Sample records for exam mlc reserved

  1. Megalencephalic Leukoencephalopathy with Subcortical Cysts (MLC)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... new treatments for the disease. Are there other names for Megalencephalic Leukoencephalopathy with subcortical Cysts (MLC)? Other names for Megalencephalic Leukoencephalopathy with subcortical Cysts (MLC) include: ...

  2. MLC++: A Machine Learning Library in C

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ron Kohavi; George H. John; Richard Long; David Manley; Karl Pfleger

    1994-01-01

    We present MLC++ , a library of C++classes andtools for supervised Machine Learning. While MLC++provides general learning algorithms that can be usedby end users, the main objective is to provide researchersand experts with a wide variety of tools thatcan accelerate algorithm development, increase softwarereliability, provide comparison tools, and displayinformation visually. More than just a collection ofexisting algorithms, MLC++ is an

  3. SCHOOL OF MLC Hall Split Exam Code Exam Name Day Exam date Time Exam Hall

    E-print Network

    Glasgow, University of

    4006_1 Catalan 2 Tue 29/04/2014 09:30 - 11:00 Gym St. Andrews Building ITALIAN2011_1 Italian Language 2 Language 2 Wed 30/04/2014 09:30 - 11:30 Gym St. Andrews Building ITALIAN4047_1 Italian Hons Written(Sen) Pr) Pr2 Thu 08/05/2014 09:30 - 11:30 Rm 253 Gilbert Scott Conference Suite ITALIAN1005_1 Italian Language

  4. Chapter 3. Life tables. Manual for SOA Exam MLC.

    E-print Network

    Arcones, Miguel A.

    ) The new model predicts a 331 3 % higher complete life expectancy (over the previous De Moivre model with the same ) for buildings aged 30. (iii) The complete life expectancy for buildings aged 60 under the new model is 20 years. Calculate the complete life expectancy under the previous De Moivre model

  5. The impact of MLC transmitted radiation on EPID dosimetry for dynamic MLC beams

    SciTech Connect

    Vial, Philip; Greer, Peter B.; Hunt, Peter; Oliver, Lyn; Baldock, Clive [Royal North Shore Hospital, Sydney (Australia); Institute of Medical Physics, School of Physics, University of Sydney, Sydney (Australia) and Department of Radiation Oncology, Liverpool Hospital, Sydney (Australia); Calvary Mater Newcastle Hospital, Newcastle, Australia and University of Newcastle, Newcastle (Australia); Royal North Shore Hospital, Sydney (Australia); Royal North Shore Hospital, Sydney (Australia) and Institute of Medical Physics, School of Physics, University of Sydney, Sydney (Australia); Institute of Medical Physics, School of Physics, University of Sydney, Sydney (Australia)

    2008-04-15

    The purpose of this study was to experimentally quantify the change in response of an amorphous silicon (a-Si) electronic portal imaging device (EPID) to dynamic multileaf collimator (dMLC) beams with varying MLC-transmitted dose components and incorporate the response into a commercial treatment planning system (TPS) EPID prediction model. A combination of uniform intensity dMLC beams and static beams were designed to quantify the effect of MLC transmission on EPID response at the central axis of 10x10 cm{sup 2} beams, at off-axis positions using wide dMLC beam profiles, and at different field sizes. The EPID response to MLC transmitted radiation was 0.79{+-}0.02 of the response to open beam radiation at the central axis of a 10x10 cm{sup 2} field. The EPID response to MLC transmitted radiation was further reduced relative to the open beam response with off-axis distance. The EPID response was more sensitive to field size changes for MLC transmitted radiation compared to open beam radiation by a factor of up to 1.17 at large field sizes. The results were used to create EPID response correction factors as a function of the fraction of MLC transmitted radiation, off-axis distance, and field size. Software was developed to apply the correction factors to each pixel in the TPS predicted EPID image. The corrected images agreed more closely with the measured EPID images in areas of intensity modulated fields with a large fraction of MLC transmission and, as a result the accuracy of portal dosimetry with a-Si EPIDs can be improved. Further investigation into the detector response function and the radiation source model are required to achieve improvements in accuracy for the general case.

  6. Radio frequency noise from an MLC: a feasibility study of the use of an MLC for linac-MR systems

    PubMed Central

    Lamey, M; Yun, J; Burke, B; Rathee, S; Fallone, B G

    2010-01-01

    Currently several groups are actively researching the integration of a megavoltage teletherapy unit with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging for real-time image-guided radiotherapy. The use of a multileaf collimator (MLC) for intensity-modulated radiotherapy for linac-MR units must be investigated. The MLC itself will likely reside in the fringe field of the MR and the motors will produce radio frequency (RF) noise. The RF noise power spectral density from a Varian 52-leaf MLC motor, a Varian Millennium MLC motor and a brushless fan motor has been measured as a function of the applied magnetic field using a near field probe set. For the Varian 52-leaf MLC system, the RF noise produced by 13 of 52 motors is studied as a function of distance from the MLC. Data are reported in the frequency range suitable for 0.2–1.5 T linac-MR systems. Below 40 MHz the Millennium MLC motor tested showed more noise than the Varian 52-leaf motor or the brushless fan motor. The brushless motor showed a small dependence on the applied magnetic field. Images of a phantom were taken by the prototype linac-MR system with the MLC placed in close proximity to the magnet. Several orientations of the MLC in both shielded and non-shielded configurations were studied. For the case of a non-shielded MLC and associated cables, the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) was reduced when 13 of 52 MLC leaves were moved during imaging. When the MLC and associated cables were shielded, the measured SNR of the images with 13 MLC leaves moving was experimentally the same as the SNR of the stationary MLC image. When the MLC and cables are shielded, subtraction images acquired with and without MLC motion contains no systematic signal. This study illustrates that the small RF noise produced by functioning MLC motors can be effectively shielded to avoid SNR degradation. A functioning MLC can be incorporated into a linac-MR unit. PMID:20090187

  7. SoA Sample MLC Solutions

    E-print Network

    2012-04-23

    Question #3. Answer: D. [ ]. 0.06. 0.08. 0.05. 0. 0. 0.07. 0. 1. 20. 1 100. 5. 20 7. 7 ..... MLC?09?11. 12. Question #17. Answer: C. ( ). ( )2. 2. 41. 41. Var Z. A. A. = -. (. ) 41. 40 .... f k k. ?. ?. ×?. ?. 0. 0. 0.1. 0. 0. 1. 1. (0.9)(0.2) = 0.18. 0.18. 0.18. 2. 2.

  8. Tolerances on MLC leaf position accuracy for IMRT delivery with a dynamic MLC

    SciTech Connect

    Rangel, Alejandra; Dunscombe, Peter [Department of Medical Physics, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, 1331-29 Street NW, Calgary, Alberta T2N 4N2 (Canada) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive NW, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4 (Canada); Department of Medical Physics, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, 1331-29 Street NW, Calgary, Alberta T2N 4N2 (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive NW, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4 (Canada) and Department of Oncology, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, 1331-29 Street NW, Calgary, Alberta T2N 4N2 (Canada)

    2009-07-15

    The objective determination of performance standards for radiation therapy equipment requires, ideally, establishing the quantitative relationship between performance deviations and clinical outcome or some acceptable surrogate. In this simulation study the authors analyzed the dosimetric impact of random (leaf by leaf) and systematic (entire leaf bank) errors in the position of the MLC leaves on seven clinical prostate and seven clinical head and neck IMRT plans delivered using a dynamic MLC. In-house software was developed to incorporate normally distributed errors of up to {+-}2 mm in individual leaf position or systematic errors ({+-}1 and {+-}0.5 mm in all leaves of both leaf banks or +1 mm in one bank only) into the 14 plans, thus simulating treatment delivery using a suboptimally performing MLC. The dosimetric consequences of suboptimal MLC performance were quantified using the equivalent uniform doses (EUDs) of the clinical target volumes and important organs at risk (OARs). The deviation of the EUDs of the selected structures as the performance of the MLC deteriorated was used as the objective surrogate of clinical outcome. Random errors of 2 mm resulted in negligible changes for all structures of interest in both sites. In contrast, systematic errors can lead to potentially significant dosimetric changes that may compromise clinical outcome. If a 2% change in EUD of the target and 2 Gy for the OARs were adopted as acceptable levels of deviation in dose due to MLC effects alone, then systematic errors in leaf position will need to be limited to 0.3 mm. This study provides guidance, based on a dosimetric surrogate of clinical outcome, for the development of one component, leaf position accuracy of performance standards for multileaf collimators.

  9. Effects on electron beam penumbra using the photon MLC to reduce bremsstrahlung leakage for an add-on electron MLC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olofsson, Lennart; Karlsson, Magnus G.; Karlsson, Mikael

    2005-03-01

    Electron IMRT treatments have the potential to reduce the integral dose due to the limited range of the electrons. However, bremsstrahlung produced in the scattering foils could penetrate an added electron MLC (eMLC), thus producing an unmodulated dose contribution that could become unacceptable in electron IMRT treatments. To limit this bremsstrahlung contribution, the photon MLC (xMLC) was used to track the eMLC, but with a margin to avoid penumbra widening through partial screening of the effective electron source. The purpose of this work was to study the effect of the photon-electron MLC tracking on the electron beam penumbra for different treatment head designs. Both isocentric designs and designs where the eMLC is used close to the patient (proximity geometry) have been analysed using Monte Carlo simulations. At 22.5 MeV energy, a tracking margin of 1 cm was enough to avoid penumbra degradation for a helium-filled isocentric geometry, while air-filled geometries (including proximity geometries) require a 2-3 cm margin. Illustrated by an example of a chest wall treatment by electron IMRT, the use of 1 cm tracking margin will reduce the collimator leakage contribution by a factor of 36 as compared to using a static setting of the photon collimator.

  10. Radio frequency noise from an MLC: a feasibility study of the use of an MLC for linac-MR systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Lamey; J. Yun; B. Burke; S. Rathee; B. G. Fallone

    2010-01-01

    Currently several groups are actively researching the integration of a megavoltage teletherapy unit with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging for real-time image-guided radiotherapy. The use of a multileaf collimator (MLC) for intensity-modulated radiotherapy for linac-MR units must be investigated. The MLC itself will likely reside in the fringe field of the MR and the motors will produce radio frequency (RF) noise.

  11. An experimental comparison of conventional two-bank and novel four-bank dynamic MLC tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, G. A.; Clowes, P.; McQuaid, D.; Evans, P. M.; Webb, S.; Poludniowski, G.

    2013-03-01

    The AccuLeaf mMLC featuring four multileaf-collimator (MLC) banks has been used for the first time for an experimental comparison of conventional two-bank with novel four-bank dynamic MLC tracking of a two-dimensional sinusoidal respiratory motion. This comparison was performed for a square aperture, and for three conformal treatment apertures from clinical radiotherapy lung cancer patients. The system latency of this prototype tracking system was evaluated and found to be 1.0 s and the frequency at which MLC positions could be updated, 1 Hz, and therefore accurate MLC tracking of irregular patient motion would be difficult with the system in its current form. The MLC leaf velocity required for two-bank-MLC and four-bank-MLC tracking was evaluated for the apertures studied and a substantial decrease was found in the maximum MLC velocity required when four-banks were used for tracking rather than two. A dosimetric comparison of the two techniques was also performed and minimal difference was found between two-bank-MLC and four-bank-MLC tracking. The use of four MLC banks for dynamic MLC tracking is shown to be potentially advantageous for increasing the delivery efficiency compared with two-bank-MLC tracking where difficulties are encountered if large leaf shifts are required to track motion perpendicular to the direction of leaf travel.

  12. An experimental comparison of conventional two-bank and novel four-bank dynamic MLC tracking.

    PubMed

    Davies, G A; Clowes, P; McQuaid, D; Evans, P M; Webb, S; Poludniowski, G

    2013-03-01

    The AccuLeaf mMLC featuring four multileaf-collimator (MLC) banks has been used for the first time for an experimental comparison of conventional two-bank with novel four-bank dynamic MLC tracking of a two-dimensional sinusoidal respiratory motion. This comparison was performed for a square aperture, and for three conformal treatment apertures from clinical radiotherapy lung cancer patients. The system latency of this prototype tracking system was evaluated and found to be 1.0 s and the frequency at which MLC positions could be updated, 1 Hz, and therefore accurate MLC tracking of irregular patient motion would be difficult with the system in its current form. The MLC leaf velocity required for two-bank-MLC and four-bank-MLC tracking was evaluated for the apertures studied and a substantial decrease was found in the maximum MLC velocity required when four-banks were used for tracking rather than two. A dosimetric comparison of the two techniques was also performed and minimal difference was found between two-bank-MLC and four-bank-MLC tracking. The use of four MLC banks for dynamic MLC tracking is shown to be potentially advantageous for increasing the delivery efficiency compared with two-bank-MLC tracking where difficulties are encountered if large leaf shifts are required to track motion perpendicular to the direction of leaf travel. PMID:23422212

  13. The Transcription Factor Mlc Promotes Vibrio cholerae Biofilm Formation through Repression of Phosphotransferase System Components

    PubMed Central

    Pickering, Bradley S.; Lopilato, Jane E.; Smith, Daniel R.

    2014-01-01

    The phosphoenol phosphotransferase system (PTS) is a multicomponent signal transduction cascade that regulates diverse aspects of bacterial cellular physiology in response to the availability of high-energy sugars in the environment. Many PTS components are repressed at the transcriptional level when the substrates they transport are not available. In Escherichia coli, the transcription factor Mlc (for makes large colonies) represses transcription of the genes encoding enzyme I (EI), histidine protein (HPr), and the glucose-specific enzyme IIBC (EIIBCGlc) in defined media that lack PTS substrates. When glucose is present, the unphosphorylated form of EIIBCGlc sequesters Mlc to the cell membrane, preventing its interaction with DNA. Very little is known about Vibrio cholerae Mlc. We found that V. cholerae Mlc activates biofilm formation in LB broth but not in defined medium supplemented with either pyruvate or glucose. Therefore, we questioned whether V. cholerae Mlc functions differently than E. coli Mlc. Here we have shown that, like E. coli Mlc, V. cholerae Mlc represses transcription of PTS components in both defined medium and LB broth and that E. coli Mlc is able to rescue the biofilm defect of a V. cholerae ?mlc mutant. Furthermore, we provide evidence that Mlc indirectly activates transcription of the vps genes by repressing expression of EI. Because activation of the vps genes by Mlc occurs under only a subset of the conditions in which repression of PTS components is observed, we conclude that additional inputs present in LB broth are required for activation of vps gene transcription by Mlc. PMID:24769694

  14. Competency Patient Care Sub Domain Physical Exam

    E-print Network

    Leistikow, Bruce N.

    ) Cardiovascular exam Pulmonary exam Lymph node exam Primary Care: Musculoskeletal exam Skin exam PsychiatryCompetency Patient Care Sub Domain Physical Exam Learning Objective Performs comprehensive Skin exam Surgery Abdominal exam Wound exam Musculoskeletal exam Rectal exam #12;

  15. Quantum exam

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ba An Nguyen

    2006-01-01

    Absolutely and asymptotically secure protocols for organizing an exam in a quantum way are proposed basing judiciously on multipartite entanglement. The protocols are shown to stand against common types of eavesdropping attack.

  16. Quantum exam

    E-print Network

    Nguyen Ba An

    2006-02-28

    Absolutely and asymptotically secure protocols for organizing an exam in a quantum way are proposed basing judiciously on multipartite entanglement. The protocols are shown to stand against common types of eavesdropping attack.

  17. Quantum exam

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nguyen Ba An

    2006-01-01

    Absolutely and asymptotically secure protocols for organizing an exam in a\\u000aquantum way are proposed basing judiciously on multipartite entanglement. The\\u000aprotocols are shown to stand against common types of eavesdropping attack.

  18. Quantum exam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Ba An

    2006-02-01

    Absolutely and asymptotically secure protocols for organizing an exam in a quantum way are proposed basing judiciously on multipartite entanglement. The protocols are shown to stand against common types of eavesdropping attack.

  19. Testicular Exams

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for Parents for Kids for Teens Teens Home Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Q&A School & Jobs Drugs & Alcohol Staying Safe Recipes En Español ... Body Image Testicular Exams KidsHealth > Teens > Sexual Health > For ...

  20. NOTE: Reducing the number of segments in unidirectional MLC segmentations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mellado, X.; Cruz, S.; Artacho, J. M.; Canellas, M.

    2010-02-01

    In intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), fluence matrices obtained from a treatment planning system are usually delivered by a linear accelerator equipped with a multileaf collimator (MLC). A segmentation method is needed for decomposing these fluence matrices into segments suitable for the MLC, and the number of segments used is an important factor for treatment time. In this work, an algorithm for reduction of the number of segments (NS) is presented for unidirectional segmentations, where there is no backtracking of the MLC leaves. It uses a geometrical representation of the segmentation output for searching the key values in a fluence matrix that complicate its decomposition. The NS reduction is achieved by performing minor modifications in these values, under the conditions of avoiding substantial modifications of the dose-volume histogram, and does not increase in average the total number of monitor units delivered. The proposed method was tested using two clinical cases planned with the PCRT 3D® treatment planning system.

  1. Integrated Exams System CMS Exam Questions CMS: Exam Questions

    E-print Network

    Sussex, University of

    8.0 View Exam Marks 9.0 Problems 10.0 Appendices 10.1 Web reports 1.0 Overview The CMS: ExamIntegrated Exams System ­ CMS Exam Questions CMS: Exam Questions Author: Colin Clark 6 th April.2 Record Marks by Question 4.3 Record Marks by Candidate 5.0 Conflation 6.0 Confirmation 7.0 Send to Exams

  2. Fast regional readout CMOS Image Sensor for dynamic MLC tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zin, H.; Harris, E.; Osmond, J.; Evans, P.

    2014-03-01

    Advanced radiotherapy techniques such as volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) require verification of the complex beam delivery including tracking of multileaf collimators (MLC) and monitoring the dose rate. This work explores the feasibility of a prototype Complementary metal-oxide semiconductor Image Sensor (CIS) for tracking these complex treatments by utilising fast, region of interest (ROI) read out functionality. An automatic edge tracking algorithm was used to locate the MLC leaves edges moving at various speeds (from a moving triangle field shape) and imaged with various sensor frame rates. The CIS demonstrates successful edge detection of the dynamic MLC motion within accuracy of 1.0 mm. This demonstrates the feasibility of the sensor to verify treatment delivery involving dynamic MLC up to ~400 frames per second (equivalent to the linac pulse rate), which is superior to any current techniques such as using electronic portal imaging devices (EPID). CIS provides the basis to an essential real-time verification tool, useful in accessing accurate delivery of complex high energy radiation to the tumour and ultimately to achieve better cure rates for cancer patients.

  3. Weibull analysis of soldered MLC under bending load stress

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Klaus Franken; Horst R. Maier

    1999-01-01

    A two-dimensional numerical model of MLCs is used to calculate the overall stress distribution of soldered and bent MLCs. Together with bending measurements the stress distribution leads to the Weibull parameters of three different MLC sizes. The material dependent Weibull parameters have been found to be different for each size. One possible reason under investigation are size related residual stresses

  4. Independent dose calculations for the CORVUS MLC IMRT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Komanduri M Ayyangar; Paul S Nizin; Cheng B Saw; Darren Gearheart; Bin Shen; Charles A Enke

    2001-01-01

    Two independent dose calculation methods have been explored to validate MLC-based IMRT plans from the NOMOS CORVUS system. After the plan is generated on the CORVUS planning system, the beam parameters are imported into an independent workstation. The beam parameters consist of intensity maps at each gantry angle. In addition, CT scans of the patient are imported into the independent

  5. Monte Carlo study of MLC fields for cobalt therapy machine

    PubMed Central

    Ayyangar, Komanduri M.; Rani, Roopa A.; Kumar, Anil; Reddy, A. R.

    2014-01-01

    An automated Multi-Leaf Collimator (MLC) system has been developed as add-on for the cobalt-60 teletherapy machines available in India. The goal of the present computational study is to validate the MLC design using Monte Carlo (MC) modeling. The study was based on the Kirloskar-supplied Phoenix model machines that closely match the Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) theratron-80 machine. The MLC is a retrofit attachment to the collimator assembly, with 14 non-divergent leaf pairs of 40 mm thick, 7 mm wide, and 150 mm long tungsten alloy plates with rounded edges and 20 mm tongue and 2 mm groove in each leaf. In the present work, the source and collimator geometry has been investigated in detail to arrive at a model that best represents the measured dosimetric data. The authors have studied in detail the proto-I MLC built for cobalt-60. The MLC field sizes were MC simulated for 2 × 2 cm2 to 14 × 14 cm2 square fields as well as irregular fields, and the percent depth dose (PDD) and profile data were compared with ROPS† treatment planning system (TPS). In addition, measured profiles using the IMATRIXX system‡ were also compared with the MC simulations. The proto-I MLC can define radiation fields up to 14 × 14 cm2 within 3 mm accuracy. The maximum measured leakage through the leaf ends in closed condition was 3.4% and interleaf leakage observed was 7.3%. Good agreement between MC results, ROPS and IMATRIXX results has been observed. The investigation also supports the hypothesis that optical and radiation field coincidence exists for the square fields studied with the MLC. Plots of the percent depth dose (PDD) data and profile data for clinically significant irregular fields have also been presented. The MC model was also investigated to speed up the calculations to allow calculations of clinically relevant conformal beams. †Radiation Oncology Planning System (ROPS) is supplied by Tirumala Jyothi Computer Systems described at https://sites.google.com/site/tjcsrops/ ‡IMATRIXX is supplied by IBA Dosimetry described at HYPERLINK http://www.iba-dosimetry.com PMID:24872604

  6. An MLC calibration method using a detector array

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, Thomas A.; Kahler, Darren; Simon, William E.; Fox, Christopher; Li, Jonathan; Palta, Jatinder; Liu, Chihray [Department of Nuclear and Radiological Engineering, University of Florida, 202 Nuclear Science Building, Gainesville, Florida 32611-8300 (United States); Sun Nuclear Corporation, 425-A Pineda Court, Melbourne, Florida 32940 (United States) and Department of Radiation Oncology, Health Science Center, University of Florida, P.O. Box 100385, Gainesville, Florida 32610-0385 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Health Science Center, University of Florida, P.O. Box 100385, Gainesville, Florida 32610-0385 (United States); Sun Nuclear Corporation, 425-A Pineda Court, Melbourne, Florida 32940 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Tulane University, 1415 Tulane Ave, HC65, New Orleans, Louisiana 70112 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Health Science Center, University of Florida, P.O. Box 100385, Gainesville, Florida 32610-0385 (United States)

    2009-10-15

    Purpose: The authors have developed a quantitative calibration method for a multileaf collimator (MLC) which measures individual leaf positions relative to the MLC backup jaw on an Elekta Synergy linear accelerator. Methods: The method utilizes a commercially available two-axis detector array (Profiler 2; Sun Nuclear Corporation, Melbourne, FL). To calibrate the MLC bank, its backup jaw is positioned at the central axis and the opposing jaw is retracted to create a half-beam configuration. The position of the backup jaws field edge is then measured with the array to obtain what is termed the radiation defined reference line. The positions of the individual leaf ends relative to this reference line are then inferred by the detector response in the leaf end penumbra. Iteratively adjusting and remeasuring the leaf end positions to within specifications completes the calibration. Using the backup jaw as a reference for the leaf end positions is based on three assumptions: (1) The leading edge of an MLC leaf bank is parallel to its backup jaw's leading edge, (2) the backup jaw position is reproducible, and (3) the measured radiation field edge created by each leaf end is representative of that leaf's position. Data from an electronic portal imaging device (EPID) were used in a similar analysis to check the results obtained with the array. Results: The relative leaf end positions measured with the array differed from those measured with the EPID by an average of 0.11 {+-}0.09 mm per leaf. The maximum leaf positional change measured with the Profiler 2 over a 3 month period was 0.51 mm. A leaf positional accuracy of {+-}0.4 mm is easily attainable through the iterative calibration process. The method requires an average of 40 min to measure both leaf banks. Conclusions: This work demonstrates that the Profiler 2 is an effective tool for efficient and quantitative MLC quality assurance and calibration.

  7. Exam fairness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mathieu Bouville

    2008-01-01

    It is widely agreed that exams must be fair; yet what this exactly means is not made clear. One may mean fairness of treatment, but this merely propagates the fairness or unfairness of pre-existing rules. Fairness of opportunity on the other hand necessarily leads to identical grades for everyone, which clearly makes it inapplicable. Neither view is helpful to make

  8. MLC1 protein: a likely link between leukodystrophies and brain channelopathies.

    PubMed

    Brignone, Maria S; Lanciotti, Angela; Camerini, Serena; De Nuccio, Chiara; Petrucci, Tamara C; Visentin, Sergio; Ambrosini, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts (MLCs) disease is a rare inherited, autosomal recessive form of childhood-onset spongiform leukodystrophy characterized by macrocephaly, deterioration of motor functions, epileptic seizures and mental decline. Brain edema, subcortical fluid cysts, myelin and astrocyte vacuolation are the histopathological hallmarks of MLC. Mutations in either the MLC1 gene (>75% of patients) or the GlialCAM gene (<20% of patients) are responsible for the disease. Recently, the GlialCAM adhesion protein was found essential for the membrane expression and function of the chloride channel ClC-2 indicating MLC disease caused by mutation in GlialCAM as the first channelopathy among leukodystrophies. On the contrary, the function of MLC1 protein, which binds GlialCAM, its functional relationship with ClC-2 and the molecular mechanisms underlying MLC1 mutation-induced functional defects are not fully understood yet. The human MLC1 gene encodes a 377-amino acid membrane protein with eight predicted transmembrane domains which shows very low homology with voltage-dependent potassium (K(+)) channel subunits. The high expression of MLC1 in brain astrocytes contacting blood vessels and meninges and brain alterations observed in MLC patients have led to hypothesize a role for MLC1 in the regulation of ion and water homeostasis. Recent studies have shown that MLC1 establishes structural and/or functional interactions with several ion/water channels and transporters and ion channel accessory proteins, and that these interactions are affected by MLC1 mutations causing MLC. Here, we review data on MLC1 functional properties obtained in in vitro and in vivo models and discuss evidence linking the effects of MLC1 mutations to brain channelopathies. PMID:25883547

  9. The transcription factor Mlc promotes Vibrio cholerae biofilm formation through repression of phosphotransferase system components.

    PubMed

    Pickering, Bradley S; Lopilato, Jane E; Smith, Daniel R; Watnick, Paula I

    2014-07-01

    The phosphoenol phosphotransferase system (PTS) is a multicomponent signal transduction cascade that regulates diverse aspects of bacterial cellular physiology in response to the availability of high-energy sugars in the environment. Many PTS components are repressed at the transcriptional level when the substrates they transport are not available. In Escherichia coli, the transcription factor Mlc (for makes large colonies) represses transcription of the genes encoding enzyme I (EI), histidine protein (HPr), and the glucose-specific enzyme IIBC (EIIBC(Glc)) in defined media that lack PTS substrates. When glucose is present, the unphosphorylated form of EIIBC(Glc) sequesters Mlc to the cell membrane, preventing its interaction with DNA. Very little is known about Vibrio cholerae Mlc. We found that V. cholerae Mlc activates biofilm formation in LB broth but not in defined medium supplemented with either pyruvate or glucose. Therefore, we questioned whether V. cholerae Mlc functions differently than E. coli Mlc. Here we have shown that, like E. coli Mlc, V. cholerae Mlc represses transcription of PTS components in both defined medium and LB broth and that E. coli Mlc is able to rescue the biofilm defect of a V. cholerae ?mlc mutant. Furthermore, we provide evidence that Mlc indirectly activates transcription of the vps genes by repressing expression of EI. Because activation of the vps genes by Mlc occurs under only a subset of the conditions in which repression of PTS components is observed, we conclude that additional inputs present in LB broth are required for activation of vps gene transcription by Mlc. PMID:24769694

  10. Linkage group HL-A-MLC-Bf (properdin factor B)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ch. Rittner; H. Grosse-Wilde; B. Rittner; B. Netzel; S. Scholz; H. Lorenz; E. D. Albert

    1975-01-01

    Genetic linkage between the HL-A and Bf loci could be confirmed in 43 families with 168 offspring. In 4 families, 5 recombinants out of 82 informative meiotic divisions were observed (r=6.1%). The localisation of the Bf marker system was studied in 3 families with crossovers between HL-A and MLC. From these data the following map order of human chromosome 6

  11. TomoTherapy MLC verification using exit detector data

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Quan; Westerly, David; Fang Zhenyu; Sheng, Ke; Chen Yu [TomoTherapy Inc., 1240 Deming Way, Madison, Wisconsin 53717 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado 80045 (United States); Xinghua Cancer Hospital, Xinghua, Jiangsu 225700 (China); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California-Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); TomoTherapy Inc., 1240 Deming Way, Madison, Wisconsin 53717 (United States)

    2012-01-15

    Purpose: Treatment delivery verification (DV) is important in the field of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). While IMRT and image guided radiation therapy (IGRT), allow us to create more conformal plans and enables the use of tighter margins, an erroneously executed plan can have detrimental effects on the treatment outcome. The purpose of this study is to develop a DV technique to verify TomoTherapy's multileaf collimator (MLC) using the onboard mega-voltage CT detectors. Methods: The proposed DV method uses temporal changes in the MVCT detector signal to predict actual leaf open times delivered on the treatment machine. Penumbra and scattered radiation effects may produce confounding results when determining leaf open times from the raw detector data. To reduce the impact of the effects, an iterative, Richardson-Lucy (R-L) deconvolution algorithm is applied. Optical sensors installed on each MLC leaf are used to verify the accuracy of the DV technique. The robustness of the DV technique is examined by introducing different attenuation materials in the beam. Additionally, the DV technique has been used to investigate several clinical plans which failed to pass delivery quality assurance (DQA) and was successful in identifying MLC timing discrepancies as the root cause. Results: The leaf open time extracted from the exit detector showed good agreement with the optical sensors under a variety of conditions. Detector-measured leaf open times agreed with optical sensor data to within 0.2 ms, and 99% of the results agreed within 8.5 ms. These results changed little when attenuation was added in the beam. For the clinical plans failing DQA, the dose calculated from reconstructed leaf open times played an instrumental role in discovering the root-cause of the problem. Throughout the retrospective study, it is found that the reconstructed dose always agrees with measured doses to within 1%. Conclusions: The exit detectors in the TomoTherapy treatment systems can provide valuable information about MLC behavior during delivery. A technique to estimate the TomoTherapy binary MLC leaf open time from exit detector signals is described. This technique is shown to be both robust and accurate for delivery verification.

  12. An experimental evaluation of the Agility MLC for motion-compensated VMAT delivery.

    PubMed

    Davies, G A; Clowes, P; Bedford, J L; Evans, P M; Webb, S; Poludniowski, G

    2013-07-01

    An algorithm for dynamic multileaf-collimator (dMLC) tracking of a target performing a known a priori, rigid-body motion during volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT), has been experimentally validated and applied to investigate the potential of the Agility (Elekta AB, Stockholm, Sweden) multileaf-collimator (MLC) for use in motion-compensated VMAT delivery. For five VMAT patients, dosimetric measurements were performed using the Delta(4) radiation detector (ScandiDos, Uppsala, Sweden) and the accuracy of dMLC tracking was evaluated using a gamma-analysis, with threshold levels of 3% for dose and 3 mm for distance-to-agreement. For a motion trajectory with components in two orthogonal directions, the mean gamma-analysis pass rate without tracking was found to be 58.0%, 59.0% and 60.9% and was increased to 89.1%, 88.3% and 93.1% with MLC tracking, for time periods of motion of 4 s, 6 s and 10 s respectively. Simulations were performed to compare the efficiency of the Agility MLC with the MLCi MLC when used for motion-compensated VMAT delivery for the same treatment plans and motion trajectories. Delivery time increases from a static-tumour to dMLC-tracking VMAT delivery were observed in the range 0%–20% for the Agility, and 0%–57% with the MLCi, indicating that the increased leaf speed of the Agility MLC is beneficial for MLC tracking during lung radiotherapy. PMID:23780400

  13. Combining MLC and SVM Classifiers for Learning Based Decision Making: Analysis and Evaluations

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yi; Ren, Jinchang; Jiang, Jianmin

    2015-01-01

    Maximum likelihood classifier (MLC) and support vector machines (SVM) are two commonly used approaches in machine learning. MLC is based on Bayesian theory in estimating parameters of a probabilistic model, whilst SVM is an optimization based nonparametric method in this context. Recently, it is found that SVM in some cases is equivalent to MLC in probabilistically modeling the learning process. In this paper, MLC and SVM are combined in learning and classification, which helps to yield probabilistic output for SVM and facilitate soft decision making. In total four groups of data are used for evaluations, covering sonar, vehicle, breast cancer, and DNA sequences. The data samples are characterized in terms of Gaussian/non-Gaussian distributed and balanced/unbalanced samples which are then further used for performance assessment in comparing the SVM and the combined SVM-MLC classifier. Interesting results are reported to indicate how the combined classifier may work under various conditions. PMID:26089862

  14. Leadership & Multicultural Development Programs Carmen Curiel, Director, Multicultural Leadership Center June 2, 2011 www.fullerton.edu/deanofstudents/mlc

    E-print Network

    de Lijser, Peter

    Leadership & Multicultural Development Programs Carmen Curiel, Director, Multicultural Leadership of the Multicultural Leadership Center (MLC) is to develop leaders who will understand and embrace diversity. The MLC Leadership Institute and the MLC that provides training in leadership as it relates to cultural sensitivity

  15. Small field dosimetric characterization of a new 160-leaf MLC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cranmer-Sargison, G.; Liu, P. Z. Y.; Weston, S.; Suchowerska, N.; Thwaites, D. I.

    2013-10-01

    The goal of this work was to perform a 6 MV small field characterization of the new Agility 160-leaf multi-leaf collimator (MLC) from Elekta. This included profile measurement analysis and central axis relative output measurements using various diode detectors and an air-core fiber optic scintillation dosimeter (FOD). Data was acquired at a depth of 10.0 cm for field sizes of 1.0, 0.9, 0.8, 0.7, 0.6 and 0.5 cm. Three experimental data sets, comprised of five readings, were made for both the relative output and profile measurements. Average detector-specific output ratios (\\overline {OR} _{det}^{f_{clin} }) were calculated with respect to a field size of 3.0 cm and small field replacement correction factors (\\mathop k\

  16. SCHOOL OF PSYCHOLOGY Exam Code Exam Name Day Exam date Time Exam Hall Hall Split

    E-print Network

    Glasgow, University of

    SCHOOL OF PSYCHOLOGY Exam Code Exam Name Day Exam date Time Exam Hall Hall Split PSYCH1002_1 Psych PSYCH4027_1 Psy 4H Single:Interact & Comm Tue 29/04/2014 14:00 - 15:00 Design Studio A (427A) James Watt Wed 07/05/2014 09:30 - 10:30 Room 227 St Andrews Building PSYCH4037_1 Psychology 3 Statistics Wed 07

  17. Exams: The Secret Ingredients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiJulio, Betsy

    2012-01-01

    This year, many high-school teachers in the district where the author teaches experienced exam anxiety because midterms--as they had come to know and love them--were no more. For a variety of reasons, the semester exam schedule looked very different. More to the point is the new philosophy about exam content and format that underpinned the…

  18. Mlc regulation of Salmonella pathogenicity island I gene expression via hilE repression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sangyong Lim; Jiae Yun; Hyunjin Yoon; Boowon Kim; Byeonghwa Jeon; Dongho Kim; Sangryeol Ryu

    2007-01-01

    The global regulator Mlc is a repressor of several genes and operons that are involved in sugar uptake and metabolism. A Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium mlc mutant showed reduced levels of invasion and cytotoxicity compared to the wild- type, and exhibited reduced expression levels of hilD, hilA and invF, which are regulatory genes in the Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI1).

  19. Dosimetric impact of the 160 MLC on head and neck IMRT treatments.

    PubMed

    Rassiah-Szegedi, Prema; Szegedi, Martin; Sarkar, Vikren; Streitmatter, Seth; Huang, Y Jessica; Zhao, Hui; Salter, Bill

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to investigate if the change in plan quality with the finer leaf resolution and lower leakage of the 160 MLC would be dosimetrically significant for head and neck intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treat- ment plans. The 160 MLC consisting of 80 leaves of 0.5 cm on each bank, a leaf span of 20 cm, and leakage of less than 0.37% without additional backup jaws was compared against the 120 Millennium MLC with 60 leaves of 0.5 and 1.0 cm, a leaf span of 14.5 cm, and leakage of 2.0%. CT image sets of 16 patients previously treated for stage III and IV head and neck carcinomas were replanned on Prowess 5.0 and Eclipse 11.0 using the 160 MLC and the 120 MLC. IMRT constraints for both sets of 6 MV plans were identical and based on RTOG 0522. Dose-volume histograms (DVHs), minimum dose, mean dose, maximum dose, and dose to 1 cc to the organ at risks (OAR) and the planning target volume, as recommended by QUANTEC 2010, were compared. Both collimators were able to achieve the target dose to the PTVs. The dose to the organs at risk (brainstem, spinal cord, parotids, and larynx) were 1%-12% (i.e., 0.5-8 Gy for a 70 Gy prescription) lower with the 160 MLC compared to the 120 MLC, depending on the proximity of the organ to the target. The large field HN plans generated with the 160 MLC were dosimetrically advantageous for critical structures, especially those located further away from the central axis, without compromising the target volume.  PMID:25493507

  20. On the sensitivity of patient-specific IMRT QA to MLC positioning errors.

    PubMed

    Yan, Guanghua; Liu, Chihray; Simon, Thomas A; Peng, Lee-Cheng; Fox, Christopher; Li, Jonathan G

    2009-01-01

    Accurate multileaf collimator (MLC) leaf positioning plays an essential role in the effective implementation of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). This work evaluates the sensitivity of current patient-specific IMRT quality assurance (QA) procedures to minor MLC leaf positioning errors. Random errors of up to 2 mm and systematic errors of +/-1 mm and +/-2 mm in MLC leaf positions were introduced into 8 clinical IMRT patient plans (totaling 53 fields). Planar dose distributions calculated with modified plans were compared to dose distributions measured with both radiochromic films and a diode matrix. The agreement between calculation and measurement was evaluated using both absolute distance-to-agreement (DTA) analysis and gamma index with 2%/2 mm and 3%/3 mm criteria. It was found that both the radiochromic film and the diode matrix could only detect systematic errors on the order of 2 mm or above. The diode array had larger sensitivity than film due to its excellent detector response (such as small variation, linear response, etc.). No difference was found between DTA analysis and gamma index in terms of the sensitivity to MLC positioning errors. Higher sensitivity was observed with 2%/2 mm than with 3%/3 mm in general. When using the diode array and 2%/2 mm criterion, the IMRT QA procedure showed strongest sensitivity to MLC position errors and, at the same time, achieved clinically acceptable passing rates. More accurate dose calculation and measurement would further enhance the sensitivity of patient-specific IMRT QA to MLC positioning errors. However, considering the significant dosimetric effect such MLC errors could cause, patient-specific IMRT QA should be combined with a periodic MLC QA program in order to guarantee the accuracy of IMRT delivery. PMID:19223841

  1. An independent dose calculation algorithm for MLC-based stereotactic radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Lorenz, Friedlieb; Killoran, Joseph H.; Wenz, Frederik; Zygmanski, Piotr [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mannheim Medical Center, University of Heidelberg, Mannheim, 68167 (Germany); Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Mannheim Medical Center, University of Heidelberg, Mannheim, 68167 (Germany); Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States)

    2007-05-15

    We have developed an algorithm to calculate dose in a homogeneous phantom for radiotherapy fields defined by multi-leaf collimator (MLC) for both static and dynamic MLC delivery. The algorithm was developed to supplement the dose algorithms of the commercial treatment planning systems (TPS). The motivation for this work is to provide an independent dose calculation primarily for quality assurance (QA) and secondarily for the development of static MLC field based inverse planning. The dose calculation utilizes a pencil-beam kernel. However, an explicit analytical integration results in a closed form for rectangular-shaped beamlets, defined by single leaf pairs. This approach reduces spatial integration to summation, and leads to a simple method of determination of model parameters. The total dose for any static or dynamic MLC field is obtained by summing over all individual rectangles from each segment which offers faster speed to calculate two-dimensional dose distributions at any depth in the phantom. Standard beam data used in the commissioning of the TPS was used as input data for the algorithm. The calculated results were compared with the TPS and measurements for static and dynamic MLC. The agreement was very good (<2.5%) for all tested cases except for very small static MLC sizes of 0.6 cmx0.6 cm (<6%) and some ion chamber measurements in a high gradient region (<4.4%). This finding enables us to use the algorithm for routine QA as well as for research developments.

  2. Metastasis of aggressive amoeboid sarcoma cells is dependent on Rho/ROCK/MLC signaling

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Although there is extensive evidence for the amoeboid invasiveness of cancer cells in vitro, much less is known about the role of amoeboid invasiveness in metastasis and the importance of Rho/ROCK/MLC signaling in this process. Results We analyzed the dependence of amoeboid invasiveness of rat and chicken sarcoma cells and the metastatic activity of chicken cells on individual elements of the Rho/ROCK/MLC pathway. In both animal models, inhibition of Rho, ROCK or MLC resulted in greatly decreased cell invasiveness in vitro, while inhibition of extracellular proteases using a broad spectrum inhibitor did not have a significant effect. The inhibition of both Rho activity and MLC phosphorylation by dominant negative mutants led to a decreased capability of chicken sarcoma cells to metastasize. Moreover, the overexpression of RhoA in non-metastatic chicken cells resulted in the rescue of both invasiveness and metastatic capability. Rho and ROCK, unlike MLC, appeared to be directly involved in the maintenance of the amoeboid phenotype, as their inhibition resulted in the amoeboid-mesenchymal transition in analyzed cell lines. Conclusion Taken together, these results suggest that protease-independent invasion controlled by elements of the Rho/ROCK/MLC pathway can be frequently exploited by metastatic sarcoma cells. PMID:23899007

  3. Dynamic MLC leaf sequencing for integrated linear accelerator control systems

    SciTech Connect

    Popple, Richard A.; Brezovich, Ivan A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1700 6th Avenue South, Birmingham, Alabama 35249-6832 (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: Leaf positions for dynamic multileaf collimator (DMLC) intensity modulated radiation therapy must be closely synchronized with MU delivery. For the Varian C3 series MLC controller, if the planned trajectory (leaf position vs. MU) requires velocities exceeding the capability of the MLC, the leaves fall behind the planned positions, causing the controller to momentarily hold the beam and thereby introduce dosimetric errors. We investigated the merits of a new commercial linear accelerator, TrueBeam, that integrates MLC control with prospective dose rate modulation. If treatment is delivered at dose rates so high that leaves would fall behind, the controller reduces the dose rate such that harmony between MU and leaf position is preserved. Methods: For three sets of DMLC leaf trajectories, point doses and two-dimensional dose distributions were measured in phantom using an ionization chamber and film, respectively. The first set, delivered using both a TrueBeam and a conventional C3 controller, comprised a single leaf bank closing at planned velocities of 2.4, 7.1, and 14 cm/s. The maximum achievable leaf velocity for both systems was 3 cm/s. The remaining two sets were derived from clinical fluence maps using a commercial treatment planning system for a range of planned dose rates and were delivered using TrueBeam set to the maximum dose rate, 600 MU/min. Generating trajectories using a planned dose rate that is lower than the delivery dose rate effectively increased the leaf velocity constraint used by the planning system for trajectory calculation. The second set of leaf trajectories was derived from two fluence maps containing regions of zero fluence obtained from representative beams of two different patient treatment plans. The third set was obtained from all nine fields of a head and neck treatment plan. For the head and neck plan, dose-volume histograms of the spinal cord and target for each planned dose rate were obtained. Results: For the single closing leaf bank trajectories, the TrueBeam control system reduced the dose rate such that the leaf velocity was less than the maximum. Dose deviations relative to the 2.4 cm/s trajectory were less than 3%. For the conventional controller, the leaves repeatedly fell behind the planned positions until the beam hold threshold was reached, resulting in deviations of up to 19% relative to the 2.4 cm/s trajectory. For the two clinical fluence maps, reducing the planned dose rate reduced the dose in the zero fluence regions by 15% and 24% and increased the delivery time by 5 s and 14 s. No significant differences were noted in the high and intermediate dose regions measured using film. The DVHs for the head and neck plan showed a 10% reduction in cord dose for 20 MU/min relative to 600 MU/min sequencing dose rate, which was confirmed by measurement. No difference in target DVHs were observed. The reduction in cord dose increased total treatment time by 1.8 min. Conclusions: Leaf sequencing algorithms for integrated control systems should be modified to reflect the reduced importance of maximum leaf velocity for accurate dose delivery.

