Sample records for exam mlc reserved

  1. 2010 Vision Service Plan. All rights reserved. VSP and WellVision Exam are registered trademarks of Vision Service Plan. All other company

    E-print Network

    Kay, Mark A.

    ©2010 Vision Service Plan. All rights reserved. VSP and WellVision Exam are registered trademarks of Vision Service Plan. All other company names and brands are trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective owners. Visit vsp.com or call 800.877.7195 for more details on your vision coverage and exclusive

  2. MLC++: A Machine Learning Library in C

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ron Kohavi; George H. John; Richard Long; David Manley; Karl Pfleger

    1994-01-01

    We present MLC++ , a library of C++classes andtools for supervised Machine Learning. While MLC++provides general learning algorithms that can be usedby end users, the main objective is to provide researchersand experts with a wide variety of tools thatcan accelerate algorithm development, increase softwarereliability, provide comparison tools, and displayinformation visually. More than just a collection ofexisting algorithms, MLC++ is an

  3. Program Interference in MLC NAND Flash Memory

    E-print Network

    Mutlu, Onur

    Program Interference in MLC NAND Flash Memory: Characterization, Modeling, and Mitigation Yu Cai1 Flash Memory is Increasingly Noisy Noisy NANDWrite Read 3 #12;Future NAND Flash-based Storage Noise Write Read Cai et al., "Threshold voltage distribution in MLC NAND Flash Memory: Characterization

  4. 8:45 Registration Miller Learning Center (MLC) 101

    E-print Network

    Navara, Kristen

    Active Classrooms, Denise Domizi, Center for Teaching and Learning MLC 251 Using the Library to Support8:45 Registration Miller Learning Center (MLC) 101 9:00 Welcome & Introduction of 2012-2013 Future,MichelleGarfieldCook,OfficeofInstitutional Diversity MLC 250 Promoting Active Classrooms, Denise Domizi, Center for Teaching and Learning MLC 251 Using

  5. Exam Anxiety Overcoming Exam Anxiety

    E-print Network

    to insufficient exam preparation. Exam anxiety can result in: Physical Indicators - Perspiration, sweaty palms, feeling too hot or cold - Headaches, upset stomach, nausea - Rapid heart beat, shallow/irregular breathing;3 Some things that can increase exam anxiety are: Insufficient Exam Preparation - Cramming the night

  6. The impact of MLC transmitted radiation on EPID dosimetry for dynamic MLC beams

    SciTech Connect

    Vial, Philip; Greer, Peter B.; Hunt, Peter; Oliver, Lyn; Baldock, Clive [Royal North Shore Hospital, Sydney (Australia); Institute of Medical Physics, School of Physics, University of Sydney, Sydney (Australia) and Department of Radiation Oncology, Liverpool Hospital, Sydney (Australia); Calvary Mater Newcastle Hospital, Newcastle, Australia and University of Newcastle, Newcastle (Australia); Royal North Shore Hospital, Sydney (Australia); Royal North Shore Hospital, Sydney (Australia) and Institute of Medical Physics, School of Physics, University of Sydney, Sydney (Australia); Institute of Medical Physics, School of Physics, University of Sydney, Sydney (Australia)

    2008-04-15

    The purpose of this study was to experimentally quantify the change in response of an amorphous silicon (a-Si) electronic portal imaging device (EPID) to dynamic multileaf collimator (dMLC) beams with varying MLC-transmitted dose components and incorporate the response into a commercial treatment planning system (TPS) EPID prediction model. A combination of uniform intensity dMLC beams and static beams were designed to quantify the effect of MLC transmission on EPID response at the central axis of 10x10 cm{sup 2} beams, at off-axis positions using wide dMLC beam profiles, and at different field sizes. The EPID response to MLC transmitted radiation was 0.79{+-}0.02 of the response to open beam radiation at the central axis of a 10x10 cm{sup 2} field. The EPID response to MLC transmitted radiation was further reduced relative to the open beam response with off-axis distance. The EPID response was more sensitive to field size changes for MLC transmitted radiation compared to open beam radiation by a factor of up to 1.17 at large field sizes. The results were used to create EPID response correction factors as a function of the fraction of MLC transmitted radiation, off-axis distance, and field size. Software was developed to apply the correction factors to each pixel in the TPS predicted EPID image. The corrected images agreed more closely with the measured EPID images in areas of intensity modulated fields with a large fraction of MLC transmission and, as a result the accuracy of portal dosimetry with a-Si EPIDs can be improved. Further investigation into the detector response function and the radiation source model are required to achieve improvements in accuracy for the general case.

  7. Testicular Exams

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for Kids for Teens Teens Home Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Q&A School & ... Plan Dealing With Anger Testicular Exams KidsHealth > Teens > Sexual Health > For Guys > Testicular Exams Print A A A ...

  8. 8:45 Registration Miller Learning Center (MLC) 101

    E-print Network

    Navara, Kristen

    Active Classrooms, Denise Domizi, Center for Teaching and Learning MLC 251 Using the Library to Support8:45 Registration Miller Learning Center (MLC) 101 9:00 Welcome & Introduction of 2010-2011 Future with eLearning Commons, David Noah, Center for Teaching and Learning MLC 350 Creating a Teaching

  9. Exam Professor

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2006-01-01

    The average professor or lecturer in today's educational environment might be on the lookout for a helpful way to facilitate exams, and this application is just that type of application. With Exam Professor, users can create exams quickly, publish them online, and even mix up the questions. On their website, visitors can learn about all of the features of the program, and take a look at a demonstration exam. This version allows users to create one exam at no charge, and is compatible with computers running Windows 2000, XP and Mac OS X 10.4 and newer.

  10. Program Interference in MLC NAND Flash Memory

    E-print Network

    Mutlu, Onur

    Program Interference in MLC NAND Flash Memory: Characterization, Modeling, and Mitigation Yu Cai1 of the drive 10 times per day for 5 years (STEC) > 50k P/E cycles 5 A few thousand 3k #12;NAND Flash Memory is Increasingly Noisy Noisy NANDWrite Read 6 #12;NAND Flash Memory is Increasingly Noisy Noisy NANDWrite Read 7

  11. Radio frequency noise from an MLC: a feasibility study of the use of an MLC for linac-MR systems

    PubMed Central

    Lamey, M; Yun, J; Burke, B; Rathee, S; Fallone, B G

    2010-01-01

    Currently several groups are actively researching the integration of a megavoltage teletherapy unit with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging for real-time image-guided radiotherapy. The use of a multileaf collimator (MLC) for intensity-modulated radiotherapy for linac-MR units must be investigated. The MLC itself will likely reside in the fringe field of the MR and the motors will produce radio frequency (RF) noise. The RF noise power spectral density from a Varian 52-leaf MLC motor, a Varian Millennium MLC motor and a brushless fan motor has been measured as a function of the applied magnetic field using a near field probe set. For the Varian 52-leaf MLC system, the RF noise produced by 13 of 52 motors is studied as a function of distance from the MLC. Data are reported in the frequency range suitable for 0.2–1.5 T linac-MR systems. Below 40 MHz the Millennium MLC motor tested showed more noise than the Varian 52-leaf motor or the brushless fan motor. The brushless motor showed a small dependence on the applied magnetic field. Images of a phantom were taken by the prototype linac-MR system with the MLC placed in close proximity to the magnet. Several orientations of the MLC in both shielded and non-shielded configurations were studied. For the case of a non-shielded MLC and associated cables, the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) was reduced when 13 of 52 MLC leaves were moved during imaging. When the MLC and associated cables were shielded, the measured SNR of the images with 13 MLC leaves moving was experimentally the same as the SNR of the stationary MLC image. When the MLC and cables are shielded, subtraction images acquired with and without MLC motion contains no systematic signal. This study illustrates that the small RF noise produced by functioning MLC motors can be effectively shielded to avoid SNR degradation. A functioning MLC can be incorporated into a linac-MR unit. PMID:20090187

  12. LTCC-MLC duplexer for DCS1800

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jyh-Wen Sheen

    1999-01-01

    A low-temperature cofired-ceramic (LTCC) multilayer-ceramic (MLC) duplexer is presented in this paper. The duplexer is designed for a DCS-1800 handset. It is constructed using a multilayer laminated bandpass filter and a multilayer laminated bandstop filter. These two filters are capable of easy tuning after duplexer manufacture. The computer-aided design flowchart is also presented. Additionally, the tuning method and loss improvements

  13. Final Exam Review Final Exam

    E-print Network

    Kosecka, Jana

    5/7/14 1 Final Exam Review Final Exam · Coverage: second half of the semester you should have had on it the first time...cheat sheets is about identifying important concepts · Next review of more recent topics as well as earlier topics Graph Representa@on · Adjacency list

  14. Error Analysis and Management for MLC NAND Flash Memory

    E-print Network

    Mutlu, Onur

    Error Analysis and Management for MLC NAND Flash Memory Onur Mutlu onur@cmu.edu (joint work with Yu Summit 2014, Santa Clara, CA #12;Executive Summary n Problem: MLC NAND flash memory reliability error models for NAND flash memory via experimental characterization, (2) Develop efficient techniques

  15. Competency Patient Care Sub Domain Physical Exam

    E-print Network

    Leistikow, Bruce N.

    ) Cardiovascular exam Pulmonary exam Lymph node exam Primary Care: Musculoskeletal exam Skin exam Psychiatry Head, ear, eye and throat exam Cardiovascular exam Pulmonary exam Lymph node exam Musculoskeletal exam Skin exam Surgery Abdominal exam Wound exam Musculoskeletal exam Rectal exam #12;

  16. Exam Preparation Strategies for Essay Exams

    E-print Network

    Centre web site; and "Writing Tips ­ In-Class Essay Exams" and "Writing Tips ­ Standardized Test EssaySee over Exam Preparation Strategies for Essay Exams Essay exams test you on "the big picture "Listening & Note-taking" under "Learning & Studying" on the SLC web site for information on concept mapping

  17. An experimental comparison of conventional two-bank and novel four-bank dynamic MLC tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, G. A.; Clowes, P.; McQuaid, D.; Evans, P. M.; Webb, S.; Poludniowski, G.

    2013-03-01

    The AccuLeaf mMLC featuring four multileaf-collimator (MLC) banks has been used for the first time for an experimental comparison of conventional two-bank with novel four-bank dynamic MLC tracking of a two-dimensional sinusoidal respiratory motion. This comparison was performed for a square aperture, and for three conformal treatment apertures from clinical radiotherapy lung cancer patients. The system latency of this prototype tracking system was evaluated and found to be 1.0 s and the frequency at which MLC positions could be updated, 1 Hz, and therefore accurate MLC tracking of irregular patient motion would be difficult with the system in its current form. The MLC leaf velocity required for two-bank-MLC and four-bank-MLC tracking was evaluated for the apertures studied and a substantial decrease was found in the maximum MLC velocity required when four-banks were used for tracking rather than two. A dosimetric comparison of the two techniques was also performed and minimal difference was found between two-bank-MLC and four-bank-MLC tracking. The use of four MLC banks for dynamic MLC tracking is shown to be potentially advantageous for increasing the delivery efficiency compared with two-bank-MLC tracking where difficulties are encountered if large leaf shifts are required to track motion perpendicular to the direction of leaf travel.

  18. Exam fairness

    E-print Network

    Mathieu Bouville

    2008-03-29

    It is widely agreed that exams must be fair; yet what this exactly means is not made clear. One may mean fairness of treatment, but this merely propagates the fairness or unfairness of pre-existing rules. Fairness of opportunity on the other hand necessarily leads to identical grades for everyone, which clearly makes it inapplicable. Neither view is helpful to make decisions on competing claims: fairness of treatment ignores the problem and fairness of opportunity holds all claims to be equally valid. To escape this deadlock one needs an external criterion to replace fairness viewed as student-student comparison. Keywords: assessment; bias; engineering education; examinations; grading; justice; tests

  19. Novel mutations of the MLC1 gene in Turkish patients.

    PubMed

    Yüzba?io?lu, Ay?e; Topçu, Meral; Cetin Kocaefe, Y; Ozgüç, Meral

    2011-01-01

    Megalencephalic Leukoencephalopathy with Subcortical Cysts (MLC) is a rare autosomal recessive disease presenting with increased head circumference at birth or in early infancy. MLC1 (MIM 605908) mutations are responsible for this disorder. In this study, we sequenced the entire coding region of the MLC1 gene in 13 patients and detected five novel nucleotide variations in six of them. Two of the novel variations created a missense amino acid change and the other three were located in the introns and were putative splice mutations. One novel missense variation was observed in two unrelated patients from the central Black Sea region, and the data suggested a founder haplotype for this novel variation. Similarly, three unrelated patients with the previously reported p.Thr118Arg mutation shared a common haplotype. These data suggest an Anatolian origin for these two mutations. As in the previous reports, it is not possible to correlate the clinical phenotype of the patients with the mutation spectra. PMID:21145992

  20. Data Mining Using MLC++: A Machine Learning Library in C

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ron Kohavi; Dan Sommerfield; James Dougherty

    1996-01-01

    Data mining algorithms including machine learning, statistical analysis, and pattern recognition techniques can greatly improve our understanding of data warehouses that are now becoming more widespread. In this paper, we focus on classication algorithms and review the need for multiple classication algorithms. We describe a system calledMLC++, which was designed to help choose the appropriate classication algorithm for a given

  1. Spatial dependence of MLC transmission in IMRT delivery.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, Friedlieb; Nalichowski, Adrian; Rosca, Florin; Kung, Jong; Wenz, Frederik; Zygmanski, Piotr

    2007-10-01

    In complex intensity-modulated radiation therapy cases, a considerable amount of the total dose may be delivered through closed leaves. In such cases an accurate knowledge of spatial characteristics of multileaf collimator (MLC) transmission is crucial, especially for the treatment of large targets with split fields. Measurements with an ionization chamber, radiographic films (EDR2, EBT) and EPID are taken to characterize all relevant effects related to MLC transmission for various field sizes and depths. Here we present a phenomenological model to describe MLC transmission, whereby the main focus is the off-axis decrease of transmission for symmetric and asymmetric fields as well as on effects due to the tongue and groove design of the leaves, such as interleaf transmission and the tongue and groove effect. Data obtained with the four different methods are presented, and the utility of each measurement method to determine the necessary model parameters is discussed. With the developed model, it is possible to predict the relevant MLC effects at any point in the phantom for arbitrary jaw settings and depths. PMID:17881814

  2. A Study of Polar Codes for MLC NAND Flash Memories

    E-print Network

    Bruck, Jehoshua (Shuki)

    1 A Study of Polar Codes for MLC NAND Flash Memories Yue Li1,2, Hakim Alhussien3, Erich F. Haratsch@caltech.edu, ajiang@cse.tamu.edu Abstract--The increasing density of NAND flash memories makes data more prone challenges raised when applying polar codes to NAND flash memories in practice. We propose efficient schemes

  3. MLC1 protein: a likely link between leukodystrophies and brain channelopathies

    PubMed Central

    Brignone, Maria S.; Lanciotti, Angela; Camerini, Serena; De Nuccio, Chiara; Petrucci, Tamara C.; Visentin, Sergio; Ambrosini, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts (MLCs) disease is a rare inherited, autosomal recessive form of childhood-onset spongiform leukodystrophy characterized by macrocephaly, deterioration of motor functions, epileptic seizures and mental decline. Brain edema, subcortical fluid cysts, myelin and astrocyte vacuolation are the histopathological hallmarks of MLC. Mutations in either the MLC1 gene (>75% of patients) or the GlialCAM gene (<20% of patients) are responsible for the disease. Recently, the GlialCAM adhesion protein was found essential for the membrane expression and function of the chloride channel ClC-2 indicating MLC disease caused by mutation in GlialCAM as the first channelopathy among leukodystrophies. On the contrary, the function of MLC1 protein, which binds GlialCAM, its functional relationship with ClC-2 and the molecular mechanisms underlying MLC1 mutation-induced functional defects are not fully understood yet. The human MLC1 gene encodes a 377-amino acid membrane protein with eight predicted transmembrane domains which shows very low homology with voltage-dependent potassium (K+) channel subunits. The high expression of MLC1 in brain astrocytes contacting blood vessels and meninges and brain alterations observed in MLC patients have led to hypothesize a role for MLC1 in the regulation of ion and water homeostasis. Recent studies have shown that MLC1 establishes structural and/or functional interactions with several ion/water channels and transporters and ion channel accessory proteins, and that these interactions are affected by MLC1 mutations causing MLC. Here, we review data on MLC1 functional properties obtained in in vitro and in vivo models and discuss evidence linking the effects of MLC1 mutations to brain channelopathies.

  4. The Neurological Exam

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Hohol, Marika

    This website features a complete neurological exam with the following elements: 1) cranial nerves, 2) motor exam, 3) sensory exam, 4) stance & gait. Video demonstrations are used for each part of the exam. Text describes the examination technique, expected normal findings and common abnormal findings. A helpful glossary of terms is available in a separate frame at the bottom of the page for reference. A high bandwidth is recommended and a QuickTime player is necessary.Annotated: false

  5. SCHOOL OF LAW Hall Split Exam Code Exam Name Day Exam date Time Exam Hall

    E-print Network

    Glasgow, University of

    _1 Law of the Sea Thu 01/05/2014 09:30 - 12:30 Gym St. Andrews Building LAW5150_1 International Tax LawSCHOOL OF LAW Hall Split Exam Code Exam Name Day Exam date Time Exam Hall LAW5006_1 Carriage of Goods By Sea Mon 28/04/2014 09:30 - 12:30 Gym St. Andrews Building LAW4052_1 Administrative Law Mon 28

  6. Dynamic tumor tracking using the Elekta Agility MLC

    SciTech Connect

    Fast, Martin F., E-mail: martin.fast@icr.ac.uk; Nill, Simeon, E-mail: simeon.nill@icr.ac.uk; Bedford, James L.; Oelfke, Uwe [Joint Department of Physics, The Institute of Cancer Research and The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, London SM2 5NG (United Kingdom)

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the performance of the Elekta Agility multileaf collimator (MLC) for dynamic real-time tumor tracking. Methods: The authors have developed a new control software which interfaces to the Agility MLC to dynamically program the movement of individual leaves, the dynamic leaf guides (DLGs), and the Y collimators (“jaws”) based on the actual target trajectory. A motion platform was used to perform dynamic tracking experiments with sinusoidal trajectories. The actual target positions reported by the motion platform at 20, 30, or 40 Hz were used as shift vectors for the MLC in beams-eye-view. The system latency of the MLC (i.e., the average latency comprising target device reporting latencies and MLC adjustment latency) and the geometric tracking accuracy were extracted from a sequence of MV portal images acquired during irradiation for the following treatment scenarios: leaf-only motion, jaw + leaf motion, and DLG + leaf motion. Results: The portal imager measurements indicated a clear dependence of the system latency on the target position reporting frequency. Deducting the effect of the target frequency, the leaf adjustment latency was measured to be 38 ± 3 ms for a maximum target speed v of 13 mm/s. The jaw + leaf adjustment latency was 53 ± 3 at a similar speed. The system latency at a target position frequency of 30 Hz was in the range of 56–61 ms for the leaves (v ? 31 mm/s), 71–78 ms for the jaw + leaf motion (v ? 25 mm/s), and 58–72 ms for the DLG + leaf motion (v ? 59 mm/s). The tracking accuracy showed a similar dependency on the target position frequency and the maximum target speed. For the leaves, the root-mean-squared error (RMSE) was between 0.6–1.5 mm depending on the maximum target speed. For the jaw + leaf (DLG + leaf) motion, the RMSE was between 0.7–1.5 mm (1.9–3.4 mm). Conclusions: The authors have measured the latency and geometric accuracy of the Agility MLC, facilitating its future use for clinical tracking applications.

  7. Exams: The Secret Ingredients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiJulio, Betsy

    2012-01-01

    This year, many high-school teachers in the district where the author teaches experienced exam anxiety because midterms--as they had come to know and love them--were no more. For a variety of reasons, the semester exam schedule looked very different. More to the point is the new philosophy about exam content and format that underpinned the…

  8. Challenges When Introducing Electronic Exam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuikka, Matti; Kitola, Markus; Laakso, Mikko-Jussi

    2014-01-01

    Time pressures often necessitate the use of more efficient exam tools, such as electronic exams (e-exams), instead of traditional paper exams. However, teachers may face challenges when introducing e-exams in a higher education context. This paper describes what kinds of challenges teachers may face when introducing e-exams, based on experiences…

  9. Eight novel mutations in MLC1 from 18 Iranian patients with megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts.

    PubMed

    Kariminejad, Ariana; Rajaee, Ahmad; Ashrafi, Mahmoud Reza; Alizadeh, Houman; Tonekaboni, Seyed Hasan; Malamiri, Reza Azizi; Ghofrani, Mohamad; Karimzadeh, Parvaneh; Mohammadi, Mohsen Molla; Baghalshooshtari, Ali; Bozorgmehr, Bita; Kariminejad, Mohamad Hasan; Postma, N; Abbink, Truus E M; van der Knaap, Marjo S

    2015-02-01

    Megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts (MLC) (MIM #604004) is a rare autosomal recessive neurological disorder characterized by macrocephaly, motor and cognitive decline, ataxia, spasticity and occasional seizures. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) shows diffusely abnormal and swollen white matter of the cerebral hemispheres and subcortical cysts in the anterior temporal and frontoparietal region. Mutations in MLC1(22q13.33) and GLIALCAM have been identified in patients with MLC. Mutations in MLC1 account for approximately 75% of the cases. MLC was suspected in eighteen Iranian patients from sixteen families based on positive clinical findings including macrocephaly beginning in the first year, neurocognitive deterioration, seizure or loss of consciousness after minor head trauma. All except two were born to consanguineous parents. Brain MRI images were compatible with MLC and confirmed the diagnosis. Sequencing of entire coding region of MLC1 was performed for seventeen patients and mutations in MLC1 were detected in all of them. Eight novel mutations and seven previously reported mutations were identified. This report shows that MLC is relatively common in Iranian population, as expected for rare diseases with high inbreeding, with a surprisingly high frequency of novel mutations. PMID:25497041

  10. An experimental evaluation of the Agility MLC for motion-compensated VMAT delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, G. A.; Clowes, P.; Bedford, J. L.; Evans, P. M.; Webb, S.; Poludniowski, G.

    2013-07-01

    An algorithm for dynamic multileaf-collimator (dMLC) tracking of a target performing a known a priori, rigid-body motion during volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT), has been experimentally validated and applied to investigate the potential of the Agility (Elekta AB, Stockholm, Sweden) multileaf-collimator (MLC) for use in motion-compensated VMAT delivery. For five VMAT patients, dosimetric measurements were performed using the Delta4 radiation detector (ScandiDos, Uppsala, Sweden) and the accuracy of dMLC tracking was evaluated using a gamma-analysis, with threshold levels of 3% for dose and 3 mm for distance-to-agreement. For a motion trajectory with components in two orthogonal directions, the mean gamma-analysis pass rate without tracking was found to be 58.0%, 59.0% and 60.9% and was increased to 89.1%, 88.3% and 93.1% with MLC tracking, for time periods of motion of 4 s, 6 s and 10 s respectively. Simulations were performed to compare the efficiency of the Agility MLC with the MLCi MLC when used for motion-compensated VMAT delivery for the same treatment plans and motion trajectories. Delivery time increases from a static-tumour to dMLC-tracking VMAT delivery were observed in the range 0%-20% for the Agility, and 0%-57% with the MLCi, indicating that the increased leaf speed of the Agility MLC is beneficial for MLC tracking during lung radiotherapy.

  11. Small field dosimetric characterization of a new 160-leaf MLC.

    PubMed

    Cranmer-Sargison, G; Liu, P Z Y; Weston, S; Suchowerska, N; Thwaites, D I

    2013-10-21

    The goal of this work was to perform a 6 MV small field characterization of the new Agility 160-leaf multi-leaf collimator (MLC) from Elekta. This included profile measurement analysis and central axis relative output measurements using various diode detectors and an air-core fiber optic scintillation dosimeter (FOD). Data was acquired at a depth of 10.0 cm for field sizes of 1.0, 0.9, 0.8, 0.7, 0.6 and 0.5 cm. Three experimental data sets, comprised of five readings, were made for both the relative output and profile measurements. Average detector-specific output ratios (OR[overline](f(clin))(det))) were calculated with respect to a field size of 3.0 cm and small field replacement correction factors (k(f(clin),f(msr))(Q(clin),Q(msr))) derived for the diodes using the scintillation dosimeter readings as the baseline. The standard experimental uncertainty on OR[overline](f(clin))(det)) was calculated at a 90% confidence interval and the coefficient of variation (CV) used to characterize the detector-specific measurement precision. The positional accuracy of the collimation system was also investigated by analyzing the repeated profile measurements and field width constancy investigated as a function of collimator rotation. For comparison the output and profile measurements were repeated using the Elekta 80-leaf MLCi2 on a beam matched linac at 6 MV. The measured OR[overline](f(clin))(det)) varied as a function of detector and MLC design. At the smallest field size the standard experimental uncertainty on OR[overline](f(clin))(det)) was consistent across all detectors at approximately 0.5% and 1.0% for Agility and MLCi2 collimators respectively. The CV associated with the FOD measurements were greater than that of the diodes but did not translate into increased measurement uncertainty. At the smallest field size, the diode detector correction factors were approximately 2% greater for MLCi2 than that required for the Agility. Profile data revealed the Agility MLC to have a greater positional reproducibility than both the MLCi2 and the linac diaphragms (jaws), as also reflected in the experimental uncertainties on OR[overline](f(clin))(det)). The relative output, profile widths and associated uncertainties were all found to differ between the two MLC systems investigated, as were the field size specific diode detector replacement correction factors. The data also clearly showed that the Agility 160-leaf MLC performs to a tighter positional tolerance than the MLCi2. PMID:24077128

  12. Examining Exam Reviews: A Comparison of Exam Scores and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hackathorn, Jana; Cornell, Kathryn; Garczynski, Amy M.; Solomon, Erin D.; Blankmeyer, Katheryn E.; Tennial, Rachel E.

    2012-01-01

    Instructors commonly use exam reviews to help students prepare for exams and to increase student success. The current study compared the effects of traditional, trivia, and practice test-based exam reviews on actual exam scores, as well as students' attitudes toward each review. Findings suggested that students' exam scores were significantly…

  13. Exam preparation learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fakcharoenphol, Witat

    This thesis investigates student learning through practice exams. A series of experiments were conducted using a web-based platform that provided students with an organized structure to study past exam problems. We establish the learning obtained from doing these practice exams (Chapter 1) and then manipulate the feedback mechanisms (Chapter 2 and 4) and duration of the treatment (Chapter 3). The results show that all students benefit from practice exams and worked out solution feedback. However, investing more resources in this learning tool might not result in better learning gains. A comparison between experiments suggests that, beyond the quality of the practice exams and solution feedback, motivation and learning goals may be crucial to enhancing student learning during exam preparation.

  14. Comparing dose in the build-up region between compensator- and MLC-based IMRT.

    PubMed

    Javedan, Khosrow; Zhang, Geoffrey G; Hoffe, Sarah; Feygelman, Vladimir; Forster, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    The build-up dose in the megavoltage photon beams can be a limiting factor in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatments. Excessive surface dose can cause patient discomfort and treatment interruptions, while underdosing may lead to tumor repopulation and local failure. Dose in the build-up region was investigated for IMRT delivery with solid brass compensator technique(compensator-based IMRT) and compared with that of multileaf collimator (MLC)-based IMRT. A Varian Trilogy linear accelerator equipped with an MLC was used for beam delivery. A special solid brass step-wise compensator was designed and built for testing purposes. Two step-and-shoot MLC fields were programmed to produce a similar modulated step-wise dose profile. The MLC and compensator dose profiles were measured and adjusted to match at the isocenter depth of 10 cm. Build-up dose in the 1-5 mm depth range was measured with an ultrathin window, fixed volume parallel plate ionization chamber. Monte Carlo simulations were used to model the brass compensator and step-and-shoot MLC fields. The measured and simulated profiles for the two IMRT techniques were matched at the isocenter depth of 10 cm. Different component contributions to the shallow dose, including the MLC scatter, were quantified. Mean spectral energies for the open and filtered beams were calculated. The compensator and MLC profiles at 10 cm depth were matched better than ± 1.5%. The build-up dose was up to 7% lower for compensator IMRT compared to MLC IMRT due to beam hardening in the brass. Low-energy electrons contribute 22% and 15% dose at 1 mm depth for compensator and MLC modalities, respectively. Compensator-based IMRT delivers less dose in the build-up region than MLC-based IMRT does, even though a compensator is closer to the skin than the MLC. PMID:22955641

  15. 76 FR 4375 - In the Matter of Certain MLC Flash Memory Devices and Products Containing Same; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-25

    ...of Certain MLC Flash Memory Devices and Products Containing Same; Notice of Commission...of certain MLC flash memory devices and products containing same by reason of infringement...LLC (collectively ``Samsung''); Apple, Inc., ASUStek Computer, Inc.,...

  16. Functional analysis of mlcR, a regulatory gene for ML-236B (compactin) biosynthesis in Penicillium citrinum.

    PubMed

    Abe, Y; Ono, C; Hosobuchi, M; Yoshikawa, H

    2002-11-01

    The mlcR gene encodes a putative 50.2-kDa protein with a Zn(II)(2)Cys(6) DNA-binding domain, which may be involved in the regulation of ML-236B biosynthesis in Penicillium citrinum. The induction of ML-236B production appears to correlate with the expression of mlcR, and the ML-236B biosynthetic genes mlcA- mlcH, and occurs mostly during the stationary phase. The present study was designed to examine the effects of alterations in mlcR expression on ML-236B biosynthesis. We first set out to increase the mlcR copy number in the chromosome of P. citrinum. Transformants with additional copies of native mlcR showed increased transcription of mlcR and produced larger amounts of ML-236B than the parent strain. Altered mlcR expression was also achieved by introducing a construct, designated pgkA(P)::mlcR, that contained the mlcR coding region fused to the (constitutively active) promoter and terminator sequences of the Aspergillus nidulans 3-phospho-glycerate kinase (pgkA) gene. Transformants carrying the pgkA(P)::mlcR construct expressed mlcR constitutively, and produced ML-236B during the exponential growth phase, suggesting that the pgkA(P)::mlcR construct does affect the regulation of ML-236B biosynthesis. Comparative expression analysis by RT-PCR showed that altering the expression profile of mlcR influenced the expression of some of the ML-236B biosynthetic genes. The evidence suggests that mlcR may indeed be involved in the transcriptional activation of some of the pathway-specific genes required for ML-236B biosynthesis. PMID:12436257

  17. Neighbor-Cell Assisted Error Correction for MLC NAND Flash Memories

    E-print Network

    Mutlu, Onur

    Neighbor-Cell Assisted Error Correction for MLC NAND Flash Memories Yu Cai1 Gulay Yalcin2 Onur technology challenges for NAND flash and HDD products", Flash Memory Summit 2012 P/E cycles (required) P voltage distribution in MLC NAND Flash Memory: Characterization, Analysis, and Modeling", DATE 2013 Cai et

  18. Program Interference in MLC NAND Flash Memory: Characterization, Modeling, and Mitigation

    E-print Network

    Program Interference in MLC NAND Flash Memory: Characterization, Modeling, and Mitigation Yu Cai1@gmail.com, {omutlu, kenmai}@andrew.cmu.edu Abstract-- As NAND flash memory continues to scale down to smaller process for program interference in modern MLC NAND flash memory. To this end, we utilize the read-retry mechanism

  19. MFTL: A Design and Implementation for MLC Flash Memory Storage Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jen-Wei Hsieh; Chung-Hsien Wu; Ge-Ming Chiu

    2012-01-01

    NAND flash memory has gained its popularity in a variety of applications as a storage medium due to its low power consumption, nonvolatility, high performance, physical stability, and portability. In particular, Multi-Level Cell (MLC) flash memory, which provides a lower cost and higher density solution, has occupied the largest part of NAND flash-memory market share. However, MLC flash memory also

  20. A Reliability Enhancement Mechanism for High-Assurance MLC Flash-Based Storage Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Irfan F. Mir; Alistair A. McEwan

    2011-01-01

    Solid State Devices (SDDs) are replacing mechanical data storage devices such as Hard Disk Drives (HDDs). On the other hand the data reliability in these systems is being questioned due to the fast growth in flash technology such as Multi-Level Cell (MLC). Recently it has been revealed that the Bit Error Rate (BER) increases exponentially in MLC flash memories as

  1. Leaf transmission reduction using moving jaws for dynamic MLC IMRT

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidhalter, D.; Fix, M. K.; Niederer, P.; Mini, R.; Manser, P. [Division of Medical Radiation Physics, Inselspital and University of Berne, 3010 Berne, Switzerland and Institute for Biomedical Engineering, University and Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich (Switzerland); Division of Medical Radiation Physics, Inselspital and University of Berne, 3010 Berne (Switzerland); Institute for Biomedical Engineering, University and Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich (Switzerland); Division of Medical Radiation Physics, Inselspital and University of Berne, 3010 Berne (Switzerland)

    2007-09-15

    The aim of this work is to investigate to what extent it is possible to use the secondary collimator jaws to reduce the transmitted radiation through the multileaf collimator (MLC) during an intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). A method is developed and introduced where the jaws follow the open window of the MLC dynamically (dJAW method). With the aid of three academic cases (Closed MLC, Sliding-gap, and Chair) and two clinical cases (prostate and head and neck) the feasibility of the dJAW method and the influence of this method on the applied dose distributions are investigated. For this purpose the treatment planning system Eclipse and the Research-Toolbox were used as well as measurements within a solid water phantom were performed. The transmitted radiation through the closed MLC leads to an inhomogeneous dose distribution. In this case, the measured dose within a plane perpendicular to the central axis differs up to 40% (referring to the maximum dose within this plane) for 6 and 15 MV. The calculated dose with Eclipse is clearly more homogeneous. For the Sliding-gap case this difference is still up to 9%. Among other things, these differences depend on the depth of the measurement within the solid water phantom and on the application method. In the Chair case, the dose in regions where no dose is desired is locally reduced by up to 50% using the dJAW method instead of the conventional method. The dose inside the chair-shaped region decreased up to 4% if the same number of monitor units (MU) as for the conventional method was applied. The undesired dose in the volume body minus the planning target volume in the clinical cases prostate and head and neck decreased up to 1.8% and 1.5%, while the number of the applied MU increased up to 3.1% and 2.8%, respectively. The new dJAW method has the potential to enhance the optimization of the conventional IMRT to a further step.

  2. Leadership & Multicultural Development Programs Carmen Curiel, Director, Multicultural Leadership Center June 2, 2011 www.fullerton.edu/deanofstudents/mlc

    E-print Network

    de Lijser, Peter

    Leadership & Multicultural Development Programs Carmen Curiel, Director, Multicultural Leadership of the Multicultural Leadership Center (MLC) is to develop leaders who will understand and embrace diversity. The MLC Leadership Institute and the MLC that provides training in leadership as it relates to cultural sensitivity

  3. Small field dosimetric characterization of a new 160-leaf MLC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cranmer-Sargison, G.; Liu, P. Z. Y.; Weston, S.; Suchowerska, N.; Thwaites, D. I.

    2013-10-01

    The goal of this work was to perform a 6 MV small field characterization of the new Agility 160-leaf multi-leaf collimator (MLC) from Elekta. This included profile measurement analysis and central axis relative output measurements using various diode detectors and an air-core fiber optic scintillation dosimeter (FOD). Data was acquired at a depth of 10.0 cm for field sizes of 1.0, 0.9, 0.8, 0.7, 0.6 and 0.5 cm. Three experimental data sets, comprised of five readings, were made for both the relative output and profile measurements. Average detector-specific output ratios (\\overline {OR} _{det}^{f_{clin} }) were calculated with respect to a field size of 3.0 cm and small field replacement correction factors (\\mathop k\

  4. Monte Carlo implementation, validation, and characterization of a 120 leaf MLC

    SciTech Connect

    Fix, Michael K.; Volken, Werner; Frei, Daniel; Frauchiger, Daniel; Born, Ernst J.; Manser, Peter [Division of Medical Radiation Physics, Inselspital and University of Bern, CH-3010 Bern (Switzerland)

    2011-10-15

    Purpose: Recently, the new high definition multileaf collimator (HD120 MLC) was commercialized by Varian Medical Systems providing high resolution in the center section of the treatment field. The aim of this work is to investigate the characteristics of the HD120 MLC using Monte Carlo (MC) methods. Methods: Based on the information of the manufacturer, the HD120 MLC was implemented into the already existing Swiss MC Plan (SMCP). The implementation has been configured by adjusting the physical density and the air gap between adjacent leaves in order to match transmission profile measurements for 6 and 15 MV beams of a Novalis TX. These measurements have been performed in water using gafchromic films and an ionization chamber at an SSD of 95 cm and a depth of 5 cm. The implementation was validated by comparing diamond measured and calculated penumbra values (80%-20%) for different field sizes and water depths. Additionally, measured and calculated dose distributions for a head and neck IMRT case using the DELTA{sup 4} phantom have been compared. The validated HD120 MLC implementation has been used for its physical characterization. For this purpose, phase space (PS) files have been generated below the fully closed multileaf collimator (MLC) of a 40 x 22 cm{sup 2} field size for 6 and 15 MV. The PS files have been analyzed in terms of energy spectra, mean energy, fluence, and energy fluence in the direction perpendicular to the MLC leaves and have been compared with the corresponding data using the well established Varian 80 leaf (MLC80) and Millennium M120 (M120 MLC) MLCs. Additionally, the impact of the tongue and groove design of the MLCs on dose has been characterized. Results: Calculated transmission values for the HD120 MLC are 1.25% and 1.34% in the central part of the field for the 6 and 15 MV beam, respectively. The corresponding ionization chamber measurements result in a transmission of 1.20% and 1.35%. Good agreement has been found for the comparison between transmission profiles resulting from MC simulations and film measurements. The simulated and measured values for the penumbra agreed within <0.5 mm for all field sizes, depths, and beam energies, and a good agreement has been found between the measured and the calculated dose distributions for the IMRT case. The total energy spectra are almost identical for the three MLCs. However, the mean energy, fluence and energy fluence are significantly different. Due to the different leaf widths of the MLCs, the shape of these distributions is different, each representing its leave structure. Due to the increase in width from the inner to the outer HD120 MLC leaves, the fluence and energy fluence clearly decrease below the outer leaves. The MLC80 and the M120 MLC resulted in an increase of the fluence and energy fluence compared with those resulted for the HD120 MLC. The dose reduction can exceed 20% compared with the dose of the open field due to the tongue and groove design of the HD120 MLC. Conclusions: The HD120 MLC has been successfully implemented into the SMCP. Comparisons between MC calculations and measurements show very good agreement. The SMCP is now able to calculate accurate dose distributions for treatment plans using the HD120 MLC.

  5. Dosimetric impact of the 160 MLC on head and neck IMRT treatments.

    PubMed

    Rassiah-Szegedi, Prema; Szegedi, Martin; Sarkar, Vikren; Streitmatter, Seth; Huang, Y Jessica; Zhao, Hui; Salter, Bill

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to investigate if the change in plan quality with the finer leaf resolution and lower leakage of the 160 MLC would be dosimetrically significant for head and neck intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treat- ment plans. The 160 MLC consisting of 80 leaves of 0.5 cm on each bank, a leaf span of 20 cm, and leakage of less than 0.37% without additional backup jaws was compared against the 120 Millennium MLC with 60 leaves of 0.5 and 1.0 cm, a leaf span of 14.5 cm, and leakage of 2.0%. CT image sets of 16 patients previously treated for stage III and IV head and neck carcinomas were replanned on Prowess 5.0 and Eclipse 11.0 using the 160 MLC and the 120 MLC. IMRT constraints for both sets of 6 MV plans were identical and based on RTOG 0522. Dose-volume histograms (DVHs), minimum dose, mean dose, maximum dose, and dose to 1 cc to the organ at risks (OAR) and the planning target volume, as recommended by QUANTEC 2010, were compared. Both collimators were able to achieve the target dose to the PTVs. The dose to the organs at risk (brainstem, spinal cord, parotids, and larynx) were 1%-12% (i.e., 0.5-8 Gy for a 70 Gy prescription) lower with the 160 MLC compared to the 120 MLC, depending on the proximity of the organ to the target. The large field HN plans generated with the 160 MLC were dosimetrically advantageous for critical structures, especially those located further away from the central axis, without compromising the target volume.  PMID:25493507

  6. On the sensitivity of patient-specific IMRT QA to MLC positioning errors.

    PubMed

    Yan, Guanghua; Liu, Chihray; Simon, Thomas A; Peng, Lee-Cheng; Fox, Christopher; Li, Jonathan G

    2009-01-01

    Accurate multileaf collimator (MLC) leaf positioning plays an essential role in the effective implementation of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). This work evaluates the sensitivity of current patient-specific IMRT quality assurance (QA) procedures to minor MLC leaf positioning errors. Random errors of up to 2 mm and systematic errors of +/-1 mm and +/-2 mm in MLC leaf positions were introduced into 8 clinical IMRT patient plans (totaling 53 fields). Planar dose distributions calculated with modified plans were compared to dose distributions measured with both radiochromic films and a diode matrix. The agreement between calculation and measurement was evaluated using both absolute distance-to-agreement (DTA) analysis and gamma index with 2%/2 mm and 3%/3 mm criteria. It was found that both the radiochromic film and the diode matrix could only detect systematic errors on the order of 2 mm or above. The diode array had larger sensitivity than film due to its excellent detector response (such as small variation, linear response, etc.). No difference was found between DTA analysis and gamma index in terms of the sensitivity to MLC positioning errors. Higher sensitivity was observed with 2%/2 mm than with 3%/3 mm in general. When using the diode array and 2%/2 mm criterion, the IMRT QA procedure showed strongest sensitivity to MLC position errors and, at the same time, achieved clinically acceptable passing rates. More accurate dose calculation and measurement would further enhance the sensitivity of patient-specific IMRT QA to MLC positioning errors. However, considering the significant dosimetric effect such MLC errors could cause, patient-specific IMRT QA should be combined with a periodic MLC QA program in order to guarantee the accuracy of IMRT delivery. PMID:19223841

  7. The first clinical implementation of electromagnetic transponder-guided MLC tracking

    SciTech Connect

    Keall, Paul J., E-mail: paul.keall@sydney.edu.au; O’Brien, Ricky; Ng, Jin Aun [Radiation Physics Laboratory, Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)] [Radiation Physics Laboratory, Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Colvill, Emma [Radiation Physics Laboratory, Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia and Northern Sydney Cancer Centre, Royal North Shore Hospital, Sydney, NSW 2065 (Australia)] [Radiation Physics Laboratory, Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia and Northern Sydney Cancer Centre, Royal North Shore Hospital, Sydney, NSW 2065 (Australia); Poulsen, Per Rugaard [Department of Oncology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus 8000, Denmark and Institute of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University, Aarhus 8000 (Denmark)] [Department of Oncology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus 8000, Denmark and Institute of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University, Aarhus 8000 (Denmark); Eade, Thomas; Kneebone, Andrew; Booth, Jeremy T. [Northern Sydney Cancer Centre, Royal North Shore Hospital, Sydney, NSW 2065 (Australia)] [Northern Sydney Cancer Centre, Royal North Shore Hospital, Sydney, NSW 2065 (Australia)

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: We report on the clinical process, quality assurance, and geometric and dosimetric results of the first clinical implementation of electromagnetic transponder-guided MLC tracking which occurred on 28 November 2013 at the Northern Sydney Cancer Centre. Methods: An electromagnetic transponder-based positioning system (Calypso) was modified to send the target position output to in-house-developed MLC tracking code, which adjusts the leaf positions to optimally align the treatment beam with the real-time target position. Clinical process and quality assurance procedures were developed and performed. The first clinical implementation of electromagnetic transponder-guided MLC tracking was for a prostate cancer patient being treated with dual-arc VMAT (RapidArc). For the first fraction of the first patient treatment of electromagnetic transponder-guided MLC tracking we recorded the in-room time and transponder positions, and performed dose reconstruction to estimate the delivered dose and also the dose received had MLC tracking not been used. Results: The total in-room time was 21 min with 2 min of beam delivery. No additional time was needed for MLC tracking and there were no beam holds. The average prostate position from the initial setup was 1.2 mm, mostly an anterior shift. Dose reconstruction analysis of the delivered dose with MLC tracking showed similar isodose and target dose volume histograms to the planned treatment and a 4.6% increase in the fractional rectal V{sub 60}. Dose reconstruction without motion compensation showed a 30% increase in the fractional rectal V{sub 60} from that planned, even for the small motion. Conclusions: The real-time beam-target correction method, electromagnetic transponder-guided MLC tracking, has been translated to the clinic. This achievement represents a milestone in improving geometric and dosimetric accuracy, and by inference treatment outcomes, in cancer radiotherapy.

