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1

Megalencephalic Leukoencephalopathy with Subcortical Cysts (MLC)  

MedlinePLUS

... new treatments for the disease. Are there other names for Megalencephalic Leukoencephalopathy with subcortical Cysts (MLC)? Other names for Megalencephalic Leukoencephalopathy with subcortical Cysts (MLC) include: ...

2

Exam #1  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The first exam in a class holds an opportunity for metacognitive teaching. At this point the student is open to hearing your message, especially if their outcome is less than they had hoped. This example walks through some strategies for implementing metacognitive teaching wrapped around the first exam.

Samson, Perry

3

MLC++: A Machine Learning Library in C  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present MLC++ , a library of C++classes andtools for supervised Machine Learning. While MLC++provides general learning algorithms that can be usedby end users, the main objective is to provide researchersand experts with a wide variety of tools thatcan accelerate algorithm development, increase softwarereliability, provide comparison tools, and displayinformation visually. More than just a collection ofexisting algorithms, MLC++ is an

Ron Kohavi; George H. John; Richard Long; David Manley; Karl Pfleger

1994-01-01

4

Digital rectal exam  

MedlinePLUS

A digital rectal exam is an examination of the lower rectum. The doctor uses a gloved, lubricated finger to check for ... signs of prostate cancer . In women, a digital rectal exam may be performed during a routine gynecologic ...

5

Testicular self-exam  

MedlinePLUS

Testicular self-exam is an examination of the testicles that you do on yourself. ... A testicular self-exam may be done to check for testicular cancer . Testicles have blood vessels and other structures that can ...

6

LTCC-MLC duplexer for DCS1800  

Microsoft Academic Search

A low-temperature cofired-ceramic (LTCC) multilayer-ceramic (MLC) duplexer is presented in this paper. The duplexer is designed for a DCS-1800 handset. It is constructed using a multilayer laminated bandpass filter and a multilayer laminated bandstop filter. These two filters are capable of easy tuning after duplexer manufacture. The computer-aided design flowchart is also presented. Additionally, the tuning method and loss improvements

Jyh-Wen Sheen

1999-01-01

7

Examining Exam Reviews: A Comparison of Exam Scores and Attitudes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Instructors commonly use exam reviews to help students prepare for exams and to increase student success. The current study compared the effects of traditional, trivia, and practice test-based exam reviews on actual exam scores, as well as students' attitudes toward each review. Findings suggested that students' exam scores were significantly…

Hackathorn, Jana; Cornell, Kathryn; Garczynski, Amy M.; Solomon, Erin D.; Blankmeyer, Katheryn E.; Tennial, Rachel E.

2012-01-01

8

AAPT Physics Bowl Exam Review  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The AAPT Physics Bowl is an annual contest sponsored by the American Association of Physics Teachers to generate interest in physics and to recognize outstanding high school physics students and their teachers. The exam consists of multiple choice questions and has a time limit of forty-five minutes. Copies of the 1994-2000 Physics Bowl exams have been provided here by the AAPT in the form of Adobe Acrobat .PDF files. The answers are provided at the end of each exam. The current exam may no longer be given in the format of the exams listed below. The CD available from the AAPT Store has questions and answers from 2001 through 2006. 1994 AAPT/Metrologic Physics Bowl Exam 1995 AAPT/Metrologic Physics Bowl Exam 1996 AAPT/Metrologic Physics Bowl Exam 1997 AAPT/Metrologic Physics Bowl Exam 1998 AAPT/Metrologic Physics Bowl Exam 1999 AAPT/Metrologic Physics Bowl Exam 2000 AAPT/Metrologic Physics Bowl Exam

2003-10-16

9

Quizzes, Tests, and Exams  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website features information on strategies for testing, including choosing appropriate testing methodologies and developing a test that assesses students as accurately and fairly as possible. Topics include different types of tests, construction of effective exams and alternative testing methods.

Davis, Barbara G.; Honolulu, University O.

10

MLC tracking for Elekta VMAT: a modelling study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A model has been developed to simulate volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) delivery for Elekta control systems. The model was experimentally validated for static-tumour VMAT delivery and has been applied to the investigation of motion compensation with dynamic multileaf collimator (dMLC) delivery tracking for a series of VMAT lung treatment plans at various control point spacings for five patients. The relative increase in treatment time with dMLC tracking was calculated for four 1D rigid-body motion trajectories, and the effect of the control point spacing, the MLC leaf speed and an increased number of dose levels on the dMLC tracking delivery time evaluated. It has been observed that a faster leaf speed is advantageous for motion trajectories with shorter time periods and larger amplitudes. The accuracy of dMLC tracking was found to increase with a decreased control point spacing and is dependent on the amplitude and time period of the motion trajectory of the target. dMLC tracking is shown to be a promising emerging technology which can confer advantage over breath-hold motion-compensation techniques which more drastically reduce the efficiency of VMAT and are more invasive for the patient.

Davies, G. A.; Poludniowski, G.; Webb, S.

2011-12-01

11

Exam Question Exchange.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a take-home exam story problem based on stoichiometry. Requires the student to determine the percentage of phosphoric acid in a large container of nitric acid if a man fell into it. Provides assumptions, clues, and an acceptable solution. (MVL)

Ramette, R. W.

1988-01-01

12

Exam Question Exchange.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two exam questions are presented. One suitable for advanced undergraduate or beginning graduate courses in organic chemistry, is on equivalent expressions for the description of several pericyclic reactions. The second, for general chemistry students, asks for an estimation of the rate of decay of a million-year-old Uranium-238 sample. (BB)

Alexander, John J., Ed.

1978-01-01

13

NOTE: Evaluation of MLC leaf positioning using a scanning liquid ionization chamber EPID  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method was developed to determine the accuracy of multileaf collimator (MLC) positioning using transmitted dose maps measured by a scanning liquid ionization chamber electronic portal imaging device (SLIC-EPID). Several MLC fields were designed, using the Varian C-series standard MLC-80, as reference fields for open fields. The MLC leaves were then shifted from the reference positions along the direction of

Mohammad Mohammadi; Eva Bezak

2007-01-01

14

The Use of NeuroAiD (MLC601) in Postischemic Stroke Patients  

PubMed Central

Aim. We aimed to assess the efficacy of MLC601 on functional recovery in patients given MLC601 after an ischemic stroke. Methods. This is a retrospective cohort study comparing poststroke patients given open-label MLC601 (n = 30; 9 female) for three months and matching patients who did not receive MLC601 from our Stroke Data Bank. Outcome assessed was modified Rankin Scale (mRS) at three months and analyzed according to: (1) achieving a score of 0-2, (2) achieving a score of 0-1, and (3) mean change in scores from baseline. Results. At three months, 21 patients on MLC601 became independent as compared to 17 patients not on MLC601 (OR 1.79; 95% CI 0.62–5.2; P = 0.29). There were twice as many patients (n = 16) on MLC601 who attained mRS scores similar to their prestroke state than in the non-MLC601 group (n = 8) (OR 3.14; 95% CI 1.1–9.27; P = 0.038). Mean improvement in mRS from baseline was better in the MLC601 group than in the non-MLC601 group (?1.7 versus ?0.9; mean difference ?0.73; 95% CI ?1.09 to ?0.38; P < 0.001). Conclusion. MLC601 improves functional recovery at 3 months postischemic stroke. An ongoing large randomized control trial of MLC601 will help validate these results.

Navarro, Jose C.; Molina, Mark C.; Baroque II, Alejandro C.; Lokin, Johnny K.

2012-01-01

15

The dosimetric and delivery advantages of a new 160-leaf MLC.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to conduct a measurement and treatment planning study on the dosimetric and delivery advantages of a new 160-leaf multileaf collimator (MLC). Recently, a new 160-leaf multileaf collimator (Siemens 160 MLC(TM)) was introduced. The 160-MLC is a single focused design that consists of 160-leafs (80 pairs), each 95 mm thick with a projected leaf width of 5 mm at the machine isocenter. Compared to its double focused predecessors, the 82-leaf MLC (Siemens OPTIVIEW((tm)) MLC) and 58-leaf MLC (Siemens 3-D MLC((tm))), the 160-MLC has leaf widths of half the size. The most notable difference is the new slanted leaf design that replaced the tongue and groove system and allows for complete interdigitation. A systematic study that compared the dosimetric and delivery differences among the 160-MLC, 58-MLC, and divergent Cerrobend blocks was performed. Dosimetric conformity for each collimator type was determined by conforming each to circular targets of various diameters. The effective penumbra for each collimator type was calculated by conforming each, at various collimator angles, to a square stationary target. The quality of 3D conformal radiotherapy treatment (3D-CRT) plans and the quality intensity modulated radiation treatment (IMRT) plans were respectively compared with each collimator type. The 160-MLC was found to have improved dosimetric conformity over the 58-MLC. The divergent Cerrobend block showed marginal dosimetric conformity improvement over the 160-LMC. Overall, the 160-MLC had a 45% and 29% reduction in the 20/80 and 30/90 effective penumbra over the 58-MLC, respectively, while exhibiting only a slightly larger effective penumbra over the divergent Cerrobend block. Comparing 3D-CRT plans generated for small lesions of the head and neck, the V100 for the PTV of the plans generated with the Cerrobend blocks, the 58-MLC, and the 160-MLC were 97.78%, 92.51%, and 99.18%, respectively, while with regards to the OARs, the three produced similar DVHs. IMRT plans generated with the 160-MLC were found to significantly reduce the total delivered monitor units by up to 14.7% and the number of segments by as much as 10.7% compared to the 58-MLC. The average delivery time for the direct aperture optimized (DAO) IMRT plans generated with the 160-MLC was approximately 5 minutes. Overall, compared to the 58-MLC, the new 160-MLC was found to improve dosimetric conformity and IMRT delivery efficiency. PMID:21517128

Prah, D E; Kainz, K; Peng, C; Li, X A

2011-06-01

16

Fast regional readout CMOS Image Sensor for dynamic MLC tracking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Advanced radiotherapy techniques such as volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) require verification of the complex beam delivery including tracking of multileaf collimators (MLC) and monitoring the dose rate. This work explores the feasibility of a prototype Complementary metal-oxide semiconductor Image Sensor (CIS) for tracking these complex treatments by utilising fast, region of interest (ROI) read out functionality. An automatic edge tracking algorithm was used to locate the MLC leaves edges moving at various speeds (from a moving triangle field shape) and imaged with various sensor frame rates. The CIS demonstrates successful edge detection of the dynamic MLC motion within accuracy of 1.0 mm. This demonstrates the feasibility of the sensor to verify treatment delivery involving dynamic MLC up to ~400 frames per second (equivalent to the linac pulse rate), which is superior to any current techniques such as using electronic portal imaging devices (EPID). CIS provides the basis to an essential real-time verification tool, useful in accessing accurate delivery of complex high energy radiation to the tumour and ultimately to achieve better cure rates for cancer patients.

Zin, H.; Harris, E.; Osmond, J.; Evans, P.

2014-03-01

17

Data Mining Using MLC++: A Machine Learning Library in C  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data mining algorithms including machine learning, statistical analysis, and pattern recognition techniques can greatly improve our understanding of data warehouses that are now becoming more widespread. In this paper, we focus on classication algorithms and review the need for multiple classication algorithms. We describe a system calledMLC++, which was designed to help choose the appropriate classication algorithm for a given

Ron Kohavi; Dan Sommerfield; James Dougherty

1996-01-01

18

Monte Carlo study of MLC fields for cobalt therapy machine.  

PubMed

An automated Multi-Leaf Collimator (MLC) system has been developed as add-on for the cobalt-60 teletherapy machines available in India. The goal of the present computational study is to validate the MLC design using Monte Carlo (MC) modeling. The study was based on the Kirloskar-supplied Phoenix model machines that closely match the Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) theratron-80 machine. The MLC is a retrofit attachment to the collimator assembly, with 14 non-divergent leaf pairs of 40 mm thick, 7 mm wide, and 150 mm long tungsten alloy plates with rounded edges and 20 mm tongue and 2 mm groove in each leaf. In the present work, the source and collimator geometry has been investigated in detail to arrive at a model that best represents the measured dosimetric data. The authors have studied in detail the proto-I MLC built for cobalt-60. The MLC field sizes were MC simulated for 2 × 2 cm(2) to 14 × 14 cm(2) square fields as well as irregular fields, and the percent depth dose (PDD) and profile data were compared with ROPS(†) treatment planning system (TPS). In addition, measured profiles using the IMATRIXX system(‡) were also compared with the MC simulations. The proto-I MLC can define radiation fields up to 14 × 14 cm(2) within 3 mm accuracy. The maximum measured leakage through the leaf ends in closed condition was 3.4% and interleaf leakage observed was 7.3%. Good agreement between MC results, ROPS and IMATRIXX results has been observed. The investigation also supports the hypothesis that optical and radiation field coincidence exists for the square fields studied with the MLC. Plots of the percent depth dose (PDD) data and profile data for clinically significant irregular fields have also been presented. The MC model was also investigated to speed up the calculations to allow calculations of clinically relevant conformal beams. (†)Radiation Oncology Planning System (ROPS) is supplied by Tirumala Jyothi Computer Systems described at https://sites.google.com/site/tjcsrops/ (‡)IMATRIXX is supplied by IBA Dosimetry described at HYPERLINK http://www.iba-dosimetry.com. PMID:24872604

Ayyangar, Komanduri M; Rani, Roopa A; Kumar, Anil; Reddy, A R

2014-04-01

19

Monte Carlo study of MLC fields for cobalt therapy machine  

PubMed Central

An automated Multi-Leaf Collimator (MLC) system has been developed as add-on for the cobalt-60 teletherapy machines available in India. The goal of the present computational study is to validate the MLC design using Monte Carlo (MC) modeling. The study was based on the Kirloskar-supplied Phoenix model machines that closely match the Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) theratron-80 machine. The MLC is a retrofit attachment to the collimator assembly, with 14 non-divergent leaf pairs of 40 mm thick, 7 mm wide, and 150 mm long tungsten alloy plates with rounded edges and 20 mm tongue and 2 mm groove in each leaf. In the present work, the source and collimator geometry has been investigated in detail to arrive at a model that best represents the measured dosimetric data. The authors have studied in detail the proto-I MLC built for cobalt-60. The MLC field sizes were MC simulated for 2 × 2 cm2 to 14 × 14 cm2 square fields as well as irregular fields, and the percent depth dose (PDD) and profile data were compared with ROPS† treatment planning system (TPS). In addition, measured profiles using the IMATRIXX system‡ were also compared with the MC simulations. The proto-I MLC can define radiation fields up to 14 × 14 cm2 within 3 mm accuracy. The maximum measured leakage through the leaf ends in closed condition was 3.4% and interleaf leakage observed was 7.3%. Good agreement between MC results, ROPS and IMATRIXX results has been observed. The investigation also supports the hypothesis that optical and radiation field coincidence exists for the square fields studied with the MLC. Plots of the percent depth dose (PDD) data and profile data for clinically significant irregular fields have also been presented. The MC model was also investigated to speed up the calculations to allow calculations of clinically relevant conformal beams. †Radiation Oncology Planning System (ROPS) is supplied by Tirumala Jyothi Computer Systems described at https://sites.google.com/site/tjcsrops/ ‡IMATRIXX is supplied by IBA Dosimetry described at HYPERLINK http://www.iba-dosimetry.com

Ayyangar, Komanduri M.; Rani, Roopa A.; Kumar, Anil; Reddy, A. R.

2014-01-01

20

Normal - Mental Status Exam - Attention Sub-exam - Patient 1  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this demonstration video, a patient is given a mental status exam. The patient is a female with no known neurological health problems who volunteered to act as a simulated patient in order to demonstrate 'normal' responses to exam techniques. Viewing the video requires installation of the free QuickTime Plug-in.

Pearson, John C.

2009-01-02

21

MLC1 trafficking and membrane expression in astrocytes: role of caveolin-1 and phosphorylation.  

PubMed

Megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts (MLC) is a rare congenital leukodystrophy caused by mutations in the MLC1 gene that encodes a membrane protein of unknown function. In the brain MLC1 protein is mainly expressed in astrocyte end-feet, localizes in lipid rafts and associates with the dystrophin glycoprotein complex (DGC). Using pull-down and co-fractionation assays in cultured human and rat astrocytes, we show here that MLC1 intracellular domains pull-down the DGC proteins syntrophin, dystrobrevin, Kir4.1 and caveolin-1, the structural protein of caveolae, thereby supporting a role for DGC and caveolar structures in MLC1 function. By immunostaining and subcellular fractionation of cultured rat or human astrocytes treated with agents modulating caveolin-mediated trafficking, we demonstrate that MLC1 is also expressed in intracellular vesicles and endoplasmic reticulum and undergoes caveolae/raft-mediated endocytosis. Inhibition of endocytosis, cholesterol lowering and protein kinases A- and C-mediated MLC1 phosphorylation favour the expression of membrane-associated MLC1. Because pathological mutations prevent MLC1 membrane expression, the identification of substances regulating MLC1 intracellular trafficking is potentially relevant for the therapy of MLC. PMID:19931615

Lanciotti, Angela; Brignone, Maria Stefania; Camerini, Serena; Serafini, Barbara; Macchia, Gianfranco; Raggi, Carla; Molinari, Paola; Crescenzi, Marco; Musumeci, Marco; Sargiacomo, Massimo; Aloisi, Francesca; Petrucci, Tamara Corinna; Ambrosini, Elena

2010-03-01

22

Reducing the number of segments in unidirectional MLC segmentations.  

PubMed

In intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), fluence matrices obtained from a treatment planning system are usually delivered by a linear accelerator equipped with a multileaf collimator (MLC). A segmentation method is needed for decomposing these fluence matrices into segments suitable for the MLC, and the number of segments used is an important factor for treatment time. In this work, an algorithm for reduction of the number of segments (NS) is presented for unidirectional segmentations, where there is no backtracking of the MLC leaves. It uses a geometrical representation of the segmentation output for searching the key values in a fluence matrix that complicate its decomposition. The NS reduction is achieved by performing minor modifications in these values, under the conditions of avoiding substantial modifications of the dose-volume histogram, and does not increase in average the total number of monitor units delivered. The proposed method was tested using two clinical cases planned with the PCRT 3D treatment planning system. PMID:20057009

Mellado, X; Cruz, S; Artacho, J M; Canellas, M

2010-02-01

23

TomoTherapy MLC verification using exit detector data  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Treatment delivery verification (DV) is important in the field of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). While IMRT and image guided radiation therapy (IGRT), allow us to create more conformal plans and enables the use of tighter margins, an erroneously executed plan can have detrimental effects on the treatment outcome. The purpose of this study is to develop a DV technique to verify TomoTherapy's multileaf collimator (MLC) using the onboard mega-voltage CT detectors. Methods: The proposed DV method uses temporal changes in the MVCT detector signal to predict actual leaf open times delivered on the treatment machine. Penumbra and scattered radiation effects may produce confounding results when determining leaf open times from the raw detector data. To reduce the impact of the effects, an iterative, Richardson-Lucy (R-L) deconvolution algorithm is applied. Optical sensors installed on each MLC leaf are used to verify the accuracy of the DV technique. The robustness of the DV technique is examined by introducing different attenuation materials in the beam. Additionally, the DV technique has been used to investigate several clinical plans which failed to pass delivery quality assurance (DQA) and was successful in identifying MLC timing discrepancies as the root cause. Results: The leaf open time extracted from the exit detector showed good agreement with the optical sensors under a variety of conditions. Detector-measured leaf open times agreed with optical sensor data to within 0.2 ms, and 99% of the results agreed within 8.5 ms. These results changed little when attenuation was added in the beam. For the clinical plans failing DQA, the dose calculated from reconstructed leaf open times played an instrumental role in discovering the root-cause of the problem. Throughout the retrospective study, it is found that the reconstructed dose always agrees with measured doses to within 1%. Conclusions: The exit detectors in the TomoTherapy treatment systems can provide valuable information about MLC behavior during delivery. A technique to estimate the TomoTherapy binary MLC leaf open time from exit detector signals is described. This technique is shown to be both robust and accurate for delivery verification.

Chen Quan; Westerly, David; Fang Zhenyu; Sheng, Ke; Chen Yu [TomoTherapy Inc., 1240 Deming Way, Madison, Wisconsin 53717 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado 80045 (United States); Xinghua Cancer Hospital, Xinghua, Jiangsu 225700 (China); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California-Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); TomoTherapy Inc., 1240 Deming Way, Madison, Wisconsin 53717 (United States)

2012-01-15

24

USEFUL: Ultrasound Exam for Underlying Lesions Incorporated into Physical Exam  

PubMed Central

Introduction: The Ultrasound Screening Exam for Underlying Lesions (USEFUL) was developed in an attempt to establish a role for bedside ultrasound in the primary and preventive care setting. It is the purpose of our pilot study to determine if students were first capable of performing all of the various scans required of our USEFUL while defining such an ultrasound-assisted physical exam that would supplement the standard hands-on physical exam in the same head-to-toe structure. We also aimed to assess the time needed for an adequate exam and analyze if times improved with repetition and previous ultrasound training. Methods: Medical students with ranging levels of ultrasound training received a 25-minute presentation on our USEFUL followed by a 30-minute hands-on session. Following the hands-on session, the students were asked to perform a timed USEFUL on 2–3 standardized subjects. All images were documented as normal or abnormal with the understanding that an official detailed exam would be performed if an abnormality were to be found. All images were read and deemed adequate by board eligible emergency medicine ultrasound fellows. Results: Twenty-six exams were performed by 9 students. The average time spent by all students per USEFUL was 11 minutes and 19 seconds. Students who had received the University of California, Irvine School of Medicine's integrated ultrasound curriculum performed the USEFUL significantly faster (p< 0.0025). The time it took to complete the USEFUL ranged from 6 minutes and 32 seconds to 17 minutes, and improvement was seen with each USEFUL performed. The average time to complete the USEFUL on the first standardized patient was 13 minutes and 20 seconds, while 11 minutes and 2 seconds, and 9 minutes and 20 seconds were spent performing the exam on the second and third patient, respectively. Conclusion: Students were able to effectively complete all scans required by the USEFUL in a timely manner. Students who have been a part of the integrated ultrasound in medicine curriculum performed the USEFUL significantly faster than students who had not. Students were able to significantly improve upon the time it took them to complete the USEFUL with successive attempts. Future endpoints are aimed at assessing the feasibility and outcomes of an ultrasound-assisted physical exam in a primary care setting and the exam's effect on doctor-patient satisfaction. [West J Emerg Med. 2014;15(3):260–266.

Steller, Jon; Russell, Bianca; Lotfipour, Shahram; Maldonado, Graciela; Siepel, Tim; Jakle, Halsey; Hata, Stacy; Chiem, Alan; Fox, John Christian

2014-01-01

25

An experimental evaluation of the Agility MLC for motion-compensated VMAT delivery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An algorithm for dynamic multileaf-collimator (dMLC) tracking of a target performing a known a priori, rigid-body motion during volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT), has been experimentally validated and applied to investigate the potential of the Agility (Elekta AB, Stockholm, Sweden) multileaf-collimator (MLC) for use in motion-compensated VMAT delivery. For five VMAT patients, dosimetric measurements were performed using the Delta4 radiation detector (ScandiDos, Uppsala, Sweden) and the accuracy of dMLC tracking was evaluated using a gamma-analysis, with threshold levels of 3% for dose and 3 mm for distance-to-agreement. For a motion trajectory with components in two orthogonal directions, the mean gamma-analysis pass rate without tracking was found to be 58.0%, 59.0% and 60.9% and was increased to 89.1%, 88.3% and 93.1% with MLC tracking, for time periods of motion of 4 s, 6 s and 10 s respectively. Simulations were performed to compare the efficiency of the Agility MLC with the MLCi MLC when used for motion-compensated VMAT delivery for the same treatment plans and motion trajectories. Delivery time increases from a static-tumour to dMLC-tracking VMAT delivery were observed in the range 0%-20% for the Agility, and 0%-57% with the MLCi, indicating that the increased leaf speed of the Agility MLC is beneficial for MLC tracking during lung radiotherapy.

Davies, G. A.; Clowes, P.; Bedford, J. L.; Evans, P. M.; Webb, S.; Poludniowski, G.

2013-07-01

26

Are Online Exams an Invitation to Cheat?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, the authors use data from two online courses in principles of economics to estimate a model that predicts exam scores from independent variables of student characteristics. In one course, the final exam was proctored, and in the other course, the final exam was not proctored. In both courses, the first three exams were unproctored.…

Harmon, Oskar R.; Lambrinos, James; Kennedy, Peter, Ed.

2008-01-01

27

Student Exam Creation as a Learning Tool  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine if there is a relationship between: 1) comprehensiveness of student developed model tests and final exam score, 2) the quality of student developed model tests and answer keys combined, and final exam score, and 3) student developed model test similarity to instructor final exam and final exam score.…

Brink, Jan; Capps, Emerson; Sutko, Al

2004-01-01

28

Psychological Aspects of the Pelvic Exam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many women are traumatized by pelvic exanimations, resulting in reactions ranging from mild anxiety and embarrassment to avoiding the exam altogether. Studies which surveyed how women feel about pelvic exams are discussed and analyzed as are projects utilizing the educational pelvic exam approach. The concept of psychological preparation for pelvic exams is presented incorporating the importance of personal control. The

Alice D Domar

1986-01-01

29

Comparing dose in the build-up region between compensator- and MLC-based IMRT.  

PubMed

The build-up dose in the megavoltage photon beams can be a limiting factor in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatments. Excessive surface dose can cause patient discomfort and treatment interruptions, while underdosing may lead to tumor repopulation and local failure. Dose in the build-up region was investigated for IMRT delivery with solid brass compensator technique(compensator-based IMRT) and compared with that of multileaf collimator (MLC)-based IMRT. A Varian Trilogy linear accelerator equipped with an MLC was used for beam delivery. A special solid brass step-wise compensator was designed and built for testing purposes. Two step-and-shoot MLC fields were programmed to produce a similar modulated step-wise dose profile. The MLC and compensator dose profiles were measured and adjusted to match at the isocenter depth of 10 cm. Build-up dose in the 1-5 mm depth range was measured with an ultrathin window, fixed volume parallel plate ionization chamber. Monte Carlo simulations were used to model the brass compensator and step-and-shoot MLC fields. The measured and simulated profiles for the two IMRT techniques were matched at the isocenter depth of 10 cm. Different component contributions to the shallow dose, including the MLC scatter, were quantified. Mean spectral energies for the open and filtered beams were calculated. The compensator and MLC profiles at 10 cm depth were matched better than ± 1.5%. The build-up dose was up to 7% lower for compensator IMRT compared to MLC IMRT due to beam hardening in the brass. Low-energy electrons contribute 22% and 15% dose at 1 mm depth for compensator and MLC modalities, respectively. Compensator-based IMRT delivers less dose in the build-up region than MLC-based IMRT does, even though a compensator is closer to the skin than the MLC. PMID:22955641

Javedan, Khosrow; Zhang, Geoffrey G; Hoffe, Sarah; Feygelman, Vladimir; Forster, Kenneth

2012-01-01

30

Exam Schools from the Inside  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sometimes called "exam schools," academically selective institutions have long been a part of the American secondary-education landscape. The schools are diverse in origin and purpose. No single catalyst describes why or how they began as or morphed into academically selective institutions. A number of them were products of the country's efforts…

Finn, Chester E., Jr.; Hockett, Jessica

2012-01-01

31

HESI exams: consequences and remediation.  

