam reviews to help students prepare for exams and to increase student success. The current study compared the effects of traditional, trivia, and practice test-based exam reviews on actual exam scores, as well as students' attitudes toward each review. Findings suggested that students' exam scores were significantly…

Hackathorn, Jana; Cornell, Kathryn; Garczynski, Amy M.; Solomon, Erin D.; Blankmeyer, Katheryn E.; Tennial, Rachel E.

2012-01-01

21

The first clinical implementation of electromagnetic transponder-guided MLC tracking  

PubMed Central

Purpose: We report on the clinical process, quality assurance, and geometric and dosimetric results of the first clinical implementation of electromagnetic transponder-guided MLC tracking which occurred on 28 November 2013 at the Northern Sydney Cancer Centre. Methods: An electromagnetic transponder-based positioning system (Calypso) was modified to send the target position output to in-house-developed MLC tracking code, which adjusts the leaf positions to optimally align the treatment beam with the real-time target position. Clinical process and quality assurance procedures were developed and performed. The first clinical implementation of electromagnetic transponder-guided MLC tracking was for a prostate cancer patient being treated with dual-arc VMAT (RapidArc). For the first fraction of the first patient treatment of electromagnetic transponder-guided MLC tracking we recorded the in-room time and transponder positions, and performed dose reconstruction to estimate the delivered dose and also the dose received had MLC tracking not been used. Results: The total in-room time was 21 min with 2 min of beam delivery. No additional time was needed for MLC tracking and there were no beam holds. The average prostate position from the initial setup was 1.2 mm, mostly an anterior shift. Dose reconstruction analysis of the delivered dose with MLC tracking showed similar isodose and target dose volume histograms to the planned treatment and a 4.6% increase in the fractional rectal V60. Dose reconstruction without motion compensation showed a 30% increase in the fractional rectal V60 from that planned, even for the small motion. Conclusions: The real-time beam-target correction method, electromagnetic transponder-guided MLC tracking, has been translated to the clinic. This achievement represents a milestone in improving geometric and dosimetric accuracy, and by inference treatment outcomes, in cancer radiotherapy. PMID:24506591

Keall, Paul J.; Colvill, Emma; O’Brien, Ricky; Ng, Jin Aun; Poulsen, Per Rugaard; Eade, Thomas; Kneebone, Andrew; Booth, Jeremy T.

2014-01-01

22

The first clinical implementation of electromagnetic transponder-guided MLC tracking  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: We report on the clinical process, quality assurance, and geometric and dosimetric results of the first clinical implementation of electromagnetic transponder-guided MLC tracking which occurred on 28 November 2013 at the Northern Sydney Cancer Centre. Methods: An electromagnetic transponder-based positioning system (Calypso) was modified to send the target position output to in-house-developed MLC tracking code, which adjusts the leaf positions to optimally align the treatment beam with the real-time target position. Clinical process and quality assurance procedures were developed and performed. The first clinical implementation of electromagnetic transponder-guided MLC tracking was for a prostate cancer patient being treated with dual-arc VMAT (RapidArc). For the first fraction of the first patient treatment of electromagnetic transponder-guided MLC tracking we recorded the in-room time and transponder positions, and performed dose reconstruction to estimate the delivered dose and also the dose received had MLC tracking not been used. Results: The total in-room time was 21 min with 2 min of beam delivery. No additional time was needed for MLC tracking and there were no beam holds. The average prostate position from the initial setup was 1.2 mm, mostly an anterior shift. Dose reconstruction analysis of the delivered dose with MLC tracking showed similar isodose and target dose volume histograms to the planned treatment and a 4.6% increase in the fractional rectal V{sub 60}. Dose reconstruction without motion compensation showed a 30% increase in the fractional rectal V{sub 60} from that planned, even for the small motion. Conclusions: The real-time beam-target correction method, electromagnetic transponder-guided MLC tracking, has been translated to the clinic. This achievement represents a milestone in improving geometric and dosimetric accuracy, and by inference treatment outcomes, in cancer radiotherapy.

Keall, Paul J., E-mail: paul.keall@sydney.edu.au; O’Brien, Ricky; Ng, Jin Aun [Radiation Physics Laboratory, Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)] [Radiation Physics Laboratory, Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Colvill, Emma [Radiation Physics Laboratory, Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia and Northern Sydney Cancer Centre, Royal North Shore Hospital, Sydney, NSW 2065 (Australia)] [Radiation Physics Laboratory, Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia and Northern Sydney Cancer Centre, Royal North Shore Hospital, Sydney, NSW 2065 (Australia); Poulsen, Per Rugaard [Department of Oncology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus 8000, Denmark and Institute of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University, Aarhus 8000 (Denmark)] [Department of Oncology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus 8000, Denmark and Institute of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University, Aarhus 8000 (Denmark); Eade, Thomas; Kneebone, Andrew; Booth, Jeremy T. [Northern Sydney Cancer Centre, Royal North Shore Hospital, Sydney, NSW 2065 (Australia)] [Northern Sydney Cancer Centre, Royal North Shore Hospital, Sydney, NSW 2065 (Australia)

2014-02-15

23

Metastasis of aggressive amoeboid sarcoma cells is dependent on Rho/ROCK/MLC signaling  

PubMed Central

Background Although there is extensive evidence for the amoeboid invasiveness of cancer cells in vitro, much less is known about the role of amoeboid invasiveness in metastasis and the importance of Rho/ROCK/MLC signaling in this process. Results We analyzed the dependence of amoeboid invasiveness of rat and chicken sarcoma cells and the metastatic activity of chicken cells on individual elements of the Rho/ROCK/MLC pathway. In both animal models, inhibition of Rho, ROCK or MLC resulted in greatly decreased cell invasiveness in vitro, while inhibition of extracellular proteases using a broad spectrum inhibitor did not have a significant effect. The inhibition of both Rho activity and MLC phosphorylation by dominant negative mutants led to a decreased capability of chicken sarcoma cells to metastasize. Moreover, the overexpression of RhoA in non-metastatic chicken cells resulted in the rescue of both invasiveness and metastatic capability. Rho and ROCK, unlike MLC, appeared to be directly involved in the maintenance of the amoeboid phenotype, as their inhibition resulted in the amoeboid-mesenchymal transition in analyzed cell lines. Conclusion Taken together, these results suggest that protease-independent invasion controlled by elements of the Rho/ROCK/MLC pathway can be frequently exploited by metastatic sarcoma cells. PMID:23899007

2013-01-01

24

Detailed analysis of latencies in image-based dynamic MLC tracking  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Previous measurements of the accuracy of image-based real-time dynamic multileaf collimator (DMLC) tracking show that the major contributor to errors is latency, i.e., the delay between target motion and MLC response. Therefore the purpose of this work was to develop a method for detailed analysis of latency contributions during image-based DMLC tracking. Methods: A prototype DMLC tracking system integrated with a linear accelerator was used for tracking a phantom with an embedded fiducial marker during treatment delivery. The phantom performed a sinusoidal motion. Real-time target localization was based on x-ray images acquired either with a portal imager or a kV imager mounted orthogonal to the treatment beam. Each image was stored in a file on the imaging workstation. A marker segmentation program opened the image file, determined the marker position in the image, and transferred it to the DMLC tracking program. This program estimated the three-dimensional target position by a single-imager method and adjusted the MLC aperture to the target position. Imaging intervals {Delta}T{sub image} from 150 to 1000 ms were investigated for both kV and MV imaging. After the experiments, the recorded images were synchronized with MLC log files generated by the MLC controller and tracking log files generated by the tracking program. This synchronization allowed temporal analysis of the information flow for each individual image from acquisition to completed MLC adjustment. The synchronization also allowed investigation of the MLC adjustment dynamics on a considerably finer time scale than the 50 ms time resolution of the MLC log files. Results: For {Delta}T{sub image}=150 ms, the total time from image acquisition to completed MLC adjustment was 380{+-}9 ms for MV and 420{+-}12 ms for kV images. The main part of this time was from image acquisition to completed image file writing (272 ms for MV and 309 ms for kV). Image file opening (38 ms), marker segmentation (4 ms), MLC position calculation (16 ms), and MLC adjustment (52 ms) were considerably faster. For {Delta}T{sub image}=1000 ms, the total time from image acquisition to completed MLC adjustment increased to 1030{+-}62 ms (MV) and 1330{+-}52 ms (kV) mainly because of delayed image file writing. The MLC adjustment duration was constant 52 ms ({+-}3 ms) for MLC adjustments below 1.1 mm and increased linearly for larger MLC adjustments. Conclusions: A method for detailed time analysis of each individual real-time position signal for DMLC tracking has been developed and applied to image-based tracking. The method allows identification of the major contributors to latency and therefore a focus for reducing this latency. The method could be an important tool for the reconstruction of the delivered target dose during DMLC tracking as it provides synchronization between target motion and MLC motion.

Poulsen, Per Rugaard; Cho, Byungchul; Sawant, Amit; Ruan, Dan; Keall, Paul J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 and Department of Oncology and Department of Medical Physics, Aarhus University Hospital, 8000 Aarhus (Denmark); Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 and Department of Radiation Oncology, Asan Medical Center, Seoul 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

2010-09-15

25

AAPT Physics Bowl Exam Review  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The AAPT Physics Bowl is an annual contest sponsored by the American Association of Physics Teachers to generate interest in physics and to recognize outstanding high school physics students and their teachers. The exam consists of multiple choice questions and has a time limit of forty-five minutes. Copies of the 1994-2000 Physics Bowl exams have been provided here by the AAPT in the form of Adobe Acrobat .PDF files. The answers are provided at the end of each exam. The current exam may no longer be given in the format of the exams listed below. The CD available from the AAPT Store has questions and answers from 2001 through 2006. 1994 AAPT/Metrologic Physics Bowl Exam 1995 AAPT/Metrologic Physics Bowl Exam 1996 AAPT/Metrologic Physics Bowl Exam 1997 AAPT/Metrologic Physics Bowl Exam 1998 AAPT/Metrologic Physics Bowl Exam 1999 AAPT/Metrologic Physics Bowl Exam 2000 AAPT/Metrologic Physics Bowl Exam

2003-10-16

26

Operator recognition by the ROK transcription factor family members, NagC and Mlc.  

PubMed

NagC and Mlc, paralogous members of the ROK family of proteins with almost identical helix-turn-helix DNA binding motifs, specifically regulate genes for transport and utilization of N-acetylglucosamine and glucose. We previously showed that two amino acids in a linker region outside the canonical helix-turn-helix motif are responsible for Mlc site specificity. In this work we identify four amino acids in the linker, which are required for recognition of NagC targets. These amino acids allow Mlc and NagC to distinguish between a C/G and an A/T bp at positions ±11 of the operators. One linker position, glycine in NagC and arginine in Mlc, corresponds to the major specificity determinant for the two proteins. In certain contexts it is possible to switch repression from Mlc-style to NagC-style, by interchanging this glycine and arginine. Secondary determinants are supplied by other linker positions or the helix-turn-helix motif. A wide genomic survey of unique ROK proteins shows that glycine- and arginine-rich sequences are present in the linkers of nearly all ROK family repressors. Conserved short sequence motifs, within the branches of the ROK evolutionary tree, suggest that these sequences could also be involved in operator recognition in other ROK family members. PMID:25452338

Bréchemier-Baey, Dominique; Domínguez-Ramírez, Lenin; Oberto, Jacques; Plumbridge, Jacqueline

2015-01-01

27

Operator recognition by the ROK transcription factor family members, NagC and Mlc  

PubMed Central

NagC and Mlc, paralogous members of the ROK family of proteins with almost identical helix-turn-helix DNA binding motifs, specifically regulate genes for transport and utilization of N-acetylglucosamine and glucose. We previously showed that two amino acids in a linker region outside the canonical helix-turn-helix motif are responsible for Mlc site specificity. In this work we identify four amino acids in the linker, which are required for recognition of NagC targets. These amino acids allow Mlc and NagC to distinguish between a C/G and an A/T bp at positions ±11 of the operators. One linker position, glycine in NagC and arginine in Mlc, corresponds to the major specificity determinant for the two proteins. In certain contexts it is possible to switch repression from Mlc-style to NagC-style, by interchanging this glycine and arginine. Secondary determinants are supplied by other linker positions or the helix-turn-helix motif. A wide genomic survey of unique ROK proteins shows that glycine- and arginine-rich sequences are present in the linkers of nearly all ROK family repressors. Conserved short sequence motifs, within the branches of the ROK evolutionary tree, suggest that these sequences could also be involved in operator recognition in other ROK family members. PMID:25452338

Bréchemier-Baey, Dominique; Domínguez-Ramírez, Lenin; Oberto, Jacques; Plumbridge, Jacqueline

2015-01-01

28

Exam corner - June 2012.  

PubMed

The FRCS (Tr & Orth) examination has three components: MCQs, Vivas and Clinical Examination. The Vivas are further divided into four sections comprising Basic Science, Adult Pathology, Hands and Children's Orthopaedics and Trauma. The Clinical Examination section is divided into Upper and Lower limb cases. The aim of this section in the Journal is to focus specifically on the trainees preparing for the exam and to cater to all the sections of the exam. The vision is to complete the cycle of all relevant exam topics (as per the syllabus) in four years. PMID:22628606

Khanduja, V

2012-06-01

29

Exam corner - december 2014.  

PubMed

The FRCS (Tr & Orth) examination has three components: MCQs, Vivas and Clinical Examination. The Vivas are further divided into four sections comprising Basic Science, Adult Pathology, Hands and Children's Orthopaedics and Trauma. The Clinical Examination section is divided into Upper and Lower limb cases. The aim of this section in the Journal is to focus specifically on the trainees preparing for the exam and to cater to all the sections of the exam. The vision is to complete the cycle of all relevant exam topics (as per the syllabus) in four years. PMID:25452380

Khanduja, V

2014-12-01

30

Quizzes, Tests, and Exams  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website features information on strategies for testing, including choosing appropriate testing methodologies and developing a test that assesses students as accurately and fairly as possible. Topics include different types of tests, construction of effective exams and alternative testing methods.

Barbara Gross Davis

31

Disrupting MLC1 and GlialCAM and ClC-2 interactions in leukodystrophy entails glial chloride channel dysfunction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Defects in the astrocytic membrane protein MLC1, the adhesion molecule GlialCAM or the chloride channel ClC-2 underlie human leukoencephalopathies. Whereas GlialCAM binds ClC-2 and MLC1, and modifies ClC-2 currents in vitro, no functional connections between MLC1 and ClC-2 are known. Here we investigate this by generating loss-of-function Glialcam and Mlc1 mouse models manifesting myelin vacuolization. We find that ClC-2 is unnecessary for MLC1 and GlialCAM localization in brain, whereas GlialCAM is important for targeting MLC1 and ClC-2 to specialized glial domains in vivo and for modifying ClC-2’s biophysical properties specifically in oligodendrocytes (OLs), the cells chiefly affected by vacuolization. Unexpectedly, MLC1 is crucial for proper localization of GlialCAM and ClC-2, and for changing ClC-2 currents. Our data unmask an unforeseen functional relationship between MLC1 and ClC-2 in vivo, which is probably mediated by GlialCAM, and suggest that ClC-2 participates in the pathogenesis of megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts.

Hoegg-Beiler, Maja B.; Sirisi, Sònia; Orozco, Ian J.; Ferrer, Isidre; Hohensee, Svea; Auberson, Muriel; Gödde, Kathrin; Vilches, Clara; de Heredia, Miguel López; Nunes, Virginia; Estévez, Raúl; Jentsch, Thomas J.

2014-03-01

32

Fast motion-including dose error reconstruction for VMAT with and without MLC tracking.  

PubMed

Multileaf collimator (MLC) tracking is a promising and clinically emerging treatment modality for radiotherapy of mobile tumours. Still, new quality assurance (QA) methods are warranted to safely introduce MLC tracking in the clinic. The purpose of this study was to create and experimentally validate a simple model for fast motion-including dose error reconstruction applicable to intrafractional QA of MLC tracking treatments of moving targets.MLC tracking experiments were performed on a standard linear accelerator with prototype MLC tracking software guided by an electromagnetic transponder system. A three-axis motion stage reproduced eight representative tumour trajectories; four lung and four prostate. Low and high modulation 6?MV single-arc volumetric modulated arc therapy treatment plans were delivered for each trajectory with and without MLC tracking, as well as without motion for reference. Temporally resolved doses were measured during all treatments using a biplanar dosimeter. Offline, the dose delivered to each of 1069 diodes in the dosimeter was reconstructed with 500?ms temporal resolution by a motion-including pencil beam convolution algorithm developed in-house. The accuracy of the algorithm for reconstruction of dose and motion-induced dose errors throughout the tracking and non-tracking beam deliveries was quantified.Doses were reconstructed with a mean dose difference relative to the measurements of -0.5% (5.5% standard deviation) for cumulative dose. More importantly, the root-mean-square deviation between reconstructed and measured motion-induced 3%/3?mm ? failure rates (dose error) was 2.6%. The mean computation time for each calculation of dose and dose error was 295?ms.The motion-including dose reconstruction allows accurate temporal and spatial pinpointing of errors in absorbed dose and is adequately fast to be feasible for online use. An online implementation could allow treatment intervention in case of erroneous dose delivery in both tracking and non-tracking treatments. PMID:25383729

Ravkilde, Thomas; Keall, Paul J; Grau, Cai; Høyer, Morten; Poulsen, Per R

2014-12-01

33

Evaluation of two methods of predicting MLC leaf positions using EPID measurements  

SciTech Connect

In intensity modulated radiation treatments (IMRT), the position of the field edges and the modulation within the beam are often achieved with a multileaf collimator (MLC). During the MLC calibration process, due to the finite accuracy of leaf position measurements, a systematic error may be introduced to leaf positions. Thereafter leaf positions of the MLC depend on the systematic error introduced on each leaf during MLC calibration and on the accuracy of the leaf position control system (random errors). This study presents and evaluates two methods to predict the systematic errors on the leaf positions introduced during the MLC calibration. The two presented methods are based on a series of electronic portal imaging device (EPID) measurements. A comparison with film measurements showed that the EPID could be used to measure leaf positions without introducing any bias. The first method, referred to as the 'central leaf method', is based on the method currently used at this center for MLC leaf calibration. It mimics the manner in which leaf calibration parameters are specified in the MLC control system and consequently is also used by other centers. The second method, a new method proposed by the authors and referred to as the ''individual leaf method,'' involves the measurement of two positions for each leaf (-5 and +15 cm) and the interpolation and extrapolation from these two points to any other given position. The central leaf method and the individual leaf method predicted leaf positions at prescribed positions of -11, 0, 5, and 10 cm within 2.3 and 1.0 mm, respectively, with a standard deviation (SD) of 0.3 and 0.2 mm, respectively. The individual leaf method provided a better prediction of the leaf positions than the central leaf method. Reproducibility tests for leaf positions of -5 and +15 cm were performed. The reproducibility was within 0.4 mm on the same day and 0.4 mm six weeks later (1 SD). Measurements at gantry angles of 0 deg., 90 deg., and 270 deg. for leaf positions of -5 and +15 cm showed no significant effect of gravity. The individual leaf method could be used in various applications to improve the accuracy of radiotherapy treatment from planning to delivery. Three cases are discussed: IMRT beam verification, MLC calibration and dose calcula0010ti.

Parent, Laure; Seco, Joao; Evans, Phil M.; Dance, David R.; Fielding, Andrew [Joint Department of Physics, Institute of Cancer Research and Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Downs Road, Sutton, SM2 5PT (United Kingdom); Joint Department of Physics, Institute of Cancer Research and Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Fulham Road, London, SW3 6JJ (United Kingdom); School of Physical and Chemical Sciences, Queensland University of Technology, Q337 Gardens Point Campus, Brisbane, Queensland 4001 (Australia)

2006-09-15

34

MLC901, a Traditional Chinese Medicine induces neuroprotective and neuroregenerative benefits after traumatic brain injury in rats.  

PubMed

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a frequent and clinically highly heterogeneous neurological disorder with large socioeconomic consequences. NeuroAid (MLC601 and MLC901), a Traditional Medicine used in China for patients after stroke has been previously reported to induce neuroprotection and neuroplasticity. This study was designed to evaluate the neuroprotective and neuroregenerative effects of MLC901 in a rat model of TBI. TBI was induced by a moderate lateral fluid percussion applied to the right parietal cortex. MLC901 was injected intraperitoneally at 2h post-TBI, and then administered in drinking water at a concentration of 10mg/ml until sacrifice of the animals. The cognitive deficits induced by TBI were followed by using the "what-where-when" task, which allows the measurement of episodic-like memory. MLC901 treatment decreased brain lesions induced by TBI. It prevented the serum increase of S-100 beta (S100B) and neuron-specific enolase (NSE), which may be markers to predict the neurologic outcome in human patients with TBI. MLC901 reduced the infarct volume when injected up to 2h post-TBI, prevented edema formation and assisted its resolution, probably via the regulation of aquaporin 4. These positive MLC901 effects were associated with an upregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) as well as an increase of endogenous hippocampal neurogenesis and gliogenesis around the lesion. Furthermore, MLC901 reduced cognitive deficits induced by TBI. Rats subjected to TBI displayed a suppression of temporal order memory, which was restored by MLC901. This work provides evidence that MLC901 has neuroprotective and neurorestorative actions, which lead to an improvement in the recovery of cognitive functions in a model of traumatic brain injury. PMID:24993477

Quintard, H; Lorivel, T; Gandin, C; Lazdunski, M; Heurteaux, C

2014-09-26

35

Use of dMLC for implementation of dynamic respiratory-gated radiation therapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To simulate and evaluate the use of dynamic multileaf collimators (dMLC) in respiratory gating to compensate for baseline drift.Methods: Tumor motion tracking data from 30 lung tumors over 322 treatment fractions was analyzed with the finite state model. A dynamic respiratory gating window was established in real-time by determining the average positions during the previous two end-of-expiration breathing phases and centering the dMLC aperture on a weighted average of these positions. A simulated dMLC with physical motion constraints was used in dynamic gating treatment simulations. Fluence maps were created to provide a statistical description of radiation delivery for each fraction. Duty cycle was also calculated for each fraction.Results: The average duty cycle was 2.3% greater under dynamic gating conditions. Dynamic gating also showed higher fluences and less tumor obstruction. Additionally, dynamic gating required fewer beam toggles and each delivery period was longer on average than with static gating.Conclusions: The use of dynamic gating showed better performance than static gating and the physical constraints of a dMLC were shown to not be an impediment to dynamic gating.

Pepin, Eric W.; Wu, Huanmei [Purdue School of Engineering Technology, IUPUI, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202 (United States)] [Purdue School of Engineering Technology, IUPUI, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202 (United States); Shirato, Hiroki [Hokkaido University School of Medicine, Sapporo 060-8638 (Japan)] [Hokkaido University School of Medicine, Sapporo 060-8638 (Japan)

2013-10-15

36

Differential phosphorylation of LZ+/LZ- MYPT1 isoforms regulates MLC phosphatase activity.  

PubMed

The vascular response to NO is due, in part, to a Ca(2+) independent activation of myosin light chain (MLC) phosphatase, a trimeric enzyme of 20kDa, 38kDa catalytic and 110-130kDa myosin targeting (MYPT1) subunits. Alternative mRNA splicing produces MYPT1 isoforms that differ by the presence or absence of a central insert (CI) and a leucine zipper (LZ), and the presence of a LZ+ MYPT1 isoform is important for protein kinase G (PKG) mediated activation of MLC phosphatase. This study was designed to determine the molecular basis for the differential sensitivity of the vasculature to NO. Our results demonstrate that the presence of the MYPT1 LZ domain is required for PKG to both phosphorylate MYPT1 at S668 and activate MLC phosphatase. Further for LZ+ MYPT1 isoforms, an S668A MYPT1 mutation prevents the PKG mediated, Ca(2+) independent activation of MLC phosphatase. These data demonstrate that differential PKG mediated S668 phosphorylation of LZ+/LZ- MYPT1 isoforms could be important for determining the diversity in the sensitivity of the vasculature to NO mediated vasodilatation. Thus, the relative expression of LZ+/LZ- MYPT1 isoforms, in part, defines the vascular response to NO and NO based vasodilators, and therefore, plays a role in the regulation of vascular tone in both health and disease. PMID:25168281

Yuen, Samantha L; Ogut, Ozgur; Brozovich, Frank V

2014-11-15

37

Analytic IMRT dose calculations utilizing Monte Carlo to predict MLC fluence modulation  

PubMed Central

A hybrid dose-computation method is designed which accurately accounts for multileaf collimator (MLC)-induced intensity modulation in intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) dose calculations. The method employs Monte Carlo (MC) modeling to determine the fluence modulation caused by the delivery of dynamic or multisegmental (step-and-shoot) MLC fields, and a conventional dose-computation algorithm to estimate the delivered dose to a phantom or a patient. Thus, it determines the IMRT fluence prediction accuracy achievable by analytic methods in the limit that the analytic method includes all details of the MLC leaf transport and scatter. The hybrid method is validated and benchmarked by comparison with in-phantom film dose measurements, as well as dose calculations from two in-house, and two commercial treatment planning system analytic fluence estimation methods. All computation methods utilize the same dose algorithm to calculate dose to a phantom, varying only in the estimation of the MLC modulation of the incident photon energy fluence. Gamma analysis, with respect to measured two-dimensional (2D) dose planes, is used to benchmark each algorithm’s performance. The analyzed fields include static and dynamic test patterns, as well as fields from ten DMLC IMRT treatment plans (79 fields) and five SMLC treatment plans (29 fields). The test fields (fully closed MLC, picket fence, sliding windows of different size, and leaf-tip profiles) cover the extremes of MLC usage during IMRT, while the patient fields represent realistic clinical conditions. Of the methods tested, the hybrid method most accurately reproduces measurements. For the hybrid method, 79 of 79 DMLC field calculations have ? ?1 (3% /3 mm) for more than 95% of the points (per field) while for SMLC fields, 27 of 29 pass the same criteria. The analytic energy fluence estimation methods show inferior pass rates, with 76 of 79 DMLC and 24 of 29 SMLC fields having more than 95% of the test points with ? ?1 (3% /3 mm). Paired one-way ANOVA tests of the gamma analysis results found that the hybrid method better predicts measurements in terms of both the fraction of points with ? ?1 and the average gamma for both 2% /2 mm and 3% /3 mm criteria. These results quantify the enhancement in accuracy in IMRT dose calculations when MC is used to model the MLC field modulation. PMID:16696458

Mihaylov, I. B.; Lerma, F. A.; Wu, Y.; Siebers, J. V.

2007-01-01

38

Impact of the MLC on the MRI field distortion of a prototype MRI-linac  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To cope with intrafraction tumor motion, integrated MRI-linac systems for real-time image guidance are currently under development. The multileaf collimator (MLC) is a key component in every state-of-the-art radiotherapy treatment system, allowing for accurate field shaping and tumor tracking. This work quantifies the magnetic impact of a widely used MLC on the MRI field homogeneity for such a modality.Methods: The finite element method was employed to model a MRI-linac assembly comprised of a 1.0?T split-bore MRI magnet and the key ferromagnetic components of a Varian Millennium 120 MLC, namely, the leaves and motors. Full 3D magnetic field maps of the system were generated. From these field maps, the peak-to-peak distortion within the MRI imaging volume was evaluated over a 30?cm diameter sphere volume (DSV) around the isocenter and compared to a maximum preshim inhomogeneity of 300??T. Five parametric studies were performed: (1) The source-to-isocenter distance (SID) was varied from 100 to 200?cm, to span the range of a compact system to that with lower magnetic coupling. (2) The MLC model was changed from leaves only to leaves with motors, to determine the contribution to the total distortion caused by MLC leaves and motors separately. (3) The system was configured in the inline or perpendicular orientation, i.e., the linac treatment beam was oriented parallel or perpendicular to the magnetic field direction. (4) The treatment field size was varied from 0 × 0 to 20×20?cm{sup 2}, to span the range of clinical treatment fields. (5) The coil currents were scaled linearly to produce magnetic field strengths B{sub 0} of 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5?T, to estimate how the MLC impact changes with B{sub 0}.Results: (1) The MLC-induced MRI field distortion fell continuously with increasing SID. (2) MLC leaves and motors were found to contribute to the distortion in approximately equal measure. (3) Due to faster falloff of the fringe field, the field distortion was generally smaller in the perpendicular beam orientation. The peak-to-peak DSV distortion was below 300??T at SID?130?cm (perpendicular) and SID?140?cm (inline) for the 1.0?T design. (4) The simulation of different treatment fields was identified to cause dynamic changes in the field distribution. However, the estimated residual distortion was below 1.2?mm geometric distortion at SID?120?cm (perpendicular) and SID?130?cm (inline) for a 10?mT/m frequency-encoding gradient. (5) Due to magnetic saturation of the MLC materials, the field distortion remained constant at B{sub 0}>1.0?T.Conclusions: This work shows that the MRI field distortions caused by the MLC cannot be ignored and must be thoroughly investigated for any MRI-linac system. The numeric distortion values obtained for our 1.0?T magnet may vary for other magnet designs with substantially different fringe fields, however the concept of modest increases in the SID to reduce the distortion to a shimmable level is generally applicable.

Kolling, Stefan; Keall, Paul [Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)] [Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Oborn, Brad [Illawarra Cancer Care Centre (ICCC), Wollongong, NSW 2500 (Australia)] [Illawarra Cancer Care Centre (ICCC), Wollongong, NSW 2500 (Australia)

2013-12-15

39

Quantifying the gantry sag on linear accelerators and introducing an MLC-based compensation strategy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Gantry sag is one of the well-known sources of mechanical imperfections that compromise the spatial accuracy of radiation dose delivery. The objectives of this study were to quantify the gantry sag on multiple linear accelerators (linacs), to investigate a multileaf collimator (MLC)-based strategy to compensate for gantry sag, and to verify the gantry sag and its compensation with film measurements. Methods: The authors used the Winston-Lutz method to measure gantry sag on three Varian linacs. A ball bearing phantom was imaged with megavolt radiation fields at 10 deg. gantry angle intervals. The images recorded with an electronic portal imaging device were analyzed to derive the radiation isocenter and the gantry sag, that is, the superior-inferior wobble of the radiation field center, as a function of the gantry angle. The authors then attempted to compensate for the gantry sag by applying a gantry angle-specific correction to the MLC leaf positions. The gantry sag and its compensation were independently verified using film measurements. Results: Gantry sag was reproducible over a six-month measurement period. The maximum gantry sag was found to vary from 0.7 to 1.0 mm, depending on the linac and the collimator angle. The radiation field center moved inferiorly (i.e., away from the gantry) when the gantry was rotated from 0 deg. to 180 deg. After the MLC leaf position compensation was applied at 90 deg. collimator angle, the maximum gantry sag was reduced to <0.2 mm. The film measurements at gantry angles of 0 deg. and 180 deg. verified the inferior shift of the radiation fields and the effectiveness of MLC compensation. Conclusions: The results indicate that gantry sag on a linac can be quantitatively measured using a simple phantom and an electronic portal imaging device. Reduction of gantry sag is feasible by applying a gantry angle-specific correction to MLC leaf positions at 90 deg. collimator angle.

Du Weiliang; Gao Song; Wang Xiaochun; Kudchadker, Rajat J. [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States)

2012-04-15

40

Exam Question Exchange.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a take-home exam story problem based on stoichiometry. Requires the student to determine the percentage of phosphoric acid in a large container of nitric acid if a man fell into it. Provides assumptions, clues, and an acceptable solution. (MVL)

Ramette, R. W.

1988-01-01

41

Biostatistics Exemption Exam  

E-print Network

Biostatistics Exemption Exam Preparing for the wealth of opportunities at Berkeley SPH students in epidemiology, biostatistics, research methods, and financial management, involve working with equations, as are introductory statistics textbooks like Biostatistics: How it Works, by our own Professor Steve Selvin, which

Doudna, Jennifer A.

42

Exam Question Exchange.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two exam questions are presented. One suitable for advanced undergraduate or beginning graduate courses in organic chemistry, is on equivalent expressions for the description of several pericyclic reactions. The second, for general chemistry students, asks for an estimation of the rate of decay of a million-year-old Uranium-238 sample. (BB)

Alexander, John J., Ed.

1978-01-01

43

Fuel Cell Final Exam  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This final exam could be used at the end of a class or unit on fuel cell technology. The test consists of multiple choice, true/false, fill in the blank and short answer questions. This document may be downloaded in Microsoft Word DOC file format.

2012-08-07

44

Preparing Students for the AP Psychology Exam  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Advanced Placement Psychology exam is one of the fastest growing exams offered by the College Board. The average percent of change in the number of students taking this exam over the past five years is 12.4%. With 238,962 students taking the exam in 2013, the AP Psychology exam is the sixth largest exam, surpassing AP Biology and AP World…

Whitlock, Kristin

2013-01-01

45

Monte Carlo based beam model using a photon MLC for modulated electron radiotherapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Modulated electron radiotherapy (MERT) promises sparing of organs at risk for certain tumor sites. Any implementation of MERT treatment planning requires an accurate beam model. The aim of this work is the development of a beam model which reconstructs electron fields shaped using the Millennium photon multileaf collimator (MLC) (Varian Medical Systems, Inc., Palo Alto, CA) for a Varian linear accelerator (linac). Methods: This beam model is divided into an analytical part (two photon and two electron sources) and a Monte Carlo (MC) transport through the MLC. For dose calculation purposes the beam model has been coupled with a macro MC dose calculation algorithm. The commissioning process requires a set of measurements and precalculated MC input. The beam model has been commissioned at a source to surface distance of 70 cm for a Clinac 23EX (Varian Medical Systems, Inc., Palo Alto, CA) and a TrueBeam linac (Varian Medical Systems, Inc., Palo Alto, CA). For validation purposes, measured and calculated depth dose curves and dose profiles are compared for four different MLC shaped electron fields and all available energies. Furthermore, a measured two-dimensional dose distribution for patched segments consisting of three 18 MeV segments, three 12 MeV segments, and a 9 MeV segment is compared with corresponding dose calculations. Finally, measured and calculated two-dimensional dose distributions are compared for a circular segment encompassed with a C-shaped segment. Results: For 15 × 34, 5 × 5, and 2 × 2 cm{sup 2} fields differences between water phantom measurements and calculations using the beam model coupled with the macro MC dose calculation algorithm are generally within 2% of the maximal dose value or 2 mm distance to agreement (DTA) for all electron beam energies. For a more complex MLC pattern, differences between measurements and calculations are generally within 3% of the maximal dose value or 3 mm DTA for all electron beam energies. For the two-dimensional dose comparisons, the differences between calculations and measurements are generally within 2% of the maximal dose value or 2 mm DTA. Conclusions : The results of the dose comparisons suggest that the developed beam model is suitable to accurately reconstruct photon MLC shaped electron beams for a Clinac 23EX and a TrueBeam linac. Hence, in future work the beam model will be utilized to investigate the possibilities of MERT using the photon MLC to shape electron beams.

Henzen, D., E-mail: henzen@ams.unibe.ch; Manser, P.; Frei, D.; Volken, W.; Born, E. J.; Vetterli, D.; Chatelain, C.; Fix, M. K. [Division of Medical Radiation Physics and Department of Radiation Oncology, Inselspital, Bern University Hospital, and University of Bern, CH-3010 Berne (Switzerland)] [Division of Medical Radiation Physics and Department of Radiation Oncology, Inselspital, Bern University Hospital, and University of Bern, CH-3010 Berne (Switzerland); Neuenschwander, H. [Clinic for Radiation-Oncology, Lindenhofspital Bern, CH-3012 Berne (Switzerland)] [Clinic for Radiation-Oncology, Lindenhofspital Bern, CH-3012 Berne (Switzerland); Stampanoni, M. F. M. [Institute for Biomedical Engineering, ETH Zürich and Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5234 Villigen (Switzerland)] [Institute for Biomedical Engineering, ETH Zürich and Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5234 Villigen (Switzerland)

2014-02-15

46

Brushed permanent magnet DC MLC motor operation in an external magnetic field  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Linac-MR systems for real-time image-guided radiotherapy will utilize the multileaf collimators (MLCs) to perform conformal radiotherapy and tumor tracking. The MLCs would be exposed to the external fringe magnetic fields of the linac-MR hybrid systems. Therefore, an experimental investigation of the effect of an external magnetic field on the brushed permanent magnet DC motors used in some MLC systems was performed. Methods: The changes in motor speed and current were measured for varying external magnetic field strengths up to 2000 G generated by an EEV electromagnet. These changes in motor characteristics were measured for three orientations of the motor in the external magnetic field, mimicking changes in motor orientations due to installation and/or collimator rotations. In addition, the functionality of the associated magnetic motor encoder was tested. The tested motors are used with the Varian 120 leaf Millennium MLC (Maxon Motor half leaf and full leaf motors) and the Varian 52 leaf MKII MLC (MicroMo Electronics leaf motor) including a carriage motor (MicroMo Electronics). Results: In most cases, the magnetic encoder of the motors failed prior to any damage to the gearbox or the permanent magnet motor itself. This sets an upper limit of the external magnetic field strength on the motor function. The measured limits of the external magnetic fields were found to vary by the motor type. The leaf motor used with a Varian 52 leaf MKII MLC system tolerated up to 450{+-}10 G. The carriage motor tolerated up to 2000{+-}10 G field. The motors used with the Varian 120 leaf Millennium MLC system were found to tolerate a maximum of 600{+-}10 G. Conclusions: The current Varian MLC system motors can be used for real-time image-guided radiotherapy coupled to a linac-MR system, provided the fringe magnetic fields at their locations are below the determined tolerance levels. With the fringe magnetic fields of linac-MR systems expected to be larger than the tolerance levels determined, some form of magnetic shielding would be required.

Yun, J.; St Aubin, J.; Rathee, S.; Fallone, B. G. [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, 11322-89 Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2G7 (Canada) and Department of Oncology, Medical Physics Division, University of Alberta, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2 (Canada); Department of Medical Physics, Cross Cancer Institute, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2 (Canada) and Department of Oncology, Medical Physics Division, University of Alberta, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2 (Canada); Department of Physics, University of Alberta, 11322-89 Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2G7 (Canada); Department of Medical Physics, Cross Cancer Institute, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2 (Canada) and Department of Oncology, Medical Physics Division, University of Alberta, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2 (Canada)

2010-05-15

47

A method for testing the performance and the accuracy of the binary MLC used in helical tomotherapy.  

PubMed

During a helical tomotherapy a binary MLC is used for fluence modulation. The 64 pneumatically driven leaves of the MLC are either completely open or closed. The fast and frequent leaf movements result in a high demand of accuracy and stability of the MLC. This article is based on the analytical investigation of the accuracy and the stability of the MLC. Different patterns of MLC movements were generated to investigate the characteristics of the MLC. One of the considered aspects contains the friction between the leaves. The influence of variations of the compressed air on the MLC was also explored. The integrated MVCT detector of the tomotherapy system deposits the treatment data in a matrix. The detector is triggered with the linear accelerator, which is pulsed by 300Hz. The data matrix is available after the treatment. An IDL (Interactive Data Language) routine was programmed in order to analyse the matrix. The points of time, at which the leaves open (POT), and the period, in which the leaves stay open (LOT), were measured and compared with the desired values. That procedure has been repeated several times a week for approximately 6 months to investigate the stability of the MLC. Relative deviations of the LOT from -0.4% to -5.4% were measured. The friction between the leaves had no significant influence on the LOT. The available compressed air, that is used to move the leaves, depends on the number of moving leaves and also on the previous movements of the MLC. Variations of the compressed air resulted in deviations of the LOT from -1.8% to -3.7%. The measured POT deviates from the programmed POT up to -18.4ms±0.7ms. This maximal deviation correlates with a shift of the gantry angle of 0.52? which is negligible. The MLC has shown a stable behaviour over the 6 months. A separate consideration of the leaves showed no higher standard deviation of the LOT than ±0.7ms during the investigated time. The variation between the different leaves is much higher than the deviations of LOT caused by friction and changes of compressed air. The deviations of the LOT vary between -2.6ms and -11.0ms. The developed method is feasible in order to recognize a deterioration of the MLC performance. PMID:22921842

Lissner, Steffen; Schubert, Kai; Klüter, Sebastian; Oetzel, Dieter; Debus, Jürgen

2013-05-01

48

Identification of the specific sequence recognized by Penicillium citrinum MlcR, a GAL4-type transcriptional activator of ML-236B (compactin) biosynthetic genes.  