  4. Detailed analysis of latencies in image-based dynamic MLC tracking

    SciTech Connect

    Poulsen, Per Rugaard; Cho, Byungchul; Sawant, Amit; Ruan, Dan; Keall, Paul J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 and Department of Oncology and Department of Medical Physics, Aarhus University Hospital, 8000 Aarhus (Denmark); Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 and Department of Radiation Oncology, Asan Medical Center, Seoul 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

    2010-09-15

    Purpose: Previous measurements of the accuracy of image-based real-time dynamic multileaf collimator (DMLC) tracking show that the major contributor to errors is latency, i.e., the delay between target motion and MLC response. Therefore the purpose of this work was to develop a method for detailed analysis of latency contributions during image-based DMLC tracking. Methods: A prototype DMLC tracking system integrated with a linear accelerator was used for tracking a phantom with an embedded fiducial marker during treatment delivery. The phantom performed a sinusoidal motion. Real-time target localization was based on x-ray images acquired either with a portal imager or a kV imager mounted orthogonal to the treatment beam. Each image was stored in a file on the imaging workstation. A marker segmentation program opened the image file, determined the marker position in the image, and transferred it to the DMLC tracking program. This program estimated the three-dimensional target position by a single-imager method and adjusted the MLC aperture to the target position. Imaging intervals {Delta}T{sub image} from 150 to 1000 ms were investigated for both kV and MV imaging. After the experiments, the recorded images were synchronized with MLC log files generated by the MLC controller and tracking log files generated by the tracking program. This synchronization allowed temporal analysis of the information flow for each individual image from acquisition to completed MLC adjustment. The synchronization also allowed investigation of the MLC adjustment dynamics on a considerably finer time scale than the 50 ms time resolution of the MLC log files. Results: For {Delta}T{sub image}=150 ms, the total time from image acquisition to completed MLC adjustment was 380{+-}9 ms for MV and 420{+-}12 ms for kV images. The main part of this time was from image acquisition to completed image file writing (272 ms for MV and 309 ms for kV). Image file opening (38 ms), marker segmentation (4 ms), MLC position calculation (16 ms), and MLC adjustment (52 ms) were considerably faster. For {Delta}T{sub image}=1000 ms, the total time from image acquisition to completed MLC adjustment increased to 1030{+-}62 ms (MV) and 1330{+-}52 ms (kV) mainly because of delayed image file writing. The MLC adjustment duration was constant 52 ms ({+-}3 ms) for MLC adjustments below 1.1 mm and increased linearly for larger MLC adjustments. Conclusions: A method for detailed time analysis of each individual real-time position signal for DMLC tracking has been developed and applied to image-based tracking. The method allows identification of the major contributors to latency and therefore a focus for reducing this latency. The method could be an important tool for the reconstruction of the delivered target dose during DMLC tracking as it provides synchronization between target motion and MLC motion.

  5. Exam Preparation & Strategies for Exam Preparation

    E-print Network

    builds on this learned information Review Often Anchor material in memory with repeated, active study/recall pieces of concrete/abstract information · Typical exam wording: choose, define, find, identify, label

  6. Examining Exam Reviews: A Comparison of Exam Scores and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hackathorn, Jana; Cornell, Kathryn; Garczynski, Amy M.; Solomon, Erin D.; Blankmeyer, Katheryn E.; Tennial, Rachel E.

    2012-01-01

    Instructors commonly use exam reviews to help students prepare for exams and to increase student success. The current study compared the effects of traditional, trivia, and practice test-based exam reviews on actual exam scores, as well as students' attitudes toward each review. Findings suggested that students' exam scores were significantly…

  7. Comparision of beam data requirements for MLC commissioning on a TPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solaiappan, Gopi; Singaravelu, Ganesan; Prakasarao, Aruna; Supe, Sanjay S.

    2008-01-01

    The treatment planning system (TPS) has become a key element in the radiotherapy process with the introduction of computer tomography (CT) based 3D conformal treatment planning. Commissioning of a MLC on a TPS either for conformal radiotherapy or intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) requires beam data to be generated on a linear accelerator. Most of the TPS require these beam data to be generated with routine collimator jaws. However some TPS demand the data to be provided for MLC shaped fields. This prompted us to investigate whether beam data with jaws differ than that with MLC and whether the jaw based beam data would suffice for the commissioning of a MLC on a TPS. Beam data like percentage depth dose (PDD), cross beam profiles and output factors was acquired for jaws and MLC defined square fields for 6, 10 and 23 MV photon beams. Percentage depth dose and cross beam profiles were acquired with a radiation field analyzer RFA-200, CC13-S ion chambers with active volume of 0.13 cm3 and OmniPro-Accept software from Scanditronix-Wellhofer. A Medtec-TG51 water tank with Max-4000 electrometer and 0.6 cc PTW ionization chamber and a mini phantom from Standard Imaging was utilized for output measurements for millennium-120 MLC (Varian Medical Systems) and SRS diode detector (Scanditronix-Wellhofer) of 0.6 mm diameter of active area and 0.3 mm of active volume thickness for micro-MLC (BrainLab). The difference in PDD in the build-up region for millennium MLC was ±1.0% for 6 MV photons. For 10 MV photons the PDD difference was within ±4.0%. The difference in PDD for 23 MV photons ranged from 0% to 40.0%. PDD difference from build-up depth to about 28 cm was within ±1.0%. Difference in PDD crossed ±1.0% at 30 cm depth for 6 MV photons. The difference in PDD in the build-up region for mMLC was ±8.0% for 6 MV photons. For the smallest field size studied with micro-MLC i.e. 0.6 × 0.6 cm2 difference in PDD was more than ±1.0% in the build-up region and beyond a depth of 8.0 cm. The profiles for jaws and MLC agreed within the umbra region. However in the penumbra region small differences in doses were observed. The collimator scatter factor (Sc), phantom scatter factor (Sp) and output factor values for MLC were different that those for jaws. The differences in beam characteristics could have implication for intensity modulated radiation therapy and stereotactic radiosurgery in terms of dose in the build up region, exit dose, dose to the planning target volume (PTV) and organ at risk (OAR). Impact of these dosimetric differences between jaw and MLC needs to be further studied in terms of dose volume histograms for PTV and OAR and its further impact on tumor control probability (TCP) and normal tissue complication probability (NTCP).

  8. PKM2 phosphorylates MLC2 and regulates cytokinesis of tumor cells

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yuhui; Wang, Yugang; Wang, Ting; Hawke, David H.; Zheng, Yanhua; Li, Xinjian; Zhou, Qin; Majumder, Sadhan; Bi, Erfei; Liu, David X.; Huang, Suyun; Lu, Zhimin

    2014-01-01

    Pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) is expressed at high levels during embryonic development and tumor progression and is important for cell growth. However, it is not known whether it directly controls cell division. Here, we found that Aurora B phosphorylates PKM2, but not PKM1, at T45; this phosphorylation is required for PKM2's localization and interaction with myosin light chain 2 (MLC2) in the contractile ring region of mitotic cells during cytokinesis. PKM2 phosphorylates MLC2 at Y118, which primes the binding of ROCK2 to MLC2 and subsequent ROCK2-dependent MLC2 S15 phosphorylation. PKM2-regulated MLC2 phosphorylation, which is greatly enhanced by EGF stimulation or EGFRvIII, K-Ras G12V, and B-Raf V600E mutant expression, plays a pivotal role in cytokinesis, cell proliferation, and brain tumor development. These findings underscore the instrumental function of PKM2 in oncogenic EGFR-, K-Ras-, and B-Raf-regulated cytokinesis and tumorigenesis. PMID:25412762

  9. Operator recognition by the ROK transcription factor family members, NagC and Mlc.

    PubMed

    Bréchemier-Baey, Dominique; Domínguez-Ramírez, Lenin; Oberto, Jacques; Plumbridge, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    NagC and Mlc, paralogous members of the ROK family of proteins with almost identical helix-turn-helix DNA binding motifs, specifically regulate genes for transport and utilization of N-acetylglucosamine and glucose. We previously showed that two amino acids in a linker region outside the canonical helix-turn-helix motif are responsible for Mlc site specificity. In this work we identify four amino acids in the linker, which are required for recognition of NagC targets. These amino acids allow Mlc and NagC to distinguish between a C/G and an A/T bp at positions ±11 of the operators. One linker position, glycine in NagC and arginine in Mlc, corresponds to the major specificity determinant for the two proteins. In certain contexts it is possible to switch repression from Mlc-style to NagC-style, by interchanging this glycine and arginine. Secondary determinants are supplied by other linker positions or the helix-turn-helix motif. A wide genomic survey of unique ROK proteins shows that glycine- and arginine-rich sequences are present in the linkers of nearly all ROK family repressors. Conserved short sequence motifs, within the branches of the ROK evolutionary tree, suggest that these sequences could also be involved in operator recognition in other ROK family members. PMID:25452338

  10. Comment on: “Quantum exam”

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fei Gao; Qiao-Yan Wen; Fu-Chen Zhu

    2007-01-01

    The security of quantum exam [B.A. Nguyen, Phys. Lett. A 350 (2006) 174] is analyzed and it is found that this protocol is secure for any eavesdropper except for a dishonest ``student'' who takes part in the exam. The particular attack strategy is demonstrated and a possible improvement of this protocol is presented.

  11. Fast motion-including dose error reconstruction for VMAT with and without MLC tracking.

    PubMed

    Ravkilde, Thomas; Keall, Paul J; Grau, Cai; Høyer, Morten; Poulsen, Per R

    2014-12-01

    Multileaf collimator (MLC) tracking is a promising and clinically emerging treatment modality for radiotherapy of mobile tumours. Still, new quality assurance (QA) methods are warranted to safely introduce MLC tracking in the clinic. The purpose of this study was to create and experimentally validate a simple model for fast motion-including dose error reconstruction applicable to intrafractional QA of MLC tracking treatments of moving targets.MLC tracking experiments were performed on a standard linear accelerator with prototype MLC tracking software guided by an electromagnetic transponder system. A three-axis motion stage reproduced eight representative tumour trajectories; four lung and four prostate. Low and high modulation 6 MV single-arc volumetric modulated arc therapy treatment plans were delivered for each trajectory with and without MLC tracking, as well as without motion for reference. Temporally resolved doses were measured during all treatments using a biplanar dosimeter. Offline, the dose delivered to each of 1069 diodes in the dosimeter was reconstructed with 500 ms temporal resolution by a motion-including pencil beam convolution algorithm developed in-house. The accuracy of the algorithm for reconstruction of dose and motion-induced dose errors throughout the tracking and non-tracking beam deliveries was quantified. Doses were reconstructed with a mean dose difference relative to the measurements of-0.5% (5.5% standard deviation) for cumulative dose. More importantly, the root-mean-square deviation between reconstructed and measured motion-induced 3%/3 mm ? failure rates (dose error) was 2.6%. The mean computation time for each calculation of dose and dose error was 295 ms. The motion-including dose reconstruction allows accurate temporal and spatial pinpointing of errors in absorbed dose and is adequately fast to be feasible for online use. An online implementation could allow treatment intervention in case of erroneous dose delivery in both tracking and non-tracking treatments. PMID:25383729

  12. Evaluation of two methods of predicting MLC leaf positions using EPID measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Parent, Laure; Seco, Joao; Evans, Phil M.; Dance, David R.; Fielding, Andrew [Joint Department of Physics, Institute of Cancer Research and Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Downs Road, Sutton, SM2 5PT (United Kingdom); Joint Department of Physics, Institute of Cancer Research and Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Fulham Road, London, SW3 6JJ (United Kingdom); School of Physical and Chemical Sciences, Queensland University of Technology, Q337 Gardens Point Campus, Brisbane, Queensland 4001 (Australia)

    2006-09-15

    In intensity modulated radiation treatments (IMRT), the position of the field edges and the modulation within the beam are often achieved with a multileaf collimator (MLC). During the MLC calibration process, due to the finite accuracy of leaf position measurements, a systematic error may be introduced to leaf positions. Thereafter leaf positions of the MLC depend on the systematic error introduced on each leaf during MLC calibration and on the accuracy of the leaf position control system (random errors). This study presents and evaluates two methods to predict the systematic errors on the leaf positions introduced during the MLC calibration. The two presented methods are based on a series of electronic portal imaging device (EPID) measurements. A comparison with film measurements showed that the EPID could be used to measure leaf positions without introducing any bias. The first method, referred to as the 'central leaf method', is based on the method currently used at this center for MLC leaf calibration. It mimics the manner in which leaf calibration parameters are specified in the MLC control system and consequently is also used by other centers. The second method, a new method proposed by the authors and referred to as the ''individual leaf method,'' involves the measurement of two positions for each leaf (-5 and +15 cm) and the interpolation and extrapolation from these two points to any other given position. The central leaf method and the individual leaf method predicted leaf positions at prescribed positions of -11, 0, 5, and 10 cm within 2.3 and 1.0 mm, respectively, with a standard deviation (SD) of 0.3 and 0.2 mm, respectively. The individual leaf method provided a better prediction of the leaf positions than the central leaf method. Reproducibility tests for leaf positions of -5 and +15 cm were performed. The reproducibility was within 0.4 mm on the same day and 0.4 mm six weeks later (1 SD). Measurements at gantry angles of 0 deg., 90 deg., and 270 deg. for leaf positions of -5 and +15 cm showed no significant effect of gravity. The individual leaf method could be used in various applications to improve the accuracy of radiotherapy treatment from planning to delivery. Three cases are discussed: IMRT beam verification, MLC calibration and dose calcula0010ti.

  13. MLC901, a Traditional Chinese Medicine induces neuroprotective and neuroregenerative benefits after traumatic brain injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Quintard, H; Lorivel, T; Gandin, C; Lazdunski, M; Heurteaux, C

    2014-09-26

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a frequent and clinically highly heterogeneous neurological disorder with large socioeconomic consequences. NeuroAid (MLC601 and MLC901), a Traditional Medicine used in China for patients after stroke has been previously reported to induce neuroprotection and neuroplasticity. This study was designed to evaluate the neuroprotective and neuroregenerative effects of MLC901 in a rat model of TBI. TBI was induced by a moderate lateral fluid percussion applied to the right parietal cortex. MLC901 was injected intraperitoneally at 2h post-TBI, and then administered in drinking water at a concentration of 10mg/ml until sacrifice of the animals. The cognitive deficits induced by TBI were followed by using the "what-where-when" task, which allows the measurement of episodic-like memory. MLC901 treatment decreased brain lesions induced by TBI. It prevented the serum increase of S-100 beta (S100B) and neuron-specific enolase (NSE), which may be markers to predict the neurologic outcome in human patients with TBI. MLC901 reduced the infarct volume when injected up to 2h post-TBI, prevented edema formation and assisted its resolution, probably via the regulation of aquaporin 4. These positive MLC901 effects were associated with an upregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) as well as an increase of endogenous hippocampal neurogenesis and gliogenesis around the lesion. Furthermore, MLC901 reduced cognitive deficits induced by TBI. Rats subjected to TBI displayed a suppression of temporal order memory, which was restored by MLC901. This work provides evidence that MLC901 has neuroprotective and neurorestorative actions, which lead to an improvement in the recovery of cognitive functions in a model of traumatic brain injury. PMID:24993477

  14. NOTE: Verification of a rounded leaf-end MLC model used in a radiotherapy treatment planning system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, M. J.; Metcalfe, P.

    2006-02-01

    A new multileaf collimator (MLC) model has been incorporated into version 7.4 of the Pinnacle radiotherapy treatment planning system (Philips Radiation Oncology Systems, Milpitas, CA). The MLC model allows for rounded MLC leaf-ends and provides separate parameters for inter-leaf transmission, intra-leaf transmission and the tongue width of the MLC leaf. In this report we detail the method followed to commission the MLC model for a Varian 120-leaf Millennium MLC (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA, USA) for both 6 and 10 MV photons, and test the validity of the model for an IMRT field. Dose profiles in water were measured for a range of square MLC field sizes and compared to the Pinnacle computed dose profiles; in addition, the dose distribution for a series of adjacent MLC fields was measured to observe the model's behaviour along match-lines. Based on these results intra-leaf transmissions of 1.5% for 6 MV and 1.8% for 10 MV, leaf-tip radius of 12.0 cm, an inter-leaf transmission of 0.5%, and a tongue width of 0.1 cm were chosen. Using these values to compute the planar dose distribution for a 6 MV IMRT field, the new version of Pinnacle displayed improved dosimetric agreement with the dose-to-water EPID image and ion chamber measurements when compared to the old version of Pinnacle, particularly along the MLC tongue edge and across match-lines. Discrepancies of up to 5% were observed between calculated and measured doses along match-lines for both 6 MV and 10 MV photons; however, the new MLC model did predict the presence of match-lines and was a significant improvement on the previous model.

  15. Exam Question Exchange.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, John J.

    1979-01-01

    Describes an exam question which challenges college freshmen, enrolled in chemistry, to derive temperature dependence of an equilibrium constant. The question requires cognitive response at the level of synthesis. (Author/SA)

  16. Quizzes, Tests, and Exams

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Barbara Gross Davis

    This website features information on strategies for testing, including choosing appropriate testing methodologies and developing a test that assesses students as accurately and fairly as possible. Topics include different types of tests, construction of effective exams and alternative testing methods.

  17. Physical exam frequency

    MedlinePLUS

    How often you need a physical exam; Health maintenance visit; Health screening; Checkup ... All adults should visit their health care provider from time to time, even if they are healthy. The purpose of these visits is to: Screen for diseases ...

  18. Testicular self-exam

    MedlinePLUS

    Testicular self-exam is an examination of the testicles that you do on yourself. ... The testicles (also called the testes) are the male reproductive organs that produce sperm and the hormone testosterone. They ...

  19. Differential phosphorylation of LZ+/LZ- MYPT1 isoforms regulates MLC phosphatase activity.

    PubMed

    Yuen, Samantha L; Ogut, Ozgur; Brozovich, Frank V

    2014-11-15

    The vascular response to NO is due, in part, to a Ca(2+) independent activation of myosin light chain (MLC) phosphatase, a trimeric enzyme of 20kDa, 38kDa catalytic and 110-130kDa myosin targeting (MYPT1) subunits. Alternative mRNA splicing produces MYPT1 isoforms that differ by the presence or absence of a central insert (CI) and a leucine zipper (LZ), and the presence of a LZ+ MYPT1 isoform is important for protein kinase G (PKG) mediated activation of MLC phosphatase. This study was designed to determine the molecular basis for the differential sensitivity of the vasculature to NO. Our results demonstrate that the presence of the MYPT1 LZ domain is required for PKG to both phosphorylate MYPT1 at S668 and activate MLC phosphatase. Further for LZ+ MYPT1 isoforms, an S668A MYPT1 mutation prevents the PKG mediated, Ca(2+) independent activation of MLC phosphatase. These data demonstrate that differential PKG mediated S668 phosphorylation of LZ+/LZ- MYPT1 isoforms could be important for determining the diversity in the sensitivity of the vasculature to NO mediated vasodilatation. Thus, the relative expression of LZ+/LZ- MYPT1 isoforms, in part, defines the vascular response to NO and NO based vasodilators, and therefore, plays a role in the regulation of vascular tone in both health and disease. PMID:25168281

  20. Analytic IMRT dose calculations utilizing Monte Carlo to predict MLC fluence modulation

    PubMed Central

    Mihaylov, I. B.; Lerma, F. A.; Wu, Y.; Siebers, J. V.

    2007-01-01

    A hybrid dose-computation method is designed which accurately accounts for multileaf collimator (MLC)-induced intensity modulation in intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) dose calculations. The method employs Monte Carlo (MC) modeling to determine the fluence modulation caused by the delivery of dynamic or multisegmental (step-and-shoot) MLC fields, and a conventional dose-computation algorithm to estimate the delivered dose to a phantom or a patient. Thus, it determines the IMRT fluence prediction accuracy achievable by analytic methods in the limit that the analytic method includes all details of the MLC leaf transport and scatter. The hybrid method is validated and benchmarked by comparison with in-phantom film dose measurements, as well as dose calculations from two in-house, and two commercial treatment planning system analytic fluence estimation methods. All computation methods utilize the same dose algorithm to calculate dose to a phantom, varying only in the estimation of the MLC modulation of the incident photon energy fluence. Gamma analysis, with respect to measured two-dimensional (2D) dose planes, is used to benchmark each algorithm’s performance. The analyzed fields include static and dynamic test patterns, as well as fields from ten DMLC IMRT treatment plans (79 fields) and five SMLC treatment plans (29 fields). The test fields (fully closed MLC, picket fence, sliding windows of different size, and leaf-tip profiles) cover the extremes of MLC usage during IMRT, while the patient fields represent realistic clinical conditions. Of the methods tested, the hybrid method most accurately reproduces measurements. For the hybrid method, 79 of 79 DMLC field calculations have ? ?1 (3% /3 mm) for more than 95% of the points (per field) while for SMLC fields, 27 of 29 pass the same criteria. The analytic energy fluence estimation methods show inferior pass rates, with 76 of 79 DMLC and 24 of 29 SMLC fields having more than 95% of the test points with ? ?1 (3% /3 mm). Paired one-way ANOVA tests of the gamma analysis results found that the hybrid method better predicts measurements in terms of both the fraction of points with ? ?1 and the average gamma for both 2% /2 mm and 3% /3 mm criteria. These results quantify the enhancement in accuracy in IMRT dose calculations when MC is used to model the MLC field modulation. PMID:16696458

  1. Quantitative measurement of MLC leaf displacements using an electronic portal image device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yong; Xing, Lei

    2004-04-01

    The success of an IMRT treatment relies on the positioning accuracy of the MLC (multileaf collimator) leaves for both step-and-shoot and dynamic deliveries. In practice, however, there exists no effective and quantitative means for routine MLC QA and this has become one of the bottleneck problems in IMRT implementation. In this work we present an electronic portal image device (EPID) based method for fast and accurate measurement of MLC leaf positions at arbitrary locations within the 40 cm × 40 cm radiation field. The new technique utilizes the fact that the integral signal in a small region of interest (ROI) is a sensitive and reliable indicator of the leaf displacement. In this approach, the integral signal at a ROI was expressed as a weighted sum of the contributions from the displacements of the leaf above the point and the adjacent leaves. The weighting factors or linear coefficients of the system equations were determined by fitting the integral signal data for a group of pre-designed MLC leaf sequences to the known leaf displacements that were intentionally introduced during the creation of the leaf sequences. Once the calibration is done, the system can be used for routine MLC leaf positioning QA to detect possible leaf errors. A series of tests was carried out to examine the functionality and accuracy of the technique. Our results show that the proposed technique is potentially superior to the conventional edge-detecting approach in two aspects: (i) it deals with the problem in a systematic approach and allows us to take into account the influence of the adjacent MLC leaves effectively; and (ii) it may improve the signal-to-noise ratio and is thus capable of quantitatively measuring extremely small leaf positional displacements. Our results indicate that the technique can detect a leaf positional error as small as 0.1 mm at an arbitrary point within the field in the absence of EPID set-up error and 0.3 mm when the uncertainty is considered. Given its simplicity, efficiency and accuracy, we believe that the technique is ideally suitable for routine MLC leaf positioning QA. This work was presented at the 45th Annual Meeting of American Society of Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ASTRO), Salt Lake City, UT, 2003. A US Patent is pending (application no. 10/197,232).

  2. Impact of the MLC on the MRI field distortion of a prototype MRI-linac

    SciTech Connect

    Kolling, Stefan; Keall, Paul [Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)] [Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Oborn, Brad [Illawarra Cancer Care Centre (ICCC), Wollongong, NSW 2500 (Australia)] [Illawarra Cancer Care Centre (ICCC), Wollongong, NSW 2500 (Australia)

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: To cope with intrafraction tumor motion, integrated MRI-linac systems for real-time image guidance are currently under development. The multileaf collimator (MLC) is a key component in every state-of-the-art radiotherapy treatment system, allowing for accurate field shaping and tumor tracking. This work quantifies the magnetic impact of a widely used MLC on the MRI field homogeneity for such a modality.Methods: The finite element method was employed to model a MRI-linac assembly comprised of a 1.0?T split-bore MRI magnet and the key ferromagnetic components of a Varian Millennium 120 MLC, namely, the leaves and motors. Full 3D magnetic field maps of the system were generated. From these field maps, the peak-to-peak distortion within the MRI imaging volume was evaluated over a 30?cm diameter sphere volume (DSV) around the isocenter and compared to a maximum preshim inhomogeneity of 300??T. Five parametric studies were performed: (1) The source-to-isocenter distance (SID) was varied from 100 to 200?cm, to span the range of a compact system to that with lower magnetic coupling. (2) The MLC model was changed from leaves only to leaves with motors, to determine the contribution to the total distortion caused by MLC leaves and motors separately. (3) The system was configured in the inline or perpendicular orientation, i.e., the linac treatment beam was oriented parallel or perpendicular to the magnetic field direction. (4) The treatment field size was varied from 0 × 0 to 20×20?cm{sup 2}, to span the range of clinical treatment fields. (5) The coil currents were scaled linearly to produce magnetic field strengths B{sub 0} of 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5?T, to estimate how the MLC impact changes with B{sub 0}.Results: (1) The MLC-induced MRI field distortion fell continuously with increasing SID. (2) MLC leaves and motors were found to contribute to the distortion in approximately equal measure. (3) Due to faster falloff of the fringe field, the field distortion was generally smaller in the perpendicular beam orientation. The peak-to-peak DSV distortion was below 300??T at SID?130?cm (perpendicular) and SID?140?cm (inline) for the 1.0?T design. (4) The simulation of different treatment fields was identified to cause dynamic changes in the field distribution. However, the estimated residual distortion was below 1.2?mm geometric distortion at SID?120?cm (perpendicular) and SID?130?cm (inline) for a 10?mT/m frequency-encoding gradient. (5) Due to magnetic saturation of the MLC materials, the field distortion remained constant at B{sub 0}>1.0?T.Conclusions: This work shows that the MRI field distortions caused by the MLC cannot be ignored and must be thoroughly investigated for any MRI-linac system. The numeric distortion values obtained for our 1.0?T magnet may vary for other magnet designs with substantially different fringe fields, however the concept of modest increases in the SID to reduce the distortion to a shimmable level is generally applicable.

  3. Mouse and computational models link Mlc2v dephosphorylation to altered myosin kinetics in early cardiac disease

    PubMed Central

    Sheikh, Farah; Ouyang, Kunfu; Campbell, Stuart G.; Lyon, Robert C.; Chuang, Joyce; Fitzsimons, Dan; Tangney, Jared; Hidalgo, Carlos G.; Chung, Charles S.; Cheng, Hongqiang; Dalton, Nancy D.; Gu, Yusu; Kasahara, Hideko; Ghassemian, Majid; Omens, Jeffrey H.; Peterson, Kirk L.; Granzier, Henk L.; Moss, Richard L.; McCulloch, Andrew D.; Chen, Ju

    2012-01-01

    Actin-myosin interactions provide the driving force underlying each heartbeat. The current view is that actin-bound regulatory proteins play a dominant role in the activation of calcium-dependent cardiac muscle contraction. In contrast, the relevance and nature of regulation by myosin regulatory proteins (for example, myosin light chain-2 [MLC2]) in cardiac muscle remain poorly understood. By integrating gene-targeted mouse and computational models, we have identified an indispensable role for ventricular Mlc2 (Mlc2v) phosphorylation in regulating cardiac muscle contraction. Cardiac myosin cycling kinetics, which directly control actin-myosin interactions, were directly affected, but surprisingly, Mlc2v phosphorylation also fed back to cooperatively influence calcium-dependent activation of the thin filament. Loss of these mechanisms produced early defects in the rate of cardiac muscle twitch relaxation and ventricular torsion. Strikingly, these defects preceded the left ventricular dysfunction of heart disease and failure in a mouse model with nonphosphorylatable Mlc2v. Thus, there is a direct and early role for Mlc2 phosphorylation in regulating actin-myosin interactions in striated muscle contraction, and dephosphorylation of Mlc2 or loss of these mechanisms can play a critical role in heart failure. PMID:22426213

  4. Therapeutic efficacy of Neuro AiD™ (MLC 601), a traditional Chinese medicine, in experimental traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Ming-Che; Chang, Ching-Ping; Peng, Syue-Wei; Jhuang, Kai-Sheng; Fang, Yi-Hsien; Lin, Mao-Tsun; Tsao, Thomas Chang-Yao

    2015-03-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) causes increased release of several mediators from injured and dead cells and elicits microglial activation. Activated microglia change their morphology, migrate to injury sites, and release tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) and others. In this study we used a controlled fluid percussion injury model of TBI in the rat to determine whether early (4 h post-injury) or late (4 days post-injury) treatment with MLC 601, a Traditional Chinese Medicine, would affect microglial activation and improve recovery. MLC 601 was chosen for this study because its herbal component MLC 901 was beneficial in treating TBI in rats. Herein, rats with induced TBI were treated with MLC 601 (0.2-0.8 mg/kg) 1 h (early treatment) or 4 day post-injury (late treatment) and then injected once daily for consecutive 2 days. Acute neurological and motor deficits were assessed in all rats the day before and 4 days after early MLC 601 treatment. An immunofluorescence microscopy method was used to count the numbers of the cells colocalized with neuron- and apoptosis-specific markers, and the cells colocalized with microglia- and TNF-?-specific markers, in the contused brain regions 4 days post-injury. An immunohistochemistry method was used to evaluate both the number and the morphological transformation of microglia in the injured areas. It was found that early treatment with MLC 601 had better effects in reducing TBI-induced cerebral contusion than did the late therapy with MLC 601. Cerebral contusion caused by TBI was associated with neurological motor deficits, brain apoptosis, and activated microglia (e.g., microgliosis, amoeboid microglia, and microglial overexpression of TNF-?), which all were significantly attenuated by MLC 601 therapy. Our data suggest that MLC 601 is a promising agent for treatment of TBI in rats. PMID:25331680

  5. SU-E-T-33: An EPID-Based Method for Testing Absolute Leaf Position for MLC Without Backup Jaws

    SciTech Connect

    Hancock, S [Southeast Missouri Hospital, Cape Girardeau, MO (United States); Whitaker, M [Radiological Imaging Technology, Colorado Springs, CO (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Methods in common use for MLC leaf position QA are limited to measurements relative to an arbitrary reference position. The authors previously presented an EPID-based method for efficiently testing accuracy of leaf position relative to the mechanical isocenter for MLC with backup jaws. The purpose of this work is to extend that method to the general case of MLC without backup jaws. Methods: A pair of collimator walkout images is used to determine the location of the mechanical isocenter relative to the center of one field using a parameter called X-offset. The method allows for shift of the imager panel to cover subsets of MLC leaves within the limited field of view of the imager. For a shifted panel position, an image of three beam strips defined by a subset of MLC leaves allows determination of the position of each leaf relative to the isocenter. The location of the isocenter is determined by applying X-offset to an image of a single rectangular field obtained at that panel position. The method can also be used to test backup jaws instead of MLC leaves. A software tool was developed to efficiently analyze the images. Results: The software tool reports leaf position and deviation from nominal position, and provides visual displays to facilitate rapid qualitative interpretation. Test results using this method agree well with results using the previous method requiring backup jaws. Test results have been successfully used to recalibrate one model MLC (Elekta MLCi2™). Work in progress includes extension of the software tool to other MLC models, and quantification of reproducibility of the measurements. Conclusion: This work successfully demonstrates a method to efficiently and accurately measure MLC leaf position, or backup jaw position, relative to the mechanical isocenter of the collimator.

  6. Commissioning of 6 MV medical linac for dynamic MLC-based IMRT on Monte Carlo code GEANT4.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Hiroyuki; Fujita, Yukio; Sakama, Kyoko; Saitoh, Hidetoshi; Kanai, Tatsuaki; Itami, Jun; Kohno, Toshiyuki

    2014-07-01

    Monte Carlo simulation is the most accurate tool for calculating dose distributions. In particular, the Electron Gamma shower computer code has been widely used for multi-purpose research in radiotherapy, but Monte Carlo GEANT4 (GEometry ANd Tracking) is rare for radiotherapy with photon beams and needs to be verified further under various irradiation conditions, particularly multi-leaf collimator-based intensity-modulated radiation therapy (MLC-based IMRT). In this study, GEANT4 was used for modeling of a 6 MV linac for dynamic MLC-based IMRT. To verify the modeling of our linac, we compared the calculated data with the measured depth-dose for a 10 × 10 cm(2) field and the measured dose profile for a 35 × 35 cm(2) field. Moreover, 120 MLCs were modeled on the GEANT4. Five tests of MLC modeling were performed: (I) MLC transmission, (II) MLC transmission profile including intra- and inter-leaf leakage, (III) tongue-and-groove leakage, (IV) a simple field with different field sizes by use of MLC and (V) a dynamic MLC-based IMRT field. For all tests, the calculations were compared with measurements of an ionization chamber and radiographic film. The calculations agreed with the measurements: MLC transmissions by calculations and measurements were 1.76 ± 0.01 and 1.87 ± 0.01 %, respectively. In gamma evaluation method (3 %/3 mm), the pass rates of the (IV) and (V) tests were 98.5 and 97.0 %, respectively. Furthermore, tongue-and-groove leakage could be calculated by GEANT4, and it agreed with the film measurements. The procedure of commissioning of dynamic MLC-based IMRT for GEANT4 is proposed in this study. PMID:24510472

  7. Graphics Qualifying Exam Fall 2002 Graphics Qualifying Exam

    E-print Network

    Liblit, Ben

    Graphics Qualifying Exam Fall 2002 Graphics Qualifying Exam Sept 23, 2002 · This exam contains six questions. · Answer 4 of the first 5 questions and question 6. · All questions are of equal point value of the pieces remains a solid under all editing operations. Creating a B-Rep modeler is particularly difficult

  8. Graphics Qualifying Exam Fall 2004 Graphics Qualifying Exam

    E-print Network

    Liblit, Ben

    Graphics Qualifying Exam Fall 2004 Graphics Qualifying Exam September 2004 · This exam contains six questions. · Answer 4 of the first 5 questions, and question 6. · All questions are of equal point value representations. b. Perlin noise is now found all over graphics, in everything from texture synthesis to fluid

  9. MLC quality assurance using EPID: A fitting technique with subpixel precision

    SciTech Connect

    Mamalui-Hunter, Maria; Li, Harold; Low, Daniel A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, 4921 Parkview Place, St. Louis, Missouri 63110 (United States)

    2008-06-15

    Amorphous silicon based electronic portal imaging devices (EPIDs) have been shown to be a good alternative to radiographic film for routine quality assurance (QA) of multileaf collimator (MLC) positioning accuracy. In this work, we present a method of acquiring an EPID image of a traditional strip-test image using analytical fits of the interleaf and leaf abutment image signatures. After exposure, the EPID image pixel values are divided by an open field image to remove EPID response and radiation field variations. Profiles acquired in the direction orthogonal to the leaf motion exhibit small peaks caused by interleaf leakage. Gaussian profiles are fitted to the interleaf leakage peaks, the results of which are, using multiobjective optimization, used to calculate the image rotational angle with respect to the collimator axis of rotation. The relative angle is used to rotate the image to align the MLC leaf travel to the image pixel axes. The leaf abutments also present peaks that are fitted by heuristic functions, in this case modified Lorentzian functions. The parameters of the Lorentzian functions are used to parameterize the leaf gap width and positions. By imaging a set of MLC fields with varying gaps forming symmetric and asymmetric abutments, calibration curves with regard to relative peak height (RPH) versus nominal gap width are obtained. Based on this calibration data, the individual leaf positions are calculated to compare with the nominal programmed positions. The results demonstrate that the collimator rotation angle can be determined as accurate as 0.01 deg. . A change in MLC gap width of 0.2 mm leads to a change in RPH of about 10%. For asymmetrically produced gaps, a 0.2 mm MLC leaf gap width change causes 0.2 pixel peak position change. Subpixel resolution is obtained by using a parameterized fit of the relatively large abutment peaks. By contrast, for symmetrical gap changes, the peak position remains unchanged with a standard deviation of 0.05 pixels, or 0.026 mm. A trial run of 36 test images, each with gap widths varying from 0.4 to 1.4 mm, were used to analyze 8640 abutments. The leaf position variations were detected with a precision of 0.1 mm at a 95% confidence level, with a mean of 0.04 mm and a standard deviation of 0.03 mm. The proposed method is robust and minimizes the effect of image noise and pixel size and may help physicists to establish reliable and reasonable action levels in routine MLC QA.

  10. SU-E-T-01: 2-D Characterization of DLG Among All MLC Leaf Pairs

    SciTech Connect

    Kumaraswamy, L; Xu, Z; Podgorsak, M [Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY (United States); Schmitt, J [RadAmerica, LLC--MedStar Health, Baltimore, MD (United States); Bailey, D [Northside Hospital, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to evaluate the variation of dosimetric leaf-gap (DLG) along the travel path of each MLC leaf pair. This study evaluates whether the spatial variations in DLG could cause dose differences between TPS-calculated and measured dose. Methods: The 6MV DLG values were measured for all leaf pairs in the direction of leaf motion using a 2-D diode array and 0.6cc ion chamber. These measurements were performed on two Varian Linacs, employing the Millennium 120-leaf MLC and a 2-D-DLG variation map was created via in-house software. Several test plans were created with sweeping MLC fields using constant gaps from 2mm to 10mm and corrected for 2-D variation utilizing in-house software. Measurements were performed utilizing the MapCHECK at 5.0cm depth for plans with and without the 2-D DLG correction and compared to the TPS calculated dose via gamma analysis (3%/3mm). Results: The measured DLGs for the middle 40 MLC leaf pairs (0.5cm width) were very similar along the central superior-inferior axis, with maximum variation of 0.2mm. The outer 20 MLC leaf pairs (1.0cm width) have DLG values from 0.32mm (mean) to 0.65mm (maximum) lower than the central leaf-pair, depending on off-axis distance. Gamma pass rates for the 2mm, 4mm, and 6mm sweep plans increased by 23.2%, 28.7%, and 26.0% respectively using the 2-D-DLG correction. The most improved dose points occur in areas modulated by the 1.0cm leaf-pairs. The gamma pass rate for the 10mm sweep plan increased by only 7.7%, indicating that the 2D variation becomes less significant for dynamic plans with larger MLC gaps. Conclusion: Fluences residing significantly off-axis with narrow sweeping gaps may exhibit significant variations from planned dose due to large differences between the true DLG exhibited by the 1.0cm leaf-pairs versus the constant DLG value utilized by the TPS for dose calculation.

  11. EPID-based verification of the MLC performance for dynamic IMRT and VMAT

    SciTech Connect

    Rowshanfarzad, Pejman; Sabet, Mahsheed; Barnes, Michael P.; O'Connor, Daryl J.; Greer, Peter B. [School of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, University of Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW 2308 (Australia); Department of Radiation Oncology, Calvary Mater Newcastle Hospital, Newcastle, NSW 2310 (Australia); School of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, University of Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW 2308 (Australia); Department of Radiation Oncology, Calvary Mater Newcastle Hospital, Newcastle, NSW 2310, Australia and School of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, University of Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW 2308 (Australia)

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: In advanced radiotherapy treatments such as intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT), verification of the performance of the multileaf collimator (MLC) is an essential part of the linac QA program. The purpose of this study is to use the existing measurement methods for geometric QA of the MLCs and extend them to more comprehensive evaluation techniques, and to develop dedicated robust algorithms to quantitatively investigate the MLC performance in a fast, accurate, and efficient manner. Methods: The behavior of leaves was investigated in the step-and-shoot mode by the analysis of integrated electronic portal imaging device (EPID) images acquired during picket fence tests at fixed gantry angles and arc delivery. The MLC was also studied in dynamic mode by the analysis of cine EPID images of a sliding gap pattern delivered in a variety of conditions including different leaf speeds, deliveries at fixed gantry angles or in arc mode, and changing the direction of leaf motion. The accuracy of the method was tested by detection of the intentionally inserted errors in the delivery patterns. Results: The algorithm developed for the picket fence analysis was able to find each individual leaf position, gap width, and leaf bank skewness in addition to the deviations from expected leaf positions with respect to the beam central axis with sub-pixel accuracy. For the three tested linacs over a period of 5 months, the maximum change in the gap width was 0.5 mm, the maximum deviation from the expected leaf positions was 0.1 mm and the MLC skewness was up to 0.2 Degree-Sign . The algorithm developed for the sliding gap analysis could determine the velocity and acceleration/deceleration of each individual leaf as well as the gap width. There was a slight decrease in the accuracy of leaf performance with increasing leaf speeds. The analysis results were presented through several graphs. The accuracy of the method was assessed as 0.01 mm for both the gap size and peak position determination. Conclusions: This study provides fast, easy, and accurate test methods for routine QA of the MLC performance and helps in faster troubleshooting of MLC problems in both IMRT and VMAT treatments.

  12. Brushed permanent magnet DC MLC motor operation in an external magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Yun, J.; St Aubin, J.; Rathee, S.; Fallone, B. G. [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, 11322-89 Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2G7 (Canada) and Department of Oncology, Medical Physics Division, University of Alberta, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2 (Canada); Department of Medical Physics, Cross Cancer Institute, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2 (Canada) and Department of Oncology, Medical Physics Division, University of Alberta, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2 (Canada); Department of Physics, University of Alberta, 11322-89 Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2G7 (Canada); Department of Medical Physics, Cross Cancer Institute, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2 (Canada) and Department of Oncology, Medical Physics Division, University of Alberta, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2 (Canada)

    2010-05-15

    Purpose: Linac-MR systems for real-time image-guided radiotherapy will utilize the multileaf collimators (MLCs) to perform conformal radiotherapy and tumor tracking. The MLCs would be exposed to the external fringe magnetic fields of the linac-MR hybrid systems. Therefore, an experimental investigation of the effect of an external magnetic field on the brushed permanent magnet DC motors used in some MLC systems was performed. Methods: The changes in motor speed and current were measured for varying external magnetic field strengths up to 2000 G generated by an EEV electromagnet. These changes in motor characteristics were measured for three orientations of the motor in the external magnetic field, mimicking changes in motor orientations due to installation and/or collimator rotations. In addition, the functionality of the associated magnetic motor encoder was tested. The tested motors are used with the Varian 120 leaf Millennium MLC (Maxon Motor half leaf and full leaf motors) and the Varian 52 leaf MKII MLC (MicroMo Electronics leaf motor) including a carriage motor (MicroMo Electronics). Results: In most cases, the magnetic encoder of the motors failed prior to any damage to the gearbox or the permanent magnet motor itself. This sets an upper limit of the external magnetic field strength on the motor function. The measured limits of the external magnetic fields were found to vary by the motor type. The leaf motor used with a Varian 52 leaf MKII MLC system tolerated up to 450{+-}10 G. The carriage motor tolerated up to 2000{+-}10 G field. The motors used with the Varian 120 leaf Millennium MLC system were found to tolerate a maximum of 600{+-}10 G. Conclusions: The current Varian MLC system motors can be used for real-time image-guided radiotherapy coupled to a linac-MR system, provided the fringe magnetic fields at their locations are below the determined tolerance levels. With the fringe magnetic fields of linac-MR systems expected to be larger than the tolerance levels determined, some form of magnetic shielding would be required.