PubMed

A growing body of knowledge supports the use of Elsevier's standardized HESI exams as an admission criterion to evaluate ongoing student performance and curricular outcomes and to measure students' preparedness for the National Council Licensure Examination for Registered Nurses (NCLEX-RN). Because a plethora of research indicates that the HESI Exit Exam (E(2)) is a valid predictor of NCLEX-RN success, faculty often designate a benchmark E(2) score that students are required to achieve. Students who do not achieve the faculty-designated benchmark score are required to remediate and retest with a parallel version of the E(2) to determine the effectiveness of the remediation and to reevaluate the student's preparedness for the licensure exam. This study compared mean E(2) scores of students who attended schools that attached consequences to E(2) scores with students who attended schools that did not attach consequences to E(2) scores. Based on data obtained from the Eighth Validity Study Questionnaire, findings indicated that E(2) scores were significantly higher (P < .01) in schools that associated consequences with failure to achieve the faculty-designated E(2) score and were also significantly higher (P < .01) in schools that required, rather than merely suggested remediation. PMID:23566502

Lauer, Maria E; Yoho, Mary J

2013-01-01

32

Small field dosimetric characterization of a new 160-leaf MLC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goal of this work was to perform a 6 MV small field characterization of the new Agility 160-leaf multi-leaf collimator (MLC) from Elekta. This included profile measurement analysis and central axis relative output measurements using various diode detectors and an air-core fiber optic scintillation dosimeter (FOD). Data was acquired at a depth of 10.0 cm for field sizes of 1.0, 0.9, 0.8, 0.7, 0.6 and 0.5 cm. Three experimental data sets, comprised of five readings, were made for both the relative output and profile measurements. Average detector-specific output ratios (\\overline {OR} _{det}^{f_{clin} }) were calculated with respect to a field size of 3.0 cm and small field replacement correction factors (\\mathop k\

Cranmer-Sargison, G.; Liu, P. Z. Y.; Weston, S.; Suchowerska, N.; Thwaites, D. I.

2013-10-01

33

The beta1 subunit of the Na,K-ATPase pump interacts with megalencephalic leucoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts protein 1 (MLC1) in brain astrocytes: new insights into MLC pathogenesis.  

PubMed

Megalencephalic leucoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts (MLC) is a rare congenital leucodystrophy caused by mutations in MLC1, a membrane protein of unknown function. MLC1 expression in astrocyte end-feet contacting blood vessels and meninges, along with brain swelling, fluid cysts and myelin vacuolation observed in MLC patients, suggests a possible role for MLC1 in the regulation of fluid and ion homeostasis and cellular volume changes. To identify MLC1 direct interactors and dissect the molecular pathways in which MLC1 is involved, we used NH2-MLC1 domain as a bait to screen a human brain library in a yeast two-hybrid assay. We identified the ?1 subunit of the Na,K-ATPase pump as one of the interacting clones and confirmed it by pull-downs, co-fractionation assays and immunofluorescence stainings in human and rat astrocytes in vitro and in brain tissue. By performing ouabain-affinity chromatography on astrocyte and brain extracts, we isolated MLC1 and the whole Na,K-ATPase enzyme in a multiprotein complex that included Kir4.1, syntrophin and dystrobrevin. Because Na,K-ATPase is involved in intracellular osmotic control and volume regulation, we investigated the effect of hypo-osmotic stress on MLC1/Na,K-ATPase relationship in astrocytes. We found that hypo-osmotic conditions increased MLC1 membrane expression and favoured MLC1/Na,K-ATPase-?1 association. Moreover, hypo-osmosis induced astrocyte swelling and the reversible formation of endosome-derived vacuoles, where the two proteins co-localized. These data suggest that through its interaction with Na,K-ATPase, MLC1 is involved in the control of intracellular osmotic conditions and volume regulation in astrocytes, opening new perspectives for understanding the pathological mechanisms of MLC disease. PMID:20926452

Brignone, Maria S; Lanciotti, Angela; Macioce, Pompeo; Macchia, Gianfranco; Gaetani, Matteo; Aloisi, Francesca; Petrucci, Tamara C; Ambrosini, Elena

2011-01-01

34

The ?1 subunit of the Na,K-ATPase pump interacts with megalencephalic leucoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts protein 1 (MLC1) in brain astrocytes: new insights into MLC pathogenesis  

PubMed Central

Megalencephalic leucoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts (MLC) is a rare congenital leucodystrophy caused by mutations in MLC1, a membrane protein of unknown function. MLC1 expression in astrocyte end-feet contacting blood vessels and meninges, along with brain swelling, fluid cysts and myelin vacuolation observed in MLC patients, suggests a possible role for MLC1 in the regulation of fluid and ion homeostasis and cellular volume changes. To identify MLC1 direct interactors and dissect the molecular pathways in which MLC1 is involved, we used NH2-MLC1 domain as a bait to screen a human brain library in a yeast two-hybrid assay. We identified the ?1 subunit of the Na,K-ATPase pump as one of the interacting clones and confirmed it by pull-downs, co-fractionation assays and immunofluorescence stainings in human and rat astrocytes in vitro and in brain tissue. By performing ouabain-affinity chromatography on astrocyte and brain extracts, we isolated MLC1 and the whole Na,K-ATPase enzyme in a multiprotein complex that included Kir4.1, syntrophin and dystrobrevin. Because Na,K-ATPase is involved in intracellular osmotic control and volume regulation, we investigated the effect of hypo-osmotic stress on MLC1/Na,K-ATPase relationship in astrocytes. We found that hypo-osmotic conditions increased MLC1 membrane expression and favoured MLC1/Na,K-ATPase-?1 association. Moreover, hypo-osmosis induced astrocyte swelling and the reversible formation of endosome-derived vacuoles, where the two proteins co-localized. These data suggest that through its interaction with Na,K-ATPase, MLC1 is involved in the control of intracellular osmotic conditions and volume regulation in astrocytes, opening new perspectives for understanding the pathological mechanisms of MLC disease.

Brignone, Maria S.; Lanciotti, Angela; Macioce, Pompeo; Macchia, Gianfranco; Gaetani, Matteo; Aloisi, Francesca; Petrucci, Tamara C.; Ambrosini, Elena

2011-01-01

35

Cumulative Exams in the Introductory Psychology Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many teachers require their students to take cumulative exams, but there are surprisingly few studies that examine the benefits of such exams. The purpose of this study was to determine whether introductory psychology students who take cumulative exams throughout the semester would have better long-term retention than students who take a…

Lawrence, Natalie K.

2013-01-01

36

NOTE: Evaluation of MLC leaf positioning using a scanning liquid ionization chamber EPID  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method was developed to determine the accuracy of multileaf collimator (MLC) positioning using transmitted dose maps measured by a scanning liquid ionization chamber electronic portal imaging device (SLIC-EPID). Several MLC fields were designed, using the Varian C-series standard MLC-80, as reference fields for open fields. The MLC leaves were then shifted from the reference positions along the direction of MLC leaf movement towards the central axis from 0.1 to 1.6 mm. The electronic portal images (EPIs), acquired for each case, were converted to two-dimensional dose maps using an appropriate calibration method and the relative dose difference maps were then calculated. The experiment was then performed at non-zero gantry angles in the presence of an anthropomorphic phantom for typical prostate and head and neck fields. Several standard edge detection algorithms were also used in order to find the shifted MLC leaf position. In addition, the short-term reproducibility of MLC leaf positioning was evaluated using the above-mentioned methods. It was found that the relationship between the relative dose difference and MLC leaf spatial displacement is linear. A variation of 0.2 mm in leaf position leads to approximately 4% change in the relative dose values for open fields. The variation of the relative dose difference for phantom studies depends on the phantom positioning and the EPI normalization. From the standard edge detection algorithms, used in the current study, the 'Canny' algorithm was found to be the optimum method to identify the minimum detectable MLC leaf displacements with a precision of approximately 0.1 mm for all cases. However, the result of edge detection algorithms generally is binary and there is no additional information compared to the relative dose maps. The reproducibility of MLC positions was found to be within 0.3 mm. In conclusion, a SLIC-EPID can be used for regular quality assurance (QA) of MLC leaf positioning. Despite significant difference in the pixel size of the acquired SLIC-EPIs, it can be concluded that the SLIC-EPID can be used for MLC quality assurance protocols with similar accuracy compared to amorphous silicon (a-Si) EPID results.

Mohammadi, Mohammad; Bezak, Eva

2007-01-01

37

Marine Reserves  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video explains the concept of marine reserves, protected areas where fish and other species are allowed to live longer and grow larger. Other topics include sustainable fishing practices, and a case study about a marine reserve established by fishermen off the Canary Islands.

38

The first clinical implementation of electromagnetic transponder-guided MLC tracking  

PubMed Central

Purpose: We report on the clinical process, quality assurance, and geometric and dosimetric results of the first clinical implementation of electromagnetic transponder-guided MLC tracking which occurred on 28 November 2013 at the Northern Sydney Cancer Centre. Methods: An electromagnetic transponder-based positioning system (Calypso) was modified to send the target position output to in-house-developed MLC tracking code, which adjusts the leaf positions to optimally align the treatment beam with the real-time target position. Clinical process and quality assurance procedures were developed and performed. The first clinical implementation of electromagnetic transponder-guided MLC tracking was for a prostate cancer patient being treated with dual-arc VMAT (RapidArc). For the first fraction of the first patient treatment of electromagnetic transponder-guided MLC tracking we recorded the in-room time and transponder positions, and performed dose reconstruction to estimate the delivered dose and also the dose received had MLC tracking not been used. Results: The total in-room time was 21 min with 2 min of beam delivery. No additional time was needed for MLC tracking and there were no beam holds. The average prostate position from the initial setup was 1.2 mm, mostly an anterior shift. Dose reconstruction analysis of the delivered dose with MLC tracking showed similar isodose and target dose volume histograms to the planned treatment and a 4.6% increase in the fractional rectal V60. Dose reconstruction without motion compensation showed a 30% increase in the fractional rectal V60 from that planned, even for the small motion. Conclusions: The real-time beam-target correction method, electromagnetic transponder-guided MLC tracking, has been translated to the clinic. This achievement represents a milestone in improving geometric and dosimetric accuracy, and by inference treatment outcomes, in cancer radiotherapy.

Keall, Paul J.; Colvill, Emma; O'Brien, Ricky; Ng, Jin Aun; Poulsen, Per Rugaard; Eade, Thomas; Kneebone, Andrew; Booth, Jeremy T.

2014-01-01

39

Detailed analysis of latencies in image-based dynamic MLC tracking  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Previous measurements of the accuracy of image-based real-time dynamic multileaf collimator (DMLC) tracking show that the major contributor to errors is latency, i.e., the delay between target motion and MLC response. Therefore the purpose of this work was to develop a method for detailed analysis of latency contributions during image-based DMLC tracking. Methods: A prototype DMLC tracking system integrated with a linear accelerator was used for tracking a phantom with an embedded fiducial marker during treatment delivery. The phantom performed a sinusoidal motion. Real-time target localization was based on x-ray images acquired either with a portal imager or a kV imager mounted orthogonal to the treatment beam. Each image was stored in a file on the imaging workstation. A marker segmentation program opened the image file, determined the marker position in the image, and transferred it to the DMLC tracking program. This program estimated the three-dimensional target position by a single-imager method and adjusted the MLC aperture to the target position. Imaging intervals {Delta}T{sub image} from 150 to 1000 ms were investigated for both kV and MV imaging. After the experiments, the recorded images were synchronized with MLC log files generated by the MLC controller and tracking log files generated by the tracking program. This synchronization allowed temporal analysis of the information flow for each individual image from acquisition to completed MLC adjustment. The synchronization also allowed investigation of the MLC adjustment dynamics on a considerably finer time scale than the 50 ms time resolution of the MLC log files. Results: For {Delta}T{sub image}=150 ms, the total time from image acquisition to completed MLC adjustment was 380{+-}9 ms for MV and 420{+-}12 ms for kV images. The main part of this time was from image acquisition to completed image file writing (272 ms for MV and 309 ms for kV). Image file opening (38 ms), marker segmentation (4 ms), MLC position calculation (16 ms), and MLC adjustment (52 ms) were considerably faster. For {Delta}T{sub image}=1000 ms, the total time from image acquisition to completed MLC adjustment increased to 1030{+-}62 ms (MV) and 1330{+-}52 ms (kV) mainly because of delayed image file writing. The MLC adjustment duration was constant 52 ms ({+-}3 ms) for MLC adjustments below 1.1 mm and increased linearly for larger MLC adjustments. Conclusions: A method for detailed time analysis of each individual real-time position signal for DMLC tracking has been developed and applied to image-based tracking. The method allows identification of the major contributors to latency and therefore a focus for reducing this latency. The method could be an important tool for the reconstruction of the delivered target dose during DMLC tracking as it provides synchronization between target motion and MLC motion.

Poulsen, Per Rugaard; Cho, Byungchul; Sawant, Amit; Ruan, Dan; Keall, Paul J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 and Department of Oncology and Department of Medical Physics, Aarhus University Hospital, 8000 Aarhus (Denmark); Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 and Department of Radiation Oncology, Asan Medical Center, Seoul 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

2010-09-15

40

Megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts protein-1 modulates endosomal pH and protein trafficking in astrocytes: Relevance to MLC disease pathogenesis  

PubMed Central

Megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts (MLC) is a rare leukodystrophy caused by mutations in the gene encoding MLC1, a membrane protein mainly expressed in astrocytes in the central nervous system. Although MLC1 function is unknown, evidence is emerging that it may regulate ion fluxes. Using biochemical and proteomic approaches to identify MLC1 interactors and elucidate MLC1 function we found that MLC1 interacts with the vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase), the proton pump that regulates endosomal acidity. Because we previously showed that in intracellular organelles MLC1 directly binds Na, K-ATPase, which controls endosomal pH, we studied MLC1 endosomal localization and trafficking and MLC1 effects on endosomal acidity and function using human astrocytoma cells overexpressing wild-type (WT) MLC1 or MLC1 carrying pathological mutations. We found that WT MLC1 is abundantly expressed in early (EEA1+, Rab5+) and recycling (Rab11+) endosomes and uses the latter compartment to traffic to the plasma membrane during hyposmotic stress. We also showed that WT MLC1 limits early endosomal acidification and influences protein trafficking in astrocytoma cells by stimulating protein recycling, as revealed by FITC-dextran measurement of endosomal pH and transferrin protein recycling assay, respectively. WT MLC1 also favors recycling to the plasma-membrane of the TRPV4 cation channel which cooperates with MLC1 to activate calcium influx in astrocytes during hyposmotic stress. Although MLC disease-causing mutations differentially affect MLC1 localization and trafficking, all the mutated proteins fail to influence endosomal pH and protein recycling. This study demonstrates that MLC1 modulates endosomal pH and protein trafficking suggesting that alteration of these processes contributes to MLC pathogenesis.

Brignone, Maria S.; Lanciotti, Angela; Visentin, Sergio; De Nuccio, Chiara; Molinari, Paola; Camerini, Serena; Diociaiuti, Marco; Petrini, Stefania; Minnone, Gaetana; Crescenzi, Marco; Laudiero, Luisa Bracci; Bertini, Enrico; Petrucci, Tamara C.; Ambrosini, Elena

2014-01-01

41

Megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts protein-1 modulates endosomal pH and protein trafficking in astrocytes: Relevance to MLC disease pathogenesis.  

PubMed

Megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts (MLC) is a rare leukodystrophy caused by mutations in the gene encoding MLC1, a membrane protein mainly expressed in astrocytes in the central nervous system. Although MLC1 function is unknown, evidence is emerging that it may regulate ion fluxes. Using biochemical and proteomic approaches to identify MLC1 interactors and elucidate MLC1 function we found that MLC1 interacts with the vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase), the proton pump that regulates endosomal acidity. Because we previously showed that in intracellular organelles MLC1 directly binds Na, K-ATPase, which controls endosomal pH, we studied MLC1 endosomal localization and trafficking and MLC1 effects on endosomal acidity and function using human astrocytoma cells overexpressing wild-type (WT) MLC1 or MLC1 carrying pathological mutations. We found that WT MLC1 is abundantly expressed in early (EEA1(+), Rab5(+)) and recycling (Rab11(+)) endosomes and uses the latter compartment to traffic to the plasma membrane during hyposmotic stress. We also showed that WT MLC1 limits early endosomal acidification and influences protein trafficking in astrocytoma cells by stimulating protein recycling, as revealed by FITC-dextran measurement of endosomal pH and transferrin protein recycling assay, respectively. WT MLC1 also favors recycling to the plasma-membrane of the TRPV4 cation channel which cooperates with MLC1 to activate calcium influx in astrocytes during hyposmotic stress. Although MLC disease-causing mutations differentially affect MLC1 localization and trafficking, all the mutated proteins fail to influence endosomal pH and protein recycling. This study demonstrates that MLC1 modulates endosomal pH and protein trafficking suggesting that alteration of these processes contributes to MLC pathogenesis. PMID:24561067

Brignone, Maria S; Lanciotti, Angela; Visentin, Sergio; De Nuccio, Chiara; Molinari, Paola; Camerini, Serena; Diociaiuti, Marco; Petrini, Stefania; Minnone, Gaetana; Crescenzi, Marco; Laudiero, Luisa Bracci; Bertini, Enrico; Petrucci, Tamara C; Ambrosini, Elena

2014-06-01

42

The art of a pediatric exam.  

PubMed

: This article discusses incorporating "artistry" into a primary care pediatric exam, a technique that considers a child's cognitive developmental stage, previous medical experiences, and the family's general stressors and fears. Benefits of using the artistic exam technique include decreased fear and anxiety for both the child and parent and fewer unnecessary diagnostic tests. The artistic exam has also been shown to improve adherence to pre- and postcare instructions and improved quality outcomes. PMID:24841465

Riley, Debra

2014-06-15

43

Functional analysis of mlcR , a regulatory gene for ML236B (compactin) biosynthesis in Penicillium citrinum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mlcR gene encodes a putative 50.2-kDa protein with a Zn(II)2Cys6 DNA-binding domain, which may be involved in the regulation of ML-236B biosynthesis in Penicillium citrinum. The induction of ML-236B production appears to correlate with the expression of mlcR, and the ML-236B biosynthetic genes mlcA-mlcH, and occurs mostly during the stationary phase. The present study was designed to examine the

Y. Abe; C. Ono; M. Hosobuchi; H. Yoshikawa

2002-01-01

44

Economics 201B - Final Exam -- 2001  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Final examination for an economics class at UCLA focusing on game theory. The exam provides some economic contextualization, but focuses mostly on theory. Solutions to the exam are available here: http://levine.sscnet.ucla.edu/econ201/final01a.pdf.

45

Tailoring the Preparticipation Exam to Female Athletes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the basics of the preparticipation exam, focusing on aspects specific to females, such as menstrual dysfunction, disordered eating, and orthopedic problems such as scoliosis and patellofemoral pain. Health history questionnaire and other parts of the exam are included in six tables. (SM)

Johnson, Mimi D.

1992-01-01

46

How External Exit Exams Spur Achievement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compared with minimum competency tests, curriculum-based external exit exams provide better measures of students' achievement levels. Analysis of Third Mathematics and Science Study data shows that 13 year-olds from exit-exam countries are ahead of nonparticipating countries. Effects on college enrollment, job success, and test scores are…

Bishop, John H.; Mane, Ferran; Bishop, Michael

2001-01-01

47

Theme-Based Exams in General Chemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Theme-based exams have been implemented in a one-semester, advanced-level general chemistry course for science and engineering majors. The exams are based on interdisciplinary topics related to chemistry, physics, materials science, environmental science, earth science, soil science, biochemistry, and chemical, mechanical, electrical, and civil engineering. This is part of a larger effort to bring a motivating state-of-the-art focus to the lecture and laboratory of this course by teaching general chemistry in the context of current research topics and technical challenges related to the career goals of the students in the course. Student attitudes toward the theme-based exams were evaluated. Students determined the theme-based exams to be more interesting, informative, and less upsetting than traditional exams. Additionally, end-of-course evaluations indicated that students were almost unanimous in recognizing that chemistry would be important for their future professional careers.

Amato-Wierda, Carmela

1999-06-01

48

Exam Frequency Comparison in Introductory Soil Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article describes a study in which the number of exams administered in a semester was examined to determine its impact on students' grades and on course evaluations regarding their recommendation of the course and the instructor to other students. The course was an introductory soil science course in which, over 3 semesters, 5 exams were given per semester. For the next 5 semesters, the number of exams was increased to 10 per semester. For the most recent semesters, students responded that they preferred more frequent exams. Grouping of the semesters into those with either 5 or 10 tests showed a higher overall class grade-point average for the semesters with more tests, and a Chi-square test showed that the higher grades were due to an increase in the proportion of A's. This grouping also showed that giving more exams did not significantly affect the students' response concerning recommendations of the course or the instructor to other students.

Barbarick, K.

49

[The field shape optimization in conformal radiation therapy by MLC rotation].  

PubMed

Conformal radiation therapy using multi-leaf collimator (MLC) is considered as a conventional technology in the hospital nowadays. However the stepped leaf edge caused by the finite width of the leaves could influence the conformality that could be achievable. In this paper, the effect produced by rotating the collimator angle on the conformality was investigated. A method, in which multiple MLC fields of various rotation angles are applied, has been proposed to have the targets be more uniformly irradiated and thus to eliminate the cold spots on the targets and hot spots in normal tissues. By simulation, it has been shown that the multiple MLC field method can eliminate the stepped leaf edges and improve the conformality significantly, moreover, the PTV can receive a more uniform delivery with cold spot eliminated. PMID:16856373

Wang, Binbing; Tang, Zhiquan; Hou, Qing

2006-06-01

50

Profile of State High School Exit Exam Policies. Alaska  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This individual profile provides information on Alaska's high school exit exam standards and policies. Some of the categories presented include: (1) State exit exam policy; (2) Type of Test; (3) Purpose; (4) Major changes in exit exam policy since the 2009-10 school year for financial reasons; (5) Subjects tested on exam; (6) Grade exam first…

Center on Education Policy, 2011

2011-01-01

51

The sensitivity of patient specific IMRT QC to systematic MLC leaf bank offset errors  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Patient specific IMRT QC is performed routinely in many clinics as a safeguard against errors and inaccuracies which may be introduced during the complex planning, data transfer, and delivery phases of this type of treatment. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the feasibility of detecting systematic errors in MLC leaf bank position with patient specific checks. Methods: 9 head and neck (H and N) and 14 prostate IMRT beams were delivered using MLC files containing systematic offsets ({+-}1 mm in two banks, {+-}0.5 mm in two banks, and 1 mm in one bank of leaves). The beams were measured using both MAPCHECK (Sun Nuclear Corp., Melbourne, FL) and the aS1000 electronic portal imaging device (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA). Comparisons with calculated fields, without offsets, were made using commonly adopted criteria including absolute dose (AD) difference, relative dose difference, distance to agreement (DTA), and the gamma index. Results: The criteria most sensitive to systematic leaf bank offsets were the 3% AD, 3 mm DTA for MAPCHECK and the gamma index with 2% AD and 2 mm DTA for the EPID. The criterion based on the relative dose measurements was the least sensitive to MLC offsets. More highly modulated fields, i.e., H and N, showed greater changes in the percentage of passing points due to systematic MLC inaccuracy than prostate fields. Conclusions: None of the techniques or criteria tested is sufficiently sensitive, with the population of IMRT fields, to detect a systematic MLC offset at a clinically significant level on an individual field. Patient specific QC cannot, therefore, substitute for routine QC of the MLC itself.

Rangel, Alejandra; Palte, Gesa; Dunscombe, Peter [Department of Medical Physics, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, 1331-29 Street NW, Calgary, Alberta T2N 4N2, Canada and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive North West, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4 (Canada); Department of Medical Physics, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, 1331-29 Street NW, Calgary, Alberta T2N 4N2 (Canada); Department of Medical Physics, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, 1331-29 Street NW, Calgary, Alberta T2N 4N2 (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive NW, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4 (Canada) and Department of Oncology, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, 1331-29 Street NW, Calgary, Alberta T2N 4N2 (Canada)

2010-07-15

52

76 FR 4375 - In the Matter of Certain MLC Flash Memory Devices and Products Containing Same; Notice of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Investigation No. 337-TA-683] In the Matter of Certain MLC Flash Memory Devices and Products Containing Same; Notice of Commission...within the United States after importation of certain MLC flash memory devices and products containing same by reason of...

2011-01-25

53

Disrupting MLC1 and GlialCAM and ClC-2 interactions in leukodystrophy entails glial chloride channel dysfunction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Defects in the astrocytic membrane protein MLC1, the adhesion molecule GlialCAM or the chloride channel ClC-2 underlie human leukoencephalopathies. Whereas GlialCAM binds ClC-2 and MLC1, and modifies ClC-2 currents in vitro, no functional connections between MLC1 and ClC-2 are known. Here we investigate this by generating loss-of-function Glialcam and Mlc1 mouse models manifesting myelin vacuolization. We find that ClC-2 is unnecessary for MLC1 and GlialCAM localization in brain, whereas GlialCAM is important for targeting MLC1 and ClC-2 to specialized glial domains in vivo and for modifying ClC-2’s biophysical properties specifically in oligodendrocytes (OLs), the cells chiefly affected by vacuolization. Unexpectedly, MLC1 is crucial for proper localization of GlialCAM and ClC-2, and for changing ClC-2 currents. Our data unmask an unforeseen functional relationship between MLC1 and ClC-2 in vivo, which is probably mediated by GlialCAM, and suggest that ClC-2 participates in the pathogenesis of megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts.

Hoegg-Beiler, Maja B.; Sirisi, Sònia; Orozco, Ian J.; Ferrer, Isidre; Hohensee, Svea; Auberson, Muriel; Gödde, Kathrin; Vilches, Clara; de Heredia, Miguel López; Nunes, Virginia; Estévez, Raúl; Jentsch, Thomas J.

2014-03-01

54

An MLC-based linac QA procedure for the characterization of radiation isocenter and room lasers' position  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have designed and implemented a new stereotactic linac QA test with stereotactic precision. The test is used to characterize gantry sag, couch wobble, cone placement, MLC offsets, and room lasers' positions relative to the radiation isocenter. Two MLC star patterns, a cone pattern, and the laser line patterns are recorded on the same imaging medium. Phosphor plates are used

Florin Rosca; Friedlieb Lorenz; Fred L. Hacker; Lee M. Chin; Naren Ramakrishna; Piotr Zygmanski

2006-01-01

55

Expedition 35/36 Final Exams  

NASA Video Gallery

Three Expedition 35/36 crew members prepare for their final exams in their Sokol launch and entry suits at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center in Star City, Russia. NASA astronaut Chris Cassidy a...

56

Expedition 32 Final Soyuz Qualification Exams  

NASA Video Gallery

Expedition 32 Flight Engineers Suni Williams, Yuri Malenchenko and Aki Hoshide take their final Soyuz systems qualification exams at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center in Star City, Russia. The ...

57

Taking Exams (Black Box Software Testing classes)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This subset of the Black Box Software Testing collection includes lecture videos, slides, suggested readings, and study questions focusing on skills needed for Taking Exams - especially answering essay questions.

Kaner, Cem; Fiedler, Rebecca L.

2011-06-01

58

Use of dMLC for implementation of dynamic respiratory-gated radiation therapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To simulate and evaluate the use of dynamic multileaf collimators (dMLC) in respiratory gating to compensate for baseline drift.Methods: Tumor motion tracking data from 30 lung tumors over 322 treatment fractions was analyzed with the finite state model. A dynamic respiratory gating window was established in real-time by determining the average positions during the previous two end-of-expiration breathing phases and centering the dMLC aperture on a weighted average of these positions. A simulated dMLC with physical motion constraints was used in dynamic gating treatment simulations. Fluence maps were created to provide a statistical description of radiation delivery for each fraction. Duty cycle was also calculated for each fraction.Results: The average duty cycle was 2.3% greater under dynamic gating conditions. Dynamic gating also showed higher fluences and less tumor obstruction. Additionally, dynamic gating required fewer beam toggles and each delivery period was longer on average than with static gating.Conclusions: The use of dynamic gating showed better performance than static gating and the physical constraints of a dMLC were shown to not be an impediment to dynamic gating.