PubMed

MlcR is a pathway-specific transcriptional activator of the ML-236B biosynthetic genes in Penicillium citrinum. The MlcR-binding sequences were identified by an in vitro gel-shift assay and an in vivo reporter assay for the region between mlcA and mlcC as a model. The gel-shift assay showed that recombinant MlcR bound to the DNA sequence 5'-ACGGCGTTATTCGG-3' and most of the bases in this motif were required for the interaction between MlcR and DNA. In the reporter assay using beta-glucuronidase (GUS), substitution of the bases in this binding sequence resulted in the drastic reduction of GUS activities. These data clearly indicate that this MlcR-binding sequence is essential for the transcriptional activation of mlcA and mlcC in P. citrinum. Similar motifs were found in other loci of the ML-236B biosynthetic gene cluster and the consensus-binding motif for MlcR was predicted to be a direct repeat, 5'-WCGG-N(6)-TCGG-3'. PMID:18667169

Baba, S; Nihira, T; Hosobuchi, M

2008-09-01

49

Targeted disruption of the genes, mlcR and ariB, which encode GAL4-type proteins in Penicillium citrinum.  

PubMed

The role of two genes, mlcR and ariB, was investigated by gene disruption experiments. The mlcR gene in the ML-236B biosynthetic gene cluster of Penicillium citrinum encodes a putative 50.2-kDa protein with a Zn (II) 2Cys6 DNA-binding domain, and has similarity to most of the GAL4-type regulatory proteins. The mlcR disruptant did not produce ML-236B or its intermediates, suggesting that mlcR is involved in ML-236B biosynthesis. Transcriptional analysis of the mlcR disruptant by Northern hybridization and RT-PCR indicated that MlcR activates the transcription of mlcA, B, C,D, F, G and H in a pathway-specific manner. On the other hand, MlcR did not affect the transcription of mlcE and the genes outside the ML-236B cluster. The ariB gene, next to mlcR, encodes another GAL4-type protein. Transcriptional analysis of the ariB disruptant indicated that it is a transcriptional activator of the genes outside the ML-236B cluster, and is not related to ML-236B biosynthesis. PMID:16982102

Baba, S; Abe, Y; Ono, C; Hosobuchi, M

2006-01-01

50

IMRT treatment planning on 4D geometries for the era of dynamic MLC tracking.  

PubMed

The problem addressed here was to obtain optimal and deliverable dynamic multileaf collimator (MLC) leaf sequences from four-dimensional (4D) geometries for dynamic MLC tracking delivery. The envisaged scenario was where respiratory phase and position information of the target was available during treatment, from which the optimal treatment plan could be further adapted in real time. A tool for 4D treatment plan optimization was developed that integrates a commercially available treatment planning system and a general-purpose optimization system. The 4D planning method was applied to the 4D computed tomography planning scans of three lung cancer patients. The optimization variables were MLC leaf positions as a function of monitor units and respiratory phase. The objective function was the deformable dose-summed 4D treatment plan score. MLC leaf motion was constrained by the maximum leaf velocity between control points in terms of monitor units for tumor motion parallel to the leaf travel direction and between phases for tumor motion parallel to the leaf travel direction. For comparison and a starting point for the 4D optimization, three-dimensional (3D) optimization was performed on each of the phases. The output of the 4D IMRT planning process is a leaf sequence which is a function of both monitor unit and phase, which can be delivered to a patient whose breathing may vary between the imaging and treatment sessions. The 4D treatment plan score improved during 4D optimization by 34%, 4%, and 50% for Patients A, B, and C, respectively, indicating 4D optimization generated a better 4D treatment plan than the deformable sum of individually optimized phase plans. The dose-volume histograms for each phase remained similar, indicating robustness of the 4D treatment plan to respiratory variations expected during treatment delivery. In summary, 4D optimization for respiratory phase-dependent treatment planning with dynamic MLC motion tracking improved the 4D treatment plan score by 4-50% compared with 3D optimization. The 4D treatment plans had leaf sequences that varied from phase to phase to account for anatomic motion, but showed similar target dose distributions in each phase. The current method could in principle be generalized for use in offline replanning between fractions or for online 4D treatment planning based on 4D cone-beam CT images. Computation time remains a challenge. PMID:24354751

Suh, Yelin; Murray, Walter; Keall, Paul J

2014-12-01

51

Mlc of Thermus thermophilus: a Glucose-Specific Regulator for a Glucose/Mannose ABC Transporter in the Absence of the Phosphotransferase System  

PubMed Central

We report the presence of Mlc in a thermophilic bacterium. Mlc is known as a global regulator of sugar metabolism in gram-negative enteric bacteria that is controlled by sequestration to a glucose-transporting EIIGlc of the phosphotransferase system (PTS). Since thermophilic bacteria do not possess PTS, Mlc in Thermus thermophilus must be differently controlled. DNA sequence alignments between Mlc from T. thermophilus (MlcTth) and Mlc from E. coli (MlcEco) revealed that MlcTth conserved five residues of the glucose-binding motif of glucokinases. Here we show that MlcTth is not a glucokinase but is indeed able to bind glucose (KD = 20 ?M), unlike MlcEco. We found that mlc of T. thermophilus is the first gene within an operon encoding an ABC transporter for glucose and mannose, including a glucose/mannose-binding protein and two permeases. malK1, encoding the cognate ATP-hydrolyzing subunit, is located elsewhere on the chromosome. The system transports glucose at 70°C with a Km of 0.15 ?M and a Vmax of 4.22 nmol per min per ml at an optical density (OD) of 1. MlcTth negatively regulates itself and the entire glucose/mannose ABC transport system operon but not malK1, with glucose acting as an inducer. MalK1 is shared with the ABC transporter for trehalose, maltose, sucrose, and palatinose (TMSP). Mutants lacking malK1 do not transport either glucose or maltose. The TMSP transporter is also able to transport glucose with a Km of 1.4 ?M and a Vmax of 7.6 nmol per min per ml at an OD of 1, but it does not transport mannose. PMID:16952948

Chevance, Fabienne F. V.; Erhardt, Marc; Lengsfeld, Christina; Lee, Sung-Jae; Boos, Winfried

2006-01-01

52

Effect of MLC leaf width on treatment adaptation and accuracy for concurrent irradiation of prostate and pelvic lymph nodes  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of multileaf collimator (MLC) leaf width on treatment adaptation and delivery accuracy for concurrent treatment of the prostate and pelvic lymph nodes with intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Methods: Seventy-five kilovoltage cone beam CTs (KV-CBCT) from six patients were included for this retrospective study. For each patient, three different IMRT plans were created based on a planning CT using three different MLC leaf widths of 2.5, 5, and 10 mm, respectively. For each CBCT, the prostate displacement was determined by a dual image registration. Adaptive plans were created by shifting selected MLC leaf pairs to compensate for daily prostate movements. To evaluate the impact of MLC leaf width on the adaptive plan for each daily CBCT, three MLC shifted plans were created using three different leaf widths of MLCs (a total of 225 adaptive treatment plans). Selective dosimetric endpoints for the tumor volumes and organs at risk (OARs) were evaluated for these adaptive plans. Using the planning CT from a selected patient, MLC shifted plans for three hypothetical longitudinal shifts of 2, 4, and 8 mm were delivered on the three linear accelerators to test the deliverability of the shifted plans and to compare the dose accuracy of the shifted plans with the original IMRT plans. Results: Adaptive plans from 2.5 and 5 mm MLCs had inadequate dose coverage to the prostate (D99 < 97%, or D{sub mean} < 99% of the planned dose) in 6%-8% of the fractions, while adaptive plans from 10 mm MLC led to inadequate dose coverage to the prostate in 25.3% of the fractions. The average V{sub 56Gy} of the prostate over the six patients was improved by 6.4% (1.6%-32.7%) and 5.8% (1.5%-35.7%) with adaptive plans from 2.5 and 5 mm MLCs, respectively, when compared with adaptive plans from 10 mm MLC. Pelvic lymph nodes were well covered for all MLC adaptive plans, as small differences were observed for D99, D{sub mean}, and V{sub 50.4Gy}. Similar OAR sparing could be achieved for the bladder and rectum with all three MLCs for treatment adaptation. The MLC shifted plans can be accurately delivered on all three linear accelerators with accuracy similar to their original IMRT plans, where gamma (3%/3 mm) passing rates were 99.6%, 93.0%, and 92.1% for 2.5, 5, and 10 mm MLCs, respectively. The percentages of pixels with dose differences between the measurement and calculation being less than 3% of the maximum dose were 85.9%, 82.5%, and 70.5% for the original IMRT plans from the three MLCs, respectively. Conclusions: Dosimetric advantages associated with smaller MLC leaves were observed in terms of the coverage to the prostate, when the treatment was adapted to account for daily prostate movement for concurrent irradiation of the prostate and pelvic lymph nodes. The benefit of switching the MLC from 10 to 5 mm was significant (p Much-Less-Than 0.01); however, switching the MLC from 5 to 2.5 mm would not gain significant (p= 0.15) improvement. IMRT plans with smaller MLC leaf widths achieved more accurate dose delivery.

Shang Qingyang; Qi Peng; Ferjani, Samah; Xia Ping [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio 44195 (United States)

2013-06-15

53

Treatment plan comparison between helical tomotherapy and MLC-based IMRT using radiobiological measures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rapid implementation of advanced treatment planning and delivery technologies for radiation therapy has brought new challenges in evaluating the most effective treatment modality. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) using multi-leaf collimators (MLC) and helical tomotherapy (HT) are becoming popular modes of treatment delivery and their application and effectiveness continues to be investigated. Presently, there are several treatment planning systems (TPS) that can generate and optimize IMRT plans based on user-defined objective functions for the internal target volume (ITV) and organs at risk (OAR). However, the radiobiological parameters of the different tumours and normal tissues are typically not taken into account during dose prescription and optimization of a treatment plan or during plan evaluation. The suitability of a treatment plan is typically decided based on dosimetric criteria such as dose-volume histograms (DVH), maximum, minimum, mean and standard deviation of the dose distribution. For a more comprehensive treatment plan evaluation, the biologically effective uniform dose ({\\bar{\\bar{D}}}) is applied together with the complication-free tumour control probability (P+). Its utilization is demonstrated using three clinical cases that were planned with two different forms of IMRT. In this study, three different cancer types at different anatomical sites were investigated: head and neck, lung and prostate cancers. For each cancer type, a linac MLC-based step-and-shoot IMRT plan and a HT plan were developed. The MLC-based IMRT treatment plans were developed on the Philips treatment-planning platform, using the Pinnacle 7.6 software release. For the tomotherapy HiArt plans, the dedicated tomotherapy treatment planning station was used, running version 2.1.2. By using {\\bar{\\bar{D}}} as the common prescription point of the treatment plans and plotting the tissue response probabilities versus {\\bar{\\bar{D}}} for a range of prescription doses, a number of plan trials can be compared based on radiobiological measures. The applied plan evaluation method shows that in the head and neck cancer case the HT treatment gives better results than MLC-based IMRT in terms of expected clinical outcome (P+ of 62.2% and 46.0%, {\\bar{\\bar{D}}} to the ITV of 72.3 Gy and 70.7 Gy, respectively). In the lung cancer and prostate cancer cases, the MLC-based IMRT plans are better over the clinically useful dose prescription range. For the lung cancer case, the HT and MLC-based IMRT plans give a P+ of 66.9% and 72.9%, {\\bar{\\bar{D}}} to the ITV of 64.0 Gy and 66.9 Gy, respectively. Similarly, for the prostate cancer case, the two radiation modalities give a P+ of 68.7% and 72.2%, {\\bar{\\bar{D}}} to the ITV of 86.0 Gy and 85.9 Gy, respectively. If a higher risk of complications (higher than 5%) could be allowed, the complication-free tumour control could increase by over 40%, 2% and 30% compared to the initial dose prescription for the three cancer cases, respectively. Both MLC-based IMRT and HT can encompass the often-large ITV required while they minimize the volume of the organs at risk receiving high doses. Radiobiological evaluation of treatment plans may provide an improved correlation of the delivered treatment with the clinical outcome by taking into account the dose-response characteristics of the irradiated targets and normal tissues. There may exist clinical cases, which may look dosimetrically similar but in radiobiological terms may be quite different. In such situations, traditional dose-based evaluation tools can be complemented by the use of P_ +{-}{\\bar{\\bar{D}}} diagrams to effectively evaluate and compare treatment plans.

Mavroidis, Panayiotis; Costa Ferreira, Brigida; Shi, Chengyu; Lind, Bengt K.; Papanikolaou, Nikos

2007-07-01

54

Normal - Mental Status Exam - Attention Sub-exam - Patient 1  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this demonstration video, a patient is given a mental status exam. The patient is a female with no known neurological health problems who volunteered to act as a simulated patient in order to demonstrate 'normal' responses to exam techniques. Viewing the video requires installation of the free QuickTime Plug-in.

Pearson, John C.

55

Normal - Mental Status Exam - Memory Sub-exam - Patient 1  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video shows an example of a 'normal' mental status exam of a patient. Patient is a female with no known neurological health problems who volunteered to act as a simulated patient in order to demonstrate 'normal' responses to exam techniques. Viewing the video requires installation of the free QuickTime Plug-in.

Pearson, John C.

2009-04-07

56

Normal - Mental Status Exam - Orientation Sub-exam - Patient 1  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video demonstrates a 'normal' mental status exam of a patient. The patient is a female with no known neurological health problems who volunteered to act as a simulated patient in order to demonstrate 'normal' responses to exam techniques. Viewing the video requires installation of the free QuickTime Plug-in.

Pearson, John C.

2009-01-02

57

Monitoring daily MLC positional errors using trajectory log files and EPID measurements for IMRT and VMAT deliveries.  

PubMed

This work investigated the differences between multileaf collimator (MLC) positioning accuracy determined using either log files or electronic portal imaging devices (EPID) and then assessed the possibility of reducing patient specific quality control (QC) via phantom-less methodologies. In-house software was developed, and validated, to track MLC positional accuracy with the rotational and static gantry picket fence tests using an integrated electronic portal image. This software was used to monitor MLC daily performance over a 1 year period for two Varian TrueBeam linear accelerators, with the results directly compared with MLC positions determined using leaf trajectory log files. This software was validated by introducing known shifts and collimator errors. Skewness of the MLCs was found to be 0.03 ± 0.06° (mean ±1 standard deviation (SD)) and was dependent on whether the collimator was rotated manually or automatically. Trajectory log files, analysed using in-house software, showed average MLC positioning errors with a magnitude of 0.004 ± 0.003 mm (rotational) and 0.004 ± 0.011 mm (static) across two TrueBeam units over 1 year (mean ±1 SD). These ranges, as indicated by the SD, were lower than the related average MLC positioning errors of 0.000 ± 0.025 mm (rotational) and 0.000 ± 0.039 mm (static) that were obtained using the in-house EPID based software. The range of EPID measured MLC positional errors was larger due to the inherent uncertainties of the procedure. Over the duration of the study, multiple MLC positional errors were detected using the EPID based software but these same errors were not detected using the trajectory log files. This work shows the importance of increasing linac specific QC when phantom-less methodologies, such as the use of log files, are used to reduce patient specific QC. Tolerances of 0.25 mm have been created for the MLC positional errors using the EPID-based automated picket fence test. The software allows diagnosis of any specific leaf that needs repair and gives an indication as to the course of action that is required. PMID:24732210

Agnew, A; Agnew, C E; Grattan, M W D; Hounsell, A R; McGarry, C K

2014-05-01

58

Quantification of the impact of MLC modeling and tissue heterogeneities on dynamic IMRT dose calculations  

SciTech Connect

This study quantifies the dose prediction errors (DPEs) in dynamic IMRT dose calculations resulting from (a) use of an intensity matrix to estimate the multi-leaf collimator (MLC) modulated photon fluence (DPE{sub IGfluence}) instead of an explicit MLC particle transport, and (b) handling of tissue heterogeneities (DPE{sub hetero}) by superposition/convolution (SC) and pencil beam (PB) dose calculation algorithms. Monte Carlo (MC) computed doses are used as reference standards. Eighteen head-and-neck dynamic MLC IMRT treatment plans are investigated. DPEs are evaluated via comparing the dose received by 98% of the GTV (GTV D{sub 98%}), the CTV D{sub 95%}, the nodal D{sub 90%}, the cord and the brainstem D{sub 02%}, the parotid D{sub 50%}, the parotid mean dose (D{sub Mean}), and generalized equivalent uniform doses (gEUDs) for the above structures. For the MC-generated intensity grids, DPE{sub IGfluence} is within {+-}2.1% for all targets and critical structures. The SC algorithm DPE{sub hetero} is within {+-}3% for 98.3% of the indices tallied, and within {+-}3.4% for all of the tallied indices. The PB algorithm DPE{sub hetero} is within {+-}3% for 92% of the tallied indices. Statistical equivalence tests indicate that PB DPE{sub hetero} requires a {+-}3.6% interval to state equivalence with the MC standard, while the intervals are <1.5% for SC DPE{sub hetero} and DPE{sub IGfluence}. Overall, these results indicate that SC and MC IMRT dose calculations which use MC-derived intensity matrices for fluence prediction do not introduce significant dose errors compared with full Monte Carlo dose computations; however, PB algorithms may result in clinically significant dose deviations.

Mihaylov, I. B.; Lerma, F. A.; Fatyga, M.; Siebers, J. V. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas 72205 (United States) and Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23298 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23298 (United States)

2007-04-15

59

Improving IMRT-plan quality with MLC leaf position refinement post plan optimization  

PubMed Central

Purpose: In intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) planning, reducing the pencil-beam size may lead to a significant improvement in dose conformity, but also increase the time needed for the dose calculation and plan optimization. The authors develop and evaluate a postoptimization refinement (POpR) method, which makes fine adjustments to the multileaf collimator (MLC) leaf positions after plan optimization, enhancing the spatial precision and improving the plan quality without a significant impact on the computational burden. Methods: The authors’ POpR method is implemented using a commercial treatment planning system based on direct aperture optimization. After an IMRT plan is optimized using pencil beams with regular pencil-beam step size, a greedy search is conducted by looping through all of the involved MLC leaves to see if moving the MLC leaf in or out by half of a pencil-beam step size will improve the objective function value. The half-sized pencil beams, which are used for updating dose distribution in the greedy search, are derived from the existing full-sized pencil beams without need for further pencil-beam dose calculations. A benchmark phantom case and a head-and-neck (HN) case are studied for testing the authors’ POpR method. Results: Using a benchmark phantom and a HN case, the authors have verified that their POpR method can be an efficient technique in the IMRT planning process. Effectiveness of POpR is confirmed by noting significant improvements in objective function values. Dosimetric benefits of POpR are comparable to those of using a finer pencil-beam size from the optimization start, but with far less computation and time. Conclusions: The POpR is a feasible and practical method to significantly improve IMRT-plan quality without compromising the planning efficiency. PMID:22894437

Niu, Ying; Zhang, Guowei; Berman, Barry L.; Parke, William C.; Yi, Byongyong; Yu, Cedric X.

2012-01-01

60

Improving IMRT-plan quality with MLC leaf position refinement post plan optimization  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: In intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) planning, reducing the pencil-beam size may lead to a significant improvement in dose conformity, but also increase the time needed for the dose calculation and plan optimization. The authors develop and evaluate a postoptimization refinement (POpR) method, which makes fine adjustments to the multileaf collimator (MLC) leaf positions after plan optimization, enhancing the spatial precision and improving the plan quality without a significant impact on the computational burden. Methods: The authors' POpR method is implemented using a commercial treatment planning system based on direct aperture optimization. After an IMRT plan is optimized using pencil beams with regular pencil-beam step size, a greedy search is conducted by looping through all of the involved MLC leaves to see if moving the MLC leaf in or out by half of a pencil-beam step size will improve the objective function value. The half-sized pencil beams, which are used for updating dose distribution in the greedy search, are derived from the existing full-sized pencil beams without need for further pencil-beam dose calculations. A benchmark phantom case and a head-and-neck (HN) case are studied for testing the authors' POpR method. Results: Using a benchmark phantom and a HN case, the authors have verified that their POpR method can be an efficient technique in the IMRT planning process. Effectiveness of POpR is confirmed by noting significant improvements in objective function values. Dosimetric benefits of POpR are comparable to those of using a finer pencil-beam size from the optimization start, but with far less computation and time. Conclusions: The POpR is a feasible and practical method to significantly improve IMRT-plan quality without compromising the planning efficiency.

Niu Ying; Zhang Guowei; Berman, Barry L.; Parke, William C.; Yi Byongyong; Yu, Cedric X. [Department of Physics, George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052 (United States) and Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21201 (United States); Radiation Medicine, Georgetown University Hospital, Washington, DC 20007 (United States); Department of Physics, George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21201 (United States)

2012-08-15

61

Exam corner--November 2013.  

PubMed

The FRCS (Tr & Orth) examination has three components: MCQs, Vivas and Clinical Examination. The Vivas are further divided into five sections comprising Basic Science, Adult Pathology, Hands, Children’s Orthopaedics and Trauma. The Clinical Examination section is divided into upper- and lower-limb cases. The aim of this section in the Journal is to focus specifically on the trainees preparing for the exam and to cater to all the sections of the exam every month. The vision is to complete the cycle of all relevant exam topics (as per the syllabus) in four years. PMID:24151285

Khanduja, V

2013-11-01

62

Exam corner--August 2013.  

PubMed

The FRCS (Tr & Orth) examination has three components: MCQs, Vivas and Clinical Examination. The Vivas are further divided into four sections comprising Basic Science, Adult Pathology, Hands and Children's Orthopaedics and Trauma. The Clinical Examination section is divided into Upper and Lower limb cases. The aim of this section in the Journal is to focus specifically on the trainees preparing for the exam and to cater to all the sections of the exam. The vision is to complete the cycle of all relevant exam topics (as per the syllabus) in four years. PMID:23908437

Khanduja, V

2013-08-01

63

Exam corner--June 2013.  

PubMed

The FRCS (Tr & Orth) examination has three components: MCQs, Vivas and Clinical Examination. The Vivas are further divided into four sections comprising Basic Science, Adult Pathology, Hands and Children's Orthopaedics and Trauma. The Clinical Examination section is divided into Upper and Lower limb cases. The aim of this section in the Journal is to focus specifically on the trainees preparing for the exam and to cater to all the sections of the exam. The vision is to complete the cycle of all relevant exam topics (as per the syllabus) in four years. PMID:23723288

Khanduja, V

2013-06-01

64

Biological consequences of MLC calibration errors in IMRT delivery and QA  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The purpose of this work is threefold: (1) to explore biological consequences of the multileaf collimator (MLC) calibration errors in intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) of prostate and head and neck cancers, (2) to determine levels of planning target volume (PTV) and normal tissue under- or overdose flagged with clinically used QA action limits, and (3) to provide biologically based input for MLC QA and IMRT QA action limits. Methods: Ten consecutive prostate IMRT cases and ten consecutive head and neck IMRT cases were used. Systematic MLC offsets (i.e., calibration error) were introduced for each control point of the plan separately for X1 and X2 leaf banks. Offsets were from - 2 to 2 mm with a 0.5 mm increment. The modified files were imported into the planning system for forward dose recalculation. The original plan served as the reference. The generalized equivalent uniform dose (gEUD) was used as the biological index for the targets, rectum, parotid glands, brainstem, and spinal cord. Each plan was recalculated on a CT scan of a 27 cm diameter cylindrical phantom with a contoured 0.6 cc ion chamber. Dose to ion chamber and 3D gamma analysis were compared to the reference plan. QA pass criteria: (1) at least 95% of voxels with a dose cutoff of 50% of maximum dose have to pass at 3 mm/3% and (2) dose to chamber within 2% of the reference dose. Results: For prostate cases, differences in PTV and rectum gEUD greater than 2% were identified. However, a larger proportion of plans leading to greater than 2% difference in prostate PTV gEUD passed the ion chamber QA but not 3D gamma QA. A similar trend was found for the rectum gEUD. For head and neck IMRT, the QA pass criteria flagged plans leading to greater than 4% differences in PTV gEUD and greater than 5% differences in the maximum dose to brainstem. If pass criteria were relaxed to 90% for gamma and 3% for ion chamber QA, plans leading to a 5% difference in PTV gEUD and a 5%-8% difference in brainstem maximum dose would likely pass IMRT QA. A larger proportion of head and neck plans with greater than 2% PTV gEUD difference passed 3D gamma QA compared to ion chamber QA. Conclusions: For low modulation plans, there is a better chance to catch MLC calibration errors with 3D gamma QA rather than ion chamber QA. Conversely, for high modulation plans, there is a better chance to catch MLC calibration errors with ion chamber QA rather than with 3D gamma QA. Ion chamber and 3D gamma analysis IMRT QA can detect greater than 2% change in gEUD for PTVs and critical structures for low modulation treatment plans. For high modulation treatment plans, ion chamber and 3D gamma analysis can detect greater than 2% change in gEUD for PTVs and a 5% change in critical structure gEUD since either QA methods passes the QA criteria. For gEUD changes less than those listed above, either QA method has the same proportion of passing rate.

Moiseenko, Vitali; LaPointe, Vincent; James, Kerry; Yin Lingshu; Liu, Mitchell; Pawlicki, Todd

2012-04-15

65

Physics Exams That Promote Collaborative Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The two-stage exam is a relatively simple way to introduce collaborative learning and formative assessment into an exam. Their use is rapidly growing in the physics department at the University of British Columbia, as both students and faculty find them rewarding. In a two-stage exam students first complete and turn in the exam individually, and…

Wieman, Carl E.; Rieger, Georg W.; Heiner, Cynthia E.

2014-01-01

66

Developing On-line Exams.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses advantages and limitations of online exams, describes available software tools for creating computer-based tests (CGI, JavaScript, commercial programs, course authoring tools), and offers suggestions for implementation. (JOW)

Hartsell, Taralynn S.; Yuen, Steve Chi-Yin

2003-01-01

67

Breast self-exam (image)  

MedlinePLUS

Monthly breast self-exams should always include: visual inspection (with and without a mirror) to note any changes in contour or texture; and manual inspection in standing and reclining positions to note any unusual lumps or thicknesses.

68

EXPOSURE ANALYSIS MODELING SYSTEM (EXAMS)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Exposure Analysis Modeling System (EXAMS), first published in 1982 (EPA-600/3-82-023), provides interactive computer software for formulating aquatic ecosystem models and rapidly evaluating the fate, transport, and exposure concentrations of synthetic organic chemicals--pesti...

69

High-Dose Spatially Fractionated GRID Radiation Therapy (SFGRT): A Comparison of Treatment Outcomes With Cerrobend vs. MLC SFGRT  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Spatially fractionated GRID radiotherapy (SFGRT) using a customized Cerrobend block has been used to improve response rates in patients with bulky tumors. The clinical efficacy of our own multileaf collimator (MLC) technique is unknown. We undertook a retrospective analysis to compare clinical response rates attained using these two techniques. Methods and Materials: Seventy-nine patients with bulky tumors (median diameter, 7.6 cm; range, 4-30 cm) treated with SFGRT were reviewed. Between 2003 and late 2005, the Cerrobend block technique (n = 39) was used. Between late 2005 and 2008, SFGRT was delivered using MLC-shaped fields (n = 40). Dose was prescribed to dmax (depth of maximum dose) and was typically 15 Gy. Eighty percent of patients in both groups received external beam radiotherapy in addition to SFGRT. The two-sided Fisher-Freeman-Halton test was used to compare pain and mass effect response rates between the two groups. Results: Sixty-one patients (77%) were treated for palliative intent and 18 (23%) for curative intent. The majority of patients had either lung or head-and-neck primaries in both groups; the most frequent site of SFGRT application was the neck. The majority of patients complained of either pain (65%) or mass effect (58%) at intake. Overall response rates for pain and mass response were no different between the Cerrobend and MLC groups: pain, 75% and 74%, respectively (p = 0.50), and mass effect, 67% and 73%, respectively (p = 0.85). The majority of toxicities were Grade 1 or 2, and only 3 patients had late Grade 3-4 toxicities. Conclusions: MLC-based and Cerrobend-based SFGRT have comparable and encouraging response rates when used either in the palliative or curative setting. MLC-based SGFRT should allow clinics to more easily adopt this novel treatment approach for the treatment of bulky tumors.

Neuner, Geoffrey, E-mail: gneuner@umm.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Mohiuddin, Majid M. [Northwest Radiation Oncology and University of Texas Medical School at Houston, Houston, TX (United States); Vander Walde, Noam [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Goloubeva, Olga [Marlene and Stewart Greenebaum Cancer Center, University of Maryland Medical Center, Baltimore, MD (United States); Ha, Jonathan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California (United States); Yu, Cedric X.; Regine, William F. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States)

2012-04-01

70

UBC Biochemistry Comprehensive Exam Guidelines Biochemistry and Molecular Biology  

E-print Network

UBC Biochemistry Comprehensive Exam Guidelines Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Comprehensive Examination Guidelines 20132014 #12;UBC Biochemistry Comprehensive Exam Guidelines Table #12;UBC Biochemistry Comprehensive Exam Guidelines

Strynadka, Natalie

71

Dosimetric evaluation of photon dose calculation under jaw and MLC shielding  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The accuracy of photon dose calculation algorithms in out-of-field regions is often neglected, despite its importance for organs at risk and peripheral dose evaluation. The present work has assessed this for the anisotropic analytical algorithm (AAA) and the Acuros-XB algorithms implemented in the Eclipse treatment planning system. Specifically, the regions shielded by the jaw, or the MLC, or both MLC and jaw for flattened and unflattened beams have been studied.Methods: The accuracy in out-of-field dose under different conditions was studied for two different algorithms. Measured depth doses out of the field, for different field sizes and various distances from the beam edge were compared with the corresponding AAA and Acuros-XB calculations in water. Four volumetric modulated arc therapy plans (in the RapidArc form) were optimized in a water equivalent phantom, PTW Octavius, to obtain a region always shielded by the MLC (or MLC and jaw) during the delivery. Doses to different points located in the shielded region and in a target-like structure were measured with an ion chamber, and results were compared with the AAA and Acuros-XB calculations. Photon beams of 6 and 10 MV, flattened and unflattened were used for the tests.Results: Good agreement between calculated and measured depth doses was found using both algorithms for all points measured at depth greater than 3 cm. The mean dose differences (±1SD) were ?8%± 16%, ?3%± 15%, ?16%± 18%, and ?9%± 16% for measurements vs AAA calculations and ?10%± 14%, ?5%± 12%, ?19%± 17%, and ?13%± 14% for Acuros-XB, for 6X, 6 flattening-filter free (FFF), 10X, and 10FFF beams, respectively. The same figures for dose differences relative to the open beam central axis dose were: ?0.1%± 0.3%, 0.0%± 0.4%, ?0.3%± 0.3%, and ?0.1%± 0.3% for AAA and ?0.2%± 0.4%, ?0.1%± 0.4%, ?0.5%± 0.5%, and ?0.3%± 0.4% for Acuros-XB. Buildup dose was overestimated with AAA, while Acuros-XB gave results more consistent with measurements. From RapidArc plan analysis the average difference between calculation and measurement in the shielded region was ?0.3%± 0.4% and ?2.5%± 1.2% for AAA and Acuros-XB, respectively, relative to the mean target dose value (1.6%± 2.3%, ?12.7%± 4.0% if relative to each local value). These values were compared with the corresponding differences in the target structure: ?0.7%± 2.3% for AAA, and ?0.5%± 2.3% for Acuros-XB.Conclusions: The two algorithms analyzed showed encouraging results in predicting out-of-field region dose for clinical use.

Fogliata, A.; Clivio, A.; Vanetti, E.; Nicolini, G.; Belosi, M. F.; Cozzi, L. [Oncology Institute of Southern Switzerland, Medical Physics Unit, Bellinzona 6500 (Switzerland)] [Oncology Institute of Southern Switzerland, Medical Physics Unit, Bellinzona 6500 (Switzerland)

2013-10-15

72

Verification of dosimetric accuracy on the TrueBeam STx: Rounded leaf effect of the high definition MLC  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The dosimetric leaf gap (DLG) in the Varian Eclipse treatment planning system is determined during commissioning and is used to model the effect of the rounded leaf-end of the multileaf collimator (MLC). This parameter attempts to model the physical difference between the radiation and light field and account for inherent leakage between leaf tips. With the increased use of single fraction high dose treatments requiring larger monitor units comes an enhanced concern in the accuracy of leakage calculations, as it accounts for much of the patient dose. This study serves to verify the dosimetric accuracy of the algorithm used to model the rounded leaf effect for the TrueBeam STx, and describes a methodology for determining best-practice parameter values, given the novel capabilities of the linear accelerator such as flattening filter free (FFF) treatments and a high definition MLC (HDMLC). Methods: During commissioning, the nominal MLC position was verified and the DLG parameter was determined using MLC-defined field sizes and moving gap tests, as is common in clinical testing. Treatment plans were created, and the DLG was optimized to achieve less than 1% difference between measured and calculated dose. The DLG value found was tested on treatment plans for all energies (6 MV, 10 MV, 15 MV, 6 MV FFF, 10 MV FFF) and modalities (3D conventional, IMRT, conformal arc, VMAT) available on the TrueBeam STx. Results: The DLG parameter found during the initial MLC testing did not match the leaf gap modeling parameter that provided the most accurate dose delivery in clinical treatment plans. Using the physical leaf gap size as the DLG for the HDMLC can lead to 5% differences in measured and calculated doses. Conclusions: Separate optimization of the DLG parameter using end-to-end tests must be performed to ensure dosimetric accuracy in the modeling of the rounded leaf ends for the Eclipse treatment planning system. The difference in leaf gap modeling versus physical leaf gap dimensions is more pronounced in the more recent versions of Eclipse for both the HDMLC and the Millennium MLC. Once properly commissioned and tested using a methodology based on treatment plan verification, Eclipse is able to accurately model radiation dose delivered for SBRT treatments using the TrueBeam STx.

Kielar, Kayla N.; Mok, Ed; Hsu, Annie; Wang Lei; Luxton, Gary [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

2012-10-15

73

X-Ray Exam: Cervical Spine  

MedlinePLUS

... Doctors & Hospitals > Medical Tests & Exams > X-Ray Exam: Cervical Spine Print A A A Text Size What's in ... If You Have Questions What It Is A cervical spine X-ray is a safe and painless test ...

74

X-Ray Exam: Femur (Upper Leg)  

MedlinePLUS

KidsHealth > Parents > Doctors & Hospitals > Medical Tests & Exams > X-Ray Exam: Femur (Upper Leg) Print A A A Text Size What's in this article? What It Is Why It's Done Preparation Procedure What ...

75

Oil reserve  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on the crisis in the Persian Gulf which has renewed interest in the ability of the Department of Energy's Strategic Petroleum Reserve to counter disruptions in the supply of oil to the United States. To provide this protection, DOE must be able to offset the supplies lost by quickly drawing down reserve oil from its storage sites and distributing it to purchasers. This report reviews DOE's current and planned capability for removing oil from reserve sites and getting it to users via oil distribution networks, examines the Strategic Petroleum Reserve's compliance with pipeline safety requirements, and discusses DOE's efforts to correct problems that GAO previously reported. GAO concludes that a major distribution could be hampered because buyers of Strategic Petroleum Reserve oil are required to use U.S.-flag tankers to ship the oil between U.S. ports. DOE and industry officials doubt whether enough U.S.-flag vessels are available to do the job, and questions remain about the efficiency of procedures to authorize the use of foreign vessels.

Not Available

1991-01-01

76

Cumulative Exams in the Introductory Psychology Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many teachers require their students to take cumulative exams, but there are surprisingly few studies that examine the benefits of such exams. The purpose of this study was to determine whether introductory psychology students who take cumulative exams throughout the semester would have better long-term retention than students who take a…

Lawrence, Natalie K.

2013-01-01

77

OS Comprehensive Exam Spring 2007  

E-print Network

advantages and disadvantages for both. Suppose level 5 group contains n disks. 4.b.I. For r small reads per1 OS Comprehensive Exam Spring 2007 1. Both SPIN and the exokernel focused on providing safe system the processes used the Banker's Algorithm. #12;4 4.a. Compare RAID levels 1 and 5 storage schemes; discuss

Wang, Deli

78

Econ 2 Practice First Exam  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Exam -- twenty questions of multiple choice and four free response -- for an introductory or intermediate undergraduate (or advanced AP) economics class. Covers topics such as supply and demand, taxes, subsidies and dead weight loss, marginal revenue/marginal cost, competition and imperfect competition.

Hamilton, James

79

ELI Talent Show Final Exams  

E-print Network

Highlights ELI Talent Show Final Exams Scholarship Nominees Graduate Admissions Workshop Reminders from the Office Manners, Cultures, & Grammar TheELIWeekly ELI Talent Show It's going to be a blast! Come one, come all! The 2nd Annual ELI Talent Show will be on Tuesday, April 15th

Pilyugin, Sergei S.

80

Distribution Theory Practice Exam 2011  

E-print Network

Distribution Theory Practice Exam 2011 April 7, 2011 Assume 40-45 minutes per question. 1. (a) Let (p = 1, 2, . . . ). Show that one can define a regularised distribution corresponding to f by ~Tf is a distribution such that ~Tf () = Tf () if 0 / supp().) In what circumstances can we take the limit b ? (b) Let

Dorlas, Teunis C.

81

Comparison of two Classification methods (MLC and SVM) to extract land use and land cover in Johor Malaysia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mapping is essential for the analysis of the land use and land cover, which influence many environmental processes and properties. For the purpose of the creation of land cover maps, it is important to minimize error. These errors will propagate into later analyses based on these land cover maps. The reliability of land cover maps derived from remotely sensed data depends on an accurate classification. In this study, we have analyzed multispectral data using two different classifiers including Maximum Likelihood Classifier (MLC) and Support Vector Machine (SVM). To pursue this aim, Landsat Thematic Mapper data and identical field-based training sample datasets in Johor Malaysia used for each classification method, which results indicate in five land cover classes forest, oil palm, urban area, water, rubber. Classification results indicate that SVM was more accurate than MLC. With demonstrated capability to produce reliable cover results, the SVM methods should be especially useful for land cover classification.

Rokni Deilmai, B.; Ahmad, B. Bin; Zabihi, H.

2014-06-01

82

AFFORDABLE MULTI-LAYER CERAMIC (MLC) MANUFACTURING FOR POWER SYSTEMS (AMPS)  

SciTech Connect

McDermott Technology, Inc. (MTI) is attempting to develop high-performance, cost-competitive solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) power systems. Recognizing the challenges and limitations facing the development of SOFC stacks comprised of electrode-supported cells and metallic interconnects, McDermott Technology, Inc. (MTI) has chosen to pursue an alternate path to commercialization. MTI is developing a multi-layer, co-fired, planar SOFC stack that will provide superior performance and reliability at reduced costs relative to competing designs. The MTI approach combines state-of-the-art SOFC materials with the manufacturing technology and infrastructure established for multi-layer ceramic (MLC) packages for the microelectronics industry. The rationale for using MLC packaging technology is that high quality, low-cost manufacturing has been demonstrated at high volumes. With the proper selection of SOFC materials, implementation of MLC fabrication methods offers unique designs for stacks (cells and interconnects) that are not possible through traditional fabrication methods. The MTI approach eliminates use of metal interconnects and ceramic-metal seals, which are primary sources of stack performance degradation. Co-fired cells are less susceptible to thermal cycling stresses by using material compositions that have closely matched coefficients of thermal expansion between the cell and the interconnect. The development of this SOFC stack technology was initiated in October 1999 under the DOE cosponsored program entitled ''Affordable Multi-layer Ceramic Manufacturing for Power Systems (AMPS)''. The AMPS Program was conducted as a two-phase program: Phase I--Feasibility Assessment (10/99--9/00); and Phase II--Process Development for Co-fired Stacks (10/00-3/02). This report provides a summary of the results from Phase I and a more detailed review of the results for Phase II. Phase I demonstrated the feasibility for fabricating multi-layer, co-fired cells and interconnects and resulted in selection of the most promising configuration for high-performance, low-cost SOFC stacks. During Phase II, the MTI Team successfully refined the fabrication processes and achieved low-rate production of cells and interconnects (about 100 per month). Short stacks (3-10 cells) using co-fired cells and interconnects were assembled and tested to validate the MTI multi-layer SOFC design. The team successfully demonstrated co-fired repeat units, comprised of a cell and the interconnect layers. Development of co-fired cells and multi-layer interconnects based on the new stack design was completed; all component fabrication and stack testing efforts were redirected to the new design toward the end of Phase II. Finally, low-cost alternate materials for the interconnect body and conductors within the interconnect were identified. At the end of Phase II, the MTI Team successfully transitioned the multi-layer SOFC stack development effort to the Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) program.

E.A. Barringer, Ph.D.