  13. A method for testing the performance and the accuracy of the binary MLC used in helical tomotherapy.

    PubMed

    Lissner, Steffen; Schubert, Kai; Klüter, Sebastian; Oetzel, Dieter; Debus, Jürgen

    2013-05-01

    During a helical tomotherapy a binary MLC is used for fluence modulation. The 64 pneumatically driven leaves of the MLC are either completely open or closed. The fast and frequent leaf movements result in a high demand of accuracy and stability of the MLC. This article is based on the analytical investigation of the accuracy and the stability of the MLC. Different patterns of MLC movements were generated to investigate the characteristics of the MLC. One of the considered aspects contains the friction between the leaves. The influence of variations of the compressed air on the MLC was also explored. The integrated MVCT detector of the tomotherapy system deposits the treatment data in a matrix. The detector is triggered with the linear accelerator, which is pulsed by 300Hz. The data matrix is available after the treatment. An IDL (Interactive Data Language) routine was programmed in order to analyse the matrix. The points of time, at which the leaves open (POT), and the period, in which the leaves stay open (LOT), were measured and compared with the desired values. That procedure has been repeated several times a week for approximately 6 months to investigate the stability of the MLC. Relative deviations of the LOT from -0.4% to -5.4% were measured. The friction between the leaves had no significant influence on the LOT. The available compressed air, that is used to move the leaves, depends on the number of moving leaves and also on the previous movements of the MLC. Variations of the compressed air resulted in deviations of the LOT from -1.8% to -3.7%. The measured POT deviates from the programmed POT up to -18.4ms±0.7ms. This maximal deviation correlates with a shift of the gantry angle of 0.52? which is negligible. The MLC has shown a stable behaviour over the 6 months. A separate consideration of the leaves showed no higher standard deviation of the LOT than ±0.7ms during the investigated time. The variation between the different leaves is much higher than the deviations of LOT caused by friction and changes of compressed air. The deviations of the LOT vary between -2.6ms and -11.0ms. The developed method is feasible in order to recognize a deterioration of the MLC performance. PMID:22921842

  14. Securing web-based exams

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Olivier Sessink; Rik Beeftink; Johannes Tramper; Rob J. M. Hartog

    2004-01-01

    Learning management systems may offer web-based exam facilities. Such facilities entail a higher risk to exams fraud than traditional paper-based exams. The article discusses security issues with web-based exams, and proposes precautionary measures to reduce the risks. A security model is presented that distinguishes supervision support, software restrictions, and network restrictions. Solutions to security problems are tools to supervise and

  15. Preparing Students for the AP Psychology Exam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitlock, Kristin

    2013-01-01

    The Advanced Placement Psychology exam is one of the fastest growing exams offered by the College Board. The average percent of change in the number of students taking this exam over the past five years is 12.4%. With 238,962 students taking the exam in 2013, the AP Psychology exam is the sixth largest exam, surpassing AP Biology and AP World…

  16. On the suitability of Elekta’s Agility 160 MLC for tracked radiation delivery: closed-loop machine performance.

    PubMed

    Glitzner, M; Crijns, S P M; de Senneville, B Denis; Lagendijk, J J W; Raaymakers, B W

    2015-03-01

    For motion adaptive radiotherapy, dynamic multileaf collimator tracking can be employed to reduce treatment margins by steering the beam according to the organ motion. The Elekta Agility 160 MLC has hitherto not been evaluated for its tracking suitability. Both dosimetric performance and latency are key figures and need to be assessed generically, independent of the used motion sensor. In this paper, we propose the use of harmonic functions directly fed to the MLC to determine its latency during continuous motion. Furthermore, a control variable is extracted from a camera system and fed to the MLC. Using this setup, film dosimetry and subsequent ? statistics are performed, evaluating the response when tracking (MRI)-based physiologic motion in a closed-loop. The delay attributed to the MLC itself was shown to be a minor contributor to the overall feedback chain as compared to the impact of imaging components such as MRI sequences. Delay showed a linear phase behaviour of the MLC employed in continuously dynamic applications, which enables a general MLC-characterization. Using the exemplary feedback chain, dosimetry showed a vast increase in pass rate employing ? statistics. In this early stage, the tracking performance of the Agility using the test bench yielded promising results, making the technique eligible for translation to tracking using clinical imaging modalities. PMID:25675279

  17. Performing Automatic Exams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frosini, G.; Lazzerini, B.; Marcelloni, F.

    1998-01-01

    Describes a tool for building software systems which replace the role of the examiner during a typical Italian academic exam in technical/scientific subjects. Such systems are designed to exploit the advantages of self-adapted testing for reducing effects of anxiety, and of computerized adaptive testing for increasing assessment efficiency.…

  18. Exam 2 Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummings, Richard G.; Gruber, Robert A.

    2006-01-01

    After students take their first exam in an accounting course, tax accounting and intermediate accounting in this case, their reactions to their test scores may be varied. This is their first major assessment of how they have performed in the class. The students in the class near the high end of the grading scale are going to be satisfied with…

  19. Fuel Cell Final Exam

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This final exam could be used at the end of a class or unit on fuel cell technology. The test consists of multiple choice, true/false, fill in the blank and short answer questions. This document may be downloaded in Microsoft Word DOC file format.

  20. Revision lecture Exam format

    E-print Network

    Alechina, Natasha

    1 Revision lecture · Exam format · Some topics: time and space complexity, big-O, hash tables choice, covers the whole course). · The other three out of five are up to you. Multiple choice · Multiple[i/2]; arr1[i+1] = arr[i/2]; } return arr1; } s(n) = 2nc + c Big O · Big O notation is used to classify

  1. Revision lecture Exam format

    E-print Network

    Alechina, Natasha

    1 Revision lecture · Exam format · Some topics: time and space complexity, big-O, hash tables course). · The other three out of five are up to you. Multiple choice · Multiple choice]; arr2[i+1] = arr[i/2]; } return arr1; } s(n) = 2nc + c Big O · Big O notation is used to classify time

  2. Revision lecture Exam format

    E-print Network

    Alechina, Natasha

    1 Revision lecture · Exam format · Some topics: time and space complexity, big-O, hash tables of five are up to you. Multiple choice · Multiple choice is straightforward `select one correct option]; } return arr1; } s(n) = 2nc + c Big O · Big O notation is used to classify time/space growth functions

  3. Antenna Theory Midterm Exam

    E-print Network

    Ida, Nathan

    Antenna Theory 2nd Midterm Exam November 21, 2005 Answer the following 3 questions. Questions have. It is required to produce an endfire antenna pattern with a single null at /2. Assuming you are free to use any. 2. An antenna array must produce a main beam and two, smaller side lobes as follows: f(!) = 1, " 3

  4. Exam Question Exchange.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, John J., Ed.

    1978-01-01

    Two exam questions are presented. One suitable for advanced undergraduate or beginning graduate courses in organic chemistry, is on equivalent expressions for the description of several pericyclic reactions. The second, for general chemistry students, asks for an estimation of the rate of decay of a million-year-old Uranium-238 sample. (BB)

  5. Word line program disturbance based data retention error recovery strategy for MLC NAND Flash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Haozhi; Pan, Liyang; Song, Changlai; Gao, Zhongyi; Wu, Dong; Xu, Jun

    2015-07-01

    NAND Flash has been widely used as storage solutions for portable system due to improvement on data throughput, power consumption and mechanical reliability. However, NAND Flash presents inevitable decline in reliability due to scaling down and multi-level cell (MLC) technology. High data retention error rate in highly stressed blocks causes a trend of stronger ECC deployed in system, with higher hardware overhead and spare bits cost. In this paper, a word line program disturbance (WPD) based data retention error recovery strategy, which induces extra electron injection to compensate floating gate electron leakage during long retention time, is proposed to reduce the data retention error rate and improve the retention reliability of highly scaled MLC NAND Flash memories. The proposed strategy is applied on 2×-nm MLC NAND Flash and the device one-year retention error rate after 3 K, 4 K, 5 K and 6 K P/E cycled decreases by 75.7%, 79.3%, 82.3% and 83.3%, respectively.

  6. [Analysis of MLC1 gene mutation in a Chinese family with megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Li-Na; Ma, Xiu-Wei; Zheng, Tian; He, Fang; Feng, Zhi-Chun

    2015-04-01

    The clinical data of a patient with megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy (MLC) with subcortical cysts and her parents were collected. MLC1 gene mutation was detected by polymerase chain reaction and direct DNA sequencing. The patient presented with motor developmental delay and giant skull, and brain magnetic resonance imaging showed diffuse white matter swelling accompanied by subcortical cysts in bilateral frontal and parietal lobes. Gene sequencing identified two heterozygous mutations of MLC1, including missense mutation in exon 3 (c.217G>A, p.Gly73Arg) and splice site mutation in intron 9 (c.772-1G>C in IVS9-1). The patient's parents both had heterozygous mutation c.772-1G>C in IVS9-1 with normal phenotype. It can be presumed that c.772-1G>C in IVS9-1 comes from the parents, and c.217G>A (p.Gly73Arg) is a de novo mutation. PMID:25919557

  7. Real-time tumor tracking: Automatic compensation of target motion using the Siemens 160 MLC

    SciTech Connect

    Tacke, Martin B.; Nill, Simeon; Krauss, Andreas; Oelfke, Uwe [Department of Medical Physics in Radiation Oncology, German Cancer Research Center, Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2010-02-15

    Purpose: Advanced high quality radiation therapy techniques such as IMRT require an accurate delivery of precisely modulated radiation fields to the target volume. Interfractional and intrafractional motion of the patient's anatomy, however, may considerably deteriorate the accuracy of the delivered dose to the planned dose distributions. In order to compensate for these potential errors, a dynamic real-time capable MLC control system was designed. Methods: The newly developed adaptive MLC control system contains specialized algorithms which are capable of continuous optimization and correction of the aperture of the MLC according to the motion of the target volume during the dose delivery. The algorithms calculate the new leaf positions based on target information provided online to the system. The algorithms were implemented in a dynamic target tracking control system designed for a Siemens 160 MLC. To assess the quality of the new target tracking system in terms of dosimetric accuracy, experiments with various types of motion patterns using different phantom setups were performed. The phantoms were equipped with radiochromic films placed between solid water slabs. Dosimetric results of exemplary deliveries to moving targets with and without dynamic MLC tracking applied were compared in terms of the gamma criterion to the reference dose delivered to a static phantom. Results: Our measurements indicated that dose errors for clinically relevant two-dimensional target motion can be compensated by the new control system during the dose delivery of open fields. For a clinical IMRT dose distribution, the gamma success rate was increased from 19% to 77% using the new tracking system. Similar improvements were achieved for the delivery of a complete IMRT treatment fraction to a moving lung phantom. However, dosimetric accuracy was limited by the system's latency of 400 ms and the finite leaf width of 5 mm in the isocenter plane. Conclusions: Different experimental setups representing different target tracking scenarios proved that the tracking concept, the new algorithms and the dynamic control system make it possible to effectively compensate for dose errors due to target motion in real-time. These early results indicate that the method is suited to increasing the accuracy and the quality of the treatment delivery for the irradiation of moving tumors.

  8. Effect of MLC leaf width on treatment adaptation and accuracy for concurrent irradiation of prostate and pelvic lymph nodes

    SciTech Connect

    Shang Qingyang; Qi Peng; Ferjani, Samah; Xia Ping [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio 44195 (United States)

    2013-06-15

    Purpose: The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of multileaf collimator (MLC) leaf width on treatment adaptation and delivery accuracy for concurrent treatment of the prostate and pelvic lymph nodes with intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Methods: Seventy-five kilovoltage cone beam CTs (KV-CBCT) from six patients were included for this retrospective study. For each patient, three different IMRT plans were created based on a planning CT using three different MLC leaf widths of 2.5, 5, and 10 mm, respectively. For each CBCT, the prostate displacement was determined by a dual image registration. Adaptive plans were created by shifting selected MLC leaf pairs to compensate for daily prostate movements. To evaluate the impact of MLC leaf width on the adaptive plan for each daily CBCT, three MLC shifted plans were created using three different leaf widths of MLCs (a total of 225 adaptive treatment plans). Selective dosimetric endpoints for the tumor volumes and organs at risk (OARs) were evaluated for these adaptive plans. Using the planning CT from a selected patient, MLC shifted plans for three hypothetical longitudinal shifts of 2, 4, and 8 mm were delivered on the three linear accelerators to test the deliverability of the shifted plans and to compare the dose accuracy of the shifted plans with the original IMRT plans. Results: Adaptive plans from 2.5 and 5 mm MLCs had inadequate dose coverage to the prostate (D99 < 97%, or D{sub mean} < 99% of the planned dose) in 6%-8% of the fractions, while adaptive plans from 10 mm MLC led to inadequate dose coverage to the prostate in 25.3% of the fractions. The average V{sub 56Gy} of the prostate over the six patients was improved by 6.4% (1.6%-32.7%) and 5.8% (1.5%-35.7%) with adaptive plans from 2.5 and 5 mm MLCs, respectively, when compared with adaptive plans from 10 mm MLC. Pelvic lymph nodes were well covered for all MLC adaptive plans, as small differences were observed for D99, D{sub mean}, and V{sub 50.4Gy}. Similar OAR sparing could be achieved for the bladder and rectum with all three MLCs for treatment adaptation. The MLC shifted plans can be accurately delivered on all three linear accelerators with accuracy similar to their original IMRT plans, where gamma (3%/3 mm) passing rates were 99.6%, 93.0%, and 92.1% for 2.5, 5, and 10 mm MLCs, respectively. The percentages of pixels with dose differences between the measurement and calculation being less than 3% of the maximum dose were 85.9%, 82.5%, and 70.5% for the original IMRT plans from the three MLCs, respectively. Conclusions: Dosimetric advantages associated with smaller MLC leaves were observed in terms of the coverage to the prostate, when the treatment was adapted to account for daily prostate movement for concurrent irradiation of the prostate and pelvic lymph nodes. The benefit of switching the MLC from 10 to 5 mm was significant (p Much-Less-Than 0.01); however, switching the MLC from 5 to 2.5 mm would not gain significant (p= 0.15) improvement. IMRT plans with smaller MLC leaf widths achieved more accurate dose delivery.

  9. Effectiveness and Safety of MLC601 in the Treatment of Mild to Moderate Alzheimer's Disease: A Multicenter, Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Pakdaman, Hossein; Harandi, Ali Amini; Hatamian, Hamidreza; Tabatabae, Mojgan; Delavar Kasmaei, Hosein; Ghassemi, Amirhossein; Gharagozli, Koroush; Ashrafi, Farzad; Emami Naeini, Pardis; Tavakolian, Mehrnaz; Shahin, Darush

    2015-01-01

    Background MLC601 is a possible modulator of amyloid precursor protein processing, and in a clinical trial study MLC601 showed some effectiveness in cognitive function in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of MLC601 in the treatment of mild to moderate AD as compared to 3 approved cholinesterase inhibitors (ChEIs) including donepezil, rivastigmine and galantamine. Methods In a multicenter, nonblinded, randomized controlled trial, 264 volunteers with AD were randomly divided into 4 groups of 66; groups 1, 2, 3 and 4 received donepezil, rivastigmine, MLC601 and galantamine, respectively. Subjects underwent a clinical diagnostic interview and a cognitive/functional battery including the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale – Cognitive subscale (ADAS-Cog). Patients were visited every 4 months, and the score of cognition was recorded by the neurologists. Results There were no significant differences in age, sex, marital status and baseline score of cognition among the 4 groups. In total, 39 patients (14.7%) left the study. Trend of cognition changes based on the modifications over the time for MMSE and ADAS-cog scores did not differ significantly among groups (p = 0.92 for MMSE and p = 0.87 for ADAS-Cog). Conclusion MLC601 showed a promising safety profile and also efficacy compared to 3 FDA-approved ChEIs. PMID:25873931

  10. ONCOLOGICAL SCIENCES PRELIMINARY EXAM SCORING The preliminary exam committee will assign a Merit Score for the abstract, proposal and exam

    E-print Network

    Simons, Jack

    ONCOLOGICAL SCIENCES PRELIMINARY EXAM SCORING The preliminary exam committee will assign a Merit;ONCOLOGICAL SCIENCES PRELIMINARY EXAM RESULTS The student should bring this form to the Abstract Meeting

  11. Improving IMRT-plan quality with MLC leaf position refinement post plan optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Niu Ying; Zhang Guowei; Berman, Barry L.; Parke, William C.; Yi Byongyong; Yu, Cedric X. [Department of Physics, George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052 (United States) and Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21201 (United States); Radiation Medicine, Georgetown University Hospital, Washington, DC 20007 (United States); Department of Physics, George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21201 (United States)

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: In intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) planning, reducing the pencil-beam size may lead to a significant improvement in dose conformity, but also increase the time needed for the dose calculation and plan optimization. The authors develop and evaluate a postoptimization refinement (POpR) method, which makes fine adjustments to the multileaf collimator (MLC) leaf positions after plan optimization, enhancing the spatial precision and improving the plan quality without a significant impact on the computational burden. Methods: The authors' POpR method is implemented using a commercial treatment planning system based on direct aperture optimization. After an IMRT plan is optimized using pencil beams with regular pencil-beam step size, a greedy search is conducted by looping through all of the involved MLC leaves to see if moving the MLC leaf in or out by half of a pencil-beam step size will improve the objective function value. The half-sized pencil beams, which are used for updating dose distribution in the greedy search, are derived from the existing full-sized pencil beams without need for further pencil-beam dose calculations. A benchmark phantom case and a head-and-neck (HN) case are studied for testing the authors' POpR method. Results: Using a benchmark phantom and a HN case, the authors have verified that their POpR method can be an efficient technique in the IMRT planning process. Effectiveness of POpR is confirmed by noting significant improvements in objective function values. Dosimetric benefits of POpR are comparable to those of using a finer pencil-beam size from the optimization start, but with far less computation and time. Conclusions: The POpR is a feasible and practical method to significantly improve IMRT-plan quality without compromising the planning efficiency.

  12. MLC-kinase/phosphatase control of Ca2+ signal transduction in airway smooth muscles.

    PubMed

    Fajmut, Ales; Brumen, Milan

    2008-06-01

    In airway smooth muscles, kinase/phosphatase-dependent phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of the myosin light chain (MLC) have been revealed by many authors as important steps in calcium (Ca(2+)) signalling pathway from the variation of Ca(2+) concentration in cytosol to the force development. Here, a theoretical analysis of the control action of MLC-kinase (MLCK) and MLC-phosphatase (MLCP) in Ca(2+) signalling is presented and related to the general control principles of these enzymes, which were previously studied by Reinhart Heinrich and his co-workers. The kinetic scheme of the mathematical model considers interactions among Ca(2+), calmodulin (CaM) and MLCK and the well-known 4-state actomyosin latch bridge model, whereby a link between them is accomplished by the conservation relation of all species of MLCK. The mathematical model predicts the magnitude and velocity of isometric force in smooth muscles upon transient biphasic Ca(2+) signal. The properties of signal transduction in the system such as the signalling time, signal duration and signal amplitude, which are reflected in the properties of force developed, are studied by the principles of the metabolic control theory. The analysis of our model predictions confirms as shown by Reinhart Heinrich and his co-workers that MLCK controls the amplitude of signal more than its duration, whereas MLCP controls both. Finally, the simulations of elevated total content of MLCK, a typical feature of bronchial muscles of asthmatic subjects and spontaneously hypertensive rats as well as potentiation of MLCP catalytic activity, are carried out and are discussed in view of an increase in the force magnitude. PMID:18005997

  13. SU-D-18A-05: Assessing Elekta MLC Tracking Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Glitzner, M; Crijns, S; Lagendijk, J; Raaymakers, B [University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To investigate the technical feasibility of using Elekta MLCs in tracked radiotherapy, specifically to show the capability of an Agility MLC to follow model tumor trajectories using object tracking. The system performance of the MLC is to be assessed via dosimetric experiments and temporal response measures. Methods: The system observer in the tracking cascade consisted of a camera serving for this proof of concept; Images of a moving object were acquired continuously and decorrelated for the position information, which was fed forward to the RT computer controlling the MLC via an interface provided by Elekta. The 1D motion (in the direction of the leaves) was induced by a CIRS motion controller. Additionally, the aperture position was observed by means of the light field of the linac. Calculating the phase between aperture and object yielded the mean aperture lag for the current setup. The object was restricted to sinusoidal motion with a period of 10s. For dosimetry, GafChromic radiosensitive film was irradiated with a total dose of 1000MU using an aperture size of 40mm and a motion range of 30mm. Results: Object tracking can substantially reconstruct the geometric dose response of a static target. In the dynamic case, dose is smeared out into the legs of the static distribution, leading to a reduced plateau and increased FWHM of 5mm, compared to the static width of 38mm. The time-lag between object and aperture was determined to be approximately 300ms for the current set-up. Conclusion: We demonstrated a tracking experiment performed on a clinical Elekta linear accelator for the first time. Observed profile variations show the dosimetric impact of tracked delivery. The determined lag is a valuable descriptor for a future tracking cascade employing predictor filters. The performed experiments are generic and possible predecessors for future applications with MR-Linac or ultrasound probes. Conflict of interest: this project is partly funded by Elekta.

  14. Dosimetric and mechanical characteristics of a commercial dynamic {mu}MLC used in SRS

    SciTech Connect

    Galal, Mohamed M.; Keogh, Sinead; Khalil, Sultan [Physics Department, Hermitage Medical Clinic, Dublin 20, Ireland and Physics Unit, Kasr El-Aini Center of Oncology and Nuclear Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University (Egypt); Physics Department, Hermitage Medical Clinic, Dublin 20 (Ireland)

    2011-07-15

    Purpose: The aim of this work is to carry out mechanical and dosimetric assessments on a commercial dynamic micromulti leaf collimator system to be used for stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT). Mechanical parameters such as leaf position accuracy with different gantry angles and leaf position reproducibility were measured. Also dosimetric measurements of the interleaf leakage, intraleaf transmission, penumbra width, and light field alignment were carried out. Furthermore, measurements of output factors (S{sub cp}) and in-air factors (S{sub c}) for the {mu}MLC system will be reported. Methods: EBT2 films were used to assess the leaf position error with gantry angle and after stress test, penumbra width and light field alignment. Leaf leakage was quantified using both EBT2 film and a pinpoint ion chamber. With regard to output factors, the pinpoint chamber was placed in a water phantom at 10 cm depth and 100 cm SSD. For in-air output factor measurements, 0.2 cm of brass was placed above the photon diode as build-up. Results: Measurements of mechanical parameters gave values of 0.05 cm (SD 0.035) for the average leaf position accuracy for different gantry angles and after stress test. Dosimetric measurements, yielded values of 0.22 {+-} 0.01 and 0.24 {+-} 0.01 cm, respectively, for side and head leaf penumbras. Also, average leaf abutting, leakage and transmission were found to be 0.65, 0.91, and 0.20%, respectively. Conclusions: (a) The add-on {mu}MLC system in combination with our LINAC has been commissioned to be used for clinical purposes and showed good agreement with published results for different {mu}MLC types. (b) This work has lead to the recommendation that leaves should be recalibrated after ten static beams or after each dynamic arc.

  15. ACA Projects 20102011 Written ExamsWritten Exams

    E-print Network

    Silvano, Cristina

    ACA Projects 20102011 #12;Written ExamsWritten Exams · MONDAY June 27, 2011 h.13:00 · MONDAY JULYChip Architectures · Manycore Architectures · Reconfigurable Architectures · Subject: ACA Request of Oral PresentationSubject: ACA Request of Oral Presentation Topic #12;

  16. Normal - Mental Status Exam - Orientation Sub-exam - Patient 1

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Pearson, John C.

    This video demonstrates a 'normal' mental status exam of a patient. The patient is a female with no known neurological health problems who volunteered to act as a simulated patient in order to demonstrate 'normal' responses to exam techniques. Viewing the video requires installation of the free QuickTime Plug-in.

  17. Normal - Mental Status Exam - Memory Sub-exam - Patient 1

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    John C. Pearson, PhD

    This video shows an example of a 'normal' mental status exam of a patient. Patient is a female with no known neurological health problems who volunteered to act as a simulated patient in order to demonstrate 'normal' responses to exam techniques. Viewing the video requires installation of the free QuickTime Plug-in.

  18. Normal - Mental Status Exam - Attention Sub-exam - Patient 1

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Pearson, John C.

    In this demonstration video, a patient is given a mental status exam. The patient is a female with no known neurological health problems who volunteered to act as a simulated patient in order to demonstrate 'normal' responses to exam techniques. Viewing the video requires installation of the free QuickTime Plug-in.

  19. Comparative Analysis of Different Measurement Techniques for MLC Characterization: Preliminary Results

    SciTech Connect

    Larraga-Gutierrez, J. M.; Ballesteros-Zebadua, P.; Garcia-Garduno, O. A. [Laboratorio de Fisica Medica, Instituto Nacional de Neurologia y Neurocirugia, Insurgentes Sur 3877, Tlalpan, 14269, Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Unidad de Radioneurocirugia, Instituto Nacional de Neurologia y Neurocirugia, Insurgentes Sur 3877, Tlalpan, 14269, Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Martinez-Davalos, A.; Rodriguez-Villafuerte, M. [Instituto de Fisica, UNAM, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico); Moreno-Jimenez, S.; Celis, M. A. [Unidad de Radioneurocirugia, Instituto Nacional de Neurologia y Neurocirugia, Insurgentes Sur 3877, Tlalpan, 14269, Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2008-08-11

    Radiation transmission, leakage and beam penumbra are essential dosimetric parameters related to the commissioning of a multileaf collimation system. This work shows a comparative analysis of commonly used film detectors: X-OMAT V2 and EDR2 radiographic films, and GafChromic EBT registered radiochromic film. The results show that X-OMAT over-estimates radiation leakage and 80-20% beam penumbra. However, according to the reference values reported by the manufacturer for these dosimetric parameters, all three films are adequate for MLC dosimetric characterization, but special care must be taken when X-OMAT V2 film is used due to its low energy photon dependence.

  20. Use of an amorphous silicon EPID for measuring MLC calibration at varying gantry angle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, M. F.; Budgell, G. J.

    2008-01-01

    Amorphous silicon electronic portal imaging devices (EPIDs) are used to perform routine quality control (QC) checks on the multileaf collimators (MLCs) at this centre. Presently, these checks are performed at gantry angle 0° and are considered to be valid for all other angles. Since therapeutic procedures regularly require the delivery of MLC-defined fields to the patient at a wide range of gantry angles, the accuracy of the QC checks at other gantry angles has been investigated. When the gantry is rotated to angles other than 0° it was found that the apparent pixel size measured using the EPID varies up to a maximum value of 0.0015 mm per pixel due to a sag in the EPID of up to 9.2 mm. A correction factor was determined using two independent methods at a range of gantry angles between 0° and 360°. The EPID was used to measure field sizes (defined by both x-jaws and MLC) at a range of gantry angles and, after this correction had been applied, any residual gravitational sag was studied. It was found that, when fields are defined by the x-jaws and y-back-up jaws, no errors of greater than 0.5 mm were measured and that these errors were no worse when the MLC was used. It was therefore concluded that, provided the correction is applied, measurements of the field size are, in practical terms, unaffected by gantry angle. Experiments were also performed to study how the reproducibility of individual leaves is affected by gantry angle. Measurements of the relative position of each individual leaf (minor offsets) were performed at a range of gantry angles and repeated three times. The position reproducibility was defined by the RMS error in the position of each leaf and this was found to be 0.24 mm and 0.21 mm for the two leaf banks at a gantry angle of 0°. When measurements were performed at a range of gantry angles, these reproducibility values remained within 0.09 mm and 0.11 mm. It was therefore concluded that the calibration of the Elekta MLC is stable at all gantry angles.

  1. The dosimetric impact of inversely optimized arc radiotherapy plan modulation for real-time dynamic MLC tracking delivery

    SciTech Connect

    Falk, Marianne; Larsson, Tobias; Keall, Paul; Chul Cho, Byung; Aznar, Marianne; Korreman, Stine; Poulsen, Per; Munck af Rosenschoeld, Per [Radiation Medicine Research Center, Department of Radiation Oncology - 3994, Rigshospitalet, Blegdamsvej 9, DK - 2100 Copenhagen (Denmark) and Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen (Denmark); Radiation Medicine Research Center, Department of Radiation Oncology, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospital (Denmark); Radiation Physics Laboratory, Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney (Australia); Department of Radiation Oncology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Radiation Medicine Research Center, Department of Radiation Oncology, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospital, Denmark and Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen (Denmark); Radiation Medicine Research Center, Department of Radiation Oncology, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospital (Denmark); Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen (Denmark) and Department of Science, Systems and Models, Roskilde University (Denmark); Department of Oncology, Aarhus University Hospital (Denmark); Radiation Medicine Research Center, Department of Radiation Oncology, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospital (Denmark) and Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: Real-time dynamic multileaf collimator (MLC) tracking for management of intrafraction tumor motion can be challenging for highly modulated beams, as the leaves need to travel far to adjust for target motion perpendicular to the leaf travel direction. The plan modulation can be reduced by using a leaf position constraint (LPC) that reduces the difference in the position of adjacent MLC leaves in the plan. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of the LPC on the quality of inversely optimized arc radiotherapy plans and the effect of the MLC motion pattern on the dosimetric accuracy of MLC tracking delivery. Specifically, the possibility of predicting the accuracy of MLC tracking delivery based on the plan modulation was investigated. Methods: Inversely optimized arc radiotherapy plans were created on CT-data of three lung cancer patients. For each case, five plans with a single 358 deg. arc were generated with LPC priorities of 0 (no LPC), 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1 (highest possible LPC), respectively. All the plans had a prescribed dose of 2 Gy x 30, used 6 MV, a maximum dose rate of 600 MU/min and a collimator angle of 45 deg. or 315 deg. To quantify the plan modulation, an average adjacent leaf distance (ALD) was calculated by averaging the mean adjacent leaf distance for each control point. The linear relationship between the plan quality [i.e., the calculated dose distributions and the number of monitor units (MU)] and the LPC was investigated, and the linear regression coefficient as well as a two tailed confidence level of 95% was used in the evaluation. The effect of the plan modulation on the performance of MLC tracking was tested by delivering the plans to a cylindrical diode array phantom moving with sinusoidal motion in the superior-inferior direction with a peak-to-peak displacement of 2 cm and a cycle time of 6 s. The delivery was adjusted to the target motion using MLC tracking, guided in real-time by an infrared optical system. The dosimetric results were evaluated using gamma index evaluation with static target measurements as reference. Results: The plan quality parameters did not depend significantly on the LPC (p {>=} 0.066), whereas the ALD depended significantly on the LPC (p < 0.001). The gamma index failure rate depended significantly on the ALD, weighted to the percentage of the beam delivered in each control point of the plan (ALD{sub w}) when MLC tracking was used (p < 0.001), but not for delivery without MLC tracking (p {>=} 0.342). The gamma index failure rate with the criteria of 2% and 2 mm was decreased from > 33.9% without MLC tracking to <31.4% (LPC 0) and <2.2% (LPC 1) with MLC tracking. Conclusions: The results indicate that the dosimetric robustness of MLC tracking delivery of an inversely optimized arc radiotherapy plan can be improved by incorporating leaf position constraints in the objective function without otherwise affecting the plan quality. The dosimetric robustness may be estimated prior to delivery by evaluating the ALD{sub w} of the plan.

  2. Computer Architecture Screening Exam Spring 1988

    E-print Network

    Liblit, Ben

    Computer Architecture Screening Exam Spring 1988 Directions For the Breadth exam, answer questions (1), (2), (3), (4) and (5). For the Depth exam, answer all 8 questions. (1) A "stack" is an excellent

  3. Silviculture Surveyor Accreditation Exam Review Course Description

    E-print Network

    Northern British Columbia, University of

    Silviculture Surveyor Accreditation Exam Review Course Description: UNBC Continuing Studies Surveyor Accreditation Exam. Each session will be led by an experienced Silviculture Surveys Instructor clarification prior to writing the Silviculture Survey Accreditation Exam. Surveyors looking for an in depth

  4. Effect of MLC leaf position, collimator rotation angle, and gantry rotation angle errors on intensity-modulated radiotherapy plans for nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Bai, Sen; Li, Guangjun; Wang, Maojie; Jiang, Qinfeng; Zhang, Yingjie [State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Cancer Center, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan (China); Wei, Yuquan, E-mail: yuquawei@vip.sina.com [State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Cancer Center, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan (China)

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of multileaf collimator (MLC) leaf position, collimator rotation angle, and accelerator gantry rotation angle errors on intensity-modulated radiotherapy plans for nasopharyngeal carcinoma. To compare dosimetric differences between the simulating plans and the clinical plans with evaluation parameters, 6 patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma were selected for simulation of systematic and random MLC leaf position errors, collimator rotation angle errors, and accelerator gantry rotation angle errors. There was a high sensitivity to dose distribution for systematic MLC leaf position errors in response to field size. When the systematic MLC position errors were 0.5, 1, and 2 mm, respectively, the maximum values of the mean dose deviation, observed in parotid glands, were 4.63%, 8.69%, and 18.32%, respectively. The dosimetric effect was comparatively small for systematic MLC shift errors. For random MLC errors up to 2 mm and collimator and gantry rotation angle errors up to 0.5°, the dosimetric effect was negligible. We suggest that quality control be regularly conducted for MLC leaves, so as to ensure that systematic MLC leaf position errors are within 0.5 mm. Because the dosimetric effect of 0.5° collimator and gantry rotation angle errors is negligible, it can be concluded that setting a proper threshold for allowed errors of collimator and gantry rotation angle may increase treatment efficacy and reduce treatment time.

  5. Professional Computing May & August Exams

    E-print Network

    Lee, Mark

    Professional Computing May & August Exams 2013 Dr. Mark Lee m ethical, social, legal and professional issues in computing Continuous Assessment Exam 2 discuss these issues in a balanced and lucid way Continuous Assessment 3 make good presentations of views in a formal

  6. TEST TAKING STUDYING FOR EXAMS

    E-print Network

    Bogaerts, Steven

    TEST TAKING STUDYING FOR EXAMS Create Q&A cards. Create questions from both class discussion and readings that the instructor might ask on an exam. Write the questions on the front of note cards. Answer all the questions (unless you are penalized for wrong answers). Ask the instructor to explain any

  7. SU-E-T-405: Robustness of Volumetric-Modulated Arc Therapy (VMAT) Plans to Systematic MLC Positional Errors

    SciTech Connect

    Qi, P; Xia, P [Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the dosimetric impact of systematic MLC positional errors (PEs) on the quality of volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) plans. Methods: Five patients with head-and-neck cancer (HN) and five patients with prostate cancer were randomly chosen for this study. The clinically approved VMAT plans were designed with 2–4 coplanar arc beams with none-zero collimator angles in the Pinnacle planning system. The systematic MLC PEs of 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 mm on both MLC banks were introduced into the original VMAT plans using an in-house program, and recalculated with the same planned Monitor Units in the Pinnacle system. For each patient, the original VMAT plans and plans with MLC PEs were evaluated according to the dose-volume histogram information and Gamma index analysis. Results: For one primary target, the ratio of V100 in the plans with 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 mm MLC PEs to those in the clinical plans was 98.8 ± 2.2%, 97.9 ± 2.1%, 90.1 ± 9.0% for HN cases and 99.5 ± 3.2%, 98.9 ± 1.0%, 97.0 ± 2.5% for prostate cases. For all OARs, the relative difference of Dmean in all plans was less than 1.5%. With 2mm/2% criteria for Gamma analysis, the passing rates were 99.0 ± 1.5% for HN cases and 99.7 ± 0.3% for prostate cases between the planar doses from the original plans and the plans with 1.0 mm MLC errors. The corresponding Gamma passing rates dropped to 88.9 ± 5.3% for HN cases and 83.4 ± 3.2% for prostate cases when comparing planar doses from the original plans and the plans with 2.0 mm MLC errors. Conclusion: For VMAT plans, systematic MLC PEs up to 1.0 mm did not affect the plan quality in term of target coverage, OAR sparing, and Gamma analysis with 2mm/2% criteria.

  8. Development of a Monte Carlo model for the Brainlab microMLC.

    PubMed

    Belec, Jason; Patrocinio, Horacio; Verhaegen, Frank

    2005-03-01

    Stereotactic radiosurgery with several static conformal beams shaped by a micro multileaf collimator (microMLC) is used to treat small irregularly shaped brain lesions. Our goal is to perform Monte Carlo calculations of dose distributions for certain treatment plans as a verification tool. A dedicated microMLC component module for the BEAMnrc code was developed as part of this project and was incorporated in a model of the Varian CL2300 linear accelerator 6 MV photon beam. As an initial validation of the code, the leaf geometry was visualized by tracing particles through the component module and recording their position each time a leaf boundary was crossed. The leaf dimensions were measured and the leaf material density and interleaf air gap were chosen to match the simulated leaf leakage profiles with film measurements in a solid water phantom. A comparison between Monte Carlo calculations and measurements (diode, radiographic film) was performed for square and irregularly shaped fields incident on flat and homogeneous water phantoms. Results show that Monte Carlo calculations agree with measured dose distributions to within 2% and/or 1 mm except for field size smaller than 1.2 cm diameter where agreement is within 5% due to uncertainties in measured output factors. PMID:15798255

  9. Biological consequences of MLC calibration errors in IMRT delivery and QA

    SciTech Connect

    Moiseenko, Vitali; LaPointe, Vincent; James, Kerry; Yin Lingshu; Liu, Mitchell; Pawlicki, Todd

    2012-04-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this work is threefold: (1) to explore biological consequences of the multileaf collimator (MLC) calibration errors in intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) of prostate and head and neck cancers, (2) to determine levels of planning target volume (PTV) and normal tissue under- or overdose flagged with clinically used QA action limits, and (3) to provide biologically based input for MLC QA and IMRT QA action limits. Methods: Ten consecutive prostate IMRT cases and ten consecutive head and neck IMRT cases were used. Systematic MLC offsets (i.e., calibration error) were introduced for each control point of the plan separately for X1 and X2 leaf banks. Offsets were from - 2 to 2 mm with a 0.5 mm increment. The modified files were imported into the planning system for forward dose recalculation. The original plan served as the reference. The generalized equivalent uniform dose (gEUD) was used as the biological index for the targets, rectum, parotid glands, brainstem, and spinal cord. Each plan was recalculated on a CT scan of a 27 cm diameter cylindrical phantom with a contoured 0.6 cc ion chamber. Dose to ion chamber and 3D gamma analysis were compared to the reference plan. QA pass criteria: (1) at least 95% of voxels with a dose cutoff of 50% of maximum dose have to pass at 3 mm/3% and (2) dose to chamber within 2% of the reference dose. Results: For prostate cases, differences in PTV and rectum gEUD greater than 2% were identified. However, a larger proportion of plans leading to greater than 2% difference in prostate PTV gEUD passed the ion chamber QA but not 3D gamma QA. A similar trend was found for the rectum gEUD. For head and neck IMRT, the QA pass criteria flagged plans leading to greater than 4% differences in PTV gEUD and greater than 5% differences in the maximum dose to brainstem. If pass criteria were relaxed to 90% for gamma and 3% for ion chamber QA, plans leading to a 5% difference in PTV gEUD and a 5%-8% difference in brainstem maximum dose would likely pass IMRT QA. A larger proportion of head and neck plans with greater than 2% PTV gEUD difference passed 3D gamma QA compared to ion chamber QA. Conclusions: For low modulation plans, there is a better chance to catch MLC calibration errors with 3D gamma QA rather than ion chamber QA. Conversely, for high modulation plans, there is a better chance to catch MLC calibration errors with ion chamber QA rather than with 3D gamma QA. Ion chamber and 3D gamma analysis IMRT QA can detect greater than 2% change in gEUD for PTVs and critical structures for low modulation treatment plans. For high modulation treatment plans, ion chamber and 3D gamma analysis can detect greater than 2% change in gEUD for PTVs and a 5% change in critical structure gEUD since either QA methods passes the QA criteria. For gEUD changes less than those listed above, either QA method has the same proportion of passing rate.

  10. In vitro study of cell survival following dynamic MLC intensity-modulated radiation therapy dose delivery

    SciTech Connect

    Moiseenko, Vitali; Duzenli, Cheryl; Durand, Ralph E. [Vancouver Cancer Centre, British Columbia Cancer Agency, 600 West 10th Avenue, Vancouver, British Columbia V5Z 4E6 (Canada) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, 6224 Agricultural Road, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z1 (Canada); BCCA Cancer Research Centre, 675 West 10th Avenue, Vancouver, British Columbia V5Z 1L3 (Canada)

    2007-04-15

    The possibility of reduced cell kill following intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) compared to conventional radiation therapy has been debated in the literature. This potential reduction in cell kill relates to prolonged treatment times typical of IMRT dose delivery and consequently increased repair of sublethal lesions. While there is some theoretical support to this reduction in cell kill published in the literature, direct experimental evidence specific to IMRT dose delivery patterns is lacking. In this study we present cell survival data for three cell lines: Chinese hamster V79 fibroblasts, human cervical carcinoma, SiHa and colon adenocarcinoma, WiDr. Cell survival was obtained for 2.1 Gy delivered as acute dose with parallel-opposed pair (POP), irradiation time 75 s, which served as a reference; regular seven-field IMRT, irradiation time 5 min; and IMRT with a break for multiple leaf collimator (MLC) re-initialization after three fields were delivered, irradiation time 10 min. An actual seven-field dynamic MLC IMRT plan for a head and neck patient was used. The IMRT plan was generated for a Varian EX or iX linear accelerator with 120 leaf Millenium MLC. Survival data were also collected for doses 1x, 2x, 3x, 4x, and 5x 2.1 Gy to establish parameters of the linear-quadratic equation describing survival following acute dose delivery. Cells were irradiated inside an acrylic cylindrical phantom specifically designed for this study. Doses from both IMRT and POP were validated using ion chamber measurements. A reproducible increase in cell survival was observed following IMRT dose delivery. This increase varied from small for V79, with a surviving fraction of 0.8326 following POP vs 0.8420 following uninterrupted IMRT, to very pronounced for SiHa, with a surviving fraction of 0.3903 following POP vs 0.5330 for uninterrupted IMRT. When compared to IMRT or IMRT with a break for MLC initialization, cell survival following acute dose delivery was significantly different, p<0.05, in three out of six cases. In contrast, when cell survival following IMRT was compared to that following IMRT with a break for MLC initialization the difference was always statistically insignificant. When projected to a 30 fraction treatment, dose deficit to bring cell survival to the same value as in POP was calculated as 4.1, 24.9, and 31.1 Gy for V79, WiDr, and SiHa cell lines, respectively. The dose deficit did not relate to the {alpha}/{beta} ratio obtained in this study for the three cell lines. Clinical data do not show reduction in local control following IMRT. Possible reasons for this are discussed. The obtained data set can serve as a test data set for models designed to explore the effect of dose delivery prolongation/fractionation in IMRT on radiation therapy outcome.