Pepin, Eric W.; Wu, Huanmei [Purdue School of Engineering Technology, IUPUI, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202 (United States)] [Purdue School of Engineering Technology, IUPUI, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202 (United States); Shirato, Hiroki [Hokkaido University School of Medicine, Sapporo 060-8638 (Japan)] [Hokkaido University School of Medicine, Sapporo 060-8638 (Japan)

2013-10-15

59

Management of the interplay effect when using dynamic MLC sequences to treat moving targets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interplay between organ motion and leaf motion has been shown to generally have a small dosimetric impact for most clinical intensity-modulated radiation therapy treatments. However, it has also been shown that for some MLC sequences there can be large daily variations in the delivered dose, depending on details of patient motion or the number of fractions. This study investigates guidelines

Laurence E. Court; Matthew Wagar; Dan Ionascu; Ross Berbeco; Lee Chin

2008-01-01

60

The sliding slit test for dynamic IMRT: a useful tool for adjustment of MLC related parameters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For treatments with dynamic intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), the adjustment of multileaf collimator (MLC) parameters affecting both the optimization algorithm and dose distributions is crucial. The main parameters characterizing the MLC are the transmission (T) and the dosimetric leaf separation (DLS). The aim of this study is twofold: a methodology based on the 'sliding slit' test is proposed to determine (T, DLS) combinations inducing the best conformity between calculations and measurements. Secondly, the effects of the MLC adjustment on measured dose and on optimization are presented for different configurations as the chair test and for the patient dosimetric quality control (DQC). Tests were performed with a Varian 23EX linac operated at 20 MV and equipped with a 120 leaf Millenium dynamic collimator. The treatment planning system was CadPlan/Helios (version 6.3.6). Results demonstrated that the sliding width (SW) strongly depends on the (T, DLS) combinations, and the measured dose is a linear function of the SW. Different (T, DLS) combinations induced a good agreement between calculations and measurements. The influence of the MLC calibration was found to be particularly important on the 'sliding slit' test (11.8% for a gap change of 0.8 mm) but not so much on the chair test and on the DQC. To detect small variations in leaf adjustment and to ensure consistency between calculation and actual dose delivered to patients, a daily check called IMRT MU check is proposed.

Chauvet, I.; Petitfils, A.; Lehobey, C.; Kristner, J. Y.; Brunet, Y.; Lembrez, R.; Gaboriaud, G.; Mazal, A.; Zefkili, S.; Rosenwald, J. C.

2005-02-01

61

Impact of HESI Specialty Exams: the ninth HESI Exit Exam validity study.  

PubMed

Using an ex post facto, nonexperimental design, this, the ninth validity study of Elsevier's HESI Exit Exam (E(2)), reexamined the predictive accuracy of the E(2). The value of administering HESI Specialty Exams within the nursing curriculum in terms of E(2) scores was also investigated. The sample was composed of nursing students (N = 3,790) from 63 randomly selected schools-26 baccalaureate, 31 associate degree, and 6 diploma programs-throughout the United States who took the E(2) between September 2008 and August 2009. As in the previous 8 studies, the E(2) was found to be highly accurate (96.61%) in predicting success on the National Council Licensure Examination for Registered Nurses (NCLEX-RN). Findings also indicated that students who took one or more HESI Specialty Exams during their nursing curriculum had a significantly higher mean E(2) score (P ? .0001) than students who did not take HESI Specialty Exams during their nursing curriculum. Of the 8 HESI Specialty Exams investigated, scores on the Critical Care, Pediatrics, and Medical-Surgical specialty exams were most predictive of NCLEX-RN success. Schools of nursing that used HESI Specialty Exams as course final exams had a significantly higher mean E(2) score (P < .01) than schools that used the exams for remediation and practice. PMID:23566499

Zweighaft, Elizabeth L

2013-01-01

62

6 MV dosimetric characterization of the 160 MLC, the new Siemens multileaf collimator  

SciTech Connect

New technical developments constantly aim at improving the outcome of radiation therapy. With the use of a computer-controlled multileaf collimator (MLC), the quality of the treatment and the efficiency in patient throughput is significantly increased. New MLC designs aim to further enhance the advantages. In this article, we present the first detailed experimental investigation of the new 160 MLC{sup TM}, Siemens Medical Solutions. The assessment included the experimental investigation of typical MLC characteristics such as leakage, tongue-and-groove effect, penumbra, leaf speed, and leaf positioning accuracy with a 6 MV treatment beam. The leakage is remarkably low with an average of 0.37% due to a new design principle of slightly tilted leaves instead of the common tongue-and-groove design. But due to the tilt, the triangular tongue-and-groove effect occurs. Its magnitude of approximately 19% is similar to the dose defect measured for MLCs with the common tongue-and-groove design. The average longitudinal penumbra measured at depth d{sub max}=15 mm with standard 100x100 mm{sup 2} fields is 4.1{+-}0.5 mm for the central range and increases to 4.9{+-}1.3 mm for the entire field range of 400x400 mm{sup 2}. The increase is partly due to the single-focusing design and the large distance between the MLC and the isocenter enabling a large patient clearance. Regarding the leaf speed, different velocity tests were performed. The positions of the moving leaves were continuously recorded with the kilovoltage-imaging panel. The maximum leaf velocities measured were 42.9{+-}0.6 mm/s. In addition, several typical intensity-modulated radiation therapy treatments were performed and the delivery times compared to the Siemens OPTIFOCUS MLC. An average decrease of 11% in delivery time was observed. The experimental results presented in this article indicate that the dosimetric characteristics of the 160 MLC are capable of improving the quality of dose delivery with respect to precision and dose conformity.

Tacke, Martin B.; Nill, Simeon; Haering, Peter; Oelfke, Uwe [Department of Medical Physics in Radiation Oncology, German Cancer Research Center, Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

2008-05-15

63

Impact of the MLC on the MRI field distortion of a prototype MRI-linac  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To cope with intrafraction tumor motion, integrated MRI-linac systems for real-time image guidance are currently under development. The multileaf collimator (MLC) is a key component in every state-of-the-art radiotherapy treatment system, allowing for accurate field shaping and tumor tracking. This work quantifies the magnetic impact of a widely used MLC on the MRI field homogeneity for such a modality.Methods: The finite element method was employed to model a MRI-linac assembly comprised of a 1.0?T split-bore MRI magnet and the key ferromagnetic components of a Varian Millennium 120 MLC, namely, the leaves and motors. Full 3D magnetic field maps of the system were generated. From these field maps, the peak-to-peak distortion within the MRI imaging volume was evaluated over a 30?cm diameter sphere volume (DSV) around the isocenter and compared to a maximum preshim inhomogeneity of 300??T. Five parametric studies were performed: (1) The source-to-isocenter distance (SID) was varied from 100 to 200?cm, to span the range of a compact system to that with lower magnetic coupling. (2) The MLC model was changed from leaves only to leaves with motors, to determine the contribution to the total distortion caused by MLC leaves and motors separately. (3) The system was configured in the inline or perpendicular orientation, i.e., the linac treatment beam was oriented parallel or perpendicular to the magnetic field direction. (4) The treatment field size was varied from 0 × 0 to 20×20?cm{sup 2}, to span the range of clinical treatment fields. (5) The coil currents were scaled linearly to produce magnetic field strengths B{sub 0} of 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5?T, to estimate how the MLC impact changes with B{sub 0}.Results: (1) The MLC-induced MRI field distortion fell continuously with increasing SID. (2) MLC leaves and motors were found to contribute to the distortion in approximately equal measure. (3) Due to faster falloff of the fringe field, the field distortion was generally smaller in the perpendicular beam orientation. The peak-to-peak DSV distortion was below 300??T at SID?130?cm (perpendicular) and SID?140?cm (inline) for the 1.0?T design. (4) The simulation of different treatment fields was identified to cause dynamic changes in the field distribution. However, the estimated residual distortion was below 1.2?mm geometric distortion at SID?120?cm (perpendicular) and SID?130?cm (inline) for a 10?mT/m frequency-encoding gradient. (5) Due to magnetic saturation of the MLC materials, the field distortion remained constant at B{sub 0}>1.0?T.Conclusions: This work shows that the MRI field distortions caused by the MLC cannot be ignored and must be thoroughly investigated for any MRI-linac system. The numeric distortion values obtained for our 1.0?T magnet may vary for other magnet designs with substantially different fringe fields, however the concept of modest increases in the SID to reduce the distortion to a shimmable level is generally applicable.

Kolling, Stefan; Keall, Paul [Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)] [Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Oborn, Brad [Illawarra Cancer Care Centre (ICCC), Wollongong, NSW 2500 (Australia)] [Illawarra Cancer Care Centre (ICCC), Wollongong, NSW 2500 (Australia)

2013-12-15

64

Quantifying the gantry sag on linear accelerators and introducing an MLC-based compensation strategy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Gantry sag is one of the well-known sources of mechanical imperfections that compromise the spatial accuracy of radiation dose delivery. The objectives of this study were to quantify the gantry sag on multiple linear accelerators (linacs), to investigate a multileaf collimator (MLC)-based strategy to compensate for gantry sag, and to verify the gantry sag and its compensation with film measurements. Methods: The authors used the Winston-Lutz method to measure gantry sag on three Varian linacs. A ball bearing phantom was imaged with megavolt radiation fields at 10 deg. gantry angle intervals. The images recorded with an electronic portal imaging device were analyzed to derive the radiation isocenter and the gantry sag, that is, the superior-inferior wobble of the radiation field center, as a function of the gantry angle. The authors then attempted to compensate for the gantry sag by applying a gantry angle-specific correction to the MLC leaf positions. The gantry sag and its compensation were independently verified using film measurements. Results: Gantry sag was reproducible over a six-month measurement period. The maximum gantry sag was found to vary from 0.7 to 1.0 mm, depending on the linac and the collimator angle. The radiation field center moved inferiorly (i.e., away from the gantry) when the gantry was rotated from 0 deg. to 180 deg. After the MLC leaf position compensation was applied at 90 deg. collimator angle, the maximum gantry sag was reduced to <0.2 mm. The film measurements at gantry angles of 0 deg. and 180 deg. verified the inferior shift of the radiation fields and the effectiveness of MLC compensation. Conclusions: The results indicate that gantry sag on a linac can be quantitatively measured using a simple phantom and an electronic portal imaging device. Reduction of gantry sag is feasible by applying a gantry angle-specific correction to MLC leaf positions at 90 deg. collimator angle.

Du Weiliang; Gao Song; Wang Xiaochun; Kudchadker, Rajat J. [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States)

2012-04-15

65

Quantifying the gantry sag on linear accelerators and introducing an MLC-based compensation strategy  

PubMed Central

Purpose: Gantry sag is one of the well-known sources of mechanical imperfections that compromise the spatial accuracy of radiation dose delivery. The objectives of this study were to quantify the gantry sag on multiple linear accelerators (linacs), to investigate a multileaf collimator (MLC)-based strategy to compensate for gantry sag, and to verify the gantry sag and its compensation with film measurements. Methods: The authors used the Winston–Lutz method to measure gantry sag on three Varian linacs. A ball bearing phantom was imaged with megavolt radiation fields at 10° gantry angle intervals. The images recorded with an electronic portal imaging device were analyzed to derive the radiation isocenter and the gantry sag, that is, the superior–inferior wobble of the radiation field center, as a function of the gantry angle. The authors then attempted to compensate for the gantry sag by applying a gantry angle-specific correction to the MLC leaf positions. The gantry sag and its compensation were independently verified using film measurements. Results: Gantry sag was reproducible over a six-month measurement period. The maximum gantry sag was found to vary from 0.7 to 1.0 mm, depending on the linac and the collimator angle. The radiation field center moved inferiorly (i.e., away from the gantry) when the gantry was rotated from 0° to 180°. After the MLC leaf position compensation was applied at 90° collimator angle, the maximum gantry sag was reduced to <0.2 mm. The film measurements at gantry angles of 0° and 180° verified the inferior shift of the radiation fields and the effectiveness of MLC compensation. Conclusions: The results indicate that gantry sag on a linac can be quantitatively measured using a simple phantom and an electronic portal imaging device. Reduction of gantry sag is feasible by applying a gantry angle-specific correction to MLC leaf positions at 90° collimator angle.

Du, Weiliang; Gao, Song; Wang, Xiaochun; Kudchadker, Rajat J.

2012-01-01

66

Relationship between Students' Formative Exam-Taking Strategies and Summative Exam Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explored graduate students' formative exam-taking strategies in an online classroom. Research questions were: (1) What formative test-taking strategies did students use? (2) Were the strategies related to the students' final exam scores? Students (N=50) in a semester-long measurement class took weekly formative 20-item, multiple-choice…

Klecker, Beverly M.; Klecker, Richard L.

2010-01-01

67

Reserve estimation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Estimation of recoverable reservoir reserve should be as accurate as possible. Detailed reservoir parameter estimation is needed to ensure good estimate. Many uncertainties exist in recovery estimation due to reservoir rock properties such as permeability and porosity. The estimate of such parameters may change with the available observations and time. This paper reports the use of Bayesian ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) to estimate the permeability. It is a method in which a sample of state are generated and updated sequentially. Two simulated experiments are presented to investigate the applicability of EnKF. The first concern is using EnKF for parameter estimation in reservoir models such as line source, bounded reservoir, 1D flow numerical model. The second concern is using EnKF in one dimensional two interacting wells. The solutions are derived analytically. The state consists of the parameters and the analytical solution. The estimation process consists of two steps: forecast and update. Forecast step is calculated by using forward function which can be analytical or numerical solution. Update step uses Kalman filter scheme where the gain is calculated from sample covariance. Asymptotic studies as the basis for the validity of EnKF is well established and summarized in this report. The study concludes that EnKF can provide satisfactory results for reservoir reserve parameter estimation. Parameter estimation for reservoir simulation is an important future issue in order to improve the forecast.

Sutawanir, Gunawan, Agus Yodi; Permadi, Asep K.; Fitriyati, Nina

2014-03-01

68

Can Students Predict Their Scores in Exams?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article describes a statistical study in which students were asked to predict their own exam scores. The actual and predicted scores of 61 students in 6 years of an advanced plant genetics course and the differences between their actual and predicted scores were analyzed by various statistical measures. An overall mean difference between actual and predicted scores showed that the students, on average, were able to predict their scores within 5 percent of the actual value. However, students were not able to predict their exam scores accurately or precisely; the difference between actual and predicted scores was statistically different from zero. In addition, student demographic types such as age, GPA, or level of education were not significant factors for accuracy in predicting marks on the exam.

Sharma, H.

69

Quality assurance of MLC leaf position accuracy and relative dose effect at the MLC abutment region using an electronic portal imaging device  

PubMed Central

We investigated an electronic portal image device (EPID)-based method to see whether it provides effective and accurate relative dose measurement at abutment leaves in terms of positional errors of the multi-leaf collimator (MLC) leaf position. A Siemens ONCOR machine was used. For the garden fence test, a rectangular field (0.2 × 20 cm) was sequentially irradiated 11 times at 2-cm intervals. Deviations from planned leaf positions were calculated. For the nongap test, relative doses at the MLC abutment region were evaluated by sequential irradiation of a rectangular field (2 × 20 cm) 10 times with a MLC separation of 2 cm without a leaf gap. The integral signal in a region of interest was set to position A (between leaves) and B (neighbor of A). A pixel value at position B was used as background and the pixel ratio (A/B × 100) was calculated. Both tests were performed at four gantry angles (0, 90, 180 and 270°) four times over 1 month. For the nongap test the difference in pixel ratio between the first and last period was calculated. Regarding results, average deviations from planned positions with the garden fence test were within 0.5 mm at all gantry angles, and at gantry angles of 90 and 270° tended to decrease gradually over the month. For the nongap test, pixel ratio tended to increase gradually in all leaves, leading to a decrease in relative doses at abutment regions. This phenomenon was affected by both gravity arising from the gantry angle, and the hardware-associated contraction of field size with this type of machine.

Sumida, Iori; Yamaguchi, Hajime; Kizaki, Hisao; Koizumi, Masahiko; Ogata, Toshiyuki; Takahashi, Yutaka; Yoshioka, Yasuo

2012-01-01

70

EPID-based verification of the MLC performance for dynamic IMRT and VMAT  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: In advanced radiotherapy treatments such as intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT), verification of the performance of the multileaf collimator (MLC) is an essential part of the linac QA program. The purpose of this study is to use the existing measurement methods for geometric QA of the MLCs and extend them to more comprehensive evaluation techniques, and to develop dedicated robust algorithms to quantitatively investigate the MLC performance in a fast, accurate, and efficient manner. Methods: The behavior of leaves was investigated in the step-and-shoot mode by the analysis of integrated electronic portal imaging device (EPID) images acquired during picket fence tests at fixed gantry angles and arc delivery. The MLC was also studied in dynamic mode by the analysis of cine EPID images of a sliding gap pattern delivered in a variety of conditions including different leaf speeds, deliveries at fixed gantry angles or in arc mode, and changing the direction of leaf motion. The accuracy of the method was tested by detection of the intentionally inserted errors in the delivery patterns. Results: The algorithm developed for the picket fence analysis was able to find each individual leaf position, gap width, and leaf bank skewness in addition to the deviations from expected leaf positions with respect to the beam central axis with sub-pixel accuracy. For the three tested linacs over a period of 5 months, the maximum change in the gap width was 0.5 mm, the maximum deviation from the expected leaf positions was 0.1 mm and the MLC skewness was up to 0.2 Degree-Sign . The algorithm developed for the sliding gap analysis could determine the velocity and acceleration/deceleration of each individual leaf as well as the gap width. There was a slight decrease in the accuracy of leaf performance with increasing leaf speeds. The analysis results were presented through several graphs. The accuracy of the method was assessed as 0.01 mm for both the gap size and peak position determination. Conclusions: This study provides fast, easy, and accurate test methods for routine QA of the MLC performance and helps in faster troubleshooting of MLC problems in both IMRT and VMAT treatments.

Rowshanfarzad, Pejman; Sabet, Mahsheed; Barnes, Michael P.; O'Connor, Daryl J.; Greer, Peter B. [School of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, University of Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW 2308 (Australia); Department of Radiation Oncology, Calvary Mater Newcastle Hospital, Newcastle, NSW 2310 (Australia); School of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, University of Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW 2308 (Australia); Department of Radiation Oncology, Calvary Mater Newcastle Hospital, Newcastle, NSW 2310, Australia and School of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, University of Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW 2308 (Australia)

2012-10-15

71

MLC quality assurance using EPID: A fitting technique with subpixel precision  

SciTech Connect

Amorphous silicon based electronic portal imaging devices (EPIDs) have been shown to be a good alternative to radiographic film for routine quality assurance (QA) of multileaf collimator (MLC) positioning accuracy. In this work, we present a method of acquiring an EPID image of a traditional strip-test image using analytical fits of the interleaf and leaf abutment image signatures. After exposure, the EPID image pixel values are divided by an open field image to remove EPID response and radiation field variations. Profiles acquired in the direction orthogonal to the leaf motion exhibit small peaks caused by interleaf leakage. Gaussian profiles are fitted to the interleaf leakage peaks, the results of which are, using multiobjective optimization, used to calculate the image rotational angle with respect to the collimator axis of rotation. The relative angle is used to rotate the image to align the MLC leaf travel to the image pixel axes. The leaf abutments also present peaks that are fitted by heuristic functions, in this case modified Lorentzian functions. The parameters of the Lorentzian functions are used to parameterize the leaf gap width and positions. By imaging a set of MLC fields with varying gaps forming symmetric and asymmetric abutments, calibration curves with regard to relative peak height (RPH) versus nominal gap width are obtained. Based on this calibration data, the individual leaf positions are calculated to compare with the nominal programmed positions. The results demonstrate that the collimator rotation angle can be determined as accurate as 0.01 deg. . A change in MLC gap width of 0.2 mm leads to a change in RPH of about 10%. For asymmetrically produced gaps, a 0.2 mm MLC leaf gap width change causes 0.2 pixel peak position change. Subpixel resolution is obtained by using a parameterized fit of the relatively large abutment peaks. By contrast, for symmetrical gap changes, the peak position remains unchanged with a standard deviation of 0.05 pixels, or 0.026 mm. A trial run of 36 test images, each with gap widths varying from 0.4 to 1.4 mm, were used to analyze 8640 abutments. The leaf position variations were detected with a precision of 0.1 mm at a 95% confidence level, with a mean of 0.04 mm and a standard deviation of 0.03 mm. The proposed method is robust and minimizes the effect of image noise and pixel size and may help physicists to establish reliable and reasonable action levels in routine MLC QA.

Mamalui-Hunter, Maria; Li, Harold; Low, Daniel A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, 4921 Parkview Place, St. Louis, Missouri 63110 (United States)

2008-06-15

72

MLC quality assurance using EPID: a fitting technique with subpixel precision.  

PubMed

Amorphous silicon based electronic portal imaging devices (EPIDs) have been shown to be a good alternative to radiographic film for routine quality assurance (QA) of multileaf collimator (MLC) positioning accuracy. In this work, we present a method of acquiring an EPID image of a traditional strip-test image using analytical fits of the interleaf and leaf abutment image signatures. After exposure, the EPID image pixel values are divided by an open field image to remove EPID response and radiation field variations. Profiles acquired in the direction orthogonal to the leaf motion exhibit small peaks caused by interleaf leakage. Gaussian profiles are fitted to the interleaf leakage peaks, the results of which are, using multiobjective optimization, used to calculate the image rotational angle with respect to the collimator axis of rotation. The relative angle is used to rotate the image to align the MLC leaf travel to the image pixel axes. The leaf abutments also present peaks that are fitted by heuristic functions, in this case modified Lorentzian functions. The parameters of the Lorentzian functions are used to parameterize the leaf gap width and positions. By imaging a set of MLC fields with varying gaps forming symmetric and asymmetric abutments, calibration curves with regard to relative peak height (RPH) versus nominal gap width are obtained. Based on this calibration data, the individual leaf positions are calculated to compare with the nominal programmed positions. The results demonstrate that the collimator rotation angle can be determined as accurate as 0.01 degrees. A change in MLC gap width of 0.2 mm leads to a change in RPH of about 10%. For asymmetrically produced gaps, a 0.2 mm MLC leaf gap width change causes 0.2 pixel peak position change. Subpixel resolution is obtained by using a parameterized fit of the relatively large abutment peaks. By contrast, for symmetrical gap changes, the peak position remains unchanged with a standard deviation of 0.05 pixels, or 0.026 mm. A trial run of 36 test images, each with gap widths varying from 0.4 to 1.4 mm, were used to analyze 8640 abutments. The leaf position variations were detected with a precision of 0.1 mm at a 95% confidence level, with a mean of 0.04 mm and a standard deviation of 0.03 mm. The proposed method is robust and minimizes the effect of image noise and pixel size and may help physicists to establish reliable and reasonable action levels in routine MLC QA. PMID:18649468

Mamalui-Hunter, Maria; Li, Harold; Low, Daniel A

2008-06-01

73

Brushed permanent magnet DC MLC motor operation in an external magnetic field  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Linac-MR systems for real-time image-guided radiotherapy will utilize the multileaf collimators (MLCs) to perform conformal radiotherapy and tumor tracking. The MLCs would be exposed to the external fringe magnetic fields of the linac-MR hybrid systems. Therefore, an experimental investigation of the effect of an external magnetic field on the brushed permanent magnet DC motors used in some MLC systems was performed. Methods: The changes in motor speed and current were measured for varying external magnetic field strengths up to 2000 G generated by an EEV electromagnet. These changes in motor characteristics were measured for three orientations of the motor in the external magnetic field, mimicking changes in motor orientations due to installation and/or collimator rotations. In addition, the functionality of the associated magnetic motor encoder was tested. The tested motors are used with the Varian 120 leaf Millennium MLC (Maxon Motor half leaf and full leaf motors) and the Varian 52 leaf MKII MLC (MicroMo Electronics leaf motor) including a carriage motor (MicroMo Electronics). Results: In most cases, the magnetic encoder of the motors failed prior to any damage to the gearbox or the permanent magnet motor itself. This sets an upper limit of the external magnetic field strength on the motor function. The measured limits of the external magnetic fields were found to vary by the motor type. The leaf motor used with a Varian 52 leaf MKII MLC system tolerated up to 450{+-}10 G. The carriage motor tolerated up to 2000{+-}10 G field. The motors used with the Varian 120 leaf Millennium MLC system were found to tolerate a maximum of 600{+-}10 G. Conclusions: The current Varian MLC system motors can be used for real-time image-guided radiotherapy coupled to a linac-MR system, provided the fringe magnetic fields at their locations are below the determined tolerance levels. With the fringe magnetic fields of linac-MR systems expected to be larger than the tolerance levels determined, some form of magnetic shielding would be required.

Yun, J.; St Aubin, J.; Rathee, S.; Fallone, B. G. [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, 11322-89 Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2G7 (Canada) and Department of Oncology, Medical Physics Division, University of Alberta, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2 (Canada); Department of Medical Physics, Cross Cancer Institute, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2 (Canada) and Department of Oncology, Medical Physics Division, University of Alberta, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2 (Canada); Department of Physics, University of Alberta, 11322-89 Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2G7 (Canada); Department of Medical Physics, Cross Cancer Institute, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2 (Canada) and Department of Oncology, Medical Physics Division, University of Alberta, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2 (Canada)

2010-05-15

74

Learning during a Collaborative Final Exam  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Collaborative testing has been suggested to serve as a good learning activity, for example, compared to individual testing. The aim of the present study was to measure learning at different levels of knowledge during a collaborative final exam in a course in basic methods and statistical procedures. Results on pre- and post-tests taken…

Dahlstrom, Orjan

2012-01-01

75

Validation of dynamic MLC-controller log files using a two-dimensional diode array.  

PubMed

Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) delivered with multi-leaf collimator (MLC) in the step-and-shoot mode uses multiple static MLC segments to achieve intensity modulation. For typical IMRT treatment plans, significant numbers of segments are delivered with monitor units (MUs) of much less than 10. Verification of the ability of the linear accelerator (linac) to deliver small MU segments accurately is an important step in the IMRT commissioning and quality assurance (QA) process. Recent studies have reported large discrepancies between the intended and delivered segment MUs. These discrepancies could potentially cause large errors in the delivered patient dose. We have undertaken a systematic study to evaluate the accuracy of the dynamic MLC log files, which are created automatically by our commercial MLC workstation after each delivery, in recording the fractional MU delivered in the step-and-shoot mode. Two linac models were evaluated with simple-geometry leaf sequences and delivered with different total MUs and different nominal dose rates. A commercial two-dimensional diode array was used for the measurement. Large discrepancies between the intended and delivered segment MUs were found. The discrepancies were larger for small MU segments at higher dose rate, with some small MU segments completely undelivered. The recorded fractional MUs in the log files were found to agree with what was delivered within the limits of our experimental uncertainty. Our results indicate that it is important to verify the delivery accuracy of small MU segments that could potentially occur in a patient treatment and that the log files are useful in checking the integrity of the linac delivery once validated. Thus validated log files can be used as a QA tool for general IMRT delivery and patient-specific plan verification. PMID:12772987

Li, Jonathan G; Dempsey, James F; Ding, Li; Liu, Chihray; Palta, Jatinder R

2003-05-01

76

Chip-type LTCC-MLC baluns using the stepped impedance method  

Microsoft Academic Search

A chip-type low-temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC) multilayer ceramic (MLC) balun is presented in this paper. This balun is designed using the stepped impedance method. It uses a multilayer structure, meander lines, and multisection coupled lines. The use of multisection couple lines that have various characteristic impedance ratios can shrink the length of a quarter-wavelength coupled-transmission line and makes it very

Ching-Wen Tang; Jyh-Wen Sheen; Chi-Yang Chang

2001-01-01

77

Asset-based Reserve Requirements: Some Reservations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thomas Palley's (2004) paper ‘Asset-based reserve requirements: reasserting domestic monetary control in an era of financial innovation and instability’ has radical implications for monetary policy and the operations of central banks in the money markets. This comment argues that Palley's proposal may be impractical today because it overlooks banks' holding of excessive reserves (or claims on such reserves), and because

Jan Toporowski

2007-01-01

78

Matching marine reserve design to reserve objectives.  