2002-11-27

83

A dosimetric evaluation of the Eclipse AAA algorithm and Millennium 120 MLC for cranial intensity-modulated radiosurgery.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to assess the accuracy of a convolution-based algorithm (anisotropic analytical algorithm [AAA]) implemented in the Eclipse planning system for intensity-modulated radiosurgery (IMRS) planning of small cranial targets by using a 5-mm leaf-width multileaf collimator (MLC). Overall, 24 patient-based IMRS plans for cranial lesions of variable size (0.3 to 15.1cc) were planned (Eclipse, AAA, version 10.0.28) using fixed field-based IMRS produced by a Varian linear accelerator equipped with a 120 MLC (5-mm width on central leaves). Plan accuracy was evaluated according to phantom-based measurements performed with radiochromic film (EBT2, ISP, Wayne, NJ). Film 2D dose distributions were performed with the FilmQA Pro software (version 2011, Ashland, OH) by using the triple-channel dosimetry method. Comparison between computed and measured 2D dose distributions was performed using the gamma method (3%/1mm). Performance of the MLC was checked by inspection of the DynaLog files created by the linear accelerator during the delivery of each dynamic field. The absolute difference between the calculated and measured isocenter doses for all the IMRS plans was 2.5% ± 2.1%. The gamma evaluation method resulted in high average passing rates of 98.9% ± 1.4% (red channel) and 98.9% ± 1.5% (blue and green channels). DynaLog file analysis revealed a maximum root mean square error of 0.46mm. According to our results, we conclude that the Eclipse/AAA algorithm provides accurate cranial IMRS dose distributions that may be accurately delivered by a Varian linac equipped with a Millennium 120 MLC. PMID:24342166

Calvo Ortega, Juan Francisco; Moragues, Sandra; Pozo, Miquel; José, Sol San; Puertas, Enrique; Fernández, Jaime; Casals, Joan

2014-01-01

84

Dosimetric comparison between two MLC systems commonly used for stereotactic radiosurgery and radiotherapy: a Monte Carlo and experimental study.  

PubMed

In this work dosimetric parameters of two multi-leaf collimator (MLC) systems, namely the beam modulator (BM), which is the MLC commercial name for Elekta "Synergy S" linear accelerator and Radionics micro-MLC (MMLC), are compared using measurements and Monte Carlo simulations. Dosimetric parameters, such as percentage depth doses (PDDs), in-plane and cross-plane dose profiles, and penumbras for different depths and field sizes of the 6 MV photon beams were measured using ionization chamber and a water tank. The collimator leakages were measured using radiographic films. MMLC and BM were modeled using the EGSnrc-based BEAMnrc Monte Carlo code and above dosimetric parameters were calculated. The energy fluence spectra for the two MLCs were also determined using the BEAMnrc and BEAMDP. Dosimetric parameters of the two MLCs were similar, except for penumbras. Leaf-side and leaf-end 80-20% dose penumbras at 10 cm depth for a 10×10 cm(2) field size were 4.8 and 5.1mm for MMLC and 5.3 mm and 6.3 mm for BM, respectively. Both Radionics MMLC and Elekta BM can be used effectively based on their dosimetric characteristics for stereotactic radiosurgery and radiotherapy, although the former showed slightly sharper dose penumbra especially in the leaf-end direction. PMID:22658764

Asnaashari, K; Chow, James C L; Heydarian, Mostafa

2013-06-01

85

Neuropathy - Coordination Exam - Lower Extremities Sub-exam - Patient 7  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video demonstrates a coordination exam of the lower extremities. This 61-year-old man has had slowly progressive gait disturbance and weakness of his legs for 14 years. He has developed a limp in both legs, and his feet trip on objects and on uneven floor surfaces resulting in falls. Weakness and numbness of the legs is limiting his ability to walk. Viewing the video requires installation of the free QuickTime Plug-in.

Pearson, John C.

2009-01-02

86

Investigation of the sag in linac secondary collimator and MLC carriage during arc deliveries.  

PubMed

In modern radiotherapy, it is vitally important to monitor the performance of all linac components including the collimation system. In this study, a simple measurement method and accurate algorithm are introduced for investigation of the secondary and tertiary collimator sag during radiotherapy arc treatments. The method is based on cine EPID images of a ball bearing marker fixed to the gantry head and determines the jaw and MLC sag in all directions relative to the reference at zero gantry angle. Analysis was performed using different field sizes and collimator angles, different linacs and different gantry rotation directions. The accuracy of the method was tested and was less than 0.02 mm. The repeatability and reproducibility of the method was 0.005 and 0.09 mm, respectively. The setup is easy and quick and the algorithm is fast and fully automatic with sub-pixel accuracy. This method is suitable to be included in the routine quality assurance of linacs to monitor the collimator system performance. PMID:22643340

Rowshanfarzad, Pejman; Sabet, Mahsheed; O'Connor, Daryl J; Greer, Peter B

2012-06-21

87

Investigation of the sag in linac secondary collimator and MLC carriage during arc deliveries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In modern radiotherapy, it is vitally important to monitor the performance of all linac components including the collimation system. In this study, a simple measurement method and accurate algorithm are introduced for investigation of the secondary and tertiary collimator sag during radiotherapy arc treatments. The method is based on cine EPID images of a ball bearing marker fixed to the gantry head and determines the jaw and MLC sag in all directions relative to the reference at zero gantry angle. Analysis was performed using different field sizes and collimator angles, different linacs and different gantry rotation directions. The accuracy of the method was tested and was less than 0.02 mm. The repeatability and reproducibility of the method was 0.005 and 0.09 mm, respectively. The setup is easy and quick and the algorithm is fast and fully automatic with sub-pixel accuracy. This method is suitable to be included in the routine quality assurance of linacs to monitor the collimator system performance.

Rowshanfarzad, Pejman; Sabet, Mahsheed; O'Connor, Daryl J.; Greer, Peter B.

2012-06-01

88

Monte Carlo simulation of MLC-shaped TrueBeam electron fields benchmarked against measurement  

E-print Network

Modulated electron radiotherapy (MERT) and combined, modulated photon/electron radiotherapy (MPERT) have received increased research attention, having shown capacity for reduced low dose exposure to healthy tissue and comparable, if not improved, target coverage for a number of treatment sites. Accurate dose calculation tools are necessary for clinical treatment planning, and Monte Carlo (MC) is the gold standard for electron field simulation. With many clinics replacing older accelerators, MC source models of the new machines are needed for continued development, however, Varian has kept internal schematics of the TrueBeam confidential and electron phase-space sources have not been made available. TrueBeam electron fields are not substantially different from those generated by the Clinac 21EX, so we have modified the internal schematics of the Clinac 21EX to simulate TrueBeam electrons. BEAMnrc/DOSXYZnrc were used to simulate 5x5 and 20x20 cm$^2$ electron fields with MLC-shaped apertures. Secondary collimati...

Lloyd, Samantha AM; Zavgorodni, Sergei

2014-01-01

89

An algorithm for shifting MLC shapes to adjust for daily prostate movement during concurrent treatment with pelvic lymph nodes  

SciTech Connect

Concurrent treatment of the prostate and the pelvic lymph nodes encounters the problem of the prostate gland moving independently from the pelvic lymph nodes on a daily basis. The purpose of this study is to develop a leaf-tracking algorithm for adjustment of IMRT portals without requirement of online dose calculation to account for daily prostate position during concurrent treatment with pelvic lymph nodes. A leaf-shifting algorithm was developed and programmed to adjust the positions of selected MLC leaf pairs according to prostate movement in the plane perpendicular to each beam angle. IMRT plans from five patients with concurrent treatment of the prostate and pelvic lymph nodes were selected to test the feasibility of this algorithm by comparison with isocenter-shifted plans, using defined dose endpoints. When the prostate moved 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 cm along the anterior/posterior direction, the average doses to 95% of the prostate (D{sub 95%}) for the iso-shift plans were similar to the MLC-shift plans, (54.7, 54.4, and 54.1 Gy versus 54.5, 54.3, and 53.9 Gy, respectively). The corresponding D{sub 95%} averages to the pelvic lymph nodes were reduced from the prescription dose of 45 Gy to 42.7, 38.3, and 34.0 Gy for iso-shift plans (p=0.04 for each comparison), while the D{sub 95%} averages for the MLC-shift plans did not significantly differ from the prescription dose, at 45.0, 44.8, and 44.5 Gy. Compensation for prostate movement along the superior/inferior direction was more complicated due to a limiting MLC leaf width of 1.0 cm. In order to concurrently treat the prostate and pelvic lymph nodes with the prostate moving independently, shifting selected MLC leaf pairs may be a more practical adaptive solution than shifting the patient.

Ludlum, Erica; Mu, Guangwei; Weinberg, Vivian; Roach, Mack III; Verhey, Lynn J.; Xia Ping [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California-San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94143 (United States)

2007-12-15

90

Experimental investigation of a moving averaging algorithm for motion perpendicular to the leaf travel direction in dynamic MLC target tracking  

PubMed Central

Purpose: In dynamic multileaf collimator (MLC) motion tracking with complex intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) fields, target motion perpendicular to the MLC leaf travel direction can cause beam holds, which increase beam delivery time by up to a factor of 4. As a means to balance delivery efficiency and accuracy, a moving average algorithm was incorporated into a dynamic MLC motion tracking system (i.e., moving average tracking) to account for target motion perpendicular to the MLC leaf travel direction. The experimental investigation of the moving average algorithm compared with real-time tracking and no compensation beam delivery is described.Methods: The properties of the moving average algorithm were measured and compared with those of real-time tracking (dynamic MLC motion tracking accounting for both target motion parallel and perpendicular to the leaf travel direction) and no compensation beam delivery. The algorithm was investigated using a synthetic motion trace with a baseline drift and four patient-measured 3D tumor motion traces representing regular and irregular motions with varying baseline drifts. Each motion trace was reproduced by a moving platform. The delivery efficiency, geometric accuracy, and dosimetric accuracy were evaluated for conformal, step-and-shoot IMRT, and dynamic sliding window IMRT treatment plans using the synthetic and patient motion traces. The dosimetric accuracy was quantified via a ?-test with a 3%/3 mm criterion.Results: The delivery efficiency ranged from 89 to 100% for moving average tracking, 26%–100% for real-time tracking, and 100% (by definition) for no compensation. The root-mean-square geometric error ranged from 3.2 to 4.0 mm for moving average tracking, 0.7–1.1 mm for real-time tracking, and 3.7–7.2 mm for no compensation. The percentage of dosimetric points failing the ?-test ranged from 4 to 30% for moving average tracking, 0%–23% for real-time tracking, and 10%–47% for no compensation.Conclusions: The delivery efficiency of moving average tracking was up to four times higher than that of real-time tracking and approached the efficiency of no compensation for all cases. The geometric accuracy and dosimetric accuracy of the moving average algorithm was between real-time tracking and no compensation, approximately half the percentage of dosimetric points failing the ?-test compared with no compensation. PMID:21858989

Yoon, Jai-Woong; Sawant, Amit; Suh, Yelin; Cho, Byung-Chul; Suh, Tae-Suk; Keall, Paul

2011-01-01

91

Experimental investigation of a moving averaging algorithm for motion perpendicular to the leaf travel direction in dynamic MLC target tracking  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: In dynamic multileaf collimator (MLC) motion tracking with complex intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) fields, target motion perpendicular to the MLC leaf travel direction can cause beam holds, which increase beam delivery time by up to a factor of 4. As a means to balance delivery efficiency and accuracy, a moving average algorithm was incorporated into a dynamic MLC motion tracking system (i.e., moving average tracking) to account for target motion perpendicular to the MLC leaf travel direction. The experimental investigation of the moving average algorithm compared with real-time tracking and no compensation beam delivery is described. Methods: The properties of the moving average algorithm were measured and compared with those of real-time tracking (dynamic MLC motion tracking accounting for both target motion parallel and perpendicular to the leaf travel direction) and no compensation beam delivery. The algorithm was investigated using a synthetic motion trace with a baseline drift and four patient-measured 3D tumor motion traces representing regular and irregular motions with varying baseline drifts. Each motion trace was reproduced by a moving platform. The delivery efficiency, geometric accuracy, and dosimetric accuracy were evaluated for conformal, step-and-shoot IMRT, and dynamic sliding window IMRT treatment plans using the synthetic and patient motion traces. The dosimetric accuracy was quantified via a {gamma}-test with a 3%/3 mm criterion. Results: The delivery efficiency ranged from 89 to 100% for moving average tracking, 26%-100% for real-time tracking, and 100% (by definition) for no compensation. The root-mean-square geometric error ranged from 3.2 to 4.0 mm for moving average tracking, 0.7-1.1 mm for real-time tracking, and 3.7-7.2 mm for no compensation. The percentage of dosimetric points failing the {gamma}-test ranged from 4 to 30% for moving average tracking, 0%-23% for real-time tracking, and 10%-47% for no compensation. Conclusions: The delivery efficiency of moving average tracking was up to four times higher than that of real-time tracking and approached the efficiency of no compensation for all cases. The geometric accuracy and dosimetric accuracy of the moving average algorithm was between real-time tracking and no compensation, approximately half the percentage of dosimetric points failing the {gamma}-test compared with no compensation.

Yoon, Jai-Woong; Sawant, Amit; Suh, Yelin; Cho, Byung-Chul; Suh, Tae-Suk; Keall, Paul [Department of Biomedical Engineering, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea 131-700 and Research Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, 131-700 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States) and Department of Radiation Oncology, Asan Medical Center, Seoul, 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Biomedical Engineering, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, 131-700 and Research Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, 131-700 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States) and Radiation Physics Laboratory, Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, 2006 (Australia)

2011-07-15

92

HESI exams: consequences and remediation.  

PubMed

A growing body of knowledge supports the use of Elsevier's standardized HESI exams as an admission criterion to evaluate ongoing student performance and curricular outcomes and to measure students' preparedness for the National Council Licensure Examination for Registered Nurses (NCLEX-RN). Because a plethora of research indicates that the HESI Exit Exam (E(2)) is a valid predictor of NCLEX-RN success, faculty often designate a benchmark E(2) score that students are required to achieve. Students who do not achieve the faculty-designated benchmark score are required to remediate and retest with a parallel version of the E(2) to determine the effectiveness of the remediation and to reevaluate the student's preparedness for the licensure exam. This study compared mean E(2) scores of students who attended schools that attached consequences to E(2) scores with students who attended schools that did not attach consequences to E(2) scores. Based on data obtained from the Eighth Validity Study Questionnaire, findings indicated that E(2) scores were significantly higher (P < .01) in schools that associated consequences with failure to achieve the faculty-designated E(2) score and were also significantly higher (P < .01) in schools that required, rather than merely suggested remediation. PMID:23566502

Lauer, Maria E; Yoho, Mary J

2013-01-01

93

Implications of a high-definition multileaf collimator (HD-MLC) on treatment planning techniques for stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT): a planning study  

PubMed Central

Purpose To assess the impact of two multileaf collimator (MLC) systems (2.5 and 5 mm leaf widths) on three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy, intensity-modulated radiotherapy, and dynamic conformal arc techniques for stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) of liver and lung lesions. Methods Twenty-nine SBRT plans of primary liver (n = 11) and lung (n = 18) tumors were the basis of this study. Five-millimeter leaf width 120-leaf Varian Millennium (M120) MLC-based plans served as reference, and were designed using static conformal beams (3DCRT), sliding-window intensity-modulated beams (IMRT), or dynamic conformal arcs (DCA). Reference plans were either re-optimized or recomputed, with identical planning parameters, for a 2.5-mm width 120-leaf BrainLAB/Varian high-definition (HD120) MLC system. Dose computation was based on the anisotropic analytical algorithm (AAA, Varian Medical Systems) with tissue heterogeneity taken into account. Each plan was normalized such that 100% of the prescription dose covered 95% of the planning target volume (PTV). Isodose distributions and dose-volume histograms (DVHs) were computed and plans were evaluated with respect to target coverage criteria, normal tissue sparing criteria, as well as treatment efficiency. Results Dosimetric differences achieved using M120 and the HD120 MLC planning were generally small. Dose conformality improved in 51.7%, 62.1% and 55.2% of the IMRT, 3DCRT and DCA cases, respectively, with use of the HD120 MLC system. Dose heterogeneity increased in 75.9%, 51.7%, and 55.2% of the IMRT, 3DCRT and DCA cases, respectively, with use of the HD120 MLC system. DVH curves demonstrated a decreased volume of normal tissue irradiated to the lower (90%, 50% and 25%) isodose levels with the HD120 MLC. Conclusion Data derived from the present comparative assessment suggest dosimetric merit of the high definition MLC system over the millennium MLC system. However, the clinical significance of these results warrants further investigation in order to determine whether the observed dosimetric advantages translate into outcome improvements. PMID:19591687

Tanyi, James A; Summers, Paige A; McCracken, Charles L; Chen, Yiyi; Ku, Li-Chung; Fuss, Martin

2009-01-01

94

A Light-Field-Based Method to Adjust On-Axis Rounded Leaf End MLC Position to Predict Off-Axis MLC Penumbra Region Dosimetric Performance in a Radiation Therapy Planning System  

PubMed Central

Purpose. An analytical and experimental study of split shape dose calculation correction by adjusting the position of the on-axis round leaf end position is presented. We use on-axis corrected results to predict off-axis penumbra region dosimetric performance in an intensity-modulated radiation therapy treatment planning system. Materials and Methods. The precise light-field edge position (X tang.p) was derived from the on-axis 50% dose position created by using the nominal light field for geometric and mathematical manipulation. Leaf position (X mlc.p) could be derived from X tang.p by defining in the treatment planning system for monitor unit calculation. On-axis offset (correction) could be obtained from the position corresponding to 50% of the central axis dose minus the Xmlc.p position. The off-axis 50% dose position can then be derived from the on-axis 50% dose position. Results. The monitor unit calculation of the split shape using the on-axis rounded leaf end MLC penumbra region could provide an under-or overdose of 7.5% per millimeter without an offset correction. When using the on-axis rounded leaf end offset correction to predict the off-axis dose, the difference between the off- and on-axis 50% dose position is within ±1.5?mm. Conclusions. It is possible to achieve a dose calculation within 0.5% error for an adjusted MLC leaf edge location in the treatment planning system with careful measurement and an accurate on-axis offset correction. Dose calculations located at an off-axis spilt shape region should be used carefully due to noncorrectable errors which were found to be up to 10%. PMID:24288680

Wu, Jia-Ming; Lee, Tsair-Fwu; Yeh, Shyh-An; Hsiao, Kuan-Yin; Chen, Hsin-Hsiung; Chao, Pei-Ju; Chen, Yi-Ting

2013-01-01

95

Qualifying Exam Guidelines for the Developmental, Regenerative and Stem Cell Biology General Knowledge Exam  

E-print Network

Qualifying Exam Guidelines for the Developmental, Regenerative and Stem Cell Biology Program. General Knowledge Exam The Developmental, Regenerative and Stem Cell Biology (DRS) Program's General different faculty members on the following four subjects: Developmental Biology, Genetics, Cell Biology

Gereau, Robert W. IV

96

CompTIA A+ Certifications and Exams  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A+ certification is one of the most widely recognized computer technician certification programs. Certification is granted by a non-profit trade organization CompTIA and is vendor neutral. This webpage (from CompTIA website) provides links to A+ certification exam preparation material). Links are given to sample test questions and pages providing information on exam objectives; finding training materials & providers; test taking tips; financial aid; and registering for the exam. Information, including a name and email address, are required.

97

Profile of State High School Exit Exam Policies. New Jersey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This individual profile provides information on New Jersey's high school exit exam standards and policies. Some of the categories presented include: (1) State exit exam policy; (2) Type of Test; (3) Purpose; (4) Major changes in exit exam policy since the 2009-10 school year for financial reasons; (5) Subjects tested on exam; (6) Grade exam first…

Center on Education Policy, 2011

2011-01-01

98

Instructions of the NTU Health Exam for Incoming Exchange Students (Health Exam Time)  

E-print Network

) 2 () Department of Family Medicine, Health Exam Register, 2F of the older wing of the National and metal accessories. Please inform the personnel in advance if you are pregnant. (Health exam procedure to the waiting area near the Department of Family Medicine for blood test. 6Exam items by doctor; submit

Wu, Yih-Min

99

Regents Exam Prep Center - Physics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the "Regents Exam Prep Center" site for physics. It contains a large number of physics lectures, lesson plans, problem solving techniques, and demonstrations for a wide variety of high school and early college physics topics. The topics include: kinematics, statics, dynamics, momentum, work, power, energy, static electricity, electric current, magnetism, electromagnetic induction, wave characteristics, periodic wave phenomenon, light, the dual nature of light, quantum theory, models of the atom and particle physics. This is a nice resource for a general overview of physics.

2009-05-15

100

MV image-based dynamic MLC tracking of a NiTi stent in pig lungs on a linear accelerator  

PubMed Central

Purpose: To investigate the accuracy and potential limitations of MV image-based dynamic MLC tracking in a porcine model on a linear accelerator. Methods and Materials: A thermo-expandable NiTi stent designed for kV x-ray visualization of lung lesions was inserted into the bronchia of three anaesthetized Göttingen minipigs. A 4DCT scan was used for planning a 5-field conformal treatment with circular MLC apertures. A 22.5Gy single fraction treatment was delivered to the pigs. The peak-to-peak stent motion was 3-8mm with breathing periods of 1.2-4 seconds. Prior to treatment, x-ray images were used for image-guided setup based on the stent. During treatment delivery, continuous portal images were acquired at 7.5Hz. The stent was segmented in the images and used for continuous adaptation of the MLC aperture. Offline, the tracking error in beam’s eye view of the MV beam was calculated for each image as the difference between the MLC aperture center and the segmented stent position. The standard deviations of the systematic error ? and the random error ? were determined and compared with the would-be errors for a non-tracking treatment with pre-treatment image-guided setup. Results: Reliable stent segmentation was obtained for 11 out of 15 fields. Segmentation failures occurred when image contrast was dominated by overlapping anatomical structures (ribs, diaphragm) rather than by the stent, which was designed for kV rather than MV x-ray visibility. For the 11 fields with reliable segmentation, ? was 0.5mm/0.4mm in the two imager directions, while ? was 0.5mm/1.1mm. Without tracking, ? and ? would have been 1.7mm/1.4mm and 0.8mm/1.4mm, respectively. Conclusion: For the first time, in vivo DMLC tracking has been demonstrated on a linear accelerator showing the potential for improved targeting accuracy. The study mimicked the envisioned patient workflow of future patient treatments. Clinical implementation of MV image-based tracking would require markers designed for MV-visibility. PMID:21605944

Poulsen, Per R; Carl, Jesper; Nielsen, Jane; Nielsen, Martin S; Thomsen, Jakob B; Jensen, Henrik K; Kjærgaard, Benedict; Zepernick, Peter R; Worm, Esben; Fledelius, Walther; Cho, Byungchul; Sawant, Amit; Ruan, Dan; Keall, Paul J

2011-01-01

101

Identical genetic control of MLC reactivity to different MHC incompatibilities, independent of production of and response to IL2  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inbred strain STS\\/A exhibits a higher proliferative response in the mixed lymphocyte culture (MLC) to stimulator cells\\u000a of all 11 tested inbred mouse strains with 10 different major histocompatibility complex (MHC) haplotypes, as well as to stimulation\\u000a with IL-2 than does the strain BALB\\/cHeA. However, alloantigen-stimulated BALB\\/c cells produce more IL-2 than STS\\/A cells.\\u000a To study the genetic basis

Vladimír Holá?; Marie Lipoldová; Peter Demant

1996-01-01

102

Structure of the small Dictyostelium discoideum myosin light chain MlcB provides insights into MyoB IQ motif recognition.  

PubMed

Dictyostelium discoideum MyoB is a class I myosin involved in the formation and retraction of membrane projections, cortical tension generation, membrane recycling, and phagosome maturation. The MyoB-specific, single-lobe EF-hand light chain MlcB binds the sole IQ motif of MyoB with submicromolar affinity in the absence and presence of Ca(2+). However, the structural features of this novel myosin light chain and its interaction with its cognate IQ motif remain uncharacterized. Here, we describe the NMR-derived solution structure of apoMlcB, which displays a globular four-helix bundle. Helix 1 adopts a unique orientation when compared with the apo states of the EF-hand calcium-binding proteins calmodulin, S100B, and calbindin D9k. NMR-based chemical shift perturbation mapping identified a hydrophobic MyoB IQ binding surface that involves amino acid residues in helices I and IV and the functional N-terminal Ca(2+) binding loop, a site that appears to be maintained when MlcB adopts the holo state. Complementary mutagenesis and binding studies indicated that residues Ile-701, Phe-705, and Trp-708 of the MyoB IQ motif are critical for recognition of MlcB, which together allowed the generation of a structural model of the apoMlcB-MyoB IQ complex. We conclude that the mode of IQ motif recognition by the novel single-lobe MlcB differs considerably from that of stereotypical bilobal light chains such as calmodulin. PMID:24790102

Liburd, Janine; Chitayat, Seth; Crawley, Scott W; Munro, Kim; Miller, Emily; Denis, Chris M; Spencer, Holly L; Côté, Graham P; Smith, Steven P

2014-06-13

103

Physics Exams that Promote Collaborative Learning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The two-stage exam is a relatively simple way to introduce collaborative learning and formative assessment into an exam. Their use is rapidly growing in the physics department at the University of British Columbia, as both students and faculty find them rewarding. In a two-stage exam students first complete and turn in the exam individually, and then, working in small groups, answer the exam questions again. During the second stage, the room is filled with spirited and effective debate with nearly every student participating. This provides students with immediate targeted feedback supplied by discussions with their peers. Furthermore, we see indications that the use of this exam format not only ensures consistency across interactive course components, but it also positively impacts how students approach the other collaborative course components. This is accomplished without losing the summative assessment of individual performance that is the expectation of exams for most instructors. In this paper we describe how to implement two-stage exams and provide arguments why they should be part of physics courses that use interactive engagement and social/collaborative learning methods.

Wieman, Carl E.; Rieger, Georg W.; Heiner, Cynthia E.

2014-01-01

104

Economics 201B - Final Exam -- 2001  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Final examination for an economics class at UCLA focusing on game theory. The exam provides some economic contextualization, but focuses mostly on theory. Solutions to the exam are available here: http://levine.sscnet.ucla.edu/econ201/final01a.pdf.

105

Construction and Evaluation of Actuarial Models Exam  

E-print Network

Also, a preview of the CBT layout of the Exam C/4 tables in HTML is available ... judge their effectiveness for future exams, but they will NOT be used in the scoring of this ... Calculate the basic distributional quantities: ... Apply the following concepts in estimating failure time and loss distribution: ... c) Mean squared error.

SOA USER

2012-10-10

106

Tailoring the Preparticipation Exam to Female Athletes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the basics of the preparticipation exam, focusing on aspects specific to females, such as menstrual dysfunction, disordered eating, and orthopedic problems such as scoliosis and patellofemoral pain. Health history questionnaire and other parts of the exam are included in six tables. (SM)

Johnson, Mimi D.

1992-01-01

107

Comparison of secondary neutron dose in proton therapy resulting from the use of a tungsten alloy MLC or a brass collimator system  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To apply the dual ionization chamber method for mixed radiation fields to an accurate comparison of the secondary neutron dose arising from the use of a tungsten alloy multileaf collimator (MLC) as opposed to a brass collimator system for defining the shape of a therapeutic proton field. Methods: Hydrogenous and nonhydrogenous ionization chambers were constructed with large volumes to enable measurements of absorbed doses below 10{sup -4} Gy in mixed radiation fields using the dual ionization chamber method for mixed-field dosimetry. Neutron dose measurements were made with a nominal 230 MeV proton beam incident on a closed tungsten alloy MLC and a solid brass block. The chambers were cross-calibrated against a {sup 60}Co-calibrated Farmer chamber in water using a 6 MV x-ray beam and Monte Carlo simulations were performed to account for variations in ionization chamber response due to differences in secondary neutron energy spectra. Results: The neutron and combined proton plus {gamma}-ray absorbed doses are shown to be nearly equivalent downstream from either a closed tungsten alloy MLC or a solid brass block. At 10 cm downstream from the distal edge of the collimating material the neutron dose from the closed MLC was (5.3 {+-} 0.4) x 10{sup -5} Gy/Gy. The neutron dose with brass was (6.4 {+-} 0.7) x 10{sup -5} Gy/Gy. Further from the secondary neutron source, at 50 cm, the neutron doses remain close for both the MLC and brass block at (6.9 {+-} 0.6) x 10{sup -6} Gy/Gy and (6.3 {+-} 0.7) x 10{sup -6} Gy/Gy, respectively. Conclusions: The dual ionization chamber method is suitable for measuring secondary neutron doses resulting from proton irradiation. The results of measurements downstream from a closed tungsten alloy MLC and a brass block indicate that, even in an overly pessimistic worst-case scenario, secondary neutron production in a tungsten alloy MLC leads to absorbed doses that are nearly equivalent to those seen from brass collimators. Therefore, the choice of tungsten alloy in constructing the leaves of a proton MLC is appropriate, and does not lead to a substantial increase in the secondary neutron dose to the patient compared to that generated in a brass collimator.

Diffenderfer, Eric S.; Ainsley, Christopher G.; Kirk, Maura L.; McDonough, James E.; Maughan, Richard L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States)

2011-11-15

108

Effect of MLC Leaf Width and PTV Margin on the Treatment Planning of Intensity-Modulated Stereotactic Radiosurgery (IMSRS) or Radiotherapy (IMSRT)  

SciTech Connect

We studied the effect of MLC (multileaf collimator) leaf width and PTV (planning target volume) margin on treatment planning of intensity modulated stereotactic radiosurgery (IMSRS) or radiotherapy (IMSRT). Twelve patients previously treated with IMSRS/IMSRT were retrospectively planned with 5- and 3-mm MLC leaf widths and 3- and 2-mm PTV margins using the already contoured clinical target volume and critical structures. The same beam arrangement, planning parameters, and optimization method were used in each of the 4 plans for a given patient. Each plan was normalized so that the prescription dose covered at least 99% of the PTV. Plan indices - D{sub mean} (mean dose), conformity index (CI), V{sub 70} (volume receiving {>=} 70% of the prescription dose), and V{sub 50} (volume receiving {>=} 50% of the prescription dose) - were calculated from the dose-volume histograms (DVHs) of the PTV, normal tissue, and organs at risk (OARs). Hypothesis testing was performed on the mean ratios of plan indices to determine the statistical significance of the relative differences. The PTV was well covered for all plans, as no significant differences were observed for D{sub 95}, V{sub 95}, D{sub max}, D{sub min}, and D{sub mean} of the PTV. The irradiated volume was {approx}23% smaller when 2-mm instead of 3-mm PTV margin was used, but it was only reduced by {approx}6% when the MLC leaf width was reduced from 5 mm to 3 mm. For normal tissue and brainstem, V{sub 70}, V{sub 50}, and D{sub mean} were reduced more effectively by a decrease in MLC width, while D{sub mean} of optic nerve and chiasm were more sensitive to a change in PTV margin. The DVH statistics for the PTV and normal structures from the treatment plan with 5-mm MLC and 2-mm PTV margin were equal to those with 3-mm MLC and 3-mm PTV margin. PTV margin reduction is more effective in sparing the normal tissue and OARs than a reduction in MLC leaf width. For IMSRS, where highly accurate setup and small PTV margins are routinely employed, the use of 5-mm MLC is therefore less desirable.

Chang Jenghwa [Medical Physics Department, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); Department of Electrical Engineering, Columbia University, New York, NY (United States) and Radiation Oncology Department, New York University Medical Center, New York, NY (United States)], E-mail: changj@mskcc.org; Yenice, Kamil M.; Jiang Kailiu; Hunt, Margie; Narayana, Ashwatha [Medical Physics Department, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); Department of Electrical Engineering, Columbia University, New York, NY (United States) and Radiation Oncology Department, New York University Medical Center, New York, NY (United States)

2009-07-01

109

MlcR, a zinc cluster activator protein, is able to bind to a single (A/T)CGG site of cognate asymmetric motifs in the ML-236B (compactin) biosynthetic gene cluster.  

PubMed

All of the binding sequences for MlcR, a transcriptional activator of ML-236B (compactin) biosynthetic genes in Penicillium citrinum, were identified by an in vitro gel-shift assay. All the identified sequences contain an asymmetric direct repeat comprised of conserved tetrad bases (A/T)CGG with a spacer sequence of high similarity; in particular, G at position 2 and T at position 3 in the spacer are well conserved. The first (A/T)CGG repeat was essential for MlcR-binding and MlcR could bind to this monomeric site, probably as a monomer. This binding feature might enable MlcR to tolerate the variation of the spacer length and compositions in vitro. From these data, we propose that the consensus binding motif for MlcR is an asymmetric direct repeat, 5'-(A/T)CGG-NGTN(3-6)-TCGG-3'. PMID:19266218

Baba, Satoshi; Kinoshita, Hiroshi; Hosobuchi, Masahiko; Nihira, Takuya

2009-06-01

110

ARF1 regulates the Rho/MLC pathway to control EGF-dependent breast cancer cell invasion  

PubMed Central

Invasion of tumor cells is a key step in metastasis that depends largely on the ability of these cells to degrade the extracellular matrix. Although we have showed that the GTPase ADP-ribosylation factor 1 (ARF1) is overexpressed in highly invasive breast cancer cell lines and that epidermal growth factor stimulation can activate this ARF isoform to regulate migration as well as proliferation, the role of this small GTP-binding protein has not been addressed in the context of invasiveness. Here we report that modulation of ARF1 expression and activity markedly impaired the ability of M.D. Anderson-metastatic breast-231 cells, a prototypical highly invasive breast cancer cell line, to degrade the extracellular matrix by controlling metalloproteinase-9 activity. In addition, we demonstrate that this occurs through inhibition of invadopodia maturation and shedding of membrane-derived microvesicles, the two key structures involved in invasion. To further define the molecular mechanisms by which ARF1 controls invasiveness, we show that ARF1 acts to modulate RhoA and RhoC activity, which in turn affects myosin light-chain (MLC) phosphorylation. Together our findings underscore for the first time a key role for ARF1 in invasion of breast cancer cells and suggest that targeting the ARF/Rho/MLC signaling axis might be a promising strategy to inhibit invasiveness and metastasis. PMID:24196838

Schlienger, Sabrina; Campbell, Shirley; Claing, Audrey

2014-01-01

111

Asymmetric Programming: A Highly Reliable Metadata Allocation Strategy for MLC NAND Flash Memory-Based Sensor Systems  

PubMed Central

While the NAND flash memory is widely used as the storage medium in modern sensor systems, the aggressive shrinking of process geometry and an increase in the number of bits stored in each memory cell will inevitably degrade the reliability of NAND flash memory. In particular, it's critical to enhance metadata reliability, which occupies only a small portion of the storage space, but maintains the critical information of the file system and the address translations of the storage system. Metadata damage will cause the system to crash or a large amount of data to be lost. This paper presents Asymmetric Programming, a highly reliable metadata allocation strategy for MLC NAND flash memory storage systems. Our technique exploits for the first time the property of the multi-page architecture of MLC NAND flash memory to improve the reliability of metadata. The basic idea is to keep metadata in most significant bit (MSB) pages which are more reliable than least significant bit (LSB) pages. Thus, we can achieve relatively low bit error rates for metadata. Based on this idea, we propose two strategies to optimize address mapping and garbage collection. We have implemented Asymmetric Programming on a real hardware platform. The experimental results show that Asymmetric Programming can achieve a reduction in the number of page errors of up to 99.05% with the baseline error correction scheme. PMID:25310473

Huang, Min; Liu, Zhaoqing; Qiao, Liyan

2014-01-01

112

Catabolic regulation analysis of Escherichia coli and its crp, mlc, mgsA, pgi and ptsG mutants  

PubMed Central

Background Most bacteria can use various compounds as carbon sources. These carbon sources can be either co-metabolized or sequentially metabolized, where the latter phenomenon typically occurs as catabolite repression. From the practical application point of view of utilizing lignocellulose for the production of biofuels etc., it is strongly desirable to ferment all sugars obtained by hydrolysis from lignocellulosic materials, where simultaneous consumption of sugars would benefit the formation of bioproducts. However, most organisms consume glucose prior to consumption of other carbon sources, and exhibit diauxic growth. It has been shown by fermentation experiments that simultaneous consumption of sugars can be attained by ptsG, mgsA mutants etc., but its mechanism has not been well understood. It is strongly desirable to understand the mechanism of metabolic regulation for catabolite regulation to improve the performance of fermentation. Results In order to make clear the catabolic regulation mechanism, several continuous cultures were conducted at different dilution rates of 0.2, 0.4, 0.6 and 0.7 h-1 using wild type Escherichia coli. The result indicates that the transcript levels of global regulators such as crp, cra, mlc and rpoS decreased, while those of fadR, iclR, soxR/S increased as the dilution rate increased. These affected the metabolic pathway genes, which in turn affected fermentation result where the specific glucose uptake rate, the specific acetate formation rate, and the specific CO2 evolution rate (CER) were increased as the dilution rate was increased. This was confirmed by the 13C-flux analysis. In order to make clear the catabolite regulation, the effect of crp gene knockout (?crp) and crp enhancement (crp+) as well as mlc, mgsA, pgi and ptsG gene knockout on the metabolism was then investigated by the continuous culture at the dilution rate of 0.2 h-1 and by some batch cultures. In the case of ?crp (and also ?mlc) mutant, TCA cycle and glyoxylate were repressed, which caused acetate accumulation. In the case of crp+ mutant, glycolysis, TCA cycle, and gluconeogenesis were activated, and simultaneous consumption of multiple carbon sources can be attained, but the glucose consumption rate became less due to repression of ptsG and ptsH by the activation of Mlc. Simultaneous consumption of multiple carbon sources could be attained by mgsA, pgi, and ptsG mutants due to increase in crp as well as cyaA, while glucose consumption rate became lower. Conclusions The transcriptional catabolite regulation mechanism was made clear for the wild type E. coli, and its crp, mlc, ptsG, pgi, and mgsA gene knockout mutants. The results indicate that catabolite repression can be relaxed and crp as well as cyaA can be increased by crp+, mgsA, pgi, and ptsG mutants, and thus simultaneous consumption of multiple carbon sources including glucose can be made, whereas the glucose uptake rate became lower as compared to wild type due to inactivation of ptsG in all the mutants considered. PMID:21831320

2011-01-01

113

MLC Libraries--A School Library's Journey with Students, Staff and Web 2.0 Technologies: Blogs, Wikis and E-Books--Where Are We Going Next?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This workshop paper explores the Web 2.0 journey of the MLC Libraries' teacher-librarians, librarian, library and audio visual technicians. Our journey was initially inspired by Will Richardson and supported by the School Library Association of Victoria (SLAV) Web 2.0 professional development program. The 12 week technological skills program "23…

Viner, Jane; Lucas, Amanda; Ricchini, Tracey; Ri, Regina

2010-01-01

114

Dynamic-MLC leaf control utilizing on-flight intensity calculations: A robust method for real-time IMRT delivery over moving rigid targets  

SciTech Connect

An algorithm is presented that allows for the control of multileaf collimation (MLC) leaves based entirely on real-time calculations of the intensity delivered over the target. The algorithm is capable of efficiently correcting generalized delivery errors without requiring the interruption of delivery (self-correcting trajectories), where a generalized delivery error represents anything that causes a discrepancy between the delivered and intended intensity profiles. The intensity actually delivered over the target is continually compared to its intended value. For each pair of leaves, these comparisons are used to guide the control of the following leaf and keep this discrepancy below a user-specified value. To demonstrate the basic principles of the algorithm, results of corrected delivery are shown for a leading leaf positional error during dynamic-MLC (DMLC) IMRT delivery over a rigid moving target. It is then shown that, with slight modifications, the algorithm can be used to track moving targets in real time. The primary results of this article indicate that the algorithm is capable of accurately delivering DMLC IMRT over a rigid moving target whose motion is (1) completely unknown prior to delivery and (2) not faster than the maximum MLC leaf velocity over extended periods of time. These capabilities are demonstrated for clinically derived intensity profiles and actual tumor motion data, including situations when the target moves in some instances faster than the maximum admissible MLC leaf velocity. The results show that using the algorithm while calculating the delivered intensity every 50 ms will provide a good level of accuracy when delivering IMRT over a rigid moving target translating along the direction of MLC leaf travel. When the maximum velocities of the MLC leaves and target were 4 and 4.2 cm/s, respectively, the resulting error in the two intensity profiles used was 0.1{+-}3.1% and -0.5{+-}2.8% relative to the maximum of the intensity profiles. For the same target motion, the error was shown to increase rapidly as (1) the maximum MLC leaf velocity was reduced below 75% of the maximum target velocity and (2) the system response time was increased.

McMahon, Ryan; Papiez, Lech; Rangaraj, Dharanipathy [School of Health Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75390 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri 63110 (United States)

2007-08-15

115

Oral Exams as a Tool for Teaching and Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Oral exams are a fruitful and practical alternative to written exams in small-enrolment Science classes. In an oral exam, the instructor can assess conceptual understanding, problem-solving, scientific communication skills, and a student's philosophy of science. In contrast, a written exam gives a much poorer picture of how students learn and…

Sayre, Eleanor C.