  8. FlexFS: A Flexible Flash File System for MLC NAND Flash Memory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sungjin Lee; Keonsoo Ha; Kangwon Zhang; Jihong Kim; Junghwan Kim

    The multi-level cell (MLC) NAND flash memory technology enables multiple bits of information to be stored on a single cell, thus making it possible to in- crease the density of the memory without increasing the die size. For most MLC flash memories, each cell can be programmed as a single-level cell or a multi-level cell during runtime. Therefore, it has

  9. Design and implementation of MLC NAND flash-based DBMS for mobile devices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ki Yong Lee; Hyojun Kim; Kyoung-gu Woo; Yon Dohn Chung; Myoung-ho Kim

    2009-01-01

    Recently, Multi-Level Cell (MLC) NAND flash memory is becoming widely used as storage media for mobile devices such as mobile phones, MP3 players, PDAs and digital cameras. MLC NAND flash memory, however, has some restrictions that hard disk or Single-Level Cell (SLC) NAND flash memory do not have. Since most traditional database techniques assume hard disk, they may not provide

  10. Metastasis of aggressive amoeboid sarcoma cells is dependent on Rho/ROCK/MLC signaling

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Although there is extensive evidence for the amoeboid invasiveness of cancer cells in vitro, much less is known about the role of amoeboid invasiveness in metastasis and the importance of Rho/ROCK/MLC signaling in this process. Results We analyzed the dependence of amoeboid invasiveness of rat and chicken sarcoma cells and the metastatic activity of chicken cells on individual elements of the Rho/ROCK/MLC pathway. In both animal models, inhibition of Rho, ROCK or MLC resulted in greatly decreased cell invasiveness in vitro, while inhibition of extracellular proteases using a broad spectrum inhibitor did not have a significant effect. The inhibition of both Rho activity and MLC phosphorylation by dominant negative mutants led to a decreased capability of chicken sarcoma cells to metastasize. Moreover, the overexpression of RhoA in non-metastatic chicken cells resulted in the rescue of both invasiveness and metastatic capability. Rho and ROCK, unlike MLC, appeared to be directly involved in the maintenance of the amoeboid phenotype, as their inhibition resulted in the amoeboid-mesenchymal transition in analyzed cell lines. Conclusion Taken together, these results suggest that protease-independent invasion controlled by elements of the Rho/ROCK/MLC pathway can be frequently exploited by metastatic sarcoma cells. PMID:23899007

  11. Investigation of secondary neutron dose for 18 MV dynamic MLC IMRT delivery.

    PubMed

    Howell, Rebecca M; Ferenci, Michele S; Hertel, Nolan E; Fullerton, Gary D

    2005-03-01

    Secondary neutron doses from the delivery of 18 MV conventional and intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment plans were compared. IMRT was delivered using dynamic multileaf collimation (MLC). Additional measurements were made with static MLC using a primary collimated field size of 10 x 10 cm2 and MLC field sizes of 0 x 0, 5 x 5, and 10 x 10 cm2. Neutron spectra were measured and effective doses calculated. The IMRT treatment resulted in a higher neutron fluence and higher dose equivalent. These increases were approximately the ratio of the monitor units. The static MLC measurements were compared to Monte Carlo calculations. The actual component dimensions and materials for the Varian Clinac 2100/2300C including the MLC were modeled with MCNPX to compute the neutron fluence due to neutron production in and around the treatment head. There is excellent agreement between the calculated and measured neutron fluence for the collimated field size of 10 x 10 cm2 with the 0 x 0 cm2 MLC field. Most of the neutrons at the detector location for this geometry are directly from the accelerator head with a small contribution from room scatter. Future studies are needed to investigate the effect of different beam energies used in IMRT incorporating the effects of scattered photon dose as well as secondary neutron dose. PMID:15839351

  12. Design Considerations for Exam Wrappers

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Marsha C. Lovett

    This Tomorrow's Professor posting looks at the use of exam wrappers as a way to help students improve their performance on exams. Exam wrappers are short activities that direct students to review their performance (and the instructor's feedback) on an exam with an eye toward adapting their future learning. It is from Chapter 2 - Make Exams Worth More Than the Grade: Using Exam Wrappers to Promote Metacognition, by Marsha C. Lovett, in the book, Using Reflection and Metacognition to Improve Student Learning Across the Disciplines, Across the Academy, edited by Matthew Kaplan, Naomi Silver, Danielle LaVaque-Manty, and Deborah Meizlish.

  13. Dynamic MLC leaf sequencing for integrated linear accelerator control systems

    SciTech Connect

    Popple, Richard A.; Brezovich, Ivan A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1700 6th Avenue South, Birmingham, Alabama 35249-6832 (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: Leaf positions for dynamic multileaf collimator (DMLC) intensity modulated radiation therapy must be closely synchronized with MU delivery. For the Varian C3 series MLC controller, if the planned trajectory (leaf position vs. MU) requires velocities exceeding the capability of the MLC, the leaves fall behind the planned positions, causing the controller to momentarily hold the beam and thereby introduce dosimetric errors. We investigated the merits of a new commercial linear accelerator, TrueBeam, that integrates MLC control with prospective dose rate modulation. If treatment is delivered at dose rates so high that leaves would fall behind, the controller reduces the dose rate such that harmony between MU and leaf position is preserved. Methods: For three sets of DMLC leaf trajectories, point doses and two-dimensional dose distributions were measured in phantom using an ionization chamber and film, respectively. The first set, delivered using both a TrueBeam and a conventional C3 controller, comprised a single leaf bank closing at planned velocities of 2.4, 7.1, and 14 cm/s. The maximum achievable leaf velocity for both systems was 3 cm/s. The remaining two sets were derived from clinical fluence maps using a commercial treatment planning system for a range of planned dose rates and were delivered using TrueBeam set to the maximum dose rate, 600 MU/min. Generating trajectories using a planned dose rate that is lower than the delivery dose rate effectively increased the leaf velocity constraint used by the planning system for trajectory calculation. The second set of leaf trajectories was derived from two fluence maps containing regions of zero fluence obtained from representative beams of two different patient treatment plans. The third set was obtained from all nine fields of a head and neck treatment plan. For the head and neck plan, dose-volume histograms of the spinal cord and target for each planned dose rate were obtained. Results: For the single closing leaf bank trajectories, the TrueBeam control system reduced the dose rate such that the leaf velocity was less than the maximum. Dose deviations relative to the 2.4 cm/s trajectory were less than 3%. For the conventional controller, the leaves repeatedly fell behind the planned positions until the beam hold threshold was reached, resulting in deviations of up to 19% relative to the 2.4 cm/s trajectory. For the two clinical fluence maps, reducing the planned dose rate reduced the dose in the zero fluence regions by 15% and 24% and increased the delivery time by 5 s and 14 s. No significant differences were noted in the high and intermediate dose regions measured using film. The DVHs for the head and neck plan showed a 10% reduction in cord dose for 20 MU/min relative to 600 MU/min sequencing dose rate, which was confirmed by measurement. No difference in target DVHs were observed. The reduction in cord dose increased total treatment time by 1.8 min. Conclusions: Leaf sequencing algorithms for integrated control systems should be modified to reflect the reduced importance of maximum leaf velocity for accurate dose delivery.

  14. Preparing Students for the AP Psychology Exam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitlock, Kristin

    2013-01-01

    The Advanced Placement Psychology exam is one of the fastest growing exams offered by the College Board. The average percent of change in the number of students taking this exam over the past five years is 12.4%. With 238,962 students taking the exam in 2013, the AP Psychology exam is the sixth largest exam, surpassing AP Biology and AP World…

  15. Exam Question Exchange.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, John J., Ed.

    1978-01-01

    Two exam questions are presented. One suitable for advanced undergraduate or beginning graduate courses in organic chemistry, is on equivalent expressions for the description of several pericyclic reactions. The second, for general chemistry students, asks for an estimation of the rate of decay of a million-year-old Uranium-238 sample. (BB)

  16. Fuel Cell Final Exam

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This final exam could be used at the end of a class or unit on fuel cell technology. The test consists of multiple choice, true/false, fill in the blank and short answer questions. This document may be downloaded in Microsoft Word DOC file format.

  17. Exam-studying tips

    E-print Network

    Oct 27, 2011 ... digestive system, he says, practice explaining how it ... series of nearly 30 practice SAT college-entrance exams. .... With practice, you'll ... If you are still feeling anxious, set aside 10 minutes beforehand to write down your ...

  18. Neonatal asphyxia induces the nitration of cardiac myosin light chain 2 (MLC2) which is associated with cardiac systolic dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Doroszko, Adrian; Polewicz, Dorota; Cadete, Virgilio J.J.; Sawicka, Jolanta; Jones, Michelle; Szczesna-Cordary, Danuta; Cheung, Po-Yin; Sawicki, Grzegorz

    2011-01-01

    Background Hypoxia followed by reoxygenation (H-R) observed during perinatal asphyxia is a serious complication with a high mortality and morbidity rate which may cause adverse cardiovascular effects in neonates. Our aim was to determine if oxidative stress related to H-R induces peroxynitrite-dependent modifications of the cardiac contractile protein, myosin regulatory light chain 2 (MLC2) and whether this is associated with development of cardiac systolic dysfunction. Methods and Results Twelve newborn piglets were acutely instrumented for hemodynamic monitoring and randomized to a control group ventilated with only atmospheric air or to the H-R study group, exposed to alveolar normocapnic hypoxia followed by reoxygenation. Afterwards, animals were euthanized and the hearts harvested for biochemical analyses. Systolic function as well as cardiac MLC2 levels decreased in H-R animals, whereas nitrates and nitrotyrosine levels increased. Negative correlations between nitrates, nitrotyrosine and MLC2 levels were observed. Moreover, H-R induced nitration of two tyrosine residues within the MLC2 protein. Similarly, in vitro exposure of MLC2 to peroxynitrite resulted in the nitration of tyrosine, which increased the susceptibility of MLC2 to subsequent degradation by matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2). Substitution of this tyrosine with phenylalanine prevented the MMP-2 dependent degradation of MLC2. In addition, a large decrease in MLC2 phosphorylation due to H-R was observed. Conclusions 1. Oxidative stress related to asphyxia induces nitration of cardiac MLC2 protein and thus increases its degradation. This and a large decrease in MLC2 phosphorylation contribute to the development of systolic dysfunction. 2. Inhibition of MLC2 nitration and/or direct inhibition of its degradation by MMP-2 could be potential therapeutic targets aiming at reduction of myocardial damage during resuscitation of asphyxiated newborns. PMID:20386496

  19. Operator recognition by the ROK transcription factor family members, NagC and Mlc.

    PubMed

    Bréchemier-Baey, Dominique; Domínguez-Ramírez, Lenin; Oberto, Jacques; Plumbridge, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    NagC and Mlc, paralogous members of the ROK family of proteins with almost identical helix-turn-helix DNA binding motifs, specifically regulate genes for transport and utilization of N-acetylglucosamine and glucose. We previously showed that two amino acids in a linker region outside the canonical helix-turn-helix motif are responsible for Mlc site specificity. In this work we identify four amino acids in the linker, which are required for recognition of NagC targets. These amino acids allow Mlc and NagC to distinguish between a C/G and an A/T bp at positions ±11 of the operators. One linker position, glycine in NagC and arginine in Mlc, corresponds to the major specificity determinant for the two proteins. In certain contexts it is possible to switch repression from Mlc-style to NagC-style, by interchanging this glycine and arginine. Secondary determinants are supplied by other linker positions or the helix-turn-helix motif. A wide genomic survey of unique ROK proteins shows that glycine- and arginine-rich sequences are present in the linkers of nearly all ROK family repressors. Conserved short sequence motifs, within the branches of the ROK evolutionary tree, suggest that these sequences could also be involved in operator recognition in other ROK family members. PMID:25452338

  20. Operator recognition by the ROK transcription factor family members, NagC and Mlc

    PubMed Central

    Bréchemier-Baey, Dominique; Domínguez-Ramírez, Lenin; Oberto, Jacques; Plumbridge, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    NagC and Mlc, paralogous members of the ROK family of proteins with almost identical helix-turn-helix DNA binding motifs, specifically regulate genes for transport and utilization of N-acetylglucosamine and glucose. We previously showed that two amino acids in a linker region outside the canonical helix-turn-helix motif are responsible for Mlc site specificity. In this work we identify four amino acids in the linker, which are required for recognition of NagC targets. These amino acids allow Mlc and NagC to distinguish between a C/G and an A/T bp at positions ±11 of the operators. One linker position, glycine in NagC and arginine in Mlc, corresponds to the major specificity determinant for the two proteins. In certain contexts it is possible to switch repression from Mlc-style to NagC-style, by interchanging this glycine and arginine. Secondary determinants are supplied by other linker positions or the helix-turn-helix motif. A wide genomic survey of unique ROK proteins shows that glycine- and arginine-rich sequences are present in the linkers of nearly all ROK family repressors. Conserved short sequence motifs, within the branches of the ROK evolutionary tree, suggest that these sequences could also be involved in operator recognition in other ROK family members. PMID:25452338

  1. Disrupting MLC1 and GlialCAM and ClC-2 interactions in leukodystrophy entails glial chloride channel dysfunction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoegg-Beiler, Maja B.; Sirisi, Sònia; Orozco, Ian J.; Ferrer, Isidre; Hohensee, Svea; Auberson, Muriel; Gödde, Kathrin; Vilches, Clara; de Heredia, Miguel López; Nunes, Virginia; Estévez, Raúl; Jentsch, Thomas J.

    2014-03-01

    Defects in the astrocytic membrane protein MLC1, the adhesion molecule GlialCAM or the chloride channel ClC-2 underlie human leukoencephalopathies. Whereas GlialCAM binds ClC-2 and MLC1, and modifies ClC-2 currents in vitro, no functional connections between MLC1 and ClC-2 are known. Here we investigate this by generating loss-of-function Glialcam and Mlc1 mouse models manifesting myelin vacuolization. We find that ClC-2 is unnecessary for MLC1 and GlialCAM localization in brain, whereas GlialCAM is important for targeting MLC1 and ClC-2 to specialized glial domains in vivo and for modifying ClC-2’s biophysical properties specifically in oligodendrocytes (OLs), the cells chiefly affected by vacuolization. Unexpectedly, MLC1 is crucial for proper localization of GlialCAM and ClC-2, and for changing ClC-2 currents. Our data unmask an unforeseen functional relationship between MLC1 and ClC-2 in vivo, which is probably mediated by GlialCAM, and suggest that ClC-2 participates in the pathogenesis of megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts.

  2. Reliable MLC NAND Flash Memories Based on Nonlinear t-Error-Correcting Zhen Wang, Mark Karpovsky, Ajay Joshi

    E-print Network

    Reliable MLC NAND Flash Memories Based on Nonlinear t-Error-Correcting Codes Zhen Wang, Mark, USA {lark,markkar,joshi}@bu.edu Abstract Multi-level cell (MLC) NAND flash memories are very popular NAND flash memories. Compared to linear BCH codes with the same bit-error correcting capability t

  3. A High Cost-Performance and Reliable 3Level MLC NAND Flash Memory Using Virtual Page Cell Architecture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ki-Tae Park; Jungdal Choi; Sungkyu Cho; Yunho Choi; Kinam Kim

    2006-01-01

    A new high cost-performance NAND Flash memory using 3-level MLC and virtual page cell architecture has been proposed. It provides 20% die size saving and 3 times fast program speed compared to conventional SLC and MLC, respectively. The proposed method can be a good choice of the market demanding both low cost and high performance as well as high reliability

  4. Simulations for inverse radiation therapy treatment planning using a dynamic MLC algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boman, E.; Lyyra-Laitinen, T.; Kolmonen, P.; Jaatinen, K.; Tervo, J.

    2003-04-01

    The inverse radiation treatment planning model for a dynamic multileaf collimator (MLC) is used to find the optimal solution of planning problem. The model for dynamic MLC is explained in Tervo et al (2003 Appl. Math. Comput. 135 227-50). The advantage of this model is that it optimizes leaf velocity parameters directly. Our algorithm uses a gradient-based local optimization method. Two patient cases, prostate carcinoma and tonsilla carcinoma, are studied. Field arrangements are pre-selected and velocity parameters for MLC leaves are optimized to obtain the prescribed dose in the patient space. In both simulated cases, high dose distribution conforms the planning target volume well and organs-at-risk are saved in most parts. Simulations show that the model has its functionality in patient treatments, although it is still formal and needs further development.

  5. The sensitivity of patient specific IMRT QC to systematic MLC leaf bank offset errors

    SciTech Connect

    Rangel, Alejandra; Palte, Gesa; Dunscombe, Peter [Department of Medical Physics, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, 1331-29 Street NW, Calgary, Alberta T2N 4N2, Canada and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive North West, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4 (Canada); Department of Medical Physics, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, 1331-29 Street NW, Calgary, Alberta T2N 4N2 (Canada); Department of Medical Physics, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, 1331-29 Street NW, Calgary, Alberta T2N 4N2 (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive NW, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4 (Canada) and Department of Oncology, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, 1331-29 Street NW, Calgary, Alberta T2N 4N2 (Canada)

    2010-07-15

    Purpose: Patient specific IMRT QC is performed routinely in many clinics as a safeguard against errors and inaccuracies which may be introduced during the complex planning, data transfer, and delivery phases of this type of treatment. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the feasibility of detecting systematic errors in MLC leaf bank position with patient specific checks. Methods: 9 head and neck (H and N) and 14 prostate IMRT beams were delivered using MLC files containing systematic offsets ({+-}1 mm in two banks, {+-}0.5 mm in two banks, and 1 mm in one bank of leaves). The beams were measured using both MAPCHECK (Sun Nuclear Corp., Melbourne, FL) and the aS1000 electronic portal imaging device (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA). Comparisons with calculated fields, without offsets, were made using commonly adopted criteria including absolute dose (AD) difference, relative dose difference, distance to agreement (DTA), and the gamma index. Results: The criteria most sensitive to systematic leaf bank offsets were the 3% AD, 3 mm DTA for MAPCHECK and the gamma index with 2% AD and 2 mm DTA for the EPID. The criterion based on the relative dose measurements was the least sensitive to MLC offsets. More highly modulated fields, i.e., H and N, showed greater changes in the percentage of passing points due to systematic MLC inaccuracy than prostate fields. Conclusions: None of the techniques or criteria tested is sufficiently sensitive, with the population of IMRT fields, to detect a systematic MLC offset at a clinically significant level on an individual field. Patient specific QC cannot, therefore, substitute for routine QC of the MLC itself.

  6. Neutron dose equivalent measured at the maze door with various openings for the jaws and MLC

    SciTech Connect

    Krmar, M.; Baucal, M.; Bozic, N.; Jovancevic, N.; Ciraj-Bjelac, O. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, University of Novi Sad, Novi Sad (Serbia); Oncology Institute of Vojvodina, Sremska Kamenica (Serbia); Guy's and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, St Thomas' Hospital, London SE1 7EH (United Kingdom); Physics Department, Faculty of Science, University of Novi Sad, Novi Sad (Serbia); Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Belgrade (Serbia)

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: This study was undertaken to explore the effects of the jaws and the MLC openings on the neutron dose equivalent (DE) at the maze door and neutron flux at the patient plane. Methods: The neutron dose equivalent was measured at the maze entrance door of a 15 MV therapy linear accelerator room. All measurements were performed using various field sizes up to 40 cm x 40 cm. Activation detectors constructed from natural Indium (In) were exposed at Cd envelope to neutrons in order to estimate relative changes of epithermal neutron fluences in the patient plane. Results: Our study showed that the dose equivalent at the maze door is at the highest when the jaw are closed and that maximal jaws opening reduces the DE by more than 20%. The neutron dose equivalent at the maze door measured for radiation fields defined by jaws do not differ significantly from the DE measured when MLC determines the same size radiation field. The epithermal capture reaction rate measured using different jaw openings differs by approximately 10%. When an MLC leaf is inserted into a fixed geometry for one opening of the jaws, an increase of the epithermal neutron capture reaction rate in Indium activation detectors was observed. Conclusions: There is no significant difference in the neutron DE when MLC defines radiation field instead of jaws. This leads to the conclusion that the overall number of neutrons remains similar and it does not depend on how primary photon beam was stopped--by the jaws or the MLC. An increase of the fast neutron capture reaction rate when MLC leaves are inserted probably originates from the neutron scattering.

  7. Evaluation of two methods of predicting MLC leaf positions using EPID measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Parent, Laure; Seco, Joao; Evans, Phil M.; Dance, David R.; Fielding, Andrew [Joint Department of Physics, Institute of Cancer Research and Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Downs Road, Sutton, SM2 5PT (United Kingdom); Joint Department of Physics, Institute of Cancer Research and Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Fulham Road, London, SW3 6JJ (United Kingdom); School of Physical and Chemical Sciences, Queensland University of Technology, Q337 Gardens Point Campus, Brisbane, Queensland 4001 (Australia)

    2006-09-15

    In intensity modulated radiation treatments (IMRT), the position of the field edges and the modulation within the beam are often achieved with a multileaf collimator (MLC). During the MLC calibration process, due to the finite accuracy of leaf position measurements, a systematic error may be introduced to leaf positions. Thereafter leaf positions of the MLC depend on the systematic error introduced on each leaf during MLC calibration and on the accuracy of the leaf position control system (random errors). This study presents and evaluates two methods to predict the systematic errors on the leaf positions introduced during the MLC calibration. The two presented methods are based on a series of electronic portal imaging device (EPID) measurements. A comparison with film measurements showed that the EPID could be used to measure leaf positions without introducing any bias. The first method, referred to as the 'central leaf method', is based on the method currently used at this center for MLC leaf calibration. It mimics the manner in which leaf calibration parameters are specified in the MLC control system and consequently is also used by other centers. The second method, a new method proposed by the authors and referred to as the ''individual leaf method,'' involves the measurement of two positions for each leaf (-5 and +15 cm) and the interpolation and extrapolation from these two points to any other given position. The central leaf method and the individual leaf method predicted leaf positions at prescribed positions of -11, 0, 5, and 10 cm within 2.3 and 1.0 mm, respectively, with a standard deviation (SD) of 0.3 and 0.2 mm, respectively. The individual leaf method provided a better prediction of the leaf positions than the central leaf method. Reproducibility tests for leaf positions of -5 and +15 cm were performed. The reproducibility was within 0.4 mm on the same day and 0.4 mm six weeks later (1 SD). Measurements at gantry angles of 0 deg., 90 deg., and 270 deg. for leaf positions of -5 and +15 cm showed no significant effect of gravity. The individual leaf method could be used in various applications to improve the accuracy of radiotherapy treatment from planning to delivery. Three cases are discussed: IMRT beam verification, MLC calibration and dose calcula0010ti.

  8. Evaluation of two methods of predicting MLC leaf positions using EPID measurements.

    PubMed

    Parent, Laure; Seco, Joao; Evans, Phil M; Dance, David R; Fielding, Andrew

    2006-09-01

    In intensity modulated radiation treatments (IMRT), the position of the field edges and the modulation within the beam are often achieved with a multileaf collimator (MLC). During the MLC calibration process, due to the finite accuracy of leaf position measurements, a systematic error may be introduced to leaf positions. Thereafter leaf positions of the MLC depend on the systematic error introduced on each leaf during MLC calibration and on the accuracy of the leaf position control system (random errors). This study presents and evaluates two methods to predict the systematic errors on the leaf positions introduced during the MLC calibration. The two presented methods are based on a series of electronic portal imaging device (EPID) measurements. A comparison with film measurements showed that the EPID could be used to measure leaf positions without introducing any bias. The first method, referred to as the "central leaf method," is based on the method currently used at this center for MLC leaf calibration. It mimics the manner in which leaf calibration parameters are specified in the MLC control system and consequently is also used by other centers. The second method, a new method proposed by the authors and referred to as the "individual leaf method," involves the measurement of two positions for each leaf (-5 and +15 cm) and the interpolation and extrapolation from these two points to any other given position. The central leaf method and the individual leaf method predicted leaf positions at prescribed positions of -11, 0, 5, and 10 cm within 2.3 and 1.0 mm, respectively, with a standard deviation (SD) of 0.3 and 0.2 mm, respectively. The individual leaf method provided a better prediction of the leaf positions than the central leaf method. Reproducibility tests for leaf positions of -5 and +15 cm were performed. The reproducibility was within 0.4 mm on the same day and 0.4 mm six weeks later (1 SD). Measurements at gantry angles of 0 degrees, 90 degrees, and 270 degrees for leaf positions of -5 and +15 cm showed no significant effect of gravity. The individual leaf method could be used in various applications to improve the accuracy of radiotherapy treatment from planning to delivery. Three cases are discussed: IMRT beam verification, MLC calibration and dose calculation. PMID:17022210

  9. Boosted Bit Line Program Scheme for Low Operating Voltage MLC NAND Flash Memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Youngsun; Park, Ki-Tae; Kang, Myounggon; Song, Yunheub; Lee, Sungsoo; Lim, Youngho; Suh, Kang-Deog

    A boosted bit line program scheme is proposed for low operating voltage in the multi-level-cell (MLC) NAND flash memory. Our BL to BL boosting scheme, which uses the BL coupling capacitance, is applied to achieve a higher channel potential than is possible with Vcc, so that the Vpass window margin is improved by up to 59% in 40nm MLC NAND flash memory with 2.7V Vcc. In the case of 1.8V Vcc, the margin of the proposed scheme is 12% higher than one of the conventional schemes at 2.7V Vcc.

  10. cAMP signaling regulates platelet myosin light chain (MLC) phosphorylation and shape change through targeting the RhoA-Rho kinase-MLC phosphatase signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Aburima, Ahmed; Wraith, Katie S; Raslan, Zaher; Law, Robert; Magwenzi, Simbarashe; Naseem, Khalid M

    2013-11-14

    Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent signaling modulates platelet shape change through unknown mechanisms. We examined the effects of cAMP signaling on platelet contractile machinery. Prostaglandin E1 (PGE1)-mediated inhibition of thrombin-stimulated shape change was accompanied by diminished phosphorylation of myosin light chain (MLC). Since thrombin stimulates phospho-MLC through RhoA/Rho-associated, coiled-coil containing protein kinase (ROCK)-dependent inhibition of MLC phosphatase (MLCP), we examined the effects of cAMP on this pathway. Thrombin stimulated the membrane localization of RhoA and the formation of a signaling complex of RhoA/ROCK2/myosin phosphatase-targeting subunit 1 (MYPT1). This resulted in ROCK-mediated phosphorylation of MYPT1 on threonine 853 (thr(853)), the disassociation of the catalytic subunit protein phosphatase 1? (PP1?) from MYPT1 and inhibition of basal MLCP activity. Treatment of platelets with PGE1 prevented thrombin-induced phospho-MYPT1-thr(853) in a protein kinase A (PKA)-dependent manner. Examination of the molecular mechanisms revealed that PGE1 induced the phosphorylation of RhoA on serine(188) through a pathway requiring cAMP and PKA. This event inhibited the membrane relocalization of RhoA, prevented the association of RhoA with ROCK2 and MYPT1, attenuated the dissociation of PP1? from MYPT1, and thereby restored basal MLCP activity leading to a decrease in phospho-MLC. These data reveal a new mechanism by which the cAMP-PKA signaling pathway regulates platelet function. PMID:24100445

  11. Normal - Mental Status Exam - Orientation Sub-exam - Patient 1

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Pearson, John C.

    This video demonstrates a 'normal' mental status exam of a patient. The patient is a female with no known neurological health problems who volunteered to act as a simulated patient in order to demonstrate 'normal' responses to exam techniques. Viewing the video requires installation of the free QuickTime Plug-in.

  12. Normal - Mental Status Exam - Attention Sub-exam - Patient 1

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Pearson, John C.

    In this demonstration video, a patient is given a mental status exam. The patient is a female with no known neurological health problems who volunteered to act as a simulated patient in order to demonstrate 'normal' responses to exam techniques. Viewing the video requires installation of the free QuickTime Plug-in.

  13. Normal - Mental Status Exam - Memory Sub-exam - Patient 1

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    John C. Pearson, PhD

    This video shows an example of a 'normal' mental status exam of a patient. Patient is a female with no known neurological health problems who volunteered to act as a simulated patient in order to demonstrate 'normal' responses to exam techniques. Viewing the video requires installation of the free QuickTime Plug-in.

  14. Construction and Evaluation of Actuarial Models Exam

    E-print Network

    SOA USER

    2012-10-10

    judge their effectiveness for future exams, but they will NOT be used in the scoring of this exam. ... Therefore, candidates should answer every question on the exam. ... Perform Bayesian analysis using both discrete and continuous models. 3.

  15. Use of dMLC for implementation of dynamic respiratory-gated radiation therapy

    PubMed Central

    Pepin, Eric W.; Wu, Huanmei; Shirato, Hiroki

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To simulate and evaluate the use of dynamic multileaf collimators (dMLC) in respiratory gating to compensate for baseline drift. Methods: Tumor motion tracking data from 30 lung tumors over 322 treatment fractions was analyzed with the finite state model. A dynamic respiratory gating window was established in real-time by determining the average positions during the previous two end-of-expiration breathing phases and centering the dMLC aperture on a weighted average of these positions. A simulated dMLC with physical motion constraints was used in dynamic gating treatment simulations. Fluence maps were created to provide a statistical description of radiation delivery for each fraction. Duty cycle was also calculated for each fraction. Results: The average duty cycle was 2.3% greater under dynamic gating conditions. Dynamic gating also showed higher fluences and less tumor obstruction. Additionally, dynamic gating required fewer beam toggles and each delivery period was longer on average than with static gating. Conclusions: The use of dynamic gating showed better performance than static gating and the physical constraints of a dMLC were shown to not be an impediment to dynamic gating. PMID:24089898

  16. Use of dMLC for implementation of dynamic respiratory-gated radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Pepin, Eric W.; Wu, Huanmei [Purdue School of Engineering Technology, IUPUI, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202 (United States)] [Purdue School of Engineering Technology, IUPUI, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202 (United States); Shirato, Hiroki [Hokkaido University School of Medicine, Sapporo 060-8638 (Japan)] [Hokkaido University School of Medicine, Sapporo 060-8638 (Japan)

    2013-10-15

    Purpose: To simulate and evaluate the use of dynamic multileaf collimators (dMLC) in respiratory gating to compensate for baseline drift.Methods: Tumor motion tracking data from 30 lung tumors over 322 treatment fractions was analyzed with the finite state model. A dynamic respiratory gating window was established in real-time by determining the average positions during the previous two end-of-expiration breathing phases and centering the dMLC aperture on a weighted average of these positions. A simulated dMLC with physical motion constraints was used in dynamic gating treatment simulations. Fluence maps were created to provide a statistical description of radiation delivery for each fraction. Duty cycle was also calculated for each fraction.Results: The average duty cycle was 2.3% greater under dynamic gating conditions. Dynamic gating also showed higher fluences and less tumor obstruction. Additionally, dynamic gating required fewer beam toggles and each delivery period was longer on average than with static gating.Conclusions: The use of dynamic gating showed better performance than static gating and the physical constraints of a dMLC were shown to not be an impediment to dynamic gating.

  17. Neighbor-Cell Assisted Error Correction for MLC NAND Flash Memories

    E-print Network

    Mutlu, Onur

    Neighbor-Cell Assisted Error Correction for MLC NAND Flash Memories Yu Cai1 , Gulay Yalcin2 , Onur}@ece.cmu.edu, {gulay.yalcin, adrian.cristal, osman.unsal}@bsc.es ABSTRACT Continued scaling of NAND flash memory, Design, Reliability. Keywords NAND flash memory, Program Interference, Threshold Voltage Distribution

  18. Differential phosphorylation of LZ+/LZ- MYPT1 isoforms regulates MLC phosphatase activity.

    PubMed

    Yuen, Samantha L; Ogut, Ozgur; Brozovich, Frank V

    2014-11-15

    The vascular response to NO is due, in part, to a Ca(2+) independent activation of myosin light chain (MLC) phosphatase, a trimeric enzyme of 20kDa, 38kDa catalytic and 110-130kDa myosin targeting (MYPT1) subunits. Alternative mRNA splicing produces MYPT1 isoforms that differ by the presence or absence of a central insert (CI) and a leucine zipper (LZ), and the presence of a LZ+ MYPT1 isoform is important for protein kinase G (PKG) mediated activation of MLC phosphatase. This study was designed to determine the molecular basis for the differential sensitivity of the vasculature to NO. Our results demonstrate that the presence of the MYPT1 LZ domain is required for PKG to both phosphorylate MYPT1 at S668 and activate MLC phosphatase. Further for LZ+ MYPT1 isoforms, an S668A MYPT1 mutation prevents the PKG mediated, Ca(2+) independent activation of MLC phosphatase. These data demonstrate that differential PKG mediated S668 phosphorylation of LZ+/LZ- MYPT1 isoforms could be important for determining the diversity in the sensitivity of the vasculature to NO mediated vasodilatation. Thus, the relative expression of LZ+/LZ- MYPT1 isoforms, in part, defines the vascular response to NO and NO based vasodilators, and therefore, plays a role in the regulation of vascular tone in both health and disease. PMID:25168281

  19. Therapeutic Efficacy of Neuro AiD™ (MLC 601), a Traditional Chinese Medicine, in Experimental Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Ming-Che; Chang, Ching-Ping; Peng, Syue-Wei; Jhuang, Kai-Sheng; Fang, Yi-Hsien; Lin, Mao-Tsun; Tsao, Thomas Chang-Yao

    2015-03-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) causes increased release of several mediators from injured and dead cells and elicits microglial activation. Activated microglia change their morphology, migrate to injury sites, and release tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) and others. In this study we used a controlled fluid percussion injury model of TBI in the rat to determine whether early (4 h post-injury) or late (4 days post-injury) treatment with MLC 601, a Traditional Chinese Medicine, would affect microglial activation and improve recovery. MLC 601 was chosen for this study because its herbal component MLC 901 was beneficial in treating TBI in rats. Herein, rats with induced TBI were treated with MLC 601 (0.2-0.8 mg/kg) 1 h (early treatment) or 4 day post-injury (late treatment) and then injected once daily for consecutive 2 days. Acute neurological and motor deficits were assessed in all rats the day before and 4 days after early MLC 601 treatment. An immunofluorescence microscopy method was used to count the numbers of the cells colocalized with neuron- and apoptosis-specific markers, and the cells colocalized with microglia- and TNF-?-specific markers, in the contused brain regions 4 days post-injury. An immunohistochemistry method was used to evaluate both the number and the morphological transformation of microglia in the injured areas. It was found that early treatment with MLC 601 had better effects in reducing TBI-induced cerebral contusion than did the late therapy with MLC 601. Cerebral contusion caused by TBI was associated with neurological motor deficits, brain apoptosis, and activated microglia (e.g., microgliosis, amoeboid microglia, and microglial overexpression of TNF-?), which all were significantly attenuated by MLC 601 therapy. Our data suggest that MLC 601 is a promising agent for treatment of TBI in rats. PMID:25331680

  20. Real-time motion-adaptive delivery (MAD) using binary MLC: I. Static beam (topotherapy) delivery.

    PubMed

    Lu, Weiguo

    2008-11-21

    Intra-fraction target motion hits the fundamental basis of IMRT where precise target positions are assumed. Real-time motion compensation is necessary to ensure that the same dose is delivered as planned. Strategies for conventional IMRT delivery for moving targets by dynamic multi-leaf collimators (MLC) tracking are well published. Binary MLC-based IMRT,such as TomoTherapy , requires synchronized motion of MLC, the couch and the gantry, which suggests a unique motion management strategy. Thanks to it sultra-fast leaf response and fast projection rate, real-time motion compensation for binary MLC-based IMRT is feasible. Topotherapy is a new IMRT delivery technique, which can be implemented in commercial helical TomoTherapy machines using only fixed gantry positions. In this paper, we present a novel approach for TopoTherapy delivery that adjusts for moving targets without additional hardware and control requirement. This technique uses the planned leaf sequence but rearranges the projection and leaf indices. It does not involve time-consuming operations, such as reoptimization. Unlike gating or breath hold-based methods, this technique can achieve nearly a 100% duty cycle with little breath control. Unlike dynamic MLC-based tracking methods, this technique requires neither the whole target motion trajectory nor the velocity of target motion. Instead, it only requires instantaneous target positions, which greatly simplifies the system implementation. Extensive simulations, including the worst-case scenarios, validated the presented technique to be applicable to relatively regular or mild irregular respirations. The delivered dose conforms well to the target, and significant margin reduction can be achieved provided that accurate, real-time tumor localization is available. PMID:18978446

  1. Real-time motion-adaptive delivery (MAD) using binary MLC: I. Static beam (topotherapy) delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Weiguo

    2008-11-01

    Intra-fraction target motion hits the fundamental basis of IMRT where precise target positions are assumed. Real-time motion compensation is necessary to ensure that the same dose is delivered as planned. Strategies for conventional IMRT delivery for moving targets by dynamic multi-leaf collimators (MLC) tracking are well published. Binary MLC-based IMRT, such as TomoTherapy®, requires synchronized motion of MLC, the couch and the gantry, which suggests a unique motion management strategy. Thanks to its ultra-fast leaf response and fast projection rate, real-time motion compensation for binary MLC-based IMRT is feasible. Topotherapy is a new IMRT delivery technique, which can be implemented in commercial helical TomoTherapy® machines using only fixed gantry positions. In this paper, we present a novel approach for TopoTherapy delivery that adjusts for moving targets without additional hardware and control requirement. This technique uses the planned leaf sequence but rearranges the projection and leaf indices. It does not involve time-consuming operations, such as reoptimization. Unlike gating or breath-hold-based methods, this technique can achieve nearly a 100% duty cycle with little breath control. Unlike dynamic MLC-based tracking methods, this technique requires neither the whole target motion trajectory nor the velocity of target motion. Instead, it only requires instantaneous target positions, which greatly simplifies the system implementation. Extensive simulations, including the worst-case scenarios, validated the presented technique to be applicable to relatively regular or mild irregular respirations. The delivered dose conforms well to the target, and significant margin reduction can be achieved provided that accurate, real-time tumor localization is available.

  2. Quantifying the gantry sag on linear accelerators and introducing an MLC-based compensation strategy

    PubMed Central

    Du, Weiliang; Gao, Song; Wang, Xiaochun; Kudchadker, Rajat J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Gantry sag is one of the well-known sources of mechanical imperfections that compromise the spatial accuracy of radiation dose delivery. The objectives of this study were to quantify the gantry sag on multiple linear accelerators (linacs), to investigate a multileaf collimator (MLC)-based strategy to compensate for gantry sag, and to verify the gantry sag and its compensation with film measurements. Methods: The authors used the Winston–Lutz method to measure gantry sag on three Varian linacs. A ball bearing phantom was imaged with megavolt radiation fields at 10° gantry angle intervals. The images recorded with an electronic portal imaging device were analyzed to derive the radiation isocenter and the gantry sag, that is, the superior–inferior wobble of the radiation field center, as a function of the gantry angle. The authors then attempted to compensate for the gantry sag by applying a gantry angle-specific correction to the MLC leaf positions. The gantry sag and its compensation were independently verified using film measurements. Results: Gantry sag was reproducible over a six-month measurement period. The maximum gantry sag was found to vary from 0.7 to 1.0 mm, depending on the linac and the collimator angle. The radiation field center moved inferiorly (i.e., away from the gantry) when the gantry was rotated from 0° to 180°. After the MLC leaf position compensation was applied at 90° collimator angle, the maximum gantry sag was reduced to <0.2 mm. The film measurements at gantry angles of 0° and 180° verified the inferior shift of the radiation fields and the effectiveness of MLC compensation. Conclusions: The results indicate that gantry sag on a linac can be quantitatively measured using a simple phantom and an electronic portal imaging device. Reduction of gantry sag is feasible by applying a gantry angle-specific correction to MLC leaf positions at 90° collimator angle. PMID:22482636

  3. Identification of the specific sequence recognized by Penicillium citrinum MlcR, a GAL4-type transcriptional activator of ML-236B (compactin) biosynthetic genes.

    PubMed

    Baba, S; Nihira, T; Hosobuchi, M

    2008-09-01

    MlcR is a pathway-specific transcriptional activator of the ML-236B biosynthetic genes in Penicillium citrinum. The MlcR-binding sequences were identified by an in vitro gel-shift assay and an in vivo reporter assay for the region between mlcA and mlcC as a model. The gel-shift assay showed that recombinant MlcR bound to the DNA sequence 5'-ACGGCGTTATTCGG-3' and most of the bases in this motif were required for the interaction between MlcR and DNA. In the reporter assay using beta-glucuronidase (GUS), substitution of the bases in this binding sequence resulted in the drastic reduction of GUS activities. These data clearly indicate that this MlcR-binding sequence is essential for the transcriptional activation of mlcA and mlcC in P. citrinum. Similar motifs were found in other loci of the ML-236B biosynthetic gene cluster and the consensus-binding motif for MlcR was predicted to be a direct repeat, 5'-WCGG-N(6)-TCGG-3'. PMID:18667169

  4. Targeted disruption of the genes, mlcR and ariB, which encode GAL4-type proteins in Penicillium citrinum.

    PubMed

    Baba, S; Abe, Y; Ono, C; Hosobuchi, M

    2006-01-01

    The role of two genes, mlcR and ariB, was investigated by gene disruption experiments. The mlcR gene in the ML-236B biosynthetic gene cluster of Penicillium citrinum encodes a putative 50.2-kDa protein with a Zn (II) 2Cys6 DNA-binding domain, and has similarity to most of the GAL4-type regulatory proteins. The mlcR disruptant did not produce ML-236B or its intermediates, suggesting that mlcR is involved in ML-236B biosynthesis. Transcriptional analysis of the mlcR disruptant by Northern hybridization and RT-PCR indicated that MlcR activates the transcription of mlcA, B, C,D, F, G and H in a pathway-specific manner. On the other hand, MlcR did not affect the transcription of mlcE and the genes outside the ML-236B cluster. The ariB gene, next to mlcR, encodes another GAL4-type protein. Transcriptional analysis of the ariB disruptant indicated that it is a transcriptional activator of the genes outside the ML-236B cluster, and is not related to ML-236B biosynthesis. PMID:16982102

  5. Exam corner--June 2013.

    PubMed

    Khanduja, V

    2013-06-01

    The FRCS (Tr & Orth) examination has three components: MCQs, Vivas and Clinical Examination. The Vivas are further divided into four sections comprising Basic Science, Adult Pathology, Hands and Children's Orthopaedics and Trauma. The Clinical Examination section is divided into Upper and Lower limb cases. The aim of this section in the Journal is to focus specifically on the trainees preparing for the exam and to cater to all the sections of the exam. The vision is to complete the cycle of all relevant exam topics (as per the syllabus) in four years. PMID:23723288

  6. Exam corner--August 2013.

    PubMed

    Khanduja, V

    2013-08-01

    The FRCS (Tr & Orth) examination has three components: MCQs, Vivas and Clinical Examination. The Vivas are further divided into four sections comprising Basic Science, Adult Pathology, Hands and Children's Orthopaedics and Trauma. The Clinical Examination section is divided into Upper and Lower limb cases. The aim of this section in the Journal is to focus specifically on the trainees preparing for the exam and to cater to all the sections of the exam. The vision is to complete the cycle of all relevant exam topics (as per the syllabus) in four years. PMID:23908437

  7. Exam corner--November 2013.

    PubMed

    Khanduja, V

    2013-11-01

    The FRCS (Tr & Orth) examination has three components: MCQs, Vivas and Clinical Examination. The Vivas are further divided into five sections comprising Basic Science, Adult Pathology, Hands, Children’s Orthopaedics and Trauma. The Clinical Examination section is divided into upper- and lower-limb cases. The aim of this section in the Journal is to focus specifically on the trainees preparing for the exam and to cater to all the sections of the exam every month. The vision is to complete the cycle of all relevant exam topics (as per the syllabus) in four years. PMID:24151285

  8. Exhausting treadmill running causes dephosphorylation of sMLC2 and reduced level of myofilament MLCK2 in slow twitch rat soleus muscle

    PubMed Central

    Hortemo, Kristin Halvorsen; Aronsen, Jan Magnus; Lunde, Ida G; Sjaastad, Ivar; Lunde, Per Kristian; Sejersted, Ole M

    2015-01-01

    Myosin light chain 2 (MLC2) is a small protein in the myosin complex, regulating muscle contractile function by modulating Ca2+ sensitivity of myofilaments. MLC2 can be modified by phosphorylation and O-GlcNAcylation, two reversible and dynamic posttranslational modifications. The slow isoform of MLC2 (sMLC2) is dephosphorylated in soleus muscle during in situ loaded shortening contractions, which correlates with reduction in shortening capacity. Here, we hypothesize that exhausting in vivo treadmill running induces dephosphorylation of MLC2 in slow twitch soleus, but not in fast twitch EDL muscle, and that there are reciprocal changes in MLC2 O-GlcNAcylation. At rest, both phosphorylation and O-GlcNAcylation of MLC2 were lower in slow than fast twitch muscles. One bout of exhausting treadmill running induced dephosphorylation of sMLC2 in soleus, paralleled by reduced levels of the kinase MLCK2 associated to myofilaments, suggesting that the acute reduction in phosphorylation is mediated by dissociation of MLCK2 from myofilaments. O-GlcNAcylation of MLC2 did not change significantly, and seems of limited importance in the regulation of MLC2 phosphorylation during in vivo running. After 6 weeks of treadmill running, the dephosphorylation of sMLC2 persisted in soleus along with reduction in MLCK2 both in myofilament- and total protein fraction. In EDL on the contrary, phosphorylation of MLC2 was not altered after one exercise bout or after 6 weeks of treadmill running. Thus, in contrast to fast twitch muscle, MLC2 dephosphorylation occurs in slow twitch muscle during in vivo exercise and may be linked to reduced myofilament-associated MLCK2 and reduced shortening capacity. PMID:25713325

  9. Monte Carlo based beam model using a photon MLC for modulated electron radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Henzen, D., E-mail: henzen@ams.unibe.ch; Manser, P.; Frei, D.; Volken, W.; Born, E. J.; Vetterli, D.; Chatelain, C.; Fix, M. K. [Division of Medical Radiation Physics and Department of Radiation Oncology, Inselspital, Bern University Hospital, and University of Bern, CH-3010 Berne (Switzerland)] [Division of Medical Radiation Physics and Department of Radiation Oncology, Inselspital, Bern University Hospital, and University of Bern, CH-3010 Berne (Switzerland); Neuenschwander, H. [Clinic for Radiation-Oncology, Lindenhofspital Bern, CH-3012 Berne (Switzerland)] [Clinic for Radiation-Oncology, Lindenhofspital Bern, CH-3012 Berne (Switzerland); Stampanoni, M. F. M. [Institute for Biomedical Engineering, ETH Zürich and Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5234 Villigen (Switzerland)] [Institute for Biomedical Engineering, ETH Zürich and Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5234 Villigen (Switzerland)

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: Modulated electron radiotherapy (MERT) promises sparing of organs at risk for certain tumor sites. Any implementation of MERT treatment planning requires an accurate beam model. The aim of this work is the development of a beam model which reconstructs electron fields shaped using the Millennium photon multileaf collimator (MLC) (Varian Medical Systems, Inc., Palo Alto, CA) for a Varian linear accelerator (linac). Methods: This beam model is divided into an analytical part (two photon and two electron sources) and a Monte Carlo (MC) transport through the MLC. For dose calculation purposes the beam model has been coupled with a macro MC dose calculation algorithm. The commissioning process requires a set of measurements and precalculated MC input. The beam model has been commissioned at a source to surface distance of 70 cm for a Clinac 23EX (Varian Medical Systems, Inc., Palo Alto, CA) and a TrueBeam linac (Varian Medical Systems, Inc., Palo Alto, CA). For validation purposes, measured and calculated depth dose curves and dose profiles are compared for four different MLC shaped electron fields and all available energies. Furthermore, a measured two-dimensional dose distribution for patched segments consisting of three 18 MeV segments, three 12 MeV segments, and a 9 MeV segment is compared with corresponding dose calculations. Finally, measured and calculated two-dimensional dose distributions are compared for a circular segment encompassed with a C-shaped segment. Results: For 15 × 34, 5 × 5, and 2 × 2 cm{sup 2} fields differences between water phantom measurements and calculations using the beam model coupled with the macro MC dose calculation algorithm are generally within 2% of the maximal dose value or 2 mm distance to agreement (DTA) for all electron beam energies. For a more complex MLC pattern, differences between measurements and calculations are generally within 3% of the maximal dose value or 3 mm DTA for all electron beam energies. For the two-dimensional dose comparisons, the differences between calculations and measurements are generally within 2% of the maximal dose value or 2 mm DTA. Conclusions : The results of the dose comparisons suggest that the developed beam model is suitable to accurately reconstruct photon MLC shaped electron beams for a Clinac 23EX and a TrueBeam linac. Hence, in future work the beam model will be utilized to investigate the possibilities of MERT using the photon MLC to shape electron beams.