  11. Improving Write Operations in MLC Phase Change Memory Lei Jiang , Bo Zhao, Youtao Zhang Jun Yang Bruce R. Childers

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Youtao

    Improving Write Operations in MLC Phase Change Memory Lei Jiang , Bo Zhao, Youtao Zhang Jun Yang,childers}@cs.pitt.edu Abstract Phase change memory (PCM) recently has emerged as a promising technology to meet the fast growing. The recent ITRS report [3] indi- cates there is no path forward to scale DRAM below 22nm. Phase change memory

  12. SU-E-T-122: Dosimetric Comparison Between Cone, HDMLC and MicroMLC for the Treatment of Trigeminal Neuralgia

    SciTech Connect

    Vacca, N; Caussa, L; Filipuzzi, M; Garrigo, E; Venencia, C [Instituto Privado de Radioterapia - Fundacion Marie Curie, Cordoba (Argentina)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this work was to evaluate the dosimetric characteristics of three collimation systems, 5mm circular cone (Brainlab) and square fields of 5mm with HDMLC (Varian) and microMLC Moduleaf, Siemens) for trigeminal neuralgia treatment. Methods: A TPS Iplan v4.5 BrainLAB was used to do treatment plans for each collimations system in a square solid water phantom with isocenter at 5cm depth. Single field and treatment plan including 11 arcs with fix field and 100° gantry range was made for each collimation systems. EBT3 films were positioned at isocenter in a coronal plane to measured dose distribution for all geometries. Films were digitized with a Vidar DosimetryPro Red scanner with a resolution of 89dpi and RIT113v6.1 software was used for analysis. Penumbra region (80%–20%), FWHM and dose percentage at 5mm and 10mm from CAX were determined. All profiles were normalized at CAX. Results: For single beam the penumbra (FWHM) was 1.5mm (5.3mm) for the cone, 1.9mm (5.5mm) for HDMLC and 1.8mm (5.4mm) for the microMLC. Dose percentage at 5mm was 6.9% for cone, 12.5% for HDMLC and 8.7% for the microMLC. For treatment plan the penumbra (FWHM) was 2.58mm (5.47mm) for the cone, 2.8mm (5.84mm) for HDMLC and 2.58mm (6.09mm) for the microMLC. Dose perecentage at 5mm was 13.1% for cone, 16.1% for HDMLC, 15.2% for the microMLC. Conclusion: The cone has a dose falloff larger than the microMLC and HDMLC, by its reduced penumbra, this translates into better protection of surrounding healthy tissue, however, the microMLC and HDMLC have similar accuracy to cone.

  13. CS Systems Qualifying Exam 2014 Important Dates

    E-print Network

    Thrun, Sebastian

    members to email grades for all exams to Philip Levis. May 29: Decision. Faculty meet to decideCS Systems Qualifying Exam 2014 Important Dates April 27: Registration ends. Registration instructions are below. When you register, you must declare the three exams you plan to take. May 19: Exams

  14. Student Exam Creation as a Learning Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brink, Jan; Capps, Emerson; Sutko, Al

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if there is a relationship between: 1) comprehensiveness of student developed model tests and final exam score, 2) the quality of student developed model tests and answer keys combined, and final exam score, and 3) student developed model test similarity to instructor final exam and final exam score.…

  15. Secure online exams using students' devices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gabriele Frankl; Peter Schartner; Gerald Zebedin

    2012-01-01

    With the augmented use of Learning Management Systems (LMS) like Moodle, the demand to perform exams online is higher than ever. Providing a dedicated exam room with up to hundreds of computers is a possible but very expensive solution. However, performing exams on student laptops increases the number of simultaneous exams but also the possibility for cheating. This paper describes

  16. The Nonmuscle Myosin Regulatory Light Chain Gene mlc-4 Is Required for Cytokinesis, Anterior-Posterior Polarity, and Body Morphology during Caenorhabditis elegans Embryogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Shelton, Christopher A.; Carter, J. Clayton; Ellis, Gregory C.; Bowerman, Bruce

    1999-01-01

    Using RNA-mediated genetic interference in a phenotypic screen, we identified a conserved nonmuscle myosin II regulatory light chain gene in Caenorhabditis elegans, which we name mlc-4. Maternally supplied mlc-4 function is required for cytokinesis during both meiosis and mitosis and for establishment of anterior-posterior (a-p) asymmetries after fertilization. Reducing the function of mlc-4 or nmy-2, a nonmuscle myosin II gene, also leads to a loss of polarized cytoplasmic flow in the C. elegans zygote, supporting models in which cytoplasmic flow may be required to establish a-p differences. Germline P granule localization at the time of cytoplasmic flow is also lost in these embryos, although P granules do become localized to the posterior pole after the first mitosis. This result suggests that a mechanism other than cytoplasmic flow or mlc-4/nmy-2 activity can generate some a-p asymmetries in the C. elegans zygote. By isolating a deletion allele, we show that removing zygotic mlc-4 function results in an elongation phenotype during embryogenesis. An mlc-4/green fluorescent protein transgene is expressed in lateral rows of hypodermal cells and these cells fail to properly change shape in mlc-4 mutant animals during elongation. PMID:10427096

  17. Mlc is a transcriptional activator with a key role in integrating cyclic AMP receptor protein and integration host factor regulation of leukotoxin RNA synthesis in Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans.

    PubMed

    Childress, Catherine; Feuerbacher, Leigh A; Phillips, Linda; Burgum, Alex; Kolodrubetz, David

    2013-05-01

    Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, a periodontal pathogen, synthesizes leukotoxin (LtxA), a protein that helps the bacterium evade the host immune response. Transcription of the ltxA operon is induced during anaerobic growth. The cyclic AMP (cAMP) receptor protein (CRP) indirectly increases ltxA expression, but the intermediary regulator is unknown. Integration host factor (IHF) binds to and represses the leukotoxin promoter, but neither CRP nor IHF is responsible for the anaerobic induction of ltxA RNA synthesis. Thus, we have undertaken studies to identify other regulators of leukotoxin transcription and to demonstrate how these proteins work together to modulate leukotoxin synthesis. First, analyses of ltxA RNA expression from defined leukotoxin promoter mutations in the chromosome identify positions -69 to -35 as the key control region and indicate that an activator protein modulates leukotoxin transcription. We show that Mlc, which is a repressor in Escherichia coli, functions as a direct transcriptional activator in A. actinomycetemcomitans; an mlc deletion mutant reduces leukotoxin RNA synthesis, and recombinant Mlc protein binds specifically at the -68 to -40 region of the leukotoxin promoter. Furthermore, we show that CRP activates ltxA expression indirectly by increasing the levels of Mlc. Analyses of ?mlc, ?ihf, and ?ihf ?mlc strains demonstrate that Mlc can increase RNA polymerase (RNAP) activity directly and that IHF represses ltxA RNA synthesis mainly by blocking Mlc binding. Finally, a ?ihf ?mlc mutant still induces ltxA during anaerobic growth, indicating that there are additional factors involved in leukotoxin transcriptional regulation. A model for the coordinated regulation of leukotoxin transcription is presented. PMID:23475968

  18. Developing On-line Exams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartsell, Taralynn S.; Yuen, Steve Chi-Yin

    2003-01-01

    Discusses advantages and limitations of online exams, describes available software tools for creating computer-based tests (CGI, JavaScript, commercial programs, course authoring tools), and offers suggestions for implementation. (JOW)

  19. EXPOSURE ANALYSIS MODELING SYSTEM (EXAMS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Exposure Analysis Modeling System (EXAMS), first published in 1982 (EPA-600/3-82-023), provides interactive computer software for formulating aquatic ecosystem models and rapidly evaluating the fate, transport, and exposure concentrations of synthetic organic chemicals--pesti...

  20. Computer Architecture Screening Exam For the Breadth exam, answer questions (1), (2), (3), (4) and (5).

    E-print Network

    Liblit, Ben

    Computer Architecture Screening Exam Fall 1988 Directions For the Breadth exam, answer questions (1), (2), (3), (4) and (5). For the Depth exam, answer all 8 questions. (1) Suppose you want to design a 4

  1. Implementation of Hospital Examination Reservation System Using Data Mining Technique

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Hyo Soung; Yoon, Tae Sik; Ryu, Ki Chung; Shin, Il Won; Choe, Yang Hyo; Lee, Kyoung Yong; Lee, Jae Dong; Ryu, Keun Ho

    2015-01-01

    Objectives New methods for obtaining appropriate information for users have been attempted with the development of information technology and the Internet. Among such methods, the demand for systems and services that can improve patient satisfaction has increased in hospital care environments. Methods In this paper, we proposed the Hospital Exam Reservation System (HERS), which uses the data mining method. First, we focused on carrying clinical exam data and finding the optimal schedule for generating rules using the multi-examination pattern-mining algorithm. Then, HERS was applied by a rule master and recommending system with an exam log. Finally, HERS was designed as a user-friendly interface. Results HERS has been applied at the National Cancer Center in Korea since June 2014. As the number of scheduled exams increased, the time required to schedule more than a single condition decreased (from 398.67% to 168.67% and from 448.49% to 188.49%; p < 0.0001). As the number of tests increased, the difference between HERS and non-HERS increased (from 0.18 days to 0.81 days). Conclusions It was possible to expand the efficiency of HERS studies using mining technology in not only exam reservations, but also the medical environment. The proposed system based on doctor prescription removes exams that were not executed in order to improve recommendation accuracy. In addition, we expect HERS to become an effective system in various medical environments. PMID:25995961

  2. Comparison of two Classification methods (MLC and SVM) to extract land use and land cover in Johor Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rokni Deilmai, B.; Ahmad, B. Bin; Zabihi, H.

    2014-06-01

    Mapping is essential for the analysis of the land use and land cover, which influence many environmental processes and properties. For the purpose of the creation of land cover maps, it is important to minimize error. These errors will propagate into later analyses based on these land cover maps. The reliability of land cover maps derived from remotely sensed data depends on an accurate classification. In this study, we have analyzed multispectral data using two different classifiers including Maximum Likelihood Classifier (MLC) and Support Vector Machine (SVM). To pursue this aim, Landsat Thematic Mapper data and identical field-based training sample datasets in Johor Malaysia used for each classification method, which results indicate in five land cover classes forest, oil palm, urban area, water, rubber. Classification results indicate that SVM was more accurate than MLC. With demonstrated capability to produce reliable cover results, the SVM methods should be especially useful for land cover classification.

  3. AFFORDABLE MULTI-LAYER CERAMIC (MLC) MANUFACTURING FOR POWER SYSTEMS (AMPS)

    SciTech Connect

    E.A. Barringer, Ph.D.

    2002-11-27

    McDermott Technology, Inc. (MTI) is attempting to develop high-performance, cost-competitive solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) power systems. Recognizing the challenges and limitations facing the development of SOFC stacks comprised of electrode-supported cells and metallic interconnects, McDermott Technology, Inc. (MTI) has chosen to pursue an alternate path to commercialization. MTI is developing a multi-layer, co-fired, planar SOFC stack that will provide superior performance and reliability at reduced costs relative to competing designs. The MTI approach combines state-of-the-art SOFC materials with the manufacturing technology and infrastructure established for multi-layer ceramic (MLC) packages for the microelectronics industry. The rationale for using MLC packaging technology is that high quality, low-cost manufacturing has been demonstrated at high volumes. With the proper selection of SOFC materials, implementation of MLC fabrication methods offers unique designs for stacks (cells and interconnects) that are not possible through traditional fabrication methods. The MTI approach eliminates use of metal interconnects and ceramic-metal seals, which are primary sources of stack performance degradation. Co-fired cells are less susceptible to thermal cycling stresses by using material compositions that have closely matched coefficients of thermal expansion between the cell and the interconnect. The development of this SOFC stack technology was initiated in October 1999 under the DOE cosponsored program entitled ''Affordable Multi-layer Ceramic Manufacturing for Power Systems (AMPS)''. The AMPS Program was conducted as a two-phase program: Phase I--Feasibility Assessment (10/99--9/00); and Phase II--Process Development for Co-fired Stacks (10/00-3/02). This report provides a summary of the results from Phase I and a more detailed review of the results for Phase II. Phase I demonstrated the feasibility for fabricating multi-layer, co-fired cells and interconnects and resulted in selection of the most promising configuration for high-performance, low-cost SOFC stacks. During Phase II, the MTI Team successfully refined the fabrication processes and achieved low-rate production of cells and interconnects (about 100 per month). Short stacks (3-10 cells) using co-fired cells and interconnects were assembled and tested to validate the MTI multi-layer SOFC design. The team successfully demonstrated co-fired repeat units, comprised of a cell and the interconnect layers. Development of co-fired cells and multi-layer interconnects based on the new stack design was completed; all component fabrication and stack testing efforts were redirected to the new design toward the end of Phase II. Finally, low-cost alternate materials for the interconnect body and conductors within the interconnect were identified. At the end of Phase II, the MTI Team successfully transitioned the multi-layer SOFC stack development effort to the Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) program.

  4. A hybrid flash translation layer design for SLC-MLC flash memory based multibank solid state disk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jung-Wook Park; Seung-Ho Park; Charles C. Weems; Shin-Dug Kim

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the design of a NAND flash based solid state disk (SSD), which can support various storage access patterns commonly observed in a PC environment. It is based on a hybrid model of high-performance SLC (single-level cell) NAND and low cost MLC (multi-level cell) NAND flash memories. Typically, SLC NAND has a higher transfer rate and greater cell

  5. SU-E-T-119: Dosimetric and Mechanical Characteristics of Elekta Infinity LINAC with Agility MLC

    SciTech Connect

    Park, J; Xu, Q; Xue, J; Zhai, Y; An, L; Chen, Y [MD Anderson Cancer Center at Cooper, Camden, NJ (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Elekta Infinity is the one of the latest generation LINAC with unique features. Two Infinity LINACs are recently commissioned at our institution. The dosimetric and mechanical characteristics of the machines are presented. Methods: Both Infinity LINACs with Agility MLC (160 leaves with 0.5 cm leaf width) are configured with five electron energies (6, 9, 12, 15, and 18 MeV) and two photon energies (6 and 15 MV). One machine has additional photon energy (10 MV). The commissioning was performed by following the manufacturer's specifications and AAPM TG recommendations. Beam data of both electron and photon beams are measured with scanning ion chambers and linear diode array. Machines are adjusted to have the dosimetrically equivalent characteristics. Results: The commissioning of mechanical and imaging system meets the tolerances by TG recommendations. The PDD{sub 10} of various field sizes for 6 and 15 MV shows < 0.5% difference between two machines. For each electron beams, R{sub 80} matches with < 0.4 mm difference. The symmetry and flatness agree within 0.8% and 0.9% differences for photon beams, respectively. For electron beams, the differences of the symmetry and flatness are within 1.2% and 0.8%, respectively. The mean inline penumbras for 6, 10, and 15 MV are respectively 5.1±0.24, 5.6±0.07, and 5.9±0.10 mm for 10x10 cm at 10 cm depth. The crossline penumbras are larger than inline penumbras by 2.2, 1.4, and 1.0 mm, respectively. The MLC transmission factor with interleaf leakage is 0.5 % for all photon energies. Conclusion: The dosimetric and mechanical characteristics of two Infinity LINACs show good agreements between them. Although the Elekta Infinity has been used in many institutions, the detailed characteristics of the machine have not been reported. This study provides invaluable information to understand the Infinity LINAC and to compare the quality of commissioning data for other LINACs.

  6. Exam Preparation Level 1: December meeting

    E-print Network

    Siddharthan, Advaith

    Food is not allowed; bottled water can be taken into the exam room. Mobile phones must be turned off will experience a range of different types of assessment. Some courses will conclude with a traditional end are available through the Exam Papers Database. These can guide students as to the type of exam questions

  7. University of Waterloo CS200 --Lab Exam

    E-print Network

    Waterloo, University of

    all your work in your "yHC_exam" folder, saving and creating your files either in PartI or Part for this examination. Quit all applications and dismount cs200exam by dragging it to the trash before logging outUniversity of Waterloo CS200 -- Lab Exam Student Name

  8. Midterm Exam 3 Friday, April 18, 2008

    E-print Network

    Ward, Mark Daniel

    . Show all of your work in the exam booklet. Answers without justification may be viewed as exhibitingSTAT 516 Midterm Exam 3 Friday, April 18, 2008 Name Purdue student ID (10 digits) 1. The testing at the start of the exam, if possible. No other calculators are permitted. 3. Simplify the answers and write

  9. Midterm Exam 1 Friday, February 1, 2008

    E-print Network

    Ward, Mark Daniel

    . Show all of your work in the exam booklet. Answers without justification may be viewed as exhibitingSTAT 516 Midterm Exam 1 Friday, February 1, 2008 Name Purdue student ID (10 digits) 1. The testing at the start of the exam, if possible. No other calculators are permitted. 3. Simplify the answers and write

  10. Midterm Exam 2 Friday, March 7, 2008

    E-print Network

    Ward, Mark Daniel

    . Show all of your work in the exam booklet. Answers without justification may be viewed as exhibitingSTAT 516 Midterm Exam 2 Friday, March 7, 2008 Name Purdue student ID (10 digits) 1. The testing at the start of the exam, if possible. No other calculators are permitted. 3. Simplify the answers and write

  11. Exit Exam as Academic Performance Indicator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Ahmad, Mahmoud; Al Marzouqi, Ali H.; Hussien, Mousa

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on the impact of exit exams on different elements of the educational process, namely: curriculum development, students and instructors. A 50-question multiple-choice Exit Exam was prepared by Electrical Engineering (EE) faculty members covering a poll of questions from EE core courses. A copy of the Exit Exam applied during each…

  12. EXAM PLACES K Chemistry Dept. Building

    E-print Network

    Hasýrcý, Vasýf

    .30 Proctors will pick-up exam papers from G. ERTA, T. TNÇER Surname Group Place Building Proctors Instructor EXAM Date: 04.06.2012 Time: 09.30 Proctors will pick-up exam papers from S. ÖZKAR, A. ÖNAL Surname. ERTA, D. TOFFOLI #12;Surname Group Place Building Proctors Instructor AKDENZ- HIDIROLU (70) 01 G-110

  13. Take home mid-term exam

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Qian Yu

    Qian Yu, University of Massachusetts-Amherst Summary This is the 2nd midterm exam for an introductory level GIS course at 2/3 of the semester. It is an open book take-home exam. This exam is held after student ...

  14. A Secure E-Exam Management System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jordi Castellà-roca; Jordi Herrera-joancomartí; Aleix Dorca-josa

    2006-01-01

    Secure electronic exams are one of the most difficult challenges in e-learning security. The relevance of the examination process for any academic institution implies that different security mechanisms must be applied in order to preserve some security properties during different examination stages. In this paper, we present a secure e-exam management system where all exam related information is in digital

  15. Monte Carlo modeling and simulations of the High Definition (HD120) micro MLC and validation against measurements for a 6 MV beam

    SciTech Connect

    Borges, C.; Zarza-Moreno, M.; Heath, E.; Teixeira, N.; Vaz, P. [MedicalConsult SA, Campo Grande no 56 8A 1700-093 Lisboa (Portugal); Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia da Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Department of Physics, Ryerson University, 150 Victoria Street. Toronto, Ontario M5B 2K3 (Canada); Escola Superior de Tecnologias da Saude, Av. D. Joao II, Lote 4.69.01 1990 - 096 Lisboa (Portugal); Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Estrada Nacional 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal)

    2012-01-15

    Purpose: The most recent Varian micro multileaf collimator (MLC), the High Definition (HD120) MLC, was modeled using the BEAMNRC Monte Carlo code. This model was incorporated into a Varian medical linear accelerator, for a 6 MV beam, in static and dynamic mode. The model was validated by comparing simulated profiles with measurements. Methods: The Varian Trilogy (2300C/D) accelerator model was accurately implemented using the state-of-the-art Monte Carlo simulation program BEAMNRC and validated against off-axis and depth dose profiles measured using ionization chambers, by adjusting the energy and the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the initial electron beam. The HD120 MLC was modeled by developing a new BEAMNRC component module (CM), designated HDMLC, adapting the available DYNVMLC CM and incorporating the specific characteristics of this new micro MLC. The leaf dimensions were provided by the manufacturer. The geometry was visualized by tracing particles through the CM and recording their position when a leaf boundary is crossed. The leaf material density and abutting air gap between leaves were adjusted in order to obtain a good agreement between the simulated leakage profiles and EBT2 film measurements performed in a solid water phantom. To validate the HDMLC implementation, additional MLC static patterns were also simulated and compared to additional measurements. Furthermore, the ability to simulate dynamic MLC fields was implemented in the HDMLC CM. The simulation results of these fields were compared with EBT2 film measurements performed in a solid water phantom. Results: Overall, the discrepancies, with and without MLC, between the opened field simulations and the measurements using ionization chambers in a water phantom, for the off-axis profiles are below 2% and in depth-dose profiles are below 2% after the maximum dose depth and below 4% in the build-up region. On the conditions of these simulations, this tungsten-based MLC has a density of 18.7 g cm{sup -3} and an overall leakage of about 1.1 {+-} 0.03%. The discrepancies between the film measured and simulated closed and blocked fields are below 2% and 8%, respectively. Other measurements were performed for alternated leaf patterns and the agreement is satisfactory (to within 4%). The dynamic mode for this MLC was implemented and the discrepancies between film measurements and simulations are within 4%. Conclusions: The Varian Trilogy (2300 C/D) linear accelerator including the HD120 MLC was successfully modeled and simulated using the Monte Carlo BEAMNRC code by developing an independent CM, the HDMLC CM, either in static and dynamic modes.

  16. MA 152 Exam 1 Memo

    E-print Network

    math

    2011-09-07

    Sep 13, 2011 ... 1) Exam 1 covers chapter P. This is the material covered in lessons #1-9. 2) There are fifteen ... To view a video of each problem in the chapter ... It is recommended that you re-work all homework problems. You could work the.

  17. Sample Exam questions Advanced Databases

    E-print Network

    Thomas, Richard C.

    Sample Exam questions CITS4243 Advanced Databases #12;Things to remember · You should follow understanding. #12;Some sample questions · Explain the structure of a data warehouse and how a data warehouse sample questions · Explain clearly the major steps of decision tree induction. · Why is naive Bayesian

  18. Exam Schools from the Inside

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finn, Chester E., Jr.; Hockett, Jessica

    2012-01-01

    Sometimes called "exam schools," academically selective institutions have long been a part of the American secondary-education landscape. The schools are diverse in origin and purpose. No single catalyst describes why or how they began as or morphed into academically selective institutions. A number of them were products of the country's efforts…

  19. Stool ova and parasites exam

    MedlinePLUS

    Parasites and stool ova exam ... order this test if you have signs of parasites, diarrhea that does not go away, or other ... There are no parasites or eggs in the stool sample. Talk to your health care provider about the meaning of your specific test ...

  20. The RUSH Exam: Rapid Ultrasound

    E-print Network

    The RUSH Exam: Rapid Ultrasound in SHock in the Evaluation of the Critically lll Phillips Perera-risk situations. Ultrasound technology has been rapidly integrated into Emergency Department care in the last-directed ultrasound, and this training is now included in all United States Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical

  1. Antenna Theory Exam No. 1.

    E-print Network

    Ida, Nathan

    Antenna Theory Exam No. 1. October 11, 2002 Answer the following four questions. Each has equal resistance of a 3/2 dipole antenna with sinusoidal current. Solution: Using the formula for a general length antenna, the radiation resistance may be written directly as: Rrad = 2 =0 (cos((L/)cos) - cos(L/))2 sin

  2. An algorithm for shifting MLC shapes to adjust for daily prostate movement during concurrent treatment with pelvic lymph nodes

    SciTech Connect

    Ludlum, Erica; Mu, Guangwei; Weinberg, Vivian; Roach, Mack III; Verhey, Lynn J.; Xia Ping [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California-San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94143 (United States)

    2007-12-15

    Concurrent treatment of the prostate and the pelvic lymph nodes encounters the problem of the prostate gland moving independently from the pelvic lymph nodes on a daily basis. The purpose of this study is to develop a leaf-tracking algorithm for adjustment of IMRT portals without requirement of online dose calculation to account for daily prostate position during concurrent treatment with pelvic lymph nodes. A leaf-shifting algorithm was developed and programmed to adjust the positions of selected MLC leaf pairs according to prostate movement in the plane perpendicular to each beam angle. IMRT plans from five patients with concurrent treatment of the prostate and pelvic lymph nodes were selected to test the feasibility of this algorithm by comparison with isocenter-shifted plans, using defined dose endpoints. When the prostate moved 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 cm along the anterior/posterior direction, the average doses to 95% of the prostate (D{sub 95%}) for the iso-shift plans were similar to the MLC-shift plans, (54.7, 54.4, and 54.1 Gy versus 54.5, 54.3, and 53.9 Gy, respectively). The corresponding D{sub 95%} averages to the pelvic lymph nodes were reduced from the prescription dose of 45 Gy to 42.7, 38.3, and 34.0 Gy for iso-shift plans (p=0.04 for each comparison), while the D{sub 95%} averages for the MLC-shift plans did not significantly differ from the prescription dose, at 45.0, 44.8, and 44.5 Gy. Compensation for prostate movement along the superior/inferior direction was more complicated due to a limiting MLC leaf width of 1.0 cm. In order to concurrently treat the prostate and pelvic lymph nodes with the prostate moving independently, shifting selected MLC leaf pairs may be a more practical adaptive solution than shifting the patient.

  3. Experimental investigation of a moving averaging algorithm for motion perpendicular to the leaf travel direction in dynamic MLC target tracking

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Jai-Woong; Sawant, Amit; Suh, Yelin; Cho, Byung-Chul; Suh, Tae-Suk; Keall, Paul [Department of Biomedical Engineering, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea 131-700 and Research Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, 131-700 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States) and Department of Radiation Oncology, Asan Medical Center, Seoul, 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Biomedical Engineering, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, 131-700 and Research Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, 131-700 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States) and Radiation Physics Laboratory, Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, 2006 (Australia)

    2011-07-15

    Purpose: In dynamic multileaf collimator (MLC) motion tracking with complex intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) fields, target motion perpendicular to the MLC leaf travel direction can cause beam holds, which increase beam delivery time by up to a factor of 4. As a means to balance delivery efficiency and accuracy, a moving average algorithm was incorporated into a dynamic MLC motion tracking system (i.e., moving average tracking) to account for target motion perpendicular to the MLC leaf travel direction. The experimental investigation of the moving average algorithm compared with real-time tracking and no compensation beam delivery is described. Methods: The properties of the moving average algorithm were measured and compared with those of real-time tracking (dynamic MLC motion tracking accounting for both target motion parallel and perpendicular to the leaf travel direction) and no compensation beam delivery. The algorithm was investigated using a synthetic motion trace with a baseline drift and four patient-measured 3D tumor motion traces representing regular and irregular motions with varying baseline drifts. Each motion trace was reproduced by a moving platform. The delivery efficiency, geometric accuracy, and dosimetric accuracy were evaluated for conformal, step-and-shoot IMRT, and dynamic sliding window IMRT treatment plans using the synthetic and patient motion traces. The dosimetric accuracy was quantified via a {gamma}-test with a 3%/3 mm criterion. Results: The delivery efficiency ranged from 89 to 100% for moving average tracking, 26%-100% for real-time tracking, and 100% (by definition) for no compensation. The root-mean-square geometric error ranged from 3.2 to 4.0 mm for moving average tracking, 0.7-1.1 mm for real-time tracking, and 3.7-7.2 mm for no compensation. The percentage of dosimetric points failing the {gamma}-test ranged from 4 to 30% for moving average tracking, 0%-23% for real-time tracking, and 10%-47% for no compensation. Conclusions: The delivery efficiency of moving average tracking was up to four times higher than that of real-time tracking and approached the efficiency of no compensation for all cases. The geometric accuracy and dosimetric accuracy of the moving average algorithm was between real-time tracking and no compensation, approximately half the percentage of dosimetric points failing the {gamma}-test compared with no compensation.

  4. Monte Carlo simulation of MLC-shaped TrueBeam electron fields benchmarked against measurement

    E-print Network

    Lloyd, Samantha AM; Zavgorodni, Sergei

    2014-01-01

    Modulated electron radiotherapy (MERT) and combined, modulated photon/electron radiotherapy (MPERT) have received increased research attention, having shown capacity for reduced low dose exposure to healthy tissue and comparable, if not improved, target coverage for a number of treatment sites. Accurate dose calculation tools are necessary for clinical treatment planning, and Monte Carlo (MC) is the gold standard for electron field simulation. With many clinics replacing older accelerators, MC source models of the new machines are needed for continued development, however, Varian has kept internal schematics of the TrueBeam confidential and electron phase-space sources have not been made available. TrueBeam electron fields are not substantially different from those generated by the Clinac 21EX, so we have modified the internal schematics of the Clinac 21EX to simulate TrueBeam electrons. BEAMnrc/DOSXYZnrc were used to simulate 5x5 and 20x20 cm$^2$ electron fields with MLC-shaped apertures. Secondary collimati...

  5. Multiple choice exams Only the forms with 9-digit student ID numbers can be used for multiple-choice exams. An exam

    E-print Network

    Kambhampati, Patanjali

    Multiple choice exams Only the forms with 9-digit student ID numbers can be used for multiple number of 000000000 or all blank. Standard Exams A "standard exam" is a single-version or multiple A "weighted exam" is a single-version or multiple-version exam in which some, or all of the questions

  6. Neuropathy - Coordination Exam - Lower Extremities Sub-exam - Patient 7

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Pearson, John C.

    This video demonstrates a coordination exam of the lower extremities. This 61-year-old man has had slowly progressive gait disturbance and weakness of his legs for 14 years. He has developed a limp in both legs, and his feet trip on objects and on uneven floor surfaces resulting in falls. Weakness and numbness of the legs is limiting his ability to walk. Viewing the video requires installation of the free QuickTime Plug-in.

  7. NEVADA INDIAN RESERVATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polygon coverage of all Indian Reservations in Nevada. Reservation boundaries are compiled from multiple sources and are derived from several different source scales. Information such as reservation type, primary tribe name and location source are included with the coverage. As...

  8. REGION 9 INDIAN RESERVATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polygon coverage of all Indian Reservations in US EPA Region 9 (California, Arizona and Nevada). Reservation boundaries are compiled from multiple sources and are derived from several different source scales. Information such as reservation type, primary tribe name and location...

  9. ARIZONA INDIAN RESERVATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polygon coverage of all Indian Reservations in Arizona. Reservation boundaries are compiled from multiple sources and are derived from several different source scales. Information such as reservation type, primary tribe name and location source are included with the coverage. A...

  10. SU-E-T-175: Evaluation of the Relative Output Ratio for Collimator Jaw and MLC Defined Small Static 6MV Photon Fields

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, G [Chris O'Brien Lifehouse at RPAH, Camperdown, NSW 2050 (Australia); Institute of Medical Physics, School of Physics, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Thwaites, D [Institute of Medical Physics, School of Physics, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate relative output ratio of collimator jaw and MLC defined small photon fields. Methods: Relative output ratios were measured using Gafchromic EBT3 film for a 6 MV photon beam on a Novalis Tx with HD120 MLC. Beam collimation was achieved by the jaws for 1.0 cm and 3.0 cm and MLC defined square field sizes between 0.5 cm and 1.0 cm with varying jaw settings between 2.0 and 4.0 cm. Film pieces were exposed to 4 Gy. Experiments were repeated with each session consisting of five consecutive exposures for the given MLC and/or jaw collimation and with the MLC and the jaws reset for each exposure. Films were scanned using EPSON 10000XL flatbed scanner approximately 24 hours after exposure in 48 bit RGB format at 150 dpi. Film calibration data were corrected for daily linac output variations. Doses were evaluated using the green channel with square ROI sizes of 0.1 – 0.6 cm. Converted doses were normalised for output ratio calculation using the 3.0 cm field as a machine specific reference field size. Mean output ratio and coefficient of variation (CV) were calculated for each experimental session. Results: For the Novalis 6 MV photon beam the output ratios between 0.719 and 0.872 have been measured for the jaw/MLC combinations tested. For a jaw setting of 4.0 cm field, the mean CV of the output ratios increased from 0.77% to 1.48% with decreasing MLC field size from 1.0 cm to 0.5 cm. For a nominal MLC 1.0 cm field, the CV increased to 1.00% from 0.77% with reducing jaw field size from 4.0 cm to 2.0 cm. Conclusion: The relative output ratio and the associated CV were dependent on the collimator jaw and MLC settings. The field size dependent CV showed similar trends to those reported in the literature.

  11. A Light-Field-Based Method to Adjust On-Axis Rounded Leaf End MLC Position to Predict Off-Axis MLC Penumbra Region Dosimetric Performance in a Radiation Therapy Planning System

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jia-Ming; Lee, Tsair-Fwu; Yeh, Shyh-An; Hsiao, Kuan-Yin; Chen, Hsin-Hsiung; Chao, Pei-Ju; Chen, Yi-Ting

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. An analytical and experimental study of split shape dose calculation correction by adjusting the position of the on-axis round leaf end position is presented. We use on-axis corrected results to predict off-axis penumbra region dosimetric performance in an intensity-modulated radiation therapy treatment planning system. Materials and Methods. The precise light-field edge position (X tang.p) was derived from the on-axis 50% dose position created by using the nominal light field for geometric and mathematical manipulation. Leaf position (X mlc.p) could be derived from X tang.p by defining in the treatment planning system for monitor unit calculation. On-axis offset (correction) could be obtained from the position corresponding to 50% of the central axis dose minus the Xmlc.p position. The off-axis 50% dose position can then be derived from the on-axis 50% dose position. Results. The monitor unit calculation of the split shape using the on-axis rounded leaf end MLC penumbra region could provide an under-or overdose of 7.5% per millimeter without an offset correction. When using the on-axis rounded leaf end offset correction to predict the off-axis dose, the difference between the off- and on-axis 50% dose position is within ±1.5?mm. Conclusions. It is possible to achieve a dose calculation within 0.5% error for an adjusted MLC leaf edge location in the treatment planning system with careful measurement and an accurate on-axis offset correction. Dose calculations located at an off-axis spilt shape region should be used carefully due to noncorrectable errors which were found to be up to 10%. PMID:24288680

  12. NOTE: Verification of a pencil beam based treatment planning system: output factors for open photon beams shaped with MLC or blocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansson, Helena; Björk, Peter; Knöös, Tommy; Nilsson, Per

    1999-09-01

    The accuracy of monitor unit calculations from a pencil beam based, three-dimensional treatment planning system (3D TPS) has been evaluated for open irregularly shaped photon fields. The dose per monitor unit was measured in water and in air for x-ray beam qualities from 6 to 15 MV. The fields were shaped either with a multileaf collimator (MLC) or with customized alloy blocks. Calculations from the 3D TPS were compared with measurements. The agreement between calculated and measured dose per monitor unit depended on field size and the amount of blocking and was within 3% for the MLC-shaped fields. The deviation could be traced to limitations in head scatter modelling for the MLC. For fields shaped with alloy blocks, the dose per monitor unit was calculated to be within 1.6% of measured values for all fields studied. The measured and calculated relative phantom scatter for fields with the same equivalent field size were identical for MLC and alloy shaped fields. These results indicate that the accuracy in the TPS calculations for open irregular fields, shaped with MLC or blocks, is satisfactory for clinical situations.

  13. A new MLC segmentation algorithm/software for step-and-shoot IMRT delivery.

    PubMed

    Luan, Shuang; Wang, Chao; Chen, Danny Z; Hu, Xiaobo S; Naqvi, Shahid A; Yu, Cedric X; Lee, Chad L

    2004-04-01

    We present a new MLC segmentation algorithm/software for step-and-shoot IMRT delivery. Our aim in this work is to shorten the treatment time by minimizing the number of segments. Our new segmentation algorithm, called SLS (an abbreviation for static leaf sequencing), is based on graph algorithmic techniques in computer science. It takes advantage of the geometry of intensity maps. In our SLS approach, intensity maps are viewed as three-dimensional (3-D) "mountains" made of unit-sized "cubes." Such a 3-D "mountain" is first partitioned into special-structured submountains using a new mixed partitioning scheme. Then the optimal leaf sequences for each submountain are computed by either a shortest-path algorithm or a maximum-flow algorithm based on graph models. The computations of SLS take only a few minutes. Our comparison studies of SLS with CORVUS (both the 4.0 and 5.0 versions) and with the Xia and Verhey segmentation methods on Elekta Linac systems showed substantial improvements. For instance, for a pancreatic case, SLS used only one-fifth of the number of segments required by CORVUS 4.0 to create the same intensity maps, and the SLS sequences took only 25 min to deliver on an Elekta SL 20 Linac system in contrast to the 72 min for the CORVUS 4.0 sequences (a three-fold improvement). To verify the accuracy of our new leaf sequences, we conducted film and ion-chamber measurements on phantom. The results showed that both the intensity distributions as well as dose distributions of the SLS delivery match well with those of CORVUS delivery. SLS can also be extended to other types of Linac systems. PMID:15124986

  14. Effect of MLC leaf width on the planning and delivery of SMLC IMRT using the CORVUS inverse treatment planning system

    SciTech Connect

    Burmeister, Jay; McDermott, Patrick N.; Bossenberger, Todd; Ben-Josef, Edgar; Levin, Kenneth; Forman, Jeffrey D. [Gershenson Radiation Oncology Center, Karmanos Cancer Institute, Harper University Hospital and Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan 48201 (United States)

    2004-12-01

    This study investigates the influence of multileaf collimator (MLC) leaf width on intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plans delivered via the segmented multileaf collimator (SMLC) technique. IMRT plans were calculated using the Corvus treatment planning system for three brain, three prostate, and three pancreas cases using leaf widths of 0.5 and 1 cm. Resulting differences in plan quality and complexity are presented here. Plans calculated using a 1 cm leaf width were chosen over the 0.5 cm leaf width plans in seven out of nine cases based on clinical judgment. Conversely, optimization results revealed a superior objective function result for the 0.5 cm leaf width plans in seven out of the nine comparisons. The 1 cm leaf width objective function result was superior only for very large target volumes, indicating that expanding the solution space for plan optimization by using narrower leaves may result in a decreased probability of finding the global minimum. In the remaining cases, we can conclude that we are often not utilizing the objective function as proficiently as possible to meet our clinical goals. There was often no apparent clinically significant difference between the two plans, and in such cases the issue becomes one of plan complexity. A comparison of plan complexity revealed that the average 1 cm leaf width plan required roughly 60% fewer segments and over 40% fewer monitor units than required by 0.5 cm leaf width plans. This allows a significant decrease in whole body dose and total treatment time. For very complex IMRT plans, the treatment delivery time may affect the biologically effective dose. A clinically significant improvement in plan quality from using narrower leaves was evident only in cases with very small target volumes or those with concavities that are small with respect to the MLC leaf width. For the remaining cases investigated in this study, there was no clinical advantage to reducing the MLC leaf width from 1 to 0.5 cm. In such cases, there is no justification for the increased treatment time and whole body dose associated with the narrower MLC leaf width.

  15. Matching marine reserve design to reserve objectives.

    PubMed Central

    Halpern, Benjamin S; Warner, Robert R

    2003-01-01

    Recent interest in using marine reserves for marine resource management and conservation has largely been driven by the hope that reserves might counteract declines in fish populations and protect the biodiversity of the seas. However, the creation of reserves has led to dissension from some interested groups, such as fishermen, who fear that reserves will do more harm than good. These perceived differences in the effect of marine reserves on various stakeholder interests has led to a contentious debate over their merit. We argue here that recent findings in marine ecology suggest that this debate is largely unnecessary, and that a single general design of a network of reserves of moderate size and variable spacing can meet the needs and goals of most stakeholders interested in marine resources. Given the high fecundity of most marine organisms and recent evidence for limited distance of larval dispersal, it is likely that reserves can both maintain their own biodiversity and service nearby non-reserve areas. In particular, spillover of larger organisms and dispersal of larvae to areas outside reserves can lead to reserves sustaining or even increasing local fisheries. Ultimately, the success of any reserve network requires attention to the uncertainty and variability in dispersal patterns of marine organisms, clear statements of goals by all stakeholder groups and proper evaluation of reserve performance. PMID:14561299

  16. University of South Carolina Student Exams

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    What exactly did university students study in the 19th century? Better yet, what were their exams like? Both questions are answered in part by this digital collection offered up by the University of South Carolina's Digital Collections group. Drawing on their holdings, this collection features student exams in a variety of subjects from 1854 to 1917. The exams are indicative of the changing nature of the university's curriculum over this period, as visitors will note that after the 1870s there is a distinct movement towards more practical materials. Some of the exams are dated, and others can be linked to a certain professor or general time period. Visitors can look at a list of the exams, and then use the viewer to scrutinize the details. Along with the questions, some of the exams have hand-written answers, which are of great interest as well.

  17. Copyright 2000. All rights reserved. Copyright 2000. All rights reserved.

    E-print Network

    Huggett, Nicholas

    Copyright © 2000. All rights reserved. #12;Copyright © 2000. All rights reserved. #12;Copyright © 2000. All rights reserved. #12;Copyright © 2000. All rights reserved. #12;Copyright © 2000. All rights reserved. #12;Copyright © 2000. All rights reserved. #12;Copyright © 2000. All rights reserved. #12

  18. Copyright 2001 All Rights Reserved Copyright 2001 All Rights Reserved

    E-print Network

    Amaral, Luis A.N.

    Copyright © 2001 All Rights Reserved #12;Copyright © 2001 All Rights Reserved #12;Copyright © 2001 All Rights Reserved #12;Copyright © 2001 All Rights Reserved #12;Copyright © 2001 All Rights Reserved #12;Copyright © 2001 All Rights Reserved #12;Copyright © 2001 All Rights Reserved #12;Copyright © 2001

  19. Copyright 2001. All Rights Reserved. Copyright 2001. All Rights Reserved.

    E-print Network

    Schultz, Ted

    Copyright ©2001. All Rights Reserved. #12;Copyright ©2001. All Rights Reserved. #12;Copyright ©2001. All Rights Reserved. #12;Copyright ©2001. All Rights Reserved. #12;Copyright ©2001. All Rights Reserved. #12;Copyright ©2001. All Rights Reserved. #12;Copyright ©2001. All Rights Reserved. #12;Copyright

  20. Copyright 2000. All Rights Reserved. Copyright 2000. All Rights Reserved.

    E-print Network

    Barsalou, Lawrence W.

    Copyright ©2000. All Rights Reserved. #12;Copyright ©2000. All Rights Reserved. #12;Copyright ©2000. All Rights Reserved. #12;Copyright ©2000. All Rights Reserved. #12;Copyright ©2000. All Rights Reserved. #12;Copyright ©2000. All Rights Reserved. #12;Copyright ©2000. All Rights Reserved. #12;Copyright

  1. Copyright 1994. All rights reserved. Copyright 1994. All rights reserved.

    E-print Network

    Watson, Paul J.

    Copyright © 1994. All rights reserved. #12;Copyright © 1994. All rights reserved. #12;Copyright © 1994. All rights reserved. #12;Copyright © 1994. All rights reserved. #12;Copyright © 1994. All rights reserved. #12;Copyright © 1994. All rights reserved. #12;Copyright © 1994. All rights reserved. #12

  2. Copyright 2000 All Rights Reserved Copyright 2000 All Rights Reserved

    E-print Network

    Shapiro, Alex

    Copyright © 2000 All Rights Reserved #12;Copyright © 2000 All Rights Reserved #12;Copyright © 2000 All Rights Reserved #12;Copyright © 2000 All Rights Reserved #12;Copyright © 2000 All Rights Reserved #12;Copyright © 2000 All Rights Reserved #12;Copyright © 2000 All Rights Reserved #12;Copyright © 2000

  3. Copyright 1995. All rights reserved. Copyright 1995. All rights reserved.

    E-print Network

    Gelman, Andrew

    Copyright © 1995. All rights reserved. #12;Copyright © 1995. All rights reserved. #12;Copyright © 1995. All rights reserved. #12;Copyright © 1995. All rights reserved. #12;Copyright © 1995. All rights reserved. #12;Copyright © 1995. All rights reserved. #12;Copyright © 1995. All rights reserved. #12

  4. Copyright 1998. All rights reserved. Copyright 1998. All rights reserved.

    E-print Network

    Copyright © 1998. All rights reserved. #12;Copyright © 1998. All rights reserved. #12;Copyright © 1998. All rights reserved. #12;Copyright © 1998. All rights reserved. #12;Copyright © 1998. All rights reserved. #12;Copyright © 1998. All rights reserved. #12;Copyright © 1998. All rights reserved. #12

  5. Copyright 1996. All rights reserved. Copyright 1996. All rights reserved.

    E-print Network

    Brown, Joel S.