2014-01-01

116

Physics Exam Preparation: A Comparison of Three Methods  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this clinical study on helping students prepare for an exam, we compared three different treatments. All students were asked to take a practice exam. One group was then given worked-out solutions for that exam, another group was given the solutions and targeted exercises to do as homework based on the result of their practice exam, and the…

Fakcharoenphol, Witat; Stelzer, Timothy

2014-01-01

117

A New Comprehensive Final Exam  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Instructors aspire for students to master all the material covered. The final exam should assess the breadth and depth of their learning and be a significant basis for the final grade. I insist on a comprehensive final because I want students to review early material in light of later topics. I believe that this helps students create connections, integrate understanding, and retain knowledge for the long term. For non-science majors, reviewing and retaining the large amount of astronomy material is daunting. I experimented with a final exam format that calmed their fears and encouraged thorough review. It is only practical for a class of about twenty students or less. I provided a number of challenging conceptual and problem solving questions (at least as many as there were students), crafted to interconnect and span the entire range of topics. The order of the questions reflected the sequence in which the topics had been discussed. Students received these questions in ample time to prepare prior to the final. A student could bring up to 5 standard sheets of notes to the final. At the final, each student picked a number out of a hat. This was the question they had to answer in a 5-minute presentation. They were allowed 15 minutes for a final preparation during which they could use their 5 pages of notes. The presentations were given in order, 1- 20. Written comments on at least 10 other talks, explaining what was missed or correcting a mistake were required. They were graded both on their talk and on their comments. This format required students to be prepared for any question and encouraged interaction and communication while studying. Knowing the questions beforehand provided a guide to their studying as well as allayed their fears about what could be asked. The students also received guidance to what constituted a good answer, namely accuracy (correct scientific argument, appropriate facts, no irrelevant material), thoroughness (answered the complete questions, covered relevant material) and the quality of the presentation (polished, professional, use of demonstrations, graphs, pictures etc. and time appropriately to present a clear answer). I will describe this first attempt.

Bhavsar, Suketu P.

2015-01-01

118

Taking Exams Lisa Medoff, Ph.D.  

E-print Network

, and during the exam? o For some people, deep breathing, a quick walk, or muscle relaxation is helpful. For others, combatting automatic thoughts (e.g. challenging the thought "I'm not meant to #12; 2

Bogyo, Matthew

119

2013 Entrance Exam Guidelines Professional Degree Program  

E-print Network

, Biostatistics, Clinical Epidemiology, Health Economics, Health Communication, Mental Health, Health Sociology2013 Entrance Exam Guidelines Professional Degree Program School of Public Health (Professional Guidelines Professional Degree Program, School of Public Health (Professional Graduate School) Graduate

Miyashita, Yasushi

120

2014 Entrance Exam Guidelines Professional Degree Program  

E-print Network

, Biostatistics, Clinical Epidemiology, Health Economics, Health Communication, Mental Health, Health Sociology2014 Entrance Exam Guidelines Professional Degree Program School of Public Health (Professional Guidelines Professional Degree Program, School of Public Health (Professional Graduate School) Graduate

Miyashita, Yasushi

121

Hospitality Pavilion ......................................................... RESERVED Multimedia Theater-Style Classroom ........................ RESERVED  

E-print Network

.....................................$5,000,000 Individual Training Stations (Equipment)......................$250,000 Head Strength........................................................................... RESERVED Field Hockey................................................................... RESERVED Lacrosse

Adams, Mark

122

Normal - Cranial Nerves Exam - Vestibulocochlear (CN VIII) Nerve Sub-exam - Patient 1  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video depicts the 'normal' patient responses that should occur during a cranial nerves exam. The patient in the video is a female with no known neurological health problems who volunteered to act as a simulated patient in order to demonstrate 'normal' responses to exam techniques. Viewing the video requires installation of the free QuickTime Plug-in.

Pearson, John C.

2009-06-08

123

Normal - Station and Gait Exam - Station Sub-exam - Patient 1  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video demonstrates a normal patient station and gait exam. The patient is a female with no known neurological health problems who volunteered to act as a simulated patient in order to demonstrate 'normal' responses to exam techniques. Viewing the video requires installation of the free QuickTime Plug-in.

Pearson, John C.

2009-01-02

124

Normal - Cranial Nerves Exam - Oculomotor, Trochlear, Abducens (CN III, IV, VI) Nerves Sub-exam  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video depicts a 'normal' cranial nerves exam. Patient is a female with no known neurological health problems who volunteered to act as a simulated patient in order to demonstrate 'normal' responses to exam techniques. Viewing the video requires installation of the free QuickTime Plug-in.

John C. Pearson, PhD

125

Improvements in dose accuracy delivered with static-MLC IMRT on an integrated linear accelerator control system  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Dose accuracy has been shown to vary with dose per segment and dose rate when delivered with static multileaf collimator (SMLC) intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) by Varian C-series MLC controllers. The authors investigated the impact of monitor units (MUs) per segment and dose rate on the dose delivery accuracy of SMLC-IMRT fields on a Varian TrueBeam linear accelerator (LINAC), which delivers dose and manages motion of all components using a single integrated controller. Methods: An SMLC sequence was created consisting of ten identical 10 x 10 cm{sup 2} segments with identical MUs. Beam holding between segments was achieved by moving one out-of-field MLC leaf pair. Measurements were repeated for various combinations of MU/segment ranging from 1 to 40 and dose rates of 100-600 MU/min for a 6 MV photon beam (6X) and dose rates of 800-2400 MU/min for a 10 MV flattening-filter free photon (10XFFF) beam. All measurements were made with a Farmer (0.6 cm{sup 3}) ionization chamber placed at the isocenter in a solid-water phantom at 10 cm depth. The measurements were performed on two Varian LINACs: C-series Trilogy and TrueBeam. Each sequence was delivered three times and the dose readings for the corresponding segments were averaged. The effects of MU/segment, dose rate, and LINAC type on the relative dose variation ({Delta}{sub i}) were compared using F-tests ({alpha} = 0.05). Results: On the Trilogy, large {Delta}{sub i} was observed in small MU segments: at 1 MU/segment, the maximum {Delta}{sub i} was 10.1% and 57.9% at 100 MU/min and 600 MU/min, respectively. Also, the first segment of each sequence consistently overshot ({Delta}{sub i} > 0), while the last segment consistently undershot ({Delta}{sub i} < 0). On the TrueBeam, at 1 MU/segment, {Delta}{sub i} ranged from 3.0% to 4.5% at 100 and 600 MU/min; no obvious overshoot/undershoot trend was observed. F-tests showed statistically significant difference [(1 - {beta}) =1.0000] between the Trilogy and the TrueBeam up to 10 MU/segment, at all dose rates greater than 100 MU/min. The linear trend of decreasing dose accuracy as a function of increasing dose rate on the Trilogy is no longer apparent on TrueBeam, even for dose rates as high as 2400 MU/min. Dose inaccuracy averaged over all ten segments in each beam delivery sequence was larger for Trilogy than TrueBeam, with the largest discrepancy (0.2% vs 3%) occurring for 1 MU/segment beams at both 300 and 600 MU/min. Conclusions: Earlier generations of Varian LINACs exhibited large dose variations for small MU segments in SMLC-IMRT delivery. Our results confirmed these findings. The dose delivery accuracy for SMLC-IMRT is significantly improved on TrueBeam compared to Trilogy for every combination of low MU/segment (1-10) and high dose rate (200-600 MU/min), in part due to the faster sampling rate (100 vs 20 Hz) and enhanced electronic integration of the MLC controller with the LINAC. SMLC-IMRT can be implemented on TrueBeam with higher dose accuracy per beam ({+-}0.2% vs {+-}3%) than previous generations of Varian C-series LINACs for 1 MU/segment delivered at 600 MU/min).

Li Ji; Wiersma, Rodney D.; Stepaniak, Christopher J.; Farrey, Karl J.; Al-Hallaq, Hania A. [Department of Radiation and Cellular Oncology, University of Chicago, 5758 South Maryland Avenue, MC9006, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States)

2012-05-15

126

The Exam-Room Physician Workstation  

PubMed Central

By combining and configuring commercially available hardware and software, we have developed a networked system of exam-room physician workstations that provides a platform for physician charting, medical reference, and patient education. The physical platform consists of IBM compatible computers and ethernet hardware. The software platform is a hypertext document management system called Idex distributed on a Novell network. Key features of the workstation include a graphical user interface, hypertext information access, network file-locking, and a document management shell. Clinical experience with the workstation suggests that patients accept the presence of a computer in the exam-room and that a hypertext medical record provides the speed of information access necessary for exam-room computing.

Russler, Daniel C.

1989-01-01

127

Time-resolved dose distributions to moving targets during volumetric modulated arc therapy with and without dynamic MLC tracking  

PubMed Central

Purpose: The highly conformal doses delivered by volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) may be compromised by intrafraction target motion. Although dynamic multileaf collimator (DMLC) tracking can mitigate the dosimetric impact of motion on the accumulated dose, residual errors still exist. The purpose of this study was to investigate the temporal evolution of dose errors throughout VMAT treatments delivered with and without DMLC tracking. Methods: Tracking experiments were performed on a linear accelerator connected to prototype DMLC tracking software. A three-axis motion stage reproduced representative clinical trajectories of four lung tumors and four prostates. For each trajectory, two VMAT treatment plans (low and high modulation) were delivered with and without DMLC tracking as well as to a static phantom for reference. Dose distributions were measured continuously at 72 Hz using a dosimeter with biplanar diode arrays. During tracking, the MLC leaves were continuously refitted to the 3D target position measured by an electromagnetic transponder at 30 Hz. The dosimetric errors caused in the 32 motion experiments were quantified by a time-resolved 3%/3 mm?-test. The erroneously exposed areas in treatment beam's eye view (BEV) caused by inadequate real-time MLC adaptation were calculated and compared with the time-resolved ? failure rates. Results: The transient? failure rate was on average 16.8% without tracking and 5.3% with tracking. The ? failure rate correlated well with the erroneously exposed areas in BEV (mean of Pearson r = 0.83, p < 0.001). For the final accumulated doses, the mean ? failure rate was 17.9% without tracking and 1.0% with tracking. With tracking the transient dose errors tended to cancel out resulting in the low mean ? failure rate for the accumulated doses. Conclusions: Time-resolved measurements allow pinpointing of transient errors in dose during VMAT delivery as well as monitoring of erroneous dose evolution in key target positions. The erroneously exposed area in BEV was shown to be a good indicator of errors in the dose distribution during treatment delivery. PMID:24320431

Ravkilde, Thomas; Keall, Paul J.; Grau, Cai; Høyer, Morten; Poulsen, Per R.

2013-01-01

128

PKC-? exacerbates in vitro brain barrier damage in hyperglycemic settings via regulation of RhoA/Rho-kinase/MLC2 pathway  

PubMed Central

Stroke patients with hyperglycemia (HG) develop higher volumes of brain edema emerging from disruption of blood–brain barrier (BBB). This study explored whether inductions of protein kinase C-? (PKC-?) and RhoA/Rho-kinase/myosin-regulatory light chain-2 (MLC2) pathway may account for HG-induced barrier damage using an in vitro model of human BBB comprising human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC) and astrocytes. Hyperglycemia (25?mmol/L D-glucose) markedly increased RhoA/Rho-kinase protein expressions (in-cell westerns), MLC2 phosphorylation (immunoblotting), and PKC-? (PepTag assay) and RhoA (Rhotekin-binding assay) activities in HBMEC while concurrently reducing the expression of tight junction protein occludin. Hyperglycemia-evoked in vitro barrier dysfunction, confirmed by decreases in transendothelial electrical resistance and concomitant increases in paracellular flux of Evan's blue-labeled albumin, was accompanied by malformations of actin cytoskeleton and tight junctions. Suppression of RhoA and Rho-kinase activities by anti-RhoA immunoglobulin G (IgG) electroporation and Y-27632, respectively prevented morphologic changes and restored plasma membrane localization of occludin. Normalization of glucose levels and silencing PKC-? activity neutralized the effects of HG on occludin and RhoA/Rho-kinase/MLC2 expression, localization, and activity and consequently improved in vitro barrier integrity and function. These results suggest that HG-induced exacerbation of the BBB breakdown after an ischemic stroke is mediated in large part by activation of PKC-?. PMID:23963366

Srivastava, Kirtiman; Shao, Beili; Bayraktutan, Ulvi

2013-01-01

129

Physics 112 Final Exam March 17, 2000 FINAL EXAM INSTRUCTIONS: You have 3 hours to complete this exam. This is  

E-print Network

) Not enough information is given to determine the behavior of the specific volume during the freezing process sheets of handwritten material. No other consultations or collaborations are permitted during the exam (c) 165 K (d) 170 K (e) Not enough information is given. 7. Deuterium (D) is an isotope of hydrogen

California at Santa Cruz, University of

130

EXPOSURE ANALYSIS MODELING SYSTEM: REFERENCE MANUAL FOR EXAMS 2  

EPA Science Inventory

The Exposure Analysis Modeling System (EXAMS), published in 1982 (EPA-600/3-82-023), provides rapid evaluations of the behavior of synthetic organic chemicals in aquatic ecosystems. EXAMS combines laboratory data describing reactivity and thermodynamic properties of chemicals wit...

131

Informed Consent for PGP Entrance Exam [Version #1  

E-print Network

Informed Consent for PGP Entrance Exam [Version #1] Title: Personal Genome Project Entrance Exam and therefore am providing informed consent for this questionnaire. Name: Email: HMS/HSDM Committee on Human

Church, George M.

132

GEOL 102: Historical Geology Online Exam 2 Review  

E-print Network

GEOL 102: Historical Geology Online Exam 2 Review Review First Exam Plate Tectonics Evidence.: oceanic vs. continental crust; crust vs. mantle; lithosphere vs. asthenosphere Plate Tectonics: plate vs. negative feedback; homeostasis Examples of how plate tectonics drives geochemical cycles

Holtz Jr., Thomas R.

133

Integrated Exams System Course Maintenance (Assessments) Page 1 of 5  

E-print Network

Collection\\User Guides\\SSTU0081 Course Maintenance - Assessments.doc Guide to Assessments Background Data:\\Colin\\Exams\\BSc Data Collection\\User Guides\\SSTU0081 Course Maintenance - Assessments.doc 2.0 Maintenance of SubIntegrated Exams System ­­ Course Maintenance (Assessments) Page 1 of 5 G:\\Colin\\Exams\\BSc Data

Sussex, University of

134

Enhanced Security for Online Exams Using Group Cryptography  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While development of the Internet has contributed to the spread of online education, online exams have not been widely adopted. An online exam is defined here as one that takes place over the insecure Internet, and where no proctor is in the same location as the examinees. This paper proposes an enhanced secure online exam management environment…

Jung, I. Y.; Yeom, H. Y.

2009-01-01

135

X-Ray Exam: Lower Leg (Tibia and Fibula)  

MedlinePLUS

X-Ray Exam: Lower Leg (Tibia and Fibula) KidsHealth > Parents > Doctors & Hospitals > Medical Tests & Exams > X-Ray Exam: Lower Leg (Tibia and Fibula) Print A ... You Have Questions What It Is An X-ray of the tibia and fibula is a safe ...

136

Your First Pelvic Exam: A Guide for Teens  

MedlinePLUS

... gynecological problems. When should I have my first pelvic exam? Inside the female reproductive organs Most health care providers agree that ... Exam (Part 3): The last part of the pelvic exam is done to check your female organs (your tubes, ovaries and uterus or womb). ...

137

The Cognitive Abilities of Children: Reflections from an Entrance Exam  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The basic determiner for the school in which the children who completed their primary education will in at an upper education level in Turkey is the entrance exam carried out nationwide. The items of national exam, called as LDE (Level Determination Exam) which the primary education pupils (aged between 12 and 15) will participate in Turkey were…

Cil, Emine; Cepni, Salih

2012-01-01

138

Should I Do a Breast Self-Exam?  

MedlinePLUS

... The Flu Vaccine Should I Do a Breast Self-Exam? KidsHealth > Teens > Q&A > Girl Stuff > Should I Do a Breast Self-Exam? Print A A A Text Size My ... says I should learn to do a breast self-exam. What is this and why do I ...

139

Improving the security of quantum exam against cheating  

E-print Network

The security of quantum exam [Phys. Lett. A 350 (2006) 174] is analyzed and it is found that this protocol is secure for any eavesdropper except for the "students" who take part in the exam. Specifically, any student can steal other examinees' solutions and then cheat in the exam. Furthermore, a possible improvement of this protocol is presented.

Fei Gao; Qiao-Yan Wen; Fu-Chen Zhu

2006-06-05

140

Essentials for revision and exams Photocopiable resource  

E-print Network

plenty of water and eat healthily. Your brain will thank you. When you've worked hard and achieved one balance so that you are working at your best without it taking over your life. Revision can be hard and for different styles of exams, so find what works best for you. Revision tips You are only expected to do your

Bristol, University of

141

English-Spanish Verbatim Translation Exam.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The development and validation of the English-Spanish Verbatim Translation Exam (ESVTE) is described. The test is for use by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) in the selection of applicants for the positions of Language Specialist or Contract Linguist. The report is divided into eight sections. Section 1 describes the need for the test,…

Stansfield, Charles W.; And Others

142

Learning during a Collaborative Final Exam  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Collaborative testing has been suggested to serve as a good learning activity, for example, compared to individual testing. The aim of the present study was to measure learning at different levels of knowledge during a collaborative final exam in a course in basic methods and statistical procedures. Results on pre- and post-tests taken…

Dahlstrom, Orjan

2012-01-01

143

Chemistry 365: Final Exam (2006) David Ronis  

E-print Network

Chemistry 365: Final Exam (2006) © David Ronis McGill University Faculty of Science FINAL EXAMINATION STATISTICAL THERMODYNAMICS: Chemistry 365 McGill University Examiner: Professor David Ronis Monday´s Approximation: ln(N!) N ln(N) - N - dx e-ax2 = /a 7. Good Luck. Monday, April 24, 2006 #12;Chemistry 365 -2

Ronis, David M.

144

Chemistry 365: Final Exam (2007) David Ronis  

E-print Network

Chemistry 365: Final Exam (2007) © David Ronis McGill University Faculty of Science FINAL EXAMINATION STATISTICAL THERMODYNAMICS: Chemistry 365 McGill University Examiner: Professor David Ronis Monday´s Approximation: ln(N!) N ln(N) - N - dx e-ax2 = /a 7. Good Luck. Monday, April 23, 2007 #12;Chemistry 365 -2

Ronis, David M.

145

REQUEST FOR CREDIT INTERNATIONAL DIPLOMA EXAMS  

E-print Network

REQUEST FOR CREDIT INTERNATIONAL DIPLOMA EXAMS Tufts does not automatically grant credit for international diploma examinations. Students must formally request credit using this form for each subject complete a Tufts course that is the equivalent to your international diploma, that diploma credit

Dennett, Daniel

146

Automatic Assessment of 3D Modeling Exams  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Computer-based assessment of exams provides teachers and students with two main benefits: fairness and effectiveness in the evaluation process. This paper proposes a fully automatic evaluation tool for the Graphic and Virtual Design (GVD) curriculum at the First School of Architecture of the Politecnico di Torino, Italy. In particular, the tool is…

Sanna, A.; Lamberti, F.; Paravati, G.; Demartini, C.

2012-01-01

147

Physics exam preparation: A comparison of three methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this clinical study on helping students prepare for an exam, we compared three different treatments. All students were asked to take a practice exam. One group was then given worked-out solutions for that exam, another group was given the solutions and targeted exercises to do as homework based on the result of their practice exam, and the third group was given the solutions, homework, and also an hour of one-on-one tutoring. Participants from all three conditions significantly outperformed the control group on the midterm exam. However, participants that had one-on-one tutoring did not outperform the other two participant groups.

Fakcharoenphol, Witat; Stelzer, Timothy

2014-06-01

148

COGNITIVE RESERVE IN AGING  

PubMed Central

Cognitive reserve explains why those with higher IQ, education, occupational attainment, or participation in leisure activities evidence less severe clinical or cognitive changes in the presence of age-related or Alzheimer’s disease pathology. Specifically, the cognitive reserve hypothesis is that individual differences in how tasks are processed provide reserve against brain pathology. Cognitive reserve may allow for more flexible strategy usage, an ability thought to be captured by executive functions tasks. Additionally, cognitive reserve allows individuals greater neural efficiency, greater neural capacity, and the ability for compensation via the recruitment of additional brain regions. Taking cognitive reserve into account may allow for earlier detection and better characterization of age-related cognitive changes and Alzheimer’s disease. Importantly, cognitive reserve is not fixed but continues to evolve across the lifespan. Thus, even late-stage interventions hold promise to boost cognitive reserve and thus reduce the prevalence of Alzheimer’s disease and other age-related problems. PMID:21222591

Tucker, Adrienne M.; Stern, Yaakov

2011-01-01

149

REGULATORY STANDARDS FOR RESERVES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The loss and loss expense reserves of a property and casualty company are the most important items on the balance sheet and the most difficult to value. Regulators' concerns include but go beyond the question of reserve adequacy, and include a knowledge that the company will be reasonably secure even if the claims environment unfolds in unexpected ways. Some regulators

OAKLEY E. VAN SLYKE

150

Dalhousie Libraries Reserves Service Traditional In-Library Reserves  

E-print Network

Dalhousie Libraries Reserves Service Traditional In-Library Reserves #12;Course Reserves Faculty to have Library staff place materials on traditional In-Library Reserve at one of the five Dalhousie Libraries NEW Option also available Upload a course reading list and Library staff will: · add persistent

Dellaire, Graham

151

[A master's exam in surgical training].  

PubMed

AN EXAMPLE FOR THE PRESENT DAY: The current requirement for explicit quality standards and examination of surgeons is an opportunity to contemplate surgical training from a historical perspective by looking at the regulations of the Amsterdam Surgeons' Guild (1461-1736). At that time Amsterdam surgeons usually trained for five years in a master-apprentice relationship under the guidance of a master surgeon in a surgeon's shop. An important part of the surgical training took place in the botanical gardens and anatomical theatre, where, during the weekly lessons, the praelector anatomiae would also demonstrate anatomy on the bodies of the deceased. Surgical training was complete after the trainee had passed the 'meesterproef' (master's exam), in which the manufacturing of lancets, blood-letting and performing a trepanation on a skull played a major part. However, over the course of time the final master's exam as the ultimate test of capability at the end of surgical training has disappeared. From the perspective of renewed interest in explicit quality standards and examination of surgeons, the reintroduction of a modern master's exam should perhaps be considered. PMID:20178655

IJpma, Frank F A; van de Graaf, Robert C; Pierik, E G J M Robert; van Gulik, Thomas M

2010-01-01

152

Carey Business School Electronic Reserves  

E-print Network

Carey Business School Electronic Reserves Quick Reference To submit course syllabi to Reserve staff to electronic reserves: via link from Blackboard course site. Address inquiries to Susan Gilden of the Business: December 1 Materials eligible for electronic reserve treatment: · Journal articles · Book excerpts up to 15

von der Heydt, Rüdiger

153

National strategic petroleum reserve.  

PubMed

The Strategic Petroleum Reserve is intended to reduce the vulnerability of the United States to interruptions in the oil supply from foreign sources. Storage for 248 million barrels of crude oil in salt caverns and mines, with equipment for pumping and distribution, was constructed and operationally tested in a 4-year period. Its present inventory is the largest known crude oil reserve in the world. Facilities for expanding the reserve's capacity by another 290 million barrels are being developed by solution-mining in salt domes. PMID:17847458

Davis, R M

1981-08-01

154

The sensitivity of gamma-index method to the positioning errors of high-definition MLC in patient-specific VMAT QA for SBRT  

PubMed Central

Background To investigate the sensitivity of various gamma criteria used in the gamma-index method for patient-specific volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) quality assurance (QA) for stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) using a flattening filter free (FFF) photon beam. Methods Three types of intentional misalignments were introduced to original high-definition multi-leaf collimator (HD-MLC) plans. The first type, referred to Class Out, involved the opening of each bank of leaves. The second type, Class In, involved the closing of each bank of leaves. The third type, Class Shift, involved the shifting of each bank of leaves towards the ground. Patient-specific QAs for the original and the modified plans were performed with MapCHECK2 and EBT2 films. The sensitivity of the gamma-index method using criteria of 1%/1 mm, 1.5%/1.5 mm, 1%/2 mm, 2%/1 mm and 2%/2 mm was investigated with absolute passing rates according to the magnitudes of MLCs misalignments. In addition, the changes in dose-volumetric indicators due to the magnitudes of MLC misalignments were investigated. The correlations between passing rates and the changes in dose-volumetric indicators were also investigated using Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient (?). Results The criterion of 2%/1 mm was able to detect Class Out and Class In MLC misalignments of 0.5 mm and Class Shift misalignments of 1 mm. The widely adopted clinical criterion of 2%/2 mm was not able to detect 0.5 mm MLC errors of the Class Out or Class In types, and also unable to detect 3 mm Class Shift errors. No correlations were observed between dose-volumetric changes and gamma passing rates (??

2014-01-01

155

Reservation Card Name: _____________________________________________  

E-print Network

Reservation Card Name: _____________________________________________ Address this card with payment in the enclosed envelope by April 25, 2014. (Over) Annual Paintbrush Ball Yes! I, or please bill my MasterCard, Visa or Discover card. Card

Missouri-Columbia, University of

156

Targeting the metastasis suppressor, NDRG1, using novel iron chelators: regulation of stress fiber-mediated tumor cell migration via modulation of the ROCK1/pMLC2 signaling pathway.  

PubMed

The iron-regulated metastasis suppressor, N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 (NDRG1), is up-regulated by cellular iron depletion mediated by iron chelators and can inhibit cancer cell migration. However, the mechanism of how NDRG1 achieves this effect remains unclear. In this study, we implemented established and newly constructed NDRG1 overexpression and knockdown models using the DU145, HT29, and HCT116 cancer cell lines to investigate the molecular basis by which NDRG1 exerts its inhibitory effect on cell migration. Using these models, we demonstrated that NDRG1 overexpression inhibits cell migration by preventing actin-filament polymerization, stress fiber assembly and formation. In contrast, NDRG1 knockdown had the opposite effect. Moreover, we identified that NDRG1 inhibited an important regulatory pathway mediated by the Rho-associated, coiled-coil containing protein kinase 1 (ROCK1)/phosphorylated myosin light chain 2 (pMLC2) pathway that modulates stress fiber assembly. The phosphorylation of MLC2 is a key process in inducing stress fiber contraction, and this was shown to be markedly decreased or increased by NDRG1 overexpression or knockdown, respectively. The mechanism involved in the inhibition of MLC2 phosphorylation by NDRG1 was mediated by a significant (P < 0.001) decrease in ROCK1 expression that is a key kinase involved in MLC2 phosphorylation. Considering that NDRG1 is up-regulated after cellular iron depletion, novel thiosemicarbazone iron chelators (e.g., di-2-pyridylketone 4,4-dimethyl-3-thiosemicarbazone) were demonstrated to inhibit ROCK1/pMLC2-modulated actin-filament polymerization, stress fiber assembly, and formation via a mechanism involving NDRG1. These results highlight the role of the ROCK1/pMLC2 pathway in the NDRG1-mediated antimetastatic signaling network and the therapeutic potential of iron chelators at inhibiting metastasis. PMID:23188716

Sun, Jing; Zhang, Daohai; Zheng, Ying; Zhao, Qian; Zheng, Minhua; Kovacevic, Zaklina; Richardson, Des R

2013-02-01

157

Strategic Petroleum Reserve  

SciTech Connect

According to amendments to the Energy Policy and Conservation Act the target size of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve is increased to 1 billion barrels, storage of oil not owned by the Federal Government is authorized, and the Reserve may be drawn down to alleviate an interruption in domestic supply. Congress appropriated $200.6 million for Strategic Petroleum Reserve storage facilities development, operation, and management during FY 1991. During calendar year 1990, 9.8 million barrels of crude oil were acquired for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. However, this quantity was offset by the sale of 3.9 million barrels during a test sale of the Reserve's oil in the fourth quarter. As of December 31, 1990, the Strategic Petroleum Reserve crude oil inventory was 585.7 million barrels, a net increase of 5.8 million barrels over the 1989 year-end inventory of 579.9 million barrels. The Department has completed all major surface construction at the six SPR facilities, and cavern development is in progress to achieve 750 million barrels of storage by the end of 1991. During 1990, the Department of Energy conducted a test sale of Strategic Petroleum Reserve crude oil (TEST SALE-90) to demonstrate the Reserve's drawdown and distribution capabilities. The test commenced on September 28, 1990, with the issuance of a Notice of Sale. Offers to purchase the oil were received on October 5, 1990 and contracts were awarded to eleven companies for a total of 3.925 million barrels by October 18, 1990. Deliveries of the oil to the purchasers commenced on October 19, 1990, and all deliveries were completed by December 2, 1990. The report gives details on all of these activities. 8 figs., 11 tabs.

Not Available

1991-02-15

158

National Estuarine Research Reserves  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Through linked programs of stewardship, education, and research, the NERRS enhances informed management and scientific understanding of the nation's estuarine and coastal habitats. Includes information on monitoring (water quality, weather, nutrients, etc.), restoration, invasive species, fellowships, and much more. With reserves all over coastal U.S., educators and scientists can access an abundance of information on the reserves right around the corner and ones on the other side of the country.

159

4-Amino-2-trifluoromethyl-phenyl retinate inhibits the migration of BGC-823 human gastric cancer cells by downregulating the phosphorylation level of MLC II.  

PubMed

4-Amino-2-trifluoromethyl-phenyl retinate (ATPR) is a novel all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) derivative which was reported to have a superior antitumor effect in breast cancer cells. However, little is known about its antitumor effects on human gastric cancer cells and the mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. The results of the present study suggest that in the human gastric carcinoma cell line BGC-823, ATPR plays a more effective role than ATRA at the same dose in inhibiting proliferation, migration and inducing differentiation after the same treatment time. Furthermore, we investigated the preliminary mechanism of ATPR's anti?migration effect. Immunofluorescence assay demonstrated that claudin-18 positioned from cytoplasm to cell surface following ATPR stimuli. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR and western blot analyses showed that ATPR had significant effects on downregulation of the phosphorylation level of myosin light chain II (MLC II) by suppressing myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) and Rho-associated coiled-coil containing kinase (ROCK), as well as its regulation in the protein expression of RAR? and RAR?. Moreover, ATPR increased the activity of myosin phosphatase by inhibiting ROCK. Consequently, ATPR showed more promising antitumor effects than ATRA in BGC-823 in vitro, and it may conduct its anti-migration effects by decreasing the phosphorylation level of MLC II, as well as by regulating MLCK and ROCK as downstream target genes. PMID:25051015

Hu, Anla; Yang, Yanyan; Zhang, Sumei; Zhou, Qing; Wei, Wei; Wang, Yuan

2014-10-01

160

Impact of Global Transcriptional Regulation by ArcA, ArcB, Cra, Crp, Cya, Fnr, and Mlc on Glucose Catabolism in Escherichia coli†  

PubMed Central

Even though transcriptional regulation plays a key role in establishing the metabolic network, the extent to which it actually controls the in vivo distribution of metabolic fluxes through different pathways is essentially unknown. Based on metabolism-wide quantification of intracellular fluxes, we systematically elucidated the relevance of global transcriptional regulation by ArcA, ArcB, Cra, Crp, Cya, Fnr, and Mlc for aerobic glucose catabolism in batch cultures of Escherichia coli. Knockouts of ArcB, Cra, Fnr, and Mlc were phenotypically silent, while deletion of the catabolite repression regulators Crp and Cya resulted in a pronounced slow-growth phenotype but had only a nonspecific effect on the actual flux distribution. Knockout of ArcA-dependent redox regulation, however, increased the aerobic tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle activity by over 60%. Like aerobic conditions, anaerobic derepression of TCA cycle enzymes in an ArcA mutant significantly increased the in vivo TCA flux when nitrate was present as an electron acceptor. The in vivo and in vitro data demonstrate that ArcA-dependent transcriptional regulation directly or indirectly controls TCA cycle flux in both aerobic and anaerobic glucose batch cultures of E. coli. This control goes well beyond the previously known ArcA-dependent regulation of the TCA cycle during microaerobiosis. PMID:15838044

Perrenoud, Annik; Sauer, Uwe

2005-01-01

161

Normal - Cranial Nerves Exam - Facial Nerve (CN VII) Sub-exam - Patient 1  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video provides a demonstration of a patient's facial nerve examination. The patient is a female with no known neurological health problems who volunteered to act as a simulated patient in order to demonstrate 'normal' responses to exam techniques. Viewing the video requires installation of the free QuickTime Plug-in.

Pearson, John C.

2009-01-02

162

CSU, FULLERTON CREDIT FOR EXTERNAL EXAMS (AP, IB, CLEP) ADVANCED PLACEMENT EXAMS (AP) SCORE UNITS COURSE CREDIT GEN EDUC BEGIN DATE END DATE  

E-print Network

CSU, FULLERTON CREDIT FOR EXTERNAL EXAMS (AP, IB, CLEP) ADVANCED PLACEMENT EXAMS (AP) SCORE UNITS ENGL 101 GE I.B 3 ENGL 105 GE III.B.2 Updated 11/30/10 #12;CSU, FULLERTON CREDIT FOR EXTERNAL EXAMS (AP, IB, CLEP) ADVANCED PLACEMENT EXAMS (AP) SCORE UNITS COURSE CREDIT GEN EDUC BEGIN DATE END DATE AP

de Lijser, Peter

163

Understanding Student Preparation of Exam Note Sheets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In a previous study, I allowed introductory physics students to create a notecard (or sheet) for their midterm and final exams in an attempt to remove equation memorizing as a focus of the course. I hoped to use the study of these cards as an epistemological lens that would uncover their perceptions and attitudes about the course. Without follow-up questions, though, epistemology remained unclear. I have continued this line of research by adding anonymous survey questions that probe why students chose to include what they did, how (if at all) the notes were helpful, and how their card preparation changed throughout the semester. Through my analysis, I found cases where the survey questions reveal epistemological insight about students the note sheets alone would not. For example, one student with an equation-centered note sheet did not see equations as the most central course component, but he considered himself fluent enough in concepts that he felt he could leave conceptual statements out. I also discuss some of the more thoughtful survey answers I received, some future study possibilities, and efforts to discuss exam preparation in the classroom.

Mccaskey, Timothy L.

2014-01-31

164

14 CFR 117.21 - Reserve status.  

...airport/standby or short-call reserve by the certificate...reserve is considered long-call reserve. (b...flightcrew member's flight duty period. (c) For short call reserve, (1) The...exceed 14 hours. (2) For a...

2014-01-01

165

Reaching for Dexterous Manipulation MIT EECS Area Exam  

E-print Network

1 Reaching for Dexterous Manipulation MIT EECS Area Exam Exam Committee: Rodney Brooks (chair. These three papers are good examples of mainstream work in dexterous manipulation. Following a brief review that many of the most ordinary things people do have also been the most difficult to replicate in our

166

A Laboratory Practical Exam for High School Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A station-based laboratory practical exam for first-year high school chemistry students is described. Students move individually through six stations meant to authentically assess both basic lab skills and problem-solving skills utilized throughout the year. The exam can be completed in an approximately 85 min lab period and can be easily adapted…

Rhodes, Michelle M.

2010-01-01

167

Preparing Students to Take SOA/CAS Exam FM/2  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper provides suggestions for preparing students to take the actuarial examination on financial mathematics, SOA/CAS Exam FM/2. It is based on current practices employed at Slippery Rock University, a small public liberal arts university. Detailed descriptions of our Theory of Interest course and subsequent Exam FM/2 prep course are provided…

Marchand, Richard J.

2014-01-01

168

Applied/Numerical Analysis Qualifying Exam January 8, 2013  

E-print Network

Applied/Numerical Analysis Qualifying Exam January 8, 2013 Cover Sheet ­ Applied Analysis Part that it becomes trivial. Name 1 #12;Combined Applied Analysis/Numerical Analysis Qualifier Applied Analysis Part that Ku = N i=1 i u, i i for all u H. 2 #12;Applied/Numerical Analysis Qualifying Exam January 8, 2013

169

Applied/Numerical Analysis Qualifying Exam January 8, 2012  

E-print Network

Applied/Numerical Analysis Qualifying Exam January 8, 2012 Cover Sheet ­ Applied Analysis Part that it becomes trivial. Name 1 #12;Combined Applied Analysis/Numerical Analysis Qualifier Applied Analysis Part(T), and that = 0 is in r(T). 2 #12;Applied/Numerical Analysis Qualifying Exam January 8, 2012 Cover Sheet

170

Applied/Numerical Analysis Qualifying Exam August 13, 2011  

E-print Network

Applied/Numerical Analysis Qualifying Exam August 13, 2011 Cover Sheet ­ Applied Analysis Part that it becomes trivial. Name 1 #12;Combined Applied Analysis/Numerical Analysis Qualifier Applied Analysis Part need to justify your answer.) 2 #12;Applied/Numerical Analysis Qualifying Exam August 13, 2011 Cover

171

Biochemistry and Molecular Biology PhD Comprehensive Exam  

E-print Network

Biochemistry and Molecular Biology PhD Comprehensive Exam Form One Suggested Examination Topics Examination Topics: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Suggested Examiners: 1) Dr. 2) Dr. 3) Dr. 4) Dr. #12;Biochemistry. Dr. 3. Dr. 4. Dr. Exam Chair #12;Biochemistry

Strynadka, Natalie

172

High School Exit Exams and "Mis"measurement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Test score validity takes center stage in the debate over the use of high school exit exams. Scant literature addresses the amount of conditional standard error of measurement (CSEM) present in individual student results on high school exit exams. The purpose of this study is to fill a void in the literature and add a national review of the CSEM,…

Tienken, Christopher H.

2011-01-01

173

The Red Effect, Anxiety, and Exam Performance: A Multistudy Examination  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Laboratory studies have established a negative relationship between the color red and academic performance. This research examined whether this effect would generalize to classroom performance and whether anxiety and negative affect might mediate the effect. In two studies, students taking classroom exams were randomly assigned an exam color. We…

Smajic, Adnan; Merritt, Stephanie; Banister, Christina; Blinebry, Amanda

2014-01-01

174

Authorized Crib Cards Do Not Improve Exam Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We experimentally investigated the effect of authorized crib cards on undergraduates' multiple-choice exam performance for lower order and higher order questions and on anxiety levels in an upper division child and adolescent development course. Students (N =54) in 2 sections could use crib cards during 2 of the 4 exams. Despite student…

Dickson, K. Laurie; Miller, Michelle D.

2005-01-01

175

A Case for Out-of-Class Exams  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author urges the adoption of take-home exams, whether individual or group efforts, subjective or objective in nature, as they lead to much more reflective thinking, problem solving, and other forms of data analysis than do standard one-period exams. (AN)

Svoboda, William S.

1971-01-01

176

An Expanded Framework for Analyzing General Chemistry Exams  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes an expanded framework to aid chemical educators in constructing exams for their courses. The framework has three primary levels: definition, algorithmic, and conceptual. These primary levels have often been used in chemical education research to analyze and describe exam questions, but in this study the definition,…

Smith, K. Christopher; Nakhleh, Mary B.; Bretz, Stacey Lowery

2010-01-01

177

INTERNAL EXAM APPEAL PROCEDURE FOR INTERNAL ASSESSMENT DECISIONS (Controlled Assessments)  

E-print Network

INTERNAL EXAM APPEAL PROCEDURE FOR INTERNAL ASSESSMENT DECISIONS (Controlled Assessments) South to his/her work, she/he may make use of this appeals procedure. Note that appeals may only be made are available from the Exams Office and on the College's Moodle system. Procedure: 1. Appeals should be made

St Andrews, University of

178

Do Open-Book Exams Impede Long-Term Learning in Introductory Biology Courses?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students in an introductory biology course who were given open-book exams during the semester earned significantly higher grades on these exams, but significantly lower grades on the closed-book final exam, than students who took in-class, closed-book exams throughout the semester. Exam format was also associated with changes in academic behavior; students who had upcoming open-book exams attended fewer lectures and help sessions and submitted fewer extra-credit assignments than students who had upcoming closed-book exams. These results suggest that open-book exams diminish long-term learning and promote academic behaviors that typify lower levels of academic achievement.

Jensen, Philip A.; Moore, Randy

2007-07-01

179

Strategic Petroleum Reserve quarterly report  

SciTech Connect

This August 15, 1989, Strategic Petroleum Reserve Quarterly Report describes activities related to the site development, oil acquisition, budget and cost of the Reserve during the period April 1, 1989 through June 30, 1989.