  10. MLC quality assurance using EPID: A fitting technique with subpixel precision

    SciTech Connect

    Mamalui-Hunter, Maria; Li, Harold; Low, Daniel A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, 4921 Parkview Place, St. Louis, Missouri 63110 (United States)

    2008-06-15

    Amorphous silicon based electronic portal imaging devices (EPIDs) have been shown to be a good alternative to radiographic film for routine quality assurance (QA) of multileaf collimator (MLC) positioning accuracy. In this work, we present a method of acquiring an EPID image of a traditional strip-test image using analytical fits of the interleaf and leaf abutment image signatures. After exposure, the EPID image pixel values are divided by an open field image to remove EPID response and radiation field variations. Profiles acquired in the direction orthogonal to the leaf motion exhibit small peaks caused by interleaf leakage. Gaussian profiles are fitted to the interleaf leakage peaks, the results of which are, using multiobjective optimization, used to calculate the image rotational angle with respect to the collimator axis of rotation. The relative angle is used to rotate the image to align the MLC leaf travel to the image pixel axes. The leaf abutments also present peaks that are fitted by heuristic functions, in this case modified Lorentzian functions. The parameters of the Lorentzian functions are used to parameterize the leaf gap width and positions. By imaging a set of MLC fields with varying gaps forming symmetric and asymmetric abutments, calibration curves with regard to relative peak height (RPH) versus nominal gap width are obtained. Based on this calibration data, the individual leaf positions are calculated to compare with the nominal programmed positions. The results demonstrate that the collimator rotation angle can be determined as accurate as 0.01 deg. . A change in MLC gap width of 0.2 mm leads to a change in RPH of about 10%. For asymmetrically produced gaps, a 0.2 mm MLC leaf gap width change causes 0.2 pixel peak position change. Subpixel resolution is obtained by using a parameterized fit of the relatively large abutment peaks. By contrast, for symmetrical gap changes, the peak position remains unchanged with a standard deviation of 0.05 pixels, or 0.026 mm. A trial run of 36 test images, each with gap widths varying from 0.4 to 1.4 mm, were used to analyze 8640 abutments. The leaf position variations were detected with a precision of 0.1 mm at a 95% confidence level, with a mean of 0.04 mm and a standard deviation of 0.03 mm. The proposed method is robust and minimizes the effect of image noise and pixel size and may help physicists to establish reliable and reasonable action levels in routine MLC QA.

  11. EPID-based verification of the MLC performance for dynamic IMRT and VMAT

    SciTech Connect

    Rowshanfarzad, Pejman; Sabet, Mahsheed; Barnes, Michael P.; O'Connor, Daryl J.; Greer, Peter B. [School of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, University of Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW 2308 (Australia); Department of Radiation Oncology, Calvary Mater Newcastle Hospital, Newcastle, NSW 2310 (Australia); School of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, University of Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW 2308 (Australia); Department of Radiation Oncology, Calvary Mater Newcastle Hospital, Newcastle, NSW 2310, Australia and School of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, University of Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW 2308 (Australia)

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: In advanced radiotherapy treatments such as intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT), verification of the performance of the multileaf collimator (MLC) is an essential part of the linac QA program. The purpose of this study is to use the existing measurement methods for geometric QA of the MLCs and extend them to more comprehensive evaluation techniques, and to develop dedicated robust algorithms to quantitatively investigate the MLC performance in a fast, accurate, and efficient manner. Methods: The behavior of leaves was investigated in the step-and-shoot mode by the analysis of integrated electronic portal imaging device (EPID) images acquired during picket fence tests at fixed gantry angles and arc delivery. The MLC was also studied in dynamic mode by the analysis of cine EPID images of a sliding gap pattern delivered in a variety of conditions including different leaf speeds, deliveries at fixed gantry angles or in arc mode, and changing the direction of leaf motion. The accuracy of the method was tested by detection of the intentionally inserted errors in the delivery patterns. Results: The algorithm developed for the picket fence analysis was able to find each individual leaf position, gap width, and leaf bank skewness in addition to the deviations from expected leaf positions with respect to the beam central axis with sub-pixel accuracy. For the three tested linacs over a period of 5 months, the maximum change in the gap width was 0.5 mm, the maximum deviation from the expected leaf positions was 0.1 mm and the MLC skewness was up to 0.2 Degree-Sign . The algorithm developed for the sliding gap analysis could determine the velocity and acceleration/deceleration of each individual leaf as well as the gap width. There was a slight decrease in the accuracy of leaf performance with increasing leaf speeds. The analysis results were presented through several graphs. The accuracy of the method was assessed as 0.01 mm for both the gap size and peak position determination. Conclusions: This study provides fast, easy, and accurate test methods for routine QA of the MLC performance and helps in faster troubleshooting of MLC problems in both IMRT and VMAT treatments.

  12. Brushed permanent magnet DC MLC motor operation in an external magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Yun, J.; St Aubin, J.; Rathee, S.; Fallone, B. G. [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, 11322-89 Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2G7 (Canada) and Department of Oncology, Medical Physics Division, University of Alberta, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2 (Canada); Department of Medical Physics, Cross Cancer Institute, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2 (Canada) and Department of Oncology, Medical Physics Division, University of Alberta, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2 (Canada); Department of Physics, University of Alberta, 11322-89 Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2G7 (Canada); Department of Medical Physics, Cross Cancer Institute, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2 (Canada) and Department of Oncology, Medical Physics Division, University of Alberta, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2 (Canada)

    2010-05-15

    Purpose: Linac-MR systems for real-time image-guided radiotherapy will utilize the multileaf collimators (MLCs) to perform conformal radiotherapy and tumor tracking. The MLCs would be exposed to the external fringe magnetic fields of the linac-MR hybrid systems. Therefore, an experimental investigation of the effect of an external magnetic field on the brushed permanent magnet DC motors used in some MLC systems was performed. Methods: The changes in motor speed and current were measured for varying external magnetic field strengths up to 2000 G generated by an EEV electromagnet. These changes in motor characteristics were measured for three orientations of the motor in the external magnetic field, mimicking changes in motor orientations due to installation and/or collimator rotations. In addition, the functionality of the associated magnetic motor encoder was tested. The tested motors are used with the Varian 120 leaf Millennium MLC (Maxon Motor half leaf and full leaf motors) and the Varian 52 leaf MKII MLC (MicroMo Electronics leaf motor) including a carriage motor (MicroMo Electronics). Results: In most cases, the magnetic encoder of the motors failed prior to any damage to the gearbox or the permanent magnet motor itself. This sets an upper limit of the external magnetic field strength on the motor function. The measured limits of the external magnetic fields were found to vary by the motor type. The leaf motor used with a Varian 52 leaf MKII MLC system tolerated up to 450{+-}10 G. The carriage motor tolerated up to 2000{+-}10 G field. The motors used with the Varian 120 leaf Millennium MLC system were found to tolerate a maximum of 600{+-}10 G. Conclusions: The current Varian MLC system motors can be used for real-time image-guided radiotherapy coupled to a linac-MR system, provided the fringe magnetic fields at their locations are below the determined tolerance levels. With the fringe magnetic fields of linac-MR systems expected to be larger than the tolerance levels determined, some form of magnetic shielding would be required.

  13. Student Exam Creation as a Learning Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brink, Jan; Capps, Emerson; Sutko, Al

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if there is a relationship between: 1) comprehensiveness of student developed model tests and final exam score, 2) the quality of student developed model tests and answer keys combined, and final exam score, and 3) student developed model test similarity to instructor final exam and final exam score.…

  14. On the suitability of Elekta’s Agility 160 MLC for tracked radiation delivery: closed-loop machine performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glitzner, M.; Crijns, S. P. M.; de Senneville, B. Denis; Lagendijk, J. J. W.; Raaymakers, B. W.

    2015-03-01

    For motion adaptive radiotherapy, dynamic multileaf collimator tracking can be employed to reduce treatment margins by steering the beam according to the organ motion. The Elekta Agility 160 MLC has hitherto not been evaluated for its tracking suitability. Both dosimetric performance and latency are key figures and need to be assessed generically, independent of the used motion sensor. In this paper, we propose the use of harmonic functions directly fed to the MLC to determine its latency during continuous motion. Furthermore, a control variable is extracted from a camera system and fed to the MLC. Using this setup, film dosimetry and subsequent ? statistics are performed, evaluating the response when tracking (MRI)-based physiologic motion in a closed-loop. The delay attributed to the MLC itself was shown to be a minor contributor to the overall feedback chain as compared to the impact of imaging components such as MRI sequences. Delay showed a linear phase behaviour of the MLC employed in continuously dynamic applications, which enables a general MLC-characterization. Using the exemplary feedback chain, dosimetry showed a vast increase in pass rate employing ? statistics. In this early stage, the tracking performance of the Agility using the test bench yielded promising results, making the technique eligible for translation to tracking using clinical imaging modalities.

  15. On the suitability of Elekta’s Agility 160 MLC for tracked radiation delivery: closed-loop machine performance.

    PubMed

    Glitzner, M; Crijns, S P M; de Senneville, B Denis; Lagendijk, J J W; Raaymakers, B W

    2015-03-01

    For motion adaptive radiotherapy, dynamic multileaf collimator tracking can be employed to reduce treatment margins by steering the beam according to the organ motion. The Elekta Agility 160 MLC has hitherto not been evaluated for its tracking suitability. Both dosimetric performance and latency are key figures and need to be assessed generically, independent of the used motion sensor. In this paper, we propose the use of harmonic functions directly fed to the MLC to determine its latency during continuous motion. Furthermore, a control variable is extracted from a camera system and fed to the MLC. Using this setup, film dosimetry and subsequent ? statistics are performed, evaluating the response when tracking (MRI)-based physiologic motion in a closed-loop. The delay attributed to the MLC itself was shown to be a minor contributor to the overall feedback chain as compared to the impact of imaging components such as MRI sequences. Delay showed a linear phase behaviour of the MLC employed in continuously dynamic applications, which enables a general MLC-characterization. Using the exemplary feedback chain, dosimetry showed a vast increase in pass rate employing ? statistics. In this early stage, the tracking performance of the Agility using the test bench yielded promising results, making the technique eligible for translation to tracking using clinical imaging modalities. PMID:25675279

  16. EXPOSURE ANALYSIS MODELING SYSTEM (EXAMS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Exposure Analysis Modeling System (EXAMS), first published in 1982 (EPA-600/3-82-023), provides interactive computer software for formulating aquatic ecosystem models and rapidly evaluating the fate, transport, and exposure concentrations of synthetic organic chemicals--pesti...

  17. Developing On-line Exams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartsell, Taralynn S.; Yuen, Steve Chi-Yin

    2003-01-01

    Discusses advantages and limitations of online exams, describes available software tools for creating computer-based tests (CGI, JavaScript, commercial programs, course authoring tools), and offers suggestions for implementation. (JOW)

  18. 8 Gb MLC (multi-level cell) NAND flash memory using 63 nm process technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jong-Ho Park; Sung-Hoi Hur; Joon-Hee Leex; Jin-Taek Park; Jong-Sun Sel; Jong-Won Kim; Sang-Bin Song; Jung-Young Lee; Ji-Hwon Lee; Suk-Joon Son; Yong-Seok Kim; Min-Cheol Park; Soo-Jin Chai; Jung-Dal Choi; U-In Chung; Joo-Tae Moon; Kyeong-Tae Kim; Kinam Kim; Byung-Il Ryu

    2004-01-01

    For the first time, 8 Gb multi-level cell (MLC) NAND flash memory with 63 nm design rule is developed for mass storage applications. Its unit cell size is 0.0164 ?m2, the smallest ever reported. ArF lithography with off-axis illumination (OAI) was employed for critical layers. In addition, self-aligned floating poly-silicon gate (SAP), tungsten gate with an optimized re-oxidation process, oxide

  19. Set-based management scheme for MLC flash memory storage system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jen-Wei Hsieh; Yu-Cheng Zheng

    2011-01-01

    NAND flash memory has been widely adopted as a storage medium in consumer electronics and portable devices due to its shock resistance, high density, low cost, low power consumption, non-volatility, and low access latency natures. It could be classified into Single-Level Cell (SLC) and Multi-Level Cell (MLC). SLC is the earlier design of flash memory and could store one bit

  20. NAND Flash-Based Disk Cache Using SLC\\/MLC Combined Flash Memory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seongcheol Hong; Dongkun Shin

    2010-01-01

    Flash memory-based non-volatile cache (NVC) is emerging as an effective solution for enhancing both the performances and the energy consumptions of storage systems. In order to attain significant performance and energy gains from NVC, it would be better to use multi-level-cell (MLC) flash memories since they can provide a large NVC capacity at low cost. However, the number of available

  1. AdaMS: adaptive MLC\\/SLC phase-change memory design for file storage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiangyu Dong; Yuan Xie

    2011-01-01

    Phase-change memory (PCM) is an emerging memory technology that has made rapid progress in the recent years, and surpasses other technologies such as FeRAM and MRAM in terms of scalability. Recently, the feasibility of multi-level cell (MLC) for PCM, which enables a cell to store more than one bit of digital data, has also been shown. This new property makes

  2. USEFUL: Ultrasound Exam for Underlying Lesions Incorporated into Physical Exam

    PubMed Central

    Steller, Jon; Russell, Bianca; Lotfipour, Shahram; Maldonado, Graciela; Siepel, Tim; Jakle, Halsey; Hata, Stacy; Chiem, Alan; Fox, John Christian

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The Ultrasound Screening Exam for Underlying Lesions (USEFUL) was developed in an attempt to establish a role for bedside ultrasound in the primary and preventive care setting. It is the purpose of our pilot study to determine if students were first capable of performing all of the various scans required of our USEFUL while defining such an ultrasound-assisted physical exam that would supplement the standard hands-on physical exam in the same head-to-toe structure. We also aimed to assess the time needed for an adequate exam and analyze if times improved with repetition and previous ultrasound training. Methods: Medical students with ranging levels of ultrasound training received a 25-minute presentation on our USEFUL followed by a 30-minute hands-on session. Following the hands-on session, the students were asked to perform a timed USEFUL on 2–3 standardized subjects. All images were documented as normal or abnormal with the understanding that an official detailed exam would be performed if an abnormality were to be found. All images were read and deemed adequate by board eligible emergency medicine ultrasound fellows. Results: Twenty-six exams were performed by 9 students. The average time spent by all students per USEFUL was 11 minutes and 19 seconds. Students who had received the University of California, Irvine School of Medicine's integrated ultrasound curriculum performed the USEFUL significantly faster (p< 0.0025). The time it took to complete the USEFUL ranged from 6 minutes and 32 seconds to 17 minutes, and improvement was seen with each USEFUL performed. The average time to complete the USEFUL on the first standardized patient was 13 minutes and 20 seconds, while 11 minutes and 2 seconds, and 9 minutes and 20 seconds were spent performing the exam on the second and third patient, respectively. Conclusion: Students were able to effectively complete all scans required by the USEFUL in a timely manner. Students who have been a part of the integrated ultrasound in medicine curriculum performed the USEFUL significantly faster than students who had not. Students were able to significantly improve upon the time it took them to complete the USEFUL with successive attempts. Future endpoints are aimed at assessing the feasibility and outcomes of an ultrasound-assisted physical exam in a primary care setting and the exam's effect on doctor-patient satisfaction. [West J Emerg Med. 2014;15(3):260–266.] PMID:24868302

  3. Effect of MLC leaf width on treatment adaptation and accuracy for concurrent irradiation of prostate and pelvic lymph nodes

    SciTech Connect

    Shang Qingyang; Qi Peng; Ferjani, Samah; Xia Ping [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio 44195 (United States)

    2013-06-15

    Purpose: The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of multileaf collimator (MLC) leaf width on treatment adaptation and delivery accuracy for concurrent treatment of the prostate and pelvic lymph nodes with intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Methods: Seventy-five kilovoltage cone beam CTs (KV-CBCT) from six patients were included for this retrospective study. For each patient, three different IMRT plans were created based on a planning CT using three different MLC leaf widths of 2.5, 5, and 10 mm, respectively. For each CBCT, the prostate displacement was determined by a dual image registration. Adaptive plans were created by shifting selected MLC leaf pairs to compensate for daily prostate movements. To evaluate the impact of MLC leaf width on the adaptive plan for each daily CBCT, three MLC shifted plans were created using three different leaf widths of MLCs (a total of 225 adaptive treatment plans). Selective dosimetric endpoints for the tumor volumes and organs at risk (OARs) were evaluated for these adaptive plans. Using the planning CT from a selected patient, MLC shifted plans for three hypothetical longitudinal shifts of 2, 4, and 8 mm were delivered on the three linear accelerators to test the deliverability of the shifted plans and to compare the dose accuracy of the shifted plans with the original IMRT plans. Results: Adaptive plans from 2.5 and 5 mm MLCs had inadequate dose coverage to the prostate (D99 < 97%, or D{sub mean} < 99% of the planned dose) in 6%-8% of the fractions, while adaptive plans from 10 mm MLC led to inadequate dose coverage to the prostate in 25.3% of the fractions. The average V{sub 56Gy} of the prostate over the six patients was improved by 6.4% (1.6%-32.7%) and 5.8% (1.5%-35.7%) with adaptive plans from 2.5 and 5 mm MLCs, respectively, when compared with adaptive plans from 10 mm MLC. Pelvic lymph nodes were well covered for all MLC adaptive plans, as small differences were observed for D99, D{sub mean}, and V{sub 50.4Gy}. Similar OAR sparing could be achieved for the bladder and rectum with all three MLCs for treatment adaptation. The MLC shifted plans can be accurately delivered on all three linear accelerators with accuracy similar to their original IMRT plans, where gamma (3%/3 mm) passing rates were 99.6%, 93.0%, and 92.1% for 2.5, 5, and 10 mm MLCs, respectively. The percentages of pixels with dose differences between the measurement and calculation being less than 3% of the maximum dose were 85.9%, 82.5%, and 70.5% for the original IMRT plans from the three MLCs, respectively. Conclusions: Dosimetric advantages associated with smaller MLC leaves were observed in terms of the coverage to the prostate, when the treatment was adapted to account for daily prostate movement for concurrent irradiation of the prostate and pelvic lymph nodes. The benefit of switching the MLC from 10 to 5 mm was significant (p Much-Less-Than 0.01); however, switching the MLC from 5 to 2.5 mm would not gain significant (p= 0.15) improvement. IMRT plans with smaller MLC leaf widths achieved more accurate dose delivery.

  4. UBC Biochemistry Comprehensive Exam Guidelines Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

    E-print Network

    Strynadka, Natalie

    UBC Biochemistry Comprehensive Exam Guidelines Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Comprehensive Examination Guidelines 20132014 #12;UBC Biochemistry Comprehensive Exam Guidelines Table #12;UBC Biochemistry Comprehensive Exam Guidelines

  5. IMRT treatment planning on 4D geometries for the era of dynamic MLC tracking.

    PubMed

    Suh, Yelin; Murray, Walter; Keall, Paul J

    2014-12-01

    The problem addressed here was to obtain optimal and deliverable dynamic multileaf collimator (MLC) leaf sequences from four-dimensional (4D) geometries for dynamic MLC tracking delivery. The envisaged scenario was where respiratory phase and position information of the target was available during treatment, from which the optimal treatment plan could be further adapted in real time. A tool for 4D treatment plan optimization was developed that integrates a commercially available treatment planning system and a general-purpose optimization system. The 4D planning method was applied to the 4D computed tomography planning scans of three lung cancer patients. The optimization variables were MLC leaf positions as a function of monitor units and respiratory phase. The objective function was the deformable dose-summed 4D treatment plan score. MLC leaf motion was constrained by the maximum leaf velocity between control points in terms of monitor units for tumor motion parallel to the leaf travel direction and between phases for tumor motion parallel to the leaf travel direction. For comparison and a starting point for the 4D optimization, three-dimensional (3D) optimization was performed on each of the phases. The output of the 4D IMRT planning process is a leaf sequence which is a function of both monitor unit and phase, which can be delivered to a patient whose breathing may vary between the imaging and treatment sessions. The 4D treatment plan score improved during 4D optimization by 34%, 4%, and 50% for Patients A, B, and C, respectively, indicating 4D optimization generated a better 4D treatment plan than the deformable sum of individually optimized phase plans. The dose-volume histograms for each phase remained similar, indicating robustness of the 4D treatment plan to respiratory variations expected during treatment delivery. In summary, 4D optimization for respiratory phase-dependent treatment planning with dynamic MLC motion tracking improved the 4D treatment plan score by 4-50% compared with 3D optimization. The 4D treatment plans had leaf sequences that varied from phase to phase to account for anatomic motion, but showed similar target dose distributions in each phase. The current method could in principle be generalized for use in offline replanning between fractions or for online 4D treatment planning based on 4D cone-beam CT images. Computation time remains a challenge. PMID:24354751

  6. Marine Reserves

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Science Update

    2001-03-30

    Ever declining numbers of marine plants and fish are sending ecologists scrambling for better ways to protect the oceans. Some have suggested that marine reserves are the answer. This Science Update looks at the unexpected impact marine reserves have on their surroundings.

  7. Treatment plan comparison between helical tomotherapy and MLC-based IMRT using radiobiological measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mavroidis, Panayiotis; Costa Ferreira, Brigida; Shi, Chengyu; Lind, Bengt K.; Papanikolaou, Nikos

    2007-07-01

    The rapid implementation of advanced treatment planning and delivery technologies for radiation therapy has brought new challenges in evaluating the most effective treatment modality. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) using multi-leaf collimators (MLC) and helical tomotherapy (HT) are becoming popular modes of treatment delivery and their application and effectiveness continues to be investigated. Presently, there are several treatment planning systems (TPS) that can generate and optimize IMRT plans based on user-defined objective functions for the internal target volume (ITV) and organs at risk (OAR). However, the radiobiological parameters of the different tumours and normal tissues are typically not taken into account during dose prescription and optimization of a treatment plan or during plan evaluation. The suitability of a treatment plan is typically decided based on dosimetric criteria such as dose-volume histograms (DVH), maximum, minimum, mean and standard deviation of the dose distribution. For a more comprehensive treatment plan evaluation, the biologically effective uniform dose ({\\bar{\\bar{D}}}) is applied together with the complication-free tumour control probability (P+). Its utilization is demonstrated using three clinical cases that were planned with two different forms of IMRT. In this study, three different cancer types at different anatomical sites were investigated: head and neck, lung and prostate cancers. For each cancer type, a linac MLC-based step-and-shoot IMRT plan and a HT plan were developed. The MLC-based IMRT treatment plans were developed on the Philips treatment-planning platform, using the Pinnacle 7.6 software release. For the tomotherapy HiArt plans, the dedicated tomotherapy treatment planning station was used, running version 2.1.2. By using {\\bar{\\bar{D}}} as the common prescription point of the treatment plans and plotting the tissue response probabilities versus {\\bar{\\bar{D}}} for a range of prescription doses, a number of plan trials can be compared based on radiobiological measures. The applied plan evaluation method shows that in the head and neck cancer case the HT treatment gives better results than MLC-based IMRT in terms of expected clinical outcome (P+ of 62.2% and 46.0%, {\\bar{\\bar{D}}} to the ITV of 72.3 Gy and 70.7 Gy, respectively). In the lung cancer and prostate cancer cases, the MLC-based IMRT plans are better over the clinically useful dose prescription range. For the lung cancer case, the HT and MLC-based IMRT plans give a P+ of 66.9% and 72.9%, {\\bar{\\bar{D}}} to the ITV of 64.0 Gy and 66.9 Gy, respectively. Similarly, for the prostate cancer case, the two radiation modalities give a P+ of 68.7% and 72.2%, {\\bar{\\bar{D}}} to the ITV of 86.0 Gy and 85.9 Gy, respectively. If a higher risk of complications (higher than 5%) could be allowed, the complication-free tumour control could increase by over 40%, 2% and 30% compared to the initial dose prescription for the three cancer cases, respectively. Both MLC-based IMRT and HT can encompass the often-large ITV required while they minimize the volume of the organs at risk receiving high doses. Radiobiological evaluation of treatment plans may provide an improved correlation of the delivered treatment with the clinical outcome by taking into account the dose-response characteristics of the irradiated targets and normal tissues. There may exist clinical cases, which may look dosimetrically similar but in radiobiological terms may be quite different. In such situations, traditional dose-based evaluation tools can be complemented by the use of P_ +{-}{\\bar{\\bar{D}}} diagrams to effectively evaluate and compare treatment plans.

  8. Monitoring daily MLC positional errors using trajectory log files and EPID measurements for IMRT and VMAT deliveries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agnew, A.; Agnew, C. E.; Grattan, M. W. D.; Hounsell, A. R.; McGarry, C. K.

    2014-05-01

    This work investigated the differences between multileaf collimator (MLC) positioning accuracy determined using either log files or electronic portal imaging devices (EPID) and then assessed the possibility of reducing patient specific quality control (QC) via phantom-less methodologies. In-house software was developed, and validated, to track MLC positional accuracy with the rotational and static gantry picket fence tests using an integrated electronic portal image. This software was used to monitor MLC daily performance over a 1 year period for two Varian TrueBeam linear accelerators, with the results directly compared with MLC positions determined using leaf trajectory log files. This software was validated by introducing known shifts and collimator errors. Skewness of the MLCs was found to be 0.03 ± 0.06° (mean ±1 standard deviation (SD)) and was dependent on whether the collimator was rotated manually or automatically. Trajectory log files, analysed using in-house software, showed average MLC positioning errors with a magnitude of 0.004 ± 0.003 mm (rotational) and 0.004 ± 0.011 mm (static) across two TrueBeam units over 1 year (mean ±1 SD). These ranges, as indicated by the SD, were lower than the related average MLC positioning errors of 0.000 ± 0.025 mm (rotational) and 0.000 ± 0.039 mm (static) that were obtained using the in-house EPID based software. The range of EPID measured MLC positional errors was larger due to the inherent uncertainties of the procedure. Over the duration of the study, multiple MLC positional errors were detected using the EPID based software but these same errors were not detected using the trajectory log files. This work shows the importance of increasing linac specific QC when phantom-less methodologies, such as the use of log files, are used to reduce patient specific QC. Tolerances of 0.25 mm have been created for the MLC positional errors using the EPID-based automated picket fence test. The software allows diagnosis of any specific leaf that needs repair and gives an indication as to the course of action that is required.

  9. Effectiveness and Safety of MLC601 in the Treatment of Mild to Moderate Alzheimer's Disease: A Multicenter, Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Pakdaman, Hossein; Harandi, Ali Amini; Hatamian, Hamidreza; Tabatabae, Mojgan; Delavar Kasmaei, Hosein; Ghassemi, Amirhossein; Gharagozli, Koroush; Ashrafi, Farzad; Emami Naeini, Pardis; Tavakolian, Mehrnaz; Shahin, Darush

    2015-01-01

    Background MLC601 is a possible modulator of amyloid precursor protein processing, and in a clinical trial study MLC601 showed some effectiveness in cognitive function in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of MLC601 in the treatment of mild to moderate AD as compared to 3 approved cholinesterase inhibitors (ChEIs) including donepezil, rivastigmine and galantamine. Methods In a multicenter, nonblinded, randomized controlled trial, 264 volunteers with AD were randomly divided into 4 groups of 66; groups 1, 2, 3 and 4 received donepezil, rivastigmine, MLC601 and galantamine, respectively. Subjects underwent a clinical diagnostic interview and a cognitive/functional battery including the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale – Cognitive subscale (ADAS-Cog). Patients were visited every 4 months, and the score of cognition was recorded by the neurologists. Results There were no significant differences in age, sex, marital status and baseline score of cognition among the 4 groups. In total, 39 patients (14.7%) left the study. Trend of cognition changes based on the modifications over the time for MMSE and ADAS-cog scores did not differ significantly among groups (p = 0.92 for MMSE and p = 0.87 for ADAS-Cog). Conclusion MLC601 showed a promising safety profile and also efficacy compared to 3 FDA-approved ChEIs.

  10. Method of identifying dynamic multileaf collimator irradiation that is highly sensitive to a systematic MLC calibration error.

    PubMed

    Zygmanski, P; Kung, J H

    2001-11-01

    In intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), radiation is delivered in a multiple of multileaf collimator (MLC) subfields. A subfield with a small leaf-to-leaf opening is highly sensitive to a leaf-positional error. We introduce a method of identifying and rejecting IMRT plans that are highly sensitive to a systematic MLC gap error (sensitivity to possible random leaf-positional errors is not addressed here). There are two sources of a systematic MLC gap error: centerline mechanical offset (CMO) and, in the case of a rounded end MLC, radiation field offset (RFO). In IMRT planning system, using an incorrect value of RFO introduces a systematic error ARFO that results in all leaf-to-leaf gaps that are either too large or too small by (2*DeltaRFO), whereas assuming that CMO is zero introduces systematic error DeltaCMO that results in all gaps that are too large by DeltaCMO=CMO. We introduce a concept of the average leaf pair Opening (ALPO) that can be calculated from a dynamic MLC delivery file. We derive an analytic formula for a fractional average fluence error resulting from a systematic gap error of Deltax and show that it is inversely proportional to ALPO; explicitly it is equal to Deltax/(ALPO+ 2 * RFO+ epsilon), in which epsilon is generally of the order of 1 mm and Deltax =2 * Delta RFO + CMO. This analytic relationship is verified with independent numerical calculations. PMID:11764025

  11. An EPID response calculation algorithm using spatial beam characteristics of primary, head scattered and MLC transmitted radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Rosca, Florin; Zygmanski, Piotr [North Shore Cancer Center, 17 Centennial Drive, Peabody, Massachusetts 01960 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States)

    2008-06-15

    We have developed an independent algorithm for the prediction of electronic portal imaging device (EPID) response. The algorithm uses a set of images [open beam, closed multileaf collimator (MLC), various fence and modified sweeping gap patterns] to separately characterize the primary and head-scatter contributions to EPID response. It also characterizes the relevant dosimetric properties of the MLC: Transmission, dosimetric gap, MLC scatter [P. Zygmansky et al., J. Appl. Clin. Med. Phys. 8(4) (2007)], inter-leaf leakage, and tongue and groove [F. Lorenz et al., Phys. Med. Biol. 52, 5985-5999 (2007)]. The primary radiation is modeled with a single Gaussian distribution defined at the target position, while the head-scatter radiation is modeled with a triple Gaussian distribution defined downstream of the target. The distances between the target and the head-scatter source, jaws, and MLC are model parameters. The scatter associated with the EPID is implicit in the model. Open beam images are predicted to within 1% of the maximum value across the image. Other MLC test patterns and intensity-modulated radiation therapy fluences are predicted to within 1.5% of the maximum value. The presented method was applied to the Varian aS500 EPID but is designed to work with any planar detector with sufficient spatial resolution.

  12. Triptolide induces apoptosis in human leukemia cells through caspase-3-mediated ROCK1 activation and MLC phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, L; Li, G; Li, Q; Jin, Z; Zhang, L; Zhou, J; Hu, X; Zhou, T; Chen, J; Gao, N

    2013-01-01

    The diterpene triepoxide triptolide is a major active component of Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F, a popular Chinese herbal medicine with the potential to treat hematologic malignancies. In this study, we investigated the roles of triptolide in apoptosis and cell signaling events in human leukemia cell lines and primary human leukemia blasts. Triptolide selectively induced caspase-dependent cell death that was accompanied by the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, cytochrome c release, and Bax translocation from the cytosol to the mitochondria. Furthermore, we found that triptolide dramatically induced ROCK1 cleavage/activation and MLC and MYPT phosphorylation. ROCK1 was cleaved and activated by caspase-3, rather than RhoA. Inhibiting MLC phosphorylation by ML-7 significantly attenuated triptolide-mediated apoptosis, caspase activation, and cytochrome c release. In addition, ROCK1 inhibition also abrogated MLC and MYPT phosphorylation. Our in vivo study showed that both ROCK1 activation and MLC phosphorylation were associated with the tumor growth inhibition caused by triptolide in mouse leukemia xenograft models. Collectively, these findings suggest that triptolide-mediated ROCK1 activation and MLC phosphorylation may be a novel therapeutic strategy for treating hematological malignancies. PMID:24309928

  13. Exit Exam as Academic Performance Indicator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Ahmad, Mahmoud; Al Marzouqi, Ali H.; Hussien, Mousa

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on the impact of exit exams on different elements of the educational process, namely: curriculum development, students and instructors. A 50-question multiple-choice Exit Exam was prepared by Electrical Engineering (EE) faculty members covering a poll of questions from EE core courses. A copy of the Exit Exam applied during each…

  14. This work was supported in part by a grant from NSF, CSR 0910699. Data Storage Time Sensitive ECC Schemes for MLC NAND Flash Memories

    E-print Network

    Kambhampati, Subbarao

    NSF, CSR 0910699. Data Storage Time Sensitive ECC Schemes for MLC NAND Flash Memories C. Yang, D on multi- level cell (MLC) NAND Flash memories which store 2 or more bits per cell by supporting 4 or more and are becoming increasingly popular. Unfortunately, NAND Flash memories suffer from write/read disturbs, data

  15. Dosimetric and mechanical characteristics of a commercial dynamic {mu}MLC used in SRS

    SciTech Connect

    Galal, Mohamed M.; Keogh, Sinead; Khalil, Sultan [Physics Department, Hermitage Medical Clinic, Dublin 20, Ireland and Physics Unit, Kasr El-Aini Center of Oncology and Nuclear Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University (Egypt); Physics Department, Hermitage Medical Clinic, Dublin 20 (Ireland)

    2011-07-15

    Purpose: The aim of this work is to carry out mechanical and dosimetric assessments on a commercial dynamic micromulti leaf collimator system to be used for stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT). Mechanical parameters such as leaf position accuracy with different gantry angles and leaf position reproducibility were measured. Also dosimetric measurements of the interleaf leakage, intraleaf transmission, penumbra width, and light field alignment were carried out. Furthermore, measurements of output factors (S{sub cp}) and in-air factors (S{sub c}) for the {mu}MLC system will be reported. Methods: EBT2 films were used to assess the leaf position error with gantry angle and after stress test, penumbra width and light field alignment. Leaf leakage was quantified using both EBT2 film and a pinpoint ion chamber. With regard to output factors, the pinpoint chamber was placed in a water phantom at 10 cm depth and 100 cm SSD. For in-air output factor measurements, 0.2 cm of brass was placed above the photon diode as build-up. Results: Measurements of mechanical parameters gave values of 0.05 cm (SD 0.035) for the average leaf position accuracy for different gantry angles and after stress test. Dosimetric measurements, yielded values of 0.22 {+-} 0.01 and 0.24 {+-} 0.01 cm, respectively, for side and head leaf penumbras. Also, average leaf abutting, leakage and transmission were found to be 0.65, 0.91, and 0.20%, respectively. Conclusions: (a) The add-on {mu}MLC system in combination with our LINAC has been commissioned to be used for clinical purposes and showed good agreement with published results for different {mu}MLC types. (b) This work has lead to the recommendation that leaves should be recalibrated after ten static beams or after each dynamic arc.

  16. ELI Talent Show Final Exams

    E-print Network

    Pilyugin, Sergei S.

    Highlights ELI Talent Show Final Exams Scholarship Nominees Graduate Admissions Workshop Reminders from the Office Manners, Cultures, & Grammar TheELIWeekly ELI Talent Show It's going to be a blast! Come one, come all! The 2nd Annual ELI Talent Show will be on Tuesday, April 15th

  17. Econ 2 Practice First Exam

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    James Hamilton

    Exam -- twenty questions of multiple choice and four free response -- for an introductory or intermediate undergraduate (or advanced AP) economics class. Covers topics such as supply and demand, taxes, subsidies and dead weight loss, marginal revenue/marginal cost, competition and imperfect competition.

  18. Exam Schools from the Inside

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finn, Chester E., Jr.; Hockett, Jessica

    2012-01-01

    Sometimes called "exam schools," academically selective institutions have long been a part of the American secondary-education landscape. The schools are diverse in origin and purpose. No single catalyst describes why or how they began as or morphed into academically selective institutions. A number of them were products of the country's efforts…

  19. The dosimetric impact of inversely optimized arc radiotherapy plan modulation for real-time dynamic MLC tracking delivery

    SciTech Connect

    Falk, Marianne; Larsson, Tobias; Keall, Paul; Chul Cho, Byung; Aznar, Marianne; Korreman, Stine; Poulsen, Per; Munck af Rosenschoeld, Per [Radiation Medicine Research Center, Department of Radiation Oncology - 3994, Rigshospitalet, Blegdamsvej 9, DK - 2100 Copenhagen (Denmark) and Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen (Denmark); Radiation Medicine Research Center, Department of Radiation Oncology, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospital (Denmark); Radiation Physics Laboratory, Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney (Australia); Department of Radiation Oncology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Radiation Medicine Research Center, Department of Radiation Oncology, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospital, Denmark and Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen (Denmark); Radiation Medicine Research Center, Department of Radiation Oncology, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospital (Denmark); Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen (Denmark) and Department of Science, Systems and Models, Roskilde University (Denmark); Department of Oncology, Aarhus University Hospital (Denmark); Radiation Medicine Research Center, Department of Radiation Oncology, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospital (Denmark) and Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: Real-time dynamic multileaf collimator (MLC) tracking for management of intrafraction tumor motion can be challenging for highly modulated beams, as the leaves need to travel far to adjust for target motion perpendicular to the leaf travel direction. The plan modulation can be reduced by using a leaf position constraint (LPC) that reduces the difference in the position of adjacent MLC leaves in the plan. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of the LPC on the quality of inversely optimized arc radiotherapy plans and the effect of the MLC motion pattern on the dosimetric accuracy of MLC tracking delivery. Specifically, the possibility of predicting the accuracy of MLC tracking delivery based on the plan modulation was investigated. Methods: Inversely optimized arc radiotherapy plans were created on CT-data of three lung cancer patients. For each case, five plans with a single 358 deg. arc were generated with LPC priorities of 0 (no LPC), 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1 (highest possible LPC), respectively. All the plans had a prescribed dose of 2 Gy x 30, used 6 MV, a maximum dose rate of 600 MU/min and a collimator angle of 45 deg. or 315 deg. To quantify the plan modulation, an average adjacent leaf distance (ALD) was calculated by averaging the mean adjacent leaf distance for each control point. The linear relationship between the plan quality [i.e., the calculated dose distributions and the number of monitor units (MU)] and the LPC was investigated, and the linear regression coefficient as well as a two tailed confidence level of 95% was used in the evaluation. The effect of the plan modulation on the performance of MLC tracking was tested by delivering the plans to a cylindrical diode array phantom moving with sinusoidal motion in the superior-inferior direction with a peak-to-peak displacement of 2 cm and a cycle time of 6 s. The delivery was adjusted to the target motion using MLC tracking, guided in real-time by an infrared optical system. The dosimetric results were evaluated using gamma index evaluation with static target measurements as reference. Results: The plan quality parameters did not depend significantly on the LPC (p {>=} 0.066), whereas the ALD depended significantly on the LPC (p < 0.001). The gamma index failure rate depended significantly on the ALD, weighted to the percentage of the beam delivered in each control point of the plan (ALD{sub w}) when MLC tracking was used (p < 0.001), but not for delivery without MLC tracking (p {>=} 0.342). The gamma index failure rate with the criteria of 2% and 2 mm was decreased from > 33.9% without MLC tracking to <31.4% (LPC 0) and <2.2% (LPC 1) with MLC tracking. Conclusions: The results indicate that the dosimetric robustness of MLC tracking delivery of an inversely optimized arc radiotherapy plan can be improved by incorporating leaf position constraints in the objective function without otherwise affecting the plan quality. The dosimetric robustness may be estimated prior to delivery by evaluating the ALD{sub w} of the plan.

  20. Characterization of megavoltage electron beams delivered through a photon multi-leaf collimator (pMLC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    du Plessis, F. C. P.; Leal, A.; Stathakis, S.; Xiong, W.; Ma, C.-M.

    2006-04-01

    A study is presented that characterizes megavoltage electron beams delivered through an existing double-focused photon multi-leaf collimator (pMLC) using film measurements in a solid water phantom. Machine output stability and linearity were evaluated as well as the effect of source-to-surface distance (SSD) and field size on the penumbra for electron energies between 6 and 18 MeV over an SSD range of 60-100 cm. Penumbra variations as a function of field size, depth of measurement and the influence of the jaws were also studied. Field abutment, field flatness and target coverage for segmented beams were also addressed. The measured field size for electrons transported through the pMLC was the same as that for an x-ray beam up to SSDs of 70 cm. At larger SSD, the lower energy electron fields deviated from the projected field. Penumbra data indicated that 60 cm SSD was the most favourable treatment distance. Backprojection of P20-80 penumbra data yielded a virtual source position located at 98.9 cm from the surface for 18 MeV electrons. For 6 MeV electrons, the virtual source position was at a distance of 82.6 cm. Penumbra values were smaller for small beam slits and reached a near-constant value for field widths larger than 5 cm. The influence of the jaws had a small effect on the penumbra. The R90 values ranged from 1.4 to 4.8 cm between 6 and 21 MeV as measured at 60 cm SSD for a 9 × 9 cm2 field. Uniformity and penumbra improvement could be demonstrated using weighted abutted fields especially useful for small segments. No detectable electron leakage through the pMLC was observed. Bremsstrahlung measurements taken at 60 cm SSD for a 9 × 9 cm2 field as shaped by the pMLC compared within 1% to bremsstrahlung measurements taken at 100 cm SSD for a 10 × 10 cm2 electron applicator field at 100 cm SSD.

  1. Neuropathy - Coordination Exam - Lower Extremities Sub-exam - Patient 7

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Pearson, John C.

    This video demonstrates a coordination exam of the lower extremities. This 61-year-old man has had slowly progressive gait disturbance and weakness of his legs for 14 years. He has developed a limp in both legs, and his feet trip on objects and on uneven floor surfaces resulting in falls. Weakness and numbness of the legs is limiting his ability to walk. Viewing the video requires installation of the free QuickTime Plug-in.

  2. Development of a Monte Carlo model for the Brainlab microMLC.

    PubMed

    Belec, Jason; Patrocinio, Horacio; Verhaegen, Frank

    2005-03-01

    Stereotactic radiosurgery with several static conformal beams shaped by a micro multileaf collimator (microMLC) is used to treat small irregularly shaped brain lesions. Our goal is to perform Monte Carlo calculations of dose distributions for certain treatment plans as a verification tool. A dedicated microMLC component module for the BEAMnrc code was developed as part of this project and was incorporated in a model of the Varian CL2300 linear accelerator 6 MV photon beam. As an initial validation of the code, the leaf geometry was visualized by tracing particles through the component module and recording their position each time a leaf boundary was crossed. The leaf dimensions were measured and the leaf material density and interleaf air gap were chosen to match the simulated leaf leakage profiles with film measurements in a solid water phantom. A comparison between Monte Carlo calculations and measurements (diode, radiographic film) was performed for square and irregularly shaped fields incident on flat and homogeneous water phantoms. Results show that Monte Carlo calculations agree with measured dose distributions to within 2% and/or 1 mm except for field size smaller than 1.2 cm diameter where agreement is within 5% due to uncertainties in measured output factors. PMID:15798255

  3. DEK Depletion Negatively Regulates Rho/ROCK/MLC Pathway in Non–Small Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Junying; Sun, Limei; Yang, Mingyue; Luo, Wenting; Gao, Ying; Liu, Zihui; Wang, Enhua

    2013-01-01

    The human DEK proto-oncogene is a nuclear protein with suspected roles in human carcinogenesis. DEK appears to function in several nuclear processes, including transcriptional regulation and modulation of chromatin structure. To investigate the clinicopathological significance of DEK in patients with non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), we analyzed DEK immunohistochemistry in 112 NSCLC cases. The results showed that DEK was overexpressed mainly in the nuclear compartment of tumor cells. In squamous cell carcinoma, DEK-positive expression occurred in 47.9% (23/48) of cases, and in lung adenocarcinoma, DEK-positive expression occurred in 67.2% (43/64) of cases and correlated with differentiation, p-TNM stage, and nodal status. Moreover, in lung adenocarcinoma, DEK expression was significantly higher compared with DEK expression in squamous cell carcinoma. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that patients with low DEK expression had higher overall survival compared with patients with high DEK expression. Depleting DEK expression inhibited cellular proliferation and migration. Furthermore, in DEK-depleted NSCLC cells, we found that RhoA expression was markedly reduced; in conjunction, active RhoA-GTP levels and the downstream effector phosphorylated MLC2 were also reduced. Taken together, DEK depletion inhibited cellular migration in lung cancer cell lines possibly through inactivation of the RhoA/ROCK/MLC signal transduction pathway. PMID:23571382

  4. Biological consequences of MLC calibration errors in IMRT delivery and QA

    SciTech Connect

    Moiseenko, Vitali; LaPointe, Vincent; James, Kerry; Yin Lingshu; Liu, Mitchell; Pawlicki, Todd

    2012-04-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this work is threefold: (1) to explore biological consequences of the multileaf collimator (MLC) calibration errors in intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) of prostate and head and neck cancers, (2) to determine levels of planning target volume (PTV) and normal tissue under- or overdose flagged with clinically used QA action limits, and (3) to provide biologically based input for MLC QA and IMRT QA action limits. Methods: Ten consecutive prostate IMRT cases and ten consecutive head and neck IMRT cases were used. Systematic MLC offsets (i.e., calibration error) were introduced for each control point of the plan separately for X1 and X2 leaf banks. Offsets were from - 2 to 2 mm with a 0.5 mm increment. The modified files were imported into the planning system for forward dose recalculation. The original plan served as the reference. The generalized equivalent uniform dose (gEUD) was used as the biological index for the targets, rectum, parotid glands, brainstem, and spinal cord. Each plan was recalculated on a CT scan of a 27 cm diameter cylindrical phantom with a contoured 0.6 cc ion chamber. Dose to ion chamber and 3D gamma analysis were compared to the reference plan. QA pass criteria: (1) at least 95% of voxels with a dose cutoff of 50% of maximum dose have to pass at 3 mm/3% and (2) dose to chamber within 2% of the reference dose. Results: For prostate cases, differences in PTV and rectum gEUD greater than 2% were identified. However, a larger proportion of plans leading to greater than 2% difference in prostate PTV gEUD passed the ion chamber QA but not 3D gamma QA. A similar trend was found for the rectum gEUD. For head and neck IMRT, the QA pass criteria flagged plans leading to greater than 4% differences in PTV gEUD and greater than 5% differences in the maximum dose to brainstem. If pass criteria were relaxed to 90% for gamma and 3% for ion chamber QA, plans leading to a 5% difference in PTV gEUD and a 5%-8% difference in brainstem maximum dose would likely pass IMRT QA. A larger proportion of head and neck plans with greater than 2% PTV gEUD difference passed 3D gamma QA compared to ion chamber QA. Conclusions: For low modulation plans, there is a better chance to catch MLC calibration errors with 3D gamma QA rather than ion chamber QA. Conversely, for high modulation plans, there is a better chance to catch MLC calibration errors with ion chamber QA rather than with 3D gamma QA. Ion chamber and 3D gamma analysis IMRT QA can detect greater than 2% change in gEUD for PTVs and critical structures for low modulation treatment plans. For high modulation treatment plans, ion chamber and 3D gamma analysis can detect greater than 2% change in gEUD for PTVs and a 5% change in critical structure gEUD since either QA methods passes the QA criteria. For gEUD changes less than those listed above, either QA method has the same proportion of passing rate.