    Copyright © 1996. All rights reserved. #12;Copyright © 1996. All rights reserved. #12;Copyright © 1996. All rights reserved. #12;Copyright © 1996. All rights reserved. #12;Copyright © 1996. All rights reserved. #12;Copyright © 1996. All rights reserved. #12;Copyright © 1996. All rights reserved. #12

  6. Copyright 1997. All rights reserved. Copyright 1997. All rights reserved.

    E-print Network

    Bataillon, Thomas

    Copyright © 1997. All rights reserved. #12;Copyright © 1997. All rights reserved. #12;Copyright © 1997. All rights reserved. #12;Copyright © 1997. All rights reserved. #12;Copyright © 1997. All rights reserved. #12;Copyright © 1997. All rights reserved. #12;Copyright © 1997. All rights reserved. #12

  7. Copyright 1999. All rights reserved. Copyright 1999. All rights reserved.

    E-print Network

    Cheng, Ming-Yen

    Copyright © 1999. All rights reserved. #12;Copyright © 1999. All rights reserved. #12;Copyright © 1999. All rights reserved. #12;Copyright © 1999. All rights reserved. #12;Copyright © 1999. All rights reserved. #12;Copyright © 1999. All rights reserved. #12;Copyright © 1999. All rights reserved. #12

  8. Profile of State High School Exit Exam Policies. New Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This individual profile provides information on New Mexico's high school exit exam standards and policies. Some of the categories presented include: (1) State exit exam policy; (2) Type of Test; (3) Purpose; (4) Major changes in exit exam policy since the 2009-10 school year for financial reasons; (5) Subjects tested on exam; (6) Grade exam first…

  9. Profile of State High School Exit Exam Policies. Rhode Island

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This individual profile provides information on Rhode Island's high school exit exam standards and policies. Some of the categories presented include: (1) State exit exam policy; (2) Type of Test; (3) Purpose; (4) Major changes in exit exam policy since the 2009-10 school year for financial reasons; (5) Subjects tested on exam; (6) Grade exam…

  10. Profile of State High School Exit Exam Policies. South Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This individual profile provides information on South Carolina's high school exit exam standards and policies. Some of the categories presented include: (1) State exit exam policy; (2) Type of Test; (3) Purpose; (4) Major changes in exit exam policy since the 2009-10 school year for financial reasons; (5) Subjects tested on exam; (6) Grade exam…

  11. CompTIA A+ Certifications and Exams

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    A+ certification is one of the most widely recognized computer technician certification programs. Certification is granted by a non-profit trade organization CompTIA and is vendor neutral. This webpage (from CompTIA website) provides links to A+ certification exam preparation material). Links are given to sample test questions and pages providing information on exam objectives; finding training materials & providers; test taking tips; financial aid; and registering for the exam. Information, including a name and email address, are required.

  12. Exam answers HERE ARE sketches of solutions to the midterm and final exam problems.

    E-print Network

    Pratt, Vaughan

    Exam answers HERE ARE sketches of solutions to the midterm and final exam problems. M1 First we, and suppose that 2 k nnb, 2 k 0 nnb 0 , 901 #12; 902 EXAM ANSWERS 2 k 00 nnb 00 . Then it's not difficult this last result by [p == nm] to get the general answer. #12; EXAM ANSWERS 903 M5 Assign new numbers as in 3

  13. Exam answers HERE ARE sketches of solutions to the midterm and final exam problems.

    E-print Network

    Pratt, Vaughan

    Exam answers HERE ARE sketches of solutions to the midterm and final exam problems. M1 We have (`M1 win in state k ­ 1 and lose in state k.) So we can assume that he has 901 #12; 902 EXAM ANSWERS; we have proved that n 2 B =) f n ­ 1988 2 A. Hence #(B) Ÿ #(A). #12; EXAM ANSWERS 903 (g) Let

  14. SU-E-T-128: Dosimetric Evaluation of MLC Modeling in Pinnacle V9.2 for Varian TrueBeam STx

    SciTech Connect

    Otageri, P; Grant, E; Maricle, S; Mathews, B [CARTI, Inc., Little Rock, AR (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effects of MLC modeling after commissioning the Varian TrueBeam LINAC in Pinnacle version 9.2. Methods: Stepand-shoot IMRT QAs were investigated when we observed our measured absolute dose results using ion chamber (Capintec PR-05P) were uncharacteristically low; about 4–5% compared to doses calculated by Pinnacle{sup 3} (Phillips, Madison, WI). This problem was predominant for large and highly modulated head and neck (HN) treatments. Intuitively we knew this had to be related to shortcomings in the MLC modeling in Pinnacle. Using film QA we were able to iteratively adjust the MLC parameters. We confirmed results by re-testing five failed IMRT QA patients; and ion chamber measurements were verified in Quasar anthropomorphic phantom. Results: After commissioning the LINAC in Pinnacle version 9.2, the MLC transmission for 6X, 10X and 15X were 2.0%, 1.7% and 2.0%, respectively, and additional Interleaf leakage for all three energies was 0.5%. These parameters were obtained from profiles scanned with an Edge detector (Sun Nuclear, Melbourne, FL) during machine commissioning. A Verification testing with radiographic EDR2 film (Kodak, Rochester, NY) measurement was performed by creating a closed MLC leaf pattern and analyzing using RIT software (RIT, Colorado Springs, CO). This reduced MLC transmission for 6X, 10X and 15X to 0.7%, 0.9% and 0.9%, respectively; while increasing additional Interleaf leakage for all three energies to 1.0%. Conclusion: Radiographic film measurements were used to correct MLC transmission values for step and shoot IMRT fields used in Pinnacle version 9.2. After adjusting the MLC parameters to correlate with the film QA, there was still very good agreement between the Pinnacle model and commissioning data. Using the same QA methodology, we were also able to improve the beam models for the Varian C-series linacs, Novalis-Tx, and TrueBeam M-120 linacs.

  15. Acing the Bar Exam : A Checklist Approach to Taking the Bar Exam

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Suzanne Darrow-Kleinhaus

    2008-01-01

    This study aid provides candidates with a complete guide to the bar exam - from pre-planning considerations through bar review and sitting for the exam. Every aspect of the process is explained in detail and by example. The bar exam is deconstructed, section by section, where candidates are led through the steps they need to follow to succeed. Approaches for

  16. IODP EMPLOYEE PHYSICAL EXAM PACKET Attached is the physical exam package, which consists of the following

    E-print Network

    protocols to ensure the security and confidentiality of your personal information. Your informationIODP EMPLOYEE PHYSICAL EXAM PACKET Attached is the physical exam package, which consists of the following: Physical Exam Policy Instructions and General Considerations Annual or Pre-Expedition Physical

  17. Instructions of the NTU Health Exam for Incoming Exchange Students (Health Exam Time)

    E-print Network

    Wu, Yih-Min

    8 Blood Test: Examinee should fast for at least 8 hours prior to taking the exams. Sugar-free water't complete the blood test, urine test or X-ray on the exam date, please complete them within a week after the Health Exam Form, the passport, and 2-inch photos 4. Blood & urine test Take the paid invoice

  18. Dr. Campbell's Bio111 Exam #3 Spring 2007 Spring 2007 Biology 111 In-Class Exam #3 BioEnergetics

    E-print Network

    Campbell, A. Malcolm

    Dr. Campbell's Bio111 Exam #3 ­ Spring 2007 1 Spring 2007 Biology 111 In-Class Exam #3 ­ Bio when finished with the exam. Name (please print): Write out the full pledge and sign: On my honor I by others. How long did this exam take you to complete (excluding typing)? #12;Dr. Campbell's Bio111 Exam #3

  19. Dr. Campbell's Bio111 Exam #3 Spring 2008 Spring 2008 Biology 111 In-Class Exam #3 BioEnergetics

    E-print Network

    Campbell, A. Malcolm

    Dr. Campbell's Bio111 Exam #3 ­ Spring 2008 1 Spring 2008 Biology 111 In-Class Exam #3 ­ Bio) together when finished with the exam. Name (please print): Write out the full pledge and sign: How long did this exam take you to complete (excluding typing)? #12;Dr. Campbell's Bio111 Exam #3 ­ Spring 2008 2 Lab

  20. Regents Exam Prep Center - Physics

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This is the "Regents Exam Prep Center" site for physics. It contains a large number of physics lectures, lesson plans, problem solving techniques, and demonstrations for a wide variety of high school and early college physics topics. The topics include: kinematics, statics, dynamics, momentum, work, power, energy, static electricity, electric current, magnetism, electromagnetic induction, wave characteristics, periodic wave phenomenon, light, the dual nature of light, quantum theory, models of the atom and particle physics. This is a nice resource for a general overview of physics.

  1. Asymmetric programming: a highly reliable metadata allocation strategy for MLC NAND flash memory-based sensor systems.

    PubMed

    Huang, Min; Liu, Zhaoqing; Qiao, Liyan

    2014-01-01

    While the NAND flash memory is widely used as the storage medium in modern sensor systems, the aggressive shrinking of process geometry and an increase in the number of bits stored in each memory cell will inevitably degrade the reliability of NAND flash memory. In particular, it's critical to enhance metadata reliability, which occupies only a small portion of the storage space, but maintains the critical information of the file system and the address translations of the storage system. Metadata damage will cause the system to crash or a large amount of data to be lost. This paper presents Asymmetric Programming, a highly reliable metadata allocation strategy for MLC NAND flash memory storage systems. Our technique exploits for the first time the property of the multi-page architecture of MLC NAND flash memory to improve the reliability of metadata. The basic idea is to keep metadata in most significant bit (MSB) pages which are more reliable than least significant bit (LSB) pages. Thus, we can achieve relatively low bit error rates for metadata. Based on this idea, we propose two strategies to optimize address mapping and garbage collection. We have implemented Asymmetric Programming on a real hardware platform. The experimental results show that Asymmetric Programming can achieve a reduction in the number of page errors of up to 99.05% with the baseline error correction scheme. PMID:25310473

  2. ARF1 regulates the Rho/MLC pathway to control EGF-dependent breast cancer cell invasion.

    PubMed

    Schlienger, Sabrina; Campbell, Shirley; Claing, Audrey

    2014-01-01

    Invasion of tumor cells is a key step in metastasis that depends largely on the ability of these cells to degrade the extracellular matrix. Although we have showed that the GTPase ADP-ribosylation factor 1 (ARF1) is overexpressed in highly invasive breast cancer cell lines and that epidermal growth factor stimulation can activate this ARF isoform to regulate migration as well as proliferation, the role of this small GTP-binding protein has not been addressed in the context of invasiveness. Here we report that modulation of ARF1 expression and activity markedly impaired the ability of M.D. Anderson-metastatic breast-231 cells, a prototypical highly invasive breast cancer cell line, to degrade the extracellular matrix by controlling metalloproteinase-9 activity. In addition, we demonstrate that this occurs through inhibition of invadopodia maturation and shedding of membrane-derived microvesicles, the two key structures involved in invasion. To further define the molecular mechanisms by which ARF1 controls invasiveness, we show that ARF1 acts to modulate RhoA and RhoC activity, which in turn affects myosin light-chain (MLC) phosphorylation. Together our findings underscore for the first time a key role for ARF1 in invasion of breast cancer cells and suggest that targeting the ARF/Rho/MLC signaling axis might be a promising strategy to inhibit invasiveness and metastasis. PMID:24196838

  3. Asymmetric Programming: A Highly Reliable Metadata Allocation Strategy for MLC NAND Flash Memory-Based Sensor Systems

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Min; Liu, Zhaoqing; Qiao, Liyan

    2014-01-01

    While the NAND flash memory is widely used as the storage medium in modern sensor systems, the aggressive shrinking of process geometry and an increase in the number of bits stored in each memory cell will inevitably degrade the reliability of NAND flash memory. In particular, it's critical to enhance metadata reliability, which occupies only a small portion of the storage space, but maintains the critical information of the file system and the address translations of the storage system. Metadata damage will cause the system to crash or a large amount of data to be lost. This paper presents Asymmetric Programming, a highly reliable metadata allocation strategy for MLC NAND flash memory storage systems. Our technique exploits for the first time the property of the multi-page architecture of MLC NAND flash memory to improve the reliability of metadata. The basic idea is to keep metadata in most significant bit (MSB) pages which are more reliable than least significant bit (LSB) pages. Thus, we can achieve relatively low bit error rates for metadata. Based on this idea, we propose two strategies to optimize address mapping and garbage collection. We have implemented Asymmetric Programming on a real hardware platform. The experimental results show that Asymmetric Programming can achieve a reduction in the number of page errors of up to 99.05% with the baseline error correction scheme. PMID:25310473

  4. A mixed-integer mathematical modeling approach to exam timetabling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Salem M. Al-Yakoob; Hanif D. Sherali; Mona Al-Jazzaf

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores mathematical programming models for an exam timetabling problem related to Kuwait University (KU). In\\u000a particular, we consider two subproblems: (a) the ExamTimetabling Problem (ETP), which is concerned with assigning exams to\\u000a designated exam-periods and classrooms, and (b) the Proctor Assignment Problem (PAP), which deals with the assignment of proctors\\u000a to exams. While this exam timetabling problem is

  5. Introduction to Computer Security Midterm Exam

    E-print Network

    Binkley, Jim

    Introduction to Computer Security Midterm Exam This is a closed-book, closed-notes exam. All and their advisor and all grades are assigned by the appropriate instructor. 8. In the DG/UX system the MAC lattice Bishop introduces the Access Control Matrix model. This model is universal in the sense that all access

  6. Studying For Exams SEVEN DAY STUDY GUIDE

    E-print Network

    Barrash, Warren

    Studying For Exams SEVEN DAY STUDY GUIDE Day One: ORGANIZE all your notes and materials from class. As you study, cross off items when you finish re- viewing them. Create your own exam questions emphasized in Text Only. Day Seven: Review All Locate weak areas. Include material not emphasized in either

  7. Central Exams Improve Educational Performance: International Evidence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ludger Wößmann

    2002-01-01

    International comparative studies of student performance have initiated political discussions in countries all over the world on how to improve the educational achievement of students. The empirical evidence suggests that central exams help to achieve higher student performance. Central exams direct the incentives of all educational actors towards furthering students’ knowledge. By providing the education system with performance information they

  8. Making Exam Preparation An Enjoyable Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lukosch, Stephan; Schummer, Till

    2006-01-01

    During oral exams at the German distance learning university, we noticed that students fear that they will be faced with questions that they have not anticipated. In our opinion, this is mainly because students have no chance to train and thereby gather positive experiences with exam situations as they are distributed all over Germany and thus it…

  9. Exam Frequency Comparison in Introductory Soil Science

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    K. Barbarick

    This article describes a study in which the number of exams administered in a semester was examined to determine its impact on students' grades and on course evaluations regarding their recommendation of the course and the instructor to other students. The course was an introductory soil science course in which, over 3 semesters, 5 exams were given per semester. For the next 5 semesters, the number of exams was increased to 10 per semester. For the most recent semesters, students responded that they preferred more frequent exams. Grouping of the semesters into those with either 5 or 10 tests showed a higher overall class grade-point average for the semesters with more tests, and a Chi-square test showed that the higher grades were due to an increase in the proportion of A's. This grouping also showed that giving more exams did not significantly affect the students' response concerning recommendations of the course or the instructor to other students.

  10. Potential of discrete Gaussian edge feathering method for improving abutment dosimetry in eMLC-delivered segmented-field electron conformal therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Eley, John G.; Hogstrom, Kenneth R.; Matthews, Kenneth L.; Parker, Brent C.; Price, Michael J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College, 202 Nicholson Hall, Tower Drive, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803-4001 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College, 202 Nicholson Hall, Tower Drive, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803-4001 (United States) and Mary Bird Perkins Cancer Center, 4950 Essen Lane, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70809-3482 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College, 202 Nicholson Hall, Tower Drive, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803-4001 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College, 202 Nicholson Hall, Tower Drive, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803-4001 (United States) and Mary Bird Perkins Cancer Center, 4950 Essen Lane, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70809-3482 (United States)

    2011-12-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this work was to investigate the potential of discrete Gaussian edge feathering of the higher energy electron fields for improving abutment dosimetry in the planning volume when using an electron multileaf collimator (eMLC) to deliver segmented-field electron conformal therapy (ECT). Methods: A discrete (five-step) Gaussian edge spread function was used to match dose penumbras of differing beam energies (6-20 MeV) at a specified depth in a water phantom. Software was developed to define the leaf eMLC positions of an eMLC that most closely fit each electron field shape. The effect of 1D edge feathering of the higher energy field on dose homogeneity was computed and measured for segmented-field ECT treatment plans for three 2D PTVs in a water phantom, i.e., depth from the water surface to the distal PTV surface varied as a function of the x-axis (parallel to leaf motion) and remained constant along the y-axis (perpendicular to leaf motion). Additionally, the effect of 2D edge feathering was computed and measured for one radially symmetric, 3D PTV in a water phantom, i.e., depth from the water surface to the distal PTV surface varied as a function of both axes. For the 3D PTV, the feathering scheme was evaluated for 0.1-1.0-cm leaf widths. Dose calculations were performed using the pencil beam dose algorithm in the Pinnacle{sup 3} treatment planning system. Dose verification measurements were made using a prototype eMLC (1-cm leaf width). Results: 1D discrete Gaussian edge feathering reduced the standard deviation of dose in the 2D PTVs by 34, 34, and 39%. In the 3D PTV, the broad leaf width (1 cm) of the eMLC hindered the 2D application of the feathering solution to the 3D PTV, and the standard deviation of dose increased by 10%. However, 2D discrete Gaussian edge feathering with simulated eMLC leaf widths of 0.1-0.5 cm reduced the standard deviation of dose in the 3D PTV by 33-28%, respectively. Conclusions: A five-step discrete Gaussian edge spread function applied in 2D improves the abutment dosimetry but requires an eMLC leaf resolution better than 1 cm.

  11. Dynamic-MLC leaf control utilizing on-flight intensity calculations: A robust method for real-time IMRT delivery over moving rigid targets

    SciTech Connect

    McMahon, Ryan; Papiez, Lech; Rangaraj, Dharanipathy [School of Health Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75390 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri 63110 (United States)

    2007-08-15

    An algorithm is presented that allows for the control of multileaf collimation (MLC) leaves based entirely on real-time calculations of the intensity delivered over the target. The algorithm is capable of efficiently correcting generalized delivery errors without requiring the interruption of delivery (self-correcting trajectories), where a generalized delivery error represents anything that causes a discrepancy between the delivered and intended intensity profiles. The intensity actually delivered over the target is continually compared to its intended value. For each pair of leaves, these comparisons are used to guide the control of the following leaf and keep this discrepancy below a user-specified value. To demonstrate the basic principles of the algorithm, results of corrected delivery are shown for a leading leaf positional error during dynamic-MLC (DMLC) IMRT delivery over a rigid moving target. It is then shown that, with slight modifications, the algorithm can be used to track moving targets in real time. The primary results of this article indicate that the algorithm is capable of accurately delivering DMLC IMRT over a rigid moving target whose motion is (1) completely unknown prior to delivery and (2) not faster than the maximum MLC leaf velocity over extended periods of time. These capabilities are demonstrated for clinically derived intensity profiles and actual tumor motion data, including situations when the target moves in some instances faster than the maximum admissible MLC leaf velocity. The results show that using the algorithm while calculating the delivered intensity every 50 ms will provide a good level of accuracy when delivering IMRT over a rigid moving target translating along the direction of MLC leaf travel. When the maximum velocities of the MLC leaves and target were 4 and 4.2 cm/s, respectively, the resulting error in the two intensity profiles used was 0.1{+-}3.1% and -0.5{+-}2.8% relative to the maximum of the intensity profiles. For the same target motion, the error was shown to increase rapidly as (1) the maximum MLC leaf velocity was reduced below 75% of the maximum target velocity and (2) the system response time was increased.

  12. ABRET Exam Development and Scoring.

    PubMed

    Padilla, Erik

    2015-06-01

    The ABRET Neurodiagnostic Credentialing and Accreditation (ABRET) is the credentialing organization for the field of neurodiagnostic technology and has always embraced change and innovation within the testing industry. ABRET devotes significant time and resources to ensure that the processes used for technologist certification are of high quality, justifiable, and defensible. The importance of engaging stakeholders in the process of developing and scoring the board exams is recognized by ABRET. This development process is an inclusive one and reflects the current practice of neurodiagnostics. By sharing the details of how this process unfolds, ABRET hopes to address and clarify common assumptions and misconceptions. ABRET acknowledges that the examination process can be intense and laborious at times, but the end objective is well worth the journey. PMID:26173347

  13. Pennogenin Tetraglycoside Induces Rat Myometrial Contraction and MLC20 Phosphorylation via PLC-IP3 and RhoA/Rho Kinase Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaolan; Kang, Liping; Cong, Yue; Shan, Yajun; Zhao, Zhenhu; Ma, Baiping; Cong, Yuwen

    2012-01-01

    Background Total steroidal saponins extracted from the rhizome of Paris polyphylla Sm. var. yunnanensis (TSSPs) have been widely used in China for the treatment of abnormal uterine bleeding. We previously studied the main active constituents of TSSPs and their structure-activity relationships with respect to rat myometrial contractions. Tg (pennogenin tetraglycoside) was identified as one of the active ingredients in TSSPs able to induce rat myometrial contractions. However, the mechanisms underlying the pharmacological actions on uterine activity have not been described clearly. Methods Here Tg was screened for effects on contractile activity in isolated uterine strips from estrogen-primed rats and on MLC20 phosphorylation and related signaling pathways in cultured rat myometrial cells as determined by Western blot. Intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) was monitored under a confocal microscope using Fluo-4 AM-loaded myometrial cells. Results Tg dose-dependently stimulated rat myometrial contractions as well as MLC20 phosphorylation in vitro, which could be completely suppressed by an inhibitor of myosin light chain kinase (MLCK). Use of Ca2+ channel blockers and kinase inhibitors demonstrated that Tg-induced myometrial contractions are mediated by activation of the phospholipase C (PLC)-inositol triphosphate (IP3) signaling pathway, resulting in increased MLC20 phosphorylation. Furthermore, Y27632, a specific inhibitor of Rho kinase (ROK), notably suppressed Tg-stimulated myometrial contractions and decreased MLC20 phosphorylation. Conclusions These data provide evidence that rat myometrial contractility induced by Tg results from enhanced MLC20 phosphorylation, while both PLC-IP3 and RhoA/ROK signaling pathways mediate the process. These mechanisms may be responsible for the therapeutic effects of TSSPs on abnormal uterine bleeding. PMID:23251567

  14. The use of intensity-modulated radiation therapy photon beams for improving the dose uniformity of electron beams shaped with MLC

    SciTech Connect

    Mosalaei, Homeira, E-mail: homeira.mosalaei@lhsc.on.ca [London Regional Cancer Program, London Health Science Centre, Ontario (Canada); Karnas, Scott [London Regional Cancer Program, London Health Science Centre, Ontario (Canada); University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario (Canada); Shah, Sheel [University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario (Canada); Van Doodewaard, Sharon [McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); Foster, Tim [University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario (Canada); Chen, Jeff [London Regional Cancer Program, London Health Science Centre, Ontario (Canada); University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario (Canada)

    2012-04-01

    Electrons are ideal for treating shallow tumors and sparing adjacent normal tissue. Conventionally, electron beams are collimated by cut-outs that are time-consuming to make and difficult to adapt to tumor shape throughout the course of treatment. We propose that electron cut-outs can be replaced using photon multileaf collimator (MLC). Two major problems of this approach are that the scattering of electrons causes penumbra widening because of a large air gap, and available commercial treatment planning systems (TPSs) do not support MLC-collimated electron beams. In this study, these difficulties were overcome by (1) modeling electron beams collimated by photon MLC for a commercial TPS, and (2) developing a technique to reduce electron beam penumbra by adding low-energy intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) photons (4 MV). We used blocks to simulate MLC shielding in the TPS. Inverse planning was used to optimize boost photon beams. This technique was applied to a parotid and a central nervous system (CNS) clinical case. Combined photon and electron plans were compared with conventional plans and verified using ion chamber, film, and a 2D diode array. Our studies showed that the beam penumbra for mixed beams with 90 cm source to surface distance (SSD) is comparable with electron applicators and cut-outs at 100 cm SSD. Our mixed-beam technique yielded more uniform dose to the planning target volume and lower doses to various organs at risk for both parotid and CNS clinical cases. The plans were verified with measurements, with more than 95% points passing the gamma criteria of 5% in dose difference and 5 mm for distance to agreement. In conclusion, the study has demonstrated the feasibility and potential advantage of using photon MLC to collimate electron beams with boost photon IMRT fields.

  15. SU-E-J-109: Testing the KV Imaging Center Congruence with Radiation Isocenter of Small MLC and SRS Cone Field On Two Machines

    SciTech Connect

    Fu,; Chen, Y; Yu, Y; Liu, H [Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Orthogonal kV image pairs are used for target localization when fiducial markers are implanted. CBCT is used to verify cone SRS setup. Therefore it is necessary to evaluate the isocenter congruence between radiation fields and kV imaging center. This study used a simple method to evaluate the isocenter congruence, and compared the results for MLC and cone fields on two different Linacs. Methods: Varian OBI block was attached on the couch. It has a central 1mm BB with markers on three surfaces to align with laser. KV and MV images were taken at four cardinal angles. A 3x3cm2 MLC field and a 20mm cone field were irradiated respectively. On each kV image, the distance from BB center to the kV graticule center were measured. On the MV image of MLC field, the center of radiation field was determined manually, while for cone field, the Varian AM maintenance software was used to analyze the distance between BB and radiation field. The subtraction of the two distances gives the discrepancy between kV and radiation centers. Each procedure was repeated on five days at Trilogy and TrueBeam respectively. Results: The maximum discrepancy was found in the longitudinal direction at 180° gantry angel. It was 1.5±0.1mm for Trilogy and 0.6±0.1mm for TrueBeam. For Trilogy, although radiation center wobbled only 0.7mm and image center wobbled 0.8mm, they wobbled to the opposite direction. KV Pair using gantry 180° should be avoided in this case. Cone vs. kV isocenter has less discrepancy than MLC for Trilogy. Conclusion: Radiation isocenter of MLC and cone field is different, so is between Trilogy and TrueBeam. The method is simple and reproducible to check kV and radiation isocenter congruence.

  16. Selective mode suppression in microstrip differential lines by means of electric-LC (ELC) and magnetic-LC (MLC) resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naqui, J.; Durán-Sindreu, M.; Martín, F.

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, it is demonstrated that the so-called electric-LC (ELC) resonators, and their dual counterparts, the magnetic-LC (MLC) resonators, are useful for the selective suppression of either the differential or the common mode in microstrip differential lines. The key point to mode suppression is the alignment of the resonator with the electric (differential mode) or magnetic (common mode) wall of the line. It is shown that by simply rotating the resonators 90? we can selectively choose the suppressed mode in the vicinity of the resonator's fundamental resonance frequency. The theory is validated through full-wave electromagnetic simulation, the lumped element equivalent circuit models of the proposed structures and experimental data.

  17. Intensity- and energy-modulated electron radiotherapy by means of an xMLC for head and neck shallow tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salguero, Francisco Javier; Arráns, Rafael; Atriana Palma, Bianey; Leal, Antonio

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is to assess the feasibility of delivering intensity- and energy-modulated electron radiation treatment (MERT) by a photon multileaf collimator (xMLC) and to evaluate the improvements obtained in shallow head and neck (HN) tumors. Four HN patient cases covering different clinical situations were planned by MERT, which used an in-house treatment planning system that utilized Monte Carlo dose calculation. The cases included one oronasal, two parotid and one middle ear tumors. The resulting dose-volume histograms were compared with those obtained from conventional photon and electron treatment techniques in our clinic, which included IMRT, electron beam and mixed beams, most of them using fixed-thickness bolus. Experimental verification was performed with plane-parallel ionization chambers for absolute dose verification, and a PTW ionization chamber array and radiochromic film for relative dosimetry. A MC-based treatment planning system for target with compromised volumes in depth and laterally has been validated. A quality assurance protocol for individual MERT plans was launched. Relative MC dose distributions showed a high agreement with film measurements and absolute ion chamber dose measurements performed at a reference point agreed with MC calculations within 2% in all cases. Clinically acceptable PTV coverage and organ-at-risk sparing were achieved by using the proposed MERT approach. MERT treatment plans, based on delivery of intensity-modulated electron beam using the xMLC, for superficial head and neck tumors, demonstrated comparable or improved PTV dose homogeneity with significantly lower dose to normal tissues. The clinical implementation of this technique will be able to offer a viable alternative for the treatment of shallow head and neck tumors.

  18. Indian Reserved Water Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, Frank M.

    1986-01-01

    Traces the distribution, ownership, and water usage associated with lands in the Colville Reservation in Washington State. Cites specific cases which addressed the reserved water rights doctrine. Assesses the impact of court decisions on insuring water rights for Indians living on the Colville Reservation. (ML)

  19. Oral Exams as a Tool for Teaching and Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sayre, Eleanor C.

    2014-01-01

    Oral exams are a fruitful and practical alternative to written exams in small-enrolment Science classes. In an oral exam, the instructor can assess conceptual understanding, problem-solving, scientific communication skills, and a student's philosophy of science. In contrast, a written exam gives a much poorer picture of how students learn and…

  20. A tablet-based paper exam grading system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aaron Bloomfield; James F. Groves

    2008-01-01

    We present the design and implementation of a system which allows a standard paper-based exam to be graded via tablet computers. The paper exam is given normally in a course, with a specialized footer that allows for automated recognition of each exam page. The exam pages are then scanned in via a high-speed scanner, graded by one or more people

  1. A New Comprehensive Final Exam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhavsar, Suketu P.

    2015-01-01

    Instructors aspire for students to master all the material covered. The final exam should assess the breadth and depth of their learning and be a significant basis for the final grade. I insist on a comprehensive final because I want students to review early material in light of later topics. I believe that this helps students create connections, integrate understanding, and retain knowledge for the long term. For non-science majors, reviewing and retaining the large amount of astronomy material is daunting. I experimented with a final exam format that calmed their fears and encouraged thorough review. It is only practical for a class of about twenty students or less. I provided a number of challenging conceptual and problem solving questions (at least as many as there were students), crafted to interconnect and span the entire range of topics. The order of the questions reflected the sequence in which the topics had been discussed. Students received these questions in ample time to prepare prior to the final. A student could bring up to 5 standard sheets of notes to the final. At the final, each student picked a number out of a hat. This was the question they had to answer in a 5-minute presentation. They were allowed 15 minutes for a final preparation during which they could use their 5 pages of notes. The presentations were given in order, 1- 20. Written comments on at least 10 other talks, explaining what was missed or correcting a mistake were required. They were graded both on their talk and on their comments. This format required students to be prepared for any question and encouraged interaction and communication while studying. Knowing the questions beforehand provided a guide to their studying as well as allayed their fears about what could be asked. The students also received guidance to what constituted a good answer, namely accuracy (correct scientific argument, appropriate facts, no irrelevant material), thoroughness (answered the complete questions, covered relevant material) and the quality of the presentation (polished, professional, use of demonstrations, graphs, pictures etc. and time appropriately to present a clear answer). I will describe this first attempt.

  2. 1 FE Exam Instructions To graduate, you must take the FE Exam your senior year during your last semester*.

    E-print Network

    Dyer, Bill

    ) #12;2 FE Exam Instructions o 7 free standing exams: Chemical, Civil, Electrical and Computer.ncees.co/wp-content/uploads/2013/10/FE- Other-CBT-specs_with-ranges.pdf. Split screen format - exam reference handbook will be available to you electronically during the exam. For a free pdf of this handbook

  3. Dr. Campbell's Bio111 Exam #3 Spring 2007 Spring 2007 Biology 111 Take Home Exam #3 BioEnergetics

    E-print Network

    Campbell, A. Malcolm

    Dr. Campbell's Bio111 Exam #3 ­ Spring 2007 1 Spring 2007 Biology 111 Take Home Exam #3 ­ Bio. Staple all your pages (INCLUDING THE TEST PAGES) together when finished with the exam. Name (please print;Dr. Campbell's Bio111 Exam #3 ­ Spring 2007 2 Lab Question: 6 pts. 1) Interpret these data for the 3

  4. CSE408/508 Fall 2009 Midterm Exam You may not use any reference materials during this exam.

    E-print Network

    Sekar, R.

    CSE408/508 Fall 2009 Midterm Exam Name: · You may not use any reference materials during this exam may not use your own scratch paper. The exam has plenty and you can ask for more if needed. · You may not leave the classroom once the exam has been distributed. · Communicating with other students in any way

  5. Copyright 2001 All Rights ReservedCopyright 2001 All Rights ReservedCopyright 2001 All Rights Reserved Copyright 2001 All Rights ReservedCopyright 2001 All Rights ReservedCopyright 2001 All Rights Reserved

    E-print Network

    Troyer, Todd W.

    Copyright © 2001 All Rights ReservedCopyright © 2001 All Rights ReservedCopyright © 2001 All Rights Reserved #12;Copyright © 2001 All Rights ReservedCopyright © 2001 All Rights ReservedCopyright © 2001 All Rights Reserved #12;Copyright © 2001 All Rights ReservedCopyright © 2001 All Rights Reserved

  6. Standards, Exit Exams, and the Politicization of Bilingual Education: The Writing Exit Exam at Hostos College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwinge, Diana

    2000-01-01

    Standards-based curricula are being created throughout the world, and exit exams are being implemented in order to make sure that students meet those standards. There is a real potential that these standards will help improve the achievement of students, but there is also a possibility that these exams will be implemented in a way that will be…

  7. Mastering the Law School Exam : A Practical Blueprint for Preparing and Taking Law School Exams

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Suzanne Darrow-Kleinhaus

    2006-01-01

    Mastering the Law School Exam is designed to provide students with a knowledgeable, reasonable, and rational voice to navigate the intricacies of law school exams. This book is practical rather than theoretical where the emphasis is on providing the type of detailed examples necessary to show students precisely ?how to do it? and ?how to write it.? By working with

  8. RHUL Regulations on exam access arrangements 2013/14 Regulations on Exam Access Arrangements

    E-print Network

    Royal Holloway, University of London

    RHUL Regulations on exam access arrangements 2013/14 Regulations on Exam Access Arrangements evidence submitted in support of the application. All decisions taken by the Secretary under the provisions of paragraph 4 are not appropriate. In such cases the Chair will first seek the view of another

  9. Dr. Campbell's Bio111 Exam #2 Fall 2003 Fall 2003 Biology 111 Exam #2 Classical Genetics

    E-print Network

    Campbell, A. Malcolm

    Dr. Campbell's Bio111 Exam #2 ­ Fall 2003 1 Fall 2003 Biology 111 Exam #2 ­ Classical Genetics) Describe a change in DNA that may lead to a dominant allele but the DNA sequence of the gene is not altered. Explain how this protein would result in a specific genetic disease. 6 pts. 12) How are RFLPs related

  10. Problem-Based Exams versus Objective Exams as a Predictor of Final Student Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Conda; Webster, Linda; Truell, Allen D.

    1998-01-01

    High school students in introductory accounting (n=64) took two combined problem-based and objective tests and a final objective exam. Combined format scores accounted for 62% of variance in achievement. Only the final objective-exam scores were unique predictors of achievement. (SK)

  11. Normal - Cranial Nerves Exam - Oculomotor, Trochlear, Abducens (CN III, IV, VI) Nerves Sub-exam

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    John C. Pearson, PhD

    This video depicts a 'normal' cranial nerves exam. Patient is a female with no known neurological health problems who volunteered to act as a simulated patient in order to demonstrate 'normal' responses to exam techniques. Viewing the video requires installation of the free QuickTime Plug-in.

  12. QUALIFYING EXAMS There are two sets of written exams (Basic and Advanced) which are in-

    E-print Network

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    theory and Linear Models. The probability/distribution exam is based on Stat 605 and the first part of Stat 705, while the Linear Models exam is based on the remainder of Stat 705 and Stat 706. Detailed, during the week just before each semester begins. In the preceding weeks, review sessions are often led

  13. CSE508 Spring 2012 Midterm Exam You may not use any reference materials during this exam.

    E-print Network

    Sekar, R.

    - tamp. · (2 points) Sending data in a file-transfer protocol. · (2 points) Sending data in a secure realCSE508 Spring 2012 Midterm Exam Name: SID: · You may not use any reference materials during this exam. · Electronic devices, including calculators, cell phones, mp3 players, and laptops are all pro

  14. The effect of hypnotherapy on exam anxiety and exam performance: a pilot randomised controlled trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hannah R. Ainsworth; David J. Torgerson; Carole J. Torgerson; Janos Bene; Celia Grant; Sue Ford; Ian Watt

    2010-01-01

    Background: Hypnotherapy is used to treat a range of anxiety disorders. A systematic review in 2009 by Baker, Ainsworth, Torgerson and Torgerson showed that hypnotherapy is effective in reducing exam anxiety; however it was only able to locate five small randomised controlled trials. A full?scale randomised trial is therefore needed to assess whether hypnosis is effective in both reducing exam

  15. Amelioration of IFN-? and TNF-?-induced intestinal epithelial barrier dysfunction by berberine via suppression of MLCK-MLC phosphorylation signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Cao, Min; Wang, Pei; Sun, Chunhong; He, Wen; Wang, Fengjun

    2013-01-01

    Intestinal barrier dysfunction occurs in many intestinal diseases, in which proinflammatory cytokines play critical roles. However, researchers are still on the way to defining the underlying mechanisms and to evaluate therapeutic strategies for restoring intestinal barrier function. Berberine, a drug that has clinically been used to treat gastroenteritis and diarrhea for thousands of years, has been shown to protect barrier function in both endothelial and epithelial cells, but the mechanisms are completely unknown. In this study, we investigate the protective actions of berberine on barrier function and the underlying mechanisms in Caco-2 monolayers challenged with IFN-? and TNF-?. Caco-2 monolayers were treated without or with simultaneous IFN-? and TNF-? in the absence or presence of berberine. Both transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) and paracellular permeability were measured to evaluate barrier function. The expression and distribution of tight junction proteins ZO-1, occluding, and claudin-1 were respectively analyzed by immunoblot or immunofluorescence. The expressions of phosphorylated myosin light chain (pMLC), MLC kinase (MLCK) and hypoxia-inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?) were determined by immunoblot. The translocation of NF-?B p65 to nuclei was analyzed by immunofluorescence and immunoblot, respectively. The results showed that berberine significantly attenuated TER decrease and paracellular permeability increase in Caco-2 monolayers treated with IFN-? and TNF-?. Berberine also dramatically alleviated IFN-? and TNF-?-induced morphological alteration of tight junction proteins ZO-1, occluding, and claudin-1. The increase of both MLC phosphorylation and MLCK protein expression induced by IFN-? and TNF-? was significantly inhibited by berberine treatment. Additionally, berberine suppressed the activation of HIF-1?, but not NF-?B. Taken together, it is suggested that berberine attenuates IFN-? and TNF-?-induced intestinal epithelial barrier dysfunction by inhibiting the signaling pathway of MLCK-dependent MLC phosphorylation mediated by HIF-1?. PMID:23671580

  16. Reservations to human rights treaties 

    E-print Network

    McCall-Smith, Kasey Lowe

    2012-06-26

    This thesis examines the default application of the 1969 Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties reservation rules to reservations to human rights treaties. The contemporary practice of formulating reservations allows ...

  17. United States Biosphere Reserves Survey October 2003

    E-print Network

    United States Biosphere Reserves Survey 2003 October 2003 United States Biosphere Reserves Survey U.S. Biosphere Reserves Association U. S. Biosphere Reserves Survey, 2003 CONTENTS ...............................................................................................1 2. Response from biosphere reserves

  18. Artificial Intelligence If you are taking the breadth exam,

    E-print Network

    Liblit, Ben

    Artificial Intelligence If you are taking the breadth exam, answer any four (4) of the six breadth (basic) questions B1 through B6. If you are taking the depth exam, answer any four (4) of the six breadth

  19. UND Department of Computer Science Graduate Qualifying Exam (GQE)

    E-print Network

    Delene, David J.

    (SD) & Database Mgt. Systems (DB) Exam Date: Saturday September 27 Software Development (SD) at 9:00am) (Chapters 1 ­ 5, 9). 2. Database Management System (DB): a. Fundamental of Database System, 6th edition the exams are graded. #12;

  20. GEOL 102: Historical Geology Online Exam 2 Review

    E-print Network

    Holtz Jr., Thomas R.

    GEOL 102: Historical Geology Online Exam 2 Review Review First Exam Plate Tectonics Evidence.: oceanic vs. continental crust; crust vs. mantle; lithosphere vs. asthenosphere Plate Tectonics: plate vs. negative feedback; homeostasis Examples of how plate tectonics drives geochemical cycles

  1. Gas reserves debate

    SciTech Connect

    Schaffer, P.

    1984-05-21

    Analysts are optimistic or pessimistic about natural gas reserves according to their view of the Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978. The American Gas Association (AGA) finds evidence that reserves are plentiful at 106% replacement levels, while the Energy Information Adminstration (EIA) Office finds only a 24% level of new production replacing reserves. According to the EIA, mature fields in the lower 48 states need more vigorous exploration to maintain supplies. Changes in the replacement ratio from 63% in 1979 to 106% in 1983 are due to falling annual production, not to the addition of new reserves. Major companies with long-term supply commitments have had the most success in building up reserves. Estimates that deliverable gas will drop from 21 trillion cubic feet (tcf) to 18 tcf by the end of the decade unless demand continues low and a pipeline from Alaska increases deliverable supply.

  2. Evaluating Multiple-Choice Exams in Large Introductory Physics Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Michael; Stelzer, Tim; Gladding, Gary

    2006-01-01

    The reliability and validity of professionally written multiple-choice exams have been extensively studied for exams such as the SAT, graduate record examination, and the force concept inventory. Much of the success of these multiple-choice exams is attributed to the careful construction of each question, as well as each response. In this study,…

  3. Doctoral Comprehensive Exams in Marketing: Current Practices and Emerging Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponder, Nicole; Beatty, Sharon E.; Foxx, William

    2004-01-01

    Current and emerging issues concerning the written comprehensive exam process are addressed. Both the purpose and structure of this exam are considered. Survey results are presented that describe the purposes of the exam from the perspective of doctoral coordinators. Also included is a description of how marketing departments are currently…

  4. STAT/MA 519 Midterm Exam 1 Answers

    E-print Network

    Ward, Mark Daniel

    of the professor. 5. Show all of your work in the exam booklet. Answers without justification may be viewedSTAT/MA 519 Midterm Exam 1 Answers Friday, October 10, 2008 Name Purdue student ID (10 digits) 1 be cleared at the start of the exam, if possible. No other calculators are permitted. 3. Simplify the answers

  5. Profile of State College Entrance Exam Policies. Maine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This individual profile provides information on Maine's college entrance exam standards and polices. Some of the categories presented include: (1) College entrance exam policy; (2) Purpose; (3) Major changes in college entrance exam policy since the 2009-10 school year for financial reasons; (4) Preparation state offers to students taking college…

  6. The Cognitive Abilities of Children: Reflections from an Entrance Exam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cil, Emine; Cepni, Salih

    2012-01-01

    The basic determiner for the school in which the children who completed their primary education will in at an upper education level in Turkey is the entrance exam carried out nationwide. The items of national exam, called as LDE (Level Determination Exam) which the primary education pupils (aged between 12 and 15) will participate in Turkey were…

  7. The Effect of Announced Quizzes on Exam Performance: II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azorlosa, Julian L.