PubMed Central

Recent interest in using marine reserves for marine resource management and conservation has largely been driven by the hope that reserves might counteract declines in fish populations and protect the biodiversity of the seas. However, the creation of reserves has led to dissension from some interested groups, such as fishermen, who fear that reserves will do more harm than good. These perceived differences in the effect of marine reserves on various stakeholder interests has led to a contentious debate over their merit. We argue here that recent findings in marine ecology suggest that this debate is largely unnecessary, and that a single general design of a network of reserves of moderate size and variable spacing can meet the needs and goals of most stakeholders interested in marine resources. Given the high fecundity of most marine organisms and recent evidence for limited distance of larval dispersal, it is likely that reserves can both maintain their own biodiversity and service nearby non-reserve areas. In particular, spillover of larger organisms and dispersal of larvae to areas outside reserves can lead to reserves sustaining or even increasing local fisheries. Ultimately, the success of any reserve network requires attention to the uncertainty and variability in dispersal patterns of marine organisms, clear statements of goals by all stakeholder groups and proper evaluation of reserve performance.

Halpern, Benjamin S; Warner, Robert R

2003-01-01

79

IMRT Treatment Planning on 4D Geometries for the Era of Dynamic MLC Tracking.  

PubMed

The problem addressed here was to obtain optimal and deliverable dynamic multileaf collimator (MLC) leaf sequences from four-dimensional (4D) geometries for dynamic MLC tracking delivery. The envisaged scenario was where respiratory phase and position information of the target was available during treatment, from which the optimal treatment plan could be further adapted in real time. A tool for 4D treatment plan optimization was developed that integrates a commercially available treatment planning system and a general-purpose optimization system. The 4D planning method was applied to the 4D computed tomography planning scans of three lung cancer patients. The optimization variables were MLC leaf positions as a function of monitor units and respiratory phase. The objective function was the deformable dose-summed 4D treatment plan score. MLC leaf motion was constrained by the maximum leaf velocity between control points in terms of monitor units for tumor motion parallel to the leaf travel direction and between phases for tumor motion parallel to the leaf travel direction. For comparison and a starting point for the 4D optimization, three-dimensional (3D) optimization was performed on each of the phases. The output of the 4D IMRT planning process is a leaf sequence which is a function of both monitor unit and phase, which can be delivered to a patient whose breathing may vary between the imaging and treatment sessions. The 4D treatment plan score improved during 4D optimization by 34%, 4%, and 50% for Patients A, B, and C, respectively, indicating 4D optimization generated a better 4D treatment plan than the deformable sum of individually optimized phase plans. The dose-volume histograms for each phase remained similar, indicating robustness of the 4D treatment plan to respiratory variations expected during treatment delivery. In summary, 4D optimization for respiratory phase-dependent treatment planning with dynamic MLC motion tracking improved the 4D treatment plan score by 4-50% compared with 3D optimization. The 4D treatment plans had leaf sequences that varied from phase to phase to account for anatomic motion, but showed similar target dose distributions in each phase. The current method could in principle be generalized for use in offline replanning between fractions or for online 4D treatment planning based on 4D cone-beam CT images. Computation time remains a challenge. PMID:24354751

Suh, Y; Murray, W; Keall, P J

2014-12-01

80

Real-time tumor tracking: Automatic compensation of target motion using the Siemens 160 MLC  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Advanced high quality radiation therapy techniques such as IMRT require an accurate delivery of precisely modulated radiation fields to the target volume. Interfractional and intrafractional motion of the patient's anatomy, however, may considerably deteriorate the accuracy of the delivered dose to the planned dose distributions. In order to compensate for these potential errors, a dynamic real-time capable MLC control system was designed. Methods: The newly developed adaptive MLC control system contains specialized algorithms which are capable of continuous optimization and correction of the aperture of the MLC according to the motion of the target volume during the dose delivery. The algorithms calculate the new leaf positions based on target information provided online to the system. The algorithms were implemented in a dynamic target tracking control system designed for a Siemens 160 MLC. To assess the quality of the new target tracking system in terms of dosimetric accuracy, experiments with various types of motion patterns using different phantom setups were performed. The phantoms were equipped with radiochromic films placed between solid water slabs. Dosimetric results of exemplary deliveries to moving targets with and without dynamic MLC tracking applied were compared in terms of the gamma criterion to the reference dose delivered to a static phantom. Results: Our measurements indicated that dose errors for clinically relevant two-dimensional target motion can be compensated by the new control system during the dose delivery of open fields. For a clinical IMRT dose distribution, the gamma success rate was increased from 19% to 77% using the new tracking system. Similar improvements were achieved for the delivery of a complete IMRT treatment fraction to a moving lung phantom. However, dosimetric accuracy was limited by the system's latency of 400 ms and the finite leaf width of 5 mm in the isocenter plane. Conclusions: Different experimental setups representing different target tracking scenarios proved that the tracking concept, the new algorithms and the dynamic control system make it possible to effectively compensate for dose errors due to target motion in real-time. These early results indicate that the method is suited to increasing the accuracy and the quality of the treatment delivery for the irradiation of moving tumors.

Tacke, Martin B.; Nill, Simeon; Krauss, Andreas; Oelfke, Uwe [Department of Medical Physics in Radiation Oncology, German Cancer Research Center, Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

2010-02-15

81

Effect of MLC leaf width on treatment adaptation and accuracy for concurrent irradiation of prostate and pelvic lymph nodes  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of multileaf collimator (MLC) leaf width on treatment adaptation and delivery accuracy for concurrent treatment of the prostate and pelvic lymph nodes with intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Methods: Seventy-five kilovoltage cone beam CTs (KV-CBCT) from six patients were included for this retrospective study. For each patient, three different IMRT plans were created based on a planning CT using three different MLC leaf widths of 2.5, 5, and 10 mm, respectively. For each CBCT, the prostate displacement was determined by a dual image registration. Adaptive plans were created by shifting selected MLC leaf pairs to compensate for daily prostate movements. To evaluate the impact of MLC leaf width on the adaptive plan for each daily CBCT, three MLC shifted plans were created using three different leaf widths of MLCs (a total of 225 adaptive treatment plans). Selective dosimetric endpoints for the tumor volumes and organs at risk (OARs) were evaluated for these adaptive plans. Using the planning CT from a selected patient, MLC shifted plans for three hypothetical longitudinal shifts of 2, 4, and 8 mm were delivered on the three linear accelerators to test the deliverability of the shifted plans and to compare the dose accuracy of the shifted plans with the original IMRT plans. Results: Adaptive plans from 2.5 and 5 mm MLCs had inadequate dose coverage to the prostate (D99 < 97%, or D{sub mean} < 99% of the planned dose) in 6%-8% of the fractions, while adaptive plans from 10 mm MLC led to inadequate dose coverage to the prostate in 25.3% of the fractions. The average V{sub 56Gy} of the prostate over the six patients was improved by 6.4% (1.6%-32.7%) and 5.8% (1.5%-35.7%) with adaptive plans from 2.5 and 5 mm MLCs, respectively, when compared with adaptive plans from 10 mm MLC. Pelvic lymph nodes were well covered for all MLC adaptive plans, as small differences were observed for D99, D{sub mean}, and V{sub 50.4Gy}. Similar OAR sparing could be achieved for the bladder and rectum with all three MLCs for treatment adaptation. The MLC shifted plans can be accurately delivered on all three linear accelerators with accuracy similar to their original IMRT plans, where gamma (3%/3 mm) passing rates were 99.6%, 93.0%, and 92.1% for 2.5, 5, and 10 mm MLCs, respectively. The percentages of pixels with dose differences between the measurement and calculation being less than 3% of the maximum dose were 85.9%, 82.5%, and 70.5% for the original IMRT plans from the three MLCs, respectively. Conclusions: Dosimetric advantages associated with smaller MLC leaves were observed in terms of the coverage to the prostate, when the treatment was adapted to account for daily prostate movement for concurrent irradiation of the prostate and pelvic lymph nodes. The benefit of switching the MLC from 10 to 5 mm was significant (p Much-Less-Than 0.01); however, switching the MLC from 5 to 2.5 mm would not gain significant (p= 0.15) improvement. IMRT plans with smaller MLC leaf widths achieved more accurate dose delivery.

Shang Qingyang; Qi Peng; Ferjani, Samah; Xia Ping [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio 44195 (United States)

2013-06-15

82

Mlc of Thermus thermophilus: a Glucose-Specific Regulator for a Glucose/Mannose ABC Transporter in the Absence of the Phosphotransferase System  

PubMed Central

We report the presence of Mlc in a thermophilic bacterium. Mlc is known as a global regulator of sugar metabolism in gram-negative enteric bacteria that is controlled by sequestration to a glucose-transporting EIIGlc of the phosphotransferase system (PTS). Since thermophilic bacteria do not possess PTS, Mlc in Thermus thermophilus must be differently controlled. DNA sequence alignments between Mlc from T. thermophilus (MlcTth) and Mlc from E. coli (MlcEco) revealed that MlcTth conserved five residues of the glucose-binding motif of glucokinases. Here we show that MlcTth is not a glucokinase but is indeed able to bind glucose (KD = 20 ?M), unlike MlcEco. We found that mlc of T. thermophilus is the first gene within an operon encoding an ABC transporter for glucose and mannose, including a glucose/mannose-binding protein and two permeases. malK1, encoding the cognate ATP-hydrolyzing subunit, is located elsewhere on the chromosome. The system transports glucose at 70°C with a Km of 0.15 ?M and a Vmax of 4.22 nmol per min per ml at an optical density (OD) of 1. MlcTth negatively regulates itself and the entire glucose/mannose ABC transport system operon but not malK1, with glucose acting as an inducer. MalK1 is shared with the ABC transporter for trehalose, maltose, sucrose, and palatinose (TMSP). Mutants lacking malK1 do not transport either glucose or maltose. The TMSP transporter is also able to transport glucose with a Km of 1.4 ?M and a Vmax of 7.6 nmol per min per ml at an OD of 1, but it does not transport mannose.

Chevance, Fabienne F. V.; Erhardt, Marc; Lengsfeld, Christina; Lee, Sung-Jae; Boos, Winfried

2006-01-01

83

EXPOSURE ANALYSIS MODELING SYSTEM: REFERENCE MANUAL FOR EXAMS 2  

EPA Science Inventory

The Exposure Analysis Modeling System (EXAMS), published in 1982 (EPA-600/3-82-023), provides rapid evaluations of the behavior of synthetic organic chemicals in aquatic ecosystems. EXAMS combines laboratory data describing reactivity and thermodynamic properties of chemicals wit...

84

Distinct gene expression patterns in skeletal and cardiac muscle are dependent on common regulatory sequences in the MLC1/3 locus.  

PubMed Central

The myosin light-chain 1/3 locus (MLC1/3) is regulated by two promoters and a downstream enhancer element which produce two protein isoforms in fast skeletal muscle at distinct stages of mouse embryogenesis. We have analyzed the expression of transcripts from the internal MLC3 promoter and determined that it is also expressed in the atria of the heart. Expression from the MLC3 promoter in these striated muscle lineages is differentially regulated during development. In transgenic mice, the MLC3 promoter is responsible for cardiac-specific reporter gene expression while the downstream enhancer augments expression in skeletal muscle. Examination of the methylation status of endogenous and transgenic promoter and enhancer elements indicates that the internal promoter is not regulated in a manner similar to that of the MLC1 promoter or the downstream enhancer. A GATA protein consensus sequence in the proximal MLC3 promoter but not the MLC1 promoter binds with high affinity to GATA-4, a cardiac muscle- and gut-specific transcription factor. Mutation of either the MEF2 or GATA motifs in the MLC3 promoter attenuates its activity in both heart and skeletal muscles, demonstrating that MLC3 expression in these two diverse muscle types is dependent on common regulatory elements.

McGrew, M J; Bogdanova, N; Hasegawa, K; Hughes, S H; Kitsis, R N; Rosenthal, N

1996-01-01

85

Proposing Questions for the Upcoming Midterm Exam  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This in-class exercise is done during the last half of the class meeting prior to a midterm exam (which is held during a class period), to get the students to initiate their own review processes. To begin, a map of the lecture hall is shown, divided into a large number of seating areas (18, in the example used in the attached material). The exact number is not too important, it just needs to be enough to ensure not too much repetition yet sufficient variety among the teams. Each seating area is assigned a particular type of exam question (diagram, matching, ordering, multiple answer, short essay answer, or whatever other question types you use) and a topic that will be on the immediately upcoming midterm exam. The topics are currently taken from the textbook, divided relatively finely but not so finely that there is insufficient material for them to formulate an exam question from the material. Ten minutes is allotted for the students to form groups of 2-3 (more in a team is less productive for individual students), then for each team to review its assigned topic, and to create a reasonable question and answer set in the assigned format. Following this, another 10 minutes is allotted for the teams to evaluate one other team's set and to work out improvements with the originating team, if needed. (This last activity doesn't always happen.) At the end of this stage I collect a copy of the question, the answer, the names of the originators, and the names of the checkers for each Q&A set. I post all the question/answer sets on Blackboard as fast as I can enter them, so they can serve all the students as a review basis for the exam. Depending on my schedule, that can take from 2-6 hours. I try not to correct incorrect answers or other problems, preferring instead to post a warning (see attached examples) urging students to check the answers given. This is not generally successful, as many students merely memorize the list, right or wrong, without apparently checking it.

Gertsch, Leslie

86

Enhanced Security for Online Exams Using Group Cryptography  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While development of the Internet has contributed to the spread of online education, online exams have not been widely adopted. An online exam is defined here as one that takes place over the insecure Internet, and where no proctor is in the same location as the examinees. This paper proposes an enhanced secure online exam management environment…

Jung, I. Y.; Yeom, H. Y.

2009-01-01

87

Evaluating Multiple-Choice Exams in Large Introductory Physics Courses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The reliability and validity of professionally written multiple-choice exams have been extensively studied for exams such as the SAT, graduate record examination, and the force concept inventory. Much of the success of these multiple-choice exams is attributed to the careful construction of each question, as well as each response. In this study,…

Scott, Michael; Stelzer, Tim; Gladding, Gary

2006-01-01

88

The Effect of Announced Quizzes on Exam Performance: II  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

I administered announced, multiple-choice quizzes to 1 of 2 sections of a Psychology of Learning class in each of 2 consecutive fall semesters. The quizzes were administered between the first and second exams which were also multiple-choice. Quizzes were discontinued after the second exam. After the second exam, students completed a questionnaire…

Azorlosa, Julian L.

2011-01-01

89

What Students Learn When Studying Physics Practice Exam Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We developed a web-based tool to provide students with access to old exam problems and solutions. By controlling the order in which students saw the problems, as well as their access to solutions, we obtained data about student learning by studying old exam problems. Our data suggest that in general students learn from doing old exam problems, and…

Fakcharoenphol, Witat; Potter, Eric; Stelzer, Timothy

2011-01-01

90

The Effect of Announced Quizzes on Exam Performance: Quiz Content  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

I administered quizzes to two sections of a course named "The Psychology of Learning." There were three multiple choice exams during the semester. Quizzes were given between exam 1 and exam 2. For one section, (lecture) quizzes occurred after the material had been covered in lecture. For the other section, quizzes were based on material not yet…

Azorlosa, Julian L.

2012-01-01

91

Effect of Paper Color and Question Order on Exam Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To deter cheating, teachers commonly use exams printed on differently colored paper or with varied question orders. Previous studies, however, reported that paper color and question order affect exam performance and suggested that teachers should adjust students' scores accordingly and discontinue the use of alternate exam forms. We conducted 2…

Tal, Ilanit R.; Akers, Katherine G.; Hodge, Gordon K.

2008-01-01

92

X-Ray Exam: Lower Leg (Tibia and Fibula)  

MedlinePLUS

X-Ray Exam: Lower Leg (Tibia and Fibula) KidsHealth > Parents > Doctors & Hospitals > Medical Tests & Exams > X-Ray Exam: Lower Leg (Tibia and Fibula) Print ... If You Have Questions What It Is An X-ray of the tibia and fibula is a ...

93

Monitoring daily MLC positional errors using trajectory log files and EPID measurements for IMRT and VMAT deliveries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work investigated the differences between multileaf collimator (MLC) positioning accuracy determined using either log files or electronic portal imaging devices (EPID) and then assessed the possibility of reducing patient specific quality control (QC) via phantom-less methodologies. In-house software was developed, and validated, to track MLC positional accuracy with the rotational and static gantry picket fence tests using an integrated electronic portal image. This software was used to monitor MLC daily performance over a 1 year period for two Varian TrueBeam linear accelerators, with the results directly compared with MLC positions determined using leaf trajectory log files. This software was validated by introducing known shifts and collimator errors. Skewness of the MLCs was found to be 0.03 ± 0.06° (mean ±1 standard deviation (SD)) and was dependent on whether the collimator was rotated manually or automatically. Trajectory log files, analysed using in-house software, showed average MLC positioning errors with a magnitude of 0.004 ± 0.003 mm (rotational) and 0.004 ± 0.011 mm (static) across two TrueBeam units over 1 year (mean ±1 SD). These ranges, as indicated by the SD, were lower than the related average MLC positioning errors of 0.000 ± 0.025 mm (rotational) and 0.000 ± 0.039 mm (static) that were obtained using the in-house EPID based software. The range of EPID measured MLC positional errors was larger due to the inherent uncertainties of the procedure. Over the duration of the study, multiple MLC positional errors were detected using the EPID based software but these same errors were not detected using the trajectory log files. This work shows the importance of increasing linac specific QC when phantom-less methodologies, such as the use of log files, are used to reduce patient specific QC. Tolerances of 0.25 mm have been created for the MLC positional errors using the EPID-based automated picket fence test. The software allows diagnosis of any specific leaf that needs repair and gives an indication as to the course of action that is required.

Agnew, A.; Agnew, C. E.; Grattan, M. W. D.; Hounsell, A. R.; McGarry, C. K.

2014-05-01

94

Triptolide induces apoptosis in human leukemia cells through caspase-3-mediated ROCK1 activation and MLC phosphorylation  

PubMed Central

The diterpene triepoxide triptolide is a major active component of Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F, a popular Chinese herbal medicine with the potential to treat hematologic malignancies. In this study, we investigated the roles of triptolide in apoptosis and cell signaling events in human leukemia cell lines and primary human leukemia blasts. Triptolide selectively induced caspase-dependent cell death that was accompanied by the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, cytochrome c release, and Bax translocation from the cytosol to the mitochondria. Furthermore, we found that triptolide dramatically induced ROCK1 cleavage/activation and MLC and MYPT phosphorylation. ROCK1 was cleaved and activated by caspase-3, rather than RhoA. Inhibiting MLC phosphorylation by ML-7 significantly attenuated triptolide-mediated apoptosis, caspase activation, and cytochrome c release. In addition, ROCK1 inhibition also abrogated MLC and MYPT phosphorylation. Our in vivo study showed that both ROCK1 activation and MLC phosphorylation were associated with the tumor growth inhibition caused by triptolide in mouse leukemia xenograft models. Collectively, these findings suggest that triptolide-mediated ROCK1 activation and MLC phosphorylation may be a novel therapeutic strategy for treating hematological malignancies.

Liu, L; Li, G; Li, Q; Jin, Z; Zhang, L; Zhou, J; Hu, X; Zhou, T; Chen, J; Gao, N

2013-01-01

95

Physics exam preparation: A comparison of three methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this clinical study on helping students prepare for an exam, we compared three different treatments. All students were asked to take a practice exam. One group was then given worked-out solutions for that exam, another group was given the solutions and targeted exercises to do as homework based on the result of their practice exam, and the third group was given the solutions, homework, and also an hour of one-on-one tutoring. Participants from all three conditions significantly outperformed the control group on the midterm exam. However, participants that had one-on-one tutoring did not outperform the other two participant groups.

Fakcharoenphol, Witat; Stelzer, Timothy

2014-06-01

96

Dosimetric and mechanical characteristics of a commercial dynamic {mu}MLC used in SRS  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The aim of this work is to carry out mechanical and dosimetric assessments on a commercial dynamic micromulti leaf collimator system to be used for stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT). Mechanical parameters such as leaf position accuracy with different gantry angles and leaf position reproducibility were measured. Also dosimetric measurements of the interleaf leakage, intraleaf transmission, penumbra width, and light field alignment were carried out. Furthermore, measurements of output factors (S{sub cp}) and in-air factors (S{sub c}) for the {mu}MLC system will be reported. Methods: EBT2 films were used to assess the leaf position error with gantry angle and after stress test, penumbra width and light field alignment. Leaf leakage was quantified using both EBT2 film and a pinpoint ion chamber. With regard to output factors, the pinpoint chamber was placed in a water phantom at 10 cm depth and 100 cm SSD. For in-air output factor measurements, 0.2 cm of brass was placed above the photon diode as build-up. Results: Measurements of mechanical parameters gave values of 0.05 cm (SD 0.035) for the average leaf position accuracy for different gantry angles and after stress test. Dosimetric measurements, yielded values of 0.22 {+-} 0.01 and 0.24 {+-} 0.01 cm, respectively, for side and head leaf penumbras. Also, average leaf abutting, leakage and transmission were found to be 0.65, 0.91, and 0.20%, respectively. Conclusions: (a) The add-on {mu}MLC system in combination with our LINAC has been commissioned to be used for clinical purposes and showed good agreement with published results for different {mu}MLC types. (b) This work has lead to the recommendation that leaves should be recalibrated after ten static beams or after each dynamic arc.

Galal, Mohamed M.; Keogh, Sinead; Khalil, Sultan [Physics Department, Hermitage Medical Clinic, Dublin 20, Ireland and Physics Unit, Kasr El-Aini Center of Oncology and Nuclear Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University (Egypt); Physics Department, Hermitage Medical Clinic, Dublin 20 (Ireland)

2011-07-15

97

Characterization of megavoltage electron beams delivered through a photon multi-leaf collimator (pMLC)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study is presented that characterizes megavoltage electron beams delivered through an existing double-focused photon multi-leaf collimator (pMLC) using film measurements in a solid water phantom. Machine output stability and linearity were evaluated as well as the effect of source-to-surface distance (SSD) and field size on the penumbra for electron energies between 6 and 18 MeV over an SSD range of 60-100 cm. Penumbra variations as a function of field size, depth of measurement and the influence of the jaws were also studied. Field abutment, field flatness and target coverage for segmented beams were also addressed. The measured field size for electrons transported through the pMLC was the same as that for an x-ray beam up to SSDs of 70 cm. At larger SSD, the lower energy electron fields deviated from the projected field. Penumbra data indicated that 60 cm SSD was the most favourable treatment distance. Backprojection of P20-80 penumbra data yielded a virtual source position located at 98.9 cm from the surface for 18 MeV electrons. For 6 MeV electrons, the virtual source position was at a distance of 82.6 cm. Penumbra values were smaller for small beam slits and reached a near-constant value for field widths larger than 5 cm. The influence of the jaws had a small effect on the penumbra. The R90 values ranged from 1.4 to 4.8 cm between 6 and 21 MeV as measured at 60 cm SSD for a 9 × 9 cm2 field. Uniformity and penumbra improvement could be demonstrated using weighted abutted fields especially useful for small segments. No detectable electron leakage through the pMLC was observed. Bremsstrahlung measurements taken at 60 cm SSD for a 9 × 9 cm2 field as shaped by the pMLC compared within 1% to bremsstrahlung measurements taken at 100 cm SSD for a 10 × 10 cm2 electron applicator field at 100 cm SSD.

du Plessis, F. C. P.; Leal, A.; Stathakis, S.; Xiong, W.; Ma, C.-M.

2006-04-01

98

The dosimetric impact of inversely optimized arc radiotherapy plan modulation for real-time dynamic MLC tracking delivery  

PubMed Central

Purpose: Real-time dynamic multileaf collimator (MLC) tracking for management of intrafraction tumor motion can be challenging for highly modulated beams, as the leaves need to travel far to adjust for target motion perpendicular to the leaf travel direction. The plan modulation can be reduced by using a leaf position constraint (LPC) that reduces the difference in the position of adjacent MLC leaves in the plan. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of the LPC on the quality of inversely optimized arc radiotherapy plans and the effect of the MLC motion pattern on the dosimetric accuracy of MLC tracking delivery. Specifically, the possibility of predicting the accuracy of MLC tracking delivery based on the plan modulation was investigated. Methods: Inversely optimized arc radiotherapy plans were created on CT-data of three lung cancer patients. For each case, five plans with a single 358° arc were generated with LPC priorities of 0 (no LPC), 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1 (highest possible LPC), respectively. All the plans had a prescribed dose of 2 Gy ×?30, used 6 MV, a maximum dose rate of 600 MU/min and a collimator angle of 45° or 315°. To quantify the plan modulation, an average adjacent leaf distance (ALD) was calculated by averaging the mean adjacent leaf distance for each control point. The linear relationship between the plan quality [i.e., the calculated dose distributions and the number of monitor units (MU)] and the LPC was investigated, and the linear regression coefficient as well as a two tailed confidence level of 95% was used in the evaluation. The effect of the plan modulation on the performance of MLC tracking was tested by delivering the plans to a cylindrical diode array phantom moving with sinusoidal motion in the superior–inferior direction with a peak-to-peak displacement of 2 cm and a cycle time of 6 s. The delivery was adjusted to the target motion using MLC tracking, guided in real-time by an infrared optical system. The dosimetric results were evaluated using gamma index evaluation with static target measurements as reference. Results: The plan quality parameters did not depend significantly on the LPC (p???0.066), whereas the ALD depended significantly on the LPC (p?MLC tracking was used (p?MLC tracking (p???0.342). The gamma index failure rate with the criteria of 2% and 2 mm was decreased from?>?33.9% without MLC tracking to <31.4% (LPC 0) and <2.2% (LPC 1) with MLC tracking. Conclusions: The results indicate that the dosimetric robustness of MLC tracking delivery of an inversely optimized arc radiotherapy plan can be improved by incorporating leaf position constraints in the objective function without otherwise affecting the plan quality. The dosimetric robustness may be estimated prior to delivery by evaluating the ALDw of the plan.