  5. In vitro study of cell survival following dynamic MLC intensity-modulated radiation therapy dose delivery

    SciTech Connect

    Moiseenko, Vitali; Duzenli, Cheryl; Durand, Ralph E. [Vancouver Cancer Centre, British Columbia Cancer Agency, 600 West 10th Avenue, Vancouver, British Columbia V5Z 4E6 (Canada) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, 6224 Agricultural Road, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z1 (Canada); BCCA Cancer Research Centre, 675 West 10th Avenue, Vancouver, British Columbia V5Z 1L3 (Canada)

    2007-04-15

    The possibility of reduced cell kill following intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) compared to conventional radiation therapy has been debated in the literature. This potential reduction in cell kill relates to prolonged treatment times typical of IMRT dose delivery and consequently increased repair of sublethal lesions. While there is some theoretical support to this reduction in cell kill published in the literature, direct experimental evidence specific to IMRT dose delivery patterns is lacking. In this study we present cell survival data for three cell lines: Chinese hamster V79 fibroblasts, human cervical carcinoma, SiHa and colon adenocarcinoma, WiDr. Cell survival was obtained for 2.1 Gy delivered as acute dose with parallel-opposed pair (POP), irradiation time 75 s, which served as a reference; regular seven-field IMRT, irradiation time 5 min; and IMRT with a break for multiple leaf collimator (MLC) re-initialization after three fields were delivered, irradiation time 10 min. An actual seven-field dynamic MLC IMRT plan for a head and neck patient was used. The IMRT plan was generated for a Varian EX or iX linear accelerator with 120 leaf Millenium MLC. Survival data were also collected for doses 1x, 2x, 3x, 4x, and 5x 2.1 Gy to establish parameters of the linear-quadratic equation describing survival following acute dose delivery. Cells were irradiated inside an acrylic cylindrical phantom specifically designed for this study. Doses from both IMRT and POP were validated using ion chamber measurements. A reproducible increase in cell survival was observed following IMRT dose delivery. This increase varied from small for V79, with a surviving fraction of 0.8326 following POP vs 0.8420 following uninterrupted IMRT, to very pronounced for SiHa, with a surviving fraction of 0.3903 following POP vs 0.5330 for uninterrupted IMRT. When compared to IMRT or IMRT with a break for MLC initialization, cell survival following acute dose delivery was significantly different, p<0.05, in three out of six cases. In contrast, when cell survival following IMRT was compared to that following IMRT with a break for MLC initialization the difference was always statistically insignificant. When projected to a 30 fraction treatment, dose deficit to bring cell survival to the same value as in POP was calculated as 4.1, 24.9, and 31.1 Gy for V79, WiDr, and SiHa cell lines, respectively. The dose deficit did not relate to the {alpha}/{beta} ratio obtained in this study for the three cell lines. Clinical data do not show reduction in local control following IMRT. Possible reasons for this are discussed. The obtained data set can serve as a test data set for models designed to explore the effect of dose delivery prolongation/fractionation in IMRT on radiation therapy outcome.

  6. 978-3-9815370-0-0/DATE13/2013 EDAA Threshold Voltage Distribution in MLC NAND Flash Memory

    E-print Network

    978-3-9815370-0-0/DATE13/©2013 EDAA Threshold Voltage Distribution in MLC NAND Flash Memory.haratsch@lsi.com Abstract--With continued scaling of NAND flash memory process technology and multiple bits programmed per memories. Index Terms-- NAND Flash, Memory Reliability, Memory Signal Processing, Threshold Voltage

  7. 978-3-9810801-8-6/DATE12/2012 EDAA Error Patterns in MLC NAND Flash Memory

    E-print Network

    978-3-9810801-8-6/DATE12/©2012 EDAA Error Patterns in MLC NAND Flash Memory: Measurement for flash memory. Keywords-NAND flash; error patterns; endurance; reliability; error correction I. INTRODUCTION NAND flash memory [1] has been widely used as a storage medium for many systems such as laptops

  8. Mlc Is a Transcriptional Activator with a Key Role in Integrating Cyclic AMP Receptor Protein and Integration Host Factor Regulation of Leukotoxin RNA Synthesis in Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans

    PubMed Central

    Childress, Catherine; Feuerbacher, Leigh A.; Phillips, Linda; Burgum, Alex

    2013-01-01

    Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, a periodontal pathogen, synthesizes leukotoxin (LtxA), a protein that helps the bacterium evade the host immune response. Transcription of the ltxA operon is induced during anaerobic growth. The cyclic AMP (cAMP) receptor protein (CRP) indirectly increases ltxA expression, but the intermediary regulator is unknown. Integration host factor (IHF) binds to and represses the leukotoxin promoter, but neither CRP nor IHF is responsible for the anaerobic induction of ltxA RNA synthesis. Thus, we have undertaken studies to identify other regulators of leukotoxin transcription and to demonstrate how these proteins work together to modulate leukotoxin synthesis. First, analyses of ltxA RNA expression from defined leukotoxin promoter mutations in the chromosome identify positions ?69 to ?35 as the key control region and indicate that an activator protein modulates leukotoxin transcription. We show that Mlc, which is a repressor in Escherichia coli, functions as a direct transcriptional activator in A. actinomycetemcomitans; an mlc deletion mutant reduces leukotoxin RNA synthesis, and recombinant Mlc protein binds specifically at the ?68 to ?40 region of the leukotoxin promoter. Furthermore, we show that CRP activates ltxA expression indirectly by increasing the levels of Mlc. Analyses of ?mlc, ?ihf, and ?ihf ?mlc strains demonstrate that Mlc can increase RNA polymerase (RNAP) activity directly and that IHF represses ltxA RNA synthesis mainly by blocking Mlc binding. Finally, a ?ihf ?mlc mutant still induces ltxA during anaerobic growth, indicating that there are additional factors involved in leukotoxin transcriptional regulation. A model for the coordinated regulation of leukotoxin transcription is presented. PMID:23475968

  9. High-Dose Spatially Fractionated GRID Radiation Therapy (SFGRT): A Comparison of Treatment Outcomes With Cerrobend vs. MLC SFGRT

    SciTech Connect

    Neuner, Geoffrey, E-mail: gneuner@umm.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Mohiuddin, Majid M. [Northwest Radiation Oncology and University of Texas Medical School at Houston, Houston, TX (United States); Vander Walde, Noam [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Goloubeva, Olga [Marlene and Stewart Greenebaum Cancer Center, University of Maryland Medical Center, Baltimore, MD (United States); Ha, Jonathan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California (United States); Yu, Cedric X.; Regine, William F. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: Spatially fractionated GRID radiotherapy (SFGRT) using a customized Cerrobend block has been used to improve response rates in patients with bulky tumors. The clinical efficacy of our own multileaf collimator (MLC) technique is unknown. We undertook a retrospective analysis to compare clinical response rates attained using these two techniques. Methods and Materials: Seventy-nine patients with bulky tumors (median diameter, 7.6 cm; range, 4-30 cm) treated with SFGRT were reviewed. Between 2003 and late 2005, the Cerrobend block technique (n = 39) was used. Between late 2005 and 2008, SFGRT was delivered using MLC-shaped fields (n = 40). Dose was prescribed to dmax (depth of maximum dose) and was typically 15 Gy. Eighty percent of patients in both groups received external beam radiotherapy in addition to SFGRT. The two-sided Fisher-Freeman-Halton test was used to compare pain and mass effect response rates between the two groups. Results: Sixty-one patients (77%) were treated for palliative intent and 18 (23%) for curative intent. The majority of patients had either lung or head-and-neck primaries in both groups; the most frequent site of SFGRT application was the neck. The majority of patients complained of either pain (65%) or mass effect (58%) at intake. Overall response rates for pain and mass response were no different between the Cerrobend and MLC groups: pain, 75% and 74%, respectively (p = 0.50), and mass effect, 67% and 73%, respectively (p = 0.85). The majority of toxicities were Grade 1 or 2, and only 3 patients had late Grade 3-4 toxicities. Conclusions: MLC-based and Cerrobend-based SFGRT have comparable and encouraging response rates when used either in the palliative or curative setting. MLC-based SGFRT should allow clinics to more easily adopt this novel treatment approach for the treatment of bulky tumors.

  10. University of South Carolina Student Exams

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    What exactly did university students study in the 19th century? Better yet, what were their exams like? Both questions are answered in part by this digital collection offered up by the University of South Carolina's Digital Collections group. Drawing on their holdings, this collection features student exams in a variety of subjects from 1854 to 1917. The exams are indicative of the changing nature of the university's curriculum over this period, as visitors will note that after the 1870s there is a distinct movement towards more practical materials. Some of the exams are dated, and others can be linked to a certain professor or general time period. Visitors can look at a list of the exams, and then use the viewer to scrutinize the details. Along with the questions, some of the exams have hand-written answers, which are of great interest as well.

  11. CompTIA A+ Certifications and Exams

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    A+ certification is one of the most widely recognized computer technician certification programs. Certification is granted by a non-profit trade organization CompTIA and is vendor neutral. This webpage (from CompTIA website) provides links to A+ certification exam preparation material). Links are given to sample test questions and pages providing information on exam objectives; finding training materials & providers; test taking tips; financial aid; and registering for the exam. Information, including a name and email address, are required.

  12. The art of a pediatric exam.

    PubMed

    Riley, Debra

    2014-06-15

    This article discusses incorporating "artistry" into a primary care pediatric exam, a technique that considers a child's cognitive developmental stage, previous medical experiences, and the family's general stressors and fears. Benefits of using the artistic exam technique include decreased fear and anxiety for both the child and parent and fewer unnecessary diagnostic tests. The artistic exam has also been shown to improve adherence to pre- and postcare instructions and improved quality outcomes. PMID:24841465

  13. Profile of State High School Exit Exam Policies. Nevada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This individual profile provides information on Nevada's high school exit exam standards and policies. Some of the categories presented include: (1) State exit exam policy; (2) Type of Test; (3) Purpose; (4) Major changes in exit exam policy since the 2009-10 school year for financial reasons; (5) Subjects tested on exam; (6) Grade exam first…

  14. Profile of State High School Exit Exam Policies. South Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This individual profile provides information on South Carolina's high school exit exam standards and policies. Some of the categories presented include: (1) State exit exam policy; (2) Type of Test; (3) Purpose; (4) Major changes in exit exam policy since the 2009-10 school year for financial reasons; (5) Subjects tested on exam; (6) Grade exam

  15. State High School Exit Exams: A Baseline Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chudowsky, Naomi; Kober, Nancy; Gayler, Keith S.; Hamilton, Madlene

    This report presents baseline findings from a 3-year study of state exit exams. The study involved data from all states with current or planned exit exams; case studies of five states; and research review. Researchers examined: why so many states are adopting high school exit exams, impacts of exit exams on students, what the exams are like, and…

  16. Dosimetric evaluation of photon dose calculation under jaw and MLC shielding

    SciTech Connect

    Fogliata, A.; Clivio, A.; Vanetti, E.; Nicolini, G.; Belosi, M. F.; Cozzi, L. [Oncology Institute of Southern Switzerland, Medical Physics Unit, Bellinzona 6500 (Switzerland)] [Oncology Institute of Southern Switzerland, Medical Physics Unit, Bellinzona 6500 (Switzerland)

    2013-10-15

    Purpose: The accuracy of photon dose calculation algorithms in out-of-field regions is often neglected, despite its importance for organs at risk and peripheral dose evaluation. The present work has assessed this for the anisotropic analytical algorithm (AAA) and the Acuros-XB algorithms implemented in the Eclipse treatment planning system. Specifically, the regions shielded by the jaw, or the MLC, or both MLC and jaw for flattened and unflattened beams have been studied.Methods: The accuracy in out-of-field dose under different conditions was studied for two different algorithms. Measured depth doses out of the field, for different field sizes and various distances from the beam edge were compared with the corresponding AAA and Acuros-XB calculations in water. Four volumetric modulated arc therapy plans (in the RapidArc form) were optimized in a water equivalent phantom, PTW Octavius, to obtain a region always shielded by the MLC (or MLC and jaw) during the delivery. Doses to different points located in the shielded region and in a target-like structure were measured with an ion chamber, and results were compared with the AAA and Acuros-XB calculations. Photon beams of 6 and 10 MV, flattened and unflattened were used for the tests.Results: Good agreement between calculated and measured depth doses was found using both algorithms for all points measured at depth greater than 3 cm. The mean dose differences (±1SD) were ?8%± 16%, ?3%± 15%, ?16%± 18%, and ?9%± 16% for measurements vs AAA calculations and ?10%± 14%, ?5%± 12%, ?19%± 17%, and ?13%± 14% for Acuros-XB, for 6X, 6 flattening-filter free (FFF), 10X, and 10FFF beams, respectively. The same figures for dose differences relative to the open beam central axis dose were: ?0.1%± 0.3%, 0.0%± 0.4%, ?0.3%± 0.3%, and ?0.1%± 0.3% for AAA and ?0.2%± 0.4%, ?0.1%± 0.4%, ?0.5%± 0.5%, and ?0.3%± 0.4% for Acuros-XB. Buildup dose was overestimated with AAA, while Acuros-XB gave results more consistent with measurements. From RapidArc plan analysis the average difference between calculation and measurement in the shielded region was ?0.3%± 0.4% and ?2.5%± 1.2% for AAA and Acuros-XB, respectively, relative to the mean target dose value (1.6%± 2.3%, ?12.7%± 4.0% if relative to each local value). These values were compared with the corresponding differences in the target structure: ?0.7%± 2.3% for AAA, and ?0.5%± 2.3% for Acuros-XB.Conclusions: The two algorithms analyzed showed encouraging results in predicting out-of-field region dose for clinical use.

  17. CMPE101 Exam Information Spring, 2012 Cmpe 101 and its Challenge Exam

    E-print Network

    Barrett, William A.

    or its equivalent. Passing this exam is not a guarantee of passing CMPE 126, but failing this exam101 Exam Information Spring, 2012 2 CMPE 46 CMPE 101 test CMPE 101 course CMPE 126 pass fail pass fail is to assess a student's ability to succeed in CMPE 126, Data Structures and Algorithms, after taking CMPE 46

  18. Image-based dynamic MLC tracking of moving targets during intensity modulated arc therapy

    PubMed Central

    Poulsen, Per Rugaard; Fledelius, Walther; Cho, Byungchul; Keall, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Intensity modulated arc therapy (IMAT) enables efficient and highly conformal dose delivery. However, intrafraction motion may compromise the delivered target dose distribution. Dynamic MLC (DMLC) tracking can potentially mitigate the impact of target motion on the dose. The purpose of this study was to use a single kV imager for DMLC tracking during IMAT and to investigate the ability of this tracking to maintain the dose distribution. Methods A motion phantom carrying a 2D ion chamber array and build-up material with an embedded gold marker reproduced eight representative tumor trajectories(four lung tumors,four prostate). For each trajectory, a low and high intensity modulated IMAT plan were delivered with and without DMLC tracking. The 3D real-time target position signal for tracking was provided by fluoroscopic kV images acquired immediately before and during treatment. For each image, the 3D position of the embedded marker was estimated from the imaged 2D position by a probability based method. The MLC leaves were continuously refitted to the estimated 3D position. For lung, prediction was used to compensate for the tracking latency. The delivered 2D dose distributions were measured with the ion chamber array and compared with a reference dose distribution delivered without target motion using a 3%/3mm ?-test. Results For lung tumor motion, tracking reduced the mean ?-failure rate from 38% to 0.7% for low modulation IMAT plans and from 44% to 2.8% for high modulation plans. For prostate, the ?-failure rate reduction was from 19% to 0% (low modulation) and from 20% to 2.7% (high modulation). The dominating contributor to the residual ?-failures during tracking was target localization errors for most lung cases and leaf fitting for most prostate cases. Conclusion Image-based tracking for IMAT was demonstrated for the first time. The tracking greatly improved the dose distributions to moving targets. PMID:22401924

  19. From Exam Factories to Communities of Discovery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coffield, Frank; Williamson, Bill

    2011-01-01

    The British current model of education has turned schools into exam factories and further education colleges and universities into skills factories for British industry. In their book, "From Exam Factories to Communities of Discovery: the Democratic Route," the authors offer an alternative way of thinking and talking about education, as well as…

  20. X-Ray Exam: Cervical Spine

    MedlinePLUS

    KidsHealth > Parents > Doctors & Hospitals > Medical Tests & Exams > X-Ray Exam: Cervical Spine Print A A A Text Size What's in this article? What It Is Why It's Done Preparation Procedure What to Expect Getting the Results Risks Helping Your Child If ...

  1. Economics 201B - Final Exam -- 2001

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Final examination for an economics class at UCLA focusing on game theory. The exam provides some economic contextualization, but focuses mostly on theory. Solutions to the exam are available here: http://levine.sscnet.ucla.edu/econ201/final01a.pdf.

  2. Physics Exams that Promote Collaborative Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieman, Carl E.; Rieger, Georg W.; Heiner, Cynthia E.

    2014-01-01

    The two-stage exam is a relatively simple way to introduce collaborative learning and formative assessment into an exam. Their use is rapidly growing in the physics department at the University of British Columbia, as both students and faculty find them rewarding. In a two-stage exam students first complete and turn in the exam individually, and then, working in small groups, answer the exam questions again. During the second stage, the room is filled with spirited and effective debate with nearly every student participating. This provides students with immediate targeted feedback supplied by discussions with their peers. Furthermore, we see indications that the use of this exam format not only ensures consistency across interactive course components, but it also positively impacts how students approach the other collaborative course components. This is accomplished without losing the summative assessment of individual performance that is the expectation of exams for most instructors. In this paper we describe how to implement two-stage exams and provide arguments why they should be part of physics courses that use interactive engagement and social/collaborative learning methods.

  3. Exam Preparation Identifying Levels of Learning

    E-print Network

    , statistics, terms, persons, phenomenon, and places. Typical exam wording includes: choose, define, find into identifiable parts so that organizational structures, patterns and relationships between the parts can be made to recognize relationships between parts, combine and organize components, and create a new whole. Typical exam

  4. A Zeroing Cell-to-Cell Interference Page Architecture With Temporary LSB Storing and Parallel MSB Program Scheme for MLC NAND Flash Memories

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ki-Tae Park; Myounggon Kang; Doogon Kim; Soon-Wook Hwang; Byung Yong Choi; Yeong-Taek Lee; Changhyun Kim; Kinam Kim

    2008-01-01

    A new MLC NAND page architecture is presented as a breakthrough solution for sub-40-nm MLC NAND flash memories and beyond. To reduce cell-to-cell interference which is well known as the most critical scaling barrier for NAND flash memories, a novel page architecture including temporary LSB storing program and parallel MSB program schemes is proposed. A BL voltage modulated ISPP scheme

  5. Dr. Campbell's Bio111 Exam #3 Spring 2007 Spring 2007 Biology 111 In-Class Exam #3 BioEnergetics

    E-print Network

    Campbell, A. Malcolm

    this exam take you to complete (excluding typing)? #12;Dr. Campbell's Bio111 Exam #3 ­ Spring 2007 2 Lab's Bio111 Exam #3 ­ Spring 2007 3 4 pts. 3) List two possible products of fermentation and how many

  6. Exam Frequency Comparison in Introductory Soil Science

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    K. Barbarick

    This article describes a study in which the number of exams administered in a semester was examined to determine its impact on students' grades and on course evaluations regarding their recommendation of the course and the instructor to other students. The course was an introductory soil science course in which, over 3 semesters, 5 exams were given per semester. For the next 5 semesters, the number of exams was increased to 10 per semester. For the most recent semesters, students responded that they preferred more frequent exams. Grouping of the semesters into those with either 5 or 10 tests showed a higher overall class grade-point average for the semesters with more tests, and a Chi-square test showed that the higher grades were due to an increase in the proportion of A's. This grouping also showed that giving more exams did not significantly affect the students' response concerning recommendations of the course or the instructor to other students.

  7. Comparison of two Classification methods (MLC and SVM) to extract land use and land cover in Johor Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rokni Deilmai, B.; Ahmad, B. Bin; Zabihi, H.

    2014-06-01

    Mapping is essential for the analysis of the land use and land cover, which influence many environmental processes and properties. For the purpose of the creation of land cover maps, it is important to minimize error. These errors will propagate into later analyses based on these land cover maps. The reliability of land cover maps derived from remotely sensed data depends on an accurate classification. In this study, we have analyzed multispectral data using two different classifiers including Maximum Likelihood Classifier (MLC) and Support Vector Machine (SVM). To pursue this aim, Landsat Thematic Mapper data and identical field-based training sample datasets in Johor Malaysia used for each classification method, which results indicate in five land cover classes forest, oil palm, urban area, water, rubber. Classification results indicate that SVM was more accurate than MLC. With demonstrated capability to produce reliable cover results, the SVM methods should be especially useful for land cover classification.

  8. The Potential Role of MLC Phosphatase and MAPK Signaling in the Pathogenesis of Vascular Dysfunction in Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Ogut, Ozgur; Brozovich, Frank V

    2010-01-01

    The clinical syndrome of heart failure is associated with both a resting vasoconstriction and reduced sensitivity to NO mediated vasodilatation, and this review will focus on the role of MLC phosphatase in the pathogenesis of the vascular abnormalities of heart failure. NO mediates vasodilatation by an activation of guanylate cyclase and an increase in the production of cGMP, which leads to the activation of the type I cGMP dependent protein kinase (PKGI). PKGI then activates a number of targets that produce smooth muscle relaxation including MLC phosphatase. MLC phosphatase is a holoenzyme consisting of three subunits; a 20 kDa subunit of unknown function, a ~38 kDa catalytic subunit and a myosin targeting subunit (MYPT1). Alternative splicing of a 31 bp 3’ exon can generate MYPT1 isoforms, which differ by a COOH-terminus leucine zipper (LZ). Further, PKGI mediated activation of MLC phosphatase requires the expression of a LZ+ MYPT1. CHF is associated with a decrease in LZ+ MYPT1 expression, which results in a decrease in the sensitivity to cGMP mediated smooth muscle relaxation. Beyond their ability to reduce afterload, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors have a number of beneficial effects that include maintaining the expression of the LZ+ MYPT1 isoform, thereby conserving normal sensitivity to cGMP mediated vasodilatation, as well as differentially regulating genes associated with MAPK signaling. ACE inhibition reduces circulating angiotensin II and thus limits the downstream activation of MAPK signaling pathways, possibly preventing the alteration of the vascular phenotype to preserve normal vascular function. PMID:19120700

  9. The potential role of MLC phosphatase and MAPK signalling in the pathogenesis of vascular dysfunction in heart failure.

    PubMed

    Ogut, Ozgur; Brozovich, Frank V

    2008-12-01

    The clinical syndrome of heart failure is associated with both a resting vasoconstriction and reduced sensitivity to nitric oxide mediated vasodilatation, and this review will focus on the role of myosin light chain (MLC) phosphatase in the pathogenesis of the vascular abnormalities of heart failure. Nitric oxide mediates vasodilatation by an activation of guanylate cyclase and an increase in the production of cGMP, which leads to the activation of the type I cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKGI). PKGI then activates a number of targets that produce smooth muscle relaxation including MLC phosphatase. MLC phosphatase is a holoenzyme consisting of three subunits; a 20 kD subunit of unknown function, an approximately 38-kD catalytic subunit and a myosin targeting subunit (MYPT1). Alternative splicing of a 31 bp 3 exon generates MYPT1 isoforms, which differ by a COOH-terminus leucine zipper (LZ). Further, PKGI-mediated activation of MLC phosphatase requires the expression of a LZ+ MYPT1. Congestive heart failure is associated with a decrease in LZ+ MYPT1 expression, which results in a decrease in the sensitivity to cGMP-mediated smooth muscle relaxation. Beyond their ability to reduce afterload, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors have a number of beneficial effects that include maintaining the expression of the LZ+ MYPT1 isoform, thereby conserving normal sensitivity to cGMP-mediated vasodilatation, as well as differentially regulating genes associated with mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling. ACE inhibition reduces circulating angiotensin II and thus limits the downstream activation of MAPK signalling pathways, possibly preventing the alteration of the vascular phenotype to preserve normal vascular function. PMID:19120700

  10. A hybrid flash translation layer design for SLC-MLC flash memory based multibank solid state disk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jung-Wook Park; Seung-Ho Park; Charles C. Weems; Shin-Dug Kim

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the design of a NAND flash based solid state disk (SSD), which can support various storage access patterns commonly observed in a PC environment. It is based on a hybrid model of high-performance SLC (single-level cell) NAND and low cost MLC (multi-level cell) NAND flash memories. Typically, SLC NAND has a higher transfer rate and greater cell

  11. A 34 MB\\/s MLC Write Throughput 16 Gb NAND With All Bit Line Architecture on 56 nm Technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raul-Adrian Cernea; Long Pham; Farookh Moogat; Siu Chan; Binh Le; Yan Li; Shouchang Tsao; Tai-Yuan Tseng; Khanh Nguyen; Jason Li; Jayson Hu; Jong Hak Yuh; Cynthia Hsu; Fanglin Zhang; Teruhiko Kamei; Hiroaki Nasu; Phil Kliza; Khin Htoo; Jeffrey Lutze; Yingda Dong; Masaaki Higashitani; Junnhui Yang; Hung-Szu Lin; Vamshi Sakhamuri; Alan Li; Feng Pan; Sridhar Yadala; Subodh Taigor; Kishan Pradhan; James Lan; James Chan; Takumi Abe; Yasuyuki Fukuda; Hideo Mukai; Koichi Kawakami; Connie Liang; Tommy Ip; Shu-Fen Chang; Jaggi Lakshmipathi; Sharon Huynh; Dimitris Pantelakis; Mehrdad Mofidi; Khandker Quader

    2009-01-01

    A 16 Gb 4-state MLC NAND flash memory augments the sustained program throughput to 34 MB\\/s by fully exercising all the available cells along a selected word line and by using additional performance enhancement modes. The same chip operating as an 8 Gb SLC device guarantees over 60 MB\\/s programming throughput. The newly introduced all bit line (ABL) architecture has

  12. A dosimetric evaluation of the Eclipse AAA algorithm and Millennium 120 MLC for cranial intensity-modulated radiosurgery.

    PubMed

    Calvo Ortega, Juan Francisco; Moragues, Sandra; Pozo, Miquel; José, Sol San; Puertas, Enrique; Fernández, Jaime; Casals, Joan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the accuracy of a convolution-based algorithm (anisotropic analytical algorithm [AAA]) implemented in the Eclipse planning system for intensity-modulated radiosurgery (IMRS) planning of small cranial targets by using a 5-mm leaf-width multileaf collimator (MLC). Overall, 24 patient-based IMRS plans for cranial lesions of variable size (0.3 to 15.1cc) were planned (Eclipse, AAA, version 10.0.28) using fixed field-based IMRS produced by a Varian linear accelerator equipped with a 120 MLC (5-mm width on central leaves). Plan accuracy was evaluated according to phantom-based measurements performed with radiochromic film (EBT2, ISP, Wayne, NJ). Film 2D dose distributions were performed with the FilmQA Pro software (version 2011, Ashland, OH) by using the triple-channel dosimetry method. Comparison between computed and measured 2D dose distributions was performed using the gamma method (3%/1mm). Performance of the MLC was checked by inspection of the DynaLog files created by the linear accelerator during the delivery of each dynamic field. The absolute difference between the calculated and measured isocenter doses for all the IMRS plans was 2.5% ± 2.1%. The gamma evaluation method resulted in high average passing rates of 98.9% ± 1.4% (red channel) and 98.9% ± 1.5% (blue and green channels). DynaLog file analysis revealed a maximum root mean square error of 0.46mm. According to our results, we conclude that the Eclipse/AAA algorithm provides accurate cranial IMRS dose distributions that may be accurately delivered by a Varian linac equipped with a Millennium 120 MLC. PMID:24342166

  13. AFFORDABLE MULTI-LAYER CERAMIC (MLC) MANUFACTURING FOR POWER SYSTEMS (AMPS)

    SciTech Connect

    E.A. Barringer, Ph.D.

    2002-11-27

    McDermott Technology, Inc. (MTI) is attempting to develop high-performance, cost-competitive solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) power systems. Recognizing the challenges and limitations facing the development of SOFC stacks comprised of electrode-supported cells and metallic interconnects, McDermott Technology, Inc. (MTI) has chosen to pursue an alternate path to commercialization. MTI is developing a multi-layer, co-fired, planar SOFC stack that will provide superior performance and reliability at reduced costs relative to competing designs. The MTI approach combines state-of-the-art SOFC materials with the manufacturing technology and infrastructure established for multi-layer ceramic (MLC) packages for the microelectronics industry. The rationale for using MLC packaging technology is that high quality, low-cost manufacturing has been demonstrated at high volumes. With the proper selection of SOFC materials, implementation of MLC fabrication methods offers unique designs for stacks (cells and interconnects) that are not possible through traditional fabrication methods. The MTI approach eliminates use of metal interconnects and ceramic-metal seals, which are primary sources of stack performance degradation. Co-fired cells are less susceptible to thermal cycling stresses by using material compositions that have closely matched coefficients of thermal expansion between the cell and the interconnect. The development of this SOFC stack technology was initiated in October 1999 under the DOE cosponsored program entitled ''Affordable Multi-layer Ceramic Manufacturing for Power Systems (AMPS)''. The AMPS Program was conducted as a two-phase program: Phase I--Feasibility Assessment (10/99--9/00); and Phase II--Process Development for Co-fired Stacks (10/00-3/02). This report provides a summary of the results from Phase I and a more detailed review of the results for Phase II. Phase I demonstrated the feasibility for fabricating multi-layer, co-fired cells and interconnects and resulted in selection of the most promising configuration for high-performance, low-cost SOFC stacks. During Phase II, the MTI Team successfully refined the fabrication processes and achieved low-rate production of cells and interconnects (about 100 per month). Short stacks (3-10 cells) using co-fired cells and interconnects were assembled and tested to validate the MTI multi-layer SOFC design. The team successfully demonstrated co-fired repeat units, comprised of a cell and the interconnect layers. Development of co-fired cells and multi-layer interconnects based on the new stack design was completed; all component fabrication and stack testing efforts were redirected to the new design toward the end of Phase II. Finally, low-cost alternate materials for the interconnect body and conductors within the interconnect were identified. At the end of Phase II, the MTI Team successfully transitioned the multi-layer SOFC stack development effort to the Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) program.

  14. Federal Reserve Banks: Federal Reserve System

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Feds on the Web site was developed by the Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis to provide easy access to information from the Federal Reserve System. At the site, visitors may link to each of the twelve Federal Reserve Banks and Board of Governors via a short list of unique types of information available at each site. A map of the Federal Reserve districts, mailing addresses and phone numbers are also available at the site.

  15. Matching marine reserve design to reserve objectives.

    PubMed Central

    Halpern, Benjamin S; Warner, Robert R

    2003-01-01

    Recent interest in using marine reserves for marine resource management and conservation has largely been driven by the hope that reserves might counteract declines in fish populations and protect the biodiversity of the seas. However, the creation of reserves has led to dissension from some interested groups, such as fishermen, who fear that reserves will do more harm than good. These perceived differences in the effect of marine reserves on various stakeholder interests has led to a contentious debate over their merit. We argue here that recent findings in marine ecology suggest that this debate is largely unnecessary, and that a single general design of a network of reserves of moderate size and variable spacing can meet the needs and goals of most stakeholders interested in marine resources. Given the high fecundity of most marine organisms and recent evidence for limited distance of larval dispersal, it is likely that reserves can both maintain their own biodiversity and service nearby non-reserve areas. In particular, spillover of larger organisms and dispersal of larvae to areas outside reserves can lead to reserves sustaining or even increasing local fisheries. Ultimately, the success of any reserve network requires attention to the uncertainty and variability in dispersal patterns of marine organisms, clear statements of goals by all stakeholder groups and proper evaluation of reserve performance. PMID:14561299

  16. Experimental investigation of a moving averaging algorithm for motion perpendicular to the leaf travel direction in dynamic MLC target tracking

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Jai-Woong; Sawant, Amit; Suh, Yelin; Cho, Byung-Chul; Suh, Tae-Suk; Keall, Paul [Department of Biomedical Engineering, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea 131-700 and Research Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, 131-700 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States) and Department of Radiation Oncology, Asan Medical Center, Seoul, 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Biomedical Engineering, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, 131-700 and Research Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, 131-700 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States) and Radiation Physics Laboratory, Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, 2006 (Australia)

    2011-07-15

    Purpose: In dynamic multileaf collimator (MLC) motion tracking with complex intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) fields, target motion perpendicular to the MLC leaf travel direction can cause beam holds, which increase beam delivery time by up to a factor of 4. As a means to balance delivery efficiency and accuracy, a moving average algorithm was incorporated into a dynamic MLC motion tracking system (i.e., moving average tracking) to account for target motion perpendicular to the MLC leaf travel direction. The experimental investigation of the moving average algorithm compared with real-time tracking and no compensation beam delivery is described. Methods: The properties of the moving average algorithm were measured and compared with those of real-time tracking (dynamic MLC motion tracking accounting for both target motion parallel and perpendicular to the leaf travel direction) and no compensation beam delivery. The algorithm was investigated using a synthetic motion trace with a baseline drift and four patient-measured 3D tumor motion traces representing regular and irregular motions with varying baseline drifts. Each motion trace was reproduced by a moving platform. The delivery efficiency, geometric accuracy, and dosimetric accuracy were evaluated for conformal, step-and-shoot IMRT, and dynamic sliding window IMRT treatment plans using the synthetic and patient motion traces. The dosimetric accuracy was quantified via a {gamma}-test with a 3%/3 mm criterion. Results: The delivery efficiency ranged from 89 to 100% for moving average tracking, 26%-100% for real-time tracking, and 100% (by definition) for no compensation. The root-mean-square geometric error ranged from 3.2 to 4.0 mm for moving average tracking, 0.7-1.1 mm for real-time tracking, and 3.7-7.2 mm for no compensation. The percentage of dosimetric points failing the {gamma}-test ranged from 4 to 30% for moving average tracking, 0%-23% for real-time tracking, and 10%-47% for no compensation. Conclusions: The delivery efficiency of moving average tracking was up to four times higher than that of real-time tracking and approached the efficiency of no compensation for all cases. The geometric accuracy and dosimetric accuracy of the moving average algorithm was between real-time tracking and no compensation, approximately half the percentage of dosimetric points failing the {gamma}-test compared with no compensation.

  17. An algorithm for shifting MLC shapes to adjust for daily prostate movement during concurrent treatment with pelvic lymph nodes

    SciTech Connect

    Ludlum, Erica; Mu, Guangwei; Weinberg, Vivian; Roach, Mack III; Verhey, Lynn J.; Xia Ping [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California-San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94143 (United States)

    2007-12-15

    Concurrent treatment of the prostate and the pelvic lymph nodes encounters the problem of the prostate gland moving independently from the pelvic lymph nodes on a daily basis. The purpose of this study is to develop a leaf-tracking algorithm for adjustment of IMRT portals without requirement of online dose calculation to account for daily prostate position during concurrent treatment with pelvic lymph nodes. A leaf-shifting algorithm was developed and programmed to adjust the positions of selected MLC leaf pairs according to prostate movement in the plane perpendicular to each beam angle. IMRT plans from five patients with concurrent treatment of the prostate and pelvic lymph nodes were selected to test the feasibility of this algorithm by comparison with isocenter-shifted plans, using defined dose endpoints. When the prostate moved 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 cm along the anterior/posterior direction, the average doses to 95% of the prostate (D{sub 95%}) for the iso-shift plans were similar to the MLC-shift plans, (54.7, 54.4, and 54.1 Gy versus 54.5, 54.3, and 53.9 Gy, respectively). The corresponding D{sub 95%} averages to the pelvic lymph nodes were reduced from the prescription dose of 45 Gy to 42.7, 38.3, and 34.0 Gy for iso-shift plans (p=0.04 for each comparison), while the D{sub 95%} averages for the MLC-shift plans did not significantly differ from the prescription dose, at 45.0, 44.8, and 44.5 Gy. Compensation for prostate movement along the superior/inferior direction was more complicated due to a limiting MLC leaf width of 1.0 cm. In order to concurrently treat the prostate and pelvic lymph nodes with the prostate moving independently, shifting selected MLC leaf pairs may be a more practical adaptive solution than shifting the patient.

  18. An MLC-based linac QA procedure for the characterization of radiation isocenter and room lasers' position

    SciTech Connect

    Rosca, Florin; Lorenz, Friedlieb; Hacker, Fred L.; Chin, Lee M.; Ramakrishna, Naren; Zygmanski, Piotr [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States)

    2006-06-15

    We have designed and implemented a new stereotactic linac QA test with stereotactic precision. The test is used to characterize gantry sag, couch wobble, cone placement, MLC offsets, and room lasers' positions relative to the radiation isocenter. Two MLC star patterns, a cone pattern, and the laser line patterns are recorded on the same imaging medium. Phosphor plates are used as imaging medium due to their sensitivity to red light. The red light of room lasers erases some of the irradiation information stored on the phosphor plates enabling accurate and direct measurements for the position of room lasers and radiation isocenter. Using film instead of the phosphor plate as imaging medium is possible, however, it is less practical. The QA method consists of irradiating four phosphor plates that record the gantry sag between the 0 deg.and 180 deg.gantry angles, the position and stability of couch rotational axis, the sag between the 90 deg.and 270 deg.gantry angles, the accuracy of cone placement on the collimator, the MLC offsets from the collimator rotational axis, and the position of laser lines relative to the radiation isocenter. The estimated accuracy of the method is {+-}0.2 mm. The observed reproducibility of the method is about {+-}0.1 mm. The total irradiation/illumination time is about 10 min per image. Data analysis, including the phosphor plate scanning, takes less than 5 min for each image. The method characterizes the radiation isocenter geometry with the high accuracy required for the stereotactic radiosurgery. In this respect, it is similar to the standard ball test for stereotactic machines. However, due to the usage of the MLC instead of the cross-hair/ball, it does not depend on the cross-hair/ball placement errors with respect to the lasers and it provides more information on the mechanical integrity of the linac/couch/laser system. Alternatively, it can be used as a highly accurate QA procedure for the nonstereotactic machines. Noteworthy is its ability to characterize the MLC position accuracy, which is an important factor in IMRT delivery.

  19. Oral Exams as a Tool for Teaching and Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sayre, Eleanor C.

    2014-01-01

    Oral exams are a fruitful and practical alternative to written exams in small-enrolment Science classes. In an oral exam, the instructor can assess conceptual understanding, problem-solving, scientific communication skills, and a student's philosophy of science. In contrast, a written exam gives a much poorer picture of how students learn and…

  20. Physics Exam Preparation: A Comparison of Three Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fakcharoenphol, Witat; Stelzer, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    In this clinical study on helping students prepare for an exam, we compared three different treatments. All students were asked to take a practice exam. One group was then given worked-out solutions for that exam, another group was given the solutions and targeted exercises to do as homework based on the result of their practice exam, and the…

  1. Copyright 1996. All rights reserved. Copyright 1996. All rights reserved.

    E-print Network

    Galloway, Laura F.

    Copyright © 1996. All rights reserved. #12;Copyright © 1996. All rights reserved. #12;Copyright © 1996. All rights reserved. #12;Copyright © 1996. All rights reserved. #12;Copyright © 1996. All rights reserved. #12;Copyright © 1996. All rights reserved. #12;Copyright © 1996. All rights reserved. #12

  2. Academic Advising & Career Centre: A team of professionals who advise, counsel and coach individuals with their learning and career development. September 2010, source; jt. Academic Advising & Career Centre. All Rights Reserved.

    E-print Network

    Boonstra, Rudy

    learning is enhanced by doing. Exam Preparation and Exam Writing Extreme Time Management LearningAcademic Advising & Career Centre: A team of professionals who advise, counsel and coach & Career Centre. All Rights Reserved. Study Skills Services The Academic Advising and Career Centre (AA

  3. A New Comprehensive Final Exam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhavsar, Suketu P.

    2015-01-01

    Instructors aspire for students to master all the material covered. The final exam should assess the breadth and depth of their learning and be a significant basis for the final grade. I insist on a comprehensive final because I want students to review early material in light of later topics. I believe that this helps students create connections, integrate understanding, and retain knowledge for the long term. For non-science majors, reviewing and retaining the large amount of astronomy material is daunting. I experimented with a final exam format that calmed their fears and encouraged thorough review. It is only practical for a class of about twenty students or less. I provided a number of challenging conceptual and problem solving questions (at least as many as there were students), crafted to interconnect and span the entire range of topics. The order of the questions reflected the sequence in which the topics had been discussed. Students received these questions in ample time to prepare prior to the final. A student could bring up to 5 standard sheets of notes to the final. At the final, each student picked a number out of a hat. This was the question they had to answer in a 5-minute presentation. They were allowed 15 minutes for a final preparation during which they could use their 5 pages of notes. The presentations were given in order, 1- 20. Written comments on at least 10 other talks, explaining what was missed or correcting a mistake were required. They were graded both on their talk and on their comments. This format required students to be prepared for any question and encouraged interaction and communication while studying. Knowing the questions beforehand provided a guide to their studying as well as allayed their fears about what could be asked. The students also received guidance to what constituted a good answer, namely accuracy (correct scientific argument, appropriate facts, no irrelevant material), thoroughness (answered the complete questions, covered relevant material) and the quality of the presentation (polished, professional, use of demonstrations, graphs, pictures etc. and time appropriately to present a clear answer). I will describe this first attempt.

  4. Taking Exams (Black Box Software Testing classes)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Cem Kaner

    2011-06-01

    This subset of the Black Box Software Testing collection includes lecture videos, slides, suggested readings, and study questions focusing on skills needed for Taking Exams - especially answering essay questions.

  5. Procedures for Comprehensive Exams 1. Students must pass a written comprehensive exam in each of two fields. Students

    E-print Network

    Hill, Wendell T.

    Procedures for Comprehensive Exams 1. Students must pass a written comprehensive exam in each of two fields. Students who fail either exam more than once will not be allowed to continue with the relevant field chair). If 2 or more members of the exam committee cast passing votes, the student is deemed

  6. A Light-Field-Based Method to Adjust On-Axis Rounded Leaf End MLC Position to Predict Off-Axis MLC Penumbra Region Dosimetric Performance in a Radiation Therapy Planning System

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jia-Ming; Lee, Tsair-Fwu; Yeh, Shyh-An; Hsiao, Kuan-Yin; Chen, Hsin-Hsiung; Chao, Pei-Ju; Chen, Yi-Ting

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. An analytical and experimental study of split shape dose calculation correction by adjusting the position of the on-axis round leaf end position is presented. We use on-axis corrected results to predict off-axis penumbra region dosimetric performance in an intensity-modulated radiation therapy treatment planning system. Materials and Methods. The precise light-field edge position (X tang.p) was derived from the on-axis 50% dose position created by using the nominal light field for geometric and mathematical manipulation. Leaf position (X mlc.p) could be derived from X tang.p by defining in the treatment planning system for monitor unit calculation. On-axis offset (correction) could be obtained from the position corresponding to 50% of the central axis dose minus the Xmlc.p position. The off-axis 50% dose position can then be derived from the on-axis 50% dose position. Results. The monitor unit calculation of the split shape using the on-axis rounded leaf end MLC penumbra region could provide an under-or overdose of 7.5% per millimeter without an offset correction. When using the on-axis rounded leaf end offset correction to predict the off-axis dose, the difference between the off- and on-axis 50% dose position is within ±1.5?mm. Conclusions. It is possible to achieve a dose calculation within 0.5% error for an adjusted MLC leaf edge location in the treatment planning system with careful measurement and an accurate on-axis offset correction. Dose calculations located at an off-axis spilt shape region should be used carefully due to noncorrectable errors which were found to be up to 10%. PMID:24288680

  7. Instructions of the NTU Health Exam for Incoming Exchange Students (Health Exam Time)

    E-print Network

    Wu, Yih-Min

    ) 2 () Department of Family Medicine, Health Exam Register, 2F of the older wing of the National) 3456 1 4. 6 5 #12;2Pay Pay at the counter next to the Department of Ophthalmology on 2F to the waiting area near the Department of Family Medicine for blood test. 6Exam items by doctor; submit

  8. Only requires 1 form sent back with exams Sends prepaid UPS label to return exams

    E-print Network

    score 75% Exam offered in: Eng, Spn, Chin, Japanese, Korean, French Canadian, Lg Print National Exam 5yr in a quarter (as long as not the same test form), Do not know of a rule on number of attempts per 12 month

  9. Normal - Station and Gait Exam - Station Sub-exam - Patient 1

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Pearson, John C.