    2011-01-01

    I administered announced, multiple-choice quizzes to 1 of 2 sections of a Psychology of Learning class in each of 2 consecutive fall semesters. The quizzes were administered between the first and second exams which were also multiple-choice. Quizzes were discontinued after the second exam. After the second exam, students completed a questionnaire…

  8. Supporting exam revision via Google talk and Examopedia wiki

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manish Malik

    2010-01-01

    This work highlights the benefits of tapping into one of many informal learning activities in which students engage, namely use of past papers for exam revision. Exams can be both stressful and isolating for students. This paper presents a novel approach to exam revision via a `wiki' and `Google talk' which the author calls `Examopedia'. This approach benefits both from

  9. X-Ray Exam: Lower Leg (Tibia and Fibula)

    MedlinePLUS

    X-Ray Exam: Lower Leg (Tibia and Fibula) KidsHealth > Parents > Doctors & Hospitals > Medical Tests & Exams > X-Ray Exam: Lower Leg (Tibia and Fibula) Print ... If You Have Questions What It Is An X-ray of the tibia and fibula is a ...

  10. Teachers' Opinion Concerning Common Exams Administered in Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caliskan, Huseyin

    2011-01-01

    The common exams that have been administered in elementary school since 2007-2008 academic year are inter-classes mid-term evaluations. With these exams, measuring the teachers' performance as well as revealing the differences among the classes are aimed at. Therefore, evaluating these exams in terms of teachers' opinions is essentially important…

  11. Improving the security of quantum exam against cheating

    E-print Network

    Gao, F; Zhu, F C; Gao, Fei; Wen, Qiao-Yan; Zhu, Fu-Chen

    2006-01-01

    The security of quantum exam [Phys. Lett. A 350 (2006) 174] is analyzed and it is found that this protocol is secure for any eavesdropper except for the "students" who take part in the exam. Specifically, any student can steal other examinees' solutions and then cheat in the exam. Furthermore, a possible improvement of this protocol is presented.

  12. Improving the security of quantum exam against cheating

    E-print Network

    Fei Gao; Qiao-Yan Wen; Fu-Chen Zhu

    2006-06-05

    The security of quantum exam [Phys. Lett. A 350 (2006) 174] is analyzed and it is found that this protocol is secure for any eavesdropper except for the "students" who take part in the exam. Specifically, any student can steal other examinees' solutions and then cheat in the exam. Furthermore, a possible improvement of this protocol is presented.

  13. Enhanced Security for Online Exams Using Group Cryptography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Im Young Jung; Heon Young Yeom

    2009-01-01

    While development of the Internet has contributed to the spread of online education, online exams have not been widely adopted. An online exam is defined here as one that takes place over the insecure Internet, and where no proctor is in the same location as the examinees. This paper proposes an enhanced secure online exam management environment mediated by group

  14. Enhanced Security for Online Exams Using Group Cryptography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, I. Y.; Yeom, H. Y.

    2009-01-01

    While development of the Internet has contributed to the spread of online education, online exams have not been widely adopted. An online exam is defined here as one that takes place over the insecure Internet, and where no proctor is in the same location as the examinees. This paper proposes an enhanced secure online exam management environment…

  15. Exit Exams: Decreases or Increases the Dropout Rate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Teresa A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to examine the impact of exit exams on the dropout rate. Data was gathered from several research articles. The most impressionable research revealed exit exams have a negative effect on minorities, especially black males. Results indicate by 2012, that exit exams in 25 states will affect 81 percent of minority high…

  16. Dr. Campbell's Bio113 Exam #1 Fall 2013 Biology 113 Closed Book Take-Home Exam #1 Information Part 1

    E-print Network

    Campbell, A. Malcolm

    Dr. Campbell's Bio113 Exam #1 ­ Fall 2013 1 Biology 113 Closed Book Take-Home Exam #1 ­ Information which nucleotides you would choose as your promoter if you were going to clone it and test it the way

  17. Dr. Campbell's Bio113 Exam #2 Fall 2013 Biology 113 Closed Book Take-Home Exam #2 Chapters 4 -6

    E-print Network

    Campbell, A. Malcolm

    Dr. Campbell's Bio113 Exam #2 ­ Fall 2013 1 Biology 113 Closed Book Take-Home Exam #2 ­ Chapters 4 to the student as KFC. KFC cloned two different promoters and tested their effectiveness relative to a positive

  18. Analysis Qualifying Exam Winter 2008 This exam has five (5) questions. Please answer each part as completely as possible.

    E-print Network

    Sze, Lawrence

    Analysis Qualifying Exam Winter 2008 This exam has five (5) questions. Please answer each part partial credit. Each question is worth five (5) points, for a grand total of 25 points possible. Good luck

  19. Analysis Qualifying Exam Spring 2008 This exam has five (5) questions. Please answer each part as completely as

    E-print Network

    Sze, Lawrence

    Analysis Qualifying Exam Spring 2008 This exam has five (5) questions. Please answer each part partial credit. Each question is worth five (5) points, for a grand total of 25 points possible. Good luck

  20. Undergraduate range management exam: 1999-2014

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Undergraduate Range Management Exam (URME) has been administered to undergraduate students at the Annual Meeting of the Society for Range Management since 1983, with students demonstrating their higher order learning skills and synthesis knowledge of the art and science of rangeland management. ...

  1. Aircraft Systems Field Exam January 2009

    E-print Network

    de Weck, Olivier L.

    the design of a 2 seat light sport aircraft with the goal of achieving a cruise fuel efficiency greater than 1 Aircraft Systems Field Exam January 2009 Note: You have 60 minutes to prepare 100MPG. 1. Identify the major design parameters which will influence cruise efficiency and combine

  2. Redesigning the MCAT exam: balancing multiple perspectives.

    PubMed

    Schwartzstein, Richard M; Rosenfeld, Gary C; Hilborn, Robert; Oyewole, Saundra Herndon; Mitchell, Karen

    2013-05-01

    The authors of this commentary discuss the recently completed review of the current Medical College Admission Test (MCAT), which has been used since 1991, and describe the blueprint for the new test that will be introduced in 2015. The design of the MCAT exam reflects changes in medical education, medical science, health care delivery, and the needs of the populations served by graduates of U.S. and Canadian medical schools. The authors describe how balancing the ambitious goals for the new exam and the varying priorities of the testing program's many stakeholders made blueprint design complex. They discuss the tensions and trade-offs that characterized the design process as well as the deliberations and data that shaped the blueprint.The blueprint for the MCAT exam balances the assessment of a broad range of competencies in the natural, social, and behavioral sciences and critical analysis and reasoning skills that are essential to entering students' success in medical school. The exam will include four sections: Biological and Biochemical Foundations of Living Systems; Chemical and Physical Foundations of Biological Systems; Psychological, Social, and Biological Foundations of Behavior; and Critical Analysis and Reasoning Skills.The authors also offer recommendations for admission committees, advising them to review applicants' test scores, course work, and other academic, personal, and experiential credentials as part of a holistic admission process and in relation to their institutions' educational, scientific, clinical, and service-oriented goals. PMID:23524933

  3. Marking Criteria: Essays and Exams Criterion 1

    E-print Network

    Royal Holloway, University of London

    Marking Criteria: Essays and Exams Criterion 1 st 2.1 2.2 3 rd Fail relevance to the question fails to address it at all or provides an irrelevant answer knowledge of the texts displays a detailed established views and advancing a fresh analysis or interpretation provides a complex account of the material

  4. 152 sp09 Exam 3 Memo

    E-print Network

    charlotb

    2009-03-31

    Apr 9, 2009 ... Exam 1 covers sections 2.5, 3.1, 3.3, 3.6, 3.7 and sections 4.1 through 4.5. ... recommended that you re-work all homework problems. You cannot re-do the online problems once the due date has passed, but you can view the ...

  5. Major Area Exam Reading List Gianluca Stringhini

    E-print Network

    California at Santa Barbara, University of

    Major Area Exam Reading List Gianluca Stringhini 1 Botnet Analysis and Mitigation [33, 45, 12, 3, 4. All your contacts are belong to us: Auto- mated identity theft attacks on social networks. In Wold. Caballero, C. Grier, V. Paxson, and D. Song. Insights from the inside: A view of botnet management from

  6. 152X sp09 Exam 2 Memo

    E-print Network

    charlotb

    2009-02-24

    Mar 10, 2009 ... Exam 1 covers chapter 1 and sections 2.1 through 2.4. This is ... Chapter 1 (page 157): 7-11 all, 21, 19, 20, 22, 23, 24, 27, 31, 33, 34, 37- ... online problems once the due date has passed, but you can view the problems and.

  7. History of New York State Regents Exams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Carol Siri

    2009-01-01

    This paper is a brief history of the Regents subject-matter examinations and New York State's efforts to move towards educational equity. New York State was a leader in integrated curriculum and outcomes assessment in high schools for over a century. The first academic exit exam was administered in 1878 and it evolved into the controversial…

  8. Comprehensive Exam Algorithms and Data Structures

    E-print Network

    Zhou, Yuanyuan

    -code is not necessary as long as you clearly specify how the algorithm works. You may use without proof any well result. Give at least an informal proof for all answers; for algorithms, this should include someComprehensive Exam Algorithms and Data Structures Fall 2001 General directions: Answer 3

  9. Oral Qualifying Exam Syllabus Amit Priyadarshi

    E-print Network

    Oral Qualifying Exam Syllabus Amit Priyadarshi December 4, 2006 Committee: Roger Nussbaum, Richard Bumby, Michael Vogelius, Richard Wheeden I. Major Topic: Fractal Sets and Dimensions 1. Introduction References [F] Falconer, K.J., The Geometry of Fractal Sets, Cambridge University Press, 1985. [B] Boyd, D

  10. Exam Return Form Food Safety Programs

    E-print Network

    to (choose one): Address below Candidates Send score reports to (choose one): Fax to: Email to: Mail one: Corporate Franchise Exam Inventory Results reporting Mail certificates and fail letters to company/organization: ATTN: Address City: State: ZIP: Payment option (choose one): Check/money order

  11. The Perils of High School Exit Exams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins-Gough, Deborah

    2005-01-01

    According to a new report by Linda Darling-Hammond and colleagues at Stanford University's School Redesign Network, state laws requiring students to pass an exit examination to obtain their high school diploma can harm students and schools. Evidence suggests that inflexible exit exam policies can reduce graduation rates (especially among minority…

  12. Scholars Probe Diverse Effects of Exit Exams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viadero, Debra

    2009-01-01

    The author reports on a study released in April 2009 that suggests that California's high school exit exams are affecting some student demographic groups more than others. The California study, which was released by the Institute for Research on Education Policy and Practice at Stanford University, is the latest in a small spate of studies…

  13. English-Spanish Verbatim Translation Exam.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stansfield, Charles W.; And Others

    The development and validation of the English-Spanish Verbatim Translation Exam (ESVTE) is described. The test is for use by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) in the selection of applicants for the positions of Language Specialist or Contract Linguist. The report is divided into eight sections. Section 1 describes the need for the test,…

  14. Pleaseregistermeforthelimitedpesticidelicensetraining&exam. Name:Phone

    E-print Network

    Florida, University of

    Extension can help. Because we have access to all the University's resources, we can give you the very best, FL 32448 For information call: Robert Trawick UF/IFAS-Jackson County Horticulture Agent Email: rob and Questions 3:30 Exam BRING WITH YOU: 1. Passport picture available at drug stores, (eg. CVS, Walgreen's) or 1

  15. Pleaseregistermeforthelimitedpesticidelicensetraining&exam. Name:Phone

    E-print Network

    Watson, Craig A.

    and again. County Extension can help. Because we have access to all the University's resources, we can give Horticulture Agent Email: sdunning@ufl.edu (850) 689-5850 To Register Call 547-1108 #12;Agenda 7:40-2:55 Break 2:55-3:30 Review and Questions 3:30 Exam BRING WITH YOU: 1. Passport picture available at drug

  16. Pleaseregistermeforthelimitedpesticidelicensetraining&exam. Name:Phone

    E-print Network

    Jawitz, James W.

    . Therefore, you put it off, again and again. County Extension can help. Because we have access to all. Chipley Fl. 32428 For information call: Matthew Orwat UF/IFAS-Washington County Horticulture Agent Email:40-2:55 Break 2:55-3:30 Review and Questions 3:30 Exam BRING WITH YOU: 1. Passport picture available at drug

  17. Pleaseregistermeforthelimitedpesticidelicensetraining&exam. Name:Phone

    E-print Network

    Florida, University of

    Extension can help. Because we have access to all the University's resources, we can give you the very best. Crestview, FL 32539 For information call: Sheila Dunning UF/IFAS-Okaloosa County Email: sdunning and Questions 3:30 Exam BRING WITH YOU: 1. Passport picture available at drug stores, (eg. CVS, Walgreen's) or 1

  18. Analise Matematica III Exame de 2a

    E-print Network

    Girão, Pedro M.

    An´alise Matem´atica III Exame de 2a ¯ ´Epoca - 29 de Fevereiro de 96 Civ., Inf., Mater., Mec., Min., Nav. e Ter. Dura¸c~ao: 3 horas Apresente os c´alculos 1. Considere a superf´icie S = {(x, y, z) IR3

  19. Risk Theory Preliminary Exam January 17, 2014

    E-print Network

    Lozano-Robledo, Alvaro

    is known to follow a Poisson distribution for each risk exposed to the event. The Poisson freqency varies-parameter Pareto distribution analogous to the scaled Exponential distribution? Similarly, how is the Generalized used. You have 3 hours to complete the exam. 1. For a Poisson random variable with frequency what

  20. Direct and Indirect Effects of Completion Versus Accuracy Contingencies on Practice-Exam and Actual-Exam Performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Renee Oliver; Robert L. Williams

    2005-01-01

    Students in four sections of an undergraduate educational course (two large and two small sections) took out-of-class practice exams prior to actual exams for each of five course units. Each course unit consisted of five class sessions focusing on a specific developmental theme. Some sections received practice-exam credit based on the number of items completed, whereas other sections received practice-exam

  1. Dr. Campbell's Bio111 Exam #4 Spring 2007 Biology 111 In-Class Exam #4 Cancer, HIV, & Genetic Engineering

    E-print Network

    Campbell, A. Malcolm

    Dr. Campbell's Bio111 Exam #4 ­ Spring 2007 1 Biology 111 In-Class Exam #4 ­ Cancer, HIV, & Genetic Engineering There is no time limit on this test, though I have tried to design one that you should be able;Dr. Campbell's Bio111 Exam #4 ­ Spring 2007 3 6 pts. 5) List the main receptors on human cells used

  2. Dr. Campbell's Bio111 Exam #2 Fall 2010 Biology 111 Closed Book Take-Home Exam #2 Evolution & Cells

    E-print Network

    Campbell, A. Malcolm

    Dr. Campbell's Bio111 Exam #2 ­ Fall 2010 1 Biology 111 Closed Book Take-Home Exam #2 ­ Evolution, though you can graph it within Word. Lecture Questions: 8 pts. 2) Limit your answers to a maximum of 3 these data affect the definition of a species? #12;Dr. Campbell's Bio111 Exam #2 ­ Fall 2010 3 9 pts. 5

  3. BIOLOGY 100 CHALLENGE EXAM The exam is offered at the beginning of each bloc; see the class schedule under "Exemption and

    E-print Network

    Crandall, Keith A.

    BIOLOGY 100 CHALLENGE EXAM The exam is offered at the beginning of each bloc; see the class schedule under "Exemption and Challenge Examinations" for specific dates. The exam is offered to take the exam but there is no charge to purchase the credits. You may only take the exam once. You

  4. National strategic petroleum reserve.

    PubMed

    Davis, R M

    1981-08-01

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve is intended to reduce the vulnerability of the United States to interruptions in the oil supply from foreign sources. Storage for 248 million barrels of crude oil in salt caverns and mines, with equipment for pumping and distribution, was constructed and operationally tested in a 4-year period. Its present inventory is the largest known crude oil reserve in the world. Facilities for expanding the reserve's capacity by another 290 million barrels are being developed by solution-mining in salt domes. PMID:17847458

  5. A practical method to calculate head scatter factors in wedged rectangular and irregular MLC shaped beams for external and internal wedges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georg, Dietmar; Olofsson, Jörgen; Künzler, Thomas; Aiginger, Hannes; Karlsson, Mikael

    2004-10-01

    Factor based methods for absorbed dose or monitor unit calculations are often based on separate data sets for open and wedged beams. The determination of basic beam parameters can be rather time consuming, unless equivalent square methods are applied. When considering irregular wedged beams shaped with a multileaf collimator, parametrization methods for dosimetric quantities, e.g. output ratios or wedge factors as a function of field size and shape, become even more important. A practical method is presented to derive wedged output ratios in air (Sc,w) for any rectangular field and for any irregular MLC shaped beam. This method was based on open field output ratios in air (Sc) for a field with the same collimator setting, and a relation fw between Sc,w and Sc. The relation fw can be determined from measured output ratios in air for a few open and wedged fields including the maximum wedged field size. The function fw and its parametrization were dependent on wedge angle and treatment head design, i.e. they were different for internal and external wedges. The proposed method was tested for rectangular wedged fields on three accelerators with internal wedges (GE, Elekta, BBC) and two accelerators with external wedges (Varian). For symmetric regular beams the average deviation between calculated and measured Sc,w/Sc ratios was 0.3% for external wedges and about 0.6% for internal wedges. Maximum deviations of 1.8% were obtained for elongated rectangular fields on the GE and ELEKTA linacs with an internal wedge. The same accuracy was achieved for irregular MLC shaped wedged beams on the accelerators with MLC and internal wedges (GE and Elekta), with an average deviation <1% for the fields tested. The proposed method to determine output ratios in air for wedged beams from output ratios of open beams, combined with equivalent square approaches, can be easily integrated in empirical or semi-empirical methods for monitor unit calculations.

  6. The sensitivity of gamma-index method to the positioning errors of high-definition MLC in patient-specific VMAT QA for SBRT

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To investigate the sensitivity of various gamma criteria used in the gamma-index method for patient-specific volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) quality assurance (QA) for stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) using a flattening filter free (FFF) photon beam. Methods Three types of intentional misalignments were introduced to original high-definition multi-leaf collimator (HD-MLC) plans. The first type, referred to Class Out, involved the opening of each bank of leaves. The second type, Class In, involved the closing of each bank of leaves. The third type, Class Shift, involved the shifting of each bank of leaves towards the ground. Patient-specific QAs for the original and the modified plans were performed with MapCHECK2 and EBT2 films. The sensitivity of the gamma-index method using criteria of 1%/1 mm, 1.5%/1.5 mm, 1%/2 mm, 2%/1 mm and 2%/2 mm was investigated with absolute passing rates according to the magnitudes of MLCs misalignments. In addition, the changes in dose-volumetric indicators due to the magnitudes of MLC misalignments were investigated. The correlations between passing rates and the changes in dose-volumetric indicators were also investigated using Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient (?). Results The criterion of 2%/1 mm was able to detect Class Out and Class In MLC misalignments of 0.5 mm and Class Shift misalignments of 1 mm. The widely adopted clinical criterion of 2%/2 mm was not able to detect 0.5 mm MLC errors of the Class Out or Class In types, and also unable to detect 3 mm Class Shift errors. No correlations were observed between dose-volumetric changes and gamma passing rates (??

  7. SU-E-T-282: Remove Field-Size Limitation Using the Combination of Collimator Rotation and Jaw Tracking with MLC Aperture

    SciTech Connect

    Shiu, A; Chiu, R; Cumming, D; Chung, E; Ragab, O; Cui, G [UniversitySouthern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: this study is to investigate the use of variable-collimators and/or collimator-rotation to overcome the field-size limitation on TrueBeamSTX. Methods: The maximum static field-size is 22- × 40-cm for TrueBeamSTX and 40- × 40-cm for Trilogy. Maximum displacement between adjacent leaf ends at a single carriage position is 15-cm for TBSTX and 14-cm for Trilogy. Our current practice for IMRT treatment at Trilogy is as follows, if MLC leaves travel more than 13.5 cm in the MLC traveling direction, the treatment fields will be split at isocenter to two groups of IMRT fields to cover the large tumors. However, TrueBeamSTX is not limited in this way because the jaws can track each segments of the MLC aperture. Radiation treatment plans for ten patients (different tumor sites) treated at Trilogy with one dimension of the field is greater than 22 cm and the other dimension is less than or equal to 22 cm. All the plans will be converted with jaws tracking each segment's MLC aperture. If necessary, the collimator rotation will also be applied for the planning. Comparison of the converted plans with the original clinical plans will be evaluated and based on the following criterion: (1) tumor coverage; (2) dose sparing to the critical structures; and (3) treatment time. Results: The tumor coverage is compatible between two plans. The dose of critical structures was evaluated in the cumulative DVH for spinal cord, parotids, and brainstem at V20 and V5. In all patients, the maximum reduction in V20 was never more than 5% and was typically less than 1%. In V5, the maximum reduction was 10% and 3% respectively. The significant difference can be found in using the variable collimator to shorten the treatment time. Conclusion: We conclude that we will use the variable-collimator for all IMRT cases on TrueBeamSTX and as a potential backup machine for Trilogy.

  8. Database Qualifying Exam Reading List, Last Revision 2014 The Database Management Systems (DBMS) qualifying exam is intended to cover a wide range of

    E-print Network

    Liblit, Ben

    Management Systems (DBMS) qualifying exam is intended to cover a wide range taking this exam. The exam will be graded with the expectation, J., Database Management Systems, 3rd Edition, McGraw-Hill, 2003. You

  9. Strategic Petroleum Reserve

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-02-15

    According to amendments to the Energy Policy and Conservation Act the target size of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve is increased to 1 billion barrels, storage of oil not owned by the Federal Government is authorized, and the Reserve may be drawn down to alleviate an interruption in domestic supply. Congress appropriated $200.6 million for Strategic Petroleum Reserve storage facilities development, operation, and management during FY 1991. During calendar year 1990, 9.8 million barrels of crude oil were acquired for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. However, this quantity was offset by the sale of 3.9 million barrels during a test sale of the Reserve's oil in the fourth quarter. As of December 31, 1990, the Strategic Petroleum Reserve crude oil inventory was 585.7 million barrels, a net increase of 5.8 million barrels over the 1989 year-end inventory of 579.9 million barrels. The Department has completed all major surface construction at the six SPR facilities, and cavern development is in progress to achieve 750 million barrels of storage by the end of 1991. During 1990, the Department of Energy conducted a test sale of Strategic Petroleum Reserve crude oil (TEST SALE-90) to demonstrate the Reserve's drawdown and distribution capabilities. The test commenced on September 28, 1990, with the issuance of a Notice of Sale. Offers to purchase the oil were received on October 5, 1990 and contracts were awarded to eleven companies for a total of 3.925 million barrels by October 18, 1990. Deliveries of the oil to the purchasers commenced on October 19, 1990, and all deliveries were completed by December 2, 1990. The report gives details on all of these activities. 8 figs., 11 tabs.

  10. National Estuarine Research Reserves

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Through linked programs of stewardship, education, and research, the NERRS enhances informed management and scientific understanding of the nation's estuarine and coastal habitats. Includes information on monitoring (water quality, weather, nutrients, etc.), restoration, invasive species, fellowships, and much more. With reserves all over coastal U.S., educators and scientists can access an abundance of information on the reserves right around the corner and ones on the other side of the country.

  11. Statistics Oral Exam Notes 2008 Chaitanya Ekanadham

    E-print Network

    Simoncelli, Eero

    Statistics Oral Exam Notes 2008 Chaitanya Ekanadham 1 Sufficient statistics 1.1 Definitions/facts 1 wrt all the P's, evaluated at some x T-1 (t). 1 #12;(c) pairwise sufficient statistic: We define.t. for any suff. stat. S(X) w.r.t. , T(x) = (S(x)) a.s. w.r.t. all P P. In otherwords, a minimal sufficient

  12. Delaying pelvic exams to encourage contraceptive use.

    PubMed

    Donovan, P

    1992-01-01

    The Family Planning Council of Southeastern Pennsylvania created a project called Start Smart, permitting some new adolescent clients to delay blood tests and pelvic exams up to 6 months after their oral contraceptive prescription. The rationale for the trial is the perception that fear of the pelvic exam is one of the reasons why teen women delay coming to medical care for contraception for 1 year on average after becoming sexually active. 5 clinics participated in the pilot trial from November 1988 to March 1990, giving anticipatory counseling and follow-up telephone calls to all young women in the program, and permitting postponement of the medical work-up to certain teens in 3 of the clinics. Special waivers from the Department of Health and Human Services were needed to permit the exception under Title K. These women had a comprehensive family, social, and medical history, weight, height, blood pressure, urinalysis, and pregnancy test. 627 teens aged 11-17 participated in the pilot trail; 90% were already sexually active; 33% had been so for 1 year; 25% had never used contraception. 25% decided to delay pelvic exams and 40% elected to delay blood tests. Most accepted pelvic exams on their 2nd visit. Those who delayed attended the clinic slightly more often than did others. Although there were no significant results, there were also no adverse medical consequences, such as missed sexually transmitted disease infections. The staff participating in this trial thought the teens had an added sense of control over their medical care. PMID:1628718

  13. Vapor Power Systems MAE 4263 Final Exam

    E-print Network

    Vapor Power Systems MAE 4263 Final Exam Wednesday, May 5, 2004 Prof. P.M. Moretti Key Instructions, then think, then write! 1. What is the dewpoint of the exhaust of your car, if the gasoline consists2 so that the mole fraction of water vapor is yH2 O = 9 9 + 8 + 47 = 0:14063 pH2 O = 0:14063 14

  14. Spring 2009 Midterm 2 practice exam answers.

    E-print Network

    Sather-Wagstaff, Sean

    Math 165 Spring 2009 Midterm 2 practice exam answers. 1. Find the instantaneous rate of change of the area of the square with respect to side-length when the side-length is 10 cm. Answer: 20 cm2/cm 2, the population has increased to 30. (a) How many tribbles will there be after 47 days? Answer: 20 exp(47 10 ln(1

  15. Proposing Questions for the Upcoming Midterm Exam

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Leslie Gertsch

    This in-class exercise is done during the last half of the class meeting prior to a midterm exam (which is held during a class period), to get the students to initiate their own review processes. To begin, a map of the lecture hall is shown, divided into a large number of seating areas (18, in the example used in the attached material). The exact number is not too important, it just needs to be enough to ensure not too much repetition yet sufficient variety among the teams. Each seating area is assigned a particular type of exam question (diagram, matching, ordering, multiple answer, short essay answer, or whatever other question types you use) and a topic that will be on the immediately upcoming midterm exam. The topics are currently taken from the textbook, divided relatively finely but not so finely that there is insufficient material for them to formulate an exam question from the material. Ten minutes is allotted for the students to form groups of 2-3 (more in a team is less productive for individual students), then for each team to review its assigned topic, and to create a reasonable question and answer set in the assigned format. Following this, another 10 minutes is allotted for the teams to evaluate one other team's set and to work out improvements with the originating team, if needed. (This last activity doesn't always happen.) At the end of this stage I collect a copy of the question, the answer, the names of the originators, and the names of the checkers for each Q&A set. I post all the question/answer sets on Blackboard as fast as I can enter them, so they can serve all the students as a review basis for the exam. Depending on my schedule, that can take from 2-6 hours. I try not to correct incorrect answers or other problems, preferring instead to post a warning (see attached examples) urging students to check the answers given. This is not generally successful, as many students merely memorize the list, right or wrong, without apparently checking it.

  16. ADVANCED EXAM PROCEDURES (Governing both Students and Faculty) After completing and passing the qualifying exam, graduate students will take the advanced exam (AE)

    E-print Network

    Fraden, Seth

    the qualifying exam, graduate students will take the advanced exam (AE) before beginning their Ph.D. thesis. At the beginning of the summer following the first year, a student selects an AE advisor and topic area. The AE advisor and student then form an AE committee consisting of the advisor and two other faculty members

  17. 77 FR 21846 - Reserve Requirements of Depository Institutions: Reserves Simplification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-12

    ...satisfies its reserve requirement by its holdings of vault cash and, if vault cash is insufficient to meet the requirement, by maintaining...maintain if its reserve requirement is not satisfied by vault cash is referred to as the institution's...

  18. FLEX: A Modular Software Architecture for Flight License Exam

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Taner Arsan; Hamit Emre Saka; Ceyhun Sahin

    2009-01-01

    \\u000a This paper is about the design and implementation of an examination system based on World Wide Web. It is called FLEX-Flight\\u000a License Exam Software. We designed and implemented flexible and modular software architecture. The implemented system has\\u000a basic specifications such as appending questions in system, building exams with these appended questions and making students\\u000a to take these exams. There are

  19. Strategic petroleum reserve: Quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-05-15

    This May 15, 1989, Strategic Petroleum Reserve Quarterly Report describes activities related to the site development, oil acquisition, budget and cost of the Reserve during the period January 1, 1989 through March 31, 1989.

  20. Strategic Petroleum Reserve quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-08-15

    This August 15, 1989, Strategic Petroleum Reserve Quarterly Report describes activities related to the site development, oil acquisition, budget and cost of the Reserve during the period April 1, 1989 through June 30, 1989.

  1. Strategic petroleum reserve: Quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-11-15

    This November 15, 1988, Strategic Petroleum Reserve Quarterly Report describes activities related to the site development, oil acquisition, budget and cost of the Reserve during the period July 1, 1988 through September 30, 1988.

  2. Student's Full Name (Please PRINT): _____________________________ Code #: _______ SAMPLE EXAM QUESTIONS

    E-print Network

    Cooper, Brenton G.

    Student's Full Name (Please PRINT): _____________________________ Code #: _______ SAMPLE EXAM of fish (b) Habituation in Aplysia (c) Hygienic behavior of bees (d) Altruistic behavior of hymenoptera (5

  3. Advisory Council for Clinical Research Clinical Research Coordinator Certification Exam

    E-print Network

    Chisholm, Rex L.

    Advisory Council for Clinical Research Clinical Research Coordinator Certification Exam Scholarship functions performed in this position Yes No Recruits, screens and enrolls subjects for clinical trials

  4. Copyright reserved LEUNG YUEN SANG

    E-print Network

    Huang, Jianwei

    Copyright reserved LEUNG YUEN SANG HISTORY DEPARTMENT THE CHINESE UNIVERSITY OF HONG KONG Academic Advisement: Three Cases #12;Copyright reserved The History Advisory System All professors serve as Academic;Copyright reserved Case One: XYZ On academic Probation First alert Second probation: a struggling term Leave

  5. A model of reservation systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jorma T. Virtamo

    1992-01-01

    The author considers the performance evaluation of an advanced capacity reservation system using the CCITT defined reserved call establishment mode. A simple model for the traffic process is introduced: calls are assumed to be offered uniformly to the reservation book. The state of the system can then be described statistically in terms of the population of various types of islands

  6. Internet-based Exam Generator for Practice Review of the Fundamentals in Engineering Exam

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ji-hoon Lee; Kurt Gramoll

    One of the more important aspects of reviewing for any exam is to practice test taking. However, this is difficult parts for any instructor to develop. Furthermore, once used, it cannot be reused without modification. This becomes ever more critical when trying to develop an Internet-based review system. To solve this, a problem generator program has been developed that generates

  7. MA 11100 Exam 1 Memo Exam 2 8:00 P.M. Thursday, October 14 ...

    E-print Network

    charlotb

    2010-10-05

    Oct 14, 2010 ... Exam 2 covers sections 2.3 through 2.6 and sections 3.1, 3.2, and 3.3 (part 1). This is the material ... To view a video of each problem in the ... It is recommended that you re-work all homework problems. You could work the.

  8. MA 15200X Exam 2 Memo Exam 2: During Regular Class Time (6 ...

    E-print Network

    charlotb

    2011-02-24

    Mar 8, 2011 ... Please Note: Only a TI 30-XA calculator may be used at the exam. If you bring any other ... To view a video of each problem in the chapter test, ... It is recommended that you re-work all homework problems. You could work the.

  9. Washington Readies for High School Exit Exam: State Already Enacted Various Alternatives to Passing Exams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trotter, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author reports that sophomores who take the Washington Assessment of Student Learning this week will be the first who must pass the state exam to graduate. The long-awaited testing has caused anxiety across the state, as hopes that Washington will enter a new era of educational accountability are balanced by fears of turmoil…

  10. Engagement with Online Pre-Exam Formative Tests Improves Exam Performance and Feedback Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hope, Sheila A.; Polwart, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    The National Union of Students (NUS) National Student Experience Report identified examination feedback as an area where students had particular concerns. This finding was echoed in the authors' institution and triggered an action research project to investigate ways of improving students' perceptions of pre- and post-exam feedback. We report the…

  11. Dr. Campbell's Bio111 Exam #1 Fall 2001 Fall 2001 Biology 111 Exam #1 -Cellular Communications

    E-print Network

    Campbell, A. Malcolm

    will experience higher pressure. #12;Dr. Campbell's Bio111 Exam #1 ­ Fall 2001 4 8 pts. 6) Caffeine gives you a "buzz" because caffeine inactivates phosphodiesterase. Since you understand what role phosphodiesterase plays in your cells, explain why caffeine is a stimulan

  12. Wetlands Reserve Program

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Recognizing that the health of the nation's wetlands depends on the fate of private (as well as public-owned) wetlands, the Wetlands Reserve Program is an important, voluntary initiative led by the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) to provide "technical and financial support" to help private landowners restore their wetlands. This straightforward site describes the Wetlands Reserve Program (WRP), including a map showing national WRP acreage, several question/ answer fact sheets, state programs and contacts, and a slide show (PowerPoint) entitled Producing Wildlife Habitat Results. Although the site targets the general public, students and educators will find it useful and instructive.

  13. Topics for the exam in DM71 The exam will take place on June 7 and June 8. The sign-up sheets for

    E-print Network

    Boyar, Joan

    Topics for the exam in DM71 The exam will take place on June 7 and June 8. The sign-up sheets for the order in which students will be examined are already in the secretaries' oÆce. Sign up well before the exam. The sign-up list cannot be used to exactly calculate an exam time since some students may

  14. Topics for the exam in DM71 The exam will take place on June 28. The sign-up sheets for the order in

    E-print Network

    Boyar, Joan

    Topics for the exam in DM71 The exam will take place on June 28. The sign-up sheets for the order in which students will be examined are already in the secretaries' office. Sign up well before the exam. The sign-up list cannot be used to exactly calculate an exam time since some students may not show up

  15. Topics for the exam in DM71 The exam will take place on June 7 and June 8. The sign-up sheets for

    E-print Network

    Boyar, Joan

    Topics for the exam in DM71 The exam will take place on June 7 and June 8. The sign-up sheets for the order in which students will be examined are already in the secretaries' office. Sign up well before the exam. The sign-up list cannot be used to exactly calculate an exam time since some students may

  16. A real-time dynamic-MLC control algorithm for delivering IMRT to targets undergoing 2D rigid motion in the beam's eye view

    SciTech Connect

    McMahon, Ryan; Berbeco, Ross; Nishioka, Seiko; Ishikawa, Masayori; Papiez, Lech [School of Health Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Division of Medical Physics, Dana-Farber/Brigham and Women's Cancer Center and Harvard Medical School, 75 Francis Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States); NTT East-Japan Sapporo Hospital, Sapporo (Japan); Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo (Japan); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas-Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75390 (United States)

    2008-09-15

    An MLC control algorithm for delivering intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) to targets that are undergoing two-dimensional (2D) rigid motion in the beam's eye view (BEV) is presented. The goal of this method is to deliver 3D-derived fluence maps over a moving patient anatomy. Target motion measured prior to delivery is first used to design a set of planned dynamic-MLC (DMLC) sliding-window leaf trajectories. During actual delivery, the algorithm relies on real-time feedback to compensate for target motion that does not agree with the motion measured during planning. The methodology is based on an existing one-dimensional (1D) algorithm that uses on-the-fly intensity calculations to appropriately adjust the DMLC leaf trajectories in real-time during exposure delivery [McMahon et al., Med. Phys. 34, 3211-3223 (2007)]. To extend the 1D algorithm's application to 2D target motion, a real-time leaf-pair shifting mechanism has been developed. Target motion that is orthogonal to leaf travel is tracked by appropriately shifting the positions of all MLC leaves. The performance of the tracking algorithm was tested for a single beam of a fractionated IMRT treatment, using a clinically derived intensity profile and a 2D target trajectory based on measured patient data. Comparisons were made between 2D tracking, 1D tracking, and no tracking. The impact of the tracking lag time and the frequency of real-time imaging were investigated. A study of the dependence of the algorithm's performance on the level of agreement between the motion measured during planning and delivery was also included. Results demonstrated that tracking both components of the 2D motion (i.e., parallel and orthogonal to leaf travel) results in delivered fluence profiles that are superior to those that track the component of motion that is parallel to leaf travel alone. Tracking lag time effects may lead to relatively large intensity delivery errors compared to the other sources of error investigated. However, the algorithm presented is robust in the sense that it does not rely on a high level of agreement between the target motion measured during treatment planning and delivery.

  17. Tbx3 and Nr5?2 improve the viability of porcine induced pluripotent stem cells after dissociation into single cells by inhibiting RHO-ROCK-MLC signaling.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianyu; Wei, Renyue; Bou, Gerelchimeg; Liu, Zhonghua

    2015-01-16

    Porcine induced pluripotent stem cells (piPSCs) had been reported during the past 5years, but there were few reports on how the cell signaling works in piPSCs. In order to clarify the signaling work that dominated the characteristic difference of two types of piPSCs which were derived from Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and c-Myc (termed 4F piPSCs) and Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, c-Myc, Tbx3 and Nr5?2 (termed 6F piPSCs) respectively, we performed this study. 4F piPSCs and 6F piPSCs were cultured in medium with or without the ROCK inhibitor Y27632 after dissociating into single cells, the efficiency of a single cell colony and the number of AP positive colonies were assessed. The total RhoA and GTP-bind RhoA were detected in 4F piPSCs and 6F piPSCs before and after digestion into single cells. To explore the relationship between RHO-ROCK-MLC signaling pathway and the two factors Tbx3 and Nr5?2, the 4F piPSCs were infected with lenti-virus Tbx3 and Nr5?2 (termed 4F+TND). Results showed that the viability of cells could be enhanced by Y27632 and the RHO-ROCK-MLC signaling pathway was activated after dissociation into single cells in 4F piPSCs but not in 6F piPSCs. And, the 4F+TND piPSCs could be passaged and keep in high viability after dissociation into single cells, though the morphology of colonies did not change. These results indicated that the Tbx3 and Nr5?2 can improve the viability of piPSCs after dissociation into single cells by inhibiting the RHO-ROCK-MLC signaling pathway. And this provides useful information for establishing porcine pluripotent cells in future study. PMID:25514039

  18. Strategic Petroleum Reserve quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-11-15

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve Quarterly Report is submitted in accordance with section 165(b) of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act, as amended, which requires that the Secretary of Energy submit quarterly reports to Congress on activities undertaken with respect to the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Since the Strategic Petroleum Reserve crude oil storage facilities program for the 750 million barrels was completed in 1991, this November 15, 1992, Strategic Petroleum Reserve Quarterly Report focuses on activities related primarily to the status of storage facilities, oil acquisition, budget and costs of the Reserve during the period July 1, 1992, through September 30, 1992.

  19. National Strategic Petroleum Reserve

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. M. Davis

    1981-01-01

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve is intended to reduce the vulnerability of the United States to interruptions in the oil supply from foreign sources. Storage for 248 million barrels of crude oil in salt caverns and mines, with equipment for pumping and distribution, was constructed and operationally tested in a 4-year period. Its present inventory is the largest known crude oil

  20. Strategic petroleum reserve expansion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. N. Leiby; R. Lee

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes SPR benefits and proposes a general paradigm for Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) decision-making. It presents two modeling approaches to the general decision problem, each simplifying the problem in a different way and offering a distinct perspective. The first is the Teisberg model approach, applying dynamic programming, and we present some recent numerical results on the value of

  1. Computer Reservation System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sandra L. Cannon

    2008-01-01

    Increasingly public use computers are impacting library operations. Libraries need to accept and embrace computers and technology, as another facet of a library's daily operations. This article relates problem scenarios encountered by library staff and customers whenever a computer reservation management\\/print job system is not in place. It provides insight into the factors management considered before deciding on a computer

  2. Remodeling on the Reservation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beyl, Doyle

    1974-01-01

    In Wisconsin, agricultural mechanics related to carpentry was chosen as the skill area around which to train Chippewa Indians on the Sand Lake Reservation in skills associated with home building and repair. The training was offered by Wisconsin Indianhead Technical Institute at New Richmond. (Author/DS)

  3. Imaging cognitive reserve

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yaakov Stern; Nikolaos Scarmeas; Christian Habeck

    2004-01-01

    We review three studies that attempt to explore the neural substrates of cognitive reserve (CR). All studies utilize two conditions of a visual recognition task: a low demand condition, and another where difficulty was titrated such that all subjects performed at 75% recognition accuracy. We hypothesized that there would be different patterns of task?related activation as a function of a

  4. School Shootings Stun Reservation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borja, Rhea R.; Cavanagh, Sean

    2005-01-01

    This article deals with the impact brought by the school shootings at Red Lake Indian Reservation in Minnesota to the school community. A deeply troubled 16-year-old student shot and killed seven other people and himself at a high school. The nation's deadliest school attack since the 1999 slayings at Colorado's suburban Columbine High School took…

  5. Booking remote gas reserves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Agee

    2000-01-01

    Gas-to-liquids (GTL) technology is a powerful new tool available to address many E and P challenges of the new millennium. The industry has the ability to convert stranded gas reserves into superclean, liquid synthetic fuels on a commercial basis. One of the most significant technological developments in decades, commercial GTL creates new options for solving multiple existing problems, and much

  6. World Uranium Reserves

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    James Hopf

    This American Energy Independence website provides a brief overview of potential supplies of uranium for nuclear energy. The author, nuclear engineer James Hopf, believes that there are large reserves of uranium available, and that more will be discovered if needed. Links to literature cited and related resources are included.

  7. Automating Exams for a Statistics Course: II. A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michener, R. Dean; And Others

    A specific application of the process of automating exams for any introductory statistics course is described. The process of automating exams was accomplished by using the Statistical Test Item Collection System (STICS). This system was first used to select a set of questions based on course requirements established in advance; afterward, STICS…

  8. Does the Answer Order Matter on Multiple-Choice Exams?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joel Tellinghuisen; Michelle M. Sulikowski

    2008-01-01

    Surprising version-dependent differences are noted in student performance on certain questions in a standardized general chemistry exam. The exam in question has two versions, on which both questions and answers are ordered differently. For the questions suspected of answer-order bias, the performance is better in ten of twelve cases when students see the correct answer earlier in the list of

  9. An Expanded Framework for Analyzing General Chemistry Exams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, K. Christopher; Nakhleh, Mary B.; Bretz, Stacey Lowery

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes an expanded framework to aid chemical educators in constructing exams for their courses. The framework has three primary levels: definition, algorithmic, and conceptual. These primary levels have often been used in chemical education research to analyze and describe exam questions, but in this study the definition,…

  10. LUNDS TEKNISKA HGSKOLA Institutionen fr datavetenskap Exam Solutions

    E-print Network

    1(7) LUNDS TEKNISKA HÖGSKOLA Institutionen för datavetenskap Exam ­ Solutions EDA221 Computer not represent the exact solutions needed to get full score on the exam. 1. Shading a) Diffuse and specular terms interpolate all vertex attributes for each pixel, so the color will vary from (1, 0, 0) at p0 to (0, 1, 0

  11. Registering for and Completing the Certification Final Exam for Certified

    E-print Network

    . Read the course description. Note the no show fee policy statement. 10. Click the View All SessionsRegistering for and Completing the Certification Final Exam for Certified Payroll Representatives the Certification Final Exam for Certified Payroll Representatives and Procure to Pay Specialist course. Select

  12. Should I Give the Exam before or after the Break?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Kevin J.

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to help faculty make decisions about when to administer an exam in relation to an in-semester break. Students in multiple sections of an undergraduate educational psychology class were assigned to take an exam either before or after a scheduled 5-day break (Thursday-Monday). A multiple regression analysis revealed the break…

  13. The Impact of Daily Extra Credit Quizzes on Exam Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padilla-Walker, Laura M.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined whether offering daily extra credit quizzes predicted exam performance in an advanced psychology course (n = 36). Results revealed that extra credit performance was a strong predictor of exam performance, above and beyond gender, college grade point average, and ACT scores. In addition, results suggested that nearly half of the…

  14. Policy of Health Exams for Incoming Exchange Students to NTU

    E-print Network

    Wu, Yih-Min

    for students in NTU, for related information please see the Instructions of Health Exams at NTU Hospital (see.O.C. * Please check the hospital links for more information * All of the hospitals listed above are located and submit the Health Form personally on the registration day. The NTU Hospital provides health exam

  15. High School Exit Exam Scores and University Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Agostino, Jerome V.; Bonner, Sarah M.