Falk, Marianne; Larsson, Tobias; Keall, Paul; Chul Cho, Byung; Aznar, Marianne; Korreman, Stine; Poulsen, Per; af Rosenschold, Per Munck

2012-01-01

99

The dosimetric impact of inversely optimized arc radiotherapy plan modulation for real-time dynamic MLC tracking delivery  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Real-time dynamic multileaf collimator (MLC) tracking for management of intrafraction tumor motion can be challenging for highly modulated beams, as the leaves need to travel far to adjust for target motion perpendicular to the leaf travel direction. The plan modulation can be reduced by using a leaf position constraint (LPC) that reduces the difference in the position of adjacent MLC leaves in the plan. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of the LPC on the quality of inversely optimized arc radiotherapy plans and the effect of the MLC motion pattern on the dosimetric accuracy of MLC tracking delivery. Specifically, the possibility of predicting the accuracy of MLC tracking delivery based on the plan modulation was investigated. Methods: Inversely optimized arc radiotherapy plans were created on CT-data of three lung cancer patients. For each case, five plans with a single 358 deg. arc were generated with LPC priorities of 0 (no LPC), 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1 (highest possible LPC), respectively. All the plans had a prescribed dose of 2 Gy x 30, used 6 MV, a maximum dose rate of 600 MU/min and a collimator angle of 45 deg. or 315 deg. To quantify the plan modulation, an average adjacent leaf distance (ALD) was calculated by averaging the mean adjacent leaf distance for each control point. The linear relationship between the plan quality [i.e., the calculated dose distributions and the number of monitor units (MU)] and the LPC was investigated, and the linear regression coefficient as well as a two tailed confidence level of 95% was used in the evaluation. The effect of the plan modulation on the performance of MLC tracking was tested by delivering the plans to a cylindrical diode array phantom moving with sinusoidal motion in the superior-inferior direction with a peak-to-peak displacement of 2 cm and a cycle time of 6 s. The delivery was adjusted to the target motion using MLC tracking, guided in real-time by an infrared optical system. The dosimetric results were evaluated using gamma index evaluation with static target measurements as reference. Results: The plan quality parameters did not depend significantly on the LPC (p {>=} 0.066), whereas the ALD depended significantly on the LPC (p < 0.001). The gamma index failure rate depended significantly on the ALD, weighted to the percentage of the beam delivered in each control point of the plan (ALD{sub w}) when MLC tracking was used (p < 0.001), but not for delivery without MLC tracking (p {>=} 0.342). The gamma index failure rate with the criteria of 2% and 2 mm was decreased from > 33.9% without MLC tracking to <31.4% (LPC 0) and <2.2% (LPC 1) with MLC tracking. Conclusions: The results indicate that the dosimetric robustness of MLC tracking delivery of an inversely optimized arc radiotherapy plan can be improved by incorporating leaf position constraints in the objective function without otherwise affecting the plan quality. The dosimetric robustness may be estimated prior to delivery by evaluating the ALD{sub w} of the plan.

Falk, Marianne; Larsson, Tobias; Keall, Paul; Chul Cho, Byung; Aznar, Marianne; Korreman, Stine; Poulsen, Per; Munck af Rosenschoeld, Per [Radiation Medicine Research Center, Department of Radiation Oncology - 3994, Rigshospitalet, Blegdamsvej 9, DK - 2100 Copenhagen (Denmark) and Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen (Denmark); Radiation Medicine Research Center, Department of Radiation Oncology, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospital (Denmark); Radiation Physics Laboratory, Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney (Australia); Department of Radiation Oncology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Radiation Medicine Research Center, Department of Radiation Oncology, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospital, Denmark and Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen (Denmark); Radiation Medicine Research Center, Department of Radiation Oncology, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospital (Denmark); Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen (Denmark) and Department of Science, Systems and Models, Roskilde University (Denmark); Department of Oncology, Aarhus University Hospital (Denmark); Radiation Medicine Research Center, Department of Radiation Oncology, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospital (Denmark) and Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen (Denmark)

2012-03-15

100

Olympic Park Recreational Reserve Reserve Management Plan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document is a Management Plan for the Olympic Park Reserve within Waitakere and Auckland Cities. The Plan has been developed as a guide for the protection, use and development of the Reserve, with an emphasis on managing its organised and informal recreation while recognising its cultural heritage and ecological rehabilitation opportunities.

101

Understanding Student Preparation of Exam Note Sheets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In a previous study, I allowed introductory physics students to create a notecard (or sheet) for their midterm and final exams in an attempt to remove equation memorizing as a focus of the course. I hoped to use the study of these cards as an epistemological lens that would uncover their perceptions and attitudes about the course. Without follow-up questions, though, epistemology remained unclear. I have continued this line of research by adding anonymous survey questions that probe why students chose to include what they did, how (if at all) the notes were helpful, and how their card preparation changed throughout the semester. Through my analysis, I found cases where the survey questions reveal epistemological insight about students the note sheets alone would not. For example, one student with an equation-centered note sheet did not see equations as the most central course component, but he considered himself fluent enough in concepts that he felt he could leave conceptual statements out. I also discuss some of the more thoughtful survey answers I received, some future study possibilities, and efforts to discuss exam preparation in the classroom.

Mccaskey, Timothy L.

2014-01-31

102

Federal Reserve Bulletin  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Federal Reserve Bulletin is a monthly publication written and compiled by staff members of the Federal Reserve Board of Governors, reporting and analyzing economic developments, data, and bank regulatory issues.

1997-01-01

103

Washington Readies for High School Exit Exam: State Already Enacted Various Alternatives to Passing Exams  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author reports that sophomores who take the Washington Assessment of Student Learning this week will be the first who must pass the state exam to graduate. The long-awaited testing has caused anxiety across the state, as hopes that Washington will enter a new era of educational accountability are balanced by fears of turmoil…

Trotter, Andrew

2006-01-01

104

Engagement with Online Pre-Exam Formative Tests Improves Exam Performance and Feedback Satisfaction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The National Union of Students (NUS) National Student Experience Report identified examination feedback as an area where students had particular concerns. This finding was echoed in the authors' institution and triggered an action research project to investigate ways of improving students' perceptions of pre- and post-exam feedback. We report the…

Hope, Sheila A.; Polwart, Anthony

2012-01-01

105

Development of a Monte Carlo model for the Brainlab microMLC.  

PubMed

Stereotactic radiosurgery with several static conformal beams shaped by a micro multileaf collimator (microMLC) is used to treat small irregularly shaped brain lesions. Our goal is to perform Monte Carlo calculations of dose distributions for certain treatment plans as a verification tool. A dedicated microMLC component module for the BEAMnrc code was developed as part of this project and was incorporated in a model of the Varian CL2300 linear accelerator 6 MV photon beam. As an initial validation of the code, the leaf geometry was visualized by tracing particles through the component module and recording their position each time a leaf boundary was crossed. The leaf dimensions were measured and the leaf material density and interleaf air gap were chosen to match the simulated leaf leakage profiles with film measurements in a solid water phantom. A comparison between Monte Carlo calculations and measurements (diode, radiographic film) was performed for square and irregularly shaped fields incident on flat and homogeneous water phantoms. Results show that Monte Carlo calculations agree with measured dose distributions to within 2% and/or 1 mm except for field size smaller than 1.2 cm diameter where agreement is within 5% due to uncertainties in measured output factors. PMID:15798255

Belec, Jason; Patrocinio, Horacio; Verhaegen, Frank

2005-03-01

106

Full forward Monte Carlo calculation of portal dose from MLC collimated treatment beams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work deals with a full Monte Carlo (MC) simulation of a radiotherapy treatment facility including a multi-leaf collimator (MLC) and electronic portal imaging device (EPID). A method for a planar calibration of the EPID response in terms of dose using the MC technique is presented. Calibration measurements and simulations with several blocks of attenuating material are carried out down to approximatively 5% of the open field transmitted dose. A linear relationship is shown between the squared EPID signal and the MC calculated dose. The calibrated EPID was used as a dosimetric system to validate a MC model for the MLC. Computations and measurements agreed within 2% of dose difference (or 2 mm in regions of high dose gradient). The technique described herein is not significantly limited by physics transport model constraints. Therefore it can potentially provide a more accurate verification of dose delivery to inhomogeneous anatomical regions in patients undergoing complex multi-field conformal or intensity-modulated radiation therapy.

Spezi, E.; Lewis, D. G.

2002-02-01

107

DEK depletion negatively regulates Rho/ROCK/MLC pathway in non-small cell lung cancer.  

PubMed

The human DEK proto-oncogene is a nuclear protein with suspected roles in human carcinogenesis. DEK appears to function in several nuclear processes, including transcriptional regulation and modulation of chromatin structure. To investigate the clinicopathological significance of DEK in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), we analyzed DEK immunohistochemistry in 112 NSCLC cases. The results showed that DEK was overexpressed mainly in the nuclear compartment of tumor cells. In squamous cell carcinoma, DEK-positive expression occurred in 47.9% (23/48) of cases, and in lung adenocarcinoma, DEK-positive expression occurred in 67.2% (43/64) of cases and correlated with differentiation, p-TNM stage, and nodal status. Moreover, in lung adenocarcinoma, DEK expression was significantly higher compared with DEK expression in squamous cell carcinoma. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that patients with low DEK expression had higher overall survival compared with patients with high DEK expression. Depleting DEK expression inhibited cellular proliferation and migration. Furthermore, in DEK-depleted NSCLC cells, we found that RhoA expression was markedly reduced; in conjunction, active RhoA-GTP levels and the downstream effector phosphorylated MLC2 were also reduced. Taken together, DEK depletion inhibited cellular migration in lung cancer cell lines possibly through inactivation of the RhoA/ROCK/MLC signal transduction pathway. PMID:23571382

Wang, Junying; Sun, Limei; Yang, Mingyue; Luo, Wenting; Gao, Ying; Liu, Zihui; Qiu, Xueshan; Wang, Enhua

2013-07-01

108

DEK Depletion Negatively Regulates Rho/ROCK/MLC Pathway in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer  

PubMed Central

The human DEK proto-oncogene is a nuclear protein with suspected roles in human carcinogenesis. DEK appears to function in several nuclear processes, including transcriptional regulation and modulation of chromatin structure. To investigate the clinicopathological significance of DEK in patients with non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), we analyzed DEK immunohistochemistry in 112 NSCLC cases. The results showed that DEK was overexpressed mainly in the nuclear compartment of tumor cells. In squamous cell carcinoma, DEK-positive expression occurred in 47.9% (23/48) of cases, and in lung adenocarcinoma, DEK-positive expression occurred in 67.2% (43/64) of cases and correlated with differentiation, p-TNM stage, and nodal status. Moreover, in lung adenocarcinoma, DEK expression was significantly higher compared with DEK expression in squamous cell carcinoma. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that patients with low DEK expression had higher overall survival compared with patients with high DEK expression. Depleting DEK expression inhibited cellular proliferation and migration. Furthermore, in DEK-depleted NSCLC cells, we found that RhoA expression was markedly reduced; in conjunction, active RhoA-GTP levels and the downstream effector phosphorylated MLC2 were also reduced. Taken together, DEK depletion inhibited cellular migration in lung cancer cell lines possibly through inactivation of the RhoA/ROCK/MLC signal transduction pathway.

Wang, Junying; Sun, Limei; Yang, Mingyue; Luo, Wenting; Gao, Ying; Liu, Zihui; Wang, Enhua

2013-01-01

109

Indian Reserved Water Rights.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traces the distribution, ownership, and water usage associated with lands in the Colville Reservation in Washington State. Cites specific cases which addressed the reserved water rights doctrine. Assesses the impact of court decisions on insuring water rights for Indians living on the Colville Reservation. (ML)

Bond, Frank M.

1986-01-01

110

High-Dose Spatially Fractionated GRID Radiation Therapy (SFGRT): A Comparison of Treatment Outcomes With Cerrobend vs. MLC SFGRT  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Spatially fractionated GRID radiotherapy (SFGRT) using a customized Cerrobend block has been used to improve response rates in patients with bulky tumors. The clinical efficacy of our own multileaf collimator (MLC) technique is unknown. We undertook a retrospective analysis to compare clinical response rates attained using these two techniques. Methods and Materials: Seventy-nine patients with bulky tumors (median diameter, 7.6 cm; range, 4-30 cm) treated with SFGRT were reviewed. Between 2003 and late 2005, the Cerrobend block technique (n = 39) was used. Between late 2005 and 2008, SFGRT was delivered using MLC-shaped fields (n = 40). Dose was prescribed to dmax (depth of maximum dose) and was typically 15 Gy. Eighty percent of patients in both groups received external beam radiotherapy in addition to SFGRT. The two-sided Fisher-Freeman-Halton test was used to compare pain and mass effect response rates between the two groups. Results: Sixty-one patients (77%) were treated for palliative intent and 18 (23%) for curative intent. The majority of patients had either lung or head-and-neck primaries in both groups; the most frequent site of SFGRT application was the neck. The majority of patients complained of either pain (65%) or mass effect (58%) at intake. Overall response rates for pain and mass response were no different between the Cerrobend and MLC groups: pain, 75% and 74%, respectively (p = 0.50), and mass effect, 67% and 73%, respectively (p = 0.85). The majority of toxicities were Grade 1 or 2, and only 3 patients had late Grade 3-4 toxicities. Conclusions: MLC-based and Cerrobend-based SFGRT have comparable and encouraging response rates when used either in the palliative or curative setting. MLC-based SGFRT should allow clinics to more easily adopt this novel treatment approach for the treatment of bulky tumors.

Neuner, Geoffrey, E-mail: gneuner@umm.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Mohiuddin, Majid M. [Northwest Radiation Oncology and University of Texas Medical School at Houston, Houston, TX (United States); Vander Walde, Noam [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Goloubeva, Olga [Marlene and Stewart Greenebaum Cancer Center, University of Maryland Medical Center, Baltimore, MD (United States); Ha, Jonathan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California (United States); Yu, Cedric X.; Regine, William F. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States)

2012-04-01

111

Dosimetric evaluation of photon dose calculation under jaw and MLC shielding  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The accuracy of photon dose calculation algorithms in out-of-field regions is often neglected, despite its importance for organs at risk and peripheral dose evaluation. The present work has assessed this for the anisotropic analytical algorithm (AAA) and the Acuros-XB algorithms implemented in the Eclipse treatment planning system. Specifically, the regions shielded by the jaw, or the MLC, or both MLC and jaw for flattened and unflattened beams have been studied.Methods: The accuracy in out-of-field dose under different conditions was studied for two different algorithms. Measured depth doses out of the field, for different field sizes and various distances from the beam edge were compared with the corresponding AAA and Acuros-XB calculations in water. Four volumetric modulated arc therapy plans (in the RapidArc form) were optimized in a water equivalent phantom, PTW Octavius, to obtain a region always shielded by the MLC (or MLC and jaw) during the delivery. Doses to different points located in the shielded region and in a target-like structure were measured with an ion chamber, and results were compared with the AAA and Acuros-XB calculations. Photon beams of 6 and 10 MV, flattened and unflattened were used for the tests.Results: Good agreement between calculated and measured depth doses was found using both algorithms for all points measured at depth greater than 3 cm. The mean dose differences (±1SD) were ?8%± 16%, ?3%± 15%, ?16%± 18%, and ?9%± 16% for measurements vs AAA calculations and ?10%± 14%, ?5%± 12%, ?19%± 17%, and ?13%± 14% for Acuros-XB, for 6X, 6 flattening-filter free (FFF), 10X, and 10FFF beams, respectively. The same figures for dose differences relative to the open beam central axis dose were: ?0.1%± 0.3%, 0.0%± 0.4%, ?0.3%± 0.3%, and ?0.1%± 0.3% for AAA and ?0.2%± 0.4%, ?0.1%± 0.4%, ?0.5%± 0.5%, and ?0.3%± 0.4% for Acuros-XB. Buildup dose was overestimated with AAA, while Acuros-XB gave results more consistent with measurements. From RapidArc plan analysis the average difference between calculation and measurement in the shielded region was ?0.3%± 0.4% and ?2.5%± 1.2% for AAA and Acuros-XB, respectively, relative to the mean target dose value (1.6%± 2.3%, ?12.7%± 4.0% if relative to each local value). These values were compared with the corresponding differences in the target structure: ?0.7%± 2.3% for AAA, and ?0.5%± 2.3% for Acuros-XB.Conclusions: The two algorithms analyzed showed encouraging results in predicting out-of-field region dose for clinical use.

Fogliata, A.; Clivio, A.; Vanetti, E.; Nicolini, G.; Belosi, M. F.; Cozzi, L. [Oncology Institute of Southern Switzerland, Medical Physics Unit, Bellinzona 6500 (Switzerland)] [Oncology Institute of Southern Switzerland, Medical Physics Unit, Bellinzona 6500 (Switzerland)

2013-10-15

112

Retrospective IMRT Dose Reconstruction Based on Cone-Beam CT and MLC Log-File  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Head-and-neck (HN) cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) can be exploited to probe the IMRT dose delivered to a patient taking into account the interfraction anatomic variation and any potential inaccuracy in the IMRT delivery. The aim of this work is to reconstruct the intensity-modulated radiation therapy dose delivered to an HN patient using the CBCT and multileaf collimator (MLC) log-files. Methods and Materials: A cylindrical CT phantom was used for calibrating the electron density and validating the procedures of the dose reconstruction. Five HN patients were chosen, and for each patient, CBCTs were performed on three separate fractions spaced every 2 weeks starting from the first fraction. The respective MLC log-files were retrieved and converted into fluence maps. The dose was then reconstructed on the corresponding CBCT with the regenerated fluence maps. The reconstructed dose distribution, dosimetric endpoints, and DVHs were compared with that of the treatment plan. Results: Phantom study showed that HN CBCT can be directly used for dose reconstruction. For most treatment sessions, the CBCT-based dose reconstructions yielded DVHs of the targets close (within 3%) to that of the original treatment plans. However, dosimetric changes (within 10%) due to anatomic variations caused by setup inaccuracy, organ deformation, tumour shrinkage, or weight loss (or a combination of these) were observed for the critical organs. Conclusions: The methodology we established affords an objective dosimetric basis for the clinical decision on whether a replanning is necessary during the course of treatment and provides a valuable platform for adaptive therapy in future.

Lee, Louis; Le, Quynh-Thu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States); Xing Lei [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States)], E-mail: lei@reyes.stanford.edu

2008-02-01

113

Mlc Is a Transcriptional Activator with a Key Role in Integrating Cyclic AMP Receptor Protein and Integration Host Factor Regulation of Leukotoxin RNA Synthesis in Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans  

PubMed Central

Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, a periodontal pathogen, synthesizes leukotoxin (LtxA), a protein that helps the bacterium evade the host immune response. Transcription of the ltxA operon is induced during anaerobic growth. The cyclic AMP (cAMP) receptor protein (CRP) indirectly increases ltxA expression, but the intermediary regulator is unknown. Integration host factor (IHF) binds to and represses the leukotoxin promoter, but neither CRP nor IHF is responsible for the anaerobic induction of ltxA RNA synthesis. Thus, we have undertaken studies to identify other regulators of leukotoxin transcription and to demonstrate how these proteins work together to modulate leukotoxin synthesis. First, analyses of ltxA RNA expression from defined leukotoxin promoter mutations in the chromosome identify positions ?69 to ?35 as the key control region and indicate that an activator protein modulates leukotoxin transcription. We show that Mlc, which is a repressor in Escherichia coli, functions as a direct transcriptional activator in A. actinomycetemcomitans; an mlc deletion mutant reduces leukotoxin RNA synthesis, and recombinant Mlc protein binds specifically at the ?68 to ?40 region of the leukotoxin promoter. Furthermore, we show that CRP activates ltxA expression indirectly by increasing the levels of Mlc. Analyses of ?mlc, ?ihf, and ?ihf ?mlc strains demonstrate that Mlc can increase RNA polymerase (RNAP) activity directly and that IHF represses ltxA RNA synthesis mainly by blocking Mlc binding. Finally, a ?ihf ?mlc mutant still induces ltxA during anaerobic growth, indicating that there are additional factors involved in leukotoxin transcriptional regulation. A model for the coordinated regulation of leukotoxin transcription is presented.

Childress, Catherine; Feuerbacher, Leigh A.; Phillips, Linda; Burgum, Alex

2013-01-01

114

A One-Hour Practical Lab Exam for Organic Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A lab practical exam for second-year organic chemistry is presented that tests multiple lab skills and theory that the students have acquired directly from laboratory experiences. This exam motivates students to learn lab skills and is an effective end-of-term test for many of those skills. (Contains 2 figures.)

Neeland, Edward G.

2007-01-01

115

Should I Give the Exam before or after the Break?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was designed to help faculty make decisions about when to administer an exam in relation to an in-semester break. Students in multiple sections of an undergraduate educational psychology class were assigned to take an exam either before or after a scheduled 5-day break (Thursday-Monday). A multiple regression analysis revealed the break…

O'Connor, Kevin J.

2014-01-01

116

State High School Exit Exams: Working to Raise Test Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Center on Education Policy (CEP) has been studying state high school exit examinations since 2002. This is the sixth annual report on our comprehensive study of exit exams. The information comes from several sources: our survey of states that have mandatory exit exams, interviews with state officials, media reports, state Web sites, and case…

Center on Education Policy, 2007

2007-01-01

117

Commitment to Study as a Technique to Improve Exam Performance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on a technique that could increase study time by reducing procrastination. Randomly selected college students (N=197) made written commitments to study for an exam. Students in the commitment condition reported significantly more study time than did students in a control group; they also performed significantly better on the exam. (RJM)

Leeming, Frank C.

1997-01-01

118

An Expanded Framework for Analyzing General Chemistry Exams  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes an expanded framework to aid chemical educators in constructing exams for their courses. The framework has three primary levels: definition, algorithmic, and conceptual. These primary levels have often been used in chemical education research to analyze and describe exam questions, but in this study the definition,…

Smith, K. Christopher; Nakhleh, Mary B.; Bretz, Stacey Lowery

2010-01-01

119

Approaches to Studying and Academic Performance in Short Essay Exams  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous research has generally failed to find a relation between the way students approach the task of studying and their exam grades. The present study investigated why it is that a deep approach to studying, which has been shown to result in a higher quality of learning, does not consistently result in higher exam grades. The participants in…

Minbashian, Amirali; Huon, Gail F.; Bird, Kevin D.

2004-01-01

120

Authorized Crib Cards Do Not Improve Exam Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We experimentally investigated the effect of authorized crib cards on undergraduates' multiple-choice exam performance for lower order and higher order questions and on anxiety levels in an upper division child and adolescent development course. Students (N =54) in 2 sections could use crib cards during 2 of the 4 exams. Despite student…

Dickson, K. Laurie; Miller, Michelle D.

2005-01-01

121

Should I Do a Breast Self-Exam?  

MedlinePLUS

... Breast Self-Exam? KidsHealth > Teens > Q&A > Girl Stuff > Should I Do a Breast Self-Exam? Print ... outside of KidsHealth's control. Sign up for our free weekly eNewsletters here About KidsHealth About Nemours Contact ...

122

EXPOSURE ANALYSIS MODELING SYSTEM (EXAMS): USER MANUAL AND SYSTEM DOCUMENTATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The Exposure Analysis Modeling System (EXAMS) was designed for rapid evaluation of the behavior of synthetic organic chemicals in aquatic ecosystems. From the chemistry of a compound and the relevant transport and physical/chemical characteristics of the ecosystem, EXAMS computes...

123

Restricted Access to Exam Grades on the Web by HIP  

Microsoft Academic Search

Virtual learning is a new idea that has attained a new form with the emergence of new technologies such as the Internet. One of the issues in the field of E-learning is the way of announcing exams' grades. In this paper, a new method is introduced for restricting public access to exams' grades on the web by using a new

Sajad Shirali-shahreza; Mohammad Shirali-shahreza; Ali Movaghar

2007-01-01

124

The Red Effect, Anxiety, and Exam Performance: A Multistudy Examination  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Laboratory studies have established a negative relationship between the color red and academic performance. This research examined whether this effect would generalize to classroom performance and whether anxiety and negative affect might mediate the effect. In two studies, students taking classroom exams were randomly assigned an exam color. We…

Smajic, Adnan; Merritt, Stephanie; Banister, Christina; Blinebry, Amanda

2014-01-01

125

The Impact of Daily Extra Credit Quizzes on Exam Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined whether offering daily extra credit quizzes predicted exam performance in an advanced psychology course (n = 36). Results revealed that extra credit performance was a strong predictor of exam performance, above and beyond gender, college grade point average, and ACT scores. In addition, results suggested that nearly half of the…

Padilla-Walker, Laura M.

2006-01-01

126

The Impact of Statewide Exit Exams: A Descriptive Case Study of Three German States with Differing Low Stakes Exam Regimes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article we present results from a study investigating the impact of three state exit exam systems on teaching and learning in college-preparatory schools. The study compares one state with a traditionally more centralized exam regime, one state that is more de-centralized and one state that has recently switched to more centralized…

van Ackeren, Isabell; Block, Rainer; Klein, E. Dominique; Kuhn, Svenja M.

2012-01-01

127

The Virtual Reserve Room  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the challenges of implementing an electronic reserves program which extends library services to off-campus distance education students. Using the University of Massachusetts Amherst as a case study, the paper briefly describes the project's context and history, with a focus on the practicalities, problems, and solutions in starting an electronic library reserves service. The discussion also covers issues

Emilie R. Algenio

2002-01-01

128

Toward urban biosphere reserves.  

PubMed

The objective of this article is to outline the evolution in applying the biosphere reserve concept to urban areas and to present some of the potential benefits and possible difficulties in the design and management of urban biosphere reserves. PMID:15253897

Dogse, Peter

2004-06-01

129

THE IMPACT OF MARINE RESERVES: DO RESERVES WORK AND DOES RESERVE SIZE MATTER?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine reserves are quickly gaining popularity as a management option for marine conservation, fisheries, and other human uses of the oceans. Despite the popularity of marine reserves as a management tool, few reserves appear to have been created or designed with an understanding of how reserves affect biological factors or how reserves can be designed to meet biological goals more

Benjamin S. Halpern

2003-01-01

130

AFFORDABLE MULTI-LAYER CERAMIC (MLC) MANUFACTURING FOR POWER SYSTEMS (AMPS)  

SciTech Connect

McDermott Technology, Inc. (MTI) is attempting to develop high-performance, cost-competitive solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) power systems. Recognizing the challenges and limitations facing the development of SOFC stacks comprised of electrode-supported cells and metallic interconnects, McDermott Technology, Inc. (MTI) has chosen to pursue an alternate path to commercialization. MTI is developing a multi-layer, co-fired, planar SOFC stack that will provide superior performance and reliability at reduced costs relative to competing designs. The MTI approach combines state-of-the-art SOFC materials with the manufacturing technology and infrastructure established for multi-layer ceramic (MLC) packages for the microelectronics industry. The rationale for using MLC packaging technology is that high quality, low-cost manufacturing has been demonstrated at high volumes. With the proper selection of SOFC materials, implementation of MLC fabrication methods offers unique designs for stacks (cells and interconnects) that are not possible through traditional fabrication methods. The MTI approach eliminates use of metal interconnects and ceramic-metal seals, which are primary sources of stack performance degradation. Co-fired cells are less susceptible to thermal cycling stresses by using material compositions that have closely matched coefficients of thermal expansion between the cell and the interconnect. The development of this SOFC stack technology was initiated in October 1999 under the DOE cosponsored program entitled ''Affordable Multi-layer Ceramic Manufacturing for Power Systems (AMPS)''. The AMPS Program was conducted as a two-phase program: Phase I--Feasibility Assessment (10/99--9/00); and Phase II--Process Development for Co-fired Stacks (10/00-3/02). This report provides a summary of the results from Phase I and a more detailed review of the results for Phase II. Phase I demonstrated the feasibility for fabricating multi-layer, co-fired cells and interconnects and resulted in selection of the most promising configuration for high-performance, low-cost SOFC stacks. During Phase II, the MTI Team successfully refined the fabrication processes and achieved low-rate production of cells and interconnects (about 100 per month). Short stacks (3-10 cells) using co-fired cells and interconnects were assembled and tested to validate the MTI multi-layer SOFC design. The team successfully demonstrated co-fired repeat units, comprised of a cell and the interconnect layers. Development of co-fired cells and multi-layer interconnects based on the new stack design was completed; all component fabrication and stack testing efforts were redirected to the new design toward the end of Phase II. Finally, low-cost alternate materials for the interconnect body and conductors within the interconnect were identified. At the end of Phase II, the MTI Team successfully transitioned the multi-layer SOFC stack development effort to the Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) program.

E.A. Barringer, Ph.D.