    This video demonstrates a normal patient station and gait exam. The patient is a female with no known neurological health problems who volunteered to act as a simulated patient in order to demonstrate 'normal' responses to exam techniques. Viewing the video requires installation of the free QuickTime Plug-in.

  10. Normal - Cranial Nerves Exam - Vestibulocochlear (CN VIII) Nerve Sub-exam - Patient 1

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Pearson, John C.

    This video depicts the 'normal' patient responses that should occur during a cranial nerves exam. The patient in the video is a female with no known neurological health problems who volunteered to act as a simulated patient in order to demonstrate 'normal' responses to exam techniques. Viewing the video requires installation of the free QuickTime Plug-in.

  11. Relationship between Students' Formative Exam-Taking Strategies and Summative Exam Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klecker, Beverly M.; Klecker, Richard L.

    2010-01-01

    This study explored graduate students' formative exam-taking strategies in an online classroom. Research questions were: (1) What formative test-taking strategies did students use? (2) Were the strategies related to the students' final exam scores? Students (N=50) in a semester-long measurement class took weekly formative 20-item, multiple-choice…

  12. Real-time motion-adaptive delivery (MAD) using binary MLC: II. Rotational beam (tomotherapy) delivery.

    PubMed

    Lu, Weiguo

    2008-11-21

    TomoTherapy delivery is controlled by a planned, projection-wised leaf sequence (sinogram) that is optimized during treatment planning. In this paper, we developed a software solution for real-time motion compensation that delivers helical TomoTherapy plans without modifying the hardware and workflow of the TomoTherapy delivery system. Unlike the dynamic MLC-based method, our technique only requires instantaneous tumor positions, which greatly simplifies its implementation. This technique re-uses the planned sinogram by shuffling its projections and leaf sequences. In order to compensate for longitudinal tumor motion in real-time, instead of sequential execution of the planned sinogram, the projections are executed out of order. That is, we may choose a past or future projection of the planned sinogram rather than the current projection depending on tumor motion, so that the planned radiation source position of the chosen projection is the same as the radiation source position at the current delivery time in the tumor reference frame. The transverse tumor motion is further compensated for by shifting and scaling the leaf open time of the chosen projection. We tested different planned sinograms that were optimized using various synthetic tumor/OAR configurations, as well as planned sinogram of a lung cancer patient, all with zero motion margins. Various TomoTherapy machine parameters and both regular and irregular respiratory traces were used in calculations. By applying the motion-adaptive delivery (MAD) technique, the delivered dose matched the planned dose very well in both DVH and dose profiles. As for the regular and minor irregular respiration, the dose errors were well below 3 mm and 3% criteria. No hot and cold spots were noticeable. For irregular respiration with some missing breathing cycles, this method demonstrates the capability for motion margin reduction. PMID:18978445

  13. Real-time motion-adaptive delivery (MAD) using binary MLC: II. Rotational beam (tomotherapy) delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Weiguo

    2008-11-01

    TomoTherapy delivery is controlled by a planned, projection-wised leaf sequence (sinogram) that is optimized during treatment planning. In this paper, we developed a software solution for real-time motion compensation that delivers helical TomoTherapy plans without modifying the hardware and workflow of the TomoTherapy delivery system. Unlike the dynamic MLC-based method, our technique only requires instantaneous tumor positions, which greatly simplifies its implementation. This technique re-uses the planned sinogram by shuffling its projections and leaf sequences. In order to compensate for longitudinal tumor motion in real-time, instead of sequential execution of the planned sinogram, the projections are executed out of order. That is, we may choose a past or future projection of the planned sinogram rather than the current projection depending on tumor motion, so that the planned radiation source position of the chosen projection is the same as the radiation source position at the current delivery time in the tumor reference frame. The transverse tumor motion is further compensated for by shifting and scaling the leaf open time of the chosen projection. We tested different planned sinograms that were optimized using various synthetic tumor/OAR configurations, as well as planned sinogram of a lung cancer patient, all with zero motion margins. Various TomoTherapy machine parameters and both regular and irregular respiratory traces were used in calculations. By applying the motion-adaptive delivery (MAD) technique, the delivered dose matched the planned dose very well in both DVH and dose profiles. As for the regular and minor irregular respiration, the dose errors were well below 3 mm and 3% criteria. No hot and cold spots were noticeable. For irregular respiration with some missing breathing cycles, this method demonstrates the capability for motion margin reduction.

  14. A new MLC segmentation algorithm/software for step-and-shoot IMRT delivery.

    PubMed

    Luan, Shuang; Wang, Chao; Chen, Danny Z; Hu, Xiaobo S; Naqvi, Shahid A; Yu, Cedric X; Lee, Chad L

    2004-04-01

    We present a new MLC segmentation algorithm/software for step-and-shoot IMRT delivery. Our aim in this work is to shorten the treatment time by minimizing the number of segments. Our new segmentation algorithm, called SLS (an abbreviation for static leaf sequencing), is based on graph algorithmic techniques in computer science. It takes advantage of the geometry of intensity maps. In our SLS approach, intensity maps are viewed as three-dimensional (3-D) "mountains" made of unit-sized "cubes." Such a 3-D "mountain" is first partitioned into special-structured submountains using a new mixed partitioning scheme. Then the optimal leaf sequences for each submountain are computed by either a shortest-path algorithm or a maximum-flow algorithm based on graph models. The computations of SLS take only a few minutes. Our comparison studies of SLS with CORVUS (both the 4.0 and 5.0 versions) and with the Xia and Verhey segmentation methods on Elekta Linac systems showed substantial improvements. For instance, for a pancreatic case, SLS used only one-fifth of the number of segments required by CORVUS 4.0 to create the same intensity maps, and the SLS sequences took only 25 min to deliver on an Elekta SL 20 Linac system in contrast to the 72 min for the CORVUS 4.0 sequences (a three-fold improvement). To verify the accuracy of our new leaf sequences, we conducted film and ion-chamber measurements on phantom. The results showed that both the intensity distributions as well as dose distributions of the SLS delivery match well with those of CORVUS delivery. SLS can also be extended to other types of Linac systems. PMID:15124986

  15. Structural basis for the interaction of the myosin light chain Mlc1p with the myosin V Myo2p IQ motifs.

    PubMed

    Pennestri, Matteo; Melino, Sonia; Contessa, Gian Marco; Casavola, Elena Caroli; Paci, Maurizio; Ragnini-Wilson, Antonella; Cicero, Daniel O

    2007-01-01

    Calmodulin, regulatory, and essential myosin light chain are evolutionary conserved proteins that, by binding to IQ motifs of target proteins, regulate essential intracellular processes among which are efficiency of secretory vesicles release at synapsis, intracellular signaling, and regulation of cell division. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae calmodulin Cmd1 and the essential myosin light chain Mlc1p share the ability to interact with the class V myosin Myo2p and Myo4 and the class II myosin Myo1p. These myosins are required for vesicle, organelle, and mRNA transport, spindle orientation, and cytokinesis. We have used the budding yeast model system to study how calmodulin and essential myosin light chain selectively regulate class V myosin function. NMR structural analysis of uncomplexed Mlc1p and interaction studies with the first three IQ motifs of Myo2p show that the structural similarities between Mlc1p and the other members of the EF-hand superfamily of calmodulin-like proteins are mainly restricted to the C-lobe of these proteins. The N-lobe of Mlc1p presents a significantly compact and stable structure that is maintained both in the free and complexed states. The Mlc1p N-lobe interacts with the IQ motif in a manner that is regulated both by the IQ motifs sequence as well as by light chain structural features. These characteristic allows a distinctive interaction of Mlc1p with the first IQ motif of Myo2p when compared with calmodulin. This finding gives us a novel view of how calmodulin and essential light chain, through a differential binding to IQ1 of class V myosin motor, regulate this activity during vegetative growth and cytokinesis. PMID:17074768

  16. Structure of the small Dictyostelium discoideum myosin light chain MlcB provides insights into MyoB IQ motif recognition.

    PubMed

    Liburd, Janine; Chitayat, Seth; Crawley, Scott W; Munro, Kim; Miller, Emily; Denis, Chris M; Spencer, Holly L; Côté, Graham P; Smith, Steven P

    2014-06-13

    Dictyostelium discoideum MyoB is a class I myosin involved in the formation and retraction of membrane projections, cortical tension generation, membrane recycling, and phagosome maturation. The MyoB-specific, single-lobe EF-hand light chain MlcB binds the sole IQ motif of MyoB with submicromolar affinity in the absence and presence of Ca(2+). However, the structural features of this novel myosin light chain and its interaction with its cognate IQ motif remain uncharacterized. Here, we describe the NMR-derived solution structure of apoMlcB, which displays a globular four-helix bundle. Helix 1 adopts a unique orientation when compared with the apo states of the EF-hand calcium-binding proteins calmodulin, S100B, and calbindin D9k. NMR-based chemical shift perturbation mapping identified a hydrophobic MyoB IQ binding surface that involves amino acid residues in helices I and IV and the functional N-terminal Ca(2+) binding loop, a site that appears to be maintained when MlcB adopts the holo state. Complementary mutagenesis and binding studies indicated that residues Ile-701, Phe-705, and Trp-708 of the MyoB IQ motif are critical for recognition of MlcB, which together allowed the generation of a structural model of the apoMlcB-MyoB IQ complex. We conclude that the mode of IQ motif recognition by the novel single-lobe MlcB differs considerably from that of stereotypical bilobal light chains such as calmodulin. PMID:24790102

  17. MlcR, a zinc cluster activator protein, is able to bind to a single (A/T)CGG site of cognate asymmetric motifs in the ML-236B (compactin) biosynthetic gene cluster.

    PubMed

    Baba, Satoshi; Kinoshita, Hiroshi; Hosobuchi, Masahiko; Nihira, Takuya

    2009-06-01

    All of the binding sequences for MlcR, a transcriptional activator of ML-236B (compactin) biosynthetic genes in Penicillium citrinum, were identified by an in vitro gel-shift assay. All the identified sequences contain an asymmetric direct repeat comprised of conserved tetrad bases (A/T)CGG with a spacer sequence of high similarity; in particular, G at position 2 and T at position 3 in the spacer are well conserved. The first (A/T)CGG repeat was essential for MlcR-binding and MlcR could bind to this monomeric site, probably as a monomer. This binding feature might enable MlcR to tolerate the variation of the spacer length and compositions in vitro. From these data, we propose that the consensus binding motif for MlcR is an asymmetric direct repeat, 5'-(A/T)CGG-NGTN(3-6)-TCGG-3'. PMID:19266218

  18. Federal Reserve Bulletin

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Federal Reserve Bulletin is a monthly publication written and compiled by staff members of the Federal Reserve Board of Governors, reporting and analyzing economic developments, data, and bank regulatory issues.

  19. Effect of MLC Leaf Width and PTV Margin on the Treatment Planning of Intensity-Modulated Stereotactic Radiosurgery (IMSRS) or Radiotherapy (IMSRT)

    SciTech Connect

    Chang Jenghwa [Medical Physics Department, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); Department of Electrical Engineering, Columbia University, New York, NY (United States) and Radiation Oncology Department, New York University Medical Center, New York, NY (United States)], E-mail: changj@mskcc.org; Yenice, Kamil M.; Jiang Kailiu; Hunt, Margie; Narayana, Ashwatha [Medical Physics Department, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); Department of Electrical Engineering, Columbia University, New York, NY (United States) and Radiation Oncology Department, New York University Medical Center, New York, NY (United States)

    2009-07-01

    We studied the effect of MLC (multileaf collimator) leaf width and PTV (planning target volume) margin on treatment planning of intensity modulated stereotactic radiosurgery (IMSRS) or radiotherapy (IMSRT). Twelve patients previously treated with IMSRS/IMSRT were retrospectively planned with 5- and 3-mm MLC leaf widths and 3- and 2-mm PTV margins using the already contoured clinical target volume and critical structures. The same beam arrangement, planning parameters, and optimization method were used in each of the 4 plans for a given patient. Each plan was normalized so that the prescription dose covered at least 99% of the PTV. Plan indices - D{sub mean} (mean dose), conformity index (CI), V{sub 70} (volume receiving {>=} 70% of the prescription dose), and V{sub 50} (volume receiving {>=} 50% of the prescription dose) - were calculated from the dose-volume histograms (DVHs) of the PTV, normal tissue, and organs at risk (OARs). Hypothesis testing was performed on the mean ratios of plan indices to determine the statistical significance of the relative differences. The PTV was well covered for all plans, as no significant differences were observed for D{sub 95}, V{sub 95}, D{sub max}, D{sub min}, and D{sub mean} of the PTV. The irradiated volume was {approx}23% smaller when 2-mm instead of 3-mm PTV margin was used, but it was only reduced by {approx}6% when the MLC leaf width was reduced from 5 mm to 3 mm. For normal tissue and brainstem, V{sub 70}, V{sub 50}, and D{sub mean} were reduced more effectively by a decrease in MLC width, while D{sub mean} of optic nerve and chiasm were more sensitive to a change in PTV margin. The DVH statistics for the PTV and normal structures from the treatment plan with 5-mm MLC and 2-mm PTV margin were equal to those with 3-mm MLC and 3-mm PTV margin. PTV margin reduction is more effective in sparing the normal tissue and OARs than a reduction in MLC leaf width. For IMSRS, where highly accurate setup and small PTV margins are routinely employed, the use of 5-mm MLC is therefore less desirable.

  20. Can Students Predict Their Scores in Exams?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    H. Sharma

    This article describes a statistical study in which students were asked to predict their own exam scores. The actual and predicted scores of 61 students in 6 years of an advanced plant genetics course and the differences between their actual and predicted scores were analyzed by various statistical measures. An overall mean difference between actual and predicted scores showed that the students, on average, were able to predict their scores within 5 percent of the actual value. However, students were not able to predict their exam scores accurately or precisely; the difference between actual and predicted scores was statistically different from zero. In addition, student demographic types such as age, GPA, or level of education were not significant factors for accuracy in predicting marks on the exam.

  1. Asymmetric Programming: A Highly Reliable Metadata Allocation Strategy for MLC NAND Flash Memory-Based Sensor Systems

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Min; Liu, Zhaoqing; Qiao, Liyan

    2014-01-01

    While the NAND flash memory is widely used as the storage medium in modern sensor systems, the aggressive shrinking of process geometry and an increase in the number of bits stored in each memory cell will inevitably degrade the reliability of NAND flash memory. In particular, it's critical to enhance metadata reliability, which occupies only a small portion of the storage space, but maintains the critical information of the file system and the address translations of the storage system. Metadata damage will cause the system to crash or a large amount of data to be lost. This paper presents Asymmetric Programming, a highly reliable metadata allocation strategy for MLC NAND flash memory storage systems. Our technique exploits for the first time the property of the multi-page architecture of MLC NAND flash memory to improve the reliability of metadata. The basic idea is to keep metadata in most significant bit (MSB) pages which are more reliable than least significant bit (LSB) pages. Thus, we can achieve relatively low bit error rates for metadata. Based on this idea, we propose two strategies to optimize address mapping and garbage collection. We have implemented Asymmetric Programming on a real hardware platform. The experimental results show that Asymmetric Programming can achieve a reduction in the number of page errors of up to 99.05% with the baseline error correction scheme. PMID:25310473

  2. Asymmetric programming: a highly reliable metadata allocation strategy for MLC NAND flash memory-based sensor systems.

    PubMed

    Huang, Min; Liu, Zhaoqing; Qiao, Liyan

    2014-01-01

    While the NAND flash memory is widely used as the storage medium in modern sensor systems, the aggressive shrinking of process geometry and an increase in the number of bits stored in each memory cell will inevitably degrade the reliability of NAND flash memory. In particular, it's critical to enhance metadata reliability, which occupies only a small portion of the storage space, but maintains the critical information of the file system and the address translations of the storage system. Metadata damage will cause the system to crash or a large amount of data to be lost. This paper presents Asymmetric Programming, a highly reliable metadata allocation strategy for MLC NAND flash memory storage systems. Our technique exploits for the first time the property of the multi-page architecture of MLC NAND flash memory to improve the reliability of metadata. The basic idea is to keep metadata in most significant bit (MSB) pages which are more reliable than least significant bit (LSB) pages. Thus, we can achieve relatively low bit error rates for metadata. Based on this idea, we propose two strategies to optimize address mapping and garbage collection. We have implemented Asymmetric Programming on a real hardware platform. The experimental results show that Asymmetric Programming can achieve a reduction in the number of page errors of up to 99.05% with the baseline error correction scheme. PMID:25310473

  3. Informed Consent for PGP Entrance Exam [Version #1

    E-print Network

    Church, George M.

    Informed Consent for PGP Entrance Exam [Version #1] Title: Personal Genome Project Entrance Exam and therefore am providing informed consent for this questionnaire. Name: Email: HMS/HSDM Committee on Human

  4. EXPOSURE ANALYSIS MODELING SYSTEM: REFERENCE MANUAL FOR EXAMS 2

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Exposure Analysis Modeling System (EXAMS), published in 1982 (EPA-600/3-82-023), provides rapid evaluations of the behavior of synthetic organic chemicals in aquatic ecosystems. EXAMS combines laboratory data describing reactivity and thermodynamic properties of chemicals wit...

  5. Physics 228 -Second Common Hour Exam March 26, 2006

    E-print Network

    Coleman, Piers

    sticker with exam code = Your signature Turn off and put away cell phones now! 1. The exam will last from of the following statements about the photoelectric ef- fect is FALSE: a) The photocurrent increases

  6. Catabolic regulation analysis of Escherichia coli and its crp, mlc, mgsA, pgi and ptsG mutants

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Most bacteria can use various compounds as carbon sources. These carbon sources can be either co-metabolized or sequentially metabolized, where the latter phenomenon typically occurs as catabolite repression. From the practical application point of view of utilizing lignocellulose for the production of biofuels etc., it is strongly desirable to ferment all sugars obtained by hydrolysis from lignocellulosic materials, where simultaneous consumption of sugars would benefit the formation of bioproducts. However, most organisms consume glucose prior to consumption of other carbon sources, and exhibit diauxic growth. It has been shown by fermentation experiments that simultaneous consumption of sugars can be attained by ptsG, mgsA mutants etc., but its mechanism has not been well understood. It is strongly desirable to understand the mechanism of metabolic regulation for catabolite regulation to improve the performance of fermentation. Results In order to make clear the catabolic regulation mechanism, several continuous cultures were conducted at different dilution rates of 0.2, 0.4, 0.6 and 0.7 h-1 using wild type Escherichia coli. The result indicates that the transcript levels of global regulators such as crp, cra, mlc and rpoS decreased, while those of fadR, iclR, soxR/S increased as the dilution rate increased. These affected the metabolic pathway genes, which in turn affected fermentation result where the specific glucose uptake rate, the specific acetate formation rate, and the specific CO2 evolution rate (CER) were increased as the dilution rate was increased. This was confirmed by the 13C-flux analysis. In order to make clear the catabolite regulation, the effect of crp gene knockout (?crp) and crp enhancement (crp+) as well as mlc, mgsA, pgi and ptsG gene knockout on the metabolism was then investigated by the continuous culture at the dilution rate of 0.2 h-1 and by some batch cultures. In the case of ?crp (and also ?mlc) mutant, TCA cycle and glyoxylate were repressed, which caused acetate accumulation. In the case of crp+ mutant, glycolysis, TCA cycle, and gluconeogenesis were activated, and simultaneous consumption of multiple carbon sources can be attained, but the glucose consumption rate became less due to repression of ptsG and ptsH by the activation of Mlc. Simultaneous consumption of multiple carbon sources could be attained by mgsA, pgi, and ptsG mutants due to increase in crp as well as cyaA, while glucose consumption rate became lower. Conclusions The transcriptional catabolite regulation mechanism was made clear for the wild type E. coli, and its crp, mlc, ptsG, pgi, and mgsA gene knockout mutants. The results indicate that catabolite repression can be relaxed and crp as well as cyaA can be increased by crp+, mgsA, pgi, and ptsG mutants, and thus simultaneous consumption of multiple carbon sources including glucose can be made, whereas the glucose uptake rate became lower as compared to wild type due to inactivation of ptsG in all the mutants considered. PMID:21831320

  7. Profile of State College Entrance Exam Policies. Maine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This individual profile provides information on Maine's college entrance exam standards and polices. Some of the categories presented include: (1) College entrance exam policy; (2) Purpose; (3) Major changes in college entrance exam policy since the 2009-10 school year for financial reasons; (4) Preparation state offers to students taking college…

  8. The Effect of Announced Quizzes on Exam Performance: Quiz Content

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azorlosa, Julian L.

    2012-01-01

    I administered quizzes to two sections of a course named "The Psychology of Learning." There were three multiple choice exams during the semester. Quizzes were given between exam 1 and exam 2. For one section, (lecture) quizzes occurred after the material had been covered in lecture. For the other section, quizzes were based on material not yet…

  9. EXAM NUMBER: MODULE 0230725: CELLULAR AND MOLECULAR NEUROSCIENCE

    E-print Network

    Elliott, Chris

    EXAM NUMBER: MODULE 0230725: CELLULAR AND MOLECULAR NEUROSCIENCE - turn over -1 Part i: Short be sufficient for your answer #12;EXAM NUMBER: MODULE 0230725: CELLULAR AND MOLECULAR NEUROSCIENCE - turn over and other relevant detail. (4 marks) #12;EXAM NUMBER: MODULE 0230725: CELLULAR AND MOLECULAR NEUROSCIENCE

  10. Profile of State College Entrance Exam Policies. Idaho

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This individual profile provides information on Idaho's college entrance exam standards and polices. Some of the categories presented include: (1) College entrance exam policy; (2) Purpose; (3) Major changes in college entrance exam policy since the 2009-10 school year for financial reasons; (4) Preparation state offers to students taking college…

  11. Effect of Paper Color and Question Order on Exam Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tal, Ilanit R.; Akers, Katherine G.; Hodge, Gordon K.

    2008-01-01

    To deter cheating, teachers commonly use exams printed on differently colored paper or with varied question orders. Previous studies, however, reported that paper color and question order affect exam performance and suggested that teachers should adjust students' scores accordingly and discontinue the use of alternate exam forms. We conducted 2…

  12. Enhanced Security for Online Exams Using Group Cryptography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, I. Y.; Yeom, H. Y.

    2009-01-01

    While development of the Internet has contributed to the spread of online education, online exams have not been widely adopted. An online exam is defined here as one that takes place over the insecure Internet, and where no proctor is in the same location as the examinees. This paper proposes an enhanced secure online exam management environment…

  13. Enhanced Security for Online Exams Using Group Cryptography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Im Young Jung; Heon Young Yeom

    2009-01-01

    While development of the Internet has contributed to the spread of online education, online exams have not been widely adopted. An online exam is defined here as one that takes place over the insecure Internet, and where no proctor is in the same location as the examinees. This paper proposes an enhanced secure online exam management environment mediated by group

  14. Exit Exams: Decreases or Increases the Dropout Rate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Teresa A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to examine the impact of exit exams on the dropout rate. Data was gathered from several research articles. The most impressionable research revealed exit exams have a negative effect on minorities, especially black males. Results indicate by 2012, that exit exams in 25 states will affect 81 percent of minority high…

  15. Profile of State College Entrance Exam Policies. North Dakota

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This individual profile provides information on North Dakota's college entrance exam standards and polices. Some of the categories presented include: (1) College entrance exam policy; (2) Purpose; (3) Major changes in college entrance exam policy since the 2009-10 school year for financial reasons; (4) Preparation state offers to students taking…

  16. The Effect of Announced Quizzes on Exam Performance: II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azorlosa, Julian L.

    2011-01-01

    I administered announced, multiple-choice quizzes to 1 of 2 sections of a Psychology of Learning class in each of 2 consecutive fall semesters. The quizzes were administered between the first and second exams which were also multiple-choice. Quizzes were discontinued after the second exam. After the second exam, students completed a questionnaire…

  17. Policy of Health Exams for Incoming Exchange Students to NTU

    E-print Network

    Wu, Yih-Min

    Policy of Health Exams for Incoming Exchange Students to NTU To meet the regulations of National Taiwan University and our government's requirements, all new students should receive a health exam on the NTU Incoming Exchange / Visiting Students Health Exam Form. Incoming exchange students should fulfill

  18. Policy of Health Exams for Incoming Exchange Students to NTU

    E-print Network

    Wu, Yih-Min

    Policy of Health Exams for Incoming Exchange Students to NTU To meet the regulations of National and February 1st for the spring semester. 2. Students can also choose to take the health exam in Taiwan for students in NTU, for related information please see the Instructions of Health Exams at NTU Hospital (see

  19. Writing About Testing Worries Boosts Exam Performance in the Classroom

    E-print Network

    Loudon, Catherine

    to improve students' scores on high-stakes exams and to increase our understanding of why pressure, significantly improved students' exam scores, especially for students habitually anxious about test taking. Simply writing about one's worries before a high-stakes exam can boost test scores. F or many students

  20. A Legal Overview and History of High School Exit Exams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton, Lenford

    2006-01-01

    State exit exams, also known as graduation tests, are tests that student must pass to graduate from high school. These tests are more influential than ever. Accordingly, in 2004, 20 states required students to pass an exit exam to graduate from high school, and six additional states will implement an exit exam by 2009. This affects more than half…

  1. Essentials for revision and exams Photocopiable resource

    E-print Network

    Bristol, University of

    balance so that you are working at your best without it taking over your life. Revision can be hard and for different styles of exams, so find what works best for you. Revision tips You are only expected to do your be a really good way of testing yourself on the topics you have just revised, and will get you used

  2. SATURDAY 10 NOVEMBER 2012 EXAM SCHOOLS, OXFORD

    E-print Network

    Melham, Tom

    at the fair, please find us at The Careers Service stand. Alternatively, please contact us in advance on 018653 THE CAREERS SERVICE SATURDAY 10 NOVEMBER 2012 EXAM SCHOOLS, OXFORD EXHIBITORS FROM 11 Service (GLS) Kaplan Law School Legal Aid Practitioners Group (LAPG) Northumbria Law School Nottingham Law

  3. Statistics 401E SECOND EXAM Name _______________________________

    E-print Network

    Roberts, Carl W.

    examined US magazine advertisements, and have found in them pervasive evidence of such gender-cues. HoweverStatistics 401E Fall 2010 SECOND EXAM Name _______________________________ 1 The Gay Liberation in the US. One strategy endorsed by both movements has been toward the reduction of stereotypical depictions

  4. Statistics 401E SECOND EXAM Name _______________________________

    E-print Network

    Roberts, Carl W.

    examined US magazine advertisements, and have found in them pervasive evidence of such gender-cues. HoweverStatistics 401E Fall 2010 SECOND EXAM Name _______________________________ 1 Solutions The Gay-related discrimination in the US. One strategy endorsed by both movements has been toward the reduction of stereotypical

  5. English-Spanish Verbatim Translation Exam.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stansfield, Charles W.; And Others

    The development and validation of the English-Spanish Verbatim Translation Exam (ESVTE) is described. The test is for use by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) in the selection of applicants for the positions of Language Specialist or Contract Linguist. The report is divided into eight sections. Section 1 describes the need for the test,…

  6. Scholars Probe Diverse Effects of Exit Exams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viadero, Debra

    2009-01-01

    The author reports on a study released in April 2009 that suggests that California's high school exit exams are affecting some student demographic groups more than others. The California study, which was released by the Institute for Research on Education Policy and Practice at Stanford University, is the latest in a small spate of studies…

  7. Network+ Certification Exam Prep 28 hours, $1495

    E-print Network

    Alabama in Huntsville, University of

    and configuration, media and topologies, management, and security. Revised exam content is addressed and includes Detection, Policy Creation, Social Engineering, DDoS Attacks, Buffer Overflows and Virus Creation and networking experience with an emphasis on security. Network+ and Security+ certifications are beneficial. Jul

  8. Automatic Assessment of 3D Modeling Exams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanna, A.; Lamberti, F.; Paravati, G.; Demartini, C.

    2012-01-01

    Computer-based assessment of exams provides teachers and students with two main benefits: fairness and effectiveness in the evaluation process. This paper proposes a fully automatic evaluation tool for the Graphic and Virtual Design (GVD) curriculum at the First School of Architecture of the Politecnico di Torino, Italy. In particular, the tool is…

  9. REQUEST FOR CREDIT INTERNATIONAL DIPLOMA EXAMS

    E-print Network

    Dennett, Daniel

    REQUEST FOR CREDIT INTERNATIONAL DIPLOMA EXAMS Tufts does not automatically grant credit for international diploma examinations. Students must formally request credit using this form for each subject desired. Upon meeting university criteria, credits will be determined and transferred to your transcript

  10. High School Exit Exams and Hispanics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adam, Michelle

    2005-01-01

    This article deals with the report, entitled "State High School Exit Exams: A Maturing Reform", that addressed the achievement gaps that exist for minority and English language learner (ELL) populations. In this article, the author shows how Hispanics and ELLs lag behind Caucasians in terms of passing percentage in different subject areas. The…

  11. Introducing Standardized EFL/ESL Exams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laborda, Jesus Garcia

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the features, and a brief comparison, of some of the most well-known high-stakes exams. They are classified in the following fashion: tests that only include multiple-choice questions, tests that include writing and multiple-choice questions, and tests that include speaking questions. The tests reviewed are: BULATS, IELTS,…

  12. MLC Libraries--A School Library's Journey with Students, Staff and Web 2.0 Technologies: Blogs, Wikis and E-Books--Where Are We Going Next?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viner, Jane; Lucas, Amanda; Ricchini, Tracey; Ri, Regina

    2010-01-01

    This workshop paper explores the Web 2.0 journey of the MLC Libraries' teacher-librarians, librarian, library and audio visual technicians. Our journey was initially inspired by Will Richardson and supported by the School Library Association of Victoria (SLAV) Web 2.0 professional development program. The 12 week technological skills program "23…

  13. This work was supported in part by a grant from NSF, CSR 0910699. FLEXIBLE PRODUCT CODE-BASED ECC SCHEMES FOR MLC NAND

    E-print Network

    Kambhampati, Subbarao

    NSF, CSR 0910699. FLEXIBLE PRODUCT CODE-BASED ECC SCHEMES FOR MLC NAND FLASH MEMORIES C. Yang1 , Y. These have even greater storage density and are the dominant Flash memory technology. Unfortunately, NAND-level cell (SLC) Flash memory systems [6], in recent years, long linear block codes with high error

  14. Potential of discrete Gaussian edge feathering method for improving abutment dosimetry in eMLC-delivered segmented-field electron conformal therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Eley, John G.; Hogstrom, Kenneth R.; Matthews, Kenneth L.; Parker, Brent C.; Price, Michael J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College, 202 Nicholson Hall, Tower Drive, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803-4001 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College, 202 Nicholson Hall, Tower Drive, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803-4001 (United States) and Mary Bird Perkins Cancer Center, 4950 Essen Lane, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70809-3482 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College, 202 Nicholson Hall, Tower Drive, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803-4001 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College, 202 Nicholson Hall, Tower Drive, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803-4001 (United States) and Mary Bird Perkins Cancer Center, 4950 Essen Lane, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70809-3482 (United States)

    2011-12-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this work was to investigate the potential of discrete Gaussian edge feathering of the higher energy electron fields for improving abutment dosimetry in the planning volume when using an electron multileaf collimator (eMLC) to deliver segmented-field electron conformal therapy (ECT). Methods: A discrete (five-step) Gaussian edge spread function was used to match dose penumbras of differing beam energies (6-20 MeV) at a specified depth in a water phantom. Software was developed to define the leaf eMLC positions of an eMLC that most closely fit each electron field shape. The effect of 1D edge feathering of the higher energy field on dose homogeneity was computed and measured for segmented-field ECT treatment plans for three 2D PTVs in a water phantom, i.e., depth from the water surface to the distal PTV surface varied as a function of the x-axis (parallel to leaf motion) and remained constant along the y-axis (perpendicular to leaf motion). Additionally, the effect of 2D edge feathering was computed and measured for one radially symmetric, 3D PTV in a water phantom, i.e., depth from the water surface to the distal PTV surface varied as a function of both axes. For the 3D PTV, the feathering scheme was evaluated for 0.1-1.0-cm leaf widths. Dose calculations were performed using the pencil beam dose algorithm in the Pinnacle{sup 3} treatment planning system. Dose verification measurements were made using a prototype eMLC (1-cm leaf width). Results: 1D discrete Gaussian edge feathering reduced the standard deviation of dose in the 2D PTVs by 34, 34, and 39%. In the 3D PTV, the broad leaf width (1 cm) of the eMLC hindered the 2D application of the feathering solution to the 3D PTV, and the standard deviation of dose increased by 10%. However, 2D discrete Gaussian edge feathering with simulated eMLC leaf widths of 0.1-0.5 cm reduced the standard deviation of dose in the 3D PTV by 33-28%, respectively. Conclusions: A five-step discrete Gaussian edge spread function applied in 2D improves the abutment dosimetry but requires an eMLC leaf resolution better than 1 cm.

  15. Supernormal functional reserve of apical segments in elite soccer players: an ultrasound speckle tracking handgrip stress study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laura Stefani; Loira Toncelli; Valentina Di Tante; Maria Concetta Roberta Vono; Brunello Cappelli; Gianni Pedrizzetti; Giorgio Galanti

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ultrasound speckle tracking from grey scale images allows the assessment of regional strain derived from 2D regardless of angle intonation, and it is highly reproducible. The study aimed to evaluate regional left ventricular functional reserve in elite soccer players. METHODS: 50 subjects (25 elite athletes and 25 sedentary controls), aged 26 ± 3.5, were submitted to an echo exam,

  16. SU-E-J-109: Testing the KV Imaging Center Congruence with Radiation Isocenter of Small MLC and SRS Cone Field On Two Machines

    SciTech Connect

    Fu,; Chen, Y; Yu, Y; Liu, H [Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Orthogonal kV image pairs are used for target localization when fiducial markers are implanted. CBCT is used to verify cone SRS setup. Therefore it is necessary to evaluate the isocenter congruence between radiation fields and kV imaging center. This study used a simple method to evaluate the isocenter congruence, and compared the results for MLC and cone fields on two different Linacs. Methods: Varian OBI block was attached on the couch. It has a central 1mm BB with markers on three surfaces to align with laser. KV and MV images were taken at four cardinal angles. A 3x3cm2 MLC field and a 20mm cone field were irradiated respectively. On each kV image, the distance from BB center to the kV graticule center were measured. On the MV image of MLC field, the center of radiation field was determined manually, while for cone field, the Varian AM maintenance software was used to analyze the distance between BB and radiation field. The subtraction of the two distances gives the discrepancy between kV and radiation centers. Each procedure was repeated on five days at Trilogy and TrueBeam respectively. Results: The maximum discrepancy was found in the longitudinal direction at 180° gantry angel. It was 1.5±0.1mm for Trilogy and 0.6±0.1mm for TrueBeam. For Trilogy, although radiation center wobbled only 0.7mm and image center wobbled 0.8mm, they wobbled to the opposite direction. KV Pair using gantry 180° should be avoided in this case. Cone vs. kV isocenter has less discrepancy than MLC for Trilogy. Conclusion: Radiation isocenter of MLC and cone field is different, so is between Trilogy and TrueBeam. The method is simple and reproducible to check kV and radiation isocenter congruence.

  17. The use of intensity-modulated radiation therapy photon beams for improving the dose uniformity of electron beams shaped with MLC

    SciTech Connect

    Mosalaei, Homeira, E-mail: homeira.mosalaei@lhsc.on.ca [London Regional Cancer Program, London Health Science Centre, Ontario (Canada); Karnas, Scott [London Regional Cancer Program, London Health Science Centre, Ontario (Canada); University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario (Canada); Shah, Sheel [University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario (Canada); Van Doodewaard, Sharon [McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); Foster, Tim [University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario (Canada); Chen, Jeff [London Regional Cancer Program, London Health Science Centre, Ontario (Canada); University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario (Canada)

    2012-04-01

    Electrons are ideal for treating shallow tumors and sparing adjacent normal tissue. Conventionally, electron beams are collimated by cut-outs that are time-consuming to make and difficult to adapt to tumor shape throughout the course of treatment. We propose that electron cut-outs can be replaced using photon multileaf collimator (MLC). Two major problems of this approach are that the scattering of electrons causes penumbra widening because of a large air gap, and available commercial treatment planning systems (TPSs) do not support MLC-collimated electron beams. In this study, these difficulties were overcome by (1) modeling electron beams collimated by photon MLC for a commercial TPS, and (2) developing a technique to reduce electron beam penumbra by adding low-energy intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) photons (4 MV). We used blocks to simulate MLC shielding in the TPS. Inverse planning was used to optimize boost photon beams. This technique was applied to a parotid and a central nervous system (CNS) clinical case. Combined photon and electron plans were compared with conventional plans and verified using ion chamber, film, and a 2D diode array. Our studies showed that the beam penumbra for mixed beams with 90 cm source to surface distance (SSD) is comparable with electron applicators and cut-outs at 100 cm SSD. Our mixed-beam technique yielded more uniform dose to the planning target volume and lower doses to various organs at risk for both parotid and CNS clinical cases. The plans were verified with measurements, with more than 95% points passing the gamma criteria of 5% in dose difference and 5 mm for distance to agreement. In conclusion, the study has demonstrated the feasibility and potential advantage of using photon MLC to collimate electron beams with boost photon IMRT fields.

  18. THE IMPACT OF MARINE RESERVES: DO RESERVES WORK AND DOES RESERVE SIZE MATTER?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Benjamin S. Halpern

    2003-01-01

    Marine reserves are quickly gaining popularity as a management option for marine conservation, fisheries, and other human uses of the oceans. Despite the popularity of marine reserves as a management tool, few reserves appear to have been created or designed with an understanding of how reserves affect biological factors or how reserves can be designed to meet biological goals more

  19. Reservations to human rights treaties 

    E-print Network

    McCall-Smith, Kasey Lowe

    2012-06-26

    This thesis examines the default application of the 1969 Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties reservation rules to reservations to human rights treaties. The contemporary practice of formulating reservations allows ...

  20. Physics 228 Exam II March 25, 2007

    E-print Network

    Coleman, Piers

    SIGNATURE: 1. Turn off your cell phone now! 2. The exam will last from 3:00 p.m. to 4:20 p.m. Use a #2 pen of the following statements about the photoelectric effect is false? a) The stopping potential increases linearly of the spectrum is still described by the Planck law. 6. The threshold wavelength for the photoelectric effect

  1. Stat 231 Exam 3 Spring 2010

    E-print Network

    Vardeman, Stephen B.

    _________________________________________________________ Name Printed #12;2 This exam concerns analyses of some data collected by ISU students Flood between ^andy y (based on Model 3)? 6 pts 6 pts 9 pts 7 pts #12;8 k) Consider the conditions 1 2300 and 950x x . As it turns out, JMP indicates that ^ .5187ySE for Model 3 and this set of conditions. What

  2. EXAM PLACES K Chemistry Dept. Building

    E-print Network

    Hasýrcý, Vasýf

    .30 Proctors will pick-up exam papers from G. ERTA, T. TNÃ?ER Surname Group Place Building Proctors Instructor AHBOZ- BAARAN (24) 01 U-1 G. ERTA BEGJANOV- DEMRDELEN (24) 01 U-2 G. ERTA DEMREL- YÃ?REKL (100) 01 U-3 G. ERTA ABALI-ELTA (40) 02 P-1 T. TNÃ?ER ERCAN-Ã?ZTÃ?RK (40) 02 P-2 T. TNÃ?ER Ã?ZYURT-TURGU (17) 02 P-3 T

  3. Diagnostic Accuracy of Secondary Ultrasound Exam in Blunt Abdominal Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Rajabzadeh Kanafi, Alireza; Giti, Masoumeh; Gharavi, Mohammad Hossein; Alizadeh, Ahmad; Pourghorban, Ramin; Shekarchi, Babak

    2014-01-01

    Background: In stable patients with blunt abdominal trauma, accurate diagnosis of visceral injuries is crucial. Objectives: To determine whether repeating ultrasound exam will increase the sensitivity of focused abdominal sonography for trauma (FAST) through revealing additional free intraperitoneal fluid in patients with blunt abdominal trauma. Patients and Methods: We performed a prospective observational study by performing primary and secondary ultrasound exams in blunt abdominal trauma patients. All ultrasound exams were performed by four radiology residents who had the experience of more than 400 FAST exams. Five routine intraperitoneal spaces as well as the interloop space were examined by ultrasound in order to find free fluid. All patients who expired or were transferred to the operating room before the second exam were excluded from the study. All positive ultrasound results were compared with intra-operative and computed tomography (CT) findings and/or the clinical status of the patients. Results: Primary ultrasound was performed in 372 patients; 61 of them did not undergo secondary ultrasound exam; thus, were excluded from the study.Three hundred eleven patients underwent both primary and secondary ultrasound exams. One hundred and two of all patients were evaluated by contrast enhanced CT scan and 31 underwent laparotomy. The sensitivity of ultrasound exam in detecting intraperitoneal fluid significantly increased from 70.7% for the primary exam to 92.7% for the secondary exam. Examining the interloop space significantly improved the sensitivity of ultrasonography in both primary (from 36.6% to 70.7%) and secondary (from 65.9% to 92.7%) exams. Conclusions: Performing a secondary ultrasound exam in stable blunt abdominal trauma patients and adding interloop space scan to the routine FAST exam significantly increases the sensitivity of ultrasound in detecting intraperitoneal free fluid.

  4. Proposing Questions for the Upcoming Midterm Exam

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Leslie Gertsch

    This in-class exercise is done during the last half of the class meeting prior to a midterm exam (which is held during a class period), to get the students to initiate their own review processes. To begin, a map of the lecture hall is shown, divided into a large number of seating areas (18, in the example used in the attached material). The exact number is not too important, it just needs to be enough to ensure not too much repetition yet sufficient variety among the teams. Each seating area is assigned a particular type of exam question (diagram, matching, ordering, multiple answer, short essay answer, or whatever other question types you use) and a topic that will be on the immediately upcoming midterm exam. The topics are currently taken from the textbook, divided relatively finely but not so finely that there is insufficient material for them to formulate an exam question from the material. Ten minutes is allotted for the students to form groups of 2-3 (more in a team is less productive for individual students), then for each team to review its assigned topic, and to create a reasonable question and answer set in the assigned format. Following this, another 10 minutes is allotted for the teams to evaluate one other team's set and to work out improvements with the originating team, if needed. (This last activity doesn't always happen.) At the end of this stage I collect a copy of the question, the answer, the names of the originators, and the names of the checkers for each Q&A set. I post all the question/answer sets on Blackboard as fast as I can enter them, so they can serve all the students as a review basis for the exam. Depending on my schedule, that can take from 2-6 hours. I try not to correct incorrect answers or other problems, preferring instead to post a warning (see attached examples) urging students to check the answers given. This is not generally successful, as many students merely memorize the list, right or wrong, without apparently checking it.

  5. Dr. Campbell's Bio111 Exam #2.5 Fall 2003 Fall 2003 Biology 111 Exam #2.5 -Molecular Genetics Half Exam

    E-print Network

    Campbell, A. Malcolm

    Dr. Campbell's Bio111 Exam #2.5 ­ Fall 2003 1 Fall 2003 Biology 111 Exam #2.5 - Molecular Genetics) The patient is a boy. His parents have no symptoms. He has a twin sister who does not have any symptoms. 2

  6. BIOSPHERE RESERVE NOMINATION FORM

    E-print Network

    procedure for biosphere reserves. The actions recommended for the development of biosphere reserves are set Paris Cedex 15, France Tel: ++33 1 45 68 41 51 Fax: ++33 1 45 68 58 04 Email: mab@unesco.org UNESCO the three functions of conservation, development and logistic support. Explain in general terms how the area

  7. PHI1 interacts with the catalytic subunit of myosin light chain phosphatase to produce a Ca 2+ independent increase in MLC 20 phosphorylation and force in avian smooth muscle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amr El-Toukhy; Allison M Given; Ozgur Ogut; Frank V. Brozovich

    2006-01-01

    In avian smooth muscles, GTP?S produces a Rho kinase mediated increase in PHI-1 phosphorylation and force, but whether this correlation is causal is unknown. We examined the effect of phosphorylated PHI-1 (P-PHI-1) on force and myosin light chain (MLC20) phosphorylation at a constant [Ca2+]. P-PHI-1, but not PHI-1, increased MLC20 phosphorylation and force, and phosphorylation of PHI-1 increased the interaction

  8. Do Open-Book Exams Impede Long-Term Learning in Introductory Biology Courses?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Randy; Jensen, Philip A.