Not Available

1989-08-15

180

Strategic petroleum reserve: Quarterly report  

SciTech Connect

This May 15, 1989, Strategic Petroleum Reserve Quarterly Report describes activities related to the site development, oil acquisition, budget and cost of the Reserve during the period January 1, 1989 through March 31, 1989.

Not Available

1989-05-15

181

Strategic petroleum reserve: Quarterly report  

SciTech Connect

This November 15, 1988, Strategic Petroleum Reserve Quarterly Report describes activities related to the site development, oil acquisition, budget and cost of the Reserve during the period July 1, 1988 through September 30, 1988.

Not Available

1988-11-15

182

Strategic Petroleum Reserve quarterly report  

SciTech Connect

The Strategic Petroleum Reserve Quarterly Report is submitted in accordance with section 165(b) of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act, as amended, which requires that the Secretary of Energy submit quarterly reports to Congress on Activities undertaken with respect to the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. This August 15, 1990, Strategic Petroleum Reserve Quarterly Report describes activities related to the site development, oil acquisition, budget and cost of the Reserve during the period April 1, 1990, through June 30, 1990. 3 tabs.

Not Available

1990-08-15

183

Physics 112 First Midterm Exam February 1, 2000 MIDTERM EXAM INSTRUCTIONS: You have 75 minutes to complete this  

E-print Network

in volume of the system. Using the above results, apply the first law of thermodynamics and compute: (ePhysics 112 First Midterm Exam February 1, 2000 MIDTERM EXAM INSTRUCTIONS: You have 75 minutes by P = 2 3 u, where u is the energy density (u E/V ). 2. Suppose we are given two cylinders, each

California at Santa Cruz, University of

184

Physics 112 First Midterm Exam February 1, 2000 MIDTERM EXAM INSTRUCTIONS: You have 75 minutes to complete this  

E-print Network

in volume of the system. Using the above results, apply the first law of thermodynamics and compute: (ePhysics 112 First Midterm Exam February 1, 2000 MIDTERM EXAM INSTRUCTIONS: You have 75 minutes by P = 2 3 u, where u is the energy density (u # E/V ). 2. Suppose we are given two cylinders, each

California at Santa Cruz, University of

185

Physics 171 MIDTERM EXAM Fall 2014 INSTRUCTIONS: This is a takehome exam. The point value of each problem is in  

E-print Network

Physics 171 MIDTERM EXAM Fall 2014 INSTRUCTIONS: This is a take­home exam. The point value of each , where #r # (x # , y # , z # ). What is the physical interpretation of the two terms on the right hand down again to its original location, moving with constant speed on each leg of the trip and returning

California at Santa Cruz, University of

186

Dr. Campbell's Bio111 Exam #4 Spring 2007 Biology 111 In-Class Exam #4 Cancer, HIV, & Genetic Engineering  

E-print Network

may find the cure for cancer." 6 pts. 4) List all the molecules carried by HIV inside its capsid. #12Dr. Campbell's Bio111 Exam #4 ­ Spring 2007 1 Biology 111 In-Class Exam #4 ­ Cancer, HIV, & Genetic

Campbell, A. Malcolm

187

Dr. Campbell's Bio111 Exam #2 Spring 2008 Spring 2008 Biology 111 Take-Home Exam #2 Classical Genetics  

E-print Network

. Staple all your pages (INCLUDING THE TEST PAGES) together when finished with the exam. Name (please print to navel piercings that puncture kidneys and lead to rapid death). #12;Dr. Campbell's Bio111 Exam #2 dilemmas associated with real humans ­ this is not a real case.) Your answer should NOT be in written words

Campbell, A. Malcolm

188

Silviculture Survey Accreditation Exam The 2 day exam is regional in nature and includes written questions, case studies and field  

E-print Network

questions, case studies and field exercises. The accreditation exams will include a one-day written examination, focusing on field-based case studies. Appropriate reference materials will be used and slides and/or video footage may be used to clarify case study issues. The second day of the exam will include

Northern British Columbia, University of

189

Synthesis and Evaluation of an Anti-MLC1 × Anti-CD90 Bispecific Antibody for Targeting and Retaining Bone-Marrow Derived Multipotent Stromal Cells in Infarcted Myocardium  

PubMed Central

A key issue regarding the use of stem cells in cardiovascular regenerative medicine is their retention in target tissues. Here, we have generated and assessed a bispecific antibody heterodimer designed to improve the retention of bone marrow–derived multipotent stromal cells (BMMSC) in cardiac tissue damaged by myocardial infarction. The heterodimer comprises an anti-human CD90 monoclonal antibody (mAb) (clone 5E10) and an anti-myosin light chain 1 (MLC1) mAb (clone MLM508) covalently cross-linked by a bis-aryl hydrazone. We modified the anti-CD90 antibody with a pegylated-4-formylbenzamide moiety to a molar substitution ratio (MSR) of 2.6 and the anti-MLC1 antibody with a 6-hydrazinonicotinamide moiety to a MSR of 0.9. The covalent modifications had no significant deleterious effect on mAb epitope binding. Furthermore, the binding of anti-CD90 antibody to BMMSCs did not prevent their differentiation into adipo-, chondro-, or osteogenic lineages. Modified antibodies were combined under mild conditions (RT, pH 6, 1 h) in the presence of a catalyst (aniline) to allow for rapid generation of the covalent bis-aryl hydrazone, which was monitored at A354. We evaluated epitope immunoreactivity for each mAb in the construct. Flow cytometry demonstrated binding of the bispecific construct to BMMSCs that was competed by free anti-CD90 mAb, verifying that modification and cross-linking were not detrimental to the anti-CD90 complementarity-determining region. Similarly, ELISA-based assays demonstrated bispecific antibody binding to plastic-immobilized recombinant MLC1. Excess anti-MLC1 mAb competed for bispecific antibody binding. Finally, the anti-CD90 × anti-MLC1 bispecific antibody construct induced BMMSC adhesion to plastic-immobilized MLC1 that was resistant to shear stress, as measured in parallel-plate flow chamber assays. We used mAbs that bind both human antigens and the respective pig homologues. Thus, the anti-CD90 × anti-MLC1 bispecific antibody may be used in large animal studies of acute myocardial infarction and may provide a starting point for clinical studies. PMID:21749133

Gundlach, C. William; Caivano, Amy; Cabreira-Hansen, Maria da Graca; Gahremanpour, Amir; Brown, Wells S.; Zheng, Yi; McIntyre, Bradley W.; Willerson, James T.; Dixon, Richard A.F.; Perin, Emerson C.; Woodside, Darren G.

2011-01-01

190

Tbx3 and Nr5?2 improve the viability of porcine induced pluripotent stem cells after dissociation into single cells by inhibiting RHO-ROCK-MLC signaling.  

PubMed

Porcine induced pluripotent stem cells (piPSCs) had been reported during the past 5years, but there were few reports on how the cell signaling works in piPSCs. In order to clarify the signaling work that dominated the characteristic difference of two types of piPSCs which were derived from Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and c-Myc (termed 4F piPSCs) and Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, c-Myc, Tbx3 and Nr5?2 (termed 6F piPSCs) respectively, we performed this study. 4F piPSCs and 6F piPSCs were cultured in medium with or without the ROCK inhibitor Y27632 after dissociating into single cells, the efficiency of a single cell colony and the number of AP positive colonies were assessed. The total RhoA and GTP-bind RhoA were detected in 4F piPSCs and 6F piPSCs before and after digestion into single cells. To explore the relationship between RHO-ROCK-MLC signaling pathway and the two factors Tbx3 and Nr5?2, the 4F piPSCs were infected with lenti-virus Tbx3 and Nr5?2 (termed 4F+TND). Results showed that the viability of cells could be enhanced by Y27632 and the RHO-ROCK-MLC signaling pathway was activated after dissociation into single cells in 4F piPSCs but not in 6F piPSCs. And, the 4F+TND piPSCs could be passaged and keep in high viability after dissociation into single cells, though the morphology of colonies did not change. These results indicated that the Tbx3 and Nr5?2 can improve the viability of piPSCs after dissociation into single cells by inhibiting the RHO-ROCK-MLC signaling pathway. And this provides useful information for establishing porcine pluripotent cells in future study. PMID:25514039

Wang, Jianyu; Wei, Renyue; Bou, Gerelchimeg; Liu, Zhonghua

2015-01-16

191

A real-time dynamic-MLC control algorithm for delivering IMRT to targets undergoing 2D rigid motion in the beam's eye view  

SciTech Connect

An MLC control algorithm for delivering intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) to targets that are undergoing two-dimensional (2D) rigid motion in the beam's eye view (BEV) is presented. The goal of this method is to deliver 3D-derived fluence maps over a moving patient anatomy. Target motion measured prior to delivery is first used to design a set of planned dynamic-MLC (DMLC) sliding-window leaf trajectories. During actual delivery, the algorithm relies on real-time feedback to compensate for target motion that does not agree with the motion measured during planning. The methodology is based on an existing one-dimensional (1D) algorithm that uses on-the-fly intensity calculations to appropriately adjust the DMLC leaf trajectories in real-time during exposure delivery [McMahon et al., Med. Phys. 34, 3211-3223 (2007)]. To extend the 1D algorithm's application to 2D target motion, a real-time leaf-pair shifting mechanism has been developed. Target motion that is orthogonal to leaf travel is tracked by appropriately shifting the positions of all MLC leaves. The performance of the tracking algorithm was tested for a single beam of a fractionated IMRT treatment, using a clinically derived intensity profile and a 2D target trajectory based on measured patient data. Comparisons were made between 2D tracking, 1D tracking, and no tracking. The impact of the tracking lag time and the frequency of real-time imaging were investigated. A study of the dependence of the algorithm's performance on the level of agreement between the motion measured during planning and delivery was also included. Results demonstrated that tracking both components of the 2D motion (i.e., parallel and orthogonal to leaf travel) results in delivered fluence profiles that are superior to those that track the component of motion that is parallel to leaf travel alone. Tracking lag time effects may lead to relatively large intensity delivery errors compared to the other sources of error investigated. However, the algorithm presented is robust in the sense that it does not rely on a high level of agreement between the target motion measured during treatment planning and delivery.

McMahon, Ryan; Berbeco, Ross; Nishioka, Seiko; Ishikawa, Masayori; Papiez, Lech [School of Health Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Division of Medical Physics, Dana-Farber/Brigham and Women's Cancer Center and Harvard Medical School, 75 Francis Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States); NTT East-Japan Sapporo Hospital, Sapporo (Japan); Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo (Japan); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas-Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75390 (United States)

2008-09-15

192

Cognitive Reserve and Alzheimer Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidemiologic evidence suggests that individuals with higher IQ, education, occupational attainment, or participation in leisure activities have a reduced risk of developing Alzheimer disease (AD). The concept of cognitive reserve (CR) posits that individual differences in how tasks are processed provide differential reserve against brain pathology or age-related changes. This may take 2 forms. In neural reserve, preexisting brain networks

Yaakov Stern

2006-01-01

193

Washington: Hanford Nuclear Reservation  

... "before and after" views of the area around the Hanford Nuclear Reservation near Richland, Washington. On June 27, 2000, a fire in the ... since 1996. MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, ...

2014-05-15

194

National Strategic Petroleum Reserve  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Strategic Petroleum Reserve is intended to reduce the vulnerability of the United States to interruptions in the oil supply from foreign sources. Storage for 248 million barrels of crude oil in salt caverns and mines, with equipment for pumping and distribution, was constructed and operationally tested in a 4-year period. Its present inventory is the largest known crude oil

R. M. Davis

1981-01-01

195

Strategic petroleum reserve expansion  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes SPR benefits and proposes a general paradigm for Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) decision-making. It presents two modeling approaches to the general decision problem, each simplifying the problem in a different way and offering a distinct perspective. The first is the Teisberg model approach, applying dynamic programming, and we present some recent numerical results on the value of

P. N. Leiby; R. Lee

1989-01-01

196

Exploiting heavy oil reserves  

E-print Network

potential Exploiting heavy oil reserves Aberdeen: A community of science AT WORK FOR THE ENERGY SECTOR ISSUE: A community of science AT WORK FOR THE ENERGY SECTOR ISSUE 1 ENERGEIA Deepening subsurface research #12 links all over the world, the University of Aberdeen is ideally placed to work with the energy industry

Levi, Ran

197

School Shootings Stun Reservation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article deals with the impact brought by the school shootings at Red Lake Indian Reservation in Minnesota to the school community. A deeply troubled 16-year-old student shot and killed seven other people and himself at a high school. The nation's deadliest school attack since the 1999 slayings at Colorado's suburban Columbine High School took…

Borja, Rhea R.; Cavanagh, Sean

2005-01-01

198

World Uranium Reserves  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This American Energy Independence website provides a brief overview of potential supplies of uranium for nuclear energy. The author, nuclear engineer James Hopf, believes that there are large reserves of uranium available, and that more will be discovered if needed. Links to literature cited and related resources are included.

James Hopf

199

Strategic Petroleum Reserve quarterly report  

SciTech Connect

The Strategic Petroleum Reserve Quarterly Report is submitted in accordance with section 165(b) of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act, as amended, which requires that the Secretary of Energy submit quarterly reports to Congress on activities undertaken with respect to the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Since the Strategic Petroleum Reserve crude oil storage facilities program for the 750 million barrels was completed in 1991, this November 15, 1992, Strategic Petroleum Reserve Quarterly Report focuses on activities related primarily to the status of storage facilities, oil acquisition, budget and costs of the Reserve during the period July 1, 1992, through September 30, 1992.

Not Available

1992-11-15

200

Evaluating multiple-choice exams in large introductory physics courses  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The reliability and validity of professionally written multiple-choice exams have been extensively studied for exams such as the SAT, graduate record examination, and the force concept inventory. Much of the success of these multiple-choice exams is attributed to the careful construction of each question, as well as each response. In this study, the reliability and validity of scores from multiple-choice exams written for and administered in the large introductory physics courses at the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign were investigated. The reliability of exam scores over the course of a semester results in approximately a 3% uncertainty in studentsâ total semester exam score. This semester test score uncertainty yields an uncertainty in the studentsâ assigned letter grade that is less than 1/3 of a letter grade. To study the validity of exam scores, a subset of students were ranked independently based on their multiple-choice score, graded explanations, and student interviews. The ranking of these students based on their multiple-choice score was found to be consistent with the ranking assigned by physics instructors based on the studentsâ written explanations ( r>0.94 at the 95% confidence level) and oral interviews (r=0.94?â.âââºâ°.â°â¶).

Scott, Michael; Stelzer, Timothy; Gladding, Gary

2007-11-19

201

NOTE: Real-time tracking of tumor motions and deformations along the leaf travel direction with the aid of a synchronized dynamic MLC leaf sequencer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Advanced radiotherapeutical techniques like intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) are based on an accurate knowledge of the location of the radiation target. An accurate dose delivery, therefore, requires a method to account for the inter- and intrafractional target motion and the target deformation occurring during the course of treatment. A method to compensate in real time for changes in the position and shape of the target is the use of a dynamic multileaf collimator (MLC) technique which can be devised to automatically arrange the treatment field according to real-time image information. So far, various approaches proposed for leaf sequencers have had to rely on a priori known target motion data and have aimed to optimize the overall treatment time. Since for a real-time dose delivery the target motion is not known a priori, the velocity range of the leading leaves is restricted by a safety margin to c × vmax while the following leaves can travel with an additional maximum speed to compensate for the respective target movements. Another aspect to be considered is the tongue and groove effect. A uniform radiation field can only be achieved if the leaf movements are synchronized. The method presented in this note is the first to combine a synchronizing sequencer and real-time tracking with a dynamic MLC. The newly developed algorithm is capable of online optimizing the leaf velocities by minimizing the overall treatment time while at the same time it synchronizes the leaf trajectories in order to avoid the tongue and groove effect. The simultaneous synchronization is performed with the help of an online-calculated mid-time leaf trajectory which is common for all leaf pairs and which takes into account the real-time target motion and deformation information.

Tacke, Martin; Nill, Simeon; Oelfke, Uwe

2007-11-01

202

Going Green and Using Less Paper to Print Exams: Student Performance, Completion Time, and Preference  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two studies measured the impact on student exam performance and exam completion time of strategies aimed to reduce the amount of paper used for printing multiple-choice course exams. Study 1 compared single-sided to double-sided printed exams. Study 2 compared a single-column arrangement of multiple-choice answer options to a space (and paper)…

O'Connor, Kevin J.

2014-01-01

203

Strategic Petroleum Reserve quarterly report  

SciTech Connect

This August 15, 1991, Strategic Petroleum Reserve Quarterly Report describes activities related to the site development, oil acquisition, budget and cost of the Reserve during the period April 1, 1991, through June 30, 1991. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve storage facilities development program is proceeding on schedule. The Reserve's capacity is currently 726 million barrels. A total of 5.5 million barrels of new gross cavern volume was developed at Big Hill and Bayou Choctaw during the quarter. There were no crude oil deliveries to the Strategic Petroleum Reserve during the calendar quarter ending June 30, 1991. Acquisition of crude oil for the Reserve has been suspended since August 2, 1990, following the invasion of Kuwait by Iraq. As of June 30, 1991, the Strategic Petroleum Reserve inventory was 568.5 million barrels. The reorganization of the Office of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve became effective June 28, 1991. Under the new organization, the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Project Management Office in Louisiana will report to the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Program Office in Washington rather than the Oak Ridge Field Office in Tennessee. 2 tabs.

Not Available

1991-08-15

204

Will students pass a competitive exam that they failed in their dreams?  

PubMed

We tested whether dreams can anticipate a stressful exam and how failure/success in dreams affect next-day performance. We collected information on students' dreams during the night preceding the medical school entrance exam. Demographic, academic, sleep and dream characteristics were compared to the students' grades on the exam. Of the 719 respondents to the questionnaire (of 2324 total students), 60.4% dreamt of the exam during the night preceding it. Problems with the exam appeared in 78% of dreams and primarily involved being late and forgetting answers. Reporting a dream about the exam on the pre-exam night was associated with better performance on the exam (p=.01). The frequency of dreams concerning the exam during the first term predicted proportionally higher performance on the exam (R=0.1, p=.01). These results suggest that the negative anticipation of a stressful event in dreams is common and that this episodic simulation provides a cognitive gain. PMID:25108280

Arnulf, Isabelle; Grosliere, Laure; Le Corvec, Thibault; Golmard, Jean-Louis; Lascols, Olivier; Duguet, Alexandre

2014-10-01

205

X-Ray Exam: Bone Age Study (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... adrenal gland disorders genetic growth disorders, such as Turner syndrome (TS) orthopedic or orthodontic problems in which the ... Ray Exam: Wrist What Is a Growth Disorder? Turner Syndrome Your Child's Growth Thyroid Disorders Word! Growth Hormone ...

206

The rape exam: beyond the hospital emergency room.  

PubMed

Data from 31 Florida post-rape examination sites reveal a number of dilemmas associated with rape exams. The sites include regular hospital ERs (N = 25), specialized sexual assault treatment centers (SATCs) on hospital grounds (N = 2), a nonhospital-based SATC, a proprietary OB/GYN clinic, a medical examiner's office, and a law enforcement crime lab. Open-ended interviews indicate that major problems with hospitals as exam sites stem from physicians' dislike of the exam and physician and hospital fears of legal and court entanglements. Prosecutors (and judges) are a major obstacle to nonphysician examiners. A challenge to rethink the post-rape exam, including where and by whom it is performed, is posed. PMID:3321722

Martin, P Y; DiNitto, D M

1987-01-01

207

The Strategic Petroleum Reserve  

SciTech Connect

The Strategic Petroleum Reserve program was set into motion by the 1975 Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA). By 1990, 590 million barrels of oil had been placed in storage. Salt domes along the Gulf Coast offered ideal storage. Both sweet'' and sour'' crude oil have been acquired using various purchase options. Drawdown, sale, and distribution of the oil would proceed according to guidelines set by EPCA in the event of a severe energy supply disruption. (SM)

Not Available

1991-01-01

208

Strategic Petroleum Reserve  

SciTech Connect

The Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) facilities development for the authorized 750 million barrel program was completed in 1991. Expansion of the SPR's offsite commercial distribution capacity to 4.3 million barrels per day is in progress. During calendar year 1991, the SPR's crude oil storage capacity increased by 61 million barrels with the completion of caverns at the Big Hill and Bayou Choctaw sites. On January 16, 1991, in conjunction with the beginning of Operation Desert Storm, President Bush ordered a drawdown and distribution of Strategic Petroleum Reserve oil as part of a coordinated contingency plan agreed to by member countries of the International Energy Agency. The Department successfully conducted the drawdown during the period January 17 through March 31 and delivered a total of 17.2 million barrels of crude oil to 13 purchasers. There were no crude oil deliveries to the SPR during the year ending December 31, 1991. Acquisition of crude oil for the Reserve has been suspended since August 2, 1990, following the invasion of Kuwait by Iraq. As of December 31, 1991, the SPR inventory was 568.5 million barrels.

Not Available

1992-02-17

209

Federal Reserve Board  

E-print Network

an enormous achievement in synthesizing a great amount of archival information into a historical account grounded on economic analysis. At the same time, Meltzer’s interpretation of specific eras is open to question. He does not appear to acknowledge adequately the degree to which 1950s monetary policy decisions had a solid analytical foundation. Furthermore, Meltzer’s account of the shift from the 1970s inflation to the 1980s disinflation implausibly stresses a shift in policymakers’ objective function. The crucial change over this period, both in the United States and other countries, is more likely to have been policymakers ’ improved grasp of the connections between monetary policy and inflation. The review also takes issue with Meltzer’s account, in his book’s epilogue, of the financial crisis from 2007 to 2009. In this epilogue, Meltzer understates the degree to which the Federal Reserve’s reaction to the financial crisis was in line with the historical practice of the Federal Reserve and other central banks.

Edward Nelson

210

Again, Maryland Ranks #1 in Advanced Placement (AP) Exam Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For a second year in a row, Maryland ranked first nationwide in the percentage of public school students scoring 3 or higher on at least one AP (Advanced Placement) exam. A score of 3 or higher on the 5-point scale is considered mastery of college-level work. Maryland also continues to show strong gains in the number of students taking an AP exam,…

Maryland State Department of Education, 2010

2010-01-01

211

High School Exit Exam Scores and University Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many U.S. students must pass a standards-based exit exam to earn a high school diploma. The degree to which exit exams and state standards properly signal to students their preparedness for postsecondary schooling has been questioned. The alignment of test scores with college grades for students at the University of Arizona (n = 2,667) who took the Arizona high school

Jerome V. DAgostino; Sarah M. Bonner

2009-01-01

212

Are study strategies related to medical licensing exam performance?  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To examine the relationship between study strategies and performance on a high stakes medical licensing exam entitled the United States Medical Licensing Examination Step 1. Methods: The action research project included seventy nine student participants at the Texas A&M Health Science Center College of Medicine during their pre-clinical education. Data collection included pre-matriculation and matriculation academic performance data, standardized exam data, and the Learning and Study Strategies Instrument. Multiple regression analyses were conducted. For both models, the dependent variable was the Step 1 score, and the independent variables included Medical College Admission Test, Undergraduate Grade Point Average, Year 1 Average, Year 2 Average, Customized National Board of Medical Examiners Average, Comprehensive Basic Science Exam score, and Learning and Study Strategy Instrument sub-scores. Model 2 added Comprehensive Basic Science Self-Assessment average. Results: Concentration (Model 1 - ? = .264; Model 2 - ? = .254) was the only study strategy correlated with Step 1 performance. The other statistically significant predictors were Customized National Board of Medical Examiners Average (? = .315) and Year 2 Average (? = .280) in Model 1 and Comprehensive Basic Science Self-Assessment Average (? = .338) in Model 2. Conclusions: There does appear to be a relationship between the study strategy concentration and Step 1 licensing exam performance. Teaching students to practice and utilize certain techniques to improve concentration skills when preparing for and taking exams may help improve licensing exam scores. PMID:25362627

West, Courtney; Kurz, Terri; Smith, Sherry; Graham, Lori

2014-01-01

213

Strategic Petroleum Reserve quarterly report  

SciTech Connect

The Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) was created to reduce the impact of disruptions in petroleum supplies and to carry out obligations of the United States under the Agreement on an International Energy Program. This May 15, 1990, Strategic Petroleum Reserve Quarterly Report describes activities related to the site development, oil acquisition, budget and cost of the Reserve during the period January 1, 1990 through March 31, 1990. 3 tabs.

Not Available

1990-05-15

214

Student Health Plan Vision Coverage 2012 2013 Policy Year Student only may use the Vision Benefit to cover routine vision exam(s),  

E-print Network

Student Health Plan Vision Coverage 2012 ­ 2013 Policy Year Student only may use the Vision Benefit to cover routine vision exam(s), eyeglasses, and/or contact lens up to $300 per policy year. Vision Exams and prescription eyewear are subject to $15 co-pay. Present insurance card at the time of visit Clemson Area Vision

Stuart, Steven J.

215

Using IB/AP exams to meet Honors College requirements Students who pass IB and AP exams will receive credit through the College of Charleston for the  

E-print Network

Using IB/AP exams to meet Honors College requirements Students who pass IB and AP exams to discuss IB/AP transfer credit and the courses that must be completed prior to graduation. The full list of IB and AP exams accepted by CofC can be found at http

Mitchener, W. Garrett

216

2013-2014 calculator policy To protect the integrity of its exams, NCEES limits the types of calculators you may bring to the exam room.  

E-print Network

2013-2014 calculator policy To protect the integrity of its exams, NCEES limits the types of calculators you may bring to the exam room. The only calculator models acceptable for use during the exam are as follows. Casio: All fx-115 models. Any Casio calculator must contain fx-115 in its model name. Examples

Haller, Merrick

217

Documented Problem Solving: Calculating Bank Reserves  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The lecture focused on the banking system and included a discussion about total reserves, required reserves and excess reserves. Students practiced calculating each category in pairs and then compared their solutions with those of the instructor.

Wilson, Linda

218

Application for admission to exam Please register online! Use this form only if registering online is not possible.  

E-print Network

Application for admission to exam Please register online! Use this form only if registering online is not possible. Matrikelnummer: Name, first name: Study programme: Final degree: Phone: E-mail: Date, Signature: Exam no./exam name: Exam date: Time: Examiner: Signature of examiner: (with oral exams only) yes no

Pfeifer, Holger

219

Strategic petroleum reserves in Maine  

Microsoft Academic Search

An evaluation was made to determine if the State of Maine should develop a State petroleum storage reserve to protect its economic and social vitality against future petroleum shortages. The requirements for residual oil are delineated and alternate storage options are described. The adequacy of the National Strategic Petroleum Reserve Program (S.P.R.) as a tool for alleviating shortfalls of residual

Tibbetts

1977-01-01

220

Strategic petroleum reserve quarterly report  

SciTech Connect

This Strategic Petroleum Reserve Quarterly Report describes activities related to the site development, oil acquisition, budget and cost of the Reserve during the period January 1, 1991, through March 31, 1991. A special section is also included discussing the January 1991 drawdown and distribution of crude oil. 8 tabs.

Not Available

1991-05-15

221

Greenhouse effect and nature reserves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global warming would diminish biological diversity by causing extinctions among reserve species. Patterns of climatic change are discussed, including global patterns of surface temperature increase, as predicted by the Goddard Institute for Space Studies, and global changes in moisture patterns. The concept of biological reserves (essentially the same concept as biological refugia) is discussed, and the effect of climatic changes

Robert L. Peters; Joan D. S. Darling

1985-01-01

222

Scientific reserves in state forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes: (a) the statutory and policy basis for the involvement of the New Zealand Forest Service in reserve management as a component of balanced management of State forest land; (b) the role of a scientific advisory panel in discharging this responsibility, and the evolution by this group of guidelines for the definition of reserves, the concept of ecological

C. Bassett; K. H. Miers

1984-01-01

223

Operating Reserves and Variable Generation  

SciTech Connect

This report tries to first generalize the requirements of the power system as it relates to the needs of operating reserves. It also includes a survey of operating reserves and how they are managed internationally in system operations today and then how new studies and research are proposing they may be managed in the future with higher penetrations of variable generation.

Ela, E.; Milligan, M.; Kirby, B.

2011-08-01

224

Effect of paper color on students' physics exam performances  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Prior work has established the existence of a color-performance relationship in achievement contexts and has demonstrated its presence in some undergraduate course examinations. This study examines the manifestation of such a relationship in an introductory, 430-student, calculus-based electricity and magnetism course during which the paper color used in examinations was varied. In this report, we analyze three separate exams and differentiate between studentsâ multiple choice, written response, conceptual, and computational performances. Also considered are factors such as the time students require to complete exams and their confidence levels prior to and immediately following assessment. Performance in all categories appears to be independent of paper color.

Schmidt, David R.; Ruskell, Todd G.; Kohl, Patrick B.

2013-07-09

225

Federal Reserve Rate Cuts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This week's In the News chronicles recent Federal Reserve Board decisions to lower interest rates. The eleven resources discussed provide news, opinion, and consumer information on the FRB BOG action. Following the first US interest rate cut in three years on September 29, 1998, FED Chairman Alan Greenspan caught fire from Wall Street. "Traders were disappointed" in the mere quarter point drop, according to Time business reporter Bernard Baumohl, but "Greenspan will have to make do with the gratitude of the rest of the world." Although the DOW initially fell 54 points Tuesday, a second 0.25% cut to short-term interest rates on October 15, 1998 sent stocks soaring 330 points--the third largest one-day point gain in history. Analysts now hope that US investor optimism--coupled with IMF and World Bank action in Brazil, Russia, and Asia--will ease the world-wide economic crises.

Waters, Megan.

1998-01-01

226

Investigating the Effects of Exam Length on Performance and Cognitive Fatigue  

PubMed Central

This study examined the effects of exam length on student performance and cognitive fatigue in an undergraduate biology classroom. Exams tested higher order thinking skills. To test our hypothesis, we administered standard- and extended-length high-level exams to two populations of non-majors biology students. We gathered exam performance data between conditions as well as performance on the first and second half of exams within conditions. We showed that lengthier exams led to better performance on assessment items shared between conditions, possibly lending support to the spreading activation theory. It also led to greater performance on the final exam, lending support to the testing effect in creative problem solving. Lengthier exams did not result in lower performance due to fatiguing conditions, although students perceived subjective fatigue. Implications of these findings are discussed with respect to assessment practices. PMID:23950918

Jensen, Jamie L.; Berry, Dane A.; Kummer, Tyler A.

2013-01-01

227

Online Course Reserves and Graduate Student Satisfaction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study assesses student satisfaction with online course reserves in a graduate environment. Surveys indicated that students prefer online course reserves over in-library print course reserves. Pre-printed course readers are preferred when the purchase price of the reader is less than the cost of printing online reserves. Graduate students are…

Isenberg, Laurie

2006-01-01

228

Library Reserved Room Policy All Meeting Spaces  

E-print Network

Library Reserved Room Policy All Meeting Spaces Room reservation To make a reservation for any Library meeting space, complete the room reservation form at http://library.syr.edu/services/space/form-findroom.php. In order to provide equitable access to library spaces, the Library may impose limitations on frequency

Mather, Patrick T.

229

77 FR 21846 - Reserve Requirements of Depository Institutions: Reserves Simplification  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...creates a penalty-free band around reserve balance requirements in place of carryover and...and eliminates the contractual clearing balance program. The amendments are designed...Regulation D currently, transaction account balances maintained at each depository...

2012-04-12

230

National Estuarine Research Reserve System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Established in 1972 through the Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA), the National Estuarine Research Reserve System (NERR) is a network of protected areas representing different types of estuaries and biogeographic regions. Operated by coastal states with input from local communities and regional groups, NERR studies address coastal watershed management issues. The homepage provides an overview of the NERR System with links to specific information on (most) reserves, detailed case studies on six focal reserves, publications and research resources, educational materials, and links to related resources.

231

ACS Exams as an Example of Scholarship-based Assessment in a Discipline  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Examinations Institute of the American Chemical Society has been producing norm-referenced exams for over 75 years and these efforts are reviewed here. The process by which exam-writing committees produce these exams involves both the setting of the content and trial testing of items prior to establishing the released exam. Beyond this process, the Institute has engaged in research based on data derived from various tests.

Holme, Thomas A.; Grunert, Megan L.

2012-05-15

232

Effects of the Implementation of State-Wide Exit Exams on Students' Self-Regulated Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Whereas several studies investigated the effects of implementation of state-wide exit exams on student achievement, there is still little known about the impacts of the exams on students' self-regulated learning. This paper examines the question as to whether the implementation of state-wide high school exit exams is associated with a change in…

Merki, Katharina Maag

2011-01-01

233

How Does Student Performance on Formative Assessments Relate to Learning Assessed by Exams?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A retrospective analysis examines the relationships between formative assessments and exam grades in two undergraduate geoscience courses. Pair and group-work grades correlate weakly with individual exam grades. Exam performance correlates to individual, weekly online assessments. Student attendance and use of assessment feedback are also…

Smith, Gary

2007-01-01

234

Assessing Conceptual and Algorithmic Knowledge in General Chemistry with ACS Exams  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2005, the ACS Examinations Institute released an exam for first-term general chemistry in which items are intentionally paired with one conceptual and one traditional item. A second-term, paired-questions exam was released in 2007. This paper presents an empirical study of student performances on these two exams based on national samples of…

Holme, Thomas; Murphy, Kristen

2011-01-01

235

How Does Student Performance on Formative Assessments Relate to Learning Assessed by Exams?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A retrospective analysis examines the relationships between formative assessments and exam grades in two undergraduate geoscience courses. Pair and group-work grades correlate weakly with individual exam grades. Exam performance correlates to individual, weekly online assessments. Student attendance and use of assessment feedback are also essential factors.

Smith, Gary

2007-07-01

236

Multiple-Choice and Short-Answer Exam Performance in a College Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors experimentally investigated the effects of multiple-choice and short-answer format exam items on exam performance in a college classroom. They randomly assigned 50 students to take a 10-item short-answer pretest or posttest on two 50-item multiple-choice exams in an introduction to personality course. Students performed significantly…

Funk, Steven C.; Dickson, K. Laurie

2011-01-01

237

Do You Prefer to Have the Text or a Sheet with Your Physics Exams?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many high school and introductory college physics instructors ponder the choice between "open text" exams versus "facts and formulae sheet" exams. Other alternatives are closed book/closed notes exams or an instructor-prepared sheet of facts and relevant formulas. There is no agreement on merit. Rehfuss strongly opposes allowing students to use…

Hamed, Kastro M.

2008-01-01

238

State High School Exit Exams: Trends in Test Programs, Alternate Pathways, and Pass Rates  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The report draws from Center on Education Policy's eight-year study of high school exit exams to identify long-term trends in state policies and student performance. It highlights a growing trend among states to establish alternate pathways to graduation for students who are struggling to pass exit exams. The report also analyzes exit exam pass…

Zhang, Ying

2009-01-01

239

Strategic Petroleum Reserve quarterly report  

SciTech Connect

The Strategic Petroleum Reserve was created pursuant to the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of December 22, 1975 (Public Law 94-163). Its purposes are to reduce the impact of disruptions in supplies of petroleum products and to carry out obligations of the United States under the Agreement on an International Energy Program. Section 165(a) of the Act requires the submission of Annual Reports and Section 165(b)(1) requires the submission of Quarterly Reports. This Quarterly Report highlights activities undertaken during the third quarter of calendar year 1995, including: inventory of petroleum products stored in the Reserve; current storage capacity and ullage available; current status of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve storage facilities, major projects and the acquisition of petroleum products; funds obligated by the Secretary from the SPR Petroleum Account and the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Account during the prior calendar quarter and in total; and major environmental actions completed, in progress, or anticipated.

NONE

1995-11-15

240

50 CFR Table 4 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false [Reserved] 4 Table 4 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL...Population Segment of eulachon (Thaleichthys pacificus). Table 4...

2012-10-01

241

Ethics inserts for syllabi and exams Department of Mathematics, JHU  

E-print Network

Ethics inserts for syllabi and exams Department of Mathematics, JHU Fall 2007 Richard Brown to be distributed to all students taking courses at Johns Hopkins. Ethics statement insert for your syllabus relevant to your course] For more information, see the guide on "Academic Ethics for Undergraduates

Niebur, Ernst

242

Assessment in undergraduate medical education: a review of course exams  

PubMed Central

Introduction The purpose of this study is to describe an approach for evaluating assessments used in the first 2 years of medical school and report the results of applying this method to current first and second year medical student examinations. Methods Three faculty members coded all exam questions administered during the first 2 years of medical school. The reviewers discussed and compared the coded exam questions. During the bi-monthly meetings, all differences in coding were resolved with consensus as the final criterion. We applied Moore's framework to assist the review process and to align it with National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME) standards. Results The first and second year medical school examinations had 0% of competence level questions. The majority, more than 50% of test questions, were at the NBME recall level. Conclusion It is essential that multiple-choice questions (MCQs) test the attitudes, skills, knowledge, and competency in medical school. Based on our findings, it is evident that our exams need to be improved to better prepare our medical students for successful completion of NBME step exams. PMID:23469935

Vanderbilt, Allison A.; Feldman, Moshe; Wood, Isaac K.

2013-01-01

243

Spanish-English Verbatim Translation Exam. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The development and validation of the Spanish-English Verbatim Translation Exam (SEVTE) is described. The test is for use by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) in the selection of applicants for the positions of Language Specialist or Contract Linguist. The report is divided into eight sections. Section 1 describes the need for the test,…

Stansfield, Charles W.; And Others

244

Physics 228 -Final Exam Solutions May 9, 2006  

E-print Network

Physics 228 - Final Exam Solutions May 9, 2006 Prof. Coleman, Dr. Francis, Prof. Bronzan, Prof a vacuum into a slab of glass with a 45 angle of incidence? a) its frequency b) its wavelength c) its speed d) its direction of travel e) none of these Solution: The frequency remains unchanged. The speed

Coleman, Piers

245

Fundamentals of Engineering (FE) Exam Fluid Mechanics Review  

E-print Network

Fundamentals of Engineering (FE) Exam Fluid Mechanics Review Steven Burian Civil & Environmental Engineering March 22, 2013 #12;Morning (Fluid Mechanics) A. Flow measurement B. Fluid properties C. Fluid and mechanical energy balance B. Hydrostatic pressure C. Dimensionless numbers (e.g., Reynolds Number) D. Laminar

Provancher, William

246

Using Oral Exams to Assess Communication Skills in Business Courses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Business, like many other fields in higher education, continues to rely largely on conventional testing methods for assessing student learning. In the current article, another evaluation approach--the oral exam--is examined as a means for building and evaluating the professional communication and oral dialogue skills needed and utilized by…

Burke-Smalley, Lisa A.

2014-01-01

247

Preparticipation Exams: How to Detect a Teenage Crisis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sport-specific preparticipation examinations do not address social problems (drug abuse, suicide, murder, accidents, and sex) epidemic among teenagers, but they are often the only contact these youth have with a physician. This article discusses these risk factors and presents methods for assessing them during preparticipation exams. (SM)

Donahue, Parnell

1990-01-01

248

Uma aplicação Web para análise de exames Cardio- Respiratórios  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a web-application in development to help on the analysis of cardiorespiratory system of health and pathological subjects. The software helps health professionals in rehabilitation tasks as also in prevention of cardiorespiratory diseases. Resumo. Este artigo descreve uma aplicação web em desenvolvimento para auxiliar na análise e interpretação de resultados de exames que avaliam o sistema cardiorrespiratório de

Maria Angelica de Oliveira; Camargo Brunetto; André Luis Debiaso Rossi

249

Plant and Microbial Biosciences Qualifying Exam Qualifying Preliminary Examinations  

E-print Network

Plant and Microbial Biosciences Qualifying Exam Qualifying Preliminary Examinations: Students must Preparation form. The summary should be a self-contained description of the proposed experiments and include: 1) a brief introduction to the basic question or area of plant or microbial biology

Kornfeld, S. Kerry

250

COMMON HOUR EXAM POLICY Adopted February 26, 2014 Faculty Senate  

E-print Network

, the Registrar's Office will disseminate a list of the students who have conflicts among scheduled common hourCOMMON HOUR EXAM POLICY Adopted February 26, 2014 ­ Faculty Senate INTRODUCTION AND PURPOSE Common be from one to two hours. 2. For each Common Hour Examination, students will be excused from an equivalent

Maxwell, Bruce D.