2002-11-27

131

A dosimetric evaluation of the Eclipse AAA algorithm and Millennium 120 MLC for cranial intensity-modulated radiosurgery.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to assess the accuracy of a convolution-based algorithm (anisotropic analytical algorithm [AAA]) implemented in the Eclipse planning system for intensity-modulated radiosurgery (IMRS) planning of small cranial targets by using a 5-mm leaf-width multileaf collimator (MLC). Overall, 24 patient-based IMRS plans for cranial lesions of variable size (0.3 to 15.1cc) were planned (Eclipse, AAA, version 10.0.28) using fixed field-based IMRS produced by a Varian linear accelerator equipped with a 120 MLC (5-mm width on central leaves). Plan accuracy was evaluated according to phantom-based measurements performed with radiochromic film (EBT2, ISP, Wayne, NJ). Film 2D dose distributions were performed with the FilmQA Pro software (version 2011, Ashland, OH) by using the triple-channel dosimetry method. Comparison between computed and measured 2D dose distributions was performed using the gamma method (3%/1mm). Performance of the MLC was checked by inspection of the DynaLog files created by the linear accelerator during the delivery of each dynamic field. The absolute difference between the calculated and measured isocenter doses for all the IMRS plans was 2.5% ± 2.1%. The gamma evaluation method resulted in high average passing rates of 98.9% ± 1.4% (red channel) and 98.9% ± 1.5% (blue and green channels). DynaLog file analysis revealed a maximum root mean square error of 0.46mm. According to our results, we conclude that the Eclipse/AAA algorithm provides accurate cranial IMRS dose distributions that may be accurately delivered by a Varian linac equipped with a Millennium 120 MLC. PMID:24342166

Calvo Ortega, Juan Francisco; Moragues, Sandra; Pozo, Miquel; José, Sol San; Puertas, Enrique; Fernández, Jaime; Casals, Joan

2014-01-01

132

A child with macrocephaly: case report of a patient with megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts and a compound heterozygosity for two mutations in the MLC1 gene.  

PubMed

Megalencephaly is as a rule accompanied by macrocephaly, an occipitofrontal circumference (OFC) greater than the 98th percentile. Megalencephaly is divided into an anatomic type (developmental) and a metabolic type. Metabolic megalencephaly refers to various storage and degenerative encephalopathies. The differential diagnosis includes Alexander's disease, Canavan's disease, glutaric aciduria type 1, GM1 and GM2 gangliosidosis, merosin-deficient variant of congenital muscular dystrophy and megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts (MLC). The distinctive features of this syndrome are enlarged cranial circumference, present at birth or starting in the first year of life, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) evidence of diffuse with matter abnormalities with subcortical cysts in the tips of the temporal lobes and in frontoparietal subcortical areas. Mutations in the MLC1 gene have been found as causative of MLC in 60-70 % of affected subjects, without genotype-phenotype correlation. The child we describe presented with progressive macrocephaly not associated with dysmorphic features and large abdominoscrotal hydrocele. At the age of 8 months, encephalic MRI showed anomalies suggestive for MLC and brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEP) documented alterations of signal conduction in right tracts. At the time, clinical neurologic examination was normal. Extensive metabolic assays were within normal range. Sequence analysis for MLC1 gene revealed a compound heterozygosity for two mutations in MLC1 gene, inherited from healthy non consanguineous parents. PMID:21487377

Delmonaco, A G; Gaidolfi, E; Scheper, G C; Girardo, E; Molinatto, C; Belligni, E; Ferrero, G B; Cirillo Silengo, M; Van Der Knaap, M

2011-04-01

133

Partial bladder outlet obstruction alters Ca2+ sensitivity of force, but not of MLC phosphorylation, in bladder smooth muscle.  

PubMed

Partial bladder outlet obstruction in the rabbit produces changes in bladder function similar to those seen clinically in patients with obstructive uropathies. Whole organ function is significantly altered, as are the smooth muscle cells inside the bladder wall. This study was designed to determine whether outlet obstruction alters smooth muscle function at the level of contractile filaments. Rabbit bladders were partially obstructed for 2 wk. Triton X-100 was used to provide a detergent-skinned bladder smooth muscle preparation that would allow control of the intracellular environment while the ability to shorten and develop force is maintained. Ca2+-force and Ca2+-myosin light chain (MLC) phosphorylation relations and maximal velocity of shortening were determined. The Ca2+ sensitivity of force was significantly lower in tissues from animals subjected to outlet obstruction compared with tissues from control animals. In contrast, no difference was noted in the Ca2+ sensitivity of MLC phosphorylation. Maximal levels of stress and MLC phosphorylation were similar in both animal groups. Maximal velocity of shortening was significantly slower in tissues from outlet-obstructed animals at all Ca2+ concentrations compared with tissues from control animals. Ultrastructurally, detergent skinning had little effect on structural integrity. Moreover, tissues from obstructed animals showed an increase in the number of sarcolemmal attachment plaque structures. We suggest that partial bladder outlet obstruction produces deleterious (e.g., decrease in Ca2+ sensitivity of force) and compensatory (e.g., increase in membrane attachment plaques) changes in bladder smooth muscle cells. PMID:12799305

Stanton, Michaela C; Clement, Michele; Macarak, Edward J; Zderic, Stephen A; Moreland, Robert S

2003-10-01

134

Mlc1p promotes septum closure during cytokinesis via the IQ motifs of the vesicle motor Myo2p  

PubMed Central

Little is known about the molecular machinery that directs secretory vesicles to the site of cell separation during cytokinesis. We show that in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the class V myosin Myo2p and the Rab/Ypt Sec4p, that are required for vesicle polarization processes at all stages of the cell cycle, form a complex with each other and with a myosin light chain, Mlc1p, that is required for actomyosin ring assembly and cytokinesis. Mlc1p travels on secretory vesicles and forms a complex(es) with Myo2p and/or Sec4p. Its functional interaction with Myo2p is essential during cytokinesis to target secretory vesicles to fill the mother bud neck. The role of Mlc1p in actomyosin ring assembly instead is dispensable for this process. Therefore, in yeast, as recently shown in mammals, class V myosins associate with vesicles via the formation of a complex with Rab/Ypt proteins. Further more, myosin light chains, via their ability to be transported by secretory vesicles and to interact with class V myosin IQ motifs, can regulate vesicle polarization processes at a specific location and stage of the cell cycle.

Wagner, Wolfgang; Bielli, Pamela; Wacha, Stefan; Ragnini-Wilson, Antonella

2002-01-01

135

Experimental verification of a Monte Carlo-based MLC simulation model for IMRT dose calculations in heterogeneous media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

IMRT often requires delivering small fields which may suffer from electronic disequilibrium effects. The presence of heterogeneities, particularly low-density tissues in patients, complicates such situations. In this study, we report on verification of the DPM MC code for IMRT treatment planning in heterogeneous media, using a previously developed model of the Varian 120-leaf MLC. The purpose of this study is twofold: (a) design a comprehensive list of experiments in heterogeneous media for verification of any dose calculation algorithm and (b) verify our MLC model in these heterogeneous type geometries that mimic an actual patient geometry for IMRT treatment. The measurements have been done using an IMRT head and neck phantom (CIRS phantom) and slab phantom geometries. Verification of the MLC model has been carried out using point doses measured with an A14 slim line (SL) ion chamber inside a tissue-equivalent and a bone-equivalent material using the CIRS phantom. Planar doses using lung and bone equivalent slabs have been measured and compared using EDR films (Kodak, Rochester, NY).

Tyagi, N.; Curran, B. H.; Roberson, P. L.; Moran, J. M.; Acosta, E.; Fraass, B. A.

2008-02-01

136

Exam Question Exchange: A Popular Approach to Reaction Kinetics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an undergraduate physical chemistry question and its acceptable solution. This question, presented to share exam questions with other teachers, shows the analogy between molecular kinetics and population dynamics. (HM)

Collins, Michael P. S.; Alexander, John J., Ed.

1979-01-01

137

Remedial Study plus Retake Exams Equals Better Grades.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes adaptation of the Retake System to larger lecture classes and tests the importance of remedial study in improving exam performance for 410 students enrolled in an interdisciplinary (chemistry, physics, and biology) science course for nonscience majors. (HM)

Van Winkle, Lon J.

1978-01-01

138

EXAM: A Two-State Thermodynamic Analysis Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

EXAM is a computer program written for the analysis of data from calorimetric or spectroscopic data on the denaturation of proteins, oligonucleotides, lipids and other macromolecules in terms of a two-state model of thermodynamic equilibrium.

W. H. Kirchhoff

1993-01-01

139

National strategic petroleum reserve.  

PubMed

The Strategic Petroleum Reserve is intended to reduce the vulnerability of the United States to interruptions in the oil supply from foreign sources. Storage for 248 million barrels of crude oil in salt caverns and mines, with equipment for pumping and distribution, was constructed and operationally tested in a 4-year period. Its present inventory is the largest known crude oil reserve in the world. Facilities for expanding the reserve's capacity by another 290 million barrels are being developed by solution-mining in salt domes. PMID:17847458

Davis, R M

1981-08-01

140

Oswego City School District Regents Exam Prep Center: Earth Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site was designed to prepare high school students for the New York State Regents Earth Science Examination. The multiple-choice review questions cover the following topics: size, shape, and composition of the Earth; mapping; rocks and minerals; weathering, erosion, deposition, and landforms; earthquakes and plate tectonics; Earth history; meteorology and climate; and astronomy. Other resources include practice questions requiring a written response, a New York State Regents exam overview, old regents exams, and reference tables.

141

Investigation of the sag in linac secondary collimator and MLC carriage during arc deliveries.  

PubMed

In modern radiotherapy, it is vitally important to monitor the performance of all linac components including the collimation system. In this study, a simple measurement method and accurate algorithm are introduced for investigation of the secondary and tertiary collimator sag during radiotherapy arc treatments. The method is based on cine EPID images of a ball bearing marker fixed to the gantry head and determines the jaw and MLC sag in all directions relative to the reference at zero gantry angle. Analysis was performed using different field sizes and collimator angles, different linacs and different gantry rotation directions. The accuracy of the method was tested and was less than 0.02 mm. The repeatability and reproducibility of the method was 0.005 and 0.09 mm, respectively. The setup is easy and quick and the algorithm is fast and fully automatic with sub-pixel accuracy. This method is suitable to be included in the routine quality assurance of linacs to monitor the collimator system performance. PMID:22643340

Rowshanfarzad, Pejman; Sabet, Mahsheed; O'Connor, Daryl J; Greer, Peter B

2012-06-21

142

Do Open-Book Exams Impede Long-Term Learning in Introductory Biology Courses?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students in an introductory biology course who were given open-book exams during the semester earned significantly higher grades on these exams, but significantly lower grades on the closed-book final exam, than students who took in-class, closed-book exams throughout the semester. Exam format was also associated with changes in academic behavior; students who had upcoming open-book exams attended fewer lectures and help sessions and submitted fewer extra-credit assignments than students who had upcoming closed-book exams. These results suggest that open-book exams diminish long-term learning and promote academic behaviors that typify lower levels of academic achievement.

Jensen, Philip A.; Moore, Randy

2007-07-01

143

American Indians by Reservations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report presents previously unpublished data from the 1970 Census on the American Indian population living on reservations. Detailed tables contain data on characteristics such as age, sex, marital status, relationship to head of household, families by...

J. R. Corn

1980-01-01

144

Interpretation of Biosphere Reserves.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduces the Man and the Biosphere Programme (MAB) to monitor the 193 biogeographical provinces of the Earth and the creation of biosphere reserves. Highlights the need for interpreters to become familiar or involved with MAB program activities. (LZ)

Merriman, Tim

1994-01-01

145

An algorithm for shifting MLC shapes to adjust for daily prostate movement during concurrent treatment with pelvic lymph nodes  

SciTech Connect

Concurrent treatment of the prostate and the pelvic lymph nodes encounters the problem of the prostate gland moving independently from the pelvic lymph nodes on a daily basis. The purpose of this study is to develop a leaf-tracking algorithm for adjustment of IMRT portals without requirement of online dose calculation to account for daily prostate position during concurrent treatment with pelvic lymph nodes. A leaf-shifting algorithm was developed and programmed to adjust the positions of selected MLC leaf pairs according to prostate movement in the plane perpendicular to each beam angle. IMRT plans from five patients with concurrent treatment of the prostate and pelvic lymph nodes were selected to test the feasibility of this algorithm by comparison with isocenter-shifted plans, using defined dose endpoints. When the prostate moved 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 cm along the anterior/posterior direction, the average doses to 95% of the prostate (D{sub 95%}) for the iso-shift plans were similar to the MLC-shift plans, (54.7, 54.4, and 54.1 Gy versus 54.5, 54.3, and 53.9 Gy, respectively). The corresponding D{sub 95%} averages to the pelvic lymph nodes were reduced from the prescription dose of 45 Gy to 42.7, 38.3, and 34.0 Gy for iso-shift plans (p=0.04 for each comparison), while the D{sub 95%} averages for the MLC-shift plans did not significantly differ from the prescription dose, at 45.0, 44.8, and 44.5 Gy. Compensation for prostate movement along the superior/inferior direction was more complicated due to a limiting MLC leaf width of 1.0 cm. In order to concurrently treat the prostate and pelvic lymph nodes with the prostate moving independently, shifting selected MLC leaf pairs may be a more practical adaptive solution than shifting the patient.

Ludlum, Erica; Mu, Guangwei; Weinberg, Vivian; Roach, Mack III; Verhey, Lynn J.; Xia Ping [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California-San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94143 (United States)

2007-12-15

146

An MLC-based linac QA procedure for the characterization of radiation isocenter and room lasers' position  

SciTech Connect

We have designed and implemented a new stereotactic linac QA test with stereotactic precision. The test is used to characterize gantry sag, couch wobble, cone placement, MLC offsets, and room lasers' positions relative to the radiation isocenter. Two MLC star patterns, a cone pattern, and the laser line patterns are recorded on the same imaging medium. Phosphor plates are used as imaging medium due to their sensitivity to red light. The red light of room lasers erases some of the irradiation information stored on the phosphor plates enabling accurate and direct measurements for the position of room lasers and radiation isocenter. Using film instead of the phosphor plate as imaging medium is possible, however, it is less practical. The QA method consists of irradiating four phosphor plates that record the gantry sag between the 0 deg.and 180 deg.gantry angles, the position and stability of couch rotational axis, the sag between the 90 deg.and 270 deg.gantry angles, the accuracy of cone placement on the collimator, the MLC offsets from the collimator rotational axis, and the position of laser lines relative to the radiation isocenter. The estimated accuracy of the method is {+-}0.2 mm. The observed reproducibility of the method is about {+-}0.1 mm. The total irradiation/illumination time is about 10 min per image. Data analysis, including the phosphor plate scanning, takes less than 5 min for each image. The method characterizes the radiation isocenter geometry with the high accuracy required for the stereotactic radiosurgery. In this respect, it is similar to the standard ball test for stereotactic machines. However, due to the usage of the MLC instead of the cross-hair/ball, it does not depend on the cross-hair/ball placement errors with respect to the lasers and it provides more information on the mechanical integrity of the linac/couch/laser system. Alternatively, it can be used as a highly accurate QA procedure for the nonstereotactic machines. Noteworthy is its ability to characterize the MLC position accuracy, which is an important factor in IMRT delivery.

Rosca, Florin; Lorenz, Friedlieb; Hacker, Fred L.; Chin, Lee M.; Ramakrishna, Naren; Zygmanski, Piotr [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States)

2006-06-15

147

National Estuarine Research Reserves  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Through linked programs of stewardship, education, and research, the NERRS enhances informed management and scientific understanding of the nation's estuarine and coastal habitats. Includes information on monitoring (water quality, weather, nutrients, etc.), restoration, invasive species, fellowships, and much more. With reserves all over coastal U.S., educators and scientists can access an abundance of information on the reserves right around the corner and ones on the other side of the country.

148

Real-time motion-adaptive delivery (MAD) using binary MLC: II. Rotational beam (tomotherapy) delivery.  

PubMed

TomoTherapy delivery is controlled by a planned, projection-wised leaf sequence (sinogram) that is optimized during treatment planning. In this paper, we developed a software solution for real-time motion compensation that delivers helical TomoTherapy plans without modifying the hardware and workflow of the TomoTherapy delivery system. Unlike the dynamic MLC-based method, our technique only requires instantaneous tumor positions, which greatly simplifies its implementation. This technique re-uses the planned sinogram by shuffling its projections and leaf sequences. In order to compensate for longitudinal tumor motion in real-time, instead of sequential execution of the planned sinogram, the projections are executed out of order. That is, we may choose a past or future projection of the planned sinogram rather than the current projection depending on tumor motion, so that the planned radiation source position of the chosen projection is the same as the radiation source position at the current delivery time in the tumor reference frame. The transverse tumor motion is further compensated for by shifting and scaling the leaf open time of the chosen projection. We tested different planned sinograms that were optimized using various synthetic tumor/OAR configurations, as well as planned sinogram of a lung cancer patient, all with zero motion margins. Various TomoTherapy machine parameters and both regular and irregular respiratory traces were used in calculations. By applying the motion-adaptive delivery (MAD) technique, the delivered dose matched the planned dose very well in both DVH and dose profiles. As for the regular and minor irregular respiration, the dose errors were well below 3 mm and 3% criteria. No hot and cold spots were noticeable. For irregular respiration with some missing breathing cycles, this method demonstrates the capability for motion margin reduction. PMID:18978445

Lu, Weiguo

2008-11-21

149

Federal Reserve Education  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Federal Reserve is the central bank of the United States, and there are twelve Federal Reserve districts that range from Hawaii to Maine. This website was created by the Federal Reserve to provide high-quality educational resources about economics, personal finance, public policy and other subjects to students and the general public. First-time visitors can peruse some of the videos on the homepage, find their Reserve district via an interactive map, and also learn about the history of colonial money. Educators can use the Find Resources area to look for items of note, and they can search by keyword, title, grade, topic, or document type. Some of the most compelling material can be found in the Games & Simulations area. Here visitors will find an economic literacy test and a fun game called "Show Business: The Economics of Entertainment." The site is rounded out by the Public Resources area, which includes links to material on public tours, economic indicators and other materials on the day-to-day activities of the Federal Reserve.

2012-06-08

150

Corners, Walls, and Doors: The Methodology of Exams in a Course on American Indian Literatures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A college teacher altered her approach to evaluating students' progress in an American Indian literatures course by replacing written exams with oral exams. Students were given questions prior to the exam conference and were allowed one page of written notes. Suggests that written exams clash pedagogically with the literatures and cultures being…

Sprayberry, Sandra L.

1996-01-01

151

Going Green and Using Less Paper to Print Exams: Student Performance, Completion Time, and Preference  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two studies measured the impact on student exam performance and exam completion time of strategies aimed to reduce the amount of paper used for printing multiple-choice course exams. Study 1 compared single-sided to double-sided printed exams. Study 2 compared a single-column arrangement of multiple-choice answer options to a space (and paper)…

O'Connor, Kevin J.

2014-01-01

152

The Coordinators of Psychiatric Education (COPE) Residency In-Training Exam: A Preliminary Psychometric Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The Coordinators of Psychiatric Education (COPE) Residency In-Training Exam is a formative exam for Canadian psychiatric residents that was reconstructed using assessment best practices. An assessment of psychometric properties was subsequently performed on the exam to ensure preliminary validity and reliability. Methods: An exam

Montgomery, Gregory P. J.; Crockford, David N.; Hecker, Kent

2010-01-01

153

Using collaborative group exams to investigate students' ability to learn  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of our primary learning goals for our students is: we would like them to be able to learn physics on their own. Unfortunately few existing assessments can assess students' ability to learn without being taught. We are developing a new format of exam which challenges students to work together as a class to tackle a difficult problem that requires them to learn new physics. Rather than restrict their activities, we offer them a resource-rich environment of textbooks and internet access. Students are required to transfer their knowledge by answering a related question on a more standard ``individual exam'' two days later. In this paper we will discuss the format of the exams, background theory, and present evidence of how students are able to learn new physics on their own. Our results show that although students struggle at first, they do surprisingly well once they get used to the format.

Lin, Yuhfen; Brookes, David T.

2013-01-01

154

Wetlands Reserve Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Recognizing that the health of the nation's wetlands depends on the fate of private (as well as public-owned) wetlands, the Wetlands Reserve Program is an important, voluntary initiative led by the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) to provide "technical and financial support" to help private landowners restore their wetlands. This straightforward site describes the Wetlands Reserve Program (WRP), including a map showing national WRP acreage, several question/ answer fact sheets, state programs and contacts, and a slide show (PowerPoint) entitled Producing Wildlife Habitat Results. Although the site targets the general public, students and educators will find it useful and instructive.

155

A final-exam comparison involving computer-based instruction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In an introductory classical mechanics course, the same final exams were given to 540 students taught in the usual way and to 486 students who received computer-based instruction. All students scored better on problems which had been made up by their own lecturer. Students in the computer-based course scored better overall. These statistically significant results are of interest not only for comparing the two forms of instruction but also for their implications on the use of exam scores for such comparisons.

Jones, Lorella; Kane, Dennis; Avner, R. A.; Sherwood, Bruce

2005-10-27

156

MV image-based dynamic MLC tracking of a NiTi stent in pig lungs on a linear accelerator  

PubMed Central

Purpose: To investigate the accuracy and potential limitations of MV image-based dynamic MLC tracking in a porcine model on a linear accelerator. Methods and Materials: A thermo-expandable NiTi stent designed for kV x-ray visualization of lung lesions was inserted into the bronchia of three anaesthetized Göttingen minipigs. A 4DCT scan was used for planning a 5-field conformal treatment with circular MLC apertures. A 22.5Gy single fraction treatment was delivered to the pigs. The peak-to-peak stent motion was 3-8mm with breathing periods of 1.2-4 seconds. Prior to treatment, x-ray images were used for image-guided setup based on the stent. During treatment delivery, continuous portal images were acquired at 7.5Hz. The stent was segmented in the images and used for continuous adaptation of the MLC aperture. Offline, the tracking error in beam’s eye view of the MV beam was calculated for each image as the difference between the MLC aperture center and the segmented stent position. The standard deviations of the systematic error ? and the random error ? were determined and compared with the would-be errors for a non-tracking treatment with pre-treatment image-guided setup. Results: Reliable stent segmentation was obtained for 11 out of 15 fields. Segmentation failures occurred when image contrast was dominated by overlapping anatomical structures (ribs, diaphragm) rather than by the stent, which was designed for kV rather than MV x-ray visibility. For the 11 fields with reliable segmentation, ? was 0.5mm/0.4mm in the two imager directions, while ? was 0.5mm/1.1mm. Without tracking, ? and ? would have been 1.7mm/1.4mm and 0.8mm/1.4mm, respectively. Conclusion: For the first time, in vivo DMLC tracking has been demonstrated on a linear accelerator showing the potential for improved targeting accuracy. The study mimicked the envisioned patient workflow of future patient treatments. Clinical implementation of MV image-based tracking would require markers designed for MV-visibility.

Poulsen, Per R; Carl, Jesper; Nielsen, Jane; Nielsen, Martin S; Thomsen, Jakob B; Jensen, Henrik K; Kjaergaard, Benedict; Zepernick, Peter R; Worm, Esben; Fledelius, Walther; Cho, Byungchul; Sawant, Amit; Ruan, Dan; Keall, Paul J

2011-01-01

157

School Shootings Stun Reservation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article deals with the impact brought by the school shootings at Red Lake Indian Reservation in Minnesota to the school community. A deeply troubled 16-year-old student shot and killed seven other people and himself at a high school. The nation's deadliest school attack since the 1999 slayings at Colorado's suburban Columbine High School took…

Borja, Rhea R.; Cavanagh, Sean

2005-01-01

158

Early Storage Reserve Plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Early Storage Reserve Plan (ESR) was prepared in response to Section 155 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (Public Law 94-163), which calls for storage of 150 million barrels of crude oil by December 1978. This ESR storage requirement will be ...

1976-01-01

159

Reserve Enlistment Motivation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objectives of this research were to identify enlistment motivation and incentive patterns among 455 new U.S. Army Reserve (USAR) enlistees. Questionnaires were administered to non-prior service males who enlisted in the second half of calendar year 19...

R. J. Orend R. N. Gaines M. J. Michaels

1977-01-01

160

Army Reserve and Vietnam.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 1968 decision to mobilize units of the Army Reserve came three years after Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara first raised the idea with President Lyndon Johnson. In May and June of 1965, South Vietnamese forces suffered a string of defeats, and in ...

J. T. Currie

1984-01-01

161

Washington: Hanford Nuclear Reservation  

... "before and after" views of the area around the Hanford Nuclear Reservation near Richland, Washington. On June 27, 2000, a fire in the ... since 1996. MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, ...

2013-04-18

162

Strategic Petroleum Reserve.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The House passed H.R. 6, the Energy Policy Act of 2005, on April 21, 2005 (249- 183). The legislation would permanently authorize the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) and require, as expeditiously as practicable, expansion of the SPR to its authorized ma...

R. Bamberger

2005-01-01

163

World Uranium Reserves  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This American Energy Independence website provides a brief overview of potential supplies of uranium for nuclear energy. The author, nuclear engineer James Hopf, believes that there are large reserves of uranium available, and that more will be discovered if needed. Links to literature cited and related resources are included.

Hopf, James; Independence, American E.

164

Strategic Petroleum Reserve: Quarterly Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The August 15, 1987, Strategic Petroleum Reserve Quarterly Report describes activities undertaken with respect to the development of the Reserve during the period April 1, 1987 through June 30, 1987. The program background and major activities of this qua...

1987-01-01

165

From Exam Factories to Communities of Discovery: The Democratic Route  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"From Exam Factories to Communities of Discovery" passionately calls for educators to challenge the dominant market-led model of education and instead build a more democratic one, better able to face threats such as environmental damage; intensified global competition; corrosive social inequalities in and between nations in the world; and the need…

Coffield, Frank; Williamson, Bill

2011-01-01

166

Success on Algorithmic and LOCS vs. Conceptual Chemistry Exam Questions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analyzes differences in students' performance on algorithmic, lower-order cognitive skills (LOCS), and conceptual exam questions and the correlations between their achievements on these categories across different populations.Reports that the highest scores were obtained for the algorithmic questions, the lowest for the conceptual questions, and…

Zoller, Uri; And Others

1995-01-01

167

The CPA Exam as a Postcurriculum Accreditation Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Business schools often attain accreditation to demonstrate program efficacy. J. A. Marts, J. D. Baker, and J. M. Garris (1988) hypothesized that candidates from Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business International (AACSB)-accredited accounting programs perform better on the CPA exam than do candidates from non-AACSB-accredited…

Barilla, Anthony G.; Jackson, Robert E.; Mooney, J. Lowell

2008-01-01

168

Factors Distinguishing Exceptional Performance on the Uniform CPA Exam.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analysis of data from 234 Certified Public Accountant (CPA) candidates (98 of whom failed at least 1 part of the exam) showed that higher grades in the CPA review course correlated with passing the first time. Higher high school class rank and larger high school class size influenced exceptional test performance. (SK)

Ashbaugh, Donald L.; Thompson, A. Frank

1993-01-01

169

A General Chemistry Final Exam Based on the Chemical Literature.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a final exam that is based on six papers from the primary chemical literature. Allows general chemistry students a chance to see a sample of the chemical literature and enables them to realize that the day-to-day use of chemistry requires a broad-brush approach - the simultaneous application of a myriad of concepts. Contains 12…

Burness, James H.

1996-01-01

170

Getting Interpersonal on a University Entrance Exam Impromptu Writing Task  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores the types of audience engagement strategies used by a Japanese secondary school student in an after school course preparing for a high-stakes impromptu academic writing task on a university entrance exam. The study uses appraisal theory--the branch of Systemic Functional Linguistics (SFL) concerned with the patterning of…

Myskow, Gordon; Gordon, Kana

2012-01-01

171

Residency Applicants Misinterpret Their United States Medical Licensing Exam Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Proper interpretation of the results of the United States Medical Licensing Exam (USMLE) is important for program directors, residents, and faculty who advise applicants about applying for residency positions. We suspected that applicants often misinterpreted their performance in relationship to others who took the same examination. In 2005, 54…

Jones, Roger C.; Desbiens, Norman A.