    2009-01-01

    Many U.S. students must pass a standards-based exit exam to earn a high school diploma. The degree to which exit exams and state standards properly signal to students their preparedness for postsecondary schooling has been questioned. The alignment of test scores with college grades for students at the University of Arizona (n = 2,667) who took…

  16. Preparing Students to Take SOA/CAS Exam FM/2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchand, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides suggestions for preparing students to take the actuarial examination on financial mathematics, SOA/CAS Exam FM/2. It is based on current practices employed at Slippery Rock University, a small public liberal arts university. Detailed descriptions of our Theory of Interest course and subsequent Exam FM/2 prep course are provided…

  17. Assessing Success on the Uniform CPA Exam: A Logit Approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tantatape Brahmasrene; Donna Whitten

    2001-01-01

    In this study, the authors surveyed Indiana certified public accountant (CPA) candidates to investigate factors that may determine the likelihood of passing the Uniform CPA Exam. The authors used a logit model to test the likelihood of success in the exam as a function of factors such as undergraduate grade point average (GPA), credit hours, high school GPA, high school

  18. A Laboratory Practical Exam for High School Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhodes, Michelle M.

    2010-01-01

    A station-based laboratory practical exam for first-year high school chemistry students is described. Students move individually through six stations meant to authentically assess both basic lab skills and problem-solving skills utilized throughout the year. The exam can be completed in an approximately 85 min lab period and can be easily adapted…

  19. Authorized Crib Cards Do Not Improve Exam Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickson, K. Laurie; Miller, Michelle D.

    2005-01-01

    We experimentally investigated the effect of authorized crib cards on undergraduates' multiple-choice exam performance for lower order and higher order questions and on anxiety levels in an upper division child and adolescent development course. Students (N =54) in 2 sections could use crib cards during 2 of the 4 exams. Despite student…

  20. Computer Science: Introduction to Information Security Sample Midterm Exam

    E-print Network

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    Computer Science: Introduction to Information Security Sample Midterm Exam There are 7 questions a public key with the taxpayer's social security number, describe a protocol that allows the taxpayer, please answer all of them. Points for each part are shown. This is a timed exam: you have 75 minutes

  1. Comment on: “Quantum exam” [Phys. Lett. A 350 (2006) 174

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Fei; Wen, Qiao-Yan; Zhu, Fu-Chen

    2007-01-01

    The security of quantum exam [B.A. Nguyen, Phys. Lett. A 350 (2006) 174] is analyzed and it is found that this protocol is secure for any eavesdropper except for a dishonest “student” who takes part in the exam. The particular attack strategy is demonstrated and a possible improvement of this protocol is presented.

  2. Reworking Exams to Teach Chemistry Content and Reinforce Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risley, John M.

    2007-01-01

    One meaningful approach to demonstrate to students the value of reworking exams is to offer an incentive to do so. This paper describes the strategy and effects of offering partial credit to students who rework answers originally answered incorrectly on an exam. This has proved largely successful for the last 10 years in several classes at the…

  3. Do Open-Book Exams Impede Long-Term Learning in Introductory Biology Courses?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Philip A. Jensen

    2007-07-01

    Students in an introductory biology course who were given open-book exams during the semester earned significantly higher grades on these exams, but significantly lower grades on the closed-book final exam, than students who took in-class, closed-book exams throughout the semester. Exam format was also associated with changes in academic behavior; students who had upcoming open-book exams attended fewer lectures and help sessions and submitted fewer extra-credit assignments than students who had upcoming closed-book exams. These results suggest that open-book exams diminish long-term learning and promote academic behaviors that typify lower levels of academic achievement.

  4. The Effects of Lactobacillus acidophilus on the Intestinal Smooth Muscle Contraction through PKC/MLCK/MLC Signaling Pathway in TBI Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Huan; Zhu, Lina; Gao, Ning; Zhu, Jingci

    2015-01-01

    Clinical studies have shown that probiotics influence gastrointestinal motility. However, the molecular mechanisms by which probiotic Lactobacillus modulates intestinal motility in traumatic brain injury (TBI) mouse model have not been explored. In the present study, we provided evidence showing that treatment of TBI mice with Lactobacillus acidophilus significantly improved the terminal ileum villus morphology, restored the impaired interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) and the disrupted ICC networks after TBI, and prevented TBI-mediated inhibition of contractile activity in intestinal smooth muscle. Mechanistically, the decreased concentration of MLCK, phospho-MLC20 and phospho-MYPT1 and increased concentration of MLCP and PKC were observed after TBI, and these events mediated by TBI were efficiently prevented by Lactobacillus acidophilus application. These findings may provide a novel mechanistic basis for the application of Lactobacillus acidophilus in the treatment of TBI. PMID:26030918

  5. Medical Student Dissection of Cadavers Improves Performance on Practical Exams but not on the NBME Anatomy Subject Exam

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jones LS; Paulman LE; Leslie Sargent Jones; Lance E. Paulman; Raj Thadani; Louis Terracio

    We have examined whether cadaver dissection by first year medical students ( MIs) affected their performance in two test measures: the NBME Gross Anatomy and Embryology Subject Exam (dissection-relevant questions only), and practical exams given at the end of each major section within the course. The dissections for the entire course were divided into 18 regional dissection units and each

  6. Dr. Campbell's Bio111 Exam #3 Fall 2011 Biology 111 Closed Book Take-Home Exam #3 Emergent Properties

    E-print Network

    Campbell, A. Malcolm

    . 7. EXAMS ARE DUE BY 9:30 am ON MONDAY MO-VEMBER 7. If you turn in your exam late, then you lose for their refractory period? Explain why this rule makes sense. You can draw a picture if that helps your explanation in the direct pathway between touching its syphon and the gill retraction, his team did not use neurotransmitter

  7. Introduction to Cryptology, Spring 2014, Final Exam Topics Exam Time: Monday, May 5, 1PM, 267 FP Anderson

    E-print Network

    Klapper, Andy

    Introduction to Cryptology, Spring 2014, Final Exam Topics Exam Time: Monday, May 5, 1PM, 267 FP of factoring to security; fast factoring algorithms -- (p - 1)- algorithm, Quadratic Sieve. (d) Other attacks, passwords, and zero knowledge proofs 8. Protocols (a) Flipping coins by telephone. (b) Secret sharing

  8. Strategic Petroleum Reserve quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-08-15

    This August 15, 1991, Strategic Petroleum Reserve Quarterly Report describes activities related to the site development, oil acquisition, budget and cost of the Reserve during the period April 1, 1991, through June 30, 1991. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve storage facilities development program is proceeding on schedule. The Reserve's capacity is currently 726 million barrels. A total of 5.5 million barrels of new gross cavern volume was developed at Big Hill and Bayou Choctaw during the quarter. There were no crude oil deliveries to the Strategic Petroleum Reserve during the calendar quarter ending June 30, 1991. Acquisition of crude oil for the Reserve has been suspended since August 2, 1990, following the invasion of Kuwait by Iraq. As of June 30, 1991, the Strategic Petroleum Reserve inventory was 568.5 million barrels. The reorganization of the Office of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve became effective June 28, 1991. Under the new organization, the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Project Management Office in Louisiana will report to the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Program Office in Washington rather than the Oak Ridge Field Office in Tennessee. 2 tabs.

  9. Natural Reserve System UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA

    E-print Network

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    Scripps Coastal Reserve Santa Barbara 29 Carpinteria Salt Marsh Reserve 30 Coal Oil Point Natural Reserve of ecosystems throughout California. Reserves offer outdoor laboratories to field scientists, classrooms without of natural reserves; no other network of field sites can match its size, scope, and ecological diversity

  10. Strategic Petroleum Reserve

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-17

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) facilities development for the authorized 750 million barrel program was completed in 1991. Expansion of the SPR's offsite commercial distribution capacity to 4.3 million barrels per day is in progress. During calendar year 1991, the SPR's crude oil storage capacity increased by 61 million barrels with the completion of caverns at the Big Hill and Bayou Choctaw sites. On January 16, 1991, in conjunction with the beginning of Operation Desert Storm, President Bush ordered a drawdown and distribution of Strategic Petroleum Reserve oil as part of a coordinated contingency plan agreed to by member countries of the International Energy Agency. The Department successfully conducted the drawdown during the period January 17 through March 31 and delivered a total of 17.2 million barrels of crude oil to 13 purchasers. There were no crude oil deliveries to the SPR during the year ending December 31, 1991. Acquisition of crude oil for the Reserve has been suspended since August 2, 1990, following the invasion of Kuwait by Iraq. As of December 31, 1991, the SPR inventory was 568.5 million barrels.

  11. FLEX: A Modular Software Architecture for Flight License Exam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arsan, Taner; Saka, Hamit Emre; Sahin, Ceyhun

    This paper is about the design and implementation of an examination system based on World Wide Web. It is called FLEX-Flight License Exam Software. We designed and implemented flexible and modular software architecture. The implemented system has basic specifications such as appending questions in system, building exams with these appended questions and making students to take these exams. There are three different types of users with different authorizations. These are system administrator, operators and students. System administrator operates and maintains the system, and also audits the system integrity. The system administrator can not be able to change the result of exams and can not take an exam. Operator module includes instructors. Operators have some privileges such as preparing exams, entering questions, changing the existing questions and etc. Students can log on the system and can be accessed to exams by a certain URL. The other characteristic of our system is that operators and system administrator are not able to delete questions due to the security problems. Exam questions can be inserted on their topics and lectures in the database. Thus; operators and system administrator can easily choose questions. When all these are taken into consideration, FLEX software provides opportunities to many students to take exams at the same time in safe, reliable and user friendly conditions. It is also reliable examination system for the authorized aviation administration companies. Web development platform - LAMP; Linux, Apache web server, MySQL, Object-oriented scripting Language - PHP are used for developing the system and page structures are developed by Content Management System - CMS.

  12. Strategic Petroleum Reserve quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-05-15

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) was created to reduce the impact of disruptions in petroleum supplies and to carry out obligations of the United States under the Agreement on an International Energy Program. This May 15, 1990, Strategic Petroleum Reserve Quarterly Report describes activities related to the site development, oil acquisition, budget and cost of the Reserve during the period January 1, 1990 through March 31, 1990. 3 tabs.

  13. Flit-Reservation Flow Control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Li-shiuan Peh; William J. Dally

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents flit-reservation flow control, in which control flits traverse the network in advance of data flits, reserving buffers and channel bandwidth. Flit-reservation flow control requires control flits to precede data flits, which can be realized through fast on-chip control wires or the pipelining of control flits one or more cycles ahead of data flits. Scheduling ahead of data

  14. Military Applications of Reserve Batteries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. G. Ritchie

    1996-01-01

    Reserve batteries are batteries which do not give power until activated. They have a long storage life and high power capabilities which makes them useful for numerous military applications. Designs of reserve batteries include those based on movement of electrolyte (sea water, energizers and reserve silver-zinc or lithium-thionyl chloride) and thermal batteries, which are high-temperature batteries activated by heating using

  15. Documented Problem Solving: Calculating Bank Reserves

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Linda Wilson

    The lecture focused on the banking system and included a discussion about total reserves, required reserves and excess reserves. Students practiced calculating each category in pairs and then compared their solutions with those of the instructor.

  16. Fall 2013 Final Exam Schedule December 16-20 Classes with

    E-print Network

    sections may not be consistent with above exam schedule. The schedule for all classes can be viewed at@mtu.edu. Final exams for large classes and courses that historically have had one final exam schedule for allFall 2013 Final Exam Schedule ­ December 16-20 Classes with first meeting day of the week on

  17. Fall 2014 Final Exam Schedule December 15-19 Classes with

    E-print Network

    sections may not be consistent with above exam schedule. The schedule for all classes can be viewed at@mtu.edu. Final exams for large classes and courses that historically have had one final exam schedule for allFall 2014 Final Exam Schedule ­ December 15-19 Classes with first meeting day of the week on

  18. Going Green and Using Less Paper to Print Exams: Student Performance, Completion Time, and Preference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Kevin J.

    2014-01-01

    Two studies measured the impact on student exam performance and exam completion time of strategies aimed to reduce the amount of paper used for printing multiple-choice course exams. Study 1 compared single-sided to double-sided printed exams. Study 2 compared a single-column arrangement of multiple-choice answer options to a space (and paper)…

  19. ENVIRONMENTAL BASELINE SURVEY NAVAL INTELLIGENCE RESERVE COMMAND

    E-print Network

    Netoff, Theoden

    ENVIRONMENTAL BASELINE SURVEY NAVAL INTELLIGENCE RESERVE COMMAND 14950 AKRON AVENUE ROSEMOUNT Survey Naval Intelligence Reserve Command, Rosemount, Minnesota L:\\JOB\\111186\\0001.039\\EBS_2007_Rosemount

  20. Will students pass a competitive exam that they failed in their dreams?

    PubMed

    Arnulf, Isabelle; Grosliere, Laure; Le Corvec, Thibault; Golmard, Jean-Louis; Lascols, Olivier; Duguet, Alexandre

    2014-10-01

    We tested whether dreams can anticipate a stressful exam and how failure/success in dreams affect next-day performance. We collected information on students' dreams during the night preceding the medical school entrance exam. Demographic, academic, sleep and dream characteristics were compared to the students' grades on the exam. Of the 719 respondents to the questionnaire (of 2324 total students), 60.4% dreamt of the exam during the night preceding it. Problems with the exam appeared in 78% of dreams and primarily involved being late and forgetting answers. Reporting a dream about the exam on the pre-exam night was associated with better performance on the exam (p=.01). The frequency of dreams concerning the exam during the first term predicted proportionally higher performance on the exam (R=0.1, p=.01). These results suggest that the negative anticipation of a stressful event in dreams is common and that this episodic simulation provides a cognitive gain. PMID:25108280

  1. Exam Question Exchange: A Popular Approach to Reaction Kinetics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Michael P. S.; Alexander, John J., Ed.

    1979-01-01

    Presents an undergraduate physical chemistry question and its acceptable solution. This question, presented to share exam questions with other teachers, shows the analogy between molecular kinetics and population dynamics. (HM)

  2. Again, Maryland Ranks #1 in Advanced Placement (AP) Exam Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland State Department of Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    For a second year in a row, Maryland ranked first nationwide in the percentage of public school students scoring 3 or higher on at least one AP (Advanced Placement) exam. A score of 3 or higher on the 5-point scale is considered mastery of college-level work. Maryland also continues to show strong gains in the number of students taking an AP exam

  3. Effects of number of study environments on exam performance

    E-print Network

    Chen, Mei-Ling

    1985-01-01

    EFFECTS OF NUMBER OF STUDY ENVIRONMENTS ON EXAM PERFORMANCE A Thesis bv MEI-LING CHEN Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASSAM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1985 Major... Subject: Psychology EFFECTS OF NUMBER OF STUDY ENVIRONMENTS ON EXAM PERFORMANCE A Thesis by MEI-LINC. CHEN Approved as to style and content by: Steven M. Smith (Chairman of Committee) Thomas B. Ward (M em r) William R. Nash (Member) Stephen...

  4. Strategic petroleum reserve quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-05-15

    This Strategic Petroleum Reserve Quarterly Report describes activities related to the site development, oil acquisition, budget and cost of the Reserve during the period January 1, 1991, through March 31, 1991. A special section is also included discussing the January 1991 drawdown and distribution of crude oil. 8 tabs.

  5. Strategic petroleum reserves in Maine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tibbetts

    1977-01-01

    An evaluation was made to determine if the State of Maine should develop a State petroleum storage reserve to protect its economic and social vitality against future petroleum shortages. The requirements for residual oil are delineated and alternate storage options are described. The adequacy of the National Strategic Petroleum Reserve Program (S.P.R.) as a tool for alleviating shortfalls of residual

  6. Extractive reserves in Brazilian Amazonia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philip M. Fearnside

    1989-01-01

    In 1985 an opportunity arose for maintaining tracts of Amazonian forest under sustainable use. Brazil's National Council of Rubber Tappers and the Rural Worker's Union proposed the creation of a set of reserves of a new type, called extractive reserves. The first six are being established in one of the Brazilian states most threatened by deforestatation. The creation of extractive

  7. FORESTS FORTHE WORLD PARK RESERVATIONS

    E-print Network

    Northern British Columbia, University of

    ETIQUETTE s Stoop and Scoop s Share the Park s Train Your Dog s Licence Your Dog s Respect the WildlifeFORESTS FORTHE WORLD PARK RESERVATIONS Park sites are perfect for special events, such as group picnics, community events, weddings, and photos. A park use permit reserves your date, time, and place, so

  8. Operating Reserves and Variable Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Ela, E.; Milligan, M.; Kirby, B.

    2011-08-01

    This report tries to first generalize the requirements of the power system as it relates to the needs of operating reserves. It also includes a survey of operating reserves and how they are managed internationally in system operations today and then how new studies and research are proposing they may be managed in the future with higher penetrations of variable generation.

  9. Greenhouse effect and nature reserves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert L. Peters; Joan D. S. Darling

    1985-01-01

    Global warming would diminish biological diversity by causing extinctions among reserve species. Patterns of climatic change are discussed, including global patterns of surface temperature increase, as predicted by the Goddard Institute for Space Studies, and global changes in moisture patterns. The concept of biological reserves (essentially the same concept as biological refugia) is discussed, and the effect of climatic changes

  10. A unified optimization platform comparison of three radiosurgery techniques: Gamma Knife, BrainLAB micro-MLC, and NOMOS MIMiC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheek, Dennis Allen

    The objective of this research is to build a unified optimization treatment planning system in order to accurately compare the three modalities unburdened by underlying assumptions that could alter the outcome of the comparison. The hypothesis for the dissertation is: Three photon radiosurgery delivery mechanisms are utilized for the delivery of necrotic radiation doses to a cranial lesion: the Gamma Knife, micro-MLC intensity modulated radiosurgery, and MIMiC based intensity modulated radiosurgery. Each modality has its own strength and weaknesses in their ability to deliver radiosurgery treatments. We hypothesize the MIMiC based intensity modulated radiosurgery will allow improvements to radiosurgery treatments compared to the conventional Gamma Knife and micro-MLC, as quantified by the following metrics: isodose line display, dose volume histograms, Ian Paddick conformality index, homogeneity index, and objective function score. The specific aims for the dissertation are: (1) Develop a radiosurgery treatment planning software platform to import image and structure data and to offer evaluation tools. The evaluation tools will include isodose line display, dose volume histogram, Ian Paddick conformality index, homogeneity index, and objective function score. (2) Develop a simulated annealing optimization routine, with an associated objective function, that will determine the optimal treatment plan for the defined solution space. The objective, or cost function will be based on Ian Paddick conformality index. (3) Perform multiple repeat optimizations of each modality for a given lesion in order to gather statistical information about the minimum solution found. This test will quantify the ability of the optimization routine to arrive at a similar local minimum and therefore quantify the reliability of the comparison performed in specific aim five. (4) Investigate the affect of the Gamma Knife's shot limitation on the resulting dose distribution for a given lesion. Five optimizations will be performed with a shot limit of 5, 10, 25, 50, and unlimited. This comparison will help facilitate the appropriate shot limit for the comparison of the three methodologies in specific aim five. (5) Perform a comparison of the three delivery modalities based on three clinical targets: 1.4cc Acoustic Neuroma, 0.71cc Arteriovenous Malformation, and 0.77cc Metastatic disease. The comparison will be based on dose volume histograms, Ian Paddick conformality index, objective function score, homogeneity index, and physician's judgment. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  11. Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Subtype-Specific Regional and Temporal Regulation of ADP Ribosylation Factor-1-Dependent Rho/MLC Pathway at Pre-Clinical Stage.

    PubMed

    Zafar, Saima; Schmitz, Matthias; Younus, Neelam; Tahir, Waqas; Shafiq, Mohsin; Llorens, Franc; Ferrer, Isidre; Andéoletti, Olivier; Zerr, Inga

    2015-06-01

    Small GTPases of the Arf family mainly activate the formation of coated carrier vesicles. We showed that class-I Arf1 interacts specifically with full length GPI-anchored cellular prion protein (PrP(C)). Several recent reports have also demonstrated a missing link between the endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi-complex role for proper folding, but the exact molecular mechanism is not yet fully understood. In the present study, we identified and characterized the interactive role of Arf1 during PrP(C) intracellular distribution under pathophysiological conditions. PrP(C) interaction with Arf1 was investigated in cortical primary neuronal cultures of PrP(C) wild type and knockout mice (PrP(-/-)). Arf1 and PrP(C) co-binding affinity was confirmed using reverse co-immunoprecipitation, co-localization affinity using confocal laser-scanning microscopy. Treatment with brefeldin-A modulated Arf1 expression and resulted in down-regulation and redistribution of PrP(C) into cytosolic region. In the pre-symptomatic stage of the disease, Arf1 expression was significantly downregulated in the frontal cortex in tg340 mice expressing about fourfold of human PrP-M129 with PrP null background that had been inoculated with human sCJD MM1 brain tissue homogenates (sCJD MM1 mice). In addition, the frontal cortex of CJD human brain demonstrated significant binding capacity of Arf1 protein using co-immunoprecipitation analysis. We also examined Arf1 expression in the brain of CJD patients with the subtypes MM1 and VV2 and found that it was regulated in a region-specific manner. In the frontal cortex, Arf1 expression was not significantly changed in either MM1 or VV2 subtype. Interestingly, Arf1 expression was significantly reduced in the cerebellum in both subtypes as compared to controls. Furthermore, we observed altered RhoA activity, which in turn affects myosin light-chain (MLC) phosphorylation and Arf1-dependent PI3K pathway. Together, our findings underscore a key early symptomatic role of Arf1 in neurodegeneration. Targeting the Arf/Rho/MLC signaling axis might be a promising strategy to uncover the missing link which probably influences disease progression and internal homeostasis of misfolded proteins. PMID:25896910

  12. Ph.D. Qualifying Exam All students seeking a Ph.D. are required to attempt the Written Qualifying Examinations after their

    E-print Network

    New Mexico, University of

    own calculator during the exam) ·No cell-phone usage during each exam period (more generally, you may score is 60%. The four exams consist of two common exams (common to all tracks) and two track-specific exams (for each track). All exams are offered in August; some track-specific exams may also be offered

  13. MA515 EXAM #2 INSTRUCTIONS: This is a take-home exam. You may use my course notes, the course

    E-print Network

    Lee, Carl

    MA515 EXAM #2 INSTRUCTIONS: This is a take-home exam. You may use my course notes, the course text that you have used the simplex method to find an optimal solution to the linear program (P) max cT x s independent. 5. Exercise (Linear over GF(2) = graphic) on the top of page 54 of the text. That is to say

  14. A TIME-EFFECTIVE STRATEGY FOR TAKING EXAMS Although college exams are designed to measure how much you have learned in a particular class over a particular

    E-print Network

    Offutt, Jeff

    to limit your problem-solving skills to the problems presented on the exam, but you can also view takingA TIME-EFFECTIVE STRATEGY FOR TAKING EXAMS Although college exams are designed to measure how much you have learned in a particular class over a particular period of time, we all know that often the di

  15. Sample Questions from Past Qualifying Exams This list may give the impression that the exams consist of a series of questions fired at

    E-print Network

    Wolfe, Patrick J.

    Sample Questions from Past Qualifying Exams This list may give the impression that the exams consist of a series of questions fired at the student one after another. In fact most exams have more accurately the difficulties involved. The list indicates the professor associated to each question where

  16. Booking remote gas reserves

    SciTech Connect

    Agee, M.A.

    2000-01-01

    Gas-to-liquids (GTL) technology is a powerful new tool available to address many E and P challenges of the new millennium. The industry has the ability to convert stranded gas reserves into superclean, liquid synthetic fuels on a commercial basis. One of the most significant technological developments in decades, commercial GTL creates new options for solving multiple existing problems, and much more. It enables the monetization of vast deposits of shut-in gas reserves, allowing industry to book billions of dollars of assets that would otherwise remain virtually worthless. As a result, GTL has the potential to add immensely to the world's supply of clean liquid fuels. It also opens up myriad new opportunities, not just upstream but downstream and beyond. In fact, ultraclean synthetic fuels, free of sulfur and aromatics, could be the enablers of new engine and emissions-control technologies that will transform the automotive industry as well. As powerful as the upstream incentives are, even more compelling market forces downstream may drive construction of the first plants. The convergence of these forces and events points inevitably to the commercialization and growth of this new industry.

  17. Online Course Reserves and Graduate Student Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isenberg, Laurie

    2006-01-01

    This study assesses student satisfaction with online course reserves in a graduate environment. Surveys indicated that students prefer online course reserves over in-library print course reserves. Pre-printed course readers are preferred when the purchase price of the reader is less than the cost of printing online reserves. Graduate students are…

  18. Estimates of Oil Reserves Jean Laherrere

    E-print Network

    O'Donnell, Tom

    gathers many graphs and a long text for those who want to get technical data on many countries companies listed on the US stock market to report only Proved Reserves and to omit Probable Reserves reserve growth, as 90% of the annual reserves oil addition come from revisions of old fields, showing

  19. Veterinary Science Students, Center Changing a Reservation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackwater, Jasmine

    2011-01-01

    Kayenta is a rural community located in northeastern Arizona on a Navajo reservation. On the reservation, many families rely on their livestock for income, and as a result, many reservation high school students show a great interest in agricultural education. Having livestock on the reservation is not just a source of income, but also part of a…

  20. Library Reserved Room Policy All Meeting Spaces

    E-print Network

    Mather, Patrick T.

    to the walls or doors of the room or Library public areas without explicit permission from the Library. AllLibrary Reserved Room Policy All Meeting Spaces Room reservation To make a reservation for any Library meeting space, complete the room reservation form at http://library

  1. Parking Options 2011/12 Reserved Permits

    E-print Network

    Parking Options 2011/12 Reserved Permits A Reserved permit is $275 this fiscal year and is only available to faculty and staff through payroll deduction. Individuals issued a Reserved permit may park in any space in the lot they are assigned. Reserved parking will not be oversold, so if the lot

  2. National Estuarine Research Reserve System

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Established in 1972 through the Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA), the National Estuarine Research Reserve System (NERR) is a network of protected areas representing different types of estuaries and biogeographic regions. Operated by coastal states with input from local communities and regional groups, NERR studies address coastal watershed management issues. The homepage provides an overview of the NERR System with links to specific information on (most) reserves, detailed case studies on six focal reserves, publications and research resources, educational materials, and links to related resources.

  3. Federal Reserve Rate Cuts

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Waters, Megan.

    1998-01-01

    This week's In the News chronicles recent Federal Reserve Board decisions to lower interest rates. The eleven resources discussed provide news, opinion, and consumer information on the FRB BOG action. Following the first US interest rate cut in three years on September 29, 1998, FED Chairman Alan Greenspan caught fire from Wall Street. "Traders were disappointed" in the mere quarter point drop, according to Time business reporter Bernard Baumohl, but "Greenspan will have to make do with the gratitude of the rest of the world." Although the DOW initially fell 54 points Tuesday, a second 0.25% cut to short-term interest rates on October 15, 1998 sent stocks soaring 330 points--the third largest one-day point gain in history. Analysts now hope that US investor optimism--coupled with IMF and World Bank action in Brazil, Russia, and Asia--will ease the world-wide economic crises.

  4. COAMFTE accreditation and California MFT licensing exam success.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, Benjamin E; Kunker, Shelly A; Brown, Stephen W; Saiki, Dustin Y

    2011-10-01

    Professional accreditation of graduate programs in marital and family therapy (MFT) is intended to ensure the strength of the education students receive. However, there is great difficulty in assessing the real-world impact of accreditation on students. Only one measure is applied consistently to graduates of all MFT programs, regardless of accreditation status: licensure examinations. Within California, COAMFTE-accredited, regionally (WASC) accredited, and state-approved programs all may offer degrees qualifying for licensure. Exam data from 2004, 2005, and 2006 (n = 5,646 examinees on the Written Clinical Vignette exam and n = 3,408 first-time examinees on the Standard Written Exam) were reviewed to determine the differences in exam success among graduates of programs at varying levels of accreditation. Students from COAMFTE-accredited programs were more successful on both California exams than were students from other WASC-accredited or state-approved universities. There were no significant differences between (non-COAMFTE) WASC-accredited universities and state-approved programs. Differences could be related to selection effects, if COAMFTE programs initially accept students of higher quality. Implications for therapist education and training are discussed. PMID:22007780

  5. Strategic Petroleum Reserve quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-11-15

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve was created pursuant to the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of December 22, 1975 (Public Law 94-163). Its purposes are to reduce the impact of disruptions in supplies of petroleum products and to carry out obligations of the United States under the Agreement on an International Energy Program. Section 165(a) of the Act requires the submission of Annual Reports and Section 165(b)(1) requires the submission of Quarterly Reports. This Quarterly Report highlights activities undertaken during the third quarter of calendar year 1995, including: inventory of petroleum products stored in the Reserve; current storage capacity and ullage available; current status of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve storage facilities, major projects and the acquisition of petroleum products; funds obligated by the Secretary from the SPR Petroleum Account and the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Account during the prior calendar quarter and in total; and major environmental actions completed, in progress, or anticipated.

  6. 46 CFR Appendix A - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MERCHANT MARINE OFFICERS AND SEAMEN CHEMICAL TESTING Management Information System Management Information System requirements. Appendix A [Reserved] 46 CFR Ch. I (10-1-10 Edition) Coast...

  7. Estimation of resources and reserves

    E-print Network

    Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Energy Laboratory.

    1982-01-01

    This report analyzes the economics of resource and reserve estimation. Current concern about energy problems has focused attention on how we measure available energy resources. One reads that we have an eight-year oil ...

  8. 76 FR 6189 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-03

    ...Employed Correspondence Exam Practitioner Engagement Project Committee AGENCY: Internal...Employed Correspondence Exam Practitioner Engagement Project Committee will be conducted...Employed Correspondence Exam Practitioner Engagement Project Committee will be held...

  9. 76 FR 17995 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-31

    ...Employed Correspondence Exam Practitioner Engagement Project Committee AGENCY: Internal...Employed Correspondence Exam Practitioner Engagement Project Committee will be conducted...Employed Correspondence Exam Practitioner Engagement Project Committee will be held...

  10. 76 FR 37200 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-24

    ...Employed Correspondence Exam Practitioner Engagement Project Committee AGENCY: Internal...Employed Correspondence Exam Practitioner Engagement Project Committee will be conducted...Employed Correspondence Exam Practitioner Engagement Project Committee will be held...

  11. 76 FR 46897 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-03

    ...Employed Correspondence Exam Practitioner Engagement Project Committee AGENCY: Internal...Employed Correspondence Exam Practitioner Engagement Project Committee will be conducted...Employed Correspondence Exam Practitioner Engagement Project Committee will be held...

  12. 76 FR 2193 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-12

    ...Employed Correspondence Exam Practitioner Engagement AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service...Employed Correspondence Exam Practitioner Engagement will be conducted. The Taxpayer Advocacy...Employed Correspondence Exam Practitioner Engagement will be held Wednesday, February...

  13. 76 FR 10942 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-28

    ...Employed Correspondence Exam Practitioner Engagement Project Committee AGENCY: Internal...Employed Correspondence Exam Practitioner Engagement Project Committee will be conducted...Employed Correspondence Exam Practitioner Engagement Project Committee will be held...

  14. 76 FR 63715 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-13

    ...Employed Correspondence Exam Practitioner Engagement Project Committee AGENCY: Internal...Employed Correspondence Exam Practitioner Engagement Project Committee will be conducted...Employed Correspondence Exam Practitioner Engagement Project Committee will be held...

  15. 76 FR 56879 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-14

    ...Employed Correspondence Exam Practitioner Engagement Project Committee AGENCY: Internal...Employed Correspondence Exam Practitioner Engagement Project Committee will be conducted...Employed Correspondence Exam Practitioner Engagement Project Committee will be held...

  16. 76 FR 22170 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-20

    ...Employed Correspondence Exam Practitioner Engagement Project Committee AGENCY: Internal...Employed Correspondence Exam Practitioner Engagement Project Committee will be conducted...Employed Correspondence Exam Practitioner Engagement Project Committee will be held...

  17. Strategic petroleum reserve: Quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-11-15

    The August 15, 1987, Strategic Petroleum Reserve Quarterly Report describes activities undertaken with respect to the development of the Reserve during the period April 1, 1987 through June 30, 1987. The program background and major activities of this quarter are briefly discussed. Other topics are site development; oil acquisition; information on the budget and cost of the reserve; and other program items. During the second quarter of 1987, Strategic Petroleum Reserve storage capacity reached 570 million barrels. At Bryan Mound, final corrective leaching was completed in Cavern 5 whose conversion from sweet to sour crude oil storage is proceeding on schedule. At West Hackberry, leaching was completed for Cavern 115 and proceeded in the four remaining caverns still under development. At the Bayou Choctaw site, Cavern 17 oil fill was initiated; this 10-million-barrel cavern currently contains over five million barrels of oil. At Big Hill, construction has progressed to the point that attainment of leaching capability by the end of September is on schedule. The total inventory of crude oil stored in the Strategic Petroleum Reserve reached 527,186,515 barrels during the quarter ending June 30, 1987. The average fill rate during the quarter was 79,119 barrels per day, and the weighted average delivered price during this quarter was $19.17 per barrel. Funds available for obligation in fiscal year 1987 include $526 million in the SPR Petroleum Account for the acquisition and transportation of crude oil and $262 million in the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Account for activities associated with storage facilities development and the operation and management of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Approximately $23 million of Strategic Petroleum Reserve Account funds will be carried over to reduce new budget authority required for the account in fiscal year 1988.

  18. Does the Answer Order Matter on Multiple-Choice Exams?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tellinghuisen, Joel; Sulikowski, Michelle M.

    2008-04-01

    Surprising version-dependent differences are noted in student performance on certain questions in a standardized general chemistry exam. The exam in question has two versions, on which both questions and answers are ordered differently. For the questions suspected of answer-order bias, the performance is better in ten of twelve cases when students see the correct answer earlier in the list of four choices. Expansion of the study to more abundant data for the same exam from the ACS DivCHED Examinations Institute supports the interpretation of these observations as a primacy effect, characteristic of guessing, but with an aversion for the first choice. However, the single problem that shows the greatest disparity between versions in both data sets is one most chemists would view as so simple as to make guessing unnecessary, hence unlikely as an explanation.

  19. Using collaborative group exams to investigate students' ability to learn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yuhfen; Brookes, David T.

    2013-01-01

    One of our primary learning goals for our students is: we would like them to be able to learn physics on their own. Unfortunately few existing assessments can assess students' ability to learn without being taught. We are developing a new format of exam which challenges students to work together as a class to tackle a difficult problem that requires them to learn new physics. Rather than restrict their activities, we offer them a resource-rich environment of textbooks and internet access. Students are required to transfer their knowledge by answering a related question on a more standard "individual exam" two days later. In this paper we will discuss the format of the exams, background theory, and present evidence of how students are able to learn new physics on their own. Our results show that although students struggle at first, they do surprisingly well once they get used to the format.

  20. Strategic Petroleum Reserve quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-15

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) was created pursuant to the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA) Public Law 94-163, approved on December 22, 1975, and extended in July 1985, June 1989, March 1990, and September 1990, to reduce the impact of disroptions in petroleum supplies and to carry out obligations of the United States under the Agreement on an International Energy Program. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve Quarterly Report is submitted in accordance with section 165(b) of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act, as amended, which requires that the Secretary of Energy submit quarterly reports to Congress on activities undertaken with respect to the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Since the Strategic Petroleum Reserve crude oil storage facilities program for the 750 minion barrels was completed in 1991, this August 15, 1992, Strategic Petroleum Reserve Quarterly Report focuses on activities related primarily to the storage facilities status, oil acquisition, budget, and cost of the Reserve during the period April 1, 1992, through June 30, 1992.

  1. Strategic petroleum reserve: Quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-08-15

    This report describes activities undertaken with respect to the development of the Reserve. The introduction and summary briefly discuss program background and major activities of the quarter. Section II describes site development. Oil acquisition activities are reported in Section III. Information on the budget and cost of the Reserve is contained in Section IV. Strategic Petroleum Reserve storage capacity reached 581.3 million barrels. The total inventory of crude oil stored in the Strategic Petroleum Reserve reached 550, 055,724 barrels. The average fill rate during the quarter was 56,239 barrels per day, and the weighted average delivered price during this quarter was $15.99 per barrel. The average fill rate through the third quarter of fiscal year 1988 was 59,000 barrels per day. Funds available for obligation in fiscal year 1988 include $439 million in the SPR Petroleum Account for the acquisition and transportation of crude oil and $232 million in the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Account for activities associated with storage facilities development and the operation and management of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve.

  2. Investigating the Effects of Exam Length on Performance and Cognitive Fatigue

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Jamie L.; Berry, Dane A.; Kummer, Tyler A.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effects of exam length on student performance and cognitive fatigue in an undergraduate biology classroom. Exams tested higher order thinking skills. To test our hypothesis, we administered standard- and extended-length high-level exams to two populations of non-majors biology students. We gathered exam performance data between conditions as well as performance on the first and second half of exams within conditions. We showed that lengthier exams led to better performance on assessment items shared between conditions, possibly lending support to the spreading activation theory. It also led to greater performance on the final exam, lending support to the testing effect in creative problem solving. Lengthier exams did not result in lower performance due to fatiguing conditions, although students perceived subjective fatigue. Implications of these findings are discussed with respect to assessment practices. PMID:23950918

  3. ExamSoft Instructions: Mac How to download SofTest for Mac

    E-print Network

    ExamSoft Instructions: Mac How to download SofTest for Mac For best performance, complete the disclaimer. 6. Click Save File. This file will save to the browser Downloads. #12;ExamSoft Instructions: Mac

  4. Adaptive Automated Construction of Hybrid Heuristics for Exam Timetabling and Graph Colouring Problems

    E-print Network

    Qu, Rong

    - 1 - Adaptive Automated Construction of Hybrid Heuristics for Exam Timetabling and Graph Colouring methods to design and adapt heuristics automatically. Experimental results on benchmark exam timetabling timetabling, graph colouring, graph colouring heuristics, hybridisation, hyper- heuristic 1 Introduction Since

  5. Using Poster Sessions as an Alternative to Written Examinations--The Poster Exam.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Pamela A.; Sweeney, William V.; DeMeo, Stephen; Marino, Robert; Clarkson, Sandra

    2000-01-01

    Explains how to use posters as an alternative assessment method in place of traditional written exams in an integrated chemistry, physics, and mathematics course. Investigates the effectiveness of poster exams on student learning. (YDS)

  6. Cognitive reserve and brain reserve in prodromal Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Bonner-Jackson, Aaron; Long, Jeffrey D; Westervelt, Holly; Tremont, Geoffrey; Aylward, Elizabeth; Paulsen, Jane S

    2013-08-01

    Huntington disease (HD) is associated with decline in cognition and progressive morphological changes in brain structures. Cognitive reserve may represent a mechanism by which disease-related decline may be delayed or slowed. The current study examined the relationship between cognitive reserve and longitudinal change in cognitive functioning and brain volumes among prodromal (gene expansion-positive) HD individuals. Participants were genetically confirmed individuals with prodromal HD enrolled in the PREDICT-HD study. Cognitive reserve was computed as the composite of performance on a lexical task estimating premorbid intellectual level, occupational status, and years of education. Linear mixed effects regression (LMER) was used to examine longitudinal changes on four cognitive measures and three brain volumes over approximately 6 years. Higher cognitive reserve was significantly associated with a slower rate of change on one cognitive measure (Trail Making Test, Part B) and slower rate of volume loss in two brain structures (caudate, putamen) for those estimated to be closest to motor disease onset. This relationship was not observed among those estimated to be further from motor disease onset. Our findings demonstrate a relationship between cognitive reserve and both a measure of executive functioning and integrity of certain brain structures in prodromal HD individuals. PMID:23702309

  7. GEOMTICA EXAME 28 Junho 2012 19218 Adriana Filipa Lazaro Anico 4 5,55 10

    E-print Network

    Lisboa, Universidade Técnica de

    18870 António Pedro Pacheco de Sá 4,2 6,95 11 19050 António Taborda Monteiro de Calça e Pina 2 5,25 Rep Nota de exame Pedro Jesus 3 0,5 Rep Nota de exame Barros 4 2,8 Rep Nota de exame Rodrigues 4,5 7,45 12 15812

  8. Multiple-Choice and Short-Answer Exam Performance in a College Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Funk, Steven C.; Dickson, K. Laurie

    2011-01-01

    The authors experimentally investigated the effects of multiple-choice and short-answer format exam items on exam performance in a college classroom. They randomly assigned 50 students to take a 10-item short-answer pretest or posttest on two 50-item multiple-choice exams in an introduction to personality course. Students performed significantly…

  9. International Students' First Encounters with Exams in the UK: Superficially Similar but Deeply Different

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pilcher, Nick; Smith, Karen; Riley, Jackie

    2013-01-01

    Although end of course exams remain a key mode of assessment in higher education, little research has focused on international students' experiences of exams. There seems to be a tacit assumption in most literature that exam preparation and strategies are universal, although differences in other areas of learning exist. As an exemplar,…

  10. Faculty Forum--Introductory Psychology Student Performance: Weekly Quizzes Followed by a Cumulative Final Exam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landrum, R. Eric

    2007-01-01

    Students in an introductory psychology course took a quiz a week over each textbook chapter, followed by a cumulative final exam. Students missing a quiz in class could make up a quiz at any time during the semester, and answers to quiz items were available to students prior to the cumulative final exam. The cumulative final exam consisted of half…

  11. GRANULAR MODELLING OF EXAM TO SLOT ALLOCATION Siti Khatijah Nor Abdul Rahim1

    E-print Network

    Qu, Rong

    @cs.nott.ac.uk KEYWORDS Information granulation, conflict chains, spread matrix, pre-processing, exam-to-slot allocation of conflict chains. Since the conflict chains are designed to capture the mutual dependencies between exams at-a-time. The initial exam-to-slot allocation, generated through the processing of conflict chains

  12. Combined online and in?class pretesting improves exam performance in general psychology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arnold Lewis Glass; Gary Brill; Margaret Ingate

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the effect of distributed questioning on learning and retention in a college lecture course. A total of 48 question pairs were presented over four exams. The 16 question pairs associated with each of the three blocks of the course appeared on the block exams, and all 48 appeared on the final exam. The two questions in each

  13. Hispanic Student Performance on Advanced Placement Exams: A Multiyear, National Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jara, Teresa Dianne

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to analyze the Advanced Placement exams that Hispanic students complete and to compare their overall performance with the performance of White students from 2000 to 2012. A second purpose was to determine which Advanced Placement exams were the most difficult exams for Hispanic students and which Advanced…

  14. The Wicked Old Witch Is Dead: Getting Rid of a Flawed Writing Exam.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werder, Carmen M.