    2007-01-01

    Students in an introductory biology course who were given open-book exams during the semester earned significantly higher grades on these exams, but significantly lower grades on the closed-book final exam, than students who took in-class, closed-book exams throughout the semester. Exam format was also associated with changes in academic behavior;…

  9. Instructions of the NTU Health Exam for Incoming Exchange Students at NTU Hospital

    E-print Network

    Wu, Yih-Min

    Instructions of the NTU Health Exam for Incoming Exchange Students at NTU Hospital (Health Exam examinee. (Remarks) 1. I Please bring the "NTU International Students General Health Exam Formby Medical on Health Exam Form in advance, and bring your passport and two 2-inch photos. (Health Exam Place) 2 13

  10. Dalhousie Libraries Reserves Service Traditional In-Library Reserves

    E-print Network

    Dellaire, Graham

    Dalhousie Libraries Reserves Service Traditional In-Library Reserves #12;Course Reserves Faculty to have Library staff place materials on traditional In-Library Reserve at one of the five Dalhousie Libraries NEW Option also available Upload a course reading list and Library staff will: · add persistent

  11. Final Exams for Term 1148 2:02 pm /additional

    E-print Network

    Lozano-Robledo, Alvaro

    :30 am - 10:30 am12/9/14 - 12/9/14 HART 211BIOL 1107 H71 EXAM T Katherine Shaw 11:00 am - 1:00 pm12/12/14 - 12/12/14 HART 211BIOL 1107 H74 EXAM F Katherine Shaw BLAW 6:30 pm - 8:30 pm12/9/14 - 12/9/14 HART 330 EXAM T Stewart Rosenberg 11:00 am - 1:00 pm12/12/14 - 12/12/14 HART 302CHEM 1122 H72 EXAM F Stewart

  12. Effects of tertiary MLC configuration on secondary neutron spectra from 18 MV x-ray beams for the Varian 21EX linear accelerator

    PubMed Central

    Howell, Rebecca M.; Kry, Stephen F.; Burgett, Eric; Followill, David; Hertel, Nolan E.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of the jaw configuration and the presence and configuration of the tertiary multileaf collimator (MLC) on the secondary neutron spectra for an 18 MV Varian 21EX linear accelerator (linac) is investigated in detail. The authors report the measured spectra for four collimator (jaw-and-MLC) configurations. These configurations represent the extreme settings of the jaws and MLC and should therefore describe the range of possible fluence and spectra that may be encountered during use of this linac. In addition to measurements, a Monte Carlo model was used to simulate the four collimator configurations and calculate the energy spectra and fluence at the same location as it was measured. The Monte Carlo model was also used to calculate the sources of neutron production in the linac head for each collimator configuration. They found that photoneutron production in the linac treatment head is dominated by the order in which the primary photon beam intercepts the high-Z material. The primary collimator, which has the highest position in the linac head (in a fixed location), is the largest source of secondary neutrons. Thereafter, the collimator configuration plays a role in where the neutrons originate. For instance, if the jaws are closed, they intercept the beam and contribute substantially to the secondary neutron production. Conversely, if the jaws are open, the MLC plays a larger role in neutron production (assuming, of course, that it intercepts the beam). They found that different collimator configurations make up to a factor of 2 difference in the ambient dose equivalent. PMID:19810476

  13. Amelioration of IFN-? and TNF-?-induced intestinal epithelial barrier dysfunction by berberine via suppression of MLCK-MLC phosphorylation signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Cao, Min; Wang, Pei; Sun, Chunhong; He, Wen; Wang, Fengjun

    2013-01-01

    Intestinal barrier dysfunction occurs in many intestinal diseases, in which proinflammatory cytokines play critical roles. However, researchers are still on the way to defining the underlying mechanisms and to evaluate therapeutic strategies for restoring intestinal barrier function. Berberine, a drug that has clinically been used to treat gastroenteritis and diarrhea for thousands of years, has been shown to protect barrier function in both endothelial and epithelial cells, but the mechanisms are completely unknown. In this study, we investigate the protective actions of berberine on barrier function and the underlying mechanisms in Caco-2 monolayers challenged with IFN-? and TNF-?. Caco-2 monolayers were treated without or with simultaneous IFN-? and TNF-? in the absence or presence of berberine. Both transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) and paracellular permeability were measured to evaluate barrier function. The expression and distribution of tight junction proteins ZO-1, occluding, and claudin-1 were respectively analyzed by immunoblot or immunofluorescence. The expressions of phosphorylated myosin light chain (pMLC), MLC kinase (MLCK) and hypoxia-inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?) were determined by immunoblot. The translocation of NF-?B p65 to nuclei was analyzed by immunofluorescence and immunoblot, respectively. The results showed that berberine significantly attenuated TER decrease and paracellular permeability increase in Caco-2 monolayers treated with IFN-? and TNF-?. Berberine also dramatically alleviated IFN-? and TNF-?-induced morphological alteration of tight junction proteins ZO-1, occluding, and claudin-1. The increase of both MLC phosphorylation and MLCK protein expression induced by IFN-? and TNF-? was significantly inhibited by berberine treatment. Additionally, berberine suppressed the activation of HIF-1?, but not NF-?B. Taken together, it is suggested that berberine attenuates IFN-? and TNF-?-induced intestinal epithelial barrier dysfunction by inhibiting the signaling pathway of MLCK-dependent MLC phosphorylation mediated by HIF-1?. PMID:23671580

  14. A Zeroing Cell-to-Cell Interference Page Architecture with Temporary LSB Storing Program Scheme for Sub40nm MLC NAND Flash Memories and beyond

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ki-Tae Park

    2007-01-01

    A new page architecture with temporary LSB storing program scheme is presented as a breakthrough solution for sub-40nm FG (floating-gate) MLC NAND flash memories and beyond. Without program speed degradation, the proposed method is able to eliminate 100% BL cell-to-cell and almost 50% WL cell-to-cell coupling interferences which are well known as a most critical scaling barrier for FG NAND

  15. Carey Business School Electronic Reserves

    E-print Network

    von der Heydt, Rüdiger

    Carey Business School Electronic Reserves Quick Reference To submit course syllabi to Reserve staff to electronic reserves: via link from Blackboard course site. Address inquiries to Susan Gilden of the Business: December 1 Materials eligible for electronic reserve treatment: · Journal articles · Book excerpts up to 15

  16. Dr. Campbell's Bio111 Exam #1 Fall 2001 Fall 2001 Biology 111 Exam #1 -Cellular Communications

    E-print Network

    Campbell, A. Malcolm

    will experience higher pressure. #12;Dr. Campbell's Bio111 Exam #1 ­ Fall 2001 4 8 pts. 6) Caffeine gives you a "buzz" because caffeine inactivates phosphodiesterase. Since you understand what role phosphodiesterase plays in your cells, explain why caffeine is a stimulan

  17. IODP EMPLOYEE PHYSICAL EXAM PACKET Attached is the physical exam package, which consists of the following

    E-print Network

    . Attachment 4: Additional Physical Exam Reimbursements for Participants with Depression/Mental Illness Expense, and Medical History Records Attachment 1: Medical History Questionnaire To be signed by the new is limited to those who need it to evaluate your physical/mental health. IODP is committed to using protected

  18. Dr. Campbell's Bio111 Exam #2 Fall 2003 Fall 2003 Biology 111 Exam #2 Classical Genetics

    E-print Network

    Campbell, A. Malcolm

    . 6 pts. 10) Why do red blood cells take on the sickle shape in people who suffer from sickle cell disease. #12;Dr. Campbell's Bio111 Exam #2 ­ Fall 2003 4 8 pts. 11) Pick one protein used during transcription that could lead to a recessive disease if a person inherited two recessive alleles at this locus

  19. Normal - Cranial Nerves Exam - Facial Nerve (CN VII) Sub-exam - Patient 1

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    John C. Pearson, PhD

    This video provides a demonstration of a patient's facial nerve examination. The patient is a female with no known neurological health problems who volunteered to act as a simulated patient in order to demonstrate 'normal' responses to exam techniques. Viewing the video requires installation of the free QuickTime Plug-in.

  20. Engagement with Online Pre-Exam Formative Tests Improves Exam Performance and Feedback Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hope, Sheila A.; Polwart, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    The National Union of Students (NUS) National Student Experience Report identified examination feedback as an area where students had particular concerns. This finding was echoed in the authors' institution and triggered an action research project to investigate ways of improving students' perceptions of pre- and post-exam feedback. We report the…

  1. Washington Readies for High School Exit Exam: State Already Enacted Various Alternatives to Passing Exams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trotter, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author reports that sophomores who take the Washington Assessment of Student Learning this week will be the first who must pass the state exam to graduate. The long-awaited testing has caused anxiety across the state, as hopes that Washington will enter a new era of educational accountability are balanced by fears of turmoil…

  2. Ovarian reserve tests

    PubMed Central

    Jirge, Padma Rekah

    2011-01-01

    Ovarian reserve plays a crucial role in achieving pregnancy following any treatment in subfertile women. The estimation of ovarian reserve is routinely performed through various ovarian reserve tests (ORTs) in an effort to predict the response and outcome in couples prior to In Vitro Fertilization and counsel them. Most widely used tests are basal follicle stimulating hormone and anti-Mullerian hormone and antral follicle count. The role of ORTs in our routine practice is discussed in this article. A MEDLINE search was done to identify suitable articles for review. PMID:22346076

  3. Time-resolved dose distributions to moving targets during volumetric modulated arc therapy with and without dynamic MLC tracking

    PubMed Central

    Ravkilde, Thomas; Keall, Paul J.; Grau, Cai; Høyer, Morten; Poulsen, Per R.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The highly conformal doses delivered by volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) may be compromised by intrafraction target motion. Although dynamic multileaf collimator (DMLC) tracking can mitigate the dosimetric impact of motion on the accumulated dose, residual errors still exist. The purpose of this study was to investigate the temporal evolution of dose errors throughout VMAT treatments delivered with and without DMLC tracking. Methods: Tracking experiments were performed on a linear accelerator connected to prototype DMLC tracking software. A three-axis motion stage reproduced representative clinical trajectories of four lung tumors and four prostates. For each trajectory, two VMAT treatment plans (low and high modulation) were delivered with and without DMLC tracking as well as to a static phantom for reference. Dose distributions were measured continuously at 72 Hz using a dosimeter with biplanar diode arrays. During tracking, the MLC leaves were continuously refitted to the 3D target position measured by an electromagnetic transponder at 30 Hz. The dosimetric errors caused in the 32 motion experiments were quantified by a time-resolved 3%/3 mm?-test. The erroneously exposed areas in treatment beam's eye view (BEV) caused by inadequate real-time MLC adaptation were calculated and compared with the time-resolved ? failure rates. Results: The transient? failure rate was on average 16.8% without tracking and 5.3% with tracking. The ? failure rate correlated well with the erroneously exposed areas in BEV (mean of Pearson r = 0.83, p < 0.001). For the final accumulated doses, the mean ? failure rate was 17.9% without tracking and 1.0% with tracking. With tracking the transient dose errors tended to cancel out resulting in the low mean ? failure rate for the accumulated doses. Conclusions: Time-resolved measurements allow pinpointing of transient errors in dose during VMAT delivery as well as monitoring of erroneous dose evolution in key target positions. The erroneously exposed area in BEV was shown to be a good indicator of errors in the dose distribution during treatment delivery. PMID:24320431

  4. CSU, FULLERTON CREDIT FOR EXTERNAL EXAMS (AP, IB, CLEP) ADVANCED PLACEMENT EXAMS (AP) SCORE UNITS COURSE CREDIT GEN EDUC BEGIN DATE END DATE

    E-print Network

    de Lijser, Peter

    CSU, FULLERTON CREDIT FOR EXTERNAL EXAMS (AP, IB, CLEP) ADVANCED PLACEMENT EXAMS (AP) SCORE UNITS ENGL 101 GE I.B 3 ENGL 105 GE III.B.2 Updated 11/30/10 #12;CSU, FULLERTON CREDIT FOR EXTERNAL EXAMS (AP, IB, CLEP) ADVANCED PLACEMENT EXAMS (AP) SCORE UNITS COURSE CREDIT GEN EDUC BEGIN DATE END DATE AP

  5. Interpretation of Biosphere Reserves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merriman, Tim

    1994-01-01

    Introduces the Man and the Biosphere Programme (MAB) to monitor the 193 biogeographical provinces of the Earth and the creation of biosphere reserves. Highlights the need for interpreters to become familiar or involved with MAB program activities. (LZ)

  6. National Estuarine Research Reserves

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Through linked programs of stewardship, education, and research, the NERRS enhances informed management and scientific understanding of the nation's estuarine and coastal habitats. Includes information on monitoring (water quality, weather, nutrients, etc.), restoration, invasive species, fellowships, and much more. With reserves all over coastal U.S., educators and scientists can access an abundance of information on the reserves right around the corner and ones on the other side of the country.

  7. Student Guidelines What To Do If You Miss An Exam

    E-print Network

    Linder, Tamás

    In the event that you are unable to write the final exam because of incapacitating illness or other extenuating circumstances, you should be aware of the following: a) Incapacitating illness is defined as an illness final exam. d) You will need to provide official proof of incapacitating illness (a medical note from

  8. Should I Give the Exam before or after the Break?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Kevin J.

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to help faculty make decisions about when to administer an exam in relation to an in-semester break. Students in multiple sections of an undergraduate educational psychology class were assigned to take an exam either before or after a scheduled 5-day break (Thursday-Monday). A multiple regression analysis revealed the break…

  9. Problematizing High School Certificate Exam in Pakistan: A Washback Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jilani, Raana

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes and evaluates the Higher-Secondary School Certificate (HSC) exam in Pakistan that has been in place in its present form for more than thirty years. The author recounts her experience as a teacher of English in a representative high school in Pakistan and, reflecting on the impact of high school public exam, she argues that the…

  10. Gender Differences in STEM Related Advanced Placement Exams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Jill B.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine differences between boys and girls in their performance on STEM related AP exams. Specifically, gender differences were examined for the following STEM related AP exams: Calculus AB, Calculus BC, Physics B, Physics C: Electricity and Magnetism, Physics C: Mechanics, Chemistry, and Computer Science…

  11. Reaching for Dexterous Manipulation MIT EECS Area Exam

    E-print Network

    1 Reaching for Dexterous Manipulation MIT EECS Area Exam Exam Committee: Rodney Brooks (chair of dexterous manipulation by machines. These papers focus on different stages of the process of grasping. These three papers are good examples of mainstream work in dexterous manipulation. Following a brief review

  12. An Expanded Framework for Analyzing General Chemistry Exams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, K. Christopher; Nakhleh, Mary B.; Bretz, Stacey Lowery

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes an expanded framework to aid chemical educators in constructing exams for their courses. The framework has three primary levels: definition, algorithmic, and conceptual. These primary levels have often been used in chemical education research to analyze and describe exam questions, but in this study the definition,…

  13. The Red Effect, Anxiety, and Exam Performance: A Multistudy Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smajic, Adnan; Merritt, Stephanie; Banister, Christina; Blinebry, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    Laboratory studies have established a negative relationship between the color red and academic performance. This research examined whether this effect would generalize to classroom performance and whether anxiety and negative affect might mediate the effect. In two studies, students taking classroom exams were randomly assigned an exam color. We…

  14. High School Exit Exams and "Mis"measurement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tienken, Christopher H.

    2011-01-01

    Test score validity takes center stage in the debate over the use of high school exit exams. Scant literature addresses the amount of conditional standard error of measurement (CSEM) present in individual student results on high school exit exams. The purpose of this study is to fill a void in the literature and add a national review of the CSEM,…

  15. Preparing Students to Take SOA/CAS Exam FM/2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchand, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides suggestions for preparing students to take the actuarial examination on financial mathematics, SOA/CAS Exam FM/2. It is based on current practices employed at Slippery Rock University, a small public liberal arts university. Detailed descriptions of our Theory of Interest course and subsequent Exam FM/2 prep course are provided…

  16. Restricted Access to Exam Grades on the Web by HIP

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sajad Shirali-shahreza; Mohammad Shirali-shahreza; Ali Movaghar

    2007-01-01

    Virtual learning is a new idea that has attained a new form with the emergence of new technologies such as the Internet. One of the issues in the field of E-learning is the way of announcing exams' grades. In this paper, a new method is introduced for restricting public access to exams' grades on the web by using a new

  17. PRELIMINARY EXAM PROCEDURES AND GUIDELINES DUKE UNIVERSITY DIVINITY SCHOOL

    E-print Network

    Zhou, Pei

    AND FAILING EXAMS For a 3-person committee, passing requires at least 3 affirmative votes. For a 4- person; the chair must vote affirmatively in each case. A student may fail up to two components of the written exams and (if recommended by the examining committee) take these components again. Students who fail all

  18. Command-line usage in a programming exam

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tony Greening

    1996-01-01

    Introductory computer science education has a strong emphasis on the teaching and learning of programming skills. In establishing that a desired level of proficiency in the use of these skills has been attained, many courses implement a practical exam where students must complete a program and get it to run correctly under supervision and unaided. This exam may, as in

  19. EXPOSURE ANALYSIS MODELING SYSTEM (EXAMS): USER MANUAL AND SYSTEM DOCUMENTATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Exposure Analysis Modeling System (EXAMS) was designed for rapid evaluation of the behavior of synthetic organic chemicals in aquatic ecosystems. From the chemistry of a compound and the relevant transport and physical/chemical characteristics of the ecosystem, EXAMS computes...

  20. Biochemistry and Molecular Biology PhD Comprehensive Exam

    E-print Network

    Strynadka, Natalie

    Biochemistry and Molecular Biology PhD Comprehensive Exam Form One Suggested Examination Topics Examination Topics: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Suggested Examiners: 1) Dr. 2) Dr. 3) Dr. 4) Dr. #12;Biochemistry. Dr. 3. Dr. 4. Dr. Exam Chair #12;Biochemistry

  1. Do Open-Book Exams Impede Long-Term Learning in Introductory Biology Courses?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Philip A. Jensen

    2007-07-01

    Students in an introductory biology course who were given open-book exams during the semester earned significantly higher grades on these exams, but significantly lower grades on the closed-book final exam, than students who took in-class, closed-book exams throughout the semester. Exam format was also associated with changes in academic behavior; students who had upcoming open-book exams attended fewer lectures and help sessions and submitted fewer extra-credit assignments than students who had upcoming closed-book exams. These results suggest that open-book exams diminish long-term learning and promote academic behaviors that typify lower levels of academic achievement.

  2. The Impact of Statewide Exit Exams: A Descriptive Case Study of Three German States with Differing Low Stakes Exam Regimes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Ackeren, Isabell; Block, Rainer; Klein, E. Dominique; Kuhn, Svenja M.

    2012-01-01

    In this article we present results from a study investigating the impact of three state exit exam systems on teaching and learning in college-preparatory schools. The study compares one state with a traditionally more centralized exam regime, one state that is more de-centralized and one state that has recently switched to more centralized…

  3. Comparability of Semester and Exit Exam Grades: Long-Term Effect of the Implementation of State-Wide Exit Exams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maag Merki, Katharina; Holmeier, Monika

    2015-01-01

    A goal in many countries is to institute state-wide exams to base student assessment more firmly on norms for all classes. This raises the question as to the extent to which greater standardization of grading practice can be reached by implementing state-wide exit exams. Since there is a lack of longitudinal studies, we analyzed the effect of the…

  4. 1 FE Exam Instructions To graduate, you must take the FE Exam your senior year during your last semester*.

    E-print Network

    Dyer, Bill

    , Times, and Places The FE Exam will now be taken on computer at any Pearson Vue Test Center ­ MSU are available for purchase online and at the MSU library #12;3 FE Exam Instructions #12; the scheduled windows at any testing center. You will choose a test center and schedule a time when you

  5. Silviculture Survey Accreditation Exam The 2 day exam is regional in nature and includes written questions, case studies and field

    E-print Network

    Northern British Columbia, University of

    questions, case studies and field exercises. The accreditation exams will include a one-day written examination, focusing on field-based case studies. Appropriate reference materials will be used and slides and/or video footage may be used to clarify case study issues. The second day of the exam will include

  6. Federal Reserve Education

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-06-08

    The Federal Reserve is the central bank of the United States, and there are twelve Federal Reserve districts that range from Hawaii to Maine. This website was created by the Federal Reserve to provide high-quality educational resources about economics, personal finance, public policy and other subjects to students and the general public. First-time visitors can peruse some of the videos on the homepage, find their Reserve district via an interactive map, and also learn about the history of colonial money. Educators can use the Find Resources area to look for items of note, and they can search by keyword, title, grade, topic, or document type. Some of the most compelling material can be found in the Games & Simulations area. Here visitors will find an economic literacy test and a fun game called "Show Business: The Economics of Entertainment." The site is rounded out by the Public Resources area, which includes links to material on public tours, economic indicators and other materials on the day-to-day activities of the Federal Reserve.

  7. 40 CFR 35.2020 - Reserves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...annual allotment. (f) Nonpoint source reserve. Each State shall reserve 1 percent of its annual allotment or $100...purpose under title II of the Act. (g) Marine estuary reserve. The Administrator shall reserve,...

  8. 40 CFR 35.2020 - Reserves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...annual allotment. (f) Nonpoint source reserve. Each State shall reserve 1 percent of its annual allotment or $100...purpose under title II of the Act. (g) Marine estuary reserve. The Administrator shall reserve,...

  9. 40 CFR 35.2020 - Reserves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...annual allotment. (f) Nonpoint source reserve. Each State shall reserve 1 percent of its annual allotment or $100...purpose under title II of the Act. (g) Marine estuary reserve. The Administrator shall reserve,...

  10. 40 CFR 35.2020 - Reserves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...annual allotment. (f) Nonpoint source reserve. Each State shall reserve 1 percent of its annual allotment or $100...purpose under title II of the Act. (g) Marine estuary reserve. The Administrator shall reserve,...

  11. FLEX: A Modular Software Architecture for Flight License Exam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arsan, Taner; Saka, Hamit Emre; Sahin, Ceyhun

    This paper is about the design and implementation of an examination system based on World Wide Web. It is called FLEX-Flight License Exam Software. We designed and implemented flexible and modular software architecture. The implemented system has basic specifications such as appending questions in system, building exams with these appended questions and making students to take these exams. There are three different types of users with different authorizations. These are system administrator, operators and students. System administrator operates and maintains the system, and also audits the system integrity. The system administrator can not be able to change the result of exams and can not take an exam. Operator module includes instructors. Operators have some privileges such as preparing exams, entering questions, changing the existing questions and etc. Students can log on the system and can be accessed to exams by a certain URL. The other characteristic of our system is that operators and system administrator are not able to delete questions due to the security problems. Exam questions can be inserted on their topics and lectures in the database. Thus; operators and system administrator can easily choose questions. When all these are taken into consideration, FLEX software provides opportunities to many students to take exams at the same time in safe, reliable and user friendly conditions. It is also reliable examination system for the authorized aviation administration companies. Web development platform - LAMP; Linux, Apache web server, MySQL, Object-oriented scripting Language - PHP are used for developing the system and page structures are developed by Content Management System - CMS.

  12. Experiences of psychiatry board exam casualties: a survey report.

    PubMed

    Lipp, M R

    1976-03-01

    The author collected completed questionnaires from 52 psychiatrists who had failed to pass the examinations of the American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology (ABPN) on their first try. He quotes from the responses of 6 of these psychiatrists, showing the profound emotional impact of their failure. He recommends that the ABPN explain its low pass rate, supply feedback on the exam results, provide the specific criteria by which competence is judged, allow candidates to take the written exam on a trial basis, and drop the oral exams if their reliability cannot be documented. He also recommends that the profession of psychiatry take responsibility for the certification procedure. PMID:943954

  13. Natural Reserve System UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA

    E-print Network

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    Sagehen Creek Field Station Davis 7 Bodega Marine Reserve 8 Jepson Prairie Reserve 9 McLaughlin Natural Marine Reserve. Decades as a military base preserved the maritime chaparral of Fort Ord Natural ReserveNatural Reserve System UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA The UC Natural Reserve System provides a library

  14. Wetlands Reserve Program

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Recognizing that the health of the nation's wetlands depends on the fate of private (as well as public-owned) wetlands, the Wetlands Reserve Program is an important, voluntary initiative led by the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) to provide "technical and financial support" to help private landowners restore their wetlands. This straightforward site describes the Wetlands Reserve Program (WRP), including a map showing national WRP acreage, several question/ answer fact sheets, state programs and contacts, and a slide show (PowerPoint) entitled Producing Wildlife Habitat Results. Although the site targets the general public, students and educators will find it useful and instructive.

  15. Going Green and Using Less Paper to Print Exams: Student Performance, Completion Time, and Preference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Kevin J.

    2014-01-01

    Two studies measured the impact on student exam performance and exam completion time of strategies aimed to reduce the amount of paper used for printing multiple-choice course exams. Study 1 compared single-sided to double-sided printed exams. Study 2 compared a single-column arrangement of multiple-choice answer options to a space (and paper)…

  16. The Coordinators of Psychiatric Education (COPE) Residency In-Training Exam: A Preliminary Psychometric Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, Gregory P. J.; Crockford, David N.; Hecker, Kent

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The Coordinators of Psychiatric Education (COPE) Residency In-Training Exam is a formative exam for Canadian psychiatric residents that was reconstructed using assessment best practices. An assessment of psychometric properties was subsequently performed on the exam to ensure preliminary validity and reliability. Methods: An exam

  17. FEDERAL RESERVE BANK OF PHILADELPHIA

    E-print Network

    Firestone, Jeremy

    FEDERAL RESERVE BANK OF PHILADELPHIA First Mover Advantage: A Portfolio Perspective of the State Analysts FEDERAL RESERVE BANK OF PHILADELPHIA #12;Disclaimer Our remarks today reflect our own views OF PHILADELPHIA Paul R. Flora Senior Economic Analyst FEDERAL RESERVE BANK OF PHILADELPHIA First Mover Advantage

  18. PHI-1 interacts with the catalytic subunit of myosin light chain phosphatase to produce a Ca(2+) independent increase in MLC(20) phosphorylation and force in avian smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    El-Toukhy, Amr; Given, Allison M; Ogut, Ozgur; Brozovich, Frank V

    2006-10-16

    In avian smooth muscles, GTPgammaS produces a Rho kinase mediated increase in PHI-1 phosphorylation and force, but whether this correlation is causal is unknown. We examined the effect of phosphorylated PHI-1 (P-PHI-1) on force and myosin light chain (MLC(20)) phosphorylation at a constant [Ca(2+)]. P-PHI-1, but not PHI-1, increased MLC(20) phosphorylation and force, and phosphorylation of PHI-1 increased the interaction of PHI-1 with PP1c. Microcystin induced a dose-dependent reduction in the binding of PHI-1 to PP1c. These results suggest PHI-1 inhibits myosin light chain phosphatase by interacting with the active site of PP1c to produce a Ca(2+) independent increase in MLC(20) phosphorylation and force. PMID:17022978

  19. PHI-1 Interacts with the Catalytic Subunit of Myosin Light Chain Phosphatase to Produce a Ca2+ Independent Increase in MLC20 Phosphorylation and Force in Avian Smooth Muscle

    PubMed Central

    El-Toukhy, Amr; Given, Allison M; Ogut, Ozgur; Brozovich, Frank V

    2006-01-01

    In avian smooth muscles, GTP?S produces a Rho kinase mediated increase in PHI-1 phosphorylation and force, but whether this correlation is causal is unknown. We examined the effect of phosphorylated PHI-1 (P-PHI-1) on force and MLC20 phosphorylation at a constant [Ca2+]. P-PHI-1, but not PHI-1, increased MLC20 phosphorylation and force, and phosphorylation of PHI-1 increased the interaction of PHI-1 with PP1c. Microcystin induced a dose-dependent reduction in the binding of PHI-1 to PP1c. These results suggest PHI-1 inhibits MLCP by interacting with the active site of PP1c to produce a Ca2+ independent increase in MLC20 phosphorylation and force. PMID:17022978

  20. The sensitivity of gamma-index method to the positioning errors of high-definition MLC in patient-specific VMAT QA for SBRT

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To investigate the sensitivity of various gamma criteria used in the gamma-index method for patient-specific volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) quality assurance (QA) for stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) using a flattening filter free (FFF) photon beam. Methods Three types of intentional misalignments were introduced to original high-definition multi-leaf collimator (HD-MLC) plans. The first type, referred to Class Out, involved the opening of each bank of leaves. The second type, Class In, involved the closing of each bank of leaves. The third type, Class Shift, involved the shifting of each bank of leaves towards the ground. Patient-specific QAs for the original and the modified plans were performed with MapCHECK2 and EBT2 films. The sensitivity of the gamma-index method using criteria of 1%/1 mm, 1.5%/1.5 mm, 1%/2 mm, 2%/1 mm and 2%/2 mm was investigated with absolute passing rates according to the magnitudes of MLCs misalignments. In addition, the changes in dose-volumetric indicators due to the magnitudes of MLC misalignments were investigated. The correlations between passing rates and the changes in dose-volumetric indicators were also investigated using Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient (?). Results The criterion of 2%/1 mm was able to detect Class Out and Class In MLC misalignments of 0.5 mm and Class Shift misalignments of 1 mm. The widely adopted clinical criterion of 2%/2 mm was not able to detect 0.5 mm MLC errors of the Class Out or Class In types, and also unable to detect 3 mm Class Shift errors. No correlations were observed between dose-volumetric changes and gamma passing rates (??

  1. Will students pass a competitive exam that they failed in their dreams?

    PubMed

    Arnulf, Isabelle; Grosliere, Laure; Le Corvec, Thibault; Golmard, Jean-Louis; Lascols, Olivier; Duguet, Alexandre

    2014-10-01

    We tested whether dreams can anticipate a stressful exam and how failure/success in dreams affect next-day performance. We collected information on students' dreams during the night preceding the medical school entrance exam. Demographic, academic, sleep and dream characteristics were compared to the students' grades on the exam. Of the 719 respondents to the questionnaire (of 2324 total students), 60.4% dreamt of the exam during the night preceding it. Problems with the exam appeared in 78% of dreams and primarily involved being late and forgetting answers. Reporting a dream about the exam on the pre-exam night was associated with better performance on the exam (p=.01). The frequency of dreams concerning the exam during the first term predicted proportionally higher performance on the exam (R=0.1, p=.01). These results suggest that the negative anticipation of a stressful event in dreams is common and that this episodic simulation provides a cognitive gain. PMID:25108280

  2. Policy of Health Exams for Incoming Exchange Students to NTU

    E-print Network

    Wu, Yih-Min

    ( ) Department of Family Medicine, examine room No.13, 2F of the older wing of the National Taiwan University at the counter next to the Department of Ophthalmology on 2F with the invoice. 3General exam Complete the general

  3. NTU Health Exam Policy for Incoming Exchange/Visiting Students

    E-print Network

    Wu, Yih-Min

    Place) 2 () Department of Family Medicine, 2F of the older wing of the National Taiwan University at the counter next to the Department of Ophthalmology on 2F with the invoice. 3General exam Complete the general

  4. Expedition 35/36 Final Exams - Duration: 4:50.

    NASA Video Gallery

    Three Expedition 35/36 crew members prepare for their final exams in their Sokol launch and entry suits at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center in Star City, Russia. NASA astronaut Chris Cassidy a...

  5. 46 CFR 10.304 - General medical exam.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...sudden incapacitation or debilitating complication. This exam must also document any condition requiring medication that impairs cognitive ability, judgment, or reaction time. The Coast Guard will provide guidance on the conduct of general medical...

  6. Washington: Hanford Nuclear Reservation

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    ... "before and after" views of the area around the Hanford Nuclear Reservation near Richland, Washington. On June 27, 2000, a fire in the ... since 1996. MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, ...

  7. World Uranium Reserves

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    James Hopf

    This American Energy Independence website provides a brief overview of potential supplies of uranium for nuclear energy. The author, nuclear engineer James Hopf, believes that there are large reserves of uranium available, and that more will be discovered if needed. Links to literature cited and related resources are included.

  8. Again, Maryland Ranks #1 in Advanced Placement (AP) Exam Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland State Department of Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    For a second year in a row, Maryland ranked first nationwide in the percentage of public school students scoring 3 or higher on at least one AP (Advanced Placement) exam. A score of 3 or higher on the 5-point scale is considered mastery of college-level work. Maryland also continues to show strong gains in the number of students taking an AP exam,…

  9. Are study strategies related to medical licensing exam performance?

    PubMed Central

    West, Courtney; Kurz, Terri; Smith, Sherry; Graham, Lori

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the relationship between study strategies and performance on a high stakes medical licensing exam entitled the United States Medical Licensing Examination Step 1. Methods: The action research project included seventy nine student participants at the Texas A&M Health Science Center College of Medicine during their pre-clinical education. Data collection included pre-matriculation and matriculation academic performance data, standardized exam data, and the Learning and Study Strategies Instrument. Multiple regression analyses were conducted. For both models, the dependent variable was the Step 1 score, and the independent variables included Medical College Admission Test, Undergraduate Grade Point Average, Year 1 Average, Year 2 Average, Customized National Board of Medical Examiners Average, Comprehensive Basic Science Exam score, and Learning and Study Strategy Instrument sub-scores. Model 2 added Comprehensive Basic Science Self-Assessment average. Results: Concentration (Model 1 - ? = .264; Model 2 - ? = .254) was the only study strategy correlated with Step 1 performance. The other statistically significant predictors were Customized National Board of Medical Examiners Average (? = .315) and Year 2 Average (? = .280) in Model 1 and Comprehensive Basic Science Self-Assessment Average (? = .338) in Model 2. Conclusions: There does appear to be a relationship between the study strategy concentration and Step 1 licensing exam performance. Teaching students to practice and utilize certain techniques to improve concentration skills when preparing for and taking exams may help improve licensing exam scores. PMID:25362627

  10. Cultural Barriers to Mammography, Clinical Breast Exam, and Breast Self-Exam among Chinese-American Women 60 and Older

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tricia S. Tang; Laura J. Solomon; Lance M. McCracken

    2000-01-01

    Background: This study examined screening utilization at least once and regular adherence to mammography, clinical breast exam, and breast self-exam among older Chinese-American women.Method: One hundred women were recruited from senior centers in two metropolitan cities. Participants completed a questionnaire that included sections on demographics, health history, health insurance coverage, breast cancer screening, common and cultural barriers to screening, and

  11. Using IB/AP exams to meet Honors College requirements Students who pass IB and AP exams will receive credit through the College of Charleston for the

    E-print Network

    Mitchener, W. Garrett

    Using IB/AP exams to meet Honors College requirements Students who pass IB and AP exams to discuss IB/AP transfer credit and the courses that must be completed prior to graduation. The full list of IB and AP exams accepted by CofC can be found at http

  12. Student Health Plan Vision Coverage 2012 2013 Policy Year Student only may use the Vision Benefit to cover routine vision exam(s),

    E-print Network

    Stuart, Steven J.

    Student Health Plan Vision Coverage 2012 ­ 2013 Policy Year Student only may use the Vision Benefit to cover routine vision exam(s), eyeglasses, and/or contact lens up to $300 per policy year. Vision Exams and prescription eyewear are subject to $15 co-pay. Present insurance card at the time of visit Clemson Area Vision

  13. Ypt32p and Mlc1p bind within the vesicle binding region of the class V myosin Myo2p globular tail domain.

    PubMed

    Casavola, Elena Caroli; Catucci, Alessandro; Bielli, Pamela; Di Pentima, Alessio; Porcu, Giampiero; Pennestri, Matteo; Cicero, Daniel O; Ragnini-Wilson, Antonella

    2008-03-01

    Myosin V is an actin-based motor essential for a variety of cellular processes including skin pigmentation, cell separation and synaptic transmission. Myosin V transports organelles, vesicles and mRNA by binding, directly or indirectly, to cargo-bound receptors via its C-terminal globular tail domain (GTD). We have used the budding yeast myosin V Myo2p to shed light on the mechanism of how Myo2p interacts with post-Golgi carriers. We show that the Rab/Ypt protein Ypt32p, which associates with membranes of the trans-Golgi network, secretory vesicles and endosomes and is related to the mammalian Rab11, interacts with the Myo2p GTD within a region previously identified as the 'vesicle binding region'. Furthermore, we show that the essential myosin light chain 1 (Mlc1p), required for vesicle delivery at the mother-bud neck during cytokinesis, binds to the Myo2p GTD in a region overlapping that of Ypt32p. Our data are consistent with a role of Ypt32p and Mlc1p in regulating the interaction of post-Golgi carriers with Myo2p subdomain II. PMID:18221262

  14. Coronary fractional flow reserve.

    PubMed

    Shantouf, Ronney S; Mehra, Anil

    2015-03-01

    OBJECTIVE. This article presents the basic definitions and concepts of fractional flow reserve (FFR), a focused understanding of the need for hyperemia during assessment, key clinical studies supporting its use, and an introduction to newer noninvasive methods using FFR CT. CONCLUSION. Although it is still a new procedure, FFR CT may prove to be of tremendous use as the computational processing improves to reduce calculation times and enhance accuracy. PMID:25714310

  15. Application for admission to exam Please register online! Use this form only if registering online is not possible.

    E-print Network

    Pfeifer, Holger

    Application for admission to exam Please register online! Use this form only if registering online is not possible. Matrikelnummer: Name, first name: Study programme: Final degree: Phone: E-mail: Date, Signature: Exam no./exam name: Exam date: Time: Examiner: Signature of examiner: (with oral exams only) yes no

  16. Biochem. J. (2006) 396, 193200 (Printed in Great Britain) doi:10.1042/BJ20051772 193 Gi-coupled receptors mediate phosphorylation of CPI-17 and MLC20 via

    E-print Network

    Hu, Wen-Hui

    adenosine A1 receptors preferentially activated PI3K (phospho- inositide 3-kinase) and ILK (integrin (MLC kinase). The present study identified the corresponding pathways initiated by Gi-coupled receptors is penicillamine) acting via Gi2-coupled -opioid receptors, and cyclopentyl adenosine acting via Gi3-coupled

  17. Measuring the Learning from Two-Stage Collaborative Group Exams

    E-print Network

    Ives, Joss

    2014-01-01

    A two-stage collaborative exam is one in which students first complete the exam individually, and then complete the same or similar exam in collaborative groups immediately afterward. To quantify the learning effect from the group component of these two-stage exams in an introductory Physics course, a randomized crossover design was used where each student participated in both the treatment and control groups. For each of the two two-stage collaborative group midterm exams, questions were designed to form matched near-transfer pairs with questions on an end-of-term diagnostic which was used as a learning test. For learning test questions paired with questions from the first midterm, which took place six to seven weeks before the learning test, an analysis using a mixed-effects logistic regression found no significant differences in learning-test performance between the control and treatment group. For learning test questions paired with questions from the second midterm, which took place one to two weeks prio...

  18. Background, Reserve, and Gandy Machines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andreas Blass; Yuri Gurevich

    2000-01-01

    The reserve of a state of an abstract state machine was defined to be a “naked set”. In applications, it may be convenient\\u000a to have tuples, sets, lists, arrays, etc. defined ahead of time on all elements, including the reserve elements. We generalize\\u000a the notion of reserve appropriately. As an application, we solve a foundational problem in Gandy’s formalization of

  19. Flit-Reservation Flow Control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Li-shiuan Peh; William J. Dally

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents flit-reservation flow control, in which control flits traverse the network in advance of data flits, reserving buffers and channel bandwidth. Flit-reservation flow control requires control flits to precede data flits, which can be realized through fast on-chip control wires or the pipelining of control flits one or more cycles ahead of data flits. Scheduling ahead of data

  20. Documented Problem Solving: Calculating Bank Reserves

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Linda Wilson

    The lecture focused on the banking system and included a discussion about total reserves, required reserves and excess reserves. Students practiced calculating each category in pairs and then compared their solutions with those of the instructor.

  1. 21 CFR 211.170 - Reserve samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...appropriately identified reserve sample that is representative of...product labeling. The reserve sample shall be stored in the same immediate container-closure system in which...characteristics. The reserve sample consists of at least...

  2. 76 FR 2196 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam Toll...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-12

    ...Employed Correspondence Exam Toll Free AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service...Employed Correspondence Exam Toll Free will be conducted. The Taxpayer Advocacy...Employed Correspondence Exam Toll Free will be held Tuesday, February 22,...

  3. 76 FR 37196 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam Toll...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-24

    ...Employed Correspondence Exam Toll Free Project Committee AGENCY...Employed Correspondence Exam Toll Free Project Committee will be conducted. The Taxpayer...Employed Correspondence Exam Toll Free Project Committee will be held Tuesday, August...

  4. 76 FR 2193 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-12

    ...Self Employed Correspondence Exam Practitioner Engagement AGENCY: Internal Revenue...Self Employed Correspondence Exam Practitioner Engagement will be conducted. The...Self Employed Correspondence Exam Practitioner Engagement will be held...

  5. A real-time dynamic-MLC control algorithm for delivering IMRT to targets undergoing 2D rigid motion in the beam's eye view

    SciTech Connect

    McMahon, Ryan; Berbeco, Ross; Nishioka, Seiko; Ishikawa, Masayori; Papiez, Lech [School of Health Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Division of Medical Physics, Dana-Farber/Brigham and Women's Cancer Center and Harvard Medical School, 75 Francis Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States); NTT East-Japan Sapporo Hospital, Sapporo (Japan); Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo (Japan); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas-Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75390 (United States)

    2008-09-15

    An MLC control algorithm for delivering intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) to targets that are undergoing two-dimensional (2D) rigid motion in the beam's eye view (BEV) is presented. The goal of this method is to deliver 3D-derived fluence maps over a moving patient anatomy. Target motion measured prior to delivery is first used to design a set of planned dynamic-MLC (DMLC) sliding-window leaf trajectories. During actual delivery, the algorithm relies on real-time feedback to compensate for target motion that does not agree with the motion measured during planning. The methodology is based on an existing one-dimensional (1D) algorithm that uses on-the-fly intensity calculations to appropriately adjust the DMLC leaf trajectories in real-time during exposure delivery [McMahon et al., Med. Phys. 34, 3211-3223 (2007)]. To extend the 1D algorithm's application to 2D target motion, a real-time leaf-pair shifting mechanism has been developed. Target motion that is orthogonal to leaf travel is tracked by appropriately shifting the positions of all MLC leaves. The performance of the tracking algorithm was tested for a single beam of a fractionated IMRT treatment, using a clinically derived intensity profile and a 2D target trajectory based on measured patient data. Comparisons were made between 2D tracking, 1D tracking, and no tracking. The impact of the tracking lag time and the frequency of real-time imaging were investigated. A study of the dependence of the algorithm's performance on the level of agreement between the motion measured during planning and delivery was also included. Results demonstrated that tracking both components of the 2D motion (i.e., parallel and orthogonal to leaf travel) results in delivered fluence profiles that are superior to those that track the component of motion that is parallel to leaf travel alone. Tracking lag time effects may lead to relatively large intensity delivery errors compared to the other sources of error investigated. However, the algorithm presented is robust in the sense that it does not rely on a high level of agreement between the target motion measured during treatment planning and delivery.

  6. Tbx3 and Nr5?2 improve the viability of porcine induced pluripotent stem cells after dissociation into single cells by inhibiting RHO-ROCK-MLC signaling.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianyu; Wei, Renyue; Bou, Gerelchimeg; Liu, Zhonghua

    2015-01-16

    Porcine induced pluripotent stem cells (piPSCs) had been reported during the past 5years, but there were few reports on how the cell signaling works in piPSCs. In order to clarify the signaling work that dominated the characteristic difference of two types of piPSCs which were derived from Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and c-Myc (termed 4F piPSCs) and Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, c-Myc, Tbx3 and Nr5?2 (termed 6F piPSCs) respectively, we performed this study. 4F piPSCs and 6F piPSCs were cultured in medium with or without the ROCK inhibitor Y27632 after dissociating into single cells, the efficiency of a single cell colony and the number of AP positive colonies were assessed. The total RhoA and GTP-bind RhoA were detected in 4F piPSCs and 6F piPSCs before and after digestion into single cells. To explore the relationship between RHO-ROCK-MLC signaling pathway and the two factors Tbx3 and Nr5?2, the 4F piPSCs were infected with lenti-virus Tbx3 and Nr5?2 (termed 4F+TND). Results showed that the viability of cells could be enhanced by Y27632 and the RHO-ROCK-MLC signaling pathway was activated after dissociation into single cells in 4F piPSCs but not in 6F piPSCs. And, the 4F+TND piPSCs could be passaged and keep in high viability after dissociation into single cells, though the morphology of colonies did not change. These results indicated that the Tbx3 and Nr5?2 can improve the viability of piPSCs after dissociation into single cells by inhibiting the RHO-ROCK-MLC signaling pathway. And this provides useful information for establishing porcine pluripotent cells in future study. PMID:25514039

  7. Investigating the Effects of Exam Length on Performance and Cognitive Fatigue

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Jamie L.; Berry, Dane A.; Kummer, Tyler A.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effects of exam length on student performance and cognitive fatigue in an undergraduate biology classroom. Exams tested higher order thinking skills. To test our hypothesis, we administered standard- and extended-length high-level exams to two populations of non-majors biology students. We gathered exam performance data between conditions as well as performance on the first and second half of exams within conditions. We showed that lengthier exams led to better performance on assessment items shared between conditions, possibly lending support to the spreading activation theory. It also led to greater performance on the final exam, lending support to the testing effect in creative problem solving. Lengthier exams did not result in lower performance due to fatiguing conditions, although students perceived subjective fatigue. Implications of these findings are discussed with respect to assessment practices. PMID:23950918

  8. Youth Problems on Indian Reservations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Underhill, Ruth M., Ed.

    Juvenile delinquency was identified as the major problem affecting youth on Indian reservations. Causes for delinquency which were discussed included culture conflict, expectation of failure, unemployment, failure of homes and parents, discrimination, inadequate education, off-reservation schools, and alcoholism. Needs identified by tribal leaders…

  9. Problems of Coronary Flow Reserve

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julien I. E. Hoffman

    2000-01-01

    Coronary flow reserve is used to aid understanding why myocardial oxygen consumption may fail to meet demand. Its general aspects are well known, but the problems of using it are not. This manuscript describes three important factors that need to be considered when assessing coronary flow reserve. (1) Maximal flow is usually achieved by giving either increasing doses or else

  10. Operating Reserves and Variable Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Ela, E.; Milligan, M.; Kirby, B.

    2011-08-01

    This report tries to first generalize the requirements of the power system as it relates to the needs of operating reserves. It also includes a survey of operating reserves and how they are managed internationally in system operations today and then how new studies and research are proposing they may be managed in the future with higher penetrations of variable generation.

  11. Greenhouse effect and nature reserves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert L. Peters; Joan D. S. Darling

    1985-01-01

    Global warming would diminish biological diversity by causing extinctions among reserve species. Patterns of climatic change are discussed, including global patterns of surface temperature increase, as predicted by the Goddard Institute for Space Studies, and global changes in moisture patterns. The concept of biological reserves (essentially the same concept as biological refugia) is discussed, and the effect of climatic changes

  12. Russian reserves terminology becoming clearer

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-05

    This paper reports that Russian scientists are slowly lifting the official secrecy that for more than 50 years shrouded data on the former Soviet Union's oil reserves. Information now being disclosed by Moscow researchers is still short on specifics and generally provides only broad parameters regarding crude/condensate reserves in the new Commonwealth of Independent States. A major problem is that the category of reserves termed 'explored' in the Soviet era and carried over to evaluate C.I.S. reserves is more inclusive than the proved classification employed by such nations as the U.S., Canada, and Saudi Arabia. Even so, recent Russian reports shed considerably more light on the division of oil reserves among the 15 republics that use to comprise the U.S.S.R.