251

From Exam Factories to Communities of Discovery: The Democratic Route  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"From Exam Factories to Communities of Discovery" passionately calls for educators to challenge the dominant market-led model of education and instead build a more democratic one, better able to face threats such as environmental damage; intensified global competition; corrosive social inequalities in and between nations in the world; and the need…

Coffield, Frank; Williamson, Bill

2011-01-01

252

STAT/MA 519 Midterm Exam 1 Answers  

E-print Network

. The testing booklet contains 8 questions. 2. Permitted Texas Instruments calculators: BA-35 BA II Plus BA II be cleared at the start of the exam, if possible. No other calculators are permitted. 3. Simplify the answers survey. He tries to conduct telephone interviews with citi- zens about the upcoming presidential election

Ward, Mark Daniel

253

Residency Applicants Misinterpret Their United States Medical Licensing Exam Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Proper interpretation of the results of the United States Medical Licensing Exam (USMLE) is important for program directors, residents, and faculty who advise applicants about applying for residency positions. We suspected that applicants often misinterpreted their performance in relationship to others who took the same examination. In 2005, 54…

Jones, Roger C.; Desbiens, Norman A.

2009-01-01

254

Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics Field Exam on Space Propulsion  

E-print Network

Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics Field Exam on Space Propulsion January 2010 Choose TWO a spacecraft (payload/structure + propulsion/power system + propellant) hovering during a time ! at a constant to the NEO orbital velocity vector. (a) Propose a propulsion configuration. What is the instantaneous thrust

de Weck, Olivier L.

255

2001 Fall MSCS Exam Answer two out of three.  

E-print Network

of wire, and under computer control, moves to one spot on the circuit board and connects one end of a wire2001 Fall MSCS Exam Answer two out of three. 1. In the manufacture of computer circuit boards that need to be connected, so the machine has a lot of work to do. It also has to manufacture many circuit

Madden, Patrick H.

256

Policy on Exit Exams for Students with Exceptionalities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To ensure that exit exams are appropriately carried out regarding students with exceptionalities, it is the position of the Council for Exceptional Children (CEC) that: (1) No single test score should be used to make critical educational decisions for students with exceptionalities; (2) All students with exceptionalities must be given the…

Council for Exceptional Children (NJ3), 2004

2004-01-01

257

Physics 228 --First Hour Exam 17 February 2004  

E-print Network

Physics 228 -- First Hour Exam 17 February 2004 Profs. Shapiro and Conway Your name sticker? 16. We can hear around corners, but we cannot see around corners. The reason is that a) Sound waves are longitudinal, while light waves are trans- verse b) Sound waves carry more energy than do light waves c) Sound

Coleman, Piers

258

Getting Interpersonal on a University Entrance Exam Impromptu Writing Task  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores the types of audience engagement strategies used by a Japanese secondary school student in an after school course preparing for a high-stakes impromptu academic writing task on a university entrance exam. The study uses appraisal theory--the branch of Systemic Functional Linguistics (SFL) concerned with the patterning of…

Myskow, Gordon; Gordon, Kana

2012-01-01

259

Cheating on Exams: The Case of Israeli Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The phenomenon of cheating on exams, which harms both the reputation of an academic institution and the students who don't cheat, is becoming increasingly common. We attempt to shed light on this phenomenon using data from a survey of graduates of the College of Management Academic Studies in Israel. Three aspects of the problem are examined:…

Siniver, Erez

2013-01-01

260

Exam Review WFS 340: Wetlands Ecology and Management  

E-print Network

Exam Review WFS 340: Wetlands Ecology and Management Definition of a Wetland 1) Know the 3 USACE criteria that are necessary for an area to be classified as a jurisdictional wetland. 2) Know low jurisdictional wetland criteria. 6) Know the 3 types of histosols, and what makes them different with respect

Gray, Matthew

261

Exam Review WFS 340: Wetlands Ecology and Management  

E-print Network

Exam Review WFS 340: Wetlands Ecology and Management What is a Jurisdictional Wetland? 1) Know the 3 USACE criteria that are necessary for an area to be classified as a jurisdictional wetland. 2 to meet USACE jurisdictional wetland criteria, and how to calculate percent dominance using the 50

Gray, Matthew

262

Strategic petroleum reserve: Quarterly report  

SciTech Connect

The August 15, 1987, Strategic Petroleum Reserve Quarterly Report describes activities undertaken with respect to the development of the Reserve during the period April 1, 1987 through June 30, 1987. The program background and major activities of this quarter are briefly discussed. Other topics are site development; oil acquisition; information on the budget and cost of the reserve; and other program items. During the second quarter of 1987, Strategic Petroleum Reserve storage capacity reached 570 million barrels. At Bryan Mound, final corrective leaching was completed in Cavern 5 whose conversion from sweet to sour crude oil storage is proceeding on schedule. At West Hackberry, leaching was completed for Cavern 115 and proceeded in the four remaining caverns still under development. At the Bayou Choctaw site, Cavern 17 oil fill was initiated; this 10-million-barrel cavern currently contains over five million barrels of oil. At Big Hill, construction has progressed to the point that attainment of leaching capability by the end of September is on schedule. The total inventory of crude oil stored in the Strategic Petroleum Reserve reached 527,186,515 barrels during the quarter ending June 30, 1987. The average fill rate during the quarter was 79,119 barrels per day, and the weighted average delivered price during this quarter was $19.17 per barrel. Funds available for obligation in fiscal year 1987 include $526 million in the SPR Petroleum Account for the acquisition and transportation of crude oil and $262 million in the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Account for activities associated with storage facilities development and the operation and management of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Approximately $23 million of Strategic Petroleum Reserve Account funds will be carried over to reduce new budget authority required for the account in fiscal year 1988.

Not Available

1987-11-15

263

Strategic petroleum reserve: Quarterly report  

SciTech Connect

This report describes activities undertaken with respect to the development of the Reserve. The introduction and summary briefly discuss program background and major activities of the quarter. Section II describes site development. Oil acquisition activities are reported in Section III. Information on the budget and cost of the Reserve is contained in Section IV. Strategic Petroleum Reserve storage capacity reached 581.3 million barrels. The total inventory of crude oil stored in the Strategic Petroleum Reserve reached 550, 055,724 barrels. The average fill rate during the quarter was 56,239 barrels per day, and the weighted average delivered price during this quarter was $15.99 per barrel. The average fill rate through the third quarter of fiscal year 1988 was 59,000 barrels per day. Funds available for obligation in fiscal year 1988 include $439 million in the SPR Petroleum Account for the acquisition and transportation of crude oil and $232 million in the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Account for activities associated with storage facilities development and the operation and management of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve.

Not Available

1988-08-15

264

Strategic Petroleum Reserve quarterly report  

SciTech Connect

The Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) was created pursuant to the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA) Public Law 94-163, approved on December 22, 1975, and extended in July 1985, June 1989, March 1990, and September 1990, to reduce the impact of disroptions in petroleum supplies and to carry out obligations of the United States under the Agreement on an International Energy Program. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve Quarterly Report is submitted in accordance with section 165(b) of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act, as amended, which requires that the Secretary of Energy submit quarterly reports to Congress on activities undertaken with respect to the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Since the Strategic Petroleum Reserve crude oil storage facilities program for the 750 minion barrels was completed in 1991, this August 15, 1992, Strategic Petroleum Reserve Quarterly Report focuses on activities related primarily to the storage facilities status, oil acquisition, budget, and cost of the Reserve during the period April 1, 1992, through June 30, 1992.

Not Available

1992-08-15

265

Strategic Petroleum Reserve: Quarterly report  

SciTech Connect

This quarterly report describes activities undertaken with respect to the development of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve during the period January 1, 1987 through March 31, 1987. The introduction and summary briefly discuss program background and major activities of this quarter. Section II describes site development. Oil acquisition activities are reported in Section III. Information on the budget and cost of the Reserve is contained in Section IV. During the first quarter of 1987, Strategic Petroleum Reserve storage capacity reached approximately 563 million barrels. At Bryan Mound, the conversion of Cavern 5 from sweet to sour crude oil storage proceeded on schedule, and at West Hackberry, leaching continued on four of the five remaining incomplete caverns. A capacity gain of 10 million barrels was realized at Bayou Choctaw with the completion of testing of Cavern 17. The total inventory of crude oil stored in the Strategic Petroleum Reserve reached 519,986,787 barrels during the quarter ending March 31, 1987. The average fill rate during the quarter was 93,575 barrels per day, and the weighted average delivered price during this quarter was $17.80 per barrel. Funds available for obligation in fiscal year 1987 include $526 million in the SPR Petroleum Account for the acquisition and transportation of crude oil and $262 million in the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Account for activities associated with storage facilities development and the operation and management of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. 2 tabs.

Not Available

1987-05-15

266

Dr. Campbell's Bio111 Exam #3 Fall 2003 Fall 2003 Biology 111 Exam #3 BioEnergetics ANSWER KEY  

E-print Network

to complete within 3 hours, except for typing. There are three pages for this test, including this cover sheet pts. #12;Dr. Campbell's Bio111 Exam #3 ­ Fall 2003 3 2) Using your own body as an example, provide or physical energy was acceptable. 10 pts. 3) Diagram the flow of energy in the light reactions

Campbell, A. Malcolm

267

Math 132 -Final Exam -Spring 2008 1 This exam contains 20 multiple choice questions. Each question is worth 5  

E-print Network

question is worth 5 points. 1. Find the arc length of y = x3 12 + 1 x over the interval [1, 3]. (Hint: Use - Final Exam - Spring 2008 3 3. A thin triangular plate is submerged vertically in water so that one side

Feres, Renato

268

The Role of End-of-Course Exams and Minimum Competency Exams in Standards-Based Reforms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the authors looked at the effects of one old-style educational reform--higher course graduation requirements--and five standard-based reforms--(1) school report cards; (2) rewards for school improvement; (3) sanctions for failing schools; (4) minimum competency examinations; and (5) hybrid minimum competency exam

Bishop, John H.; Mane, Ferran; Bishop, Michael; Moriarty, Joan Y.

2001-01-01

269

Dr. Campbell's Bio111 Exam #2 Spring 2007 Spring 2007 Biology 111 In-Class Exam #2 Classical Genetics  

E-print Network

Genetics The in-class portion of this exam is designed so that you can complete it in 20 minutes, but you. The female has a brown nose and the male has a brown tail. All their babies are white with brown tails

Campbell, A. Malcolm

270

Cognitive reserve and brain reserve in prodromal Huntington's disease.  

PubMed

Huntington disease (HD) is associated with decline in cognition and progressive morphological changes in brain structures. Cognitive reserve may represent a mechanism by which disease-related decline may be delayed or slowed. The current study examined the relationship between cognitive reserve and longitudinal change in cognitive functioning and brain volumes among prodromal (gene expansion-positive) HD individuals. Participants were genetically confirmed individuals with prodromal HD enrolled in the PREDICT-HD study. Cognitive reserve was computed as the composite of performance on a lexical task estimating premorbid intellectual level, occupational status, and years of education. Linear mixed effects regression (LMER) was used to examine longitudinal changes on four cognitive measures and three brain volumes over approximately 6 years. Higher cognitive reserve was significantly associated with a slower rate of change on one cognitive measure (Trail Making Test, Part B) and slower rate of volume loss in two brain structures (caudate, putamen) for those estimated to be closest to motor disease onset. This relationship was not observed among those estimated to be further from motor disease onset. Our findings demonstrate a relationship between cognitive reserve and both a measure of executive functioning and integrity of certain brain structures in prodromal HD individuals. PMID:23702309

Bonner-Jackson, Aaron; Long, Jeffrey D; Westervelt, Holly; Tremont, Geoffrey; Aylward, Elizabeth; Paulsen, Jane S

2013-08-01

271

Form: new modules and exams If you like to add a new exam to an already existing module, please fill in only "Name of the module", then continue with the  

E-print Network

Please fill in this form in order to make new modules and exams available for the online examination fill in only "Name of the module", then continue with the second part of the form ("Exams..."). PleaseForm: new modules and exams If you like to add a new exam to an already existing module, please

Pfeifer, Holger

272

Strategic Petroleum Reserve quarterly report  

SciTech Connect

This quarterly report describes activities undertaken with respect to the development of the Reserve during the period April 1, 1987 through June 30, 1987. The introduction and summary briefly discuss program background and major activities of this quarter. Section II describes site development. Oil acquisition activities are reported in Section III. Other program topics are discussed in Section IV. Information on the budget and cost of the Reserve is contained in Section V. During the second quarter of 1987, Strategic Petroleum Reserve storage capacity reached 570 million barrels. At Bryan Mound, final corrective leaching was completed in Cavern 5 whose conversion from sweet to sour crude oil storage is proceeding on schedule. At West Hackberry, leaching was completed for Cavern 115 and proceeded in the four remaining caverns still under development. At the Bayou Choctaw site, Cavern 17 oil fill was initiated; this 10-million-barrel cavern currently contains over five million barrels of oil. At Big Hill, construction has progressed to the point that attainment of leaching capability by the end of September is on schedule. The total inventory of crude oil stored in the Strategic Petroleum Reserve reached 527,186,515 barrels during the quarter ending June 30, 1987. The average fill rate during the quarter was 79,119 barrels per day, and the weighted average delivered price during this quarter was $19.17 per barrel. Funds available for obligation in fiscal year 1987 include $526 million in the SPR Petroleum Account for the acquisition and transportation of crude oil and $262 million in the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Account for activities associated with storage facilities development and the operation and management of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Approximately $23 million of Strategic Petroleum Reserve Account funds will be carried over to reduce new budget authority required for the account in fiscal year 1988. 1 fig., 2 tabs.

Not Available

1987-08-15

273

Adrenocortical reserves in hyperthyroidism.  

PubMed

Explicit data regarding the changes in adrenocortical reserves during hyperthyroidism do not exist. We aimed to document the capability (response) of adrenal gland to secrete cortisol and DHEA-S during hyperthyroidism compared to euthyroidism, and to describe factors associated with these responses. A standard-dose (0.25 mg/i.v.) ACTH stimulation test was performed to the same patients before hyperthyroidism treatment, and after attainment of euthyroidism. Baseline cortisol (Cor(0)), DHEA-S (DHEA-S(0)), cortisol binding globulin (CBG), ACTH, calculated free cortisol (by Coolen's equation = CFC), free cortisol index (FCI), 60-min cortisol (Cor(60)), and DHEA-S (DHEA-S(60)), delta cortisol (?Cor), delta DHEA-S (?DHEA-S) responses were evaluated. Forty-one patients [22 females, 49.5 ± 15.2 years old, 32 Graves disease, nine toxic nodular goiter] had similar Cor(0), DHEA-S(0), CFC, FCI, and DHEA-S(60) in hyperthyroid and euthyroid states. Cor(60), ?Cor, and ?DHEA-S were lower in hyperthyroidism. In four (10 %) patients the peak ACTH-stimulated cortisol values were lower than 18 ?g/dL. When the test repeated after attainment of euthyroidism, all of the patients had normal cortisol response. Regression analysis demonstrated an independent association of Cor(60) with free T3 in hyperthyroidism. However, the predictors of CFC, FCI, and DHEA-S levels were serum creatinine levels in hyperthyroidism, and both creatinine and transaminase levels in euthyroidism. ACTH-stimulated peak cortisol, delta cortisol, and delta DHEA-S levels are decreased during hyperthyroidism, probably due to increased turnover. Since about 10 % of the subjects with hyperthyroidism are at risk for adrenal insufficiency, clinicians dealing with Graves' disease should be alert to the possibility of adrenal insufficiency during hyperthyroid stage. PMID:23532634

Agbaht, Kemal; Gullu, Sevim

2014-02-01

274

Spinning Reserve From Responsive Loads  

SciTech Connect

Responsive load is the most underutilized reliability resource available to the power system today. It is currently not used at all to provide spinning reserve. Historically there were good reasons for this, but recent technological advances in communications and controls have provided new capabilities and eliminated many of the old obstacles. North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC), Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), Northeast Power Coordinating Council (NPCC), New York State Reliability Council (NYSRC), and New York Independent System Operator (NYISO) rules are beginning to recognize these changes and are starting to encourage responsive load provision of reliability services. The Carrier ComfortChoice responsive thermostats provide an example of these technological advances. This is a technology aimed at reducing summer peak demand through central control of residential and small commercial air-conditioning loads. It is being utilized by Long Island Power Authority (LIPA), Consolidated Edison (ConEd), Southern California Edison (SCE), and San Diego Gas and Electric (SDG&E). The technology is capable of delivering even greater response in the faster spinning reserve time frame (while still providing peak reduction). Analysis of demand reduction testing results from LIPA during the summer of 2002 provides evidence to back up this claim. It also demonstrates that loads are different from generators and that the conventional wisdom, which advocates for starting with large loads as better ancillary service providers, is flawed. The tempting approach of incrementally adapting ancillary service requirements, which were established when generators were the only available resources, will not work. While it is easier for most generators to provide replacement power and non-spinning reserve (the slower response services) than it is to supply spinning reserve (the fastest service), the opposite is true for many loads. Also, there is more financial reward for supplying spinning reserve than for supplying the other reserve services as a result of the higher spinning reserve prices. The LIPAedge program (LIPA's demand reduction program using Carrier ComfortChoice thermostats) provides an opportunity to test the use of responsive load for spinning reserve. With potentially 75 MW of spinning reserve capability already installed, this test program can also make an important contribution to the capacity needs of Long Island during the summer of 2003. Testing could also be done at ConEd ({approx}30 MW), SCE ({approx}15 MW), and/or SDG&E ({approx}15 MW). This paper is divided into six chapters. Chapter 2 discusses the contingency reserve ancillary services, their functions in supporting power system reliability, and their technical requirements. It also discusses the policy and tariff requirements and attempts to distinguish between ones that are genuinely necessary and ones that are artifacts of the technologies that were historically used to provide the services. Chapter 3 discusses how responsive load could provide contingency reserves (especially spinning reserve) for the power system. Chapter 4 specifically discusses the Carrier ComfortChoice responsive thermostat technology, the LIPAedge experience with that technology, and how the technology could be used to supply spinning reserve. Chapter 5 discusses a number of unresolved issues and suggests areas for further research. Chapter 6 offers conclusions and recommendations.

Kirby, B.J.

2003-04-08

275

Does the Number of Hours Studied Affect Exam Performance?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article describes a study in which the number of hours that students studied (determined by askng them) was examined to see how it affected exam performance. The study covered two courses at different institutions over a total of six semesters. Using the overall exam averages and regression analysis, the researchers calculated that students needed to invest from 3.0 to 4.4 hours to earn an average score and from 4.5 to 6.4 hours to earn an A (90 percent or 45 points out of 50) on average. In addition, they determined that the ratio of hours studied to lecture hours needed to earn a score of 90 percent ranged from 1.5 to 2.1 hours with a mean of 1.7, less than the "Carnegie Rule" of 2 hours of outside study time per week for each course credit (where a course credit is equivalent to 1 hour of lecture).

Barbarick, K.

276

Uncovering an Existential Barrier to Breast Self-exam Behavior  

PubMed Central

The present research applies an analysis derived from terror management theory to the health domain of breast examination, and in doing so uncovers previously unrecognized factors that may contribute to women’s reluctance to perform breast self-examinations (BSEs). In Study 1, when concerns about mortality were primed, reminders of human beings’ physical nature (i.e., creatureliness) reduced intentions to conduct BSEs compared to reminders of humans’ uniqueness. In Study 2, women conducted shorter exams on a breast model (an experience found to increase death-thought accessibility) when creatureliness was primed compared to a uniqueness and no essay condition. In Study 3, after a creatureliness prime, women performed shorter BSEs when a placebo did not provide an alternative explanation for their discomfort compared to when it did. Advances for theory and breast self-exam promotion are discussed. PMID:19255593

Goldenberg, Jamie L.; Arndt, Jamie; Hart, Joshua; Routledge, Clay

2008-01-01

277

Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Quarterly report  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the activities undertaken by the Strategic Petroleum Reserve during the third quarter of calendar year 1994. It addresses issues relative to storage facilities in Texas and Louisiana and include information on fill rate; average price of products purchased; current and projected storage capacity of each facility; analyses of existing or anticipated problems with the acquisition and storage or petroleum products; budgets established for the operation of each facility during the quarter and total; and major environmental actions completed, in progress, or anticipated. The report also briefly discusses two problems which have temporarily reduced the Reserve`s oil inventory for drawdown. These problems are a higher-than-normal gas content and elevated temperatures of crude at other facilities.

Not Available

1994-11-15

278

Cognitive reserve: The warehouse within  

PubMed Central

Dementia is characterized by progressive and mostly irreversible memory loss. Other neuropsychiatric disorders affect cognition in varying manner. Are all people affected with such disorders manifest clinically in similar manner or does our brain have some reserve to tolerate insults? Relevant researches over the last two decades were scrutinized to understand brain reserve, appreciate the conceptual change in the same over years, and how the same can be improved for better cognition and memory over the year. Literature evidence suggests that the cognitive reserve (CR) is a dynamic and functional concept. There is adequate evidence to suggest that enriched environment and various other measures are likely to improve CR across all age. Improving CR may delay or reverse the effects of aging or brain pathology. PMID:23271860

Prakash, Jyoti; Ryali, VSSR; Srivastava, Kalpana; Bhat, P. S.; Shashikumar, R.

2011-01-01

279

Correlates of Performance Anxiety in Practical Music Exams  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A sample of 120 young musicians (36 males and 84 females) aged between 15 and 18 years (M = 16.5, SD = 0.97) were administered the EPQ-R short scale and a revised PAI-R, a self-report measure of performance anxiety in practical music exams. Principal components analysis indicated that the PAI-R scores were best represented by a single component…

Rae, Gordon; McCambridge, Karen

2004-01-01

280

Strategic Petroleum Reserve quarterly report  

SciTech Connect

The August 15, 1985, Strategic Petroleum Reserve Quarterly Report describes activities undertaken with respect to the development of the Reserve during the period April 1, 1986 through June 30, 1986. The introduction and summary briefly discuss program background and major activities of this quarter. Section II describes site development. Oil acquisition activities are reported in Section III. Other program topics are discussed in Section IV. Information on the budget and cost of the Reserve is contained in Section V. On April 11, 1986, the Department of Energy announced its decision to restart construction at the Big Hill and Bayou Choctaw sites and to spend nearly $157 million of construction funds that had been proposed for deferral. At the end of the third quarter of FY 1986, the Strategic Petroleum Reserve's total storage capacity was approximately 510 million barrels. Cavern development or leaching at Bryan Mound is approximately 96 percent complete and is approximately 82 percent complete at West Hackberry. At Big Hill, construction of the central facilities, leaching systems, instrumentation for the first five caverns, and the raw water intake structure which will provide fresh water to the site for cavern leaching is complete. Water, brine and oil pipelines construction contracts were awarded in May 1986, and the site construction for the remaining onsite facilities is scheduled for award in August 1986. The total inventory of oil stored in the Strategic Petroleum Reserve reached 501,786,899 barrels during the quarter ending June 30, 1986. On July 2, 1986, the President signed the Urgent Supplemental Appropriations Act, 1986 (P.L. 99-349), which directed the release of approximately $578 million of deferred SPR Petroleum Account funds and approximately $41 million of deferred Strategic Petroleum Reserve Account funds.

Not Available

1986-08-15

281

Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Quarterly report  

SciTech Connect

This quarterly report describes activities undertaken with respect to the development of the Reserve during the period July 1, 1985, through September 30, 1985. The introduction and summary briefly discuss program background and major activities of this quarter. Section II describes site development. Oil acquisition activities are reported in Section III. Other program topics are discussed in Section IV and information on the budget and cost of the Reserve is contained in Section V. During the fourth quarter of fiscal year 1985, the Strategic Petroleum Reserve increased its total storage capacity to 501.1 million barrels, adding 5.9 million barrels at Bryan Mound and 11.5 million barrels at West Hackberry. Cavern development or leaching at Bryan Mound is approximately 94% complete and at West Hackberry approximately 82% complete. At Bayou Choctaw, the Department of Energy is performing final acceptance testing of cavern 17 to complete the cavern exchange agreement with Union Texas Petroleum. Significant progress has been achieved on construction of the new Big Hill (Phase III) storage facility. The total inventory of oil stored in the Strategic Petroleum Reserve reached 489,254,887 barrels during the quarter ending September 30, 1985. The average fill rate during the quarter was 137,865 barrels per day and the weighted average delivered price of crude oil during this quarter was $27.63 per barrel. The projected fill rate for the calendar quarter October 1, 1985, to December 31, 1985, is approximately 50,000 barrels per day. During the quarter, the Strategic Petroleum Reserve developed plans and began preparations for a sale of 1.1 million barrels of crude oil to test the drawdown and distribution capabilities of the Reserve. This test sale is required pursuant to Section 103 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Amendments Act of 1985. 1 tab.

Not Available

1985-11-15

282

Sustainable growth and valuation of mineral reserves  

E-print Network

The annual change in the value of an in-ground mineral is equal to the increase or decrease of inventories ("reserves"), multiplied by the market value of a reserve unit. The limited shrinking resource base does not exist. ...

Adelman, Morris Albert

1994-01-01

283

28 CFR 115.135 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false [Reserved] 115.135 Section 115.135 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Lockups Training and Education § 115.135 [Reserved]...

2012-07-01

284

28 CFR 115.173 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false [Reserved] 115.173 Section 115.173 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Lockups Investigations § 115.173 [Reserved]...

2013-07-01

285

28 CFR 115.135 - [Reserved  

...false [Reserved] 115.135 Section 115.135 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Lockups Training and Education § 115.135 [Reserved]...

2014-07-01

286

28 CFR 115.173 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false [Reserved] 115.173 Section 115.173 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Lockups Investigations § 115.173 [Reserved]...

2012-07-01

287

28 CFR 115.173 - [Reserved  

...false [Reserved] 115.173 Section 115.173 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Lockups Investigations § 115.173 [Reserved]...

2014-07-01

288

28 CFR 115.135 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false [Reserved] 115.135 Section 115.135 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Lockups Training and Education § 115.135 [Reserved]...

2013-07-01

289

12 CFR 227.11 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) UNFAIR OR DECEPTIVE ACTS OR PRACTICES (REGULATION AA) Credit Practices Rule § 227.11...

2013-01-01

290

12 CFR 227.11 - [Reserved  

...Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) UNFAIR OR DECEPTIVE ACTS OR PRACTICES (REGULATION AA) Credit Practices Rule § 227.11...

2014-01-01

291

7 CFR 25.500 - Indian reservations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Indian reservations. 25.500 Section 25.500 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture RURAL EMPOWERMENT ZONES AND ENTERPRISE COMMUNITIES Special Rules § 25.500 Indian reservations. (a) An area in an Indian...

2010-01-01

292

UNIVERSITY LIBRARIES RESERVE INFORMATION & RELEASE FORM  

E-print Network

1 UNIVERSITY LIBRARIES RESERVE INFORMATION & RELEASE FORM Primary Professor Libraries Reserves Policy, available online at (www.library by the library). Books that are currently checked out by another patron will be recalled. Please list all items

Hemmers, Oliver

293

24 CFR 891.405 - Replacement reserve.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...HOUSING FOR PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES PROGRAM) SUPPORTIVE HOUSING FOR THE ELDERLY AND PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES Project Management § 891.405 Replacement reserve. (a) Establishment of reserve. The Owner shall establish and...

2010-04-01

294

Physics 171 MIDTERM EXAM Fall 2014 INSTRUCTIONS: This is a take-home exam. The point value of each problem is in-  

E-print Network

Physics 171 MIDTERM EXAM Fall 2014 INSTRUCTIONS: This is a take-home exam. The point value of each2 r dt2 = - Ã? ( Ã? r) - 2 Ã? dr dt , where r (x , y , z ). What is the physical interpretation clock up to a height h and then back down again to its original location, moving with constant speed

California at Santa Cruz, University of

295

21-720 Measure and Integration Midterm Exam, Fall 2009 The midterm exam is scheduled for Tuesday, October 27 at 7pm in the  

E-print Network

measure Open cells in Rp, Lebesgue outer measure. Carath´eodory's condition, Lebesgue measurable sets, Lebesgue measure. Measurability of Borel sets. Abstract measures and measurability -algebras, measures21-720 Measure and Integration Midterm Exam, Fall 2009 The midterm exam is scheduled for Tuesday

Pego, Robert

296

School of Meteorology Comprehensive Exam Policy Below is the Comprehensive Exam Policy as approved by the School of Meteorology Faculty at the  

E-print Network

School of Meteorology Comprehensive Exam Policy Below is the Comprehensive Exam Policy as approved by the School of Meteorology Faculty at the December 7, 2006 School of Meteorology Faculty meeting of Meteorology. According to the rules of the Graduate College, the Examining Committee for a Comprehensive

Oklahoma, University of

297

Emergency medicine residents’ attitudes and opinions of in-training exam preparation  

PubMed Central

Purpose Emergency Medicine (EM) residents take the American Board of Emergency Medicine (ABEM) in-training exam, and performance on this exam has been shown to correlate to performance on the ABEM qualifying exam. Though many residencies have in-training exam preparation activities, there is little data on the effectiveness of these efforts. This study aimed to elicit resident perspectives about the exam and exam preparation in order to generate hypotheses and better inform future preparation efforts. Methods Second- and third-year EM residents at a single institution were interviewed using a semi-structured format. Qualitative methodology was used to analyze the data. Results Thirteen EM residents participated in the study. Eight major themes and 18 sub-themes were identified. These were further characterized as relating to the exam itself or to exam preparation. Residents generally value the in-training exam. Sixty-nine percent noted that it provided an assessment of their current knowledge and deficiencies. Thirty-eight percent noted that it improved familiarity with the qualifying exam. Regarding exam preparation, residents stated that a question format was preferred, especially when accompanying explanations were of high quality. Additionally, practical considerations, such as portability, impacted resident selection of study tools. Conclusion Residents value the in-training exam as a marker of their academic progress and for their ability to gain familiarity with the qualifying exam. They prefer question-based preparation over text-based learning, as long as there is a detailed explanation of each answer. Educators creating structured in-training review may want to focus on question-based material with detailed explanations. PMID:24062620

Eastin, Travis R; Bernard, Aaron W

2013-01-01

298

How accurately can students estimate their performance on an exam and how does this relate to their actual performance on the exam?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Research has shown students' beliefs regarding their own abilities in math and science can influence their performance in these disciplines. I investigated the relationship between students' estimated performance and actual performance on five exams in a second semester calculus-based physics class. Students in a second-semester calculus-based physics class were given about 72 hours after the completion of each of five exams, to estimate their individual and class mean score on each exam. Students were given extra credit worth 1% of the exam points for estimating their score correct within 2% of the actual score and another 1% extra credit for estimating the class mean score within 2% of the correct value. I compared students' individual and mean score estimations with the actual scores to investigate the relationship between estimation accuracies and exam performance of the students as well as trends over the semester.

Rebello, N. S.

2012-05-15

299

Poverty and corruption compromise tropical forest reserves.  

PubMed

We used the global fire detection record provided by the satellite-based Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to determine the number of fires detected inside 823 tropical and subtropical moist forest reserves and for contiguous buffer areas 5, 10, and 15 km wide. The ratio of fire detection densities (detections per square kilometer) inside reserves to their contiguous buffer areas provided an index of reserve effectiveness. Fire detection density was significantly lower inside reserves than in paired, contiguous buffer areas but varied by five orders of magnitude among reserves. The buffer: reserve detection ratio varied by up to four orders of magnitude among reserves within a single country, and median values varied by three orders of magnitude among countries. Reserves tended to be least effective at reducing fire frequency in many poorer countries and in countries beset by corruption. Countries with the most successful reserves include Costa Rica, Jamaica, Malaysia, and Taiwan and the Indonesian island of Java. Countries with the most problematic reserves include Cambodia, Guatemala, Paraguay, and Sierra Leone and the Indonesian portion of Borneo. We provide fire detection density for 3964 tropical and subtropical reserves and their buffer areas in the hope that these data will expedite further analyses that might lead to improved management of tropical reserves. PMID:17708206

Wright, S Joseph; Sanchez-Azofeifa, G Arturo; Portillo-Quintero, Carlos; Davies, Diane

2007-07-01

300

7 CFR 984.26 - Reserve walnuts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reserve walnuts. 984.26 Section 984.26 Agriculture...Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 984.26 Reserve walnuts. Reserve walnuts means those...

2010-01-01

301

Dr. Campbell's Bio111 Exam #1 Fall 2010 Biology 111 Closed Book Take-Home Exam #1 Information  

E-print Network

of 58.5. c) Make 250 mL of a 13% v/v coffee solution if you bought a 100% grande coffee from Summit but you don't want to stay awake all night by drinking the coffee straight. Lecture Questions: 5 pts. 2 of your exam. 8 pts. 4) To what end does DNA polymerase add the next nucleotide? Support your answer

Campbell, A. Malcolm

302

Strategic petroleum reserve annual report  

SciTech Connect

Section 165 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (Public Law 94- 163), as amended, requires the Secretary of Energy to submit annual reports to the President and the Congress on activities of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). This report describes activities for the year ending December 31, 1995.

NONE

1996-02-15

303

Strategic petroleum reserve. Quarterly report  

SciTech Connect

The Strategic Petroleum Reserve serves as one of our most important investments in reducing the Nation`s vulnerability to oil supply disruptions. Its existence provides an effective response mechanism should a disruption occur and a formidable deterrent to the use of oil as a political instrument. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve was created pursuant to the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of December 22, 1975, (Public Law 94-163) as amended, to reduce the impact of disruptions in supplies of petroleum products and to carry out obligations of the United States under the Agreement on an International Energy Program. Section 165(a) of the Act requires the submission of Annual Reports and Section 165(b)(1) requires the submission of Quarterly Reports. This Quarterly Report highlights activities undertaken during the first quarter of calendar year 1994, including: (1) inventory of petroleum products stored in the Reserve, under contract and in transit at the end of the calendar quarter; (2) fill rate for the current quarter and projected fill rate for the next calendar quarter; (3) average price of the petroleum products acquired during the calendar quarter; (4) current and projected storage capacity; (5) analysis of existing or anticipated problems with the acquisition and storage of petroleum products, and future expansion of storage capacity; (6) funds obligated by the Secretary from the SPR Petroleum Account and the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Account during the prior calendar quarter and in total; and (7) major environmental actions completed, in progress, or anticipated.

Not Available

1994-05-15

304

Strategic petroleum reserve. Quarterly report  

SciTech Connect

The Strategic Petroleum Reserve reduces the Nation`s vulnerability to oil supply disruptions. Its existence provides a formidable deterrent to the use of oil as a political instrument and an effective response mechanism should a disruption occur. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve was created pursuant to the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of December 22, 1975 (Public Law 94-163). Its purposes are to reduce the impact of disruptions in supplies of petroleum products and to carry out obligations of the United States under the Agreement on an International Energy Program. Section 165(a) of the Act requires the submission of Annual Reports and Section 165(b)(1) requires the submission of Quarterly Reports. This Quarterly Report highlights activities undertaken during the second quarter of calendar year 1995, including: inventory of petroleum products stored in the Reserve; current and projected storage capacity, analysis of existing or anticipated problems with the acquisition and storage of petroleum products, and future expansion of storage capacity; funds obligated by the Secretary from the SPR Petroleum Account and the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Account during the prior calendar quarter and in total; and major environmental actions completed, in progress, or anticipated.

NONE

1995-08-15

305

Oak Ridge Reservation Annual Site  

E-print Network

Creative Media Communications Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge Reservation Annual Site Environmental coordinators Wayne McMahon Joan Hughes Mike Coffey Y-12 National Security Complex Oak Ridge National Laboratory Hames Terry Bonine, Cindy Johnson September 2014 Prepared by Oak Ridge National Laboratory P.O. Box 2008

Pennycook, Steve

306

Oak Ridge Reservation Annual Site  

E-print Network

Logistical Services Design Creative Media Communications Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge Reservation Complex Oak Ridge National Laboratory East Tennessee Technology Park Electronic publisher Editors Graphic by Oak Ridge National Laboratory P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-2008 Managed by UT-Battelle, LLC

Pennycook, Steve

307

Systematic Comparison of Operating Reserve Methodologies: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

Operating reserve requirements are a key component of modern power systems, and they contribute to maintaining reliable operations with minimum economic impact. No universal method exists for determining reserve requirements, thus there is a need for a thorough study and performance comparison of the different existing methodologies. Increasing penetrations of variable generation (VG) on electric power systems are posed to increase system uncertainty and variability, thus the need for additional reserve also increases. This paper presents background information on operating reserve and its relationship to VG. A consistent comparison of three methodologies to calculate regulating and flexibility reserve in systems with VG is performed.

Ibanez, E.; Krad, I.; Ela, E.

2014-04-01

308

Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Annual report  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses Reserve development activities during 1982 and includes: a detailed statement of the status of the Reserve; a summary of the actions taken to develop and implement the SPR Plan; an analysis of the impact and effectiveness of such actions on the vulnerability of the United States to interruption in supplies of petroleum products; a summary of existing problems with respect to further implementation of the SPR Plan; and any recommendations for supplemental legislation deemed necessary or appropriate by the Secretary of Energy to implement the Reserve Program. During 1982, the significant events for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) Program included continued high oil acquisition and fill rates, execution of a second commercial crude oil purchase contract with the Mexican state oil company, continued Phase II storage capacity development, continuation of Phase III design and construction at expansion sites, submission to the Congress of a new drawdown plan, required under the Energy Emergency Preparedness Act of 1982, for use of the nation's SPR in case of a severe energy supply disruption, and submission of a report to the President and the Congress on the size of the SPR. Phase I development of five storage sites to achieve the capability to store 260 million barrels of oil was completed in 1980. Development of Phase II storage facilities (290 million barrels) continued on schedule during 1982 with cavern leaching at Bryan Mound, West Hackberry, and Bayou Choctaw and oil fill at Bryan Mound and West Hackberry. As of December 31, 1982, a total of 293.8 million barrels of crude oil was stored in the Strategic Petroleum Reserve.

Not Available

1983-02-16

309

Teoria dos Corpos 3o Exame de Melhoria de Nota 1a  

E-print Network

Teoria dos Corpos ­ 3o ano Exame de Melhoria de Nota 1a ´epoca ­ 21 de Janeiro de 2005 Dura¸c~ao: 3 nota da disciplina de Teoria dos Corpos (do antigo plano de estudos das licenciaturas em Matem´atica e Ensino da Matem´atica). · O exame de Teoria dos Corpos coincide em parte com o exame de Teoria de Galois

St Andrews, University of

310

Want to Reduce Guessing and Cheating While Making Students Happier? Give More Exams!  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is almost universally agreed that more frequent formative assessment (homework, clicker questions, practice tests, etc.) leads to better student performance and generally better course evaluations. There is, however, only anecdotal evidence that the same would be true for more frequent summative assessment (exams). There maybe many arguments against giving more exams, including the general "pain" associated with examinations, as well as reduced teaching time, since classroom sessions are dedicated to exams rather than lecturing. We present evidence that increasing the number of exams in fact does lead to better learning success, less cheating and guessing on homework, and better student course evaluations.

Laverty, James T.; Bauer, Wolfgang; Kortemeyer, Gerd; Westfall, Gary

2012-12-01

311

Small fields output factors measurements and correction factors determination for several detectors for a CyberKnife{sup Registered-Sign} and linear accelerators equipped with microMLC and circular cones  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The use of small photon fields is now an established practice in stereotactic radiosurgery and radiotherapy. However, due to a lack of lateral electron equilibrium and high dose gradients, it is difficult to accurately measure the dosimetric quantities required for the commissioning of such systems. Moreover, there is still no metrological dosimetric reference for this kind of beam today. In this context, the first objective of this work was to determine and to compare small fields output factors (OF) measured with different types of active detectors and passive dosimeters for three types of facilities: a CyberKnife{sup Registered-Sign} system, a dedicated medical linear accelerator (Novalis) equipped with m3 microMLC and circular cones, and an adaptive medical linear accelerator (Clinac 2100) equipped with an additional m3 microMLC. The second one was to determine the k{sub Q{sub c{sub l{sub i{sub n,Q{sub m{sub s{sub r}{sup f{sub c}{sub l}{sub i}{sub n},f{sub m}{sub s}{sub r}}}}}}}}} correction factors introduced in a recently proposed small field dosimetry formalism for different active detectors.Methods: Small field sizes were defined either by microMLC down to 6 Multiplication-Sign 6 mm{sup 2} or by circular cones down to 4 mm in diameter. OF measurements were performed with several commercially available active detectors dedicated to measurements in small fields (high resolution diodes: IBA SFD, Sun Nuclear EDGE, PTW 60016, PTW 60017; ionizing chambers: PTW 31014 PinPoint chamber, PTW 31018 microLion liquid chamber, and PTW 60003 natural diamond). Two types of passive dosimeters were used: LiF microcubes and EBT2 radiochromic films.Results: Significant differences between the results obtained by several dosimetric systems were observed, particularly for the smallest field size for which the difference in the measured OF reaches more than 20%. For passive dosimeters, an excellent agreement was observed (better than 2%) between EBT2 and LiF microcubes for all OF measurements. Moreover, it has been shown that these passive dosimeters do not require correction factors and can then be used as reference dosimeters. Correction factors for the active detectors have then been determined from the mean experimental OF measured by the passive dosimeters.Conclusions: Four sets of correction factors needed to apply the new small field dosimetry formalism are provided for several active detectors. A protocol for small photon beams OF determination based on passive dosimeters measurements has been recently proposed to French radiotherapy treatment centers.