    This paper reports on the myriad difficulties in getting rid of an unsatisfactory writing examination in place at Western Washington University. First, the paper provides background information on how and why the exam (the Junior Writing Exam) came to be adopted in the 1980s (as a diagnostic test only) and explains what the exam was meant to…

  15. Like Climbing Jacob's Ladder: An Art-Based Exploration of the Comprehensive Exam Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shields, Sara Scott

    2015-01-01

    The comprehensive exam process is a rite of passage in the scholarly world, and as such the movements of this process often feel like a guarded secret to graduate students. As a PhD candidate, I left the comprehensive exam process feeling both initiated and inundated. This article is an attempt to uncover the secret that is the comprehensive exam…

  16. How Does Student Performance on Formative Assessments Relate to Learning Assessed by Exams?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Gary Smith

    2007-07-01

    A retrospective analysis examines the relationships between formative assessments and exam grades in two undergraduate geoscience courses. Pair and group-work grades correlate weakly with individual exam grades. Exam performance correlates to individual, weekly online assessments. Student attendance and use of assessment feedback are also essential factors.

  17. CURRICULUM-BASED EXTERNAL EXIT EXAM SYSTEMS: Do Students Learn More? How?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John H. Bishop

    2000-01-01

    This article examines the effect of curriculum-based external exit examinations such as the French Baccalaureate, Canadian Diploma exams, and the Regents exams in New York State on student achievement. Students from countries with medium- and high-stakes exit exam systems outperform students from other countries at a comparable level of economic development. When student demography is held constant, New York State

  18. Effects of the Implementation of State-Wide Exit Exams on Students' Self-Regulated Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merki, Katharina Maag

    2011-01-01

    Whereas several studies investigated the effects of implementation of state-wide exit exams on student achievement, there is still little known about the impacts of the exams on students' self-regulated learning. This paper examines the question as to whether the implementation of state-wide high school exit exams is associated with a change in…

  19. Results of a remediation program for students at risk for failure on the NCLEX exam.

    PubMed

    Sifford, Susan; McDaniel, D Mike

    2007-01-01

    Forty-seven nursing students identified as at risk for failure on the NCLEX licensure exam took a commercially available exit exam before and after participation in a remedial test-taking course. Results indicated that participation in the course contributed to a significant increase (p < .001) in exit exam scores. PMID:17380960

  20. Combination of CD4+CD25+CD127- regulatory T cells with MLC-BE and BE-Ab2: an efficient evaluation of the therapy of paternal lymphocyte induced immunization in unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion patients

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Min-Min; Du, Mei-Rong; Wang, Ming-Yan; Duan, Zhong-Liang; Meng, Yi; Jin, Li-Ping; Li, Ming-Qing; Li, Da-Jin

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to compare the immune tolerance status of patients suffered from unexplained spontaneous abortion (URSA) before and after treatment with paternal lymphocyte induced immunization (PLII) four times, and its relationship to the pregnancy outcome. 168 URSA patients were included in the present study. Among 168 couples, 138 couples were conceived again, of whom 86 were successfully pregnant till 20 gestational weeks, 31 cases again failed in the first trimester, 21 cases were still under follow-up, another 30 cases still had not conceived. Both the level of one way mixed lymphocyte culture blocking efficiency (MLC-BE) and anti-idio blocking antibody (BE-Ab2) were markedly elevated in succeeded group after PLII. In contrast, although a significant increase could be observed in the failed group after treatment, the elevation of BE-Ab2 was much lower than that in successful group. PLII therapy significantly up-regulated the percentage of peripheral CD4+CD25+CD127- regulatory T cells (Tregs) in successfully pregnant women; however, there was no significant change of Tregs in pregnancy loss cases although receiving PLII therapy. These results suggested a positive correlation between higher frequency of Tregs and rate of successful pregnancies. The sensitivity and specificity of combination of Tregs with MLC-BE and BE-Ab2 were 81.8% and 81.3%, respectively. Therefore, the percentage of Tregs in peripheral blood may hopefully serve as a potential biomarker for monitoring the efficacy of therapy in URSA patients. Combination of Tregs with MLC-BE and BE-Ab2 may expect to better evaluate the efficacy of PLII in URSA patients. PMID:26097590

  1. Cheating on Exams: The Case of Israeli Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siniver, Erez

    2013-01-01

    The phenomenon of cheating on exams, which harms both the reputation of an academic institution and the students who don't cheat, is becoming increasingly common. We attempt to shed light on this phenomenon using data from a survey of graduates of the College of Management Academic Studies in Israel. Three aspects of the problem are examined:…

  2. Announcements Final Exam Dec 15, 8 am (not my idea).

    E-print Network

    Jacobs, David

    Announcements · Final Exam Dec 15, 8 am (not my idea). · Practice final handout Thursday. · Review viewing conditions change a lot. ­ Lighting changes: brightness constancy false. ­ Viewpoint changes 1 11 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 22 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 Then, try all translations of model edges. Add

  3. A timetable production system architecture for courses and exams

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ruben Gonzalez Rubio; Domingo Palao Munoz

    The production of a timetable for courses and exams in an academic institution is a periodic activity, the frequency of which de- pends on the institution: yearly, semi-annually, or quarterly. A timetable must satisfy all the hard constraints and as many soft constraints as possible. Timetable construction is one step in timetable production. Since it is a very complex activity,

  4. MA 11100 Exam 3 Memo Thursday, November 11 , 2010

    E-print Network

    charlotb

    2010-11-02

    Nov 11, 2010 ... Exam 3 covers the second part of section 3.3, sections 4.1, 4.2, 4.3 (parts included in lessons), sections ... To view a video of each problem in the ... It is recommended that you re-work all homework problems. You could work ...

  5. The Relevance of Recognizable Sets Written Preliminary Exam II

    E-print Network

    Sarkar, Anoop

    The Relevance of Recognizable Sets Written Preliminary Exam II Anoop Sarkar Department of Computer #12;elds. The focus will be to explicate these results to show how recognizable sets can be viewedS : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 29 5 Conclusion 31 1 #12;1 Introduction First of all, what are recognizable sets

  6. Exam Review WFS 340: Wetlands Ecology and Management

    E-print Network

    Gray, Matthew

    ) Understand the effects of Hurricane Katrina on wetland loss in Louisiana. Wetland Values 1) Know the 3Exam Review WFS 340: Wetlands Ecology and Management What is a Jurisdictional Wetland? 1) Know the 3 USACE criteria that are necessary for an area to be classified as a jurisdictional wetland. 2

  7. CS 170 (Clancy) Exam 1 October 12, 2000

    E-print Network

    California at Berkeley, University of

    CS 170 (Clancy) Exam 1 October 12, 2000 A1 Read and fill in this page now. Do NOT turn the page 170 student claims that DAG-longest-path is NP-complete, since it reduces to Longest CS 170 students have a jug filled with eight liters of Jolt Cola that they wish to divide evenly

  8. CS 170 (Clancy) Exam 1 October 12, 2000

    E-print Network

    California at Berkeley, University of

    CS 170 (Clancy) Exam 1 October 12, 2000 A1 Read and fill in this page now. Do NOT turn the page­longest­path. A misguided CS 170 student claims that DAG­longest­path is NP­complete, since it reduces to Longest CS 170 students have a jug filled with eight liters of Jolt Cola that they wish to divide evenly

  9. Hybrid Variable Neighbourhood Approaches to University Exam Timetabling

    E-print Network

    McCollum, Barry

    neighbourhood search (VNS) approaches for the university examination timetabling problem. In addition to a basic in the development of meta-heuristic techniques is the con- nectivity of the search space. This is largely definedHybrid Variable Neighbourhood Approaches to University Exam Timetabling E. K. Burke1 , A. J

  10. Adaptive Selection of Heuristics for Improving Constructed Exam Timetables

    E-print Network

    Qu, Rong

    Adaptive Selection of Heuristics for Improving Constructed Exam Timetables Edmund K. Burke, Rong Qu Timetabling Competition, to evaluate its ability to generalise. The hyper-heuristic with low-level improvement, namely, hyper-heuristics, aims to raise the level of generality of search methodologies to create

  11. Case Based Heuristic Selection for Exam Timetabling Problems

    E-print Network

    Qu, Rong

    1 1 Case Based Heuristic Selection for Exam Timetabling Problems Rong Qu ASAP Group, School of CSi for Examination Timetabling 3 Introduction - Case-based reasoning (CBR) Case-Based Heuristic Selection #12;4 Case-Based Heuristic Selection for Examination Timetabling 7 Introduction ­ timetabling problems

  12. Duke Divinity School Th.D. Language Exam Guidelines

    E-print Network

    Zhou, Pei

    are expected to demonstrate reading competence in at least two modern languages other than English. Normally the two languages will be chosen from the following three options: German, French or Spanish of courses taken to prepare for language exams. Reading competence will be demonstrated by successful

  13. Intro to Statistics Exam 1 Study Guide 1. Definitions

    E-print Network

    Hein, Derek

    Intro to Statistics Exam 1 Study Guide 1. Definitions: Chapter 1: data, statistics, population, sample, parameter, statistic, {descriptive, in- ferential} statistics, {qualitative, quantitative} data (ogive), {unordered, ordered} stem­and­leaf plot, stem, leaf, dot plot, pie chart, Pareto chart, paired

  14. Math 1210 Fall 2013 Exam 2 Page 1 Name: Instructor

    E-print Network

    Sherman, David

    with an air pump at the rate of 4 cubic inches per second. How fast is the radius of the balloon changing when Exam 2 Page 3 2. [12 pts] A convention manager is filling perfectly spherical giant party balloons the volume is 36 cubic inches? How fast is the surface area of the balloon changing at that same instant

  15. FE Exam State Application Screening Questions Supporting Documentation Tip Sheet

    E-print Network

    FE Exam ­ State Application Screening Questions Supporting Documentation Tip Sheet State of guidance for supporting documentation, as shown below: If your answer is YES to any of the following details about this incident. " Please format your supporting documentation in the format of a business

  16. 2001 Fall MSCS Exam Answer two out of three.

    E-print Network

    Madden, Patrick H.

    of wire, and under computer control, moves to one spot on the circuit board and connects one end of a wire2001 Fall MSCS Exam Answer two out of three. 1. In the manufacture of computer circuit boards that need to be connected, so the machine has a lot of work to do. It also has to manufacture many circuit

  17. Exam Card Procedure Guide Duke University Graduate School

    E-print Network

    Reif, John H.

    students who submit a dissertation or thesis into UMI/ProQuest to schedule an exam appointment after/theses committees should be finalized and approved prior to the initial submission to UMI/ProQuest. Please contact or thesis into UMI/ProQuest must take place at least two weeks prior to their defense date and no later than

  18. Psychosocial Factors Associated with Skin Self-Exam Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Jakob D.; Moriarty, Cortney M.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors examined psychosocial factors associated with skin self-exam (SSE) performance by young adults. Participants and Methods: The authors administered surveys to 218 US college students (aged 18-26 years) attending a large midwestern university. Results: Contrary to prior research, men (44%) and women (49%) were relatively…

  19. Math 310 Numerical Analysis (Bueler) Study Guide for Midterm Exam

    E-print Network

    Bueler, Ed

    -class on Friday 26 October, 2012. The exam is closed-book and no calculators are allowed. Problems will be in these categories: · apply an algorithm/method in a simple concrete case, E.g. Do two steps of bisection points at http://www.dms.uaf.edu/~bueler/polybasics.pdf Definitions. Please recall these definitions from

  20. Math 1210 Spring 2014 Exam 2 Page 1 Name: Instructor

    E-print Network

    Sherman, David

    4 - 3y2 at the point (1, 1)? #12;Math 1210 ­ Spring 2014 Exam 2 Page 3 2. [12 pts] Skinny Pete've sold all of their flowers, they leave the corner at the same time. Skinny Pete jumps on his bicycle fast is the distance between Skinny Pete and Badger changing 2 hours after they depart? #12;Math 1210

  1. Feedback on Early Module Feedback Exam Format Change

    E-print Network

    Alechina, Natasha

    Feedback on Early Module Feedback Exam Format Change G52PAS 2013-14 G52PAS 2013-14 1 / 3 #12;Feedback on early module feedback about feedback There was an early module feedback taken by Rong at the last lecture I promised to clarify how feedback on student performance for this module will be given

  2. MAP 2302, DR. BLOCK, SAMPLE EXAM 1 WITH THE ANSWERS

    E-print Network

    Block, Louis

    MAP 2302, DR. BLOCK, SAMPLE EXAM 1 WITH THE ANSWERS 1. (6 points) Consider the initial value guarantees a unique solution. Give complete justification of your answer. Answer: The equation is of the form. Answer: Using the method for Bernoilli equations we obtain: y = 1 x + 1 2 - 7 18 e2x 3. (8 points) Solve

  3. Evolution of a digital paper exam grading system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aaron Bloomfield

    2010-01-01

    We describe the evolution of a system designed to allow digital grading, by a human, of traditional paper-based exams or homework assignments. We present a number of new features that build upon the system described in a paper previously published in ITiCSE 2008. In particular, our system now has the ability to monitor an enormous range of data, from individual

  4. Spanish-English Verbatim Translation Exam. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stansfield, Charles W.; And Others

    The development and validation of the Spanish-English Verbatim Translation Exam (SEVTE) is described. The test is for use by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) in the selection of applicants for the positions of Language Specialist or Contract Linguist. The report is divided into eight sections. Section 1 describes the need for the test,…

  5. Extractive reserves in Brazilian Amazonia

    SciTech Connect

    Fearnside, P.M (National Institute for Research in the Amazon, Manaus-Amazonas (Brazil))

    1989-06-01

    In 1985 an opportunity arose for maintaining tracts of Amazonian forest under sustainable use. Brazil's National Council of Rubber Tappers and the Rural Worker's Union proposed the creation of a set of reserves of a new type, called extractive reserves. The first six are being established in one of the Brazilian states most threatened by deforestatation. The creation of extractive reserves grants legal protection to forest land traditionally used by rubber tappers, Brazil-nut gatherers, and other extractivists. The term extrativismo (extractivism) in Brazil refers to removing nontimber forest products, such as latex, resins, and nuts, without felling the trees. Approximately 30 products are collected for commercial sale. Many more types of forest materials are gathered, for example as food and medicines, for the extractivists' own use. The reserve proposal is attractive for several reasons related to social problems. It allows the rubber tappers to continue their livelihood rather than be expelled by deforestation. However, it is unlikely that sufficient land will be set aside as extractive reserves to employ all the tappers. Displaced rubber tappers already swell the ranks of urban slum dwellers in Brazil's Amazonian cities, and they have become refugees to continue their profession in the forests of neighboring countries, such as Bolivia.

  6. Sustainable growth and valuation of mineral reserves

    E-print Network

    Adelman, Morris Albert

    1994-01-01

    The annual change in the value of an in-ground mineral is equal to the increase or decrease of inventories ("reserves"), multiplied by the market value of a reserve unit. The limited shrinking resource base does not exist. ...

  7. 24 CFR 880.602 - Replacement reserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...SUPPORTIVE HOUSING FOR PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES PROGRAM) SECTION 8 HOUSING ASSISTANCE PAYMENTS PROGRAM FOR NEW CONSTRUCTION Management § 880.602 Replacement reserve. (a) A replacement reserve must be established and maintained...

  8. 24 CFR 880.602 - Replacement reserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...SUPPORTIVE HOUSING FOR PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES PROGRAM) SECTION 8 HOUSING ASSISTANCE PAYMENTS PROGRAM FOR NEW CONSTRUCTION Management § 880.602 Replacement reserve. (a) A replacement reserve must be established and maintained...

  9. 28 CFR 115.173 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...false [Reserved] 115.173 Section 115.173 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Lockups Investigations § 115.173 [Reserved]...

  10. 28 CFR 115.173 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...false [Reserved] 115.173 Section 115.173 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Lockups Investigations § 115.173 [Reserved]...

  11. 28 CFR 115.135 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...false [Reserved] 115.135 Section 115.135 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Lockups Training and Education § 115.135 [Reserved]...

  12. 28 CFR 115.135 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...false [Reserved] 115.135 Section 115.135 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Lockups Training and Education § 115.135 [Reserved]...

  13. 28 CFR 115.135 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...false [Reserved] 115.135 Section 115.135 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Lockups Training and Education § 115.135 [Reserved]...

  14. 28 CFR 115.173 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...false [Reserved] 115.173 Section 115.173 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Lockups Investigations § 115.173 [Reserved]...

  15. 24 CFR 401.453 - Reserves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MULTIFAMILY HOUSING MORTGAGE AND HOUSING ASSISTANCE RESTRUCTURING PROGRAM (MARK-TO-MARKET) Restructuring Plan § 401.453 Reserves. The Restructuring Plan must provide for reserves for capital...

  16. 5 CFR 332.314 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false [Reserved] 332.314 Section 332.314 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL...of Applications After Closing Date of Examinations § 332.314 [Reserved] Restoration of...

  17. Test-taking Behaviors on a Multiple-Choice Exam are Associated with Performance on the Exam and with Learning Style

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John A. McNulty; Beth Sonntag; James M. Sinacore

    2007-01-01

    The goal of the study was three-fold: to investigate medical student behaviors (e.g., changing answers) while taking high-stakes multiple-choice exams; to determine if specific behaviors were associated with performance on the exam; and to determine if there are associations of learning style, as measured by Kolb's Learning Style Inventory (LSI), with test-taking activities. We developed high-stakes, on-line exam applications that

  18. Issues ofReserving Resources in Advance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lars C. Wolf; Luca Delgrossi; Ralf Steinmetz; Sibylle Schaller; Hartmut Wittig

    1995-01-01

    Resource management offers Quality-of-Service reliability for time- critical continuous-media applications. Currently existing resource management systems provide only means to reserve resources starting with the reservation attempt and lasting for an unspecified duration. However, for several applica- tions such as video conferencing the ability to reserve the required resources in advance is needed. This paper explains a model for resource reservation

  19. Dr. Campbell's Bio111 Exam #2 Spring 2008 Spring 2008 Biology 111 In-Class Exam #2 Classical Genetics

    E-print Network

    Campbell, A. Malcolm

    ) Draw a picture of metaphase I. Your diagram must be for a diploid cell with chromosomes numbered 1, 2 the paternal DNA BLACK and the maternal DNA RED. Be sure your chromosomes show evidence of having gone through prophase I. #12;Dr. Campbell's Bio111 Exam #2 ­ Spring 2008 3 Now draw those same chromosomes at anaphase I

  20. Math 132 -Final Exam -Spring 2008 1 This exam contains 20 multiple choice questions. Each question is worth 5

    E-print Network

    Feres, Renato

    - Final Exam - Spring 2008 3 3. A thin triangular plate is submerged vertically in water so that one side/gal flows into the tank at a rate of 20 gal/min. The fluid is mixed instantaneously, and water in pumped out

  1. Dr. Campbell's Bio111 Exam #3 Spring 2008 Spring 2008 Biology 111 Take Home Exam #3 BioEnergetics

    E-print Network

    Campbell, A. Malcolm

    a. b. Draw a picture that approximates the absorption spectrum and the action spectrum using two water. c. In 2 sentences or less, explain why animals need to consume water. #12;Dr. Campbell's Bio111 Exam #3 ­ Spring 2008 3 8 pts. 5) a. Draw the chemical structures of ATP production from ADP

  2. Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-11-15

    This report summarizes the activities undertaken by the Strategic Petroleum Reserve during the third quarter of calendar year 1994. It addresses issues relative to storage facilities in Texas and Louisiana and include information on fill rate; average price of products purchased; current and projected storage capacity of each facility; analyses of existing or anticipated problems with the acquisition and storage or petroleum products; budgets established for the operation of each facility during the quarter and total; and major environmental actions completed, in progress, or anticipated. The report also briefly discusses two problems which have temporarily reduced the Reserve`s oil inventory for drawdown. These problems are a higher-than-normal gas content and elevated temperatures of crude at other facilities.

  3. 24 CFR 891.605 - Replacement reserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    The Borrower shall establish and maintain a replacement reserve to aid in funding extraordinary maintenance, and repair and replacement of capital items. (b) Deposits to reserve. The Borrower shall make monthly deposits to the replacement reserve in an amount determined by...

  4. Dynamic QOS Control and Resource Reservation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tatsuo Nakajima

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, we describe an adaptive QOS mappingscheme where the QOS parameters of applications aremapped into resource requirements dynamically, and theresources for the applications are reserved based on themeasured resource utilization. Real-Time Mach providesresource reservation facilities that are suitable forsupporting the adaptive QOS mapping scheme, and weshow the effectiveness of the resource reservation facilitieswhen the adaptive QOS mapping scheme

  5. Multicell Li\\/SOClâ reserve battery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. R. Baldwin; K. F. Garoutte

    1984-01-01

    Recent development work on reserve lithium thionyl chloride (RLTC) batteries at SNLA and Honeywell has included safety and performance evaluations. The RLTC battery is being considered for applications that have traditionally been fulfilled by state-of-the-art thermal batteries and reserve silver oxide zinc electrochemical systems. These applications typically demand a reserve battery having a rapid voltage rise, high reliability, operational safety

  6. Strategic petroleum reserve. Quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-08-15

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve reduces the Nation`s vulnerability to oil supply disruptions. Its existence provides a formidable deterrent to the use of oil as a political instrument and an effective response mechanism should a disruption occur. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve was created pursuant to the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of December 22, 1975 (Public Law 94-163). Its purposes are to reduce the impact of disruptions in supplies of petroleum products and to carry out obligations of the United States under the Agreement on an International Energy Program. Section 165(a) of the Act requires the submission of Annual Reports and Section 165(b)(1) requires the submission of Quarterly Reports. This Quarterly Report highlights activities undertaken during the second quarter of calendar year 1995, including: inventory of petroleum products stored in the Reserve; current and projected storage capacity, analysis of existing or anticipated problems with the acquisition and storage of petroleum products, and future expansion of storage capacity; funds obligated by the Secretary from the SPR Petroleum Account and the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Account during the prior calendar quarter and in total; and major environmental actions completed, in progress, or anticipated.

  7. Strategic petroleum reserve. Quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-15

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve serves as one of our most important investments in reducing the Nation`s vulnerability to oil supply disruptions. Its existence provides an effective response mechanism should a disruption occur and a formidable deterrent to the use of oil as a political instrument. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve was created pursuant to the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of December 22, 1975, (Public Law 94-163) as amended, to reduce the impact of disruptions in supplies of petroleum products and to carry out obligations of the United States under the Agreement on an International Energy Program. Section 165(a) of the Act requires the submission of Annual Reports and Section 165(b)(1) requires the submission of Quarterly Reports. This Quarterly Report highlights activities undertaken during the first quarter of calendar year 1994, including: (1) inventory of petroleum products stored in the Reserve, under contract and in transit at the end of the calendar quarter; (2) fill rate for the current quarter and projected fill rate for the next calendar quarter; (3) average price of the petroleum products acquired during the calendar quarter; (4) current and projected storage capacity; (5) analysis of existing or anticipated problems with the acquisition and storage of petroleum products, and future expansion of storage capacity; (6) funds obligated by the Secretary from the SPR Petroleum Account and the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Account during the prior calendar quarter and in total; and (7) major environmental actions completed, in progress, or anticipated.

  8. Development of the Hopi Reservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seig, Louis

    Repeated encroachments by Mormons and Navajos upon Arizona lands traditionally inhabited by the Hopi American Indians occasioned the Executive Order of December 16, 1882 and creation of the Executive Order Reservation. However, assignment of lands was not limited to the Hopi, for the Order stated that the lands should be "set apart for the use and…

  9. Case Western Reserve Travel Policy

    E-print Network

    Rollins, Andrew M.

    . Travel Arrangements 5. Approved Forms of Payment 6. Air Travel 7. Frequent Flyer Programs 8. AirlineCase Western Reserve University Travel Policy Revised May 20, 2013 #12;Travel Policy--Revision date 05/20/2013 TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. Purpose 2. Travel Authorization 3. Post-Travel Expense Approval 4

  10. Increasing Reservation Attendance: Ganado's Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Carl; And Others

    Based on recommendations of a District Attendance Task Force, in 1980 the Ganado School District (a Navajo Reservation District) formulated an Attendance Improvement Plan which decreased the primary school's absentee rate 37% over previous years and which dramatically increased Friday attendance. The primary school targeted "high risk" chronic…

  11. Strategic petroleum reserve annual report

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-02-15

    Section 165 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (Public Law 94- 163), as amended, requires the Secretary of Energy to submit annual reports to the President and the Congress on activities of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). This report describes activities for the year ending December 31, 1995.

  12. Does the Number of Hours Studied Affect Exam Performance?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    K. Barbarick

    This article describes a study in which the number of hours that students studied (determined by askng them) was examined to see how it affected exam performance. The study covered two courses at different institutions over a total of six semesters. Using the overall exam averages and regression analysis, the researchers calculated that students needed to invest from 3.0 to 4.4 hours to earn an average score and from 4.5 to 6.4 hours to earn an A (90 percent or 45 points out of 50) on average. In addition, they determined that the ratio of hours studied to lecture hours needed to earn a score of 90 percent ranged from 1.5 to 2.1 hours with a mean of 1.7, less than the "Carnegie Rule" of 2 hours of outside study time per week for each course credit (where a course credit is equivalent to 1 hour of lecture).

  13. STAT652 TEST 1 (Class Exam, Oct. 8, 2010)

    E-print Network

    Liang, Faming

    STAT652 TEST 1 (Class Exam, Oct. 8, 2010) 1. A chemist is interested in determining the weight loss, pointing out that the weight loss cannot be negative even if the exposure time is zero. Discuss. #12.5-1.0-0.50.00.5 y residual 4 5 6 7 -1.5-1.0-0.50.00.5 fitted_value residual Figure 1: Residual plots for the weight

  14. Algebra and Representation Sample Exam Problems Magic Squares

    E-print Network

    White, Donald L.

    1 Algebra and Representation ­ Sample Exam Problems Magic Squares 1. Determine whether each of the following is a magic square. If so, give the magic number. If not, explain why not. 9 4 5 16 2 12 1.5 4 0.5 2 6 10 5 10 15 1 2 3 7 8 3 9 18 3 3.5 0 2.5 2. Suppose you are given a 3 by 3 magic square M

  15. MATH 221, SECOND EXAM, SUMMER 008 AYMAN BADAWI

    E-print Network

    Badawi, Ayman

    MATH 221, SECOND EXAM, SUMMER 008 AYMAN BADAWI QUESTION 1. (20 points) Write DOWN T OR F (1: July 8, 008. 1 #12;2 AYMAN BADAWI QUESTION 2. (6points) Let A be a 2 × 2 matrix such adj(A) = 4 7 2 6(A) as a span. b)Find a basis for Col(A). c) Find N(A), basis for N(A), then write N(A) as a span. #12;4 AYMAN

  16. MATH 221, FIRST EXAM, SPRING 006 AYMAN BADAWI

    E-print Network

    Badawi, Ayman

    MATH 221, FIRST EXAM, SPRING 006 AYMAN BADAWI TIME--------­Name--------------­, Id. Num) Find (AT )-1 1 #12;2 AYMAN BADAWI QUESTION 2. (14 points) a) Let A = 2 4 -2 1 3 -2 -1 0 6 Find for AX = 0 #12;4 AYMAN BADAWI QUESTION 4. (9 points) Given A, B are 3×3 matrices such that det(A) = -3

  17. MATH 221, THIRD EXAM, SUMMER 008 AYMAN BADAWI

    E-print Network

    Badawi, Ayman

    MATH 221, THIRD EXAM, SUMMER 008 AYMAN BADAWI QUESTION 1. (20 points) Let A be a 3 × 3 matrix A is nonsingular. b) Find A-1 . Date: July 16, 008. 1 #12;2 AYMAN BADAWI QUESTION 2. 20 points Let A = 1 2 4 1 0. #12;4 AYMAN BADAWI QUESTION 4. 20 points 1)Find the LU-factorization of A = 1 1 1 1 -1 0 2 1 -2 -2

  18. MATH 221, FIRST EXAM, SUMMER 008 AYMAN BADAWI

    E-print Network

    Badawi, Ayman

    MATH 221, FIRST EXAM, SUMMER 008 AYMAN BADAWI QUESTION 1. 20 points a)For what values of a, b be inconsistent? Date: June 18, 008. 1 #12;2 AYMAN BADAWI QUESTION 2. 10 points solve the following system for H. What is the dimension of H? #12;4 AYMAN BADAWI QUESTION 5. a) 10 points Is D = {(x1, x1x3, x3

  19. School of Meteorology Comprehensive Exam Policy Below is the Comprehensive Exam Policy as approved by the School of Meteorology Faculty at the

    E-print Network

    Oklahoma, University of

    School of Meteorology Comprehensive Exam Policy Below is the Comprehensive Exam Policy as approved by the School of Meteorology Faculty at the December 7, 2006 School of Meteorology Faculty meeting of Meteorology. According to the rules of the Graduate College, the Examining Committee for a Comprehensive

  20. Investigating the Variables in a Mock Exam Study Session Designed to Improve Student Exam Performance in an Undergraduate Behavior Modification and Therapy Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dotson, Wesley H.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to identify components of an optional mock exam review session (e.g. requiring students to write answers, providing students grading keys for questions) responsible for improvements in student performance on application-based short-essay exams in an undergraduate behavior modification course. Both…

  1. Developing, deploying, and analyzing exam wrappers in a large introductory physics class

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greco, Edwin

    2012-03-01

    In a typical semester, approximately 2000 students are registered into a calculus based introductory physics course at Georgia Tech. In each course, approximately 75 percent of a student's final grade is based on exam performance. Our goal was to encourage students into the feedback cycle of self-regulated learning by asking them to complete exam wrappers; post examination assignments that ask student to reflect on their study habits and errors made during an exam. We cluster students into groups based on how they partitioned their study time. We analyze exam and overall course performance for each group. In addition, we compare the performance of students who completed exam wrappers with those that did not. We find that exam wrappers are useful tool for both the instructor and student.

  2. The Belize Ethnobotany Reserve Project

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This is an excerpt from the book "The Biodiversity Crisis: Losing What Counts" which takes a look at an unusual international effort to preserve plant diversity. The goals of the Belize Ethnobotany Project are to study and conserve local knowledge of plant diversity and traditional medicinal uses. A diverse coalition organized this project, including groups from the U.S. and Central America. The project has resulted in the creation of a 6,000-acre forest reserve.

  3. A General Business Model for Marine Reserves

    PubMed Central

    Sala, Enric; Costello, Christopher; Dougherty, Dawn; Heal, Geoffrey; Kelleher, Kieran; Murray, Jason H.; Rosenberg, Andrew A.; Sumaila, Rashid

    2013-01-01

    Marine reserves are an effective tool for protecting biodiversity locally, with potential economic benefits including enhancement of local fisheries, increased tourism, and maintenance of ecosystem services. However, fishing communities often fear short-term income losses associated with closures, and thus may oppose marine reserves. Here we review empirical data and develop bioeconomic models to show that the value of marine reserves (enhanced adjacent fishing + tourism) may often exceed the pre-reserve value, and that economic benefits can offset the costs in as little as five years. These results suggest the need for a new business model for creating and managing reserves, which could pay for themselves and turn a profit for stakeholder groups. Our model could be expanded to include ecosystem services and other benefits, and it provides a general framework to estimate costs and benefits of reserves and to develop such business models. PMID:23573192

  4. Protein and lipid oxidative damage in healthy students during and after exam stress.

    PubMed

    Nakhaee, Alireza; Shahabizadeh, Fatemeh; Erfani, Mozhgan

    2013-06-13

    Oxidative damage at cellular level is thought to be one of the mechanisms in the pathogenesis of psychological stress (anxiety). The aim of this study was to investigate lipid and protein oxidative damage in exam anxiety conditions. Blood samples were collected in two stages (during the exam period and post vacation) from 51 healthy female students after responding to Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) and test anxiety questionnaire. Protein carbonyl, total thiol and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were determined in serum. Participants reported significantly higher levels of subjective anxiety during the exam period than post vacation. Also the level of total thiol was significantly lower during the exam period compared with post vacation (p<0.001). Meanwhile, protein carbonyl and MDA levels during the exams were significantly higher than those in post-exam period (p<0.01). During the exam period, there was a negative correlation between serum total thiol levels and the severity of anxiety (r=-0.45, p<0.01). A significant positive correlation between the changes in serum protein carbonyl and MDA levels, also between those markers and anxiety score was found during the exam period. The high level of protein carbonyl and MDA, also low level of total thiol during the exam period demonstrated an oxidative damage to proteins and lipids in stress conditions. Our results suggest that oxidative damage to cellular compounds may be one of the mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of anxiety. PMID:23688949

  5. Reserve valuation in electric power systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz, Pablo Ariel

    Operational reliability is provided in part by scheduling capacity in excess of the load forecast. This reserve capacity balances the uncertain power demand with the supply in real time and provides for equipment outages. Traditionally, reserve scheduling has been ensured by enforcing reserve requirements in the operations planning. An alternate approach is to employ a stochastic formulation, which allows the explicit modeling of the sources of uncertainty. This thesis compares stochastic and reserve methods and evaluates the benefits of a combined approach for the efficient management of uncertainty in the unit commitment problem. Numerical studies show that the unit commitment solutions obtained for the combined approach are robust and superior with respect to the traditional approach. These robust solutions are especially valuable in areas with a high proportion of wind power, as their built-in flexibility allows the dispatch of practically all the available wind power while minimizing the costs of operation. The scheduled reserve has an economic value since it reduces the outage costs. In several electricity markets, reserve demand functions have been implemented to take into account the value of reserve in the market clearing process. These often take the form of a step-down function at the reserve requirement level, and as such they may not appropriately represent the reserve value. The value of reserve is impacted by the reliability, dynamic and stochastic characteristics of system components, the system operation policies, and the economic aspects such as the risk preferences of the demand. In this thesis, these aspects are taken into account to approximate the reserve value and construct reserve demand functions. Illustrative examples show that the demand functions constructed have similarities with those implemented in some markets.

  6. Students Who Do Not Currently Read Traditional Reserve Readings and Their Attitudes Toward Electronic Reserve.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colaric, Susan M.

    Reserve readings are a special collection in the university library, established by a professor to support a particular class. A recent study at the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill found enthusiasm among current reserve users for an electronic reserve system (Petersen, 1996). The study described in this paper examined the reasons some…

  7. 2012 HORIBA, Ltd. All rights reserved. 2012 HORIBA, Ltd. All rights reserved.

    E-print Network

    Greenaway, Alan

    © 2012 HORIBA, Ltd. All rights reserved. © 2012 HORIBA, Ltd. All rights reserved. #12;© 2012 HORIBA, Ltd. All rights reserved. HORIBA Jobin Yvon IBH Ltd A division of HORIBA Scientific Kulwinder Sagoo Product Specialist February 27, 2013 Fluorescence in Biomolecular Research #12;© 2012 HORIBA, Ltd. All

  8. All Rights Reserved, Copyright 2013 Riken, Japan. 1 RICSK All Rights Reserved,

    E-print Network

    Fukai, Tomoki

    RICSK: HPCI 2013/7/30 RICSK All Rights Reserved, Copyright 2013 Riken, Japan. 1 RICSK 2013/7/30 RICSK All Rights Reserved, Copyright 2013 Riken, Japan. 2 () Real Image based Cell Simulator for K computer 2013/7/30 RICSK All Rights Reserved, Copyright 2013 Riken, Japan. 3 1. RICSK 30

  9. Minimum dynamic reserves: A framework for determining reserve size in ecosystems structured by large disturbances

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shawn J. Leroux; Fiona K. A. Schmiegelow; Robert B. Lessard; Steve G. Cumming

    2007-01-01

    We introduce minimum dynamic reserves: a framework for the minimum reserve size required to incorporate natural disturbance and maintain ecological processes. The minimum dynamic reserve framework is a refinement of the minimum dynamic area concept, relating the size of the dominant disturbance on a landscape to communities of species that may be differentially affected by this disturbance. We present criteria

  10. 77 FR 74662 - Designated Reserve Ratio for 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-17

    ...INSURANCE CORPORATION Designated Reserve Ratio for 2013 AGENCY: Federal Deposit Insurance...ACTION: Notice of Designated Reserve Ratio for 2013...designates that the Designated Reserve Ratio (DRR) for the Deposit Insurance...

  11. 76 FR 77229 - Designated Reserve Ratio for 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-12

    ...INSURANCE CORPORATION Designated Reserve Ratio for 2012 AGENCY: Federal Deposit Insurance...ACTION: Notice of Designated Reserve Ratio for 2012...designates that the Designated Reserve Ratio (DRR) for the Deposit Insurance...

  12. 78 FR 62633 - Designated Reserve Ratio for 2014

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ...INSURANCE CORPORATION Designated Reserve Ratio for 2014 AGENCY: Federal Deposit Insurance...ACTION: Notice of Designated Reserve Ratio for 2014...designates that the Designated Reserve Ratio (DRR) for the Deposit Insurance...

  13. Table of Contents General Guidelines for Space Reservation.....................................................3

    E-print Network

    #12;event and meeting guidelines 2 Table of Contents General Guidelines for Space Reservation ......................................................................................................................7 Reservation Procedures ............................................................................................................10 #12;event and meeting guidelines 3 General Guidelines for Space Reservation Student Organizations

  14. 40 CFR 49.10771-49.10820 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Skokomish Reservation, Washington §§ 49.10771-49.10820 [Reserved] Implementation Plan for the Spokane Tribe of the Spokane Reservation, Washington Source: 70 FR 18127, Apr. 8, 2005, unless otherwise...

  15. 40 CFR 49.10771-49.10820 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Skokomish Reservation, Washington §§ 49.10771-49.10820 [Reserved] Implementation Plan for the Spokane Tribe of the Spokane Reservation, Washington Source: 70 FR 18127, Apr. 8, 2005, unless otherwise...

  16. 40 CFR 49.10771-49.10820 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Skokomish Reservation, Washington §§ 49.10771-49.10820 [Reserved] Implementation Plan for the Spokane Tribe of the Spokane Reservation, Washington Source: 70 FR 18127, Apr. 8, 2005, unless otherwise...

  17. 40 CFR 49.10771-49.10820 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Skokomish Reservation, Washington §§ 49.10771-49.10820 [Reserved] Implementation Plan for the Spokane Tribe of the Spokane Reservation, Washington Source: 70 FR 18127, Apr. 8, 2005, unless otherwise...

  18. 40 CFR 49.10771-49.10820 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Skokomish Reservation, Washington §§ 49.10771-49.10820 [Reserved] Implementation Plan for the Spokane Tribe of the Spokane Reservation, Washington Source: 70 FR 18127, Apr. 8, 2005, unless otherwise...

  19. 7 CFR 623.13 - Wetlands reserve plan of operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wetlands reserve plan of operations. 623.13 Section...OF AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES EMERGENCY WETLANDS RESERVE PROGRAM § 623.13 Wetlands reserve plan of operations. (a)...

  20. 7 CFR 623.13 - Wetlands reserve plan of operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Wetlands reserve plan of operations. 623.13 Section...OF AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES EMERGENCY WETLANDS RESERVE PROGRAM § 623.13 Wetlands reserve plan of operations. (a)...

  1. 14 CFR 27.727 - Reserve energy absorption drop test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2012-01-01 false Reserve energy absorption drop test. 27.727 Section 27.727...Landing Gear § 27.727 Reserve energy absorption drop test. The reserve energy absorption drop test must be conducted as...

  2. 14 CFR 29.727 - Reserve energy absorption drop test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2013-01-01 false Reserve energy absorption drop test. 29.727 Section 29.727...Landing Gear § 29.727 Reserve energy absorption drop test. The reserve energy absorption drop test must be conducted as...

  3. 14 CFR 29.727 - Reserve energy absorption drop test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2014-01-01 false Reserve energy absorption drop test. 29.727 Section 29.727...Landing Gear § 29.727 Reserve energy absorption drop test. The reserve energy absorption drop test must be conducted as...

  4. 14 CFR 27.727 - Reserve energy absorption drop test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2013-01-01 false Reserve energy absorption drop test. 27.727 Section 27.727...Landing Gear § 27.727 Reserve energy absorption drop test. The reserve energy absorption drop test must be conducted as...

  5. 14 CFR 23.727 - Reserve energy absorption drop test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false Reserve energy absorption drop test. 23.727 Section 23...Gear § 23.727 Reserve energy absorption drop test. (a) If compliance with the reserve energy absorption requirement in §...

  6. 14 CFR 23.727 - Reserve energy absorption drop test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 false Reserve energy absorption drop test. 23.727 Section 23...Gear § 23.727 Reserve energy absorption drop test. (a) If compliance with the reserve energy absorption requirement in §...

  7. 14 CFR 29.727 - Reserve energy absorption drop test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2012-01-01 false Reserve energy absorption drop test. 29.727 Section 29.727...Landing Gear § 29.727 Reserve energy absorption drop test. The reserve energy absorption drop test must be conducted as...

  8. 14 CFR 23.727 - Reserve energy absorption drop test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 false Reserve energy absorption drop test. 23.727 Section 23...Gear § 23.727 Reserve energy absorption drop test. (a) If compliance with the reserve energy absorption requirement in §...

  9. 14 CFR 27.727 - Reserve energy absorption drop test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2014-01-01 false Reserve energy absorption drop test. 27.727 Section 27.727...Landing Gear § 27.727 Reserve energy absorption drop test. The reserve energy absorption drop test must be conducted as...

  10. 12 CFR Appendix I to Part 222 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false [Reserved] I Appendix I to Part 222 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED...RESERVE SYSTEM FAIR CREDIT REPORTING (REGULATION V) Appendix I to Part 222...

  11. 24 CFR 982.155 - Administrative fee reserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...PROGRAM Annual Contributions Contract and PHA Administration of Program § 982.155 Administrative fee reserve. (a) The PHA must maintain an administrative fee reserve...single administrative fee reserve for the PHA program. The PHA must credit to the...

  12. 24 CFR 982.155 - Administrative fee reserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...PROGRAM Annual Contributions Contract and PHA Administration of Program § 982.155 Administrative fee reserve. (a) The PHA must maintain an administrative fee reserve...single administrative fee reserve for the PHA program. The PHA must credit to the...

  13. 24 CFR 982.155 - Administrative fee reserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...PROGRAM Annual Contributions Contract and PHA Administration of Program § 982.155 Administrative fee reserve. (a) The PHA must maintain an administrative fee reserve...single administrative fee reserve for the PHA program. The PHA must credit to the...

  14. 24 CFR 982.155 - Administrative fee reserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...PROGRAM Annual Contributions Contract and PHA Administration of Program § 982.155 Administrative fee reserve. (a) The PHA must maintain an administrative fee reserve...single administrative fee reserve for the PHA program. The PHA must credit to the...

  15. 24 CFR 982.155 - Administrative fee reserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...PROGRAM Annual Contributions Contract and PHA Administration of Program § 982.155 Administrative fee reserve. (a) The PHA must maintain an administrative fee reserve...single administrative fee reserve for the PHA program. The PHA must credit to the...

  16. Fiji's largest marine reserve benefits reef sharks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goetze, J. S.; Fullwood, L. A. F.

    2013-03-01

    To provide more information about whether sharks benefit from no-take marine reserves, we quantified the relative abundance and biomass of reef sharks inside and outside of Namena, Fiji's largest reserve (60.6 km2). Using stereo baited remote underwater video systems (stereo-BRUVs), we found that the abundance and biomass of sharks was approximately two and four times greater in shallow and deep locations, respectively, within the Namena reserve compared to adjacent fished areas. The greater abundance and biomass of reef sharks inside Namena is likely a result of greater prey availability rather than protection from fishing. This study demonstrates that marine reserves can benefit sharks.

  17. 47 CFR 73.5001 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Procedures for Competitive Bidding and for Applications for Noncommercial Educational Broadcast Stations on Non-Reserved Channels § 73.5001...

  18. 47 CFR 73.5001 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Procedures for Competitive Bidding and for Applications for Noncommercial Educational Broadcast Stations on Non-Reserved Channels § 73.5001...

  19. 47 CFR 73.5001 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Procedures for Competitive Bidding and for Applications for Noncommercial Educational Broadcast Stations on Non-Reserved Channels § 73.5001...

  20. 47 CFR 73.5001 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Procedures for Competitive Bidding and for Applications for Noncommercial Educational Broadcast Stations on Non-Reserved Channels § 73.5001...