  13. An EPID-based method for comprehensive verification of gantry, EPID and the MLC carriage positional accuracy in Varian linacs during arc treatments.

    PubMed

    Rowshanfarzad, Pejman; McGarry, Conor K; Barnes, Michael P; Sabet, Mahsheed; Ebert, Martin A

    2014-11-26

    BackgroundIn modern radiotherapy, it is crucial to monitor the performance of all linac components including gantry, collimation system and electronic portal imaging device (EPID) during arc deliveries. In this study, a simple EPID-based measurement method has been introduced in conjunction with an algorithm to investigate the stability of these systems during arc treatments with the aim of ensuring the accuracy of linac mechanical performance.MethodsThe Varian EPID sag, gantry sag, changes in source-to-detector distance (SDD), EPID and collimator skewness, EPID tilt, and the sag in MLC carriages as a result of linac rotation were separately investigated by acquisition of EPID images of a simple phantom comprised of 5 ball-bearings during arc delivery. A fast and robust software package was developed for automated analysis of image data. Twelve Varian linacs of different models were investigated.ResultsThe average EPID sag was within 1 mm for all tested linacs. All machines showed less than 1 mm gantry sag. Changes in SDD values were within 1.7 mm except for three linacs of one centre which were within 9 mm. Values of EPID skewness and tilt were negligible in all tested linacs. The maximum sag in MLC leaf bank assemblies was around 1 mm. The EPID sag showed a considerable improvement in TrueBeam linacs.ConclusionThe methodology and software developed in this study provide a simple tool for effective investigation of the behaviour of linac components with gantry rotation. It is reproducible and accurate and can be easily performed as a routine test in clinics. PMID:25424471

  14. Submit completed forms to: Wemple, Room W160. SSD-King's Exam Request Form

    E-print Network

    Sinnamon, Gordon J.

    Submit completed forms to: Wemple, Room W160. SSD-King's Exam Request Form Student Number: Student an explanation in the space provided below. Requirements to write exams with Examination Services: https://ssl.sdc.uwo.ca/students/login_ssd start time and location by selecting the Exam Schedule Login Page link at https://ssl.sdc.uwo.ca/students/login_ssd

  15. How Does Student Performance on Formative Assessments Relate to Learning Assessed by Exams?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Gary

    2007-01-01

    A retrospective analysis examines the relationships between formative assessments and exam grades in two undergraduate geoscience courses. Pair and group-work grades correlate weakly with individual exam grades. Exam performance correlates to individual, weekly online assessments. Student attendance and use of assessment feedback are also…

  16. Effects of the Implementation of State-Wide Exit Exams on Students' Self-Regulated Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merki, Katharina Maag

    2011-01-01

    Whereas several studies investigated the effects of implementation of state-wide exit exams on student achievement, there is still little known about the impacts of the exams on students' self-regulated learning. This paper examines the question as to whether the implementation of state-wide high school exit exams is associated with a change in…

  17. Combined Online and In-Class Pretesting Improves Exam Performance in General Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, Arnold Lewis; Brill, Gary; Ingate, Margaret

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the effect of distributed questioning on learning and retention in a college lecture course. A total of 48 question pairs were presented over four exams. The 16 question pairs associated with each of the three blocks of the course appeared on the block exams, and all 48 appeared on the final exam. The two questions in each pair…

  18. How Does Student Performance on Formative Assessments Relate to Learning Assessed by Exams?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Gary Smith

    2007-07-01

    A retrospective analysis examines the relationships between formative assessments and exam grades in two undergraduate geoscience courses. Pair and group-work grades correlate weakly with individual exam grades. Exam performance correlates to individual, weekly online assessments. Student attendance and use of assessment feedback are also essential factors.

  19. Hispanic Student Performance on Advanced Placement Exams: A Multiyear, National Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jara, Teresa Dianne

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to analyze the Advanced Placement exams that Hispanic students complete and to compare their overall performance with the performance of White students from 2000 to 2012. A second purpose was to determine which Advanced Placement exams were the most difficult exams for Hispanic students and which Advanced…

  20. Exam Review WFS 340: Wetlands Ecology and Management

    E-print Network

    Gray, Matthew

    Exam Review WFS 340: Wetlands Ecology and Management Definition of a Wetland 1) Know the 3 USACE criteria that are necessary for an area to be classified as a jurisdictional wetland. 2) Know low jurisdictional wetland criteria. 6) Know the 3 types of histosols, and what makes them different with respect

  1. Exam Review WFS 340: Wetlands Ecology and Management

    E-print Network

    Gray, Matthew

    Exam Review WFS 340: Wetlands Ecology and Management What is a Jurisdictional Wetland? 1) Know the 3 USACE criteria that are necessary for an area to be classified as a jurisdictional wetland. 2 to meet USACE jurisdictional wetland criteria, and how to calculate percent dominance using the 50

  2. The CPA Exam as a Postcurriculum Accreditation Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barilla, Anthony G.; Jackson, Robert E.; Mooney, J. Lowell

    2008-01-01

    Business schools often attain accreditation to demonstrate program efficacy. J. A. Marts, J. D. Baker, and J. M. Garris (1988) hypothesized that candidates from Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business International (AACSB)-accredited accounting programs perform better on the CPA exam than do candidates from non-AACSB-accredited…

  3. Exam Optimal Control of Economic Systems, code 156066 Date : 29062001

    E-print Network

    Vellekoop, Michel

    Exam Optimal Control of Economic Systems, code 156066 Date : 29­06­2001 Location : BB1 Time : 9 stable? 3. A new light railway needs to be constructed between Enschede and Hengelo. To save material model the problem of constructing the railway of minimal length as follows. In the x­y plane we design

  4. Stability Theory and Algebraic Geometry Oral Qualifying Exam Syllabus

    E-print Network

    Algebraic Geometry . Construction of A#ne and Projective Schemes [Har77, II §2] . Construction of a SheafStability Theory and Algebraic Geometry Oral Qualifying Exam Syllabus Je#rey Burdges October 4 of Cech and Normal Cohomology [Har77, III §4] . Cohomology of Projective Space [Har77, III §5] References

  5. Stability Theory and Algebraic Geometry Oral Qualifying Exam Syllabus

    E-print Network

    Geometry · Construction of Affine and Projective Schemes [Har77, II §2] · Construction of a SheafStability Theory and Algebraic Geometry Oral Qualifying Exam Syllabus Jeffrey Burdges October 4] · Equivalence of Cech and Normal Cohomology [Har77, III §4] · Cohomology of Projective Space [Har77, III §5

  6. Spanish-English Verbatim Translation Exam. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stansfield, Charles W.; And Others

    The development and validation of the Spanish-English Verbatim Translation Exam (SEVTE) is described. The test is for use by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) in the selection of applicants for the positions of Language Specialist or Contract Linguist. The report is divided into eight sections. Section 1 describes the need for the test,…

  7. The New AP Chemistry Exam: Its Rationale, Content, and Scoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Paul D.; Kugel, Roger W.

    2014-01-01

    The 2013-2014 academic year marks the rollout of the redesigned advanced placement (AP) chemistry course and exam. There have been many questions as to why the course was redesigned and how the new examination will differ from its legacy version. In this article we give a brief overview of the legacy course and examine why a redesign occurred in…

  8. Undergraduate range management exam (URME): 1999-2014

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Undergraduate Range Management Exam (URME) has been administered to undergraduate students at the Annual Meeting of the Society for Range Management since 1983, with students demonstrating their higher order learning skills and synthesis knowledge of the art and science of rangeland management. ...

  9. Residency Applicants Misinterpret Their United States Medical Licensing Exam Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Roger C.; Desbiens, Norman A.

    2009-01-01

    Proper interpretation of the results of the United States Medical Licensing Exam (USMLE) is important for program directors, residents, and faculty who advise applicants about applying for residency positions. We suspected that applicants often misinterpreted their performance in relationship to others who took the same examination. In 2005, 54…

  10. Protocols for Regionalized Administration of Master Beekeeper Exams Certified Level

    E-print Network

    Delaplane, Keith S.

    Protocols for Regionalized Administration of Master Beekeeper Exams Certified Level Adopted 31 January 2012; revised: 5 March 2012 Since 2002 the Georgia Master Beekeeper Program has certified over 260 individuals as competent ambassadors of the craft of beekeeping, drawing participants from 11 states and two

  11. Class Attendance and Exam Performance: A Randomized Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Jennjou; Lin, Tsui-Fang

    2008-01-01

    The determination of college students' academic performance is an important issue in higher education. Whether students' attendance at lectures affects students' exam performance has received considerable attention. The authors conduct a randomized experiment to study the average attendance effect for students who choose to attend lectures, which…

  12. Cheating on Exams: The Case of Israeli Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siniver, Erez

    2013-01-01

    The phenomenon of cheating on exams, which harms both the reputation of an academic institution and the students who don't cheat, is becoming increasingly common. We attempt to shed light on this phenomenon using data from a survey of graduates of the College of Management Academic Studies in Israel. Three aspects of the problem are examined:…

  13. Examination of the Factors Influencing the Exam Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sitku-Görömbei, Cecília

    2009-01-01

    The defectiveness of the effectiveness of the Hungarian general education revealed in the PISA survey appears in the higher education as well. The "Introduction to Informatics" subject has one of the lowest exam results among the students of the College of Nyíregyháza majoring in Computer Program Designer and Teacher of Computer Science.…

  14. From Exam Factories to Communities of Discovery: The Democratic Route

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coffield, Frank; Williamson, Bill

    2011-01-01

    "From Exam Factories to Communities of Discovery" passionately calls for educators to challenge the dominant market-led model of education and instead build a more democratic one, better able to face threats such as environmental damage; intensified global competition; corrosive social inequalities in and between nations in the world; and the need…

  15. www.kent.ac.uk/learning Exam Preparation and Planning

    E-print Network

    Banaji,. Murad

    change. And locate venues; don't rely on being able to find the right room on the morning of the exam're sick? Immediately Before (1 week 10 minutes) If you've revised properly, there will be no need to cram

  16. MA 23100 and MA23200 – FINAL EXAM INFORMATION Fall 2009 ...

    E-print Network

    Tsak

    2009-12-08

    For MA 23100, there's a link (“Seating Arrangement”) in the official course ... You will need to code your PUID and Section No. on the scantron (to make ... special ADA cases, (d) documented personal illness or (e) documented family emergency. In ... You must obtain an alternate exam form (blue slip) from either (a

  17. Master's Comprehensive Exam For Special Education and Early Childhood Education

    E-print Network

    Hemmers, Oliver

    Master's Comprehensive Exam For Special Education and Early Childhood Education Student Application of Educational and Clinical Studies University of Nevada Las Vegas Please read directions thoroughly of Concentration: Prefix & Number Course Title Office Use Only ex. ESP 701 Introduction to Special Education BOTH

  18. Advisory Council for Clinical Research Clinical Research Coordinator Certification Exam

    E-print Network

    Chisholm, Rex L.

    professionals referred to as research nurses, trial nurses, site coordinators, etc., perform tasks such as the eligibility requirements and pass the exam will be certified as having met the ACRP standards for becoming a Certified Clinical Research Coordinator (CCRC® ). Qualifications Employees of NU, NMFF, NMH, RIC

  19. Advisory Council for Clinical Research Clinical Research Coordinator Certification Exam

    E-print Network

    Chisholm, Rex L.

    professionals referred to as research nurses, trial nurses, site coordinators, etc., perform tasks such as effectively. Candidates who meet the eligibility requirements and pass the exam will be certified as having met the ACRP standards for becoming a Certified Clinical Research Coordinator (CCRC® ). Qualifications

  20. Psychosocial Factors Associated with Skin Self-Exam Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Jakob D.; Moriarty, Cortney M.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors examined psychosocial factors associated with skin self-exam (SSE) performance by young adults. Participants and Methods: The authors administered surveys to 218 US college students (aged 18-26 years) attending a large midwestern university. Results: Contrary to prior research, men (44%) and women (49%) were relatively…

  1. Thermo Exam 1 pg 1 Fall 2010 RED barcode here

    E-print Network

    Hart, Gus

    no viscosity). Scores: (for grader to fill in) Problem 1 __________ Problem 2 __________ Problem 3 not get this test booklet back. #12;Thermo Exam 1 ­ pg 2 (15 pts) Problem 1: Multiple choice conceptual. Neither (Qadded = 0) 1.5. For C to A: does the internal energy increase, decrease, or stay the same? a

  2. Using Oral Exams to Assess Communication Skills in Business Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke-Smalley, Lisa A.

    2014-01-01

    Business, like many other fields in higher education, continues to rely largely on conventional testing methods for assessing student learning. In the current article, another evaluation approach--the oral exam--is examined as a means for building and evaluating the professional communication and oral dialogue skills needed and utilized by…

  3. FINAL EXAM LEARNING OBJECTIVES Chapter 14 PNI, AIDS, cancer, & arthritis

    E-print Network

    Meagher, Mary

    and course of cancer. Discuss the immune surveillance theory of cancer. Summarize the results of studiesFINAL EXAM LEARNING OBJECTIVES Chapter 14 PNI, AIDS, cancer, & arthritis 1) Describe the nature. Then compare and contrast innate (natural) and specific (acquired) immunity as well as humoral and cell

  4. Immunology Review Topics for 2nd Exam February 27, 2008

    E-print Network

    Murphy, Robert F.

    Immunology Review Topics for 2nd Exam February 27, 2008 Molecular and Cellular Immunology Review, but you will not be expected to memorize the order of the genes nor their numbers. #12;Immunology Review discussion of their role in immunology, or to compare and contrast two or more terms. · Allelic Exclusion

  5. Exam Card Procedure Guide Duke University Graduate School

    E-print Network

    Ferrari, Silvia

    information is found online under `Academics' at the Graduate school website. Students should be mindful the Graduate School website for Graduation deadline dates. 4. Defense announcements and advisor letters mustExam Card Procedure Guide Duke University Graduate School 2127 Campus Drive, Box 90068 Durham

  6. Doppler ultrasound exam of an arm or leg

    MedlinePLUS

    This test uses ultrasound to look at the blood flow in the large arteries and veins in the arms and legs. ... The test is done in the ultrasound or radiology department or in a ... the exam: A water-soluble gel is placed on a handheld device ...

  7. Fundamentals of Engineering (FE) Exam Fluid Mechanics Review

    E-print Network

    Provancher, William

    Fundamentals of Engineering (FE) Exam Fluid Mechanics Review Steven Burian Civil & Environmental Engineering March 22, 2013 #12;Morning (Fluid Mechanics) A. Flow measurement B. Fluid properties C. Fluid and mechanical energy balance B. Hydrostatic pressure C. Dimensionless numbers (e.g., Reynolds Number) D. Laminar

  8. Federal Reserve Rate Cuts

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Waters, Megan.

    1998-01-01

    This week's In the News chronicles recent Federal Reserve Board decisions to lower interest rates. The eleven resources discussed provide news, opinion, and consumer information on the FRB BOG action. Following the first US interest rate cut in three years on September 29, 1998, FED Chairman Alan Greenspan caught fire from Wall Street. "Traders were disappointed" in the mere quarter point drop, according to Time business reporter Bernard Baumohl, but "Greenspan will have to make do with the gratitude of the rest of the world." Although the DOW initially fell 54 points Tuesday, a second 0.25% cut to short-term interest rates on October 15, 1998 sent stocks soaring 330 points--the third largest one-day point gain in history. Analysts now hope that US investor optimism--coupled with IMF and World Bank action in Brazil, Russia, and Asia--will ease the world-wide economic crises.

  9. Zimbabwe's coal reserves

    SciTech Connect

    Chadwick, J.R.

    1981-03-01

    The coal potential of Zimbabwe is not widely known, but the country has proved and inferred reserves of around 30,000,000,000 metric tons and intends to become an exporter by 1985. At present there is only one operating coal company in Zimbabwe, the Wankie Colliery Company Limited, but the interest in other coalfields is intensifying. Coal is seen as one of the country's resources with the greatest potential for production increases. The plan is to export 5,000,000 tons per year by 1985, increasing to 10,000,000 tons by 1990. Current exports are insignificant. Current production, from Wankie, is around 3,000,000 tons per year but, with the construction of a new power station, this is to be increased to 7,000,000 tons. Wankie currently operates two underground and three open pit mines.

  10. Physics 171 MIDTERM EXAM Fall 2014 INSTRUCTIONS: This is a takehome exam. The point value of each problem is in

    E-print Network

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    at the end of the day on Friday November 14. While working on the exam, you are permitted to consult of the Earth. Each holds an accurate atomic clock. At time t = 0 all the clocks are synchronized. At t = 0­ imum height h is much smaller than the radius of the earth. In your calculation, you may use eq. (1

  11. Dr. Campbell's Bio111 Exam #2 Spring 2007 Spring 2007 Biology 111 In-Class Exam #2 Classical Genetics

    E-print Network

    Campbell, A. Malcolm

    Genetics The in-class portion of this exam is designed so that you can complete it in 20 minutes, but you. The female has a brown nose and the male has a brown tail. All their babies are white with brown tails

  12. Dr. Campbell's Bio111 Exam #1 Answer Key Fall 2003 Fall 2003 Biology 111 Exam #1 Answer Key -Cellular Communications

    E-print Network

    Campbell, A. Malcolm

    finished with the exam. Name (please print): Write out the full pledge and sign: On my honor I have neither with teleological language why you jumped in your chair on the first day when I scared you. I jumped because my linkage but not the beta linkage. I accepted short text with similar information. 11 pts. 5) a. Define

  13. The Role of End-of-Course Exams and Minimum Competency Exams in Standards-Based Reforms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, John H.; Mane, Ferran; Bishop, Michael; Moriarty, Joan Y.

    2001-01-01

    In this article, the authors looked at the effects of one old-style educational reform--higher course graduation requirements--and five standard-based reforms--(1) school report cards; (2) rewards for school improvement; (3) sanctions for failing schools; (4) minimum competency examinations; and (5) hybrid minimum competency exam

  14. Dr. Campbell's Bio111 Exam #3 Fall 2002 Fall 2002 Biology 111 Exam #3 BioEnergetics

    E-print Network

    Campbell, A. Malcolm

    the X and Y axes and provide real numbers and units. Extend your graph for 3 hours of regeneration the regrowth of Chalmydomonas flagella under control conditions. b) Using a pencil, draw triangles to graph's Bio111 Exam #3 ­ Fall 2002 3 Mg2+ chlorophyll a thylakoid membrane antenna complex chlorophyll

  15. Dr. Campbell's Bio111 Exam #3 Fall 2001 Fall 2001 Biology 111 Exam #3 BioEnergetics

    E-print Network

    Campbell, A. Malcolm

    to the web to take this exam. -3 pts if you do not follow this direction. Please do not write or type your interpretations. Make fresh conclusions based on the data in this web figure. Lecture Questions: 8 pts. 2) What, but use very neat writing. 10 pts. 5) Diagram the dark reaction. In your diagram, make sure you tell me

  16. Marine reserves: size and age do matter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joachim Claudet; Craig W. Osenberg; Lisandro Benedetti-Cecchi; Paolo Domenici; José-Antonio García-Charton; Ángel Pérez-Ruzafa; Fabio Badalamenti; Just Bayle-Sempere; Alberto Brito; Fabio Bulleri; Jean-Michel Culioli; Mark Dimech; Jesús M. Falcón; Ivan Guala; Marco Milazzo; Julio Sánchez-Meca; Paul J. Somerfield; Ben Stobart; Frédéric Vandeperre; Carlos Valle; Serge Planes

    2008-01-01

    Marine reserves are widely used throughout the world to prevent overfishing and conserve biodiversity, but uncertainties remain about their optimal design. The effects of marine reserves are heterogeneous. Despite theoretical findings, empirical studies have previously found no effect of size on the effectiveness of marine reserves in protecting commercial fish stocks. Using 58 datasets from 19 European marine reserves, we

  17. Library Reserved Room Policy All Meeting Spaces

    E-print Network

    Mather, Patrick T.

    Library Reserved Room Policy All Meeting Spaces Room reservation To make a reservation for any Library meeting space, complete the room reservation form at http://library.syr.edu/services/space/form-findroom.php. In order to provide equitable access to library spaces, the Library may impose limitations on frequency

  18. Methods for reserve selection: Interior point search

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Atte Moilanen

    2005-01-01

    Spatial reserve design concerns the planning of biological reserves for conservation. Typical reserve selection formulations operate on a large set of landscape elements, which could be grid cells or irregular sites, and selection algorithms aim to select the set of sites that achieves biodiversity target levels with minimum cost. This study presents a completely different optimization approach to reserve design.

  19. Veterinary Science Students, Center Changing a Reservation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackwater, Jasmine

    2011-01-01

    Kayenta is a rural community located in northeastern Arizona on a Navajo reservation. On the reservation, many families rely on their livestock for income, and as a result, many reservation high school students show a great interest in agricultural education. Having livestock on the reservation is not just a source of income, but also part of a…

  20. Reserve List "My reserve submissions comply with the Board of Regents' fair use policy. I

    E-print Network

    Hall, Daniel

    -reserves ____ 3 Days Password should be lower case & contain 4 or ____ 7 Days more characters. Please list allReserve List "My reserve submissions comply with the Board of Regents' fair use policy. I have: _____________________________________________________________________________________ Format For Physical Reserves, designate a loan period For Electronic Reserves, designate a password

  1. 77 FR 21846 - Reserve Requirements of Depository Institutions: Reserves Simplification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-12

    ...for the purpose of implementing monetary policy. The Board's Regulation D...current approach to implementing monetary policy. If the Federal Reserve changes its monetary policy framework, which includes...

  2. Hospitality Pavilion ......................................................... RESERVED Multimedia Theater-Style Classroom ........................ RESERVED

    E-print Network

    Adams, Mark

    Hospitality Pavilion ......................................................... RESERVED Multimedia,000 Hospitality Terrace (4th Floor)..................................... $1,000,000 Varsity Coaches' Suite........................................................ $25,000 An anonymous donor has offered a $1 million match challenge for major gifts in support

  3. Oil and gas reserves estimates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harrell, R.; Gajdica, R.; Elliot, D.; Ahlbrandt, T.S.; Khurana, S.

    2005-01-01

    This article is a summary of a panel session at the 2005 Offshore Technology Conference. Oil and gas reserves estimates are further complicated with the expanding importance of the worldwide deepwater arena. These deepwater reserves can be analyzed, interpreted, and conveyed in a consistent, reliable way to investors and other stakeholders. Continually improving technologies can lead to improved estimates of production and reserves, but the estimates are not necessarily recognized by regulatory authorities as an indicator of "reasonable certainty," a term used since 1964 to describe proved reserves in several venues. Solutions are being debated in the industry to arrive at a reporting mechanism that generates consistency and at the same time leads to useful parameters in assessing a company's value without compromising confidentiality. Copyright 2005 Offshore Technology Conference.

  4. Oak Ridge Reservation Annual Site

    E-print Network

    Pennycook, Steve

    Report for 2012 on the World Wide Web http://www.ornl.gov/sci/env_rpt/ Project director Joan Hughes................................................................................................................................1-1 1.2 History of the Oak Ridge Reservation

  5. Estimation of resources and reserves

    E-print Network

    Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Energy Laboratory.

    1982-01-01

    This report analyzes the economics of resource and reserve estimation. Current concern about energy problems has focused attention on how we measure available energy resources. One reads that we have an eight-year oil ...

  6. 46 CFR Appendix A - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MERCHANT MARINE OFFICERS AND SEAMEN CHEMICAL TESTING Management Information System Management Information System requirements. Appendix A [Reserved] 46 CFR Ch. I (10-1-13 Edition) Coast...

  7. 46 CFR Appendix A - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MERCHANT MARINE OFFICERS AND SEAMEN CHEMICAL TESTING Management Information System Management Information System requirements. Appendix A [Reserved] 46 CFR Ch. I (10-1-14 Edition) Coast...

  8. 46 CFR Appendix A - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MERCHANT MARINE OFFICERS AND SEAMEN CHEMICAL TESTING Management Information System Management Information System requirements. Appendix A [Reserved] 46 CFR Ch. I (10-1-11 Edition) Coast...

  9. 46 CFR Appendix A - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MERCHANT MARINE OFFICERS AND SEAMEN CHEMICAL TESTING Management Information System Management Information System requirements. Appendix A [Reserved] 46 CFR Ch. I (10-1-12 Edition) Coast...

  10. 46 CFR Appendix A - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MERCHANT MARINE OFFICERS AND SEAMEN CHEMICAL TESTING Management Information System Management Information System requirements. Appendix A [Reserved] 46 CFR Ch. I (10-1-10 Edition) Coast...

  11. COM M-2 Discipline & Exam Weight Grade Report Outline AY 2014-2015 Discipline (Semester) Course Director Course

    E-print Network

    Alford, Simon

    .09 M2 605 (PRCL 630) Psychiatry (Spring) Sean Blitzstein, MD Sean.blitzstein@med.va.gov iRAT tRAT FinalCOM M-2 Discipline & Exam Weight Grade Report Outline AY 2014-2015 COM Rubric Discipline (Semester) Course Director Course Informatio n Course/Exam Name Exam Weight Credi t Hours Retake Exams Year Weight M

  12. COM M-2 Discipline & Exam Weight Grade Report Outline AY 2014-2015 Discipline (Semester) Course Director Course

    E-print Network

    Alford, Simon

    iRAT tRAT 49% 49% 1% 1% 4 One 9.09 M2 605 (PRCL 630) Psychiatry (Spring) Sean Blitzstein, MD SeanCOM M-2 Discipline & Exam Weight Grade Report Outline AY 2014-2015 COM Rubric Discipline (Semester) Course Director Course Informatio n Course/Exam Name Exam Weigh t Credit Hours Retake Exams Year Weight M

  13. COM M-2 Discipline & Exam Weight Grade Report Outline AY 2013-2014 Discipline (Semester) Course Director Course

    E-print Network

    Alford, Simon

    RAT 49% 49% 1% 1% 4 One 9.09 M2 605 (PRCL 630) Psychiatry (Spring) Sean Blitzstein, MD SeanCOM M-2 Discipline & Exam Weight Grade Report Outline AY 2013-2014 COM Rubric Discipline (Semester) Course Director Course Information Course/Exam Name Exam Weight Credit Hours Retake Exams Year Weight M2

  14. The Effect of Using Water-based Gel Lubricant During a Speculum Exam On Pap Smear Results

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jessica L. Wright

    2010-01-01

    Background: Cervical cancer is a pervasive yet preventable killer. Although routine screening exams are available to aid in the early detection of cervical cancer, women often avoid getting their routine annual screening exams. One explanation of this could be due to the discomfort of speculum exams. One way to minimize the discomfort of the speculum exam is to use gel-lubricant.

  15. Written Preliminary Exam for MCDB Students A subcommittee of the Graduate Studies Committee called the Graduate Studies Implementation

    E-print Network

    Crews, Stephen

    to complete the exams by the specified deadline will result in a failing grade. Exams will be graded on a high-pass (HP), pass (P), low-pass (L), fail (F) basis. Possible results of the exams are described in Table 1 on a module in the first year they take the exam, the examination committee will contingently pass the student

  16. Does the Number of Hours Studied Affect Exam Performance?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    K. Barbarick

    This article describes a study in which the number of hours that students studied (determined by askng them) was examined to see how it affected exam performance. The study covered two courses at different institutions over a total of six semesters. Using the overall exam averages and regression analysis, the researchers calculated that students needed to invest from 3.0 to 4.4 hours to earn an average score and from 4.5 to 6.4 hours to earn an A (90 percent or 45 points out of 50) on average. In addition, they determined that the ratio of hours studied to lecture hours needed to earn a score of 90 percent ranged from 1.5 to 2.1 hours with a mean of 1.7, less than the "Carnegie Rule" of 2 hours of outside study time per week for each course credit (where a course credit is equivalent to 1 hour of lecture).

  17. Uncovering an Existential Barrier to Breast Self-exam Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Goldenberg, Jamie L.; Arndt, Jamie; Hart, Joshua; Routledge, Clay

    2008-01-01

    The present research applies an analysis derived from terror management theory to the health domain of breast examination, and in doing so uncovers previously unrecognized factors that may contribute to women’s reluctance to perform breast self-examinations (BSEs). In Study 1, when concerns about mortality were primed, reminders of human beings’ physical nature (i.e., creatureliness) reduced intentions to conduct BSEs compared to reminders of humans’ uniqueness. In Study 2, women conducted shorter exams on a breast model (an experience found to increase death-thought accessibility) when creatureliness was primed compared to a uniqueness and no essay condition. In Study 3, after a creatureliness prime, women performed shorter BSEs when a placebo did not provide an alternative explanation for their discomfort compared to when it did. Advances for theory and breast self-exam promotion are discussed. PMID:19255593

  18. Effects of number of study environments on exam performance

    E-print Network

    Chen, Mei-Ling

    1985-01-01

    Subject: Psychology EFFECTS OF NUMBER OF STUDY ENVIRONMENTS ON EXAM PERFORMANCE A Thesis by MEI-LINC. CHEN Approved as to style and content by: Steven M. Smith (Chairman of Committee) Thomas B. Ward (M em r) William R. Nash (Member) Stephen... orchel (Head of Department) May 1985 ABSTRACT Effects of &Number of Study Environments on Exarr& Performance. (May 1&185) Mei-Ling Chen. B. S. , National Chengchi University Chairman of Advisory Committee: Dr. Steven M, Smith Contextual...

  19. Marine reserves: size and age do matter.

    PubMed

    Claudet, Joachim; Osenberg, Craig W; Benedetti-Cecchi, Lisandro; Domenici, Paolo; García-Charton, José-Antonio; Pérez-Ruzafa, Angel; Badalamenti, Fabio; Bayle-Sempere, Just; Brito, Alberto; Bulleri, Fabio; Culioli, Jean-Michel; Dimech, Mark; Falcón, Jesús M; Guala, Ivan; Milazzo, Marco; Sánchez-Meca, Julio; Somerfield, Paul J; Stobart, Ben; Vandeperre, Frédéric; Valle, Carlos; Planes, Serge

    2008-05-01

    Marine reserves are widely used throughout the world to prevent overfishing and conserve biodiversity, but uncertainties remain about their optimal design. The effects of marine reserves are heterogeneous. Despite theoretical findings, empirical studies have previously found no effect of size on the effectiveness of marine reserves in protecting commercial fish stocks. Using 58 datasets from 19 European marine reserves, we show that reserve size and age do matter: Increasing the size of the no-take zone increases the density of commercial fishes within the reserve compared with outside; whereas the size of the buffer zone has the opposite effect. Moreover, positive effects of marine reserve on commercial fish species and species richness are linked to the time elapsed since the establishment of the protection scheme. The reserve size-dependency of the response to protection has strong implications for the spatial management of coastal areas because marine reserves are used for spatial zoning. PMID:18294212

  20. Can formative quizzes predict or improve summative exam performance?*

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Niu; Henderson, Charles N.R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Despite wide use, the value of formative exams remains unclear. We evaluated the possible benefits of formative assessments in a physical examination course at our chiropractic college. Methods Three hypotheses were examined: (1) Receiving formative quizzes (FQs) will increase summative exam (SX) scores, (2) writing FQ questions will further increase SE scores, and (3) FQs can predict SX scores. Hypotheses were tested across three separate iterations of the class. Results The SX scores for the control group (Class 3) were significantly less than those of Classes 1 and 2, but writing quiz questions and taking FQs (Class 1) did not produce significantly higher SX scores than only taking FQs (Class 2). The FQ scores were significant predictors of SX scores, accounting for 52% of the SX score. Sex, age, academic degrees, and ethnicity were not significant copredictors. Conclusion Our results support the assertion that FQs can improve written SX performance, but students producing quiz questions didn't further increase SX scores. We concluded that nonthreatening FQs may be used to enhance student learning and suggest that they also may serve to identify students who, without additional remediation, will perform poorly on subsequent summative written exams. PMID:25517737

  1. 32 CFR 1630.13 - Class 1-D-D: Deferment for certain members of a reserve component or student taking military...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...the Ready Reserve of the Army Reserve, Naval Reserve, Marine Corps Reserve, Air Force Reserve, or Coast Guard Reserve...has enlisted in the Army Reserve, the Naval Reserve, the Marine Corps Reserve, the Air Force Reserve, or...

  2. 32 CFR 1630.13 - Class 1-D-D: Deferment for certain members of a reserve component or student taking military...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...the Ready Reserve of the Army Reserve, Naval Reserve, Marine Corps Reserve, Air Force Reserve, or Coast Guard Reserve...has enlisted in the Army Reserve, the Naval Reserve, the Marine Corps Reserve, the Air Force Reserve, or...

  3. 32 CFR 1630.13 - Class 1-D-D: Deferment for certain members of a reserve component or student taking military...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...the Ready Reserve of the Army Reserve, Naval Reserve, Marine Corps Reserve, Air Force Reserve, or Coast Guard Reserve...has enlisted in the Army Reserve, the Naval Reserve, the Marine Corps Reserve, the Air Force Reserve, or...

  4. 32 CFR 1630.13 - Class 1-D-D: Deferment for certain members of a reserve component or student taking military...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...the Ready Reserve of the Army Reserve, Naval Reserve, Marine Corps Reserve, Air Force Reserve, or Coast Guard Reserve...has enlisted in the Army Reserve, the Naval Reserve, the Marine Corps Reserve, the Air Force Reserve, or...

  5. 32 CFR 1630.13 - Class 1-D-D: Deferment for certain members of a reserve component or student taking military...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...the Ready Reserve of the Army Reserve, Naval Reserve, Marine Corps Reserve, Air Force Reserve, or Coast Guard Reserve...has enlisted in the Army Reserve, the Naval Reserve, the Marine Corps Reserve, the Air Force Reserve, or...

  6. Emergency medicine residents’ attitudes and opinions of in-training exam preparation

    PubMed Central

    Eastin, Travis R; Bernard, Aaron W

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Emergency Medicine (EM) residents take the American Board of Emergency Medicine (ABEM) in-training exam, and performance on this exam has been shown to correlate to performance on the ABEM qualifying exam. Though many residencies have in-training exam preparation activities, there is little data on the effectiveness of these efforts. This study aimed to elicit resident perspectives about the exam and exam preparation in order to generate hypotheses and better inform future preparation efforts. Methods Second- and third-year EM residents at a single institution were interviewed using a semi-structured format. Qualitative methodology was used to analyze the data. Results Thirteen EM residents participated in the study. Eight major themes and 18 sub-themes were identified. These were further characterized as relating to the exam itself or to exam preparation. Residents generally value the in-training exam. Sixty-nine percent noted that it provided an assessment of their current knowledge and deficiencies. Thirty-eight percent noted that it improved familiarity with the qualifying exam. Regarding exam preparation, residents stated that a question format was preferred, especially when accompanying explanations were of high quality. Additionally, practical considerations, such as portability, impacted resident selection of study tools. Conclusion Residents value the in-training exam as a marker of their academic progress and for their ability to gain familiarity with the qualifying exam. They prefer question-based preparation over text-based learning, as long as there is a detailed explanation of each answer. Educators creating structured in-training review may want to focus on question-based material with detailed explanations. PMID:24062620

  7. Adrenocortical reserves in hyperthyroidism.

    PubMed

    Agbaht, Kemal; Gullu, Sevim

    2014-02-01

    Explicit data regarding the changes in adrenocortical reserves during hyperthyroidism do not exist. We aimed to document the capability (response) of adrenal gland to secrete cortisol and DHEA-S during hyperthyroidism compared to euthyroidism, and to describe factors associated with these responses. A standard-dose (0.25 mg/i.v.) ACTH stimulation test was performed to the same patients before hyperthyroidism treatment, and after attainment of euthyroidism. Baseline cortisol (Cor(0)), DHEA-S (DHEA-S(0)), cortisol binding globulin (CBG), ACTH, calculated free cortisol (by Coolen's equation = CFC), free cortisol index (FCI), 60-min cortisol (Cor(60)), and DHEA-S (DHEA-S(60)), delta cortisol (?Cor), delta DHEA-S (?DHEA-S) responses were evaluated. Forty-one patients [22 females, 49.5 ± 15.2 years old, 32 Graves disease, nine toxic nodular goiter] had similar Cor(0), DHEA-S(0), CFC, FCI, and DHEA-S(60) in hyperthyroid and euthyroid states. Cor(60), ?Cor, and ?DHEA-S were lower in hyperthyroidism. In four (10 %) patients the peak ACTH-stimulated cortisol values were lower than 18 ?g/dL. When the test repeated after attainment of euthyroidism, all of the patients had normal cortisol response. Regression analysis demonstrated an independent association of Cor(60) with free T3 in hyperthyroidism. However, the predictors of CFC, FCI, and DHEA-S levels were serum creatinine levels in hyperthyroidism, and both creatinine and transaminase levels in euthyroidism. ACTH-stimulated peak cortisol, delta cortisol, and delta DHEA-S levels are decreased during hyperthyroidism, probably due to increased turnover. Since about 10 % of the subjects with hyperthyroidism are at risk for adrenal insufficiency, clinicians dealing with Graves' disease should be alert to the possibility of adrenal insufficiency during hyperthyroid stage. PMID:23532634

  8. Extractive reserves in Brazilian Amazonia

    SciTech Connect

    Fearnside, P.M (National Institute for Research in the Amazon, Manaus-Amazonas (Brazil))

    1989-06-01

    In 1985 an opportunity arose for maintaining tracts of Amazonian forest under sustainable use. Brazil's National Council of Rubber Tappers and the Rural Worker's Union proposed the creation of a set of reserves of a new type, called extractive reserves. The first six are being established in one of the Brazilian states most threatened by deforestatation. The creation of extractive reserves grants legal protection to forest land traditionally used by rubber tappers, Brazil-nut gatherers, and other extractivists. The term extrativismo (extractivism) in Brazil refers to removing nontimber forest products, such as latex, resins, and nuts, without felling the trees. Approximately 30 products are collected for commercial sale. Many more types of forest materials are gathered, for example as food and medicines, for the extractivists' own use. The reserve proposal is attractive for several reasons related to social problems. It allows the rubber tappers to continue their livelihood rather than be expelled by deforestation. However, it is unlikely that sufficient land will be set aside as extractive reserves to employ all the tappers. Displaced rubber tappers already swell the ranks of urban slum dwellers in Brazil's Amazonian cities, and they have become refugees to continue their profession in the forests of neighboring countries, such as Bolivia.

  9. 17 CFR 229.1202 - (Item 1202) Disclosure of reserves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Average Fiscal-Year Prices Reserves category Reserves Oil(mbbls) Natural...expressed on an oil-equivalent-barrels...reserves estimated using prices and costs under...Price Scenario Price case Proved reserves Oil mbbls Gas...

  10. 17 CFR 229.1202 - (Item 1202) Disclosure of reserves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Average Fiscal-Year Prices Reserves category Reserves Oil(mbbls) Natural...expressed on an oil-equivalent-barrels...reserves estimated using prices and costs under...Price Scenario Price case Proved reserves Oil mbbls Gas...

  11. Detecting larval export from marine reserves

    PubMed Central

    Pelc, R. A.; Warner, R. R.; Gaines, S. D.; Paris, C. B.

    2010-01-01

    Marine reserve theory suggests that where large, productive populations are protected within no-take marine reserves, fished areas outside reserves will benefit through the spillover of larvae produced in the reserves. However, empirical evidence for larval export has been sparse. Here we use a simple idealized coastline model to estimate the expected magnitude and spatial scale of larval export from no-take marine reserves across a range of reserve sizes and larval dispersal scales. Results suggest that, given the magnitude of increased production typically found in marine reserves, benefits from larval export are nearly always large enough to offset increased mortality outside marine reserves due to displaced fishing effort. However, the proportional increase in recruitment at sites outside reserves is typically small, particularly for species with long-distance (on the order of hundreds of kilometers) larval dispersal distances, making it very difficult to detect in field studies. Enhanced recruitment due to export may be detected by sampling several sites at an appropriate range of distances from reserves or at sites downcurrent of reserves in systems with directional dispersal. A review of existing empirical evidence confirms the model's suggestion that detecting export may be difficult without an exceptionally large differential in production, short-distance larval dispersal relative to reserve size, directional dispersal, or a sampling scheme that encompasses a broad range of distances from the reserves. PMID:20181570

  12. Modulation of Muscle Atrophy, Fatigue and MLC Phosphorylation by MuRF1 as Indicated by Hindlimb Suspension Studies on MuRF1-KO Mice

    PubMed Central

    Labeit, Siegfried; Kohl, Christine H.; Witt, Christian C.; Labeit, Dittmar; Jung, Jeong; Granzier, Henk

    2010-01-01

    MuRF1 is a member of the TRIM/RBCC superfamily, a gene family that encompasses a large variety of proteins, all sharing the conserved TRIM (Tripartite Motive) sequential array of RING, B-box, and coiled-coil domains. Within this family, MuRF1(also named TRIM63) is a specialized member that contributes to the development of muscle atrophy and sarcopenia. Here we studied MuRF1's role in muscle atrophy during muscle unloading induced by hindlimb suspension. Consistent with previous studies, we found that MuRF1 inactivation leads to an attenuated muscle atrophy response. The amount of protection was higher as compared to the denervation model, and within the 10 day-suspension period the soleus muscle was spared from atrophy in MuRF1-KO mice. Contractility studies on hindlimb suspended muscle tissues suggested that MuRF1's functions extend beyond muscle trophicity and implicate MuRF1 in muscle fatigue and MLC phosphorylation control: soleus muscle from MuRF1-KO mice fatigued significantly faster and in addition showed a reduced posttetanic twitch potentiation. Thus the present work further established the role of MuRF1 in muscle atrophy and for the first time shows that MuRF1 plays a role in muscle fatigue and twitch potentiation. PMID:20625437

  13. Opening up in the classroom: effects of expressive writing on graduate school entrance exam performance.

    PubMed

    Frattaroli, Joanne; Thomas, Michael; Lyubomirsky, Sonja

    2011-06-01

    Our study sought to determine whether experimental disclosure could improve exam performance and psychological health in students taking a graduate school entrance exam. Students preparing for the GRE, MCAT, LSAT, or PCAT were randomly assigned to write expressively about their upcoming exam or to a neutral writing condition. Participants completed measures of depressive symptoms and test anxiety before and after writing, and exam scores were collected. The experimental disclosure group had significantly higher test scores and significantly lower pre-exam depressive symptoms than the neutral writing group. Although benefits for depressive symptoms were found in expressive writers regardless of exam type, the advantage of expressive writing for test performance was only observed in students taking the MCAT or LSAT. PMID:21517162

  14. Coal Reserves Data Base report

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, R.W.; Glass, G.B.

    1991-12-05

    The Coal Reserves Data Base (CRDB) Program is a cooperative data base development program sponsored by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). The objective of the CRDB Program is to involve knowledgeable coal resource authorities from the major coal-bearing regions in EIA's effort to update the Nation's coal reserves data. This report describes one of two prototype studies to update State-level reserve estimates. The CRDB data are intended for use in coal supply analyses and to support analyses of policy and legislative issues. They will be available to both Government and non-Government analysts. The data also will be part of the information used to supply United States energy data for international data bases and for inquiries from private industry and the public. (VC)

  15. An investigation of the issues involved in creating a bank of exam questions

    E-print Network

    Truscott, Harriet

    2010-01-01

    the student has logged into Raven, the exam paper browser is displayed, and the exam papers that the student is registered for in CamSIS are automatically displayed. (Note that this functionality is awaiting further liaison with MISD, owners of Cam... for uploading by the DSpace team (for multiple resources). It would simplify the process of submission if senior examiners could use a customised web tool to submit exam papers. Ideally, this would recognise the examiners' Raven ID and automatically give each...

  16. 40 CFR 35.2020 - Reserves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...processes and techniques. (d) Reserve for water quality management. Each State shall reserve not less than $100...from its annual allotments, to carry out water quality management planning under § 35.2023, except that in...

  17. UNIVERSITY LIBRARIES RESERVE INFORMATION & RELEASE FORM

    E-print Network

    Hemmers, Oliver

    1 UNIVERSITY LIBRARIES RESERVE INFORMATION & RELEASE FORM Primary Professor Libraries Reserves Policy, available online at (www.library by the library). Books that are currently checked out by another patron will be recalled. Please list all items

  18. 24 CFR 572.125 - Replacement reserves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...FACILITIES HOPE FOR HOMEOWNERSHIP OF SINGLE FAMILY HOMES PROGRAM (HOPE 3) Homeownership...Replacement reserves. (a) Purpose. A single replacement reserve may be established...recipient must demonstrate that the financial status of eligible families is...

  19. 24 CFR 572.125 - Replacement reserves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...FACILITIES HOPE FOR HOMEOWNERSHIP OF SINGLE FAMILY HOMES PROGRAM (HOPE 3) Homeownership...Replacement reserves. (a) Purpose. A single replacement reserve may be established...recipient must demonstrate that the financial status of eligible families is...

  20. 24 CFR 891.405 - Replacement reserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...HOUSING FOR PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES PROGRAM) SUPPORTIVE HOUSING FOR THE ELDERLY AND PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES Project Management § 891.405 Replacement reserve. (a) Establishment of reserve. The Owner shall establish and...

  1. Marine reserve effects on fishery profit.

    PubMed

    White, Crow; Kendall, Bruce E; Gaines, Steven; Siegel, David A; Costello, Christopher

    2008-04-01

    Some studies suggest that fishery yields can be higher with reserves than under conventional management. However, the economic performance of fisheries depends on economic profit, not fish yield. The predictions of higher yields with reserves rely on intensive fishing pressures between reserves; the exorbitant costs of harvesting low-density populations erode profits. We incorporated this effect into a bioeconomic model to evaluate the economic performance of reserve-based management. Our results indicate that reserves can still benefit fisheries, even those targeting species that are expensive to harvest. However, in contrast to studies focused on yield, only a moderate proportion of the coast in reserves (with moderate harvest pressures outside reserves) is required to maximize profit. Furthermore, reserve area and harvest intensity can be traded off with little impact on profits, allowing for management flexibility while still providing higher profit than attainable under conventional management. PMID:18205836

  2. 28 CFR 115.183 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...false [Reserved] 115.183 Section 115.183 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Lockups Medical and Mental Care § 115.183 [Reserved] Data...

  3. 28 CFR 115.135 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...false [Reserved] 115.135 Section 115.135 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Lockups Training and Education § 115.135 [Reserved]...