2009-01-01

172

Psychosocial Factors Associated with Skin Self-Exam Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The authors examined psychosocial factors associated with skin self-exam (SSE) performance by young adults. Participants and Methods: The authors administered surveys to 218 US college students (aged 18-26 years) attending a large midwestern university. Results: Contrary to prior research, men (44%) and women (49%) were relatively…

Jensen, Jakob D.; Moriarty, Cortney M.

2008-01-01

173

Assessment in undergraduate medical education: a review of course exams  

PubMed Central

Introduction The purpose of this study is to describe an approach for evaluating assessments used in the first 2 years of medical school and report the results of applying this method to current first and second year medical student examinations. Methods Three faculty members coded all exam questions administered during the first 2 years of medical school. The reviewers discussed and compared the coded exam questions. During the bi-monthly meetings, all differences in coding were resolved with consensus as the final criterion. We applied Moore's framework to assist the review process and to align it with National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME) standards. Results The first and second year medical school examinations had 0% of competence level questions. The majority, more than 50% of test questions, were at the NBME recall level. Conclusion It is essential that multiple-choice questions (MCQs) test the attitudes, skills, knowledge, and competency in medical school. Based on our findings, it is evident that our exams need to be improved to better prepare our medical students for successful completion of NBME step exams.

Vanderbilt, Allison A.; Feldman, Moshe; Wood, Isaac K.

2013-01-01

174

Analysis of Reserve Market Survey.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A survey of most of the US Army Reserves was conducted in 1980-1981 to obtain information on the opinions which the Reservists had concerning the US Army Reserve and on factors which influenced the individual to join the Reserves. Although the analysis in...

G. A. Klopp

1982-01-01

175

Catabolic regulation analysis of Escherichia coli and its crp, mlc, mgsA, pgi and ptsG mutants  

PubMed Central

Background Most bacteria can use various compounds as carbon sources. These carbon sources can be either co-metabolized or sequentially metabolized, where the latter phenomenon typically occurs as catabolite repression. From the practical application point of view of utilizing lignocellulose for the production of biofuels etc., it is strongly desirable to ferment all sugars obtained by hydrolysis from lignocellulosic materials, where simultaneous consumption of sugars would benefit the formation of bioproducts. However, most organisms consume glucose prior to consumption of other carbon sources, and exhibit diauxic growth. It has been shown by fermentation experiments that simultaneous consumption of sugars can be attained by ptsG, mgsA mutants etc., but its mechanism has not been well understood. It is strongly desirable to understand the mechanism of metabolic regulation for catabolite regulation to improve the performance of fermentation. Results In order to make clear the catabolic regulation mechanism, several continuous cultures were conducted at different dilution rates of 0.2, 0.4, 0.6 and 0.7 h-1 using wild type Escherichia coli. The result indicates that the transcript levels of global regulators such as crp, cra, mlc and rpoS decreased, while those of fadR, iclR, soxR/S increased as the dilution rate increased. These affected the metabolic pathway genes, which in turn affected fermentation result where the specific glucose uptake rate, the specific acetate formation rate, and the specific CO2 evolution rate (CER) were increased as the dilution rate was increased. This was confirmed by the 13C-flux analysis. In order to make clear the catabolite regulation, the effect of crp gene knockout (?crp) and crp enhancement (crp+) as well as mlc, mgsA, pgi and ptsG gene knockout on the metabolism was then investigated by the continuous culture at the dilution rate of 0.2 h-1 and by some batch cultures. In the case of ?crp (and also ?mlc) mutant, TCA cycle and glyoxylate were repressed, which caused acetate accumulation. In the case of crp+ mutant, glycolysis, TCA cycle, and gluconeogenesis were activated, and simultaneous consumption of multiple carbon sources can be attained, but the glucose consumption rate became less due to repression of ptsG and ptsH by the activation of Mlc. Simultaneous consumption of multiple carbon sources could be attained by mgsA, pgi, and ptsG mutants due to increase in crp as well as cyaA, while glucose consumption rate became lower. Conclusions The transcriptional catabolite regulation mechanism was made clear for the wild type E. coli, and its crp, mlc, ptsG, pgi, and mgsA gene knockout mutants. The results indicate that catabolite repression can be relaxed and crp as well as cyaA can be increased by crp+, mgsA, pgi, and ptsG mutants, and thus simultaneous consumption of multiple carbon sources including glucose can be made, whereas the glucose uptake rate became lower as compared to wild type due to inactivation of ptsG in all the mutants considered.

2011-01-01

176

China's petroleum reserves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perhaps because of declining yields inland, the People's Republic of China has moved to its storm-ridden coast to develop additional petroleum reserves. During 1979 and 1980, 44 foreign oil-exploration companies engaged in what has been termed the world's record ``seismic shoot'' over 411,000 km2 extending from the Yellow Sea through the South China Sea, and including Beibu Wan (Gulf of

Peter M. Bell

1983-01-01

177

A Multistage Longitudinal Comparative (MLC) Design Stage II: Evaluation of the Changing Lives Program (CLP)--The Possible Selves Questionnaire-Qualitative Extensions (PSQ-QE)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study reported in this paper, a Multistage Longitudinal Comparative (MLC) Design Stage II evaluation conducted as a planned preliminary efficacy evaluation (psychometric evaluation of measures, short-term controlled outcome studies, etc.) of the Changing Lives Program (CLP), provided evidence for the reliability and validity of qualitative…

Kortsch, Gabrielle; Kurtines, William M.; Montgomery, Marilyn J.

2008-01-01

178

MLC Libraries--A School Library's Journey with Students, Staff and Web 2.0 Technologies: Blogs, Wikis and E-Books--Where Are We Going Next?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This workshop paper explores the Web 2.0 journey of the MLC Libraries' teacher-librarians, librarian, library and audio visual technicians. Our journey was initially inspired by Will Richardson and supported by the School Library Association of Victoria (SLAV) Web 2.0 professional development program. The 12 week technological skills program "23…

Viner, Jane; Lucas, Amanda; Ricchini, Tracey; Ri, Regina

2010-01-01

179

A Multistage Longitudinal Comparative (MLC) Design Stage IIEvaluation of the Changing Lives Program (CLP): The Possible Selves Questionnaire—Qualitative Extensions (PSQ-QE)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study reported in this paper, a Multistage Longitudinal Comparative (MLC) Design Stage II evaluation conducted as a planned preliminary efficacy evaluation (psychometric evaluation of measures, short-term controlled outcome studies, etc.) of the Changing Lives Program (CLP), provided evidence for the reliability and validity of qualitative measures under development as well as the utility of unifying qualitative (e.g., open coding,

Gabrielle Kortsch; William M. Kurtines; Marilyn J. Montgomery

2008-01-01

180

NOTE: Does the option to rotate the Elekta Beam Modulator MLC during VMAT IMRT delivery confer advantage?—a study of 'parked gaps'  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When delivering intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) using the volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) technique on an Elekta accelerator equipped with the Elekta Beam Modulator multileaf collimator (MLC), the orientation of the MLC, relative to the accelerator head, is generally fixed during the delivery. However, it has the ability to rotate about its axis as the gantry simultaneously rotates. This note shows that this can confer a potential advantage when planning and delivering IMRT via VMAT. A computer model has been built in which the MLC rotation angle could be varied with each control point (gantry location) within the constraints of the specified MLC rotation speed and the time available for rotation. The model was used to optimize the orientation trajectory in such a way as to minimize the number of parked gaps between leaves which are needed for some gantry orientations but not for others (and which cannot reach the shielding safety of surrounding jaws in the time available). The presented work started with the simple situation of collimating gantry-successive single convex shapes. As a broad statement some 40% reduction in such parked gaps could be achieved. The study was then extended to investigate the optimized trajectories for multiple separate concave shapes with, once again, a saving in unwanted parked gaps or unwanted over-irradiation.

Webb, S.

2010-06-01

181

Correlates of Performance Anxiety in Practical Music Exams  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A sample of 120 young musicians (36 males and 84 females) aged between 15 and 18 years (M = 16.5, SD = 0.97) were administered the EPQ-R short scale and a revised PAI-R, a self-report measure of performance anxiety in practical music exams. Principal components analysis indicated that the PAI-R scores were best represented by a single component…

Rae, Gordon; McCambridge, Karen

2004-01-01

182

Dynamic-MLC leaf control utilizing on-flight intensity calculations: A robust method for real-time IMRT delivery over moving rigid targets  

SciTech Connect

An algorithm is presented that allows for the control of multileaf collimation (MLC) leaves based entirely on real-time calculations of the intensity delivered over the target. The algorithm is capable of efficiently correcting generalized delivery errors without requiring the interruption of delivery (self-correcting trajectories), where a generalized delivery error represents anything that causes a discrepancy between the delivered and intended intensity profiles. The intensity actually delivered over the target is continually compared to its intended value. For each pair of leaves, these comparisons are used to guide the control of the following leaf and keep this discrepancy below a user-specified value. To demonstrate the basic principles of the algorithm, results of corrected delivery are shown for a leading leaf positional error during dynamic-MLC (DMLC) IMRT delivery over a rigid moving target. It is then shown that, with slight modifications, the algorithm can be used to track moving targets in real time. The primary results of this article indicate that the algorithm is capable of accurately delivering DMLC IMRT over a rigid moving target whose motion is (1) completely unknown prior to delivery and (2) not faster than the maximum MLC leaf velocity over extended periods of time. These capabilities are demonstrated for clinically derived intensity profiles and actual tumor motion data, including situations when the target moves in some instances faster than the maximum admissible MLC leaf velocity. The results show that using the algorithm while calculating the delivered intensity every 50 ms will provide a good level of accuracy when delivering IMRT over a rigid moving target translating along the direction of MLC leaf travel. When the maximum velocities of the MLC leaves and target were 4 and 4.2 cm/s, respectively, the resulting error in the two intensity profiles used was 0.1{+-}3.1% and -0.5{+-}2.8% relative to the maximum of the intensity profiles. For the same target motion, the error was shown to increase rapidly as (1) the maximum MLC leaf velocity was reduced below 75% of the maximum target velocity and (2) the system response time was increased.

McMahon, Ryan; Papiez, Lech; Rangaraj, Dharanipathy [School of Health Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75390 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri 63110 (United States)

2007-08-15

183

Selective mode suppression in microstrip differential lines by means of electric-LC (ELC) and magnetic-LC (MLC) resonators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, it is demonstrated that the so-called electric-LC (ELC) resonators, and their dual counterparts, the magnetic-LC (MLC) resonators, are useful for the selective suppression of either the differential or the common mode in microstrip differential lines. The key point to mode suppression is the alignment of the resonator with the electric (differential mode) or magnetic (common mode) wall of the line. It is shown that by simply rotating the resonators 90? we can selectively choose the suppressed mode in the vicinity of the resonator's fundamental resonance frequency. The theory is validated through full-wave electromagnetic simulation, the lumped element equivalent circuit models of the proposed structures and experimental data.

Naqui, J.; Durán-Sindreu, M.; Martín, F.

2014-05-01

184

AL State Profile. Alabama: Alabama High School Graduation Exam (AHSGE), 3rd Edition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper provides information about Alabama High School Graduation Exam, 3rd Edition, a comprehensive standards-based exam. The purpose of the exam is to: (1) Provide schools with student academic diagnostic information; (2) Determine prospective high school graduates' mastery of the state curriculum; (3) Increase alignment of local curriculum…

Center on Education Policy, 2010

2010-01-01

185

Teacher Licensure Exams and Black Teacher Candidates: Toward New Theory and Promising Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Basic skills" teacher licensure exams such as Praxis are the first gatekeepers to the teaching profession. Fewer than half of the aspiring Black teachers who take these exams pass on their first attempt. While critiques of these exams are warranted, critiques alone will do little to help certify more Black teachers. This solution-oriented article…

Petchauer, Emery

2012-01-01

186

Building the ACS Exams Anchoring Concept Content Map for Undergraduate Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The ability to coherently assess content knowledge throughout an entire undergraduate career represents a significant advantage for programmatic assessment strategies. Chemistry, as a discipline, has an unusual tool in this regard because of the nationally standardized exams from the ACS Exams Institute. These exams are norm-referenced and allow…

Murphy, Kristen; Holme, Thomas; Zenisky, April; Caruthers, Heather; Knaus, Karen

2012-01-01

187

Do You Prefer to Have the Text or a Sheet with Your Physics Exams?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many high school and introductory college physics instructors ponder the choice between "open text" exams versus "facts and formulae sheet" exams. Other alternatives are closed book/closed notes exams or an instructor-prepared sheet of facts and relevant formulas. There is no agreement on merit. Rehfuss strongly opposes allowing students to use…

Hamed, Kastro M.

2008-01-01

188

The Wicked Old Witch Is Dead: Getting Rid of a Flawed Writing Exam.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on the myriad difficulties in getting rid of an unsatisfactory writing examination in place at Western Washington University. First, the paper provides background information on how and why the exam (the Junior Writing Exam) came to be adopted in the 1980s (as a diagnostic test only) and explains what the exam was meant to…

Werder, Carmen M.

189

Assessing Conceptual and Algorithmic Knowledge in General Chemistry with ACS Exams  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2005, the ACS Examinations Institute released an exam for first-term general chemistry in which items are intentionally paired with one conceptual and one traditional item. A second-term, paired-questions exam was released in 2007. This paper presents an empirical study of student performances on these two exams based on national samples of…

Holme, Thomas; Murphy, Kristen

2011-01-01

190

Effects of the Implementation of State-Wide Exit Exams on Students' Self-Regulated Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Whereas several studies investigated the effects of implementation of state-wide exit exams on student achievement, there is still little known about the impacts of the exams on students' self-regulated learning. This paper examines the question as to whether the implementation of state-wide high school exit exams is associated with a change in…

Merki, Katharina Maag

2011-01-01

191

State High School Exit Exams: Trends in Test Programs, Alternate Pathways, and Pass Rates  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The report draws from Center on Education Policy's eight-year study of high school exit exams to identify long-term trends in state policies and student performance. It highlights a growing trend among states to establish alternate pathways to graduation for students who are struggling to pass exit exams. The report also analyzes exit exam pass…

Zhang, Ying

2009-01-01

192

The Elite Illusion: Achievement Effects at Boston and New York Exam Schools  

Microsoft Academic Search

Talented students compete fiercely for seats at Boston and New York exam schools. These schools are characterized by high levels of peer achievement and a demanding curriculum tailored to each district's highest achievers. While exam school students do very well in school, the question of whether an exam school education adds value relative to a regular public education remains open.

Atila Abdulkadiro?lu; Joshua D. Angrist; Parag A. Pathak

2011-01-01

193

How Does Student Performance on Formative Assessments Relate to Learning Assessed by Exams?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A retrospective analysis examines the relationships between formative assessments and exam grades in two undergraduate geoscience courses. Pair and group-work grades correlate weakly with individual exam grades. Exam performance correlates to individual, weekly online assessments. Student attendance and use of assessment feedback are also…

Smith, Gary

2007-01-01

194

Combined online and in?class pretesting improves exam performance in general psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the effect of distributed questioning on learning and retention in a college lecture course. A total of 48 question pairs were presented over four exams. The 16 question pairs associated with each of the three blocks of the course appeared on the block exams, and all 48 appeared on the final exam. The two questions in each

Arnold Lewis Glass; Gary Brill; Margaret Ingate

2008-01-01

195

Combined Online and In-Class Pretesting Improves Exam Performance in General Psychology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the effect of distributed questioning on learning and retention in a college lecture course. A total of 48 question pairs were presented over four exams. The 16 question pairs associated with each of the three blocks of the course appeared on the block exams, and all 48 appeared on the final exam. The two questions in each pair…

Glass, Arnold Lewis; Brill, Gary; Ingate, Margaret

2008-01-01

196

Managing Exam Stress Using UMTS Phones: The advantage of Portable Audio\\/Video Support  

Microsoft Academic Search

Test-taking anxiety or stress is very common among university students. It can be very distressing and sometimes debilitating. Exam anxiety involves physical components and emotional components that may be taken into account for managing and reducing anxiety. An approach to control exam anxiety is to learn how to regulate emotions. To help students in managing exam stress we developed a

Giuseppe RIVA; Alessandra GRASSI; Daniela VILLANI; Andrea Gaggioli; Alessandra PREZIOSA

2007-01-01

197

Faculty Forum--Introductory Psychology Student Performance: Weekly Quizzes Followed by a Cumulative Final Exam  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students in an introductory psychology course took a quiz a week over each textbook chapter, followed by a cumulative final exam. Students missing a quiz in class could make up a quiz at any time during the semester, and answers to quiz items were available to students prior to the cumulative final exam. The cumulative final exam consisted of half…

Landrum, R. Eric

2007-01-01

198

Effects of information and coping instructions on prepubertal children's reactions to gynecological exams  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been common pediatric practice for uncooperative children who are in need of a gynecological exam, to be sedated or rescheduled to receive the exam under general anesthesia. This investigation explored whether psychological preparation would be a viable alternative to reducing children's distress during gynecological exams.Thirty children, suspected victims of sexual abuse, between the ages of 5 to 10

Deborah Morrison Thevenin

1989-01-01

199

An objective structured clinical exam in a multisite obstetrics and gynecology clerkship  

Microsoft Academic Search

An Objective Structured Clinical Exam (OSCE) was developed to test students completing a multiple site clinical clerkship. Common ambulatory problems were emphasized. The exam was given in the outpatient department where 60 students rotated through approximately 10 short problem stations. Gynecologic teaching associates, clinical staff, and others served as simulated patients. The specific stations, exam logistics, and expenses are explained.

William W. Young; Joan C. Barthold; Debra Birenbaum; Phyllis Long; Michele Dion; Lewis A. Hamilton

1995-01-01

200

Multiple-Choice and Short-Answer Exam Performance in a College Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors experimentally investigated the effects of multiple-choice and short-answer format exam items on exam performance in a college classroom. They randomly assigned 50 students to take a 10-item short-answer pretest or posttest on two 50-item multiple-choice exams in an introduction to personality course. Students performed significantly…

Funk, Steven C.; Dickson, K. Laurie

2011-01-01

201

Flit-Reservation Flow Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents flit-reservation flow control, in which control flits traverse the network in advance of data flits, reserving buffers and channel bandwidth. Flit-reservation flow control requires control flits to precede data flits, which can be realized through fast on-chip control wires or the pipelining of control flits one or more cycles ahead of data flits. Scheduling ahead of data

Li-shiuan Peh; William J. Dally

2000-01-01

202

China's petroleum reserves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Perhaps because of declining yields inland, the People's Republic of China has moved to its storm-ridden coast to develop additional petroleum reserves. During 1979 and 1980, 44 foreign oil-exploration companies engaged in what has been termed the world's record “seismic shoot” over 411,000 km2 extending from the Yellow Sea through the South China Sea, and including Beibu Wan (Gulf of Tonkin), the bay lying east of Hanoi and west of Hainan Island. These offshore oil reserves are estimated to be 40-100 billion barrels.The seas off the mainland are relatively shallow (most drilling has been done in less than 100 m) but they are stormy. According to a recent description, “Typhoons can … occur in the area at almost any time of the year, and the strong winds (160 km h-1 or more) which they generate frequently wreak havoc in the Philippines, Vietnam, China, and occasionally, Hong Kong. Typhoon Vera, which hit southern China in late July, did immense damage and claimed dozens of lives. The main implications for oil operation naturally relate to rig design and safety measures but onshore facilities will also have to be designed accordingly” (New Scientist, Sept. 8, 1983).

Bell, Peter M.

203

Teaching about substance abuse with objective structured clinical exams  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Although residents commonly manage substance abuse disorders, optimal approaches to teaching these specialized interviewing\\u000a and intervention skills are unknown.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a OBJECTIVE: We developed a Substance Abuse Objective Structured Clinical Exam (OSCE) to teach addiction medicine competencies using immediate\\u000a feedback. In this study we evaluated OSCE performance, examined associations between performance and self-assessed interest\\u000a and competence in substance abuse, and assessed

Sharon J. Parish; Megha Ramaswamy; Melissa R. Stein; Elizabeth K. Kachur; Julia H. Arnsten

2006-01-01

204

Greenhouse effect and nature reserves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global warming would diminish biological diversity by causing extinctions among reserve species. Patterns of climatic change are discussed, including global patterns of surface temperature increase, as predicted by the Goddard Institute for Space Studies, and global changes in moisture patterns. The concept of biological reserves (essentially the same concept as biological refugia) is discussed, and the effect of climatic changes

Robert L. Peters; Joan D. S. Darling

1985-01-01

205

Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Quarterly Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During the first quarter of 1982, the Department of Energy continued to expand the storage capacity for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) and to take advantage of the favorable international oil market for the purchase of oil to fill the Reserve. The ...

1982-01-01

206

Federal Reserve Rate Cuts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This week's In the News chronicles recent Federal Reserve Board decisions to lower interest rates. The eleven resources discussed provide news, opinion, and consumer information on the FRB BOG action. Following the first US interest rate cut in three years on September 29, 1998, FED Chairman Alan Greenspan caught fire from Wall Street. "Traders were disappointed" in the mere quarter point drop, according to Time business reporter Bernard Baumohl, but "Greenspan will have to make do with the gratitude of the rest of the world." Although the DOW initially fell 54 points Tuesday, a second 0.25% cut to short-term interest rates on October 15, 1998 sent stocks soaring 330 points--the third largest one-day point gain in history. Analysts now hope that US investor optimism--coupled with IMF and World Bank action in Brazil, Russia, and Asia--will ease the world-wide economic crises.

Waters, Megan.

1998-01-01

207

Investigating the Variables in a Mock Exam Study Session Designed to Improve Student Exam Performance in an Undergraduate Behavior Modification and Therapy Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the present study was to identify components of an optional mock exam review session (e.g. requiring students to write answers, providing students grading keys for questions) responsible for improvements in student performance on application-based short-essay exams in an undergraduate behavior modification course. Both…

Dotson, Wesley H.

2010-01-01

208

Analyses of Grain Reserves, A Proceedings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The document contains five papers concerning world grain reserves and six concerning national grain reserves. The papers were presented at a Conference on the Systems Analysis of Grain Reserves in Philadelphia, Pa., on April 1 and 2, 1976. These sessions ...

D. J. Eaton W. S. Steele

1976-01-01

209

Advanced Ultrasonic Diagnosis of Extremity Trauma: The Faster Exam  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ultrasound is of prO)len accuracy in abdominal and thoracic trauma and may be useful to diagnose extremity injury in situations where radiography is not available such as military and space applications. We prospectively evaluated the utility of extremity , ultrasound performed by trained, non-physician personnel in patients with extremity trauma, to simulate remote aerospace or military applications . Methods: Patients with extremity trauma were identified by history, physical examination, and radiographic studies. Ultrasound examination was performed bilaterally by nonphysician personnel with a portable ultrasound device using a 10-5 MHz linear probe, Images were video-recorded for later analysis against radiography by Fisher's exact test. The average time of examination was 4 minutes. Ultrasound accurately diagnosed extremity, injury in 94% of patients with no false positive exams; accuracy was greater in mid-shaft locations and least in the metacarpa/metatarsals. Soft tissue/tendon injury was readily visualized . Extremity ultrasound can be performed quickly and accurately by nonphysician personnel with excellent accuracy. Blinded verification of the utility of ultrasound in patients with extremity injury should be done to determine if Extremity and Respiratory evaluation should be added to the FAST examination (the FASTER exam) and verify the technique in remote locations such as military and aerospace applications.

Dulchavsky, S. A.; Henry, S. E.; Moed, B. R.; Diebel, L. N.; Marshburn, T.; Hamilton, D. R.; Logan, J.; Kirkpatrick, A. W.; Williams, D. R.

2002-01-01

210

How chemistry students study for an exam: A phenomenographic analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this research was to understand the different ways that students in a second-semester general chemistry course studied for an exam. I conducted this research using a qualitative methodology based on phenomenography (Marton, Hounsell & Entwistle, 1997). I conducted interviews before and after the first exam in CHM 116. I analyzed these interviews to describe students' studying styles. I analyzed the data from four students and presented this data as case studies. I completed a cross-case analysis that included data from five additional students. My results describe three different studying styles that were found: visual, self-regulated, and quantitative. Each studying style included a description of the characteristics associated with students who use the style, including epistemological beliefs, specific study behaviors, and affective response to learning chemistry. My implications discuss the relationship between this study and learning styles research, as well as other phenomenographic research. Suggestions are made for how to adapt teaching methods to take into account the different studying styles.

Lowrey, Kirsten Andrea

2002-08-01

211

Emergency medicine residents' attitudes and opinions of in-training exam preparation  

PubMed Central

Purpose Emergency Medicine (EM) residents take the American Board of Emergency Medicine (ABEM) in-training exam, and performance on this exam has been shown to correlate to performance on the ABEM qualifying exam. Though many residencies have in-training exam preparation activities, there is little data on the effectiveness of these efforts. This study aimed to elicit resident perspectives about the exam and exam preparation in order to generate hypotheses and better inform future preparation efforts. Methods Second- and third-year EM residents at a single institution were interviewed using a semi-structured format. Qualitative methodology was used to analyze the data. Results Thirteen EM residents participated in the study. Eight major themes and 18 sub-themes were identified. These were further characterized as relating to the exam itself or to exam preparation. Residents generally value the in-training exam. Sixty-nine percent noted that it provided an assessment of their current knowledge and deficiencies. Thirty-eight percent noted that it improved familiarity with the qualifying exam. Regarding exam preparation, residents stated that a question format was preferred, especially when accompanying explanations were of high quality. Additionally, practical considerations, such as portability, impacted resident selection of study tools. Conclusion Residents value the in-training exam as a marker of their academic progress and for their ability to gain familiarity with the qualifying exam. They prefer question-based preparation over text-based learning, as long as there is a detailed explanation of each answer. Educators creating structured in-training review may want to focus on question-based material with detailed explanations.

Eastin, Travis R; Bernard, Aaron W

2013-01-01

212

Electronic reserves: copyright and permissions  

PubMed Central

Electronic reserves present a new service option for libraries to provide needed materials during hours that the library is not open and to user groups located some distance from library collections. Possible changes to current copyright law and publishers permissions policies have delayed the development of electronic reserves in many libraries. This paper reviews the current state of electronic reserves materials in the publishing and library communities and presents the results of a survey of publishers to determine permissions policies for electronic materials. Issues of concern to both libraries and publishers are discussed.

Graves, Karen J.

2000-01-01

213

Allospecific CD8 T suppressor cells induced by multiple MLC stimulation or priming in the presence of ILT3.Fc have similar gene expression profiles.  

PubMed

Alloantigen specific CD8 T suppressor cells can be generated in vitro either by multiple stimulations of CD3 T cells with allogeneic APC or by single stimulation in primary MLC containing recombinant ILT3.Fc protein. The aim of the present study was to determine whether multiple MLC stimulation induced in CD8(+) CD28(-) T suppressor cells molecular changes that are similar to those observed in CD8 T suppressor cells from primary MLC containing ILT3.Fc protein. Our study demonstrates that the characteristic signatures of CD8 T suppressor cells, generated by either of these methods are the same consisting of up-regulation of the BCL6 transcriptional repressor and down-regulation of inflammatory microRNAs, miR-21, miR-30b, miR-146a, and miR-155 expression. In conclusion microRNAs which are increased under inflammatory conditions in activated CD4 and CD8 T cells with helper or cytotoxic function show low levels of expression in CD8 T cells which have acquired antigen-specific suppressor activity. PMID:24220571

Chen, Ling; Xu, Zheng; Chang, Chris; Ho, Sophey; Liu, Zhuoru; Vlad, George; Cortesini, Raffaello; Clynes, Raphael A; Luo, Yun; Suciu-Foca, Nicole

2014-02-01

214

PKC-? exacerbates in vitro brain barrier damage in hyperglycemic settings via regulation of RhoA/Rho-kinase/MLC2 pathway.  