Bassinet, C.; Huet, C.; Derreumaux, S.; Baumann, M.; Trompier, F.; Roch, P.; Clairand, I. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), BP17, 92262 Fontenay-aux-Roses Cedex (France); Brunet, G.; Gaudaire-Josset, S. [Institut de Cancerologie de l'Ouest Rene Gauducheau, bd Jacques Monod, 44805 Saint Herblain Cedex (France); Chea, M.; Boisserie, G. [Groupe Hospitalier Pitie-Salpetriere, 47/83 bd de l'Hopital, 75651 Paris Cedex 13 (France); Lacornerie, T. [Centre Oscar Lambret, 3, rue Frederic Combemale, BP 307, 59020 Lille Cedex (France)

2013-07-15

312

Strategic Petroleum Reserve quarterly report  

SciTech Connect

This Quarterly Report highlights activities undertaken during the second quarter of calendar year 1993, including: inventory of petroleum products stored in the Reserve, under contract and in transit at the end of the calendar quarter; fill rate for the current quarter and projected fill rate for the next calendar quarter; average price of the petroleum products acquired during the calendar quarter; current and projected storage capacity and plans to accelerate the acquisition or construction of such capacity; analysis of existing or anticipated problems with the acquisition and storage of petroleum products, and future expansion of storage capacity; funds obligated by the Secretary from the SPR Petroleum Account and the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Account during the prior calendar quarter and in total; and major environmental actions completed, in progress, or anticipated.

Not Available

1993-08-15

313

Strategic Petroleum Reserve annual report  

SciTech Connect

During 1980, the significant events for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Program (SPR) included the resumption of oil acquisition, the completion of Phase I facilities, oil withdrawal testing, and commencement of Phase II leaching. The report includes the following contents: introduction and program background; SPR plan and amendments; status of the strategic petroleum reserve which includes program definition, organization, site development, program and project management, budget and cost, real estate, environmental compliance, and permits, and crude oil logistics, distribution, and inventory; drawdown system and vulnerability impact; energy security act implementation; SPR relations with state and local governments; and appendices - SPR site status of Bayou Choctaw, Weeks Island, Bryan Mound, Sulphur Mines, West Hackberry, and St. James Terminal.

Not Available

1981-02-16

314

Reserve selection with land market feedbacks.  

PubMed

How to best site reserves is a leading question for conservation biologists. Recently, reserve selection has emphasized efficient conservation: maximizing conservation goals given the reality of limited conservation budgets, and this work indicates that land market can potentially undermine the conservation benefits of reserves by increasing property values and development probabilities near reserves. Here we propose a reserve selection methodology which optimizes conservation given both a budget constraint and land market feedbacks by using a combination of econometric models along with stochastic dynamic programming. We show that amenity based feedbacks can be accounted for in optimal reserve selection by choosing property price and land development models which exogenously estimate the effects of reserve establishment. In our empirical example, we use previously estimated models of land development and property prices to select parcels to maximize coarse woody debris along 16 lakes in Vilas County, WI, USA. Using each lake as an independent experiment, we find that including land market feedbacks in the reserve selection algorithm has only small effects on conservation efficacy. Likewise, we find that in our setting heuristic (minloss and maxgain) algorithms perform nearly as well as the optimal selection strategy. We emphasize that land market feedbacks can be included in optimal reserve selection; the extent to which this improves reserve placement will likely vary across landscapes. PMID:23141878

Butsic, Van; Lewis, David J; Radeloff, Volker C

2013-01-15

315

Strategic Petroleum Reserve annual/quarterly report  

SciTech Connect

During 1992 the Department continued planning activities for the expansion of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve to one billion barrels. A draft Environmental Impact Statement for the five candidate sites was completed in October 1992, and a series of public hearings was held during December 1992. Conceptual design engineering activities, life cycle cost estimates and geotechnical studies to support the technical requirements for an Strategic Petroleum Reserve Plan Amendment were essentially completed in December 1992. At the end of 1992, the Strategic Petroleum Reserve crude oil inventory was 574.7 million barrels and an additional 1.7 million barrels was in transit to the Reserve. During 1992 approximately 6.2 million barrels of crude oil were acquired for the Reserve. A Department of Energy Tiger Team Environmental, Safety and Health (ES&H) Assessment was conducted at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve from March 9 through April 10, 1992. In general, the Tiger Team found that Strategic Petroleum Reserve activities do not pose undue environmental, safety or health risks. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve`s Final Corrective Action Plan, prepared in response to the Tiger Team assessment, was submitted for Department approval in December 1992. On November 18, 1992, the Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy selected DynMcDennott Petroleum Operations Company to provide management and operating services for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve for a period of 5 years commencing April 1, 1993. DynMcDermott will succeed Boeing Petroleum Services, Inc.

Not Available

1993-02-16

316

Question-writing as a learning tool for students – outcomes from curricular exams  

PubMed Central

Background Writing exam questions can be a valuable learning tool. We asked students to construct multiple choice questions for curricular exams in Internal Medicine. The questions for the particular exams were chosen from a pool of at least 300 student-written questions. The uncorrected pool was accessible to all students. We studied the influence of this approach on the students’ learning habits and their test results. We hypothesized that creating a pool of their own questions for the exams could encourage students to discuss the learning material. Methods All students had to pass 4 exams in 7 fields of Internal Medicine. Three exams were comprised of 20 questions, and we applied the new method in one of these exams. The fourth exam was comprised of 30 questions, 15 of which were chosen from a students’ pool. After all exams had been completed we asked the students to fill in a web-based questionnaire on their learning habits and their views on the new approach. The test-results were compared to the results of the lecturers’ questions that defined high and low performing students. Results A total of 102 students completed all four exams in a row, 68 of whom filled in the questionnaire. Low performing students achieved significantly better results in the students’ questions. There was no difference in the number of constructed questions between both groups of students. The new method did not promote group work significantly. However, high performing students stated a stronger wish to be rewarded by good performance. Conclusions Creating a curricular exam by choosing questions from a pool constructed by students did not influence the learning habits significantly and favored low performing students. Since the high performing students sought to be rewarded for their efforts, we do not consider the approach applied in our study to be appropriate. PMID:23787038

2013-01-01

317

Correlation of the NBME Advanced Clinical Examination in EM and the National EM M4 exams  

PubMed Central

Introduction Since 2011 two online, validated exams for fourth-year emergency medicine (EM) students have been available (National EM M4 Exams). In 2013 the National Board of Medical Examiners offered the Advanced Clinical Examination in Emergency Medicine (EM-ACE). All of these exams are now in widespread use; however, there are no data on how they correlate. This study evaluated the correlation between the EM-ACE exam and the National EM M4 Exams. Methods From May 2013 to April 2014 the EM-ACE and one version of the EM M4 exam were administered sequentially to fourth-year EM students at five U.S. medical schools. Data collected included institution, gross and scaled scores and version of the EM M4 exam. We performed Pearson’s correlation and random effects linear regression. Results 303 students took the EM-ACE and versions 1 (V1) or 2 (V2) of the EM M4 exams (279 and 24, respectively). The mean percent correct for the exams were as follows: EM-ACE 74.8 (SD-8.83), V1 83.0 (SD-6.41), V2 78.5 (SD-7.70). Pearson’s correlation coefficient for the V1/EM-ACE was 0.51 (0.42 scaled) and for the V2/EM-ACE was 0.59 (0.41 scaled). The coefficient of determination for V1/EM-ACE was 0.72 and for V2/EM-ACE = 0.71 (0.86 and 0.49 for scaled scores). The R-squared values were 0.25 and 0.30 (0.18 and 0.13, scaled), respectively. There was significant cluster effect by institution. Conclusion There was moderate positive correlation of student scores on the EM-ACE exam and the National EM M4 Exams.

Hiller, Katherine; Miller, Emily S.; Lawson, Luan; Wald, David; Beeson, Michael; Heitz, Corey; Morrissey, Thomas; House, Joseph; Poznanski, Stacey

2015-01-01

318

FRED: Federal Reserve Economic Data  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis provides this clearinghouse of financial and economic data. Central to this site are the data files, a compendium of hundreds of daily, weekly, monthly, and quarterly time series on financial, monetary, interest rate, producer and consumer price, employment, population, and exchange rate data, among others. Some files are in .zip or compressed format. The site also offers FRBSTL growth rate macros (Excel and Lotus formats) and a selection of the Bank's online publications.

319

Demand Response Spinning Reserve Demonstration  

SciTech Connect

The Demand Response Spinning Reserve project is a pioneeringdemonstration of how existing utility load-management assets can providean important electricity system reliability resource known as spinningreserve. Using aggregated demand-side resources to provide spinningreserve will give grid operators at the California Independent SystemOperator (CAISO) and Southern California Edison (SCE) a powerful, newtool to improve system reliability, prevent rolling blackouts, and lowersystem operating costs.

Eto, Joseph H.; Nelson-Hoffman, Janine; Torres, Carlos; Hirth,Scott; Yinger, Bob; Kueck, John; Kirby, Brendan; Bernier, Clark; Wright,Roger; Barat, A.; Watson, David S.

2007-05-01

320

High-Stakes, Minimum-Competency Exams: How Competent Are They for Evaluating Teacher Competence?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Increasingly, teacher educators recommend authentic, performance-related measures for evaluating teacher candidates. Nevertheless, more states are requiring teachers to pass high-stakes, minimum-competency exams. This study examined the relation between teacher candidate scores on authentic measures and their scores on certification exams required…

Goodman, Gay; Arbona, Consuelo; Dominguez de Rameriz, Romilia

2008-01-01

321

An Exploration of the Effects of Mentoring on Post-16 Chemistry Students' Exam Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In response to a concern about the persistent underachievement in exams of Chemistry students in one school, a pilot study was carried out to see if mentoring-style intervention could improve exam performance. Individual personalised interviews were offered to a class, during which support for the development of the skills and subject knowledge…

Essex, Jane

2011-01-01

322

Maryland Ranks #1 in the Nation on Advanced Placement Exams for Participation and Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Maryland public high school students outperformed all others in the nation on the rigorous Advanced Placement (AP) exams, according to the College Board's fifth annual analysis of the AP program. Maryland ranked first nationwide in the percentage of public school students scoring 3 or higher on at least one AP exam. A score of 3 or higher on the…

Maryland State Department of Education, 2009

2009-01-01

323

The ACS Exams Institute Undergraduate Chemistry Anchoring Concepts Content Map I: General Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To provide tools for programmatic assessment related to the use of ACS Exams in undergraduate chemistry courses, the ACS Exams Institute has built a content map that applies to the entire undergraduate curriculum. At the top two levels, the grain size of the content classification is large and spans the entire undergraduate curriculum. At the…

Holme, Thomas; Murphy, Kristen

2012-01-01

324

Relationships between Self-Regulating Behaviors and Predictor Exam Scores for Senior Nursing Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Low pass rates on the National Council Licensure Exam for Registered Nurses have directed nursing faculty to examine how to predict the readiness of the nursing student. Exit exam testing that predicts readiness has become one way to assess the nursing student's readiness. Nursing students at the research site's school of nursing are…

Gillespie, Maria

2012-01-01

325

Training Metacognition in the Classroom: The Influence of Incentives and Feedback on Exam Predictions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In two semester-long studies, we examined whether college students could improve their ability to accurately predict their own exam performance across multiple exams. We tested whether providing concrete feedback and incentives (i.e., extra credit) for accuracy would improve predictions by improving students' metacognition, or awareness of their…

Miller, Tyler M.; Geraci, Lisa

2011-01-01

326

Pick-N Multiple Choice-Exams: A Comparison of Scoring Algorithms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To compare different scoring algorithms for Pick-N multiple correct answer multiple-choice (MC) exams regarding test reliability, student performance, total item discrimination and item difficulty. Data from six 3rd year medical students' end of term exams in internal medicine from 2005 to 2008 at Munich University were analysed (1,255 students,…

Bauer, Daniel; Holzer, Matthias; Kopp, Veronika; Fischer, Martin R.

2011-01-01

327

CHEN 3AA0 Chemical Engineering Progress Assessment II (Concepts Inventory Exam)  

E-print Network

CHEN 3AA0 Chemical Engineering Progress Assessment II (Concepts Inventory Exam) Instructions to as the Concept Inventory Exam (CIE). The following material discusses the nature of the CIE and the CHEN 3AA0 engineering concepts. Administration: The CIE is offered in CHEN 3AA0 and is part of the passing criteria

Ashurst, W. Robert

328

A Multi-Year Analysis of Asian Gender Differences on Advanced Placement Exams  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The performance of Asian boys and girls on Advanced Placement (AP) exam overall scores across the United States for the past 14 years was analyzed. For each of the 14 years of data analyzed, Asian boys had statistically significant higher percentages of overall AP exam scores of 5 than did Asian girls. In addition, the gap between the mean…

Moore, George; Slate, John R.

2011-01-01

329

Does Missing Classes Decelerate Student Exam Performance Progress? Empirical Evidence and Policy Implications  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A total of 389 business students in undergraduate introductory microeconomics classes in spring 2007, 2009, and 2011, and fall 2012 participated in an exam performance progress study. Empirical evidence suggested that missing classes decelerates and hampers high-performing students' exam performance progress. Nevertheless, the evidence does…

Lin, Tin-Chun

2014-01-01

330

Certified Professional in Supply Management (CPSM) & Certified in Supply Management (CSM) Exam Preparation Series  

E-print Network

-Taking Hints and Tips Exam 2 Content Forecasting Logistics Materials and Inventory Management OrganizationCertified Professional in Supply Management (CPSM) & Certified in Supply Management (CSM) Exam for member companies of the Rutgers Center for Supply Chain Management. $425 for non-members This one day

Lin, Xiaodong

331

Verbal Final Exam in Introductory Biology Yields Gains in Student Content Knowledge and Longitudinal Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We studied gains in student learning over eight semesters in which an introductory biology course curriculum was changed to include optional verbal final exams (VFs). Students could opt to demonstrate their mastery of course material via structured oral exams with the professor. In a quantitative assessment of cell biology content knowledge,…

Luckie, Douglas B.; Rivkin, Aaron M.; Aubry, Jacob R.; Marengo, Benjamin J.; Creech, Leah R.; Sweeder, Ryan D.

2013-01-01

332

Democracy in the Israeli Education System: The Case of the English Matriculation Exam  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research investigates the extent to which indices of social justice and democratic rights are expressed in Israel in the crucial national English matriculation exam, as perceived by Palestinian Arab high school pupils studying for these exams and their English teachers. The research employed Critical Theory as a paradigm, case study as a…

Zaher, Rana

2012-01-01

333

Math 365 Partial solutions to Exam 1 (white version) 1. 10211three  

E-print Network

Math 365 Partial solutions to Exam 1 (white version) 1. 10211three 2. 301five, 10111five 4. T, F, T with a sum of 104, so we have 104 · 47 2 = 2444.) Math 365 Partial solutions to Exam 1 (yellow version) 1

Witherspoon, Sarah

334

Protocols for Regionalized Administration of the Master Beekeeper Exams Certified Level  

E-print Network

on the student. The entry level, Certified, documents that the holder has a basic knowledge of bees on the cooperation of local bee clubs to offer training, administer the exams, protect the integrity of exams and the grading process, and submit student scores to me. Upon receipt of the required documents, my office

Delaplane, Keith S.

335

International Baccalaureate Program e International Baccalaureate (IB) exams are evaluated in much  

E-print Network

International Baccalaureate Program e International Baccalaureate (IB) exams are evaluated in much the same way as Advanced Placement exams. Submit an official IB transcript directly from I.B. North America, will be requested. IB transcripts may also be requested on-line at transcripts.ibna@ibo.org. Credit Awarded

336

Investigating the Relationship between Faculty Cognitive Expectations about Learning Chemistry and the Construction of Exam Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We have investigated chemistry faculty's cognitive expectations about learning chemistry and their influence upon the construction of exam questions in a general chemistry curriculum. Faculty cognitive expectations for learning chemistry were measured using QUIMX. Learning objectives and exam questions for a year-long general chemistry sequence…

Sanabria-Rios, David; Bretz, Stacey Lowery

2010-01-01

337

Assessment Drives Learning: The Effect of Central Exit Exams on Curricular Knowledge and Mathematical Literacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, we use data from the German PISA 2003 sample to study the effects of central exit examinations on student performance and student attitudes. Unlike earlier studies we use (i) a value-added measure to pin down the effect of central exit exams on learning in the last year before the exam and (ii) separate test scores for mathematical…

Jurges, Hendrik; Schneider, Kerstin; Senkbeil, Martin; Carstensen, Claus H.

2012-01-01

338

A Study of Three-option and Four-option Multiple Choice Exams.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a study used to determine differences in exam reliability, difficulty, and student evaluations. Indicates that when a fourth option was added to the three-option items, the exams became more difficult. Includes methods, results discussion, and tables on student characteristics, whole test analyses, and selected items. (RT)

Cooper, Terence H.

1988-01-01

339

UW Law School: Academic Enhancement Program (AEP) Source: www.barbri.com Alabama Bar Exam Information  

E-print Network

UW Law School: Academic Enhancement Program (AEP) Source: www.barbri.com Alabama Bar Exam Information Alabama Board of Law Examiners State Bar Admissions Office P.O. Box 671 Montgomery, AL 36101-question multiple-choice exam Subjects Tested MBE Subjects: Constitutional Law, Contracts/Sales, Criminal

Sheridan, Jennifer

340

Microsoft Word - App 9-18 Exam Results Report.doc  

Cancer.gov

Lung Screening Study Version 3.0 Manual of Operations and Procedures 11/15/00 Appendix 9-18 Lung Screening Study SCREENING EXAM RESULTS REPORT BY SC Report as of Date: ____________________________ Part 1: Exam pending or letters not sent PID Rand.

341

The Effect of Tutoring on Math Scores for the Praxis I Exam  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Praxis test is one of a series of national teacher certification exams written and administered by the Education Testing Service (ETS) since 1947. Currently, forty states now require some form of the Praxis Series (Educational Testing Service, 2011). Using pre- and post-tests similar to the Praxis I math exam, this study examined the affect…

Longwell-Grice, Robert; McIlheran, Janine; Schroeder, Mark; Scheele, Steve

2013-01-01

342

A General Business Model for Marine Reserves  

PubMed Central

Marine reserves are an effective tool for protecting biodiversity locally, with potential economic benefits including enhancement of local fisheries, increased tourism, and maintenance of ecosystem services. However, fishing communities often fear short-term income losses associated with closures, and thus may oppose marine reserves. Here we review empirical data and develop bioeconomic models to show that the value of marine reserves (enhanced adjacent fishing + tourism) may often exceed the pre-reserve value, and that economic benefits can offset the costs in as little as five years. These results suggest the need for a new business model for creating and managing reserves, which could pay for themselves and turn a profit for stakeholder groups. Our model could be expanded to include ecosystem services and other benefits, and it provides a general framework to estimate costs and benefits of reserves and to develop such business models. PMID:23573192

Sala, Enric; Costello, Christopher; Dougherty, Dawn; Heal, Geoffrey; Kelleher, Kieran; Murray, Jason H.; Rosenberg, Andrew A.; Sumaila, Rashid

2013-01-01

343

7 CFR 984.456 - Disposition of reserve walnuts and walnuts used for reserve disposition credit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disposition of reserve walnuts and walnuts used for reserve disposition credit. 984.456...Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules and...

2010-01-01

344

SUBJECT EXAM TESTING DATES BY CLERKSHIP -2012-2013 FAMILY MEDICINE NEUROLOGY PEDIATRICS PSYCHIATRY SURGERY INTERNAL MED. OB/GYN  

E-print Network

SUBJECT EXAM TESTING DATES BY CLERKSHIP -2012-2013 FAMILY MEDICINE NEUROLOGY PEDIATRICS PSYCHIATRY SUBJECT EXAM SCHEDULE 8:00 AM ­ Pediatrics, Family Medicine, Psychiatry and Surgery 11:00 AM ­ Medicine

Berdichevsky, Victor

345

Math 365 Partial solutions to Exam 1 (white version) 1. (a) ||||||, |||, (b) Combining, we first have ||||||||||, and then regrouping the  

E-print Network

Math 365 Partial solutions to Exam 1 (white version) 1. (a) ||||||, |||, (b) Combining, we first) T Math 365 Partial solutions to Exam 1 (blue version) 1. (a) ||||||, |||, (b) Combining, we first have

Witherspoon, Sarah

346

Reserve valuation in electric power systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Operational reliability is provided in part by scheduling capacity in excess of the load forecast. This reserve capacity balances the uncertain power demand with the supply in real time and provides for equipment outages. Traditionally, reserve scheduling has been ensured by enforcing reserve requirements in the operations planning. An alternate approach is to employ a stochastic formulation, which allows the explicit modeling of the sources of uncertainty. This thesis compares stochastic and reserve methods and evaluates the benefits of a combined approach for the efficient management of uncertainty in the unit commitment problem. Numerical studies show that the unit commitment solutions obtained for the combined approach are robust and superior with respect to the traditional approach. These robust solutions are especially valuable in areas with a high proportion of wind power, as their built-in flexibility allows the dispatch of practically all the available wind power while minimizing the costs of operation. The scheduled reserve has an economic value since it reduces the outage costs. In several electricity markets, reserve demand functions have been implemented to take into account the value of reserve in the market clearing process. These often take the form of a step-down function at the reserve requirement level, and as such they may not appropriately represent the reserve value. The value of reserve is impacted by the reliability, dynamic and stochastic characteristics of system components, the system operation policies, and the economic aspects such as the risk preferences of the demand. In this thesis, these aspects are taken into account to approximate the reserve value and construct reserve demand functions. Illustrative examples show that the demand functions constructed have similarities with those implemented in some markets.

Ruiz, Pablo Ariel

347

40 CFR 35.2020 - Reserves.  

... Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2020 Reserves...alternatives to conventional treatment works for small communities...use innovative or alternative wastewater treatment processes and...

2014-07-01

348

40 CFR 63.1202 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants from Hazardous Waste Combustors General § 63.1202 [Reserved] Interim Emissions Standards and Operating Limits For Incinerators, Cement Kilns, and Lightweight Aggregate...

2010-07-01

349

30 CFR 285.812 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Environmental and Safety Management, Inspections, and Facility Assessments for Activities Conducted Under SAPs, COPs and GAPs Safety Management Systems § 285.812 [Reserved] Maintenance...

2011-07-01

350

30 CFR 585.812 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Environmental and Safety Management, Inspections, and Facility Assessments for Activities Conducted Under SAPs, COPs and GAPs Safety Management Systems § 585.812 [Reserved] Maintenance...

2012-07-01

351

30 CFR 585.812 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Environmental and Safety Management, Inspections, and Facility Assessments for Activities Conducted Under SAPs, COPs and GAPs Safety Management Systems § 585.812 [Reserved] Maintenance...

2013-07-01

352

30 CFR 285.812 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Environmental and Safety Management, Inspections, and Facility Assessments for Activities Conducted Under SAPs, COPs and GAPs Safety Management Systems § 285.812 [Reserved] Maintenance...

2010-07-01

353

30 CFR 585.812 - [Reserved  

...THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Environmental and Safety Management, Inspections, and Facility Assessments for Activities Conducted Under SAPs, COPs and GAPs Safety Management Systems § 585.812 [Reserved] Maintenance...

2014-07-01

354

Introduction to the Oak Ridge Reservation 1-1 1. Introduction to the Oak Ridge Reservation  

E-print Network

) operating components, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12 and national security needs of the United States. The Oak Ridge Reservation Annual Site Environmental ReportIntroduction to the Oak Ridge Reservation 1-1 1. Introduction to the Oak Ridge Reservation The Oak

Pennycook, Steve

355

Introduction to the Oak Ridge Reservation 1-1 1. Introduction to the Oak Ridge Reservation  

E-print Network

components, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12 Complex1 Introduction to the Oak Ridge Reservation 1-1 1. Introduction to the Oak Ridge Reservation The Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) is a 13,560 ha (33,508-acre) federally owned site located in the counties

Pennycook, Steve

356

Introduction to the Oak Ridge Reservation 1-1 1. Introduction to the Oak Ridge Reservation  

E-print Network

components, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12 Complex research and national security needs of the United States. The Oak Ridge Reservation Annual SiteIntroduction to the Oak Ridge Reservation 1-1 1. Introduction to the Oak Ridge Reservation The Oak

Pennycook, Steve

357

The Relationship between AP[R] Exam Performance and College Outcomes. Research Report No. 2009-4  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study focused on the relationship between students' Advanced Placement Program[R] (AP[R]) performance in AP English Language, Biology, Calculus, and U.S. History, and their subsequent college success. For each AP Exam studied, students were divided into three groups according to their AP Exam performance (no AP Exam taken, score of 1 or 2,…

Mattern, Krista D.; Shaw, Emily J.; Xiong, Xinhui

2009-01-01

358

Predictors of Academic Success for the National Board Dental Hygiene Examination and the Southern Regional Testing Agency Clinical Exam  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose for conducting this study was to investigate and describe the relationship between applicant criteria for a dental hygiene program and subsequent outcomes on credentialing exams: the National Board Dental Hygiene Exam and the Southern Regional Testing Agency clinical exam. Because admission criteria play a crucial role in applicant…

Efurd, Melissa G.

2012-01-01

359

2014-15 M-1 Exam Blueprint August 25 -September 19 Anatomy Biochemistry CTB Embryology IHD Med Genetics Microbiology Physiology  

E-print Network

Embryology IHD Med Genetics Microbiology Physiology EXAMS September 22 - 26 5 hours 14 hours Microbiology Physiology EXAMS November 3 - 7 4 hours 14 hours 8 hours 4 hours 4 - December 12 Anatomy Biochemistry CTB Embryology IHD Med Genetics Microbiology Physiology EXAMS

Jain, Kanti

360

CHEATING POLICY FOR FACULTY OF ARTS AND SOCIAL SCIENCES Procedures in Case of Cheating during an Exam  

E-print Network

CHEATING POLICY FOR FACULTY OF ARTS AND SOCIAL SCIENCES Procedures in Case of Cheating during an Exam If an instructor suspects that cheating in an exam has taken place, s/he should report) believes that cheating in an exam has taken place (e.g., discovery of use of a cheat-sheet, observation

361

42 CFR 409.65 - Lifetime reserve days.  

... 2014-10-01 false Lifetime reserve days. 409.65 Section 409.65 Public Health...Insurance Benefits § 409.65 Lifetime reserve days. (a) Election not to use lifetime reserve days. (1) Whenever a beneficiary has...

2014-10-01

362

40 CFR 73.26 - Conservation and renewable energy reserve.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Conservation and renewable energy reserve. 73.26 Section...73.26 Conservation and renewable energy reserve. The Administrator...allowances to the Conservation and Renewable Energy Reserve subaccount of...

2012-07-01

363

40 CFR 73.26 - Conservation and renewable energy reserve.  

...2014-07-01 false Conservation and renewable energy reserve. 73.26 Section...73.26 Conservation and renewable energy reserve. The Administrator...allowances to the Conservation and Renewable Energy Reserve subaccount of...

2014-07-01

364

40 CFR 73.26 - Conservation and renewable energy reserve.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Conservation and renewable energy reserve. 73.26 Section...73.26 Conservation and renewable energy reserve. The Administrator...allowances to the Conservation and Renewable Energy Reserve subaccount of...

2010-07-01

365

40 CFR 73.26 - Conservation and renewable energy reserve.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Conservation and renewable energy reserve. 73.26 Section...73.26 Conservation and renewable energy reserve. The Administrator...allowances to the Conservation and Renewable Energy Reserve subaccount of...

2013-07-01

366

40 CFR 73.26 - Conservation and renewable energy reserve.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Conservation and renewable energy reserve. 73.26 Section...73.26 Conservation and renewable energy reserve. The Administrator...allowances to the Conservation and Renewable Energy Reserve subaccount of...

2011-07-01

367

40 CFR 49.10712-49.10730 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Implementation Plans for Tribes-Region X Implementation Plan for the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes of the Fort Hall Indian Reservation of Idaho §§ 49.10712-49.10730 [Reserved] Implementation Plan for the Confederated Tribes of the Siletz Reservation,...

2012-07-01

368

40 CFR 49.10561-49.10580 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Tribes-Region X Implementation Plan for the Quileute Tribe of the Quileute Reservation, Washington §§ 49.10561-49.10580 [Reserved...for the Quinault Tribe of the Quinault Reservation, Washington Source: 70 FR 18123, Apr....

2010-07-01

369

40 CFR 49.10531-49.10550 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...for the Puyallup Tribe of the Puyallup Reservation, Washington §§ 49.10531-49.10550 [Reserved] Implementation Plan for the Quileute Tribe of the Quileute Reservation, Washington Source: 70 FR 18123, Apr....

2010-07-01

370

14 CFR 23.727 - Reserve energy absorption drop test.  

...2014-01-01 false Reserve energy absorption drop test. 23.727 Section 23...Gear § 23.727 Reserve energy absorption drop test. (a) If compliance with the reserve energy absorption requirement in §...

2014-01-01

371

14 CFR 23.727 - Reserve energy absorption drop test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Reserve energy absorption drop test. 23.727 Section 23...Gear § 23.727 Reserve energy absorption drop test. (a) If compliance with the reserve energy absorption requirement in §...

2013-01-01

372

14 CFR 29.727 - Reserve energy absorption drop test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-01-01 false Reserve energy absorption drop test. 29.727 Section 29.727...Landing Gear § 29.727 Reserve energy absorption drop test. The reserve energy absorption drop test must be conducted as...

2012-01-01

373

14 CFR 27.727 - Reserve energy absorption drop test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-01-01 false Reserve energy absorption drop test. 27.727 Section 27.727...Landing Gear § 27.727 Reserve energy absorption drop test. The reserve energy absorption drop test must be conducted as...

2012-01-01

374

14 CFR 27.727 - Reserve energy absorption drop test.  

... 2014-01-01 false Reserve energy absorption drop test. 27.727 Section 27.727...Landing Gear § 27.727 Reserve energy absorption drop test. The reserve energy absorption drop test must be conducted as...

2014-01-01

375

14 CFR 23.727 - Reserve energy absorption drop test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Reserve energy absorption drop test. 23.727 Section 23...Gear § 23.727 Reserve energy absorption drop test. (a) If compliance with the reserve energy absorption requirement in §...

2012-01-01

376

14 CFR 29.727 - Reserve energy absorption drop test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 false Reserve energy absorption drop test. 29.727 Section 29.727...Landing Gear § 29.727 Reserve energy absorption drop test. The reserve energy absorption drop test must be conducted as...

2013-01-01

377

14 CFR 29.727 - Reserve energy absorption drop test.  

... 2014-01-01 false Reserve energy absorption drop test. 29.727 Section 29.727...Landing Gear § 29.727 Reserve energy absorption drop test. The reserve energy absorption drop test must be conducted as...

2014-01-01

378

14 CFR 27.727 - Reserve energy absorption drop test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 false Reserve energy absorption drop test. 27.727 Section 27.727...Landing Gear § 27.727 Reserve energy absorption drop test. The reserve energy absorption drop test must be conducted as...

2013-01-01

379

7 CFR 623.13 - Wetlands reserve plan of operations.  

... 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Wetlands reserve plan of operations. 623.13 Section...OF AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES EMERGENCY WETLANDS RESERVE PROGRAM § 623.13 Wetlands reserve plan of operations. (a)...

2014-01-01

380

7 CFR 623.13 - Wetlands reserve plan of operations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Wetlands reserve plan of operations. 623.13 Section...OF AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES EMERGENCY WETLANDS RESERVE PROGRAM § 623.13 Wetlands reserve plan of operations. (a)...

2013-01-01

381

7 CFR 623.13 - Wetlands reserve plan of operations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Wetlands reserve plan of operations. 623.13 Section...OF AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES EMERGENCY WETLANDS RESERVE PROGRAM § 623.13 Wetlands reserve plan of operations. (a)...

2012-01-01

382

Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Quarterly report  

SciTech Connect

The Strategic Petroleum Reserve serves as one of the most important investments in reducing the Nation`s vulnerability to oil supply disruptions. This Quarterly Report highlights activities undertaken during the third quarter of calendar year 1993, including: inventory of petroleum products stored in the Reserve, under contract and in transit at the end of the calendar quarter; fill rate for the quarter and projected fill rate for the next calendar quarter; average price of the petroleum products acquired during the calendar quarter; current and projected storage capacity and plans to accelerate the acquisition or construction of such capacity; analysis of existing or anticipated problems with the acquisition and storage of petroleum products and future expansion of storage capacity; funds obligated by the Secretary from the SPR Petroleum Account and the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Account during the prior calendar quarter and in total; and major environmental actions completed, in progress, or anticipated. Samples of the oil revealed two problems that, although readily correctable, have reduced the availability of some of the oil inventory for drawdown in the near-term. These problems are: (1) a higher-than-normal gas content in some of the crude oil, apparently from years of intrusion of methane form the surrounding salt formation; and (2) elevated temperatures of some of the crude oil, due to geothermal heating, that has increased the vapor pressure of the oil. Investigations are proceeding to determine the extent to which gas intrusion and geothermal heating are impacting the availability of oil for drawdown. Preliminary designs have been developed for systems to mitigate both problems.

Not Available

1993-11-15

383

Spinning Reserve from Responsive Load  

SciTech Connect

As power system costs rise and capacity is strained demand response can provide a significant system reliability benefit at a potentially attractive cost. The 162 room Music Road Hotel in Pigeon Forge Tennessee agreed to host a spinning reserve test. The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) supplied real-time metering and monitoring expertise to record total hotel load during both normal operations and testing. Preliminary testing showed that hotel load can be curtailed by 22% to 37% depending on the outdoor temperature and the time of day. The load drop was very rapid, essentially as fast as the 2 second metering could detect.

Kueck, John D [ORNL] [ORNL; Kirby, Brendan J [ORNL] [ORNL; Laughner, T [Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA)] [Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA); Morris, K [Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA)] [Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA)

2009-01-01

384

A Java speech implementation of the Mini Mental Status Exam.  

PubMed

The Folstein Mini Mental Status Exam (MMSE) is a simple, widely used, verbally administered test to assess cognitive function. The Java Speech Application Programming Interface (JSAPI) is a new, cross-platform interface for both speech recognition and speech synthesis in the Java environment. To evaluate the suitability of the JSAPI for interactive, patient interview applications, a JSAPI implementation of the MMSE was developed. The MMSE contains questions that vary in structure in order to assess different cognitive functions. This question variability provided an excellent test-bed to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of JSAPI. The application is based on Java platform 2 and a JSAPI interface to the IBM ViaVoice recognition engine. Design and implementations issues are discussed. Preliminary usability studies demonstrate that an automated MMSE maybe a useful screening tool for cognitive disorders and changes. PMID:10566396

Wang, S S; Starren, J

1999-01-01

385

Strategic petroleum reserve data acquisition system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Strategic Petroleum Reserve Data Acquisition System is a general purpose, digital data acquisition system designed for field use in the DOE's Strategic Petroleum Reserve testing and monitoring program. The system is computer driven, under the control of an operator. The system is designed to allow the operator to perform pre-test system configuration; test monitoring and control; and post test

P. D. Merillat; A. G. Bauer

1980-01-01

386

Patterns of invasion in temperate nature reserves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extent of plant invasions was studied in 302 nature reserves located in the Czech Republic, central Europe. Lists of vascular plant species were obtained for each reserve, alien species were divided into archaeophytes and neophytes (introduced before and after 1500, respectively). The statistical analysis using general linear models made it possible to identify the effects of particular variables. Flora

2002-01-01

387

Einstein Room Reservations Rules and Regulations  

E-print Network

in accordance to Albert Einstein College of Medicine's Alcohol Policy. Before your request is confirmed you mustEinstein Room Reservations Rules and Regulations Before Reservation: Requests are not confirmed Activities, Joan Junger, (718) 430-2105 or student.activities@einstein.yu.edu. A meeting or conversation

Yates, Andrew

388

Nutrient reserve dynamics of breeding canvasbacks  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We compared nutrients in reproductive and nonreproductive tissues of breeding Canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) to assess the relative importance of endogenous reserves and exogenous foods. Fat reserves of females increased during rapid follicle growth and varied more widely in size during the early phase of this period. Females began laying with ca. 205 g of fat in reserve and lost 1.8 g of carcass fat for every 1 g of fat contained in their ovary and eggs. Females lost body mass (primarily fat) at a declining rate as incubation advanced. Protein reserves increased directly with dry oviduct mass during rapid follicle growth. This direct relationship was highly dependent upon data from 2 birds and likely biased by structural size. During laying, protein reserves did not vary with the combined mass of dry oviduct and dry egg protein. Between laying and incubation, mean protein reserves decreased by an amount equal to the protein found in 2.1 Canvasback eggs. Calcium reserves did not vary with the cumulative total of calcium deposited in eggs. Mean calcium reserve declined by the equivalent content of 1.2 eggs between laying and incubation. We believe that protein and calcium were stored in small amounts during laying, and that they were supplemented continually by exogenous sources. In contrast, fat was stored in large amounts and contributed significantly to egg production and body maintenance. Male Canvasbacks lost fat steadily--but not protein or calcium--as the breeding season progressed.

Barzen, J.A.; Serie, J.R.

1990-01-01

389

Carey Business School Electronic, Print, & Video Reserves  

E-print Network

Carey Business School Electronic, Print, & Video Reserves Policies & Procedures Electronic & Print if additional information or clarification is required. 5. The Reserves unit relies on ISIS for determining course start dates. If a course's start date differs from the posting in ISIS, please reflect the actual

von der Heydt, Rüdiger

390

The Economics of NASA Mission Cost Reserves  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Increases in NASA mission costs are well-noted but not well-understood, and there is little evidence that they are decreasing in frequency or amount over time. The need to control spending has led to analysis of the causes and magnitude of historical mission overruns, and many program control efforts are being implemented to attempt to prevent or mitigate the problem (NPR 7120). However, cost overruns have not abated, and while some direct causes of increased spending may be obvious (requirements creep, launch delays, directed changes, etc.), the underlying impetus to spend past the original budget may be more subtle. Gaining better insight into the causes of cost overruns will help NASA and its contracting organizations to avoid .them. This paper hypothesizes that one cause of NASA mission cost overruns is that the availability of reserves gives project team members an incentive to make decisions and behave in ways that increase costs. We theorize that the presence of reserves is a contributing factor to cost overruns because it causes organizations to use their funds less efficiently or to control spending less effectively. We draw a comparison to the insurance industry concept of moral hazard, the phenomenon that the presence of insurance causes insureds to have more frequent and higher insurance losses, and we attempt to apply actuarial techniques to quantifY the increase in the expected cost of a mission due to the availability of reserves. We create a theoretical model of reserve spending motivation by defining a variable ReserveSpending as a function of total reserves. This function has a positive slope; for every dollar of reserves available, there is a positive probability of spending it. Finally, the function should be concave down; the probability of spending each incremental dollar of reserves decreases progressively. We test the model against available NASA CADRe data by examining missions with reserve dollars initially available and testing whether they are more likely to spend those dollars, and whether larger levels of reserves lead to higher cost overruns. Finally, we address the question of how to prevent reserves from increasing mission spending without increasing cost risk to projects budgeted without any reserves. Is there a "sweet spot"? How can we derive the maximum benefit associated with risk reduction from reserves while minimizing the effects of reserve spending motivation?

Whitley, Sally; Shinn, Stephen

2012-01-01

391

US coal reserves: A review and update  

SciTech Connect

This report is the third in series of ``U.S. Coal Reserves`` reports. As part of the Administration of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) program to provide information on coal, it presents detailed estimates of domestic coal reserves, which are basic to the analysis and forecasting of future coal supply. It also describes the data, methods, and assumptions used to develop such estimates and explain terminology related to recent data programs. In addition, the report provides technical documentation for specific revisions and adjustments to the demonstrated reserve base (DRB) of coal in the United States and for coal quality and reserve allocations. It makes the resulting data available for general use by the public. This report includes data on recoverable coal reserves located at active mines and on the estimated distribution of rank and sulfur content in those reserves. An analysis of the projected demand and depletion in recoverable reserves at active mines is used to evaluate the areas and magnitude of anticipated investment in new mining capacity.