  4. 28 CFR 115.183 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...false [Reserved] 115.183 Section 115.183 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Lockups Medical and Mental Care § 115.183 [Reserved] Data...

  5. 28 CFR 115.135 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...false [Reserved] 115.135 Section 115.135 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Lockups Training and Education § 115.135 [Reserved]...

  6. 28 CFR 115.173 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...false [Reserved] 115.173 Section 115.173 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Lockups Investigations § 115.173 [Reserved]...

  7. 28 CFR 115.183 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...false [Reserved] 115.183 Section 115.183 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Lockups Medical and Mental Care § 115.183 [Reserved] Data...

  8. 24 CFR 891.405 - Replacement reserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...HOUSING FOR PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES PROGRAM) SUPPORTIVE HOUSING FOR THE ELDERLY AND PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES Project Management § 891.405 Replacement reserve. (a) Establishment of reserve. The Owner shall establish and...

  9. 24 CFR 891.405 - Replacement reserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...HOUSING FOR PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES PROGRAM) SUPPORTIVE HOUSING FOR THE ELDERLY AND PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES Project Management § 891.405 Replacement reserve. (a) Establishment of reserve. The Owner shall establish and...

  10. 24 CFR 891.405 - Replacement reserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...HOUSING FOR PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES PROGRAM) SUPPORTIVE HOUSING FOR THE ELDERLY AND PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES Project Management § 891.405 Replacement reserve. (a) Establishment of reserve. The Owner shall establish and...

  11. 24 CFR 891.405 - Replacement reserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...HOUSING FOR PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES PROGRAM) SUPPORTIVE HOUSING FOR THE ELDERLY AND PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES Project Management § 891.405 Replacement reserve. (a) Establishment of reserve. The Owner shall establish and...

  12. TESTING FORM Please deliver exams with envelope & testing form at least 24 hours in advance to

    E-print Network

    Selmic, Sandra

    TESTING FORM Please deliver exams with envelope & testing form at least 24 hours in advance to Name (print): __________________________________________________________________ Course: _________________________________ Class Time: __________ - __________ _________ Test Date: _______________________________ Time allotted

  13. Electronic Reserves: Key Issues and Innovations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groenewegen, Hans W.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses reasons for developing electronic reserves (i.e., digital collections of library reserve materials), as well as technical and content options, intellectual property issues, and the issue of equitable remuneration for use of intellectual property in electronic reserve, including recent Australian developments. Experiences at the Monash…

  14. Marine reserves have rapid and lasting effects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Benjamin S. Halpern; Robert R. Warner

    2002-01-01

    Marine reserves are becoming a popular tool for marine conservation and resource management worldwide. In the past, reserves have been created with little understanding of how they actually affect the areas they are intended to protect. A few recent reviews have evaluated how reserves in general affect the density and biomass of organisms within them, but little work has been

  15. Irreducible uncertainties, sustainable fisheries and marine reserves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marc Mangel

    2000-01-01

    Marine reserves are increasingly proposed as a management tool. Models can play a valuable role in the evaluation of the possible benefits of reserves because they allow us to conduct many more investigations than could ever be done empirically. In this paper, I develop a model for a marine reserve for an open population subject to environmental uncertainty.

  16. MARINE RESERVES: WHAT WOULD THEY ACCOMPLISH?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rognvaldur Hannesson

    1998-01-01

    A marine reserve is defined as a subset of the area over which a fish stock is dispersed and closed to fishing. This paper investigates what will happen to fishing outside the marine reserve and to the stock size in the entire area as a result of establishing a marine reserve. Three regimes are compared: (i) open access to the

  17. Teaching about substance abuse with objective structured clinical exams

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sharon J. Parish; Megha Ramaswamy; Melissa R. Stein; Elizabeth K. Kachur; Julia H. Arnsten

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although residents commonly manage substance abuse disorders, optimal approaches to teaching these specialized interviewing\\u000a and intervention skills are unknown.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a OBJECTIVE: We developed a Substance Abuse Objective Structured Clinical Exam (OSCE) to teach addiction medicine competencies using immediate\\u000a feedback. In this study we evaluated OSCE performance, examined associations between performance and self-assessed interest\\u000a and competence in substance abuse, and assessed

  18. Accuracy of ovarian reserve tests.

    PubMed

    Gülekli, B; Bulbul, Y; Onvural, A; Yorukoglu, K; Posaci, C; Demir, N; Erten, O

    1999-11-01

    Several tests predict ovarian reserve in women undergoing assisted reproductive technologies. However, the accuracy of these tests in assessing the number of the remaining follicles within the ovary (ovarian reserve) has not been previously validated. The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of ovarian reserve tests, namely basal and clomiphene-stimulated follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) concentrations and gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist stimulation test in predicting the number of the follicles within the ovaries. The ovaries of 22 parous women over 35 years of age who underwent oophorectomy were examined histologically for follicle number. Early follicular phase serum FSH, clomiphene citrate challenge tests (CCCT) and GnRH agonist stimulation test (GAST) were performed in the menstrual cycle prior to the surgery. The predictive value of these tests was then assessed. A positive correlation was detected between basal serum oestradiol concentrations and follicles per unit tissue but no significant correlation was detected between basal and clomiphene-stimulated FSH and follicles per unit tissue. The receiver operator characteristic curves indicated that the clomiphene citrate challenge test was the most accurate of the three tests assessed. In conclusion, none of the tests in this study accurately reflects ovarian reserve. PMID:10548630

  19. FEA Reports on Proved Reserves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geotimes, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Explains the way in which oil and gas reserves are estimated, and the variation in these estimates according to the year of the resources' estimation and the group undertaking the survey. A recent Federal Energy Administration study suggests that recoverable oil and gas resources have limits that may be approached in the next 50 years. (MLH)

  20. Lucia Palova ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

    E-print Network

    Chandra, Premi

    c 2010 Lucia P´alov´a ALL RIGHTS RESERVED #12;THREE THEORETICAL STUDIES OF FERROELECTRIC MATERIALS IN DIFFERENT GEOMETRIES by LUCIA P ´ALOV ´A A Dissertation submitted to the Graduate School-New Brunswick Three Theoretical Studies of Ferroelectric Materials in Different Geometries By LUCIA P ´ALOV ´A

  1. Marine Reserves and Fisheries Management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DANIEL S. HOLLAND; RICHARD J. BRAZEE

    2002-01-01

    Conventional methods of regulating commercial fisheries restrict catch by limiting either the quantity or efficiency of fishing effort, or by putting direct limits on catch. These regulatory practices are neither feasible nor desir- able for many fisheries, and have failed to conserve fishery stocks in other fisheries. Marine reserves may be an effective alternative management strategy for some fisheries. Here

  2. COMPARISON OF STOCHASTIC RESERVING METHODS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jackie Li

    This paper compares several stochastic reserving methods on both qualitative and quantitative aspects in dealing with the outstanding claims liabilities. These methods include Bayesian estimation with Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulation, the chain ladder method with bootstrapping, generalised linear models (GLMs) with bootstrapping, the Kalman filter on state-space models, the Mack model, and the stochastic chain ladder method. To

  3. Correlation of the NBME Advanced Clinical Examination in EM and the National EM M4 exams

    PubMed Central

    Hiller, Katherine; Miller, Emily S.; Lawson, Luan; Wald, David; Beeson, Michael; Heitz, Corey; Morrissey, Thomas; House, Joseph; Poznanski, Stacey

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Since 2011 two online, validated exams for fourth-year emergency medicine (EM) students have been available (National EM M4 Exams). In 2013 the National Board of Medical Examiners offered the Advanced Clinical Examination in Emergency Medicine (EM-ACE). All of these exams are now in widespread use; however, there are no data on how they correlate. This study evaluated the correlation between the EM-ACE exam and the National EM M4 Exams. Methods From May 2013 to April 2014 the EM-ACE and one version of the EM M4 exam were administered sequentially to fourth-year EM students at five U.S. medical schools. Data collected included institution, gross and scaled scores and version of the EM M4 exam. We performed Pearson’s correlation and random effects linear regression. Results 303 students took the EM-ACE and versions 1 (V1) or 2 (V2) of the EM M4 exams (279 and 24, respectively). The mean percent correct for the exams were as follows: EM-ACE 74.8 (SD-8.83), V1 83.0 (SD-6.41), V2 78.5 (SD-7.70). Pearson’s correlation coefficient for the V1/EM-ACE was 0.51 (0.42 scaled) and for the V2/EM-ACE was 0.59 (0.41 scaled). The coefficient of determination for V1/EM-ACE was 0.72 and for V2/EM-ACE = 0.71 (0.86 and 0.49 for scaled scores). The R-squared values were 0.25 and 0.30 (0.18 and 0.13, scaled), respectively. There was significant cluster effect by institution. Conclusion There was moderate positive correlation of student scores on the EM-ACE exam and the National EM M4 Exams. PMID:25671023

  4. Question-writing as a learning tool for students – outcomes from curricular exams

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Writing exam questions can be a valuable learning tool. We asked students to construct multiple choice questions for curricular exams in Internal Medicine. The questions for the particular exams were chosen from a pool of at least 300 student-written questions. The uncorrected pool was accessible to all students. We studied the influence of this approach on the students’ learning habits and their test results. We hypothesized that creating a pool of their own questions for the exams could encourage students to discuss the learning material. Methods All students had to pass 4 exams in 7 fields of Internal Medicine. Three exams were comprised of 20 questions, and we applied the new method in one of these exams. The fourth exam was comprised of 30 questions, 15 of which were chosen from a students’ pool. After all exams had been completed we asked the students to fill in a web-based questionnaire on their learning habits and their views on the new approach. The test-results were compared to the results of the lecturers’ questions that defined high and low performing students. Results A total of 102 students completed all four exams in a row, 68 of whom filled in the questionnaire. Low performing students achieved significantly better results in the students’ questions. There was no difference in the number of constructed questions between both groups of students. The new method did not promote group work significantly. However, high performing students stated a stronger wish to be rewarded by good performance. Conclusions Creating a curricular exam by choosing questions from a pool constructed by students did not influence the learning habits significantly and favored low performing students. Since the high performing students sought to be rewarded for their efforts, we do not consider the approach applied in our study to be appropriate. PMID:23787038

  5. Systematic Comparison of Operating Reserve Methodologies: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Ibanez, E.; Krad, I.; Ela, E.

    2014-04-01

    Operating reserve requirements are a key component of modern power systems, and they contribute to maintaining reliable operations with minimum economic impact. No universal method exists for determining reserve requirements, thus there is a need for a thorough study and performance comparison of the different existing methodologies. Increasing penetrations of variable generation (VG) on electric power systems are posed to increase system uncertainty and variability, thus the need for additional reserve also increases. This paper presents background information on operating reserve and its relationship to VG. A consistent comparison of three methodologies to calculate regulating and flexibility reserve in systems with VG is performed.

  6. Diversity of phosphorus reserves in microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Kulakovskaya, T V; Lichko, L P; Ryazanova, L P

    2014-12-01

    Phosphorus compounds are indispensable components of the Earth's biomass metabolized by all living organisms. Under excess of phosphorus compounds in the environment, microorganisms accumulate reserve phosphorus compounds that are used under phosphorus limitation. These compounds vary in their structure and also perform structural and regulatory functions in microbial cells. The most common phosphorus reserve in microorganism is inorganic polyphosphates, but in some archae and bacteria insoluble magnesium phosphate plays this role. Some yeasts produce phosphomannan as a phosphorus reserve. This review covers also other topics, i.e. accumulation of phosphorus reserves under nutrient limitation, phosphorus reserves in activated sludge, mycorrhiza, and the role of mineral phosphorus compounds in mammals. PMID:25749167

  7. Advanced Ultrasonic Diagnosis of Extremity Trauma: The Faster Exam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dulchavsky, S. A.; Henry, S. E.; Moed, B. R.; Diebel, L. N.; Marshburn, T.; Hamilton, D. R.; Logan, J.; Kirkpatrick, A. W.; Williams, D. R.

    2002-01-01

    Ultrasound is of prO)len accuracy in abdominal and thoracic trauma and may be useful to diagnose extremity injury in situations where radiography is not available such as military and space applications. We prospectively evaluated the utility of extremity , ultrasound performed by trained, non-physician personnel in patients with extremity trauma, to simulate remote aerospace or military applications . Methods: Patients with extremity trauma were identified by history, physical examination, and radiographic studies. Ultrasound examination was performed bilaterally by nonphysician personnel with a portable ultrasound device using a 10-5 MHz linear probe, Images were video-recorded for later analysis against radiography by Fisher's exact test. The average time of examination was 4 minutes. Ultrasound accurately diagnosed extremity, injury in 94% of patients with no false positive exams; accuracy was greater in mid-shaft locations and least in the metacarpa/metatarsals. Soft tissue/tendon injury was readily visualized . Extremity ultrasound can be performed quickly and accurately by nonphysician personnel with excellent accuracy. Blinded verification of the utility of ultrasound in patients with extremity injury should be done to determine if Extremity and Respiratory evaluation should be added to the FAST examination (the FASTER exam) and verify the technique in remote locations such as military and aerospace applications.

  8. Cognitive reserve in ageing and Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Stern, Yaakov

    2012-01-01

    The concept of reserve accounts for individual differences in susceptibility to age-related brain changes or Alzheimer's disease-related pathology. There is evidence that some people can tolerate more of these changes than others and still maintain function. Epidemiologic studies suggest that lifetime exposures including educational and occupational attainment, and leisure activities in late life, can increase this reserve. For example, there is a reduced risk of developing Alzheimer's disease in individuals with higher educational or occupational attainment. It is convenient to think of two types of reserve: brain reserve, which refers to actual differences in the brain itself that may increase tolerance of pathology, and cognitive reserve. Cognitive reserve refers to individual differences in how tasks are performed that may allow some people to be more resilient than others. The concept of cognitive reserve holds out the promise of interventions that could slow cognitive aging or reduce the risk of dementia. PMID:23079557

  9. Interactions of allogeneic human mononuclear cells in the two-way mixed leucocyte culture (MLC): influence of cell numbers, subpopulations and cyclosporin

    PubMed Central

    Sato, T; Deiwick, A; Raddatz, G; Koyama, K; Schlitt, H J

    1999-01-01

    With organ allografts considerable numbers of donor-type mononuclear cells are transferred to the recipient, leading to bilateral immunological interactions between donor and recipient lymphocytes. To study such bilateral immune reactions in detail, human two-way MLC were performed. In this model proliferation kinetics, patterns of activation, and survival of the two populations were analysed, and the relevance of initial cell subset composition, relative cell numbers, and the effect of immunosuppression on this co-culture were evaluated. It could be demonstrated that with an initial 50:50 ratio of two populations of allogeneic cells one population dominated after 21 days of co-culture in 78 out of 80 combinations (97%) tested; the other population decreased markedly after an initially stable phase of 6–7 days. With unequal starting conditions the larger population dominated when resting cells were used, but small populations of preactivated cells or separated CD8+ cells could also dominate. Depletion of CD16+ natural killer (NK) cells and of CD2? cells (B cell and monocytes) had no effect on domination. Addition of cyclosporin delayed or blocked the domination process while addition of IL-2 accelerated it. Disappearance of one population was associated with detection of apoptotic cells. The findings indicate that co-cultures of allogeneic mononuclear cells are generally not stable for more than 1 week, but lead to active elimination of one population. CD8+ cells and particularly preactivated cells seem to play the most important role in that process, while NK cells are of less importance. Cyclosporin can prolong survival of allogeneic cells in co-culture. These observations suggest that under the conditions of clinical organ transplantation even small amounts of immunocompetent donor cells transferred by the graft may persist for some time and may, thereby, have the chance to exert immunomodulatory functions. PMID:9933457

  10. Verbal Final Exam in Introductory Biology Yields Gains in Student Content Knowledge and Longitudinal Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luckie, Douglas B.; Rivkin, Aaron M.; Aubry, Jacob R.; Marengo, Benjamin J.; Creech, Leah R.; Sweeder, Ryan D.

    2013-01-01

    We studied gains in student learning over eight semesters in which an introductory biology course curriculum was changed to include optional verbal final exams (VFs). Students could opt to demonstrate their mastery of course material via structured oral exams with the professor. In a quantitative assessment of cell biology content knowledge,…

  11. A Study of the Relationship between Student Final Exam Performance and Simulation Game Participation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whiteley, T. R.; Faria, A. J.

    1989-01-01

    Describes study that investigated the relationship between participation in a business simulation game and performance on a final exam in a principles of marketing course. Past research on business games is reviewed; the use of midterm exam performance level as a pretest variable is explained; and question classification is described. (44…

  12. Service Learning in Life-Span Developmental Psychology: Higher Exam Scores and Increased Empathy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundy, Brenda L.

    2007-01-01

    This article describes research conducted to evaluate the impact of service learning on exam scores and emotional empathy in a life-span development course. Service learning was 1 of 3 project options offered in the course; others included an interview project and a research paper. With the exception of the first exam, scores were significantly…

  13. Using Inquiry To Improve Students' Critical Thinking and Writing Skills on Essay Exams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friend, Christina M.

    A study compared the effectiveness of 2 approaches for teaching students exam-writing skills. One approach--the study tips/models approach typical of existing textbook materials and study guides--used written study tips, along with sample exam questions and responses, to give students knowledge about what to do, and provide a model they could…

  14. Copyright 2012 The City University of New York CUNY Elementary Algebra Final Exam

    E-print Network

    Qiu, Weigang

    on a computer. Test Taking Tips/Strategies: Read each question completely and carefully before you begin any answered all the questions. Don't leave any questions blank! Take Sample Final Exams online at http://www.cuny.edu/testing Take Sample Final Exams online at http://www.cuny.edu/testing 1. Simplify. ( ) A) B) C) D) 2

  15. The ACT of Enrollment: The College Enrollment Effects of State-Required College Entrance Exam Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klasik, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Since 2001 Colorado, Illinois, and Maine have all enacted policies that require high school juniors to take college entrance exams--the SAT or the ACT. One goal of these policies was to increase college enrollment based on the belief that requiring students to take these exams would make students more likely to consider college as a viable option.…

  16. Microsoft Word - App 9-18 Exam Results Report.doc

    Cancer.gov

    Lung Screening Study Version 3.0 Manual of Operations and Procedures 11/15/00 Appendix 9-18 Lung Screening Study SCREENING EXAM RESULTS REPORT BY SC Report as of Date: ____________________________ Part 1: Exam pending or letters not sent PID Rand.

  17. The Effects of High School Exit Exam Performance: New Evidence from Florida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Damon; Martorell, Paco; Yang, Muzhe

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents new evidence on the effects of exit exam performance on high school persistence and completion as well as on college attendance using data on students from Florida. Specifically, they examine whether initial exit exam performance causes students to drop out of school, changes the likelihood of graduating from high school, and…

  18. Democracy in the Israeli Education System: The Case of the English Matriculation Exam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaher, Rana

    2012-01-01

    This research investigates the extent to which indices of social justice and democratic rights are expressed in Israel in the crucial national English matriculation exam, as perceived by Palestinian Arab high school pupils studying for these exams and their English teachers. The research employed Critical Theory as a paradigm, case study as a…

  19. International Baccalaureate Program e International Baccalaureate (IB) exams are evaluated in much

    E-print Network

    International Baccalaureate Program e International Baccalaureate (IB) exams are evaluated in much the same way as Advanced Placement exams. Submit an official IB transcript directly from I.B. North America, will be requested. IB transcripts may also be requested on-line at transcripts.ibna@ibo.org. Credit Awarded

  20. Assessment Drives Learning: The Effect of Central Exit Exams on Curricular Knowledge and Mathematical Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jurges, Hendrik; Schneider, Kerstin; Senkbeil, Martin; Carstensen, Claus H.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we use data from the German PISA 2003 sample to study the effects of central exit examinations on student performance and student attitudes. Unlike earlier studies we use (i) a value-added measure to pin down the effect of central exit exams on learning in the last year before the exam and (ii) separate test scores for mathematical…

  1. Does Eating Breakfast Affect the Performance of College Students on Biology Exams?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Gregory W.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the breakfast eating habits of 1,259 college students over an eleven year period to determine if eating breakfast had an impact upon their grade on a General Biology exam. The study determined that there was a significant difference in the performance on the exam with a higher percent of the participants, who had eaten…

  2. Hybrid Variable Neighborhood Approaches to Exam Timetabling Edmund K. Burke1

    E-print Network

    McCollum, Barry

    a whole timeslot, swap two timeslots, etc, with and without the Kempe chain move. A Kempe chain move. This exam is then used to define a move using the Kempe chain neighborhood. That is, those exams that clash-4 Kempe chain moves and Kemp

  3. Use of a Consumer-Grade Digital Camera to Archive Written Exams

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Morris Maduro

    2006-01-01

    The use of a photocopier to archive exams consumes photocopier resources and generates a large amount of waste. As an alternative, one instructor uses a consumer-grade digital camera to document exams in an upper-division biology course. The approach is inexpensive and offers a number of advantages over photocopies.

  4. Relationships between Self-Regulating Behaviors and Predictor Exam Scores for Senior Nursing Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillespie, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Low pass rates on the National Council Licensure Exam for Registered Nurses have directed nursing faculty to examine how to predict the readiness of the nursing student. Exit exam testing that predicts readiness has become one way to assess the nursing student's readiness. Nursing students at the research site's school of nursing are…

  5. What Does a Student Know Who Earns a Top Score on the Advanced Placement Chemistry Exam?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claesgens, Jennifer; Daubenmire, Paul L.; Scalise, Kathleen M.; Balicki, Scott; Gochyyev, Perman; Stacy, Angelica M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper compares the performance of students at a high-performing U.S. public school (n = 64) on the advanced placement (AP) chemistry exam to their performance on the ChemQuery assessment system. The AP chemistry exam was chosen because, as the National Research Council acknowledges, it is the "perceived standard of excellence and school…

  6. High School Exit Exams and Dropout in an Era of Increased Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemelt, Steven W.; Marcotte, Dave E.

    2013-01-01

    A key form of student-level accountability is the requirement for students to pass high school exit exams (HSEEs) in order to receive a diploma. In this paper, we examine the impact of HSEEs on dropout during a period when these exams became more common and rigorous. Further, we study whether offering alternate pathways to graduation for students…

  7. Does Failing a Placement Exam Discourage Underprepared Students from Going to College?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martorell, Paco; McFarlin, Isaac, Jr.; Xue, Yu

    2015-01-01

    About one third of college students are required to take remedial courses. Assignment to remediation is generally made on the basis of performance on a placement exam. When students are required to take a placement exam "prior" to enrolling in college-level courses, assignment to remediation may dissuade students from actually going to…

  8. Scholars Probe Diverse Effects of Exit Exams: State Graduation Tests Found to Hit Certain Groups Harder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viadero, Debra

    2009-01-01

    A study released last week suggesting that California's high school exit exams are affecting some student demographic groups more than others is the latest in a small spate of studies pointing to trade-offs from policies that require high school students to pass state tests to graduate. Twenty-six states have exit exams in place or will by 2012,…

  9. Certified Professional in Supply Management (CPSM) Review Series: Exam 2: Effective Supply Management Performance

    E-print Network

    Certified Professional in Supply Management (CPSM) Review Series: Exam 2: Effective Supply Management Performance Dates: October 28, 2011 Location: Rutgers University­ Livingston Campus, Tillett Hall in understanding both the content and organization of Exam 2: Effective Supply Management Performance

  10. Knowledge Assessment of Food Safety Managers in Utah and Its Implications on the Exam and Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nummer, Brian A.; Guy, Stanley M.; Bentley, Joanne P. H.

    2010-01-01

    Food Safety Manager's Certification is offered through a state-local Extension partnership in Utah using an online course management system. Exams and course materials were created by an Extension Specialist at Utah State Univ. Extension Agents provide exam and curriculum facilitation in each county. This form of distance education enables access…

  11. Does Missing Classes Decelerate Student Exam Performance Progress? Empirical Evidence and Policy Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Tin-Chun

    2014-01-01

    A total of 389 business students in undergraduate introductory microeconomics classes in spring 2007, 2009, and 2011, and fall 2012 participated in an exam performance progress study. Empirical evidence suggested that missing classes decelerates and hampers high-performing students' exam performance progress. Nevertheless, the evidence does…

  12. Skipping Class in College and Exam Performance: Evidence from a Regression Discontinuity Classroom Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobkin, Carlos; Gil, Ricard; Marion, Justin

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we estimate the effect of class attendance on exam performance by implementing a policy in three large economics classes that required students scoring below the median on the midterm exam to attend class. This policy generated a large discontinuity in the rate of post-midterm attendance at the median of the midterm score. We…

  13. Maryland Ranks #1 in the Nation on Advanced Placement Exams for Participation and Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland State Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Maryland public high school students outperformed all others in the nation on the rigorous Advanced Placement (AP) exams, according to the College Board's fifth annual analysis of the AP program. Maryland ranked first nationwide in the percentage of public school students scoring 3 or higher on at least one AP exam. A score of 3 or higher on the…

  14. An Exploration of the Effects of Mentoring on Post-16 Chemistry Students' Exam Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Essex, Jane

    2011-01-01

    In response to a concern about the persistent underachievement in exams of Chemistry students in one school, a pilot study was carried out to see if mentoring-style intervention could improve exam performance. Individual personalised interviews were offered to a class, during which support for the development of the skills and subject knowledge…

  15. A Study of the Technological, Instructional, and Motivational Factors Affecting PHR Certification Exam Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonner, David M.

    2012-01-01

    Although previous studies have considered the factors affecting other certification exam outcomes, they have not examined those that are related to performance on the Professional in Human Resources (PHR) exam. In response to that need, this study specifically investigates technology and training factors that affect self-efficacy and self-set…

  16. Re-Examining Exit Exams: New Findings from the Education Longitudinal Study of 2002

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shuster, Kate

    2012-01-01

    Using the nationally representative, cohort-based data of the Education Longitudinal Study of 2002 (ELS:02), this study employs multiple regression to examine the effects of exit exams on student achievement and school completion. This study finds that exit exams as a whole do not have substantial effects on student achievement in mathematics,…

  17. The Effect of Tutoring on Math Scores for the Praxis I Exam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longwell-Grice, Robert; McIlheran, Janine; Schroeder, Mark; Scheele, Steve

    2013-01-01

    The Praxis test is one of a series of national teacher certification exams written and administered by the Education Testing Service (ETS) since 1947. Currently, forty states now require some form of the Praxis Series (Educational Testing Service, 2011). Using pre- and post-tests similar to the Praxis I math exam, this study examined the affect…

  18. UW Law School: Academic Enhancement Program (AEP) Source: www.barbri.com Alabama Bar Exam Information

    E-print Network

    Sheridan, Jennifer

    UW Law School: Academic Enhancement Program (AEP) Source: www.barbri.com Alabama Bar Exam Information Alabama Board of Law Examiners State Bar Admissions Office P.O. Box 671 Montgomery, AL 36101-question multiple-choice exam Subjects Tested MBE Subjects: Constitutional Law, Contracts/Sales, Criminal

  19. The ACS Exams Institute Undergraduate Chemistry Anchoring Concepts Content Map I: General Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holme, Thomas; Murphy, Kristen

    2012-01-01

    To provide tools for programmatic assessment related to the use of ACS Exams in undergraduate chemistry courses, the ACS Exams Institute has built a content map that applies to the entire undergraduate curriculum. At the top two levels, the grain size of the content classification is large and spans the entire undergraduate curriculum. At the…

  20. High-Stakes, Minimum-Competency Exams: How Competent Are They for Evaluating Teacher Competence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Gay; Arbona, Consuelo; Dominguez de Rameriz, Romilia

    2008-01-01

    Increasingly, teacher educators recommend authentic, performance-related measures for evaluating teacher candidates. Nevertheless, more states are requiring teachers to pass high-stakes, minimum-competency exams. This study examined the relation between teacher candidate scores on authentic measures and their scores on certification exams required…

  1. Providing the Answers Does Not Improve Performance on a College Final Exam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, Arnold Lewis; Sinha, Neha

    2013-01-01

    In the context of an upper-level psychology course, even when students were given an opportunity to refer to text containing the answers and change their exam responses in order to improve their exam scores, their performance on these questions improved slightly or not at all. Four experiments evaluated competing explanations for the students'…

  2. Pick-N Multiple Choice-Exams: A Comparison of Scoring Algorithms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Daniel; Holzer, Matthias; Kopp, Veronika; Fischer, Martin R.

    2011-01-01

    To compare different scoring algorithms for Pick-N multiple correct answer multiple-choice (MC) exams regarding test reliability, student performance, total item discrimination and item difficulty. Data from six 3rd year medical students' end of term exams in internal medicine from 2005 to 2008 at Munich University were analysed (1,255 students,…

  3. A Multi-Year Analysis of Asian Gender Differences on Advanced Placement Exams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, George; Slate, John R.

    2011-01-01

    The performance of Asian boys and girls on Advanced Placement (AP) exam overall scores across the United States for the past 14 years was analyzed. For each of the 14 years of data analyzed, Asian boys had statistically significant higher percentages of overall AP exam scores of 5 than did Asian girls. In addition, the gap between the mean…

  4. Including an Exam P/1 Prep Course in a Growing Actuarial Science Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wakefield, Thomas P.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the actuarial science program at our university and the development of a course to enhance students' problem solving skills while preparing them for Exam P/1 of the Society of Actuaries (SOA) and the Casualty Actuary Society (CAS). The Exam P/1 prep course, formally titled Mathematical Foundations of…

  5. A Valid and Reliable Instrument for Cognitive Complexity Rating Assignment of Chemistry Exam Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knaus, Karen; Murphy, Kristen; Blecking, Anja; Holme, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The design and use of a valid and reliable instrument for the assignment of cognitive complexity ratings to chemistry exam items is described in this paper. Use of such an instrument provides a simple method to quantify the cognitive demands of chemistry exam items. Instrument validity was established in two different ways: statistically…

  6. Training Metacognition in the Classroom: The Influence of Incentives and Feedback on Exam Predictions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Tyler M.; Geraci, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    In two semester-long studies, we examined whether college students could improve their ability to accurately predict their own exam performance across multiple exams. We tested whether providing concrete feedback and incentives (i.e., extra credit) for accuracy would improve predictions by improving students' metacognition, or awareness of their…

  7. Use of a Consumer-Grade Digital Camera to Archive Written Exams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maduro, Morris

    2006-01-01

    The use of a photocopier to archive exams consumes photocopier resources and generates a large amount of waste. As an alternative, I have been using a consumer-grade digital camera to document exams in an upper-division biology course. The approach is inexpensive and offers a number of advantages over photocopies. (Contains 2 figures.)

  8. CPS 536: Exam 1 Name: Instructor: Dr. Clark March 25, 1996

    E-print Network

    Clark, Russell J.

    #12; CPS 536: Exam 1 Name: Part 3 (30 points) Consider the following page access sequence on a pageCPS 536: Exam 1 Name: Instructor: Dr. Clark March 25, 1996 This test is closed book and closed final answer by circling it. Part 1 (30 points) 1. (25) Compare the contiguous allocation and paging

  9. AK State Profile. Alaska: Alaska High School Graduation Qualifying Exam (HSGOE)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides information about Alaska High School Graduation Qualifying Exam (HSGQE), a comprehensive standards-based exam. Its purpose is to meet a state mandate. A bill to remove the HSGQE as a graduation requirement by July 1, 2011 was presented to the state legislature as SB 109. However, it did not pass both houses of the legislature.…

  10. Exam High Schools and Academic Achievement: Evidence from New York City. NBER Working Paper No. 17286

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobbie, Will; Fryer, Roland G., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    Publicly funded exam schools educate many of the world's most talented students. These schools typically contain higher achieving peers, more rigorous instruction, and additional resources compared to regular public schools. This paper uses a sharp discontinuity in the admissions process at three prominent exam schools in New York City to provide…

  11. Effects of Failing a High School Exit Exam on Course Taking, Achievement, Persistence, and Graduation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reardon, Sean F.; Arshan, Nicole; Atteberry, Allison; Kurlaender, Michal

    2010-01-01

    The increasing use of state-mandated public high school exit exams is one manifestation of the current movement in U.S. public schooling toward more explicit standards of instruction and accountability. Exit exam requirements implicitly argue that raising the bar for graduation creates incentives both for students to work harder in school and for…

  12. Ethnic and Gender Differences in Advanced Placement Exam Performance: A Multiyear National Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Maria Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to analyze ethnic and gender differences in Advanced Placement (AP) exam performance of U.S. high school students. Specifically, the extent to which differences exist in overall AP exam performance scores within and between four ethnic groups (i.e., Asian, Black, Hispanic, and White) was investigated. Within…

  13. The Use of a Comprehensive Multiple Choice Final Exam in the Macroeconomics Principles Course: An Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrowsky, Michael C.

    This paper analyzes the results of a pilot study at Glendale Community College (Arizona) to assess the effectiveness of a comprehensive multiple choice final exam in the macroeconomic principles course. The "pilot project" involved the administration of a 50-question multiple choice exam to 71 students in three macroeconomics sections. The…

  14. 46 CFR 71.50-3 - Drydock examination, internal structural examination, underwater survey, and alternate hull exam...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...completes a satisfactory alternate hull exam, with the underwater survey portion conducted predominantly by an approved underwater ROV, the vessel must undergo one alternate hull and one internal structural exam, within any five-year period. The vessel...

  15. 46 CFR 71.50-3 - Drydock examination, internal structural examination, underwater survey, and alternate hull exam...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...completes a satisfactory alternate hull exam, with the underwater survey portion conducted predominantly by an approved underwater ROV, the vessel must undergo one alternate hull and one internal structural exam, within any five-year period. The vessel...

  16. 46 CFR 71.50-3 - Drydock examination, internal structural examination, underwater survey, and alternate hull exam...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...completes a satisfactory alternate hull exam, with the underwater survey portion conducted predominantly by an approved underwater ROV, the vessel must undergo one alternate hull and one internal structural exam, within any five-year period. The vessel...

  17. 46 CFR 71.50-3 - Drydock examination, internal structural examination, underwater survey, and alternate hull exam...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...completes a satisfactory alternate hull exam, with the underwater survey portion conducted predominantly by an approved underwater ROV, the vessel must undergo one alternate hull and one internal structural exam, within any five-year period. The vessel...

  18. 46 CFR 71.50-3 - Drydock examination, internal structural examination, underwater survey, and alternate hull exam...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...completes a satisfactory alternate hull exam, with the underwater survey portion conducted predominantly by an approved underwater ROV, the vessel must undergo one alternate hull and one internal structural exam, within any five-year period. The vessel...

  19. SUBJECT EXAM TESTING DATES BY CLERKSHIP -2012-2013 FAMILY MEDICINE NEUROLOGY PEDIATRICS PSYCHIATRY SURGERY INTERNAL MED. OB/GYN

    E-print Network

    Berdichevsky, Victor

    SUBJECT EXAM TESTING DATES BY CLERKSHIP -2012-2013 FAMILY MEDICINE NEUROLOGY PEDIATRICS PSYCHIATRY SUBJECT EXAM SCHEDULE 8:00 AM ­ Pediatrics, Family Medicine, Psychiatry and Surgery 11:00 AM ­ Medicine

  20. Strategic Petroleum Reserve annual/quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-16

    During 1992 the Department continued planning activities for the expansion of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve to one billion barrels. A draft Environmental Impact Statement for the five candidate sites was completed in October 1992, and a series of public hearings was held during December 1992. Conceptual design engineering activities, life cycle cost estimates and geotechnical studies to support the technical requirements for an Strategic Petroleum Reserve Plan Amendment were essentially completed in December 1992. At the end of 1992, the Strategic Petroleum Reserve crude oil inventory was 574.7 million barrels and an additional 1.7 million barrels was in transit to the Reserve. During 1992 approximately 6.2 million barrels of crude oil were acquired for the Reserve. A Department of Energy Tiger Team Environmental, Safety and Health (ES&H) Assessment was conducted at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve from March 9 through April 10, 1992. In general, the Tiger Team found that Strategic Petroleum Reserve activities do not pose undue environmental, safety or health risks. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve`s Final Corrective Action Plan, prepared in response to the Tiger Team assessment, was submitted for Department approval in December 1992. On November 18, 1992, the Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy selected DynMcDennott Petroleum Operations Company to provide management and operating services for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve for a period of 5 years commencing April 1, 1993. DynMcDermott will succeed Boeing Petroleum Services, Inc.

  1. Reserve selection with land market feedbacks.

    PubMed

    Butsic, Van; Lewis, David J; Radeloff, Volker C

    2013-01-15

    How to best site reserves is a leading question for conservation biologists. Recently, reserve selection has emphasized efficient conservation: maximizing conservation goals given the reality of limited conservation budgets, and this work indicates that land market can potentially undermine the conservation benefits of reserves by increasing property values and development probabilities near reserves. Here we propose a reserve selection methodology which optimizes conservation given both a budget constraint and land market feedbacks by using a combination of econometric models along with stochastic dynamic programming. We show that amenity based feedbacks can be accounted for in optimal reserve selection by choosing property price and land development models which exogenously estimate the effects of reserve establishment. In our empirical example, we use previously estimated models of land development and property prices to select parcels to maximize coarse woody debris along 16 lakes in Vilas County, WI, USA. Using each lake as an independent experiment, we find that including land market feedbacks in the reserve selection algorithm has only small effects on conservation efficacy. Likewise, we find that in our setting heuristic (minloss and maxgain) algorithms perform nearly as well as the optimal selection strategy. We emphasize that land market feedbacks can be included in optimal reserve selection; the extent to which this improves reserve placement will likely vary across landscapes. PMID:23141878

  2. Will I Do as Well on the Final Exam as I Expect? An Examination of Students' Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, David J.

    2008-01-01

    Immediately prior to an exam, it is common to hear students commenting on whether they anticipate doing as well on the exam as they expect (or, in other words, whether they anticipate performing as well on the exam as the standard at which they believe they should be performing). These anticipations have received little past research attention. In…

  3. 2014-15 M-1 Exam Blueprint August 25 -September 19 Anatomy Biochemistry CTB Embryology IHD Med Genetics Microbiology Physiology

    E-print Network

    Jain, Kanti

    Embryology IHD Med Genetics Microbiology Physiology EXAMS September 22 - 26 5 hours 14 hours Microbiology Physiology EXAMS November 3 - 7 4 hours 14 hours 8 hours 4 hours 4 - December 12 Anatomy Biochemistry CTB Embryology IHD Med Genetics Microbiology Physiology EXAMS

  4. California High School Exit Exam Gets Real: Implications for the Class of 2006 and Beyond. EdSource Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Studier, Carol; Frey, Susan; Perry, Mary

    2006-01-01

    This EdSource report maps out the history and status of the California High School Exit Exam (CAHSEE) and addresses key issues surrounding the exam. It explains, for example, that the state superintendent has rejected postponing the exam or offering alternatives--a stance shared by many state leaders. But several lawsuits have been filed claiming…

  5. The Relationship between AP[R] Exam Performance and College Outcomes. Research Report No. 2009-4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattern, Krista D.; Shaw, Emily J.; Xiong, Xinhui

    2009-01-01

    This study focused on the relationship between students' Advanced Placement Program[R] (AP[R]) performance in AP English Language, Biology, Calculus, and U.S. History, and their subsequent college success. For each AP Exam studied, students were divided into three groups according to their AP Exam performance (no AP Exam taken, score of 1 or 2,…

  6. 76 FR 37893 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam Toll...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-28

    ...Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed...Correspondence Exam Toll Free Project Committee AGENCY...Advocacy Panel Small Business/ Self Employed...Correspondence Exam Toll Free Project Committee will be...Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed...Correspondence Exam Toll Free Project Committee will...

  7. 76 FR 63716 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam Toll...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-13

    ...Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed...Correspondence Exam Toll Free Project Committee AGENCY...Advocacy Panel Small Business/ Self Employed...Correspondence Exam Toll Free Project Committee will be...Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed...Correspondence Exam Toll Free Project Committee will...

  8. 76 FR 46897 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam Toll...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-03

    ...Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed...Correspondence Exam Toll Free Project Committee AGENCY...Advocacy Panel Small Business/ Self Employed...Correspondence Exam Toll Free Project Committee will be...Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed...Correspondence Exam Toll Free Project Committee will...

  9. 76 FR 22170 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam Toll...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-20

    ...Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed...Correspondence Exam Toll Free Project Committee AGENCY...Advocacy Panel Small Business/ Self Employed...Correspondence Exam Toll Free Project Committee will be...Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed...Correspondence Exam Toll Free Project Committee will...

  10. 76 FR 17996 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam Toll...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-31

    ...Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed...Correspondence Exam Toll Free Project Committee AGENCY...Advocacy Panel Small Business/ Self Employed...Correspondence Exam Toll Free Project Committee will be...Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed...Correspondence Exam Toll Free Project Committee will...

  11. 76 FR 56880 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam Toll...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-14

    ...Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed...Correspondence Exam Toll Free Project Committee AGENCY...Advocacy Panel Small Business/ Self Employed...Correspondence Exam Toll Free Project Committee will be...Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed...Correspondence Exam Toll Free Project Committee will...

  12. 76 FR 6190 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam Toll...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-03

    ...Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed...Correspondence Exam Toll Free Project Committee AGENCY...Advocacy Panel Small Business/ Self Employed...Correspondence Exam Toll Free Project Committee will be...Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed...Correspondence Exam Toll Free Project Committee will...

  13. 76 FR 10942 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam Toll...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-28

    ...Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed...Correspondence Exam Toll Free Project Committee AGENCY...Advocacy Panel Small Business/ Self Employed...Correspondence Exam Toll Free Project Committee will be...Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed...Correspondence Exam Toll Free Project Committee will...

  14. Predictors of Academic Success for the National Board Dental Hygiene Examination and the Southern Regional Testing Agency Clinical Exam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Efurd, Melissa G.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose for conducting this study was to investigate and describe the relationship between applicant criteria for a dental hygiene program and subsequent outcomes on credentialing exams: the National Board Dental Hygiene Exam and the Southern Regional Testing Agency clinical exam. Because admission criteria play a crucial role in applicant…

  15. What is normal ovarian reserve?

    PubMed

    Dillon, Katherine E; Gracia, Clarisa R

    2013-11-01

    While hormonal and ultrasonographic measures of ovarian reserve are often used to counsel patients about their fertility potential, normative data for these markers in the general population are lacking. Most studies are cross sectional and take place within specific subpopulations. Antral follicle count and anti-Mullerian hormone have been shown to be the best indicators of a woman's total follicular reserve. Ovarian volume, inhibin B, estradiol, and follicle-stimulating hormone are less helpful. Antral follicle count and anti-Mullerian hormone decrease with age and have been used to attempt to predict the length of the fertile window. Additional longitudinal data are needed for these biomarkers in populations of young, healthy, multiethnic women to assess for the presence of cofactors and determine the rate of age-related decline. Currently, these biomarkers are insufficient as predictors of fertility potential or advancement to menopause and no definitive determinations can be made about what constitutes "normal" levels of each measure. PMID:24101223

  16. Federal reservation of geothermal resources

    SciTech Connect

    Silver, R.M.

    1978-01-01

    Union Oil had developed or was seeking to develop wells on the land in Sonoma County, California in order to produce geothermal steam for generating electricity. The US Attorney General brought a quiet title action pursuant to 21(b) of the Geothermal Steam Act of 1970 to determine whether geothermal resources are included in the mineral reservation under the Homestead Act. The US District Court granted Union Oil's motion to dismiss for failure to state a claim upon which relief may be granted. On appeal, the Ninth Circuit reversed and remanded. In summary, the court concluded on the basis of the legislative history of the Stock-Raising Homestead Act that sources of energy are intended to remain in the government's possession, and the purposes of the Act will be best served by including geothermal resources in the reservation of mineral interests. Noting the strictly agricultural purpose of the Act, the subsurface estate reservation was broadly interpreted, even though title passed to all rights that were not expressly reserved. The court left open on remand the question of estoppel of the government from interfering with private lessees by developing subsurface resources compensation.This is a unique and intriguing decision, as it opens wide the definition of ''mineral interest,'' construing it in the timely terms of a valuable natural resource that may be in great demand for future energy needs. The decision is being appealed to the United States Supreme Court, and it will be interesting to observe whether this liberal interpretation of mineral interests will be upheld.

  17. Demand Response Spinning Reserve Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Eto, Joseph H.; Nelson-Hoffman, Janine; Torres, Carlos; Hirth,Scott; Yinger, Bob; Kueck, John; Kirby, Brendan; Bernier, Clark; Wright,Roger; Barat, A.; Watson, David S.

    2007-05-01

    The Demand Response Spinning Reserve project is a pioneeringdemonstration of how existing utility load-management assets can providean important electricity system reliability resource known as spinningreserve. Using aggregated demand-side resources to provide spinningreserve will give grid operators at the California Independent SystemOperator (CAISO) and Southern California Edison (SCE) a powerful, newtool to improve system reliability, prevent rolling blackouts, and lowersystem operating costs.

  18. The Belize Ethnobotany Reserve Project

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This is an excerpt from the book "The Biodiversity Crisis: Losing What Counts" which takes a look at an unusual international effort to preserve plant diversity. The goals of the Belize Ethnobotany Project are to study and conserve local knowledge of plant diversity and traditional medicinal uses. A diverse coalition organized this project, including groups from the U.S. and Central America. The project has resulted in the creation of a 6,000-acre forest reserve.

  19. FRED: Federal Reserve Economic Data

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis provides this clearinghouse of financial and economic data. Central to this site are the data files, a compendium of hundreds of daily, weekly, monthly, and quarterly time series on financial, monetary, interest rate, producer and consumer price, employment, population, and exchange rate data, among others. Some files are in .zip or compressed format. The site also offers FRBSTL growth rate macros (Excel and Lotus formats) and a selection of the Bank's online publications.

  20. Implementing Lightweight Reservation Protocol for Mobile Network Using Hybrid Schema

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ABDULLAH GANI; LINA YANG; BADRUL ANUAR; OMAR ZAKARIA; ROS SURYA TAHER

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents our method to improve lightweight reservation protocol. This was inspired by the ever increasing volume of multimedia traffic over the Internet which demanding quality of service beyond the traditional best-effort. The Integrated Services model relies on the Resource reservation Protocol (RSVP) for signaling and reserving resources. RSVP uses the receiver-initiated reservation mechanism to set up the reservation