PubMed

Stroke patients with hyperglycemia (HG) develop higher volumes of brain edema emerging from disruption of blood-brain barrier (BBB). This study explored whether inductions of protein kinase C-? (PKC-?) and RhoA/Rho-kinase/myosin-regulatory light chain-2 (MLC2) pathway may account for HG-induced barrier damage using an in vitro model of human BBB comprising human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC) and astrocytes. Hyperglycemia (25?mmol/L D-glucose) markedly increased RhoA/Rho-kinase protein expressions (in-cell westerns), MLC2 phosphorylation (immunoblotting), and PKC-? (PepTag assay) and RhoA (Rhotekin-binding assay) activities in HBMEC while concurrently reducing the expression of tight junction protein occludin. Hyperglycemia-evoked in vitro barrier dysfunction, confirmed by decreases in transendothelial electrical resistance and concomitant increases in paracellular flux of Evan's blue-labeled albumin, was accompanied by malformations of actin cytoskeleton and tight junctions. Suppression of RhoA and Rho-kinase activities by anti-RhoA immunoglobulin G (IgG) electroporation and Y-27632, respectively prevented morphologic changes and restored plasma membrane localization of occludin. Normalization of glucose levels and silencing PKC-? activity neutralized the effects of HG on occludin and RhoA/Rho-kinase/MLC2 expression, localization, and activity and consequently improved in vitro barrier integrity and function. These results suggest that HG-induced exacerbation of the BBB breakdown after an ischemic stroke is mediated in large part by activation of PKC-?. PMID:23963366

Srivastava, Kirtiman; Shao, Beili; Bayraktutan, Ulvi

2013-12-01

215

Developing, deploying, and analyzing exam wrappers in a large introductory physics class  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a typical semester, approximately 2000 students are registered into a calculus based introductory physics course at Georgia Tech. In each course, approximately 75 percent of a student's final grade is based on exam performance. Our goal was to encourage students into the feedback cycle of self-regulated learning by asking them to complete exam wrappers; post examination assignments that ask student to reflect on their study habits and errors made during an exam. We cluster students into groups based on how they partitioned their study time. We analyze exam and overall course performance for each group. In addition, we compare the performance of students who completed exam wrappers with those that did not. We find that exam wrappers are useful tool for both the instructor and student.

Greco, Edwin

2012-03-01

216

Opening up in the classroom: effects of expressive writing on graduate school entrance exam performance.  

PubMed

Our study sought to determine whether experimental disclosure could improve exam performance and psychological health in students taking a graduate school entrance exam. Students preparing for the GRE, MCAT, LSAT, or PCAT were randomly assigned to write expressively about their upcoming exam or to a neutral writing condition. Participants completed measures of depressive symptoms and test anxiety before and after writing, and exam scores were collected. The experimental disclosure group had significantly higher test scores and significantly lower pre-exam depressive symptoms than the neutral writing group. Although benefits for depressive symptoms were found in expressive writers regardless of exam type, the advantage of expressive writing for test performance was only observed in students taking the MCAT or LSAT. PMID:21517162

Frattaroli, Joanne; Thomas, Michael; Lyubomirsky, Sonja

2011-06-01

217

Epistemic Games Analysis of Common Exam Questions Across Course Formats  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This study investigates differences in problem-solving performance between three different introductory physics course formats at Florida International University. The course formatsâlecture+laboratory (LL), inquiry-based (IQB), and lecture+laboratory+recitation (LLR)âall incorporated two Advanced Placement (AP) questions into their final exams. Studentsâ written responses were evaluated via an AP scoring rubric, and during this scoring, we observed marked differences in solution behavior between the three course formats. To further investigate these differences, we used the framework of epistemic games to analyze student responses. To apply this framework to written work, an epistemic game rubric was created. Application of this rubric yielded game profiles for each of the course formats, allowing us to highlight and compare course characteristics. These profiles of epistemic game distributions were then examined via chi-squared tests to quantify differences in the tools and strategies students used in their solutions.

Mahadeo, Jonathan V.; Traxler, Adrienne; Brewe, Eric

2014-02-01

218

How compliant is compliant? Evaluating adherence with breast self-exam positions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined compliance with the three recommended breast self-examination (BSE) positions over a 6-month follow-up period. An ongoing behavioral measure that provided information about the type of exam performed during each BSE occasion was employed. Results indicated that adherence to all three position types was obtained in only 40% of the exams. Forty-two percent of exams were comprised

Vivian M. Stevens; Joseph W. Hatcher; Barbara K. Bruce

1994-01-01

219

Naval Reserve Annual Operating Costs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes an analytical study effort conducted by Operations Research, Inc. (ORI) aimed at enhancing the Navy Resource Model (NARM) with respect to its ability to generate estimates of the costs associated with the Naval Reserve. There are two ...

R. T. Mason P. M. Daniels M. N. McDermott

1975-01-01

220

Resiliency in Amry Reserve Families.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The investigators seek knowledge of resiliency of families of the United States Army Reserves (USAR). Design: In this cross-sectional quantitative and qualitative study, McCubbin and McCubbins Resiliency Model (1993) will guide the theoretical relationshi...

J. A. Russek

2003-01-01

221

Protein and lipid oxidative damage in healthy students during and after exam stress.  

PubMed

Oxidative damage at cellular level is thought to be one of the mechanisms in the pathogenesis of psychological stress (anxiety). The aim of this study was to investigate lipid and protein oxidative damage in exam anxiety conditions. Blood samples were collected in two stages (during the exam period and post vacation) from 51 healthy female students after responding to Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) and test anxiety questionnaire. Protein carbonyl, total thiol and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were determined in serum. Participants reported significantly higher levels of subjective anxiety during the exam period than post vacation. Also the level of total thiol was significantly lower during the exam period compared with post vacation (p<0.001). Meanwhile, protein carbonyl and MDA levels during the exams were significantly higher than those in post-exam period (p<0.01). During the exam period, there was a negative correlation between serum total thiol levels and the severity of anxiety (r=-0.45, p<0.01). A significant positive correlation between the changes in serum protein carbonyl and MDA levels, also between those markers and anxiety score was found during the exam period. The high level of protein carbonyl and MDA, also low level of total thiol during the exam period demonstrated an oxidative damage to proteins and lipids in stress conditions. Our results suggest that oxidative damage to cellular compounds may be one of the mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of anxiety. PMID:23688949

Nakhaee, Alireza; Shahabizadeh, Fatemeh; Erfani, Mozhgan

2013-06-13

222

Adrenocortical reserves in hyperthyroidism.  

PubMed

Explicit data regarding the changes in adrenocortical reserves during hyperthyroidism do not exist. We aimed to document the capability (response) of adrenal gland to secrete cortisol and DHEA-S during hyperthyroidism compared to euthyroidism, and to describe factors associated with these responses. A standard-dose (0.25 mg/i.v.) ACTH stimulation test was performed to the same patients before hyperthyroidism treatment, and after attainment of euthyroidism. Baseline cortisol (Cor(0)), DHEA-S (DHEA-S(0)), cortisol binding globulin (CBG), ACTH, calculated free cortisol (by Coolen's equation = CFC), free cortisol index (FCI), 60-min cortisol (Cor(60)), and DHEA-S (DHEA-S(60)), delta cortisol (?Cor), delta DHEA-S (?DHEA-S) responses were evaluated. Forty-one patients [22 females, 49.5 ± 15.2 years old, 32 Graves disease, nine toxic nodular goiter] had similar Cor(0), DHEA-S(0), CFC, FCI, and DHEA-S(60) in hyperthyroid and euthyroid states. Cor(60), ?Cor, and ?DHEA-S were lower in hyperthyroidism. In four (10 %) patients the peak ACTH-stimulated cortisol values were lower than 18 ?g/dL. When the test repeated after attainment of euthyroidism, all of the patients had normal cortisol response. Regression analysis demonstrated an independent association of Cor(60) with free T3 in hyperthyroidism. However, the predictors of CFC, FCI, and DHEA-S levels were serum creatinine levels in hyperthyroidism, and both creatinine and transaminase levels in euthyroidism. ACTH-stimulated peak cortisol, delta cortisol, and delta DHEA-S levels are decreased during hyperthyroidism, probably due to increased turnover. Since about 10 % of the subjects with hyperthyroidism are at risk for adrenal insufficiency, clinicians dealing with Graves' disease should be alert to the possibility of adrenal insufficiency during hyperthyroid stage. PMID:23532634

Agbaht, Kemal; Gullu, Sevim

2014-02-01

223

Veterinary Science Students, Center Changing a Reservation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Kayenta is a rural community located in northeastern Arizona on a Navajo reservation. On the reservation, many families rely on their livestock for income, and as a result, many reservation high school students show a great interest in agricultural education. Having livestock on the reservation is not just a source of income, but also part of a…

Blackwater, Jasmine

2011-01-01

224

Spinning Reserve From Responsive Loads  

SciTech Connect

Responsive load is the most underutilized reliability resource available to the power system today. It is currently not used at all to provide spinning reserve. Historically there were good reasons for this, but recent technological advances in communications and controls have provided new capabilities and eliminated many of the old obstacles. North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC), Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), Northeast Power Coordinating Council (NPCC), New York State Reliability Council (NYSRC), and New York Independent System Operator (NYISO) rules are beginning to recognize these changes and are starting to encourage responsive load provision of reliability services. The Carrier ComfortChoice responsive thermostats provide an example of these technological advances. This is a technology aimed at reducing summer peak demand through central control of residential and small commercial air-conditioning loads. It is being utilized by Long Island Power Authority (LIPA), Consolidated Edison (ConEd), Southern California Edison (SCE), and San Diego Gas and Electric (SDG&E). The technology is capable of delivering even greater response in the faster spinning reserve time frame (while still providing peak reduction). Analysis of demand reduction testing results from LIPA during the summer of 2002 provides evidence to back up this claim. It also demonstrates that loads are different from generators and that the conventional wisdom, which advocates for starting with large loads as better ancillary service providers, is flawed. The tempting approach of incrementally adapting ancillary service requirements, which were established when generators were the only available resources, will not work. While it is easier for most generators to provide replacement power and non-spinning reserve (the slower response services) than it is to supply spinning reserve (the fastest service), the opposite is true for many loads. Also, there is more financial reward for supplying spinning reserve than for supplying the other reserve services as a result of the higher spinning reserve prices. The LIPAedge program (LIPA's demand reduction program using Carrier ComfortChoice thermostats) provides an opportunity to test the use of responsive load for spinning reserve. With potentially 75 MW of spinning reserve capability already installed, this test program can also make an important contribution to the capacity needs of Long Island during the summer of 2003. Testing could also be done at ConEd ({approx}30 MW), SCE ({approx}15 MW), and/or SDG&E ({approx}15 MW). This paper is divided into six chapters. Chapter 2 discusses the contingency reserve ancillary services, their functions in supporting power system reliability, and their technical requirements. It also discusses the policy and tariff requirements and attempts to distinguish between ones that are genuinely necessary and ones that are artifacts of the technologies that were historically used to provide the services. Chapter 3 discusses how responsive load could provide contingency reserves (especially spinning reserve) for the power system. Chapter 4 specifically discusses the Carrier ComfortChoice responsive thermostat technology, the LIPAedge experience with that technology, and how the technology could be used to supply spinning reserve. Chapter 5 discusses a number of unresolved issues and suggests areas for further research. Chapter 6 offers conclusions and recommendations.

Kirby, B.J.

2003-04-08

225

IRT Modeling of Tutor Performance to Predict End-of-Year Exam Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interest in end-of-year accountability exams has increased dramatically since the passing of the No Child Left Behind Act in 2001. With this increased interest comes a desire to use student data collected throughout the year to estimate student proficiency and predict how well they will perform on end-of-year exams. This article uses student…

Ayers, Elizabeth; Junker, Brian

2008-01-01

226

Training Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders to Be Compliant with a Physical Exam  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to train children with autism spectrum disorders to be compliant with a 10-component physical examination. After a physician assistant administered an exam pretest, noncompliance on steps of the exam were considered with respect to a skill deficit and escape from aversive stimuli. A package of training procedures was…

Cuvo, Anthony J.; Reagan, Amanda Law; Ackerlund, Julie; Huckfeldt, Rachel; Kelly, Cheri

2010-01-01

227

The ACT of Enrollment: The College Enrollment Effects of State-Required College Entrance Exam Testing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since 2001 Colorado, Illinois, and Maine have all enacted policies that require high school juniors to take college entrance exams--the SAT or the ACT. One goal of these policies was to increase college enrollment based on the belief that requiring students to take these exams would make students more likely to consider college as a viable option.…

Klasik, Daniel

2013-01-01

228

Changes in Student Attributions Due to the Implementation of Central Exit Exams  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The central aim of standardized exit exams is to motivate students and teachers to work harder on critical subject matters and thus increase student achievement. However, the effects of the implementation of central exams on student motivation have not been analyzed in a longitudinal section until now. In the present study, the consequences of…

Oerke, Britta; Maag Merki, Katharina; Holmeier, Monika; Jager, Daniela J.

2011-01-01

229

Improving the Efficiency and Effectiveness of Performing the Diabetic Foot Exam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microvascular complications of diabetes can result in peripheral neuropathy and impaired sensation in the feet. These issues can significantly affect morbidity and quality of life. Regular foot exams play a major role in early detection of foot problems and may help prevent amputations. An initial review found that a comprehensive diabetic foot exam (CDFE) was documented 13.5% of the time.

Theodore A. Praxel; Trina J. Ford; Ellen W. Vanderboom

2011-01-01

230

Use of a Consumer-Grade Digital Camera to Archive Written Exams  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The use of a photocopier to archive exams consumes photocopier resources and generates a large amount of waste. As an alternative, one instructor uses a consumer-grade digital camera to document exams in an upper-division biology course. The approach is inexpensive and offers a number of advantages over photocopies.

Maduro, Morris

2006-01-01

231

Skipping Class in College and Exam Performance: Evidence from a Regression Discontinuity Classroom Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper we estimate the effect of class attendance on exam performance by implementing a policy in three large economics classes that required students scoring below the median on the midterm exam to attend class. This policy generated a large discontinuity in the rate of post-midterm attendance at the median of the midterm score. We…

Dobkin, Carlos; Gil, Ricard; Marion, Justin

2010-01-01

232

The Impact of Assessment Policy on Learning: Replacement Exams or Grade Dropping  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Instructors often debate the merits of alternate grading policies such as dropping the lowest exam or offering an additional exam to replace the lowest score. To date, there has been little research conducted on the impact of these policies on performance. In this study, the author investigates student performance in intermediate macroeconomics…

MacDermott, Raymond J.

2013-01-01

233

Cheating on Multiple-Choice Exams: Monitoring, Assessment, and an Optional Assignment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Academic dishonesty is unethical. Exam cheating is viewed as more serious than most other forms (Pincus and Schmelkin 2003). The authors review the general cheating problem, introduce a program to conservatively identify likely cheaters on multiple-choice exams, and offer a procedure for handling likely cheaters. Feedback from students who confess…

Nath, Leda; Lovaglia, Michael

2009-01-01

234

Multiple-Choice Exam Question Order Influences on Student Performance, Completion Time, and Perceptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We conducted 2 studies to investigate undergraduate performance, perceptions, and time required in completing sequentially ordered, randomly ordered, or reverse ordered exams in introductory psychology classes. Study 1 compared the outcomes and perceptions of students (N = 66) on 3 non-comprehensive multiple-choice exams which were sequentially,…

Pettijohn, Terry F., II; Sacco, Matthew F.

2007-01-01

235

Exam Analysis Procedure. Loma Linda University School of Nursing Learning Assistance Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An exam analysis procedure was developed at Loma Linda University School of Nursing to help students who do poorly on tests identify problem areas. Using the student's exam paper, the student and instructor discuss each incorrectly answered question, and record the problem on a check sheet. The procedure makes it possible to identify how many…

Condon, Vaneta M.

236

Providing the Answers Does Not Improve Performance on a College Final Exam  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the context of an upper-level psychology course, even when students were given an opportunity to refer to text containing the answers and change their exam responses in order to improve their exam scores, their performance on these questions improved slightly or not at all. Four experiments evaluated competing explanations for the students'…

Glass, Arnold Lewis; Sinha, Neha

2013-01-01

237

Design and implementation to intelligent online exam system for course Information Resource Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compared with the traditional exam, online examination system can greatly enhance the evaluation capacities, reduce the human input and improve the work efficiencies. So it has considerable economical efficiency and broad prospect. Examination is used in course Information Resource Management in order to solve the problems in evaluating. An intelligent online exam system is developed and the examination library of

Ming Xiao; Liyang He

2010-01-01

238

Student Participation and Performance on Advanced Placement Exams: Do State-Sponsored Incentives Make a Difference?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many states provide incentives to students, teachers, and schools for the participation and success of students on Advanced Placement (AP) examinations administered by the College Board. The purpose of this article is to examine whether these incentives help students enroll and succeed in AP exams. An analysis of nationally representative AP exam

Jeong, Dong Wook

2009-01-01

239

Predictors of Success for the Texas ExCET Exam in a Predominantly Hispanic University Environment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated predictors of success on the Texas ExCET (Examination for the Certification of Educators in Texas), highlighting the social studies ExCET components of the Elementary Comprehensive and Elementary Bilingual ExCET exams and noting the relationship of students' social studies coursework preparation, demographics, standardized exams, and…

Pisani, Jana S.; Pisani, Michael J.; Anderson, Roland J.

2002-01-01

240

Democracy in the Israeli Education System: The Case of the English Matriculation Exam  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research investigates the extent to which indices of social justice and democratic rights are expressed in Israel in the crucial national English matriculation exam, as perceived by Palestinian Arab high school pupils studying for these exams and their English teachers. The research employed Critical Theory as a paradigm, case study as a…

Zaher, Rana

2012-01-01

241

Knowledge Assessment of Food Safety Managers in Utah and Its Implications on the Exam and Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Food Safety Manager's Certification is offered through a state-local Extension partnership in Utah using an online course management system. Exams and course materials were created by an Extension Specialist at Utah State Univ. Extension Agents provide exam and curriculum facilitation in each county. This form of distance education enables access…

Nummer, Brian A.; Guy, Stanley M.; Bentley, Joanne P. H.

2010-01-01

242

Pick-N Multiple Choice-Exams: A Comparison of Scoring Algorithms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To compare different scoring algorithms for Pick-N multiple correct answer multiple-choice (MC) exams regarding test reliability, student performance, total item discrimination and item difficulty. Data from six 3rd year medical students' end of term exams in internal medicine from 2005 to 2008 at Munich University were analysed (1,255 students,…

Bauer, Daniel; Holzer, Matthias; Kopp, Veronika; Fischer, Martin R.

2011-01-01

243

AK State Profile. Alaska: Alaska High School Graduation Qualifying Exam (HSGOE)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper provides information about Alaska High School Graduation Qualifying Exam (HSGQE), a comprehensive standards-based exam. Its purpose is to meet a state mandate. A bill to remove the HSGQE as a graduation requirement by July 1, 2011 was presented to the state legislature as SB 109. However, it did not pass both houses of the legislature.…

Center on Education Policy, 2010

2010-01-01

244

Student Grade Motivation as a Determinant of Performance on the Business Major Field ETS Exam  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the determinants of performance on the business major field achievement ETS exam with a focus on the impact of applying ETS exam scores to part of the capstone course grade as a performance incentive. The sample consists of 150 students at a midsized regional institution located in the Southwestern region of the United States.…

Terry, Neil; Mills, LaVelle; Sollosy, Marc

2008-01-01

245

Systematically designed license exams in non-native countries to accelerate globalizing pace  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is important for a technician to get the vocational licenses. The system of the vocational license exam is highly appreciated by many countries. Therefore, it is helpful to globalization to have a systematically designed license exams related to internationalization. We propose the vocational licenses can be classified as globalizing type (GT) and domestic type (DT). For example, interpreters, bartenders,

Bing-Yuh Lu; Ming-Li Tung; Mau-Yuan Wang; Hao-Li Liu; Tzu-Ching Shih

2004-01-01

246

Effects of Online Testing on Student Exam Performance and Test Anxiety  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Increased use of course management software to administer course exams online for face-to-face classes raises the question of how well test anxiety and other emotions generalize from the classroom to an online setting. We hypothesized that administering regular course exams in an online format would reduce test anxiety experienced at the time of…

Stowell, Jeffrey R.; Bennett, Dan

2010-01-01

247

The Influence of a Pre-Reading Strategy on College Exam Scores: An Action Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

(Purpose) This study attempted to determine the effectiveness of an exam pre-reading strategy. (Methodology) It is an action research study that arose from a need in a particular class. A graduate class' scores on the first exam of the semester were unusually low. An instructor implemented a pre-reading strategy to determine if the scores would…

Womack, Sid T.; Hanna, Shellie L.

2010-01-01

248

Using the First Exam for Student Placement in Beginning Chemistry Courses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The first exam in a typical first-semester general chemistry course is used to identify students at risk of failing the course. The performance at Hunter College of 667 students on the first exam in general chemistry in seven different classes between fall 2000 and fall 2005 was correlated with the students' final score in the course. The…

Mills, Pamela; Sweeney, William; Bonner, Sarah M.

2009-01-01

249

Autonomy Suspended: Using Female Patients to Teach Intimate Exams without their Consent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent reports of medical students performing pelvic exams for training purposes on anesthetized women without their consent have produced a firestorm of controversy. Peter Ubel and colleagues found that 90% of medical students performed such exams during their obstetrics\\/gynecology rotations. A series of 2003 reports focused a white-hot spotlight on this teaching practice and resulted in Federal Trade Commission and

Robin Fretwell Wilson

2006-01-01

250

Sensitivity in detecting free intraperitoneal fluid with the pelvic views of the FAST exam  

Microsoft Academic Search

The multiple-view focused assessment with sonography for trauma (FAST) exam is an integral tool in the assessment of blunt abdominal trauma. A prospective observational study was performed to compute the average minimum volume of detectable intraperitoneal fluid with the pelvic views of the FAST exam. All adult patients from October 1999 to May 2001, who presented to the ED with

Dietrich Von Kuenssberg Jehle; Greg Stiller; David Wagner

2003-01-01

251

A Multi-Year Analysis of Asian Gender Differences on Advanced Placement Exams  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The performance of Asian boys and girls on Advanced Placement (AP) exam overall scores across the United States for the past 14 years was analyzed. For each of the 14 years of data analyzed, Asian boys had statistically significant higher percentages of overall AP exam scores of 5 than did Asian girls. In addition, the gap between the mean…

Moore, George; Slate, John R.

2011-01-01

252

High School Exit Exams and Dropout in an Era of Increased Accountability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A key form of student-level accountability is the requirement for students to pass high school exit exams (HSEEs) in order to receive a diploma. In this paper, we examine the impact of HSEEs on dropout during a period when these exams became more common and rigorous. Further, we study whether offering alternate pathways to graduation for students…

Hemelt, Steven W.; Marcotte, Dave E.

2013-01-01

253

A Large-Scale, Asynchronous, Web-Based MSW Comprehensive Exam Administration: Outcomes and Lessons Learned  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described is the administration and outcomes of an asynchronous, Web-based, comprehensive exam covering MSW foundation curriculum. Over a 48-hour period of test availability, 198 students completed the 4-hour-long exam composed of 100 randomly generated questions. Significant differences in student performance across college locations were found.…

Patterson, David A.

2006-01-01

254

Training Metacognition in the Classroom: The Influence of Incentives and Feedback on Exam Predictions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In two semester-long studies, we examined whether college students could improve their ability to accurately predict their own exam performance across multiple exams. We tested whether providing concrete feedback and incentives (i.e., extra credit) for accuracy would improve predictions by improving students' metacognition, or awareness of their…

Miller, Tyler M.; Geraci, Lisa

2011-01-01

255

Predicting early academic success: HESI Admissions Assessment Exam.  

PubMed

Student retention is a major challenge for undergraduate nursing programs, with the highest attrition occurring in the first year of the nursing curriculum. Admission criteria have been studied extensively but usually as related to end-of-program outcomes such as National Council Licensure Examination for Registered Nurses success. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between HESI Admission Assessment (A(2)) scores and academic performance in the 2 first-semester nursing courses of an associate degree program, Nursing-1 and Nursing-2. Findings indicated that the composite A(2) scores were strongly correlated with both Nursing-1 and Nursing-2 final course grades. Of the scores on the 4 component A(2) exams completed by the sample students (basic math skills, reading comprehension, vocabulary/general knowledge, and grammar), vocabulary/general knowledge scores had the strongest relationship to final course grades in both nursing courses. The authors concluded that A(2) scores facilitated evidence-based admission decisions. PMID:23566503

Knauss, Parry J; Willson, Pamela

2013-01-01

256

Seamless insertion of real pulmonary nodules in chest CT exams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The availability of large medical image datasets is critical in many applications such as training and testing of computer aided diagnosis (CAD) systems, evaluation of segmentation algorithms, and conducting perceptual studies. However, collection of large repositories of clinical images is hindered by the high cost and difficulties associated with both the accumulation of data and establishment of the ground truth. To address this problem, we are developing an image blending tool that allows users to modify or supplement existing datasets by seamlessly inserting a real lesion extracted from a source image into a different location on a target image. In this study we focus on the application of this tool to pulmonary nodules in chest CT exams. We minimize the impact of user skill on the perceived quality of the blended image by limiting user involvement to two simple steps: the user first draws a casual boundary around the nodule of interest in the source, and then selects the center of desired insertion area in the target. We demonstrate examples of the performance of the proposed system on samples taken from the Lung Image Database Consortium (LIDC) dataset, and compare the noise power spectrum (NPS) of blended nodules versus that of native nodules in simulated phantoms.

Pezeshk, Aria; Sahiner, Berkman; Zeng, Rongping; Wunderlich, Adam; Chen, Weijie; Petrick, Nicholas

2014-03-01

257

Using the First Exam for Student Placement in Beginning Chemistry Courses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first exam in a typical first-semester general chemistry course is used to identify students at risk of failing the course. The performance at Hunter College of 667 students on the first exam in general chemistry in seven different classes between fall 2000 and fall 2005 was correlated with the students' final score in the course. The correlation between the first exam score and the final course performance exclusive of the first exam was 0.73, a correlation coefficient (Pearson r value) higher than any commercially available diagnostic test. Logistic regression was performed on the same data set to generate a probability of success metric. Such an analysis can be used for student advising or placement. Similar results were found for eight first-semester general chemistry classes run at three other CUNY four-year colleges and at a large midwestern university, demonstrating the robustness of the correlation between the first exam and final course performance.

Mills, Pamela; Sweeney, William; Bonner, Sarah M.

2009-06-01

258

Marine reserves: size and age do matter.  

PubMed

Marine reserves are widely used throughout the world to prevent overfishing and conserve biodiversity, but uncertainties remain about their optimal design. The effects of marine reserves are heterogeneous. Despite theoretical findings, empirical studies have previously found no effect of size on the effectiveness of marine reserves in protecting commercial fish stocks. Using 58 datasets from 19 European marine reserves, we show that reserve size and age do matter: Increasing the size of the no-take zone increases the density of commercial fishes within the reserve compared with outside; whereas the size of the buffer zone has the opposite effect. Moreover, positive effects of marine reserve on commercial fish species and species richness are linked to the time elapsed since the establishment of the protection scheme. The reserve size-dependency of the response to protection has strong implications for the spatial management of