NONE

1996-08-01

392

Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Quarterly report  

SciTech Connect

This quarterly report, presented in five sections, describes activities undertaken with respect to the development of the Reserve during the period July 1, 1984 through September 30, 1984. The introduction and summary briefly discuss SPR program background and major activities of this quarter. Section II describes site development. Oil acquisition activities are reported in Section III. Other program topics are discussed in Section IV and information on the budget and cost of the Reserve is contained in Section V. The SPR underground storage facilities are being developed in three phases. Phase I, completed in 1980, consisted of the development of approximately 260 million barrels of storage capacity at five sites and construction of the St. James Marine Terminal. Phase II consists of storage capacity expansions at three Phase I sites by a total of 290 million barrels; cavern development is more than 75 percent complete. Phase III development consists of the construction of a new 140-million barrel storage site at Big Hill, Texas, and the further expansion of three existing SPR storage sites by a total of 60 million barrels. Phase III development continues to proceed on schedule. Leaching is now underway on all four Phase III caverns at Bryan Mound. At Big Hill, three cavern wells were completed this quarter, seven additional wells are in the process of being drilled, and site surface construction is approximately 20 percent complete. A contract for surface construction for the additional Phase III cavern at West Hackberry was awarded in September 1984. Site preparation for the single Phase III cavern at Bayou Choctaw has been completed and drilling of the wells will commence in October. During the quarter ending September 30, 1984, the total inventory of oil stored in the SPR reached 431,068,946 barrels, exceeding the Fiscal Year 1984 fill goal by approximately 2 million barrels. 2 tables.

Not Available

1984-11-15

393

Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Quarterly report  

SciTech Connect

During the third quarter of FY 1983, the Department of Energy continued to expand the storage capacity of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) and to fill available storage capacity in the Reserve through term purchases of crude oil made in FY 1982 supplemented by spot purchases. The SPR is being developed in three phases. Development of Phase I of the program consists of approximately 260 million barrels of storage capacity. Development of Phase II storage of 290 million barrels continues on schedule with the solution mining of new storage caverns at Bryan Mound, West Hackberry, and Bayou Choctaw. Phase III development is underway with major drilling and construction in progress at the Big Hill and Bryan Mound sites. Declarations-of-Taking of all remaining Big Hill property, with the exception of that required for the crude oil pipeline, was forwarded to the Department of Justice in June. Phase III drilling operations were completed at Bryan Mound in April and commenced at Big Hill in May. The SPR was filled at a rate of 226,966 barrels per day during the calendar quarter ending June 30, 1983, and the total SPR crude oil inventory at the end of this period was 332,484,027 barrels. The weighted average price of crude oil delivered to SPR terminals from April 1, 1982, through June 30, 1983, was $29.85 per barrel. Market conditions continue to be favorable for the purchase of oil to fill available SPR storage capacity. The projected fill rate for the calendar quarter July 1, 1983, to September 30, 1983, is approximately 320,000 barrels per day which will assure an average fill rate for FY 1983 of 220,000 barrels per day. The SPR Petroleum Account became off-budget in FY 1982 pursuant to the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1981. Funds for storage facilities development and operations, planning, and program direction remain on-budget.

Not Available

1983-08-16

394

Strategic Petroleum Reserve quarterly report  

SciTech Connect

This August 15, 1984 SPR Quarterly Report, presented in five sections, describes activities undertaken with respect to the development of the Reserve during the period April 1, 1984 through June 30, 1984. The introduction and summary briefly discuss SPR program background and major activities of this quarter. Section II describes site development. Oil acquisition activities are reported in Section III. Other program topics are discussed in Section IV and information on the budget and cost of the Reserve is contained in Section V. The SPR underground storage facilities are being developed in three phases. Phase I, completed in 1980, consisted of the development of approximately 260 million barrels of storage capacity at five sites and construction of the St. James Marine Terminal. Phase II consists of storage capacity expansions at three Phase I sites by a total of 290 million barrels; cavern development is approximately 75 percent complete. Phase III development consists of the construction of a new 140-million barrel storage site at Big Hill, Texas, and the further expansion of three existing SPR storage sites by a total of 60 million barrels. Phase III development is proceeding on schedule with cavern leaching underway at Bryan Mound and surface construction underway at Big Hill. Drilling of the final 18 wells at Big Hill has commenced. Phase III well drilling at West Hackberry was completed during the second quarter of FY 1984, and surface construction will be initiated in August 1984. During the quarter ending June 30, 1984, the total inventory of oil stored in the SPR reached 413,734,620 barrels. The average fill rate during the quarter was 241,116 barrels per day and the weighted average delivered price of crude oil during this quarter was $30.54 per barrel. The projected fill rate for the calendar quarter July 1, 1984 to September 30, 1984, is approximately 197,000 barrels per day. 2 tables.

Not Available

1984-08-15

395

Testing the test: an examination of the Freshman English Equivalency Exam  

E-print Network

in the current analysis. According to Breland et al. , the most problematic aspect of this type of exam is the determination of reliability: "Reliability has always been the Achilles heel of essay assessment" (23). This examination of the English equivalency...

Ashe, Diana Lynne

1994-01-01

396

Duke study finds rectal exams may benefit obese men more than normal-weight peers:  

Cancer.gov

Researchers at the Duke Cancer Institute and elsewhere have found that the doctors' office exam may be better at detecting advanced prostate tumors in heavy men than in their normal-weight counterparts.

397

Parent-Child Conversations Before, During and After a Dental Exam: Links to Remembering  

E-print Network

.e., first dentist exam) and how those discussions shape children's remembering of the event. Additionally, the study examined consistency in the quantity and style of parent-child discourse about the event across different naturally-occurring conversations...

Beyer, Alisa

2007-12-18

398

Strategic Petrolem Reserve: Annual/quarterly report  

SciTech Connect

In August 1986 the President reaffirmed the Administration's strong support for development of a 750 million-barrel Strategic Petroleum Reserve and committed the Administration to filling the Reserve throughout fiscal year 1987. During 1986, a number of bills related to the Strategic Petroleum Reserve were enacted. As of December 31, 1986, the Strategic Petroleum Reserve crude oil inventory was 511.6 million barrels of crude oil, an increase of 18.3 million barrels over the 1985 year end inventory of 493.3 million barrels. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve was filled at an average fill rate of 51,430 barrels per day during 1986. During the calendar year 1986, the Strategic Petroleum Reserve increased its crude oil storage capability from 509.4 million barrels to 550.7 million barrels, adding approximately 27.4 million barrels of new storage capacity at the Bryan Mound storage site and 13.9 million barrels at the West Hackberry storage site. As required by the Energy Policy and Conservation Amendments Act of 1985, enacted July 2, 1985, the Department of Energy conducted a test sale of Strategic Petroleum Reserve crude oil between November 18, 1985 and January 31, 1986, to test the Strategic Petroleum Reserve's drawdown and distribution capabilities. In addition to the test sale, three subsequent tests of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve's physical drawdown capabilities were conducted. Substantial progress was made in distribution enhancement program during 1986, with the construction of a 46-mile oil distribution pipeline from Bryan Mound to the ARCO common carrier pipeline system at Texas City, TX. 9 figs., 9 tabs.

Not Available

1987-02-01

399

Cerebral reserve capacity: implications for alcohol and drug abuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cerebral reserve capacity (or functional reserve) refers to the brain's ability to maintain function when confronted by degenerative processes. Functional reserve can be estimated by several associated measures, including premorbid brain size, premorbid IQ, and level of education attained. There is accumulating evidence that the magnitude of reserve capacity is important in determining the onset and progression of the clinical

George Fein; Victoria Di Sclafani

2004-01-01

400

24 CFR 982.154 - ACC reserve account.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false ACC reserve account. 982.154 Section...Administration of Program § 982.154 ACC reserve account. (a) HUD may establish...available budget authority under the consolidated ACC. This reserve is called the “ACC reserve...

2010-04-01

401

Energy policy examined as strategic petroleum reserve is extended  

SciTech Connect

This article reviews the agreement to extent the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SRV) for 4 more years to 1994, include in the reserve refined products,allows drawdown of reserves without a severe energy supply emergency', allows lease of reserves instead of purchase, allows for testing of drawdown capabilities. Also addressed is the call by political leaders for the development of a national energy policy.

Yates, M.

1990-10-11

402

Strategic Petroleum Reserve: Annual/quarterly report  

SciTech Connect

This report briefly covers the program legislation and the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Plan and its amendments. The current status of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve is outlined in Section II and the appropriations, budget and finances to date are provided in Section III. Section IV addresses organization, management, and contractor support. A discussion of the drawdown system and vulnerability impact are set forth in Section V. The Appendix contains detailed information on the status of each Strategic Petroleum Reserve site and crude oil specificcations. 8 figs., 8 tabs.

Not Available

1988-02-15

403

Strategic Petroleum Reserve: Annual/quarterly report  

SciTech Connect

Section 165 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (Public Law 94-163), as amended, requires the Secretary of Energy to submit annual and quarterly reports to the President and the Congress on activities of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. This report combines the fourth quarter 1993 Quarterly Report with the 1993 Annual Report. Key activities described include appropriations; life extension planning; expansion planning; Strategic Petroleum Reserve oil acquisition; the oil stabilization program; and the refined petroleum product reserve test programs. Sections of this report also describe the program mission; the storage facility development program; environmental compliance; budget and finance; and drawdown and distribution.

Not Available

1994-02-16

404

1/17/2012 Day Date Course Room/Exam Type  

E-print Network

Wed-Fri 2/15 5pm ­ 2/17 11pm: Exam #1 VM726 RamCT Digestive & Abdominal Ultrasound 20-26 Fri-Tue 2 In Class ­ Path 101 April 2-8 Wed-Fri 4/4 5pm ­ 4/6 11pm: Exam #2 VM726 RamCT Respiratory System 9-15 Tue 4

405

Seamless insertion of real pulmonary nodules in chest CT exams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The availability of large medical image datasets is critical in many applications such as training and testing of computer aided diagnosis (CAD) systems, evaluation of segmentation algorithms, and conducting perceptual studies. However, collection of large repositories of clinical images is hindered by the high cost and difficulties associated with both the accumulation of data and establishment of the ground truth. To address this problem, we are developing an image blending tool that allows users to modify or supplement existing datasets by seamlessly inserting a real lesion extracted from a source image into a different location on a target image. In this study we focus on the application of this tool to pulmonary nodules in chest CT exams. We minimize the impact of user skill on the perceived quality of the blended image by limiting user involvement to two simple steps: the user first draws a casual boundary around the nodule of interest in the source, and then selects the center of desired insertion area in the target. We demonstrate examples of the performance of the proposed system on samples taken from the Lung Image Database Consortium (LIDC) dataset, and compare the noise power spectrum (NPS) of blended nodules versus that of native nodules in simulated phantoms.

Pezeshk, Aria; Sahiner, Berkman; Zeng, Rongping; Wunderlich, Adam; Chen, Weijie; Petrick, Nicholas

2014-03-01

406

Sleep quality during exam stress: the role of alcohol, caffeine and nicotine.  

PubMed

Academic exam stress is known to compromise sleep quality and alter drug consumption in university students. Here we evaluated if sleeping problems and changes in legal drug consumption during exam stress are interrelated. We used the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) to survey sleep quality before, during, and after an academic exam period in 150 university students in a longitudinal questionnaire study. Self-reports of alcohol, caffeine, and nicotine consumption were obtained. The Perceived Stress Questionnaire (PSQ-20) was used as a measure of stress. Sleep quality and alcohol consumption significantly decreased, while perceived stress and caffeine consumption significantly increased during the exam period. No significant change in nicotine consumption was observed. In particular, students shortened their time in bed and showed symptoms of insomnia. Mixed model analysis indicated that sex, age, health status, as well as the amounts of alcohol and caffeine consumed had no significant influence on global sleep quality. The amount of nicotine consumed and perceived stress were identified as significant predictors of diminished sleep quality. Nicotine consumption had a small-to-very-small effect on sleep quality; perceived stress had a small-to-moderate effect. In conclusion, diminished sleep quality during exam periods was mainly predicted by perceived stress, while legal drug consumption played a minor role. Exam periods may pose an interesting model for the study of stress-induced sleeping problems and their mechanisms. PMID:25279939

Zunhammer, Matthias; Eichhammer, Peter; Busch, Volker

2014-01-01

407

Test Anxiety Levels of Board Exam Going Students in Tamil Nadu, India  

PubMed Central

The latest report by the National Crime Records Bureau has positioned Tamil Nadu as the Indian state with highest suicide rate. At least in part, this is happening due to exam pressure among adolescents, emphasizing the imperative need to understand the pattern of anxiety and various factors contributing to it among students. The present study was conducted to analyze the level of state anxiety among board exam attending school students in Tamil Nadu, India. A group of 100 students containing 50 boys and 50 girls from 10th and 12th grades participated in the study and their state anxiety before board exams was measured by Westside Test Anxiety Scale. We found that all board exam going students had increased level of anxiety, which was particularly higher among boys and 12th standard board exam going students. Analysis of various demographic variables showed that students from nuclear families presented higher anxiety levels compared to their desired competitive group. Overall, our results showing the prevalence of state anxiety among board exam going students in Tamil Nadu, India, support the recent attempt taken by Tamil Nadu government to improve student's academic performance in a healthier manner by appointing psychologists in all government schools. PMID:25143938

Ann Mary, Revina; Marslin, Gregory; Franklin, Gregory; Sheeba, Caroline J.

2014-01-01

408

A comparison of student performance on discipline-specific versus integrated exams in a medical school course.  

PubMed

Curricular reform is a widespread trend among medical schools. Assessing the impact that pedagogical changes have on students is a vital step in review process. This study examined how a shift from discipline-focused instruction and assessment to integrated instruction and assessment affected student performance in a second-year medical school pathology course. We investigated this by comparing pathology exam scores between students exposed to traditional discipline-specific instruction and exams (DSE) versus integrated instruction and exams (IE). Exam content was controlled, and individual questions were evaluated using a modified version of Bloom's taxonomy. Additionally, we compared United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) step 1 scores between DSE and IE groups. Our findings indicate that DSE students performed better than IE students on complete pathology exams. However, when exam content was controlled, exam scores were equivalent between groups. We also discovered that the integrated exams were composed of a significantly greater proportion of questions classified on the higher levels of Bloom's taxonomy and that IE students performed better on these questions overall. USMLE step 1 exam scores were similar between groups. The finding of a significant difference in content complexity between discipline-specific and integrated exams adds to recent literature indicating that there are a number of potential biases related to curricular comparison studies that must be considered. Future investigation involving larger sample sizes and multiple disciplines should be performed to explore this matter further. PMID:24292915

Thompson, Andrew R; Braun, Mark W; O'Loughlin, Valerie D

2013-12-01

409

Video Reserves in Canvas 2013 -2014 University Libraries www.lib.umd.edu/tl/guides/video-reserves  

E-print Network

Video Reserves in Canvas 2013 - 2014 University Libraries www.lib.umd.edu/tl/guides/video-reserves What are Video Reserves? Video reserves are videos selected by a professor for a particular university to the professor or to the Libraries' collection. Videos from a professor's personal collection are placed

Gruner, Daniel S.

410

Environmental Management and Reservation Activities 3-1 3. Environmental Management and Reservation  

E-print Network

of nuclear weapons for the nation's defense. Production of materials for nuclear weapons, which began of the reservation. ENVIRONMENTAL RESPONSE, COMPENSATION, AND LIABILITY ACT CERCLA activities continued throughout

Pennycook, Steve

411

Disaggregating reserve-to-production ratios: An algorithm for United States oil and gas reserve development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reserve-to-production ratios for oil and gas development are utilized by oil and gas producing states to monitor oil and gas reserve and production dynamics. These ratios are used to determine production levels for the manipulation of oil and gas prices while maintaining adequate reserves for future development. These aggregate reserve-to-production ratios do not provide information concerning development cost and the best time necessary to develop newly discovered reserves. Oil and gas reserves are a semi-finished inventory because development of the reserves must take place in order to implement production. These reserves are considered semi-finished in that they are not counted unless it is economically profitable to produce them. The development of these reserves is encouraged by profit maximization economic variables which must consider the legal, political, and geological aspects of a project. This development is comprised of a myriad of incremental operational decisions, each of which influences profit maximization. The primary purpose of this study was to provide a model for characterizing a single product multi-period inventory/production optimization problem from an unconstrained quantity of raw material which was produced and stored as inventory reserve. This optimization was determined by evaluating dynamic changes in new additions to reserves and the subsequent depletion of these reserves with the maximization of production. A secondary purpose was to determine an equation for exponential depletion of proved reserves which presented a more comprehensive representation of reserve-to-production ratio values than an inadequate and frequently used aggregate historical method. The final purpose of this study was to determine the most accurate delay time for a proved reserve to achieve maximum production. This calculated time provided a measure of the discounted cost and calculation of net present value for developing new reserves. This study concluded that the theoretical model developed by this research may be used to provide a predictive equation for each major oil and gas state so that a net present value to undiscounted net cash flow ratio might be calculated in order to establish an investment signal for profit maximizers. This equation inferred how production decisions were influenced by exogenous factors, such as price, and how policies performed which lead to recommendations regarding effective policies and prudent planning.

Williams, Charles William

412

42 CFR 51.9 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Reserved] 51.9 Section 51.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS REQUIREMENTS...PROTECTION AND ADVOCACY FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH MENTAL ILLNESS PROGRAM Basic Requirements §...

2011-10-01

413

42 CFR 51.9 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Reserved] 51.9 Section 51.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS REQUIREMENTS...PROTECTION AND ADVOCACY FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH MENTAL ILLNESS PROGRAM Basic Requirements §...

2012-10-01

414

42 CFR 51.9 - [Reserved  

...Reserved] 51.9 Section 51.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS REQUIREMENTS...PROTECTION AND ADVOCACY FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH MENTAL ILLNESS PROGRAM Basic Requirements §...

2014-10-01

415

42 CFR 51.9 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Reserved] 51.9 Section 51.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS REQUIREMENTS...PROTECTION AND ADVOCACY FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH MENTAL ILLNESS PROGRAM Basic Requirements §...

2010-10-01

416

42 CFR 51.44 - [Reserved  

...Reserved] 51.44 Section 51.44 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS REQUIREMENTS...PROTECTION AND ADVOCACY FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH MENTAL ILLNESS PROGRAM Access to Records,...

2014-10-01

417

42 CFR 51.44 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Reserved] 51.44 Section 51.44 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS REQUIREMENTS...PROTECTION AND ADVOCACY FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH MENTAL ILLNESS PROGRAM Access to Records,...

2011-10-01

418

42 CFR 51.44 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Reserved] 51.44 Section 51.44 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS REQUIREMENTS...PROTECTION AND ADVOCACY FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH MENTAL ILLNESS PROGRAM Access to Records,...

2013-10-01

419

42 CFR 51.9 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Reserved] 51.9 Section 51.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS REQUIREMENTS...PROTECTION AND ADVOCACY FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH MENTAL ILLNESS PROGRAM Basic Requirements §...

2013-10-01

420

42 CFR 51.44 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Reserved] 51.44 Section 51.44 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS REQUIREMENTS...PROTECTION AND ADVOCACY FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH MENTAL ILLNESS PROGRAM Access to Records,...

2012-10-01

421

42 CFR 51.44 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Reserved] 51.44 Section 51.44 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS REQUIREMENTS...PROTECTION AND ADVOCACY FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH MENTAL ILLNESS PROGRAM Access to Records,...

2010-10-01

422

46 CFR 308.4 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

46 ? Shipping ? 8 ? 2010-10-01 ? 2010-10-01 ? false ? [Reserved] ? 308.4 ? Section 308.4 ? Shipping ? MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ? EMERGENCY OPERATIONS ? WAR RISK INSURANCE ? General ? § 308.4 ?...

2010-10-01

423

40 CFR 63.11424 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Lead Acid Battery Manufacturing Area Sources Standards and Compliance Requirements § 63.11424 [Reserved] Other...

2010-07-01

424

9 CFR 147.4 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false [Reserved] 147.4 Section 147.4 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...PROVISIONS ON NATIONAL POULTRY IMPROVEMENT PLAN Blood Testing Procedures § 147.4...

2010-01-01

425

25 CFR 162.537 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Section 162.537 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER LEASES AND PERMITS Wind and Solar Resource Leases Weel Compliance and Enforcement § 162.537 [Reserved] WSR...

2013-04-01

426

25 CFR 162.537 - [Reserved  

... Section 162.537 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER LEASES AND PERMITS Wind and Solar Resource Leases Weel Compliance and Enforcement § 162.537 [Reserved] WSR...

2014-04-01

427

9 CFR 3.34 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Guinea Pigs and Hamsters Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.34 [Reserved] Transportation Standards...

2010-01-01

428

Communicating marine reserve science to diverse audiences  

PubMed Central

As human impacts cause ecosystem-wide changes in the oceans, the need to protect and restore marine resources has led to increasing calls for and establishment of marine reserves. Scientific information about marine reserves has multiplied over the last decade, providing useful knowledge about this tool for resource users, managers, policy makers, and the general public. This information must be conveyed to nonscientists in a nontechnical, credible, and neutral format, but most scientists are not trained to communicate in this style or to develop effective strategies for sharing their scientific knowledge. Here, we present a case study from California, in which communicating scientific information during the process to establish marine reserves in the Channel Islands and along the California mainland coast expanded into an international communication effort. We discuss how to develop a strategy for communicating marine reserve science to diverse audiences and highlight the influence that effective science communication can have in discussions about marine management. PMID:20427745

Grorud-Colvert, Kirsten; Lester, Sarah E.; Airamé, Satie; Neeley, Elizabeth; Gaines, Steven D.

2010-01-01

429

40 CFR 407.43 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true [Reserved] 407.43 Section 407.43 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...PRESERVED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Frozen Potato Products Subcategory § 407.43...

2011-07-01

430

40 CFR 405.73 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true [Reserved] 405.73 Section 405.73 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Fluid Mix for Ice Cream and Other Frozen Desserts Subcategory § 405.73...

2010-07-01

431

40 CFR 405.73 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true [Reserved] 405.73 Section 405.73 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Fluid Mix for Ice Cream and Other Frozen Desserts Subcategory § 405.73...

2011-07-01

432

40 CFR 407.43 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true [Reserved] 407.43 Section 407.43 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...PRESERVED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Frozen Potato Products Subcategory § 407.43...

2010-07-01

433

9 CFR 147.4 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false [Reserved] 147.4 Section 147.4 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...PROVISIONS ON NATIONAL POULTRY IMPROVEMENT PLAN Blood Testing Procedures § 147.4...

2011-01-01

434

9 CFR 147.4 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false [Reserved] 147.4 Section 147.4 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...PROVISIONS ON NATIONAL POULTRY IMPROVEMENT PLAN Blood Testing Procedures § 147.4...

2013-01-01

435

9 CFR 147.4 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false [Reserved] 147.4 Section 147.4 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...PROVISIONS ON NATIONAL POULTRY IMPROVEMENT PLAN Blood Testing Procedures § 147.4...

2012-01-01

436

9 CFR 147.4 - [Reserved  

...false [Reserved] 147.4 Section 147.4 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...PROVISIONS ON NATIONAL POULTRY IMPROVEMENT PLAN Blood Testing Procedures § 147.4...

2014-01-01

437

28 CFR 115.243 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false [Reserved] 115.243 Section 115.243 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Community Confinement Facilities Screening for Risk of Sexual...

2013-07-01

438

28 CFR 115.314 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false [Reserved] 115.314 Section 115.314 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Juvenile Facilities Prevention Planning § 115.314...

2013-07-01

439

28 CFR 115.181 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false [Reserved] 115.181 Section 115.181 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Lockups Medical and Mental Care § 115.181...

2012-07-01

440

28 CFR 115.343 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false [Reserved] 115.343 Section 115.343 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Juvenile Facilities Screening for Risk of Sexual Victimization and...

2013-07-01

441

28 CFR 115.243 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false [Reserved] 115.243 Section 115.243 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Community Confinement Facilities Screening for Risk of Sexual...

2012-07-01

442

28 CFR 115.214 - [Reserved  

...false [Reserved] 115.214 Section 115.214 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Community Confinement Facilities Prevention Planning § 115.214...

2014-07-01

443

28 CFR 115.133 - [Reserved  

...false [Reserved] 115.133 Section 115.133 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Lockups Training and Education § 115.133...

2014-07-01

444

28 CFR 115.168 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false [Reserved] 115.168 Section 115.168 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Lockups Official Response Following A Detainee Report § 115.168...

2013-07-01

445

28 CFR 115.133 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false [Reserved] 115.133 Section 115.133 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Lockups Training and Education § 115.133...

2013-07-01

446

28 CFR 115.281 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false [Reserved] 115.281 Section 115.281 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Community Confinement Facilities Medical and Mental Care §...

2012-07-01

447

28 CFR 115.181 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false [Reserved] 115.181 Section 115.181 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Lockups Medical and Mental Care § 115.181...

2013-07-01

448

28 CFR 115.133 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false [Reserved] 115.133 Section 115.133 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Lockups Training and Education § 115.133...

2012-07-01

449

28 CFR 115.168 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false [Reserved] 115.168 Section 115.168 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Lockups Official Response Following A Detainee Report § 115.168...

2012-07-01

450

Peer Reviewed Butterflies and Continuous Conservation Reserve  

E-print Network

Peer Reviewed Butterflies and Continuous Conservation Reserve Program Filter Strips: Landscape Bill provide important habitat for wildlife such as butterflies. The question of how the landscape of the butterfly community using filter strips in southwestern Minnesota, USA. Habitat- sensitive butterfly

Debinski, Diane M.

451

41 CFR Appendix to Subchapter G... - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

41 ? Public Contracts and Property Management ? 2 ? 2010-07-01 ? 2010-07-01 ? true ? [Reserved] ? Appendix to Subchapter G-Temporary Regulations ? Public Contracts and Property Management ? Federal Property Management Regulations System ? FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS ?...

2010-07-01

452

7 CFR 958.44 - Reserve fund.  

...AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ONIONS GROWN IN CERTAIN DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN IDAHO, AND MALHEUR COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Expenses and Assessments § 958.44 Reserve...

2014-01-01

453

7 CFR 958.44 - Reserve fund.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ONIONS GROWN IN CERTAIN DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN IDAHO, AND MALHEUR COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Expenses and Assessments § 958.44 Reserve...

2013-01-01

454

30 CFR 402.14 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false [Reserved] 402.14 Section 402.14 Mineral Resources GEOLOGICAL SURVEY, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR WATER-RESOURCES RESEARCH PROGRAM AND THE WATER-RESOURCES TECHNOLOGY...

2010-07-01

455

30 CFR 401.5 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false [Reserved] 401.5 Section 401.5 Mineral Resources GEOLOGICAL SURVEY, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR STATE WATER RESEARCH INSTITUTE PROGRAM General § 401.5...

2010-07-01

456

30 CFR 402.5 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false [Reserved] 402.5 Section 402.5 Mineral Resources GEOLOGICAL SURVEY, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR WATER-RESOURCES RESEARCH PROGRAM AND THE WATER-RESOURCES TECHNOLOGY...

2010-07-01

457

19 CFR 12.35 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE White Phosphorus Matches § 12.35 [Reserved] Narcotic...

2011-04-01

458

19 CFR 12.35 - [Reserved  

...Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE White Phosphorus Matches § 12.35 [Reserved] Narcotic...

2014-04-01

459

19 CFR 12.35 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE White Phosphorus Matches § 12.35 [Reserved] Narcotic...

2012-04-01

460

19 CFR 12.35 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE White Phosphorus Matches § 12.35 [Reserved] Narcotic...

2013-04-01

461

19 CFR 12.35 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE White Phosphorus Matches § 12.35 [Reserved] Narcotic...

2010-04-01

462

24 CFR 597.500 - Indian Reservations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES URBAN EMPOWERMENT ZONES AND ENTERPRISE COMMUNITIES: ROUND ONE DESIGNATIONS Special Rules § 597.500 Indian Reservations. No urban Empowerment Zone or Enterprise Community may include any area within...

2010-04-01

463

29 CFR 2590.734 - Enforcement. [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Reserved] 2590.734 Section 2590.734 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EMPLOYEE BENEFITS SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR GROUP HEALTH PLANS RULES AND REGULATIONS FOR GROUP...

2010-07-01

464

29 CFR 2590.734 - Enforcement. [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Reserved] 2590.734 Section 2590.734 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EMPLOYEE BENEFITS SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR GROUP HEALTH PLANS RULES AND REGULATIONS FOR GROUP...

2011-07-01

465

12 CFR 707.10 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 707.10 Section 707.10 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS TRUTH IN SAVINGS § 707.10...

2010-01-01

466

12 CFR 707.10 - [Reserved  

12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false [Reserved] 707.10 Section 707.10 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS TRUTH IN SAVINGS § 707.10...

2014-01-01

467

12 CFR 1026.41 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false [Reserved] 1026.41 Section 1026.41 Banks and Banking BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION TRUTH IN LENDING (REGULATION Z) Special Rules for Certain Home Mortgage Transactions § 1026.41...

2013-01-01

468

7 CFR 981.46 - Withholding reserve.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating...hereinafter provided, no handler shall handle almonds except on condition that he comply with...requirements in respect to withholding reserve almonds and the prescribed disposition...

2010-01-01

469

18 CFR 1311.4 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Reserved] 1311.4 Section 1311.4 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY INTERGOVERNMENTAL REVIEW OF TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE AND DIRECT FEDERAL DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS...

2013-04-01

470

18 CFR 1311.12 - [Reserved  

...Reserved] 1311.12 Section 1311.12 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY INTERGOVERNMENTAL REVIEW OF TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE AND DIRECT FEDERAL DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS...

2014-04-01

471

18 CFR 1311.12 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Reserved] 1311.12 Section 1311.12 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY INTERGOVERNMENTAL REVIEW OF TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE AND DIRECT FEDERAL DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS...

2010-04-01

472

18 CFR 1311.12 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Reserved] 1311.12 Section 1311.12 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY INTERGOVERNMENTAL REVIEW OF TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE AND DIRECT FEDERAL DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS...

2012-04-01

473

18 CFR 1311.12 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Reserved] 1311.12 Section 1311.12 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY INTERGOVERNMENTAL REVIEW OF TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE AND DIRECT FEDERAL DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS...

2011-04-01

474

Aurora Cassandra Elmore ALL RIGHTS RESERVED  

E-print Network

©[2009] Aurora Cassandra Elmore ALL RIGHTS RESERVED #12;LATE PLEISTOCENE CHANGES IN NORTHERN COMPONENT WATER: INFERENCES FROM GEOCHEMICAL AND SEDIMENTOLOGICAL RECORDS FROM GARDAR DRIFT by AURORA FROM GEOCHEMICAL AND SEDIMENTOLOGICAL RECORDS FROM GARDAR DRIFT by AURORA CASSANDRA ELMORE Dissertation

475

48 CFR 952.227-74 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Reserved] 952.227-74 Section 952.227-74 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 952.227-74...

2011-10-01

476

48 CFR 952.227-74 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Reserved] 952.227-74 Section 952.227-74 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 952.227-74...

2010-10-01

477

48 CFR 952.209-71 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Reserved] 952.209-71 Section 952.209-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 952.209-71...

2010-10-01

478

48 CFR 952.209-71 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Reserved] 952.209-71 Section 952.209-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 952.209-71...

2012-10-01

479

18 CFR 141.61 - [Reserved  

...Reserved] 141.61 Section 141.61 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY APPROVED FORMS, FEDERAL POWER ACT AND PUBLIC UTILITY REGULATORY POLICIES ACT OF 1978 STATEMENTS...

2014-04-01

480

48 CFR 952.209-71 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Reserved] 952.209-71 Section 952.209-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 952.209-71...

2013-10-01

481

48 CFR 952.209-71 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Reserved] 952.209-71 Section 952.209-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 952.209-71...

2011-10-01

482

40 CFR 19.3 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false [Reserved] 19.3 Section 19.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ADJUSTMENT OF CIVIL MONETARY PENALTIES FOR INFLATION § 19.3...

2013-07-01

483

40 CFR 19.3 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false [Reserved] 19.3 Section 19.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ADJUSTMENT OF CIVIL MONETARY PENALTIES FOR INFLATION § 19.3...

2012-07-01

484

40 CFR 19.3 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false [Reserved] 19.3 Section 19.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ADJUSTMENT OF CIVIL MONETARY PENALTIES FOR INFLATION § 19.3...

2011-07-01

485

40 CFR 19.3 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false [Reserved] 19.3 Section 19.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ADJUSTMENT OF CIVIL MONETARY PENALTIES FOR INFLATION § 19.3...

2010-07-01

486

40 CFR 19.3 - [Reserved  

40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false [Reserved] 19.3 Section 19.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ADJUSTMENT OF CIVIL MONETARY PENALTIES FOR INFLATION § 19.3...

2014-07-01

487

40 CFR 62.2604 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF STATE PLANS FOR DESIGNATED FACILITIES AND POLLUTANTS Georgia Total Reduced Sulfur Emissions from Kraft Pulp Mills § 62.2604 [Reserved] Fluoride Emissions From Existing Primary Aluminum Reduction...

2010-07-01

488

The Economics of NASA Mission Cost Reserves  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Increases in NASA mission costs have led to analysis of the causes and magnitude of historical mission overruns as well as mitigation and prevention attempts. This paper hypothesizes that one cause is that the availability of reserves may reduce incentives to control costs. We draw a comparison to the insurance concept of moral hazard, and we use actuarial techniques to better understand the increase in mission costs due to the availability of reserves. NASA's CADRe database provided the data against which we tested our hypothesis and discovered that there is correlation between the amount of available reserves and project overruns, particularly for mission hardware cost increases. We address the question of how to prevent reserves from increasing mission spending without increasing cost risk to projects.

Whitley, Sally; Shinn, Stephen

2012-01-01

489

19 CFR 10.110 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. General Provisions Strategic Materials Obtained by Barter Or Exchange § 10.110 [Reserved] Late Filing of Free Entry and Reduced Duty...

2010-04-01

490

The Problem of Managing a Strategic Reserve.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The problem of managing the reserve of cobalt is presented, followed by a method for bringing the stockpiled amount from any level to a desired goal. Solving a stochastic programming problem is involved. The procedure is discussed in detail. (MNS)

Cole, David; And Others

1986-01-01

491

Das Asset-Märchen der Federal Reserve  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung  Die Federal Reserve ist laut dem Federal Reserve Act unter anderem dazu verpfl ichtet, stabile Preise zu gewährleisten. Das\\u000a Erreichen dieses geldpolitischen Ziels wird offi ziell auf Ebene der Verbraucherpreise angesiedelt. Darüber hinaus bekräftigt\\u000a die FED, dass kein explizites Asset Price Targeting betrieben wird. Dienen jedoch Vermögenspreise implizit als geldpolitisches\\u000a Ziel?

Christian Drescher; Alexander Erler; Damir Križanac

2010-01-01

492

Extending Online Travel Agency with Adaptive Reservations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current online ticket booking systems either do not allow customers to reserve a ticket with a locked price, or grant a fixed\\u000a reservation timespan, typically 24 hours. The former often leads to false availability: when a customer decides to purchase a ticket after a few queries, she finds that either the ticket is no longer available\\u000a or the price has

Wenfei Fan; Huajun Chen; Hao Sheng; Zhaohui Wu; Zhang Yu

2007-01-01

493

Realisation of the guidelines for faculty-internal exams at the Department of General Medicine at the University of Munich: Pushing medical exams one step ahead with IMSm.  

PubMed

Graded exams are prerequisites for the admission to the medical state examination. Accordingly the exams must be of good quality in order to allow benchmarking with the faculty and between different universities. Criteria for good quality need to be considered - namely objectivity, validity and reliability. The guidelines for the processing of exams published by the GMA are supposed to help maintaining those criteria. In 2008 the Department of General Medicine at the University of Munich fulfils only 14 of 18 items. A review process, appropriate training of the staff and the introduction of the IMSm software were the main changes that helped to improve the 'GMA-score' to 30 fulfilled items. We see the introduction of the IMSm system as our biggest challenge ahead. IMSm helps to streamline the necessary workflow and improves their quality (e.g. by the detection of cueing, item analysis). Overall, we evaluate the steps to improve the exam process as very positive. We plan to engage co-workers outside the department to assist in the various review processes in the future. Furthermore we think it might be of value to get into contact with other departments and faculties to benefit from each other's question pools. PMID:22737197

Boeder, Niklas; Holzer, Matthias; Schelling, Jörg

2012-01-01

494

Dr. Campbell's Bio111 Exam #2 KEY Spring 2007 Spring 2007 Biology 111 In-Class Exam #2 KEY Classical Genetics  

E-print Network

­ Classical Genetics The in-class portion of this exam is designed so that you can complete it in 20 minutes and the male has a brown tail. All their babies are white with brown tails and brown noses. All

Campbell, A. Malcolm

495

Environmental and developmental origins of ovarian reserve.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND Oocyte number is established early in life before a gradual loss of this ovarian reserve during reproductive life until oocyte availability becomes limiting at the menopause. Although there is a large genetic component to the ovarian reserve achieved before birth, other influences including the maternal endocrine and nutritional milieu, and environmental factors may represent important developmental determinants. Environmental and nutritional factors may also modify the downward trajectory of ovarian reserve in adult life. The combination of these early and later life influences has the potential to lead to diminished ovarian reserve, compromising fertility in later reproductive years and altering age at natural menopause. METHODS Literature searches of the ISI Web of Knowledge database were carried out using the main terms 'ovarian reserve' and 'menopause AND age' in conjunction with a range of other terms encompassing a variety of factors with potential effects on ovarian reserve. The various searches were inspected manually and the relevant papers selected for critical analysis and interpretation. RESULTS Evidence was identified supporting the view that elevated prenatal androgens have an adverse effect on the early establishment of ovarian reserve, although the implications for ovarian reserve in the polycystic ovary syndrome (which may also be programmed through prenatal androgen exposure) remain uncertain. Recent evidence is cited suggesting that effects of maternal nutrient restriction on ovarian reserve may also involve changes in prenatal androgen exposure. A general rationale is developed through examination of evidence which emphasizes the roles of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) and the estrogen receptor (ER) systems in ovarian reserve modulation. Because of their similarity to the natural ligands, many environmental compounds have the ability to bind to these receptors (albeit at lower affinities) and thereby have the potential to influence either the initial setting of ovarian reserve during development or the trajectory of ovarian reserve during adult life. For example, exposure to compounds in cigarette smoke may accelerate loss of ovarian reserve in smokers leading to diminished ovarian reserve, earlier age at last child and earlier menopause. Socioenocomic factors are clearly associated with age at natural menopause, with correlations with economic status and education level. However, such effects in western societies are in general small, and the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. CONCLUSIONS Exposure to many environmental compounds, particularly to those that leach from plastics and other synthetic materials, is commonplace in modern societies to the extent that many are found at measurable concentrations in body fluids within most of the population. Relating fluid levels of individual compounds to parameters reflecting ovarian reserve in selected populations appears to be an effective way forward and, indeed, some early-stage findings do show some cause for concern. There is a pressing need for the development of practical advice enabling women to minimize their intake of AHR/ER ligands, perhaps through dietary/cosmetic choices or improved food packaging. PMID:24287894

Richardson, M C; Guo, M; Fauser, B C J M; Macklon, N S

2014-01-01

496

15 CFR 921.3 - National Estuarine Research Reserve System biogeographic classification scheme and estuarine...  

...false National Estuarine Research Reserve System biogeographic...DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OCEAN AND COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT NATIONAL ESTUARINE RESEARCH RESERVE SYSTEM REGULATIONS...3 National Estuarine Research Reserve System...

2014-01-01

497

15 CFR 921.40 - Ongoing oversight and evaluations of designated National Estuarine Research Reserves.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...designated National Estuarine Research Reserves. 921.40...DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OCEAN AND COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT NATIONAL ESTUARINE RESEARCH RESERVE SYSTEM REGULATIONS...designated National Estuarine Research Reserves....

2012-01-01

498

15 CFR 921.40 - Ongoing oversight and evaluations of designated National Estuarine Research Reserves.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...designated National Estuarine Research Reserves. 921.40...DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OCEAN AND COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT NATIONAL ESTUARINE RESEARCH RESERVE SYSTEM REGULATIONS...designated National Estuarine Research Reserves....

2013-01-01

499

15 CFR 921.3 - National Estuarine Research Reserve System biogeographic classification scheme and estuarine...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false National Estuarine Research Reserve System biogeographic...DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OCEAN AND COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT NATIONAL ESTUARINE RESEARCH RESERVE SYSTEM REGULATIONS...3 National Estuarine Research Reserve System...

2013-01-01

500

15 CFR 921.3 - National Estuarine Research Reserve System biogeographic classification scheme and estuarine...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false National Estuarine Research Reserve System biogeographic...DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OCEAN AND COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT NATIONAL ESTUARINE RESEARCH RESERVE SYSTEM REGULATIONS...3 National Estuarine Research Reserve System...

2011-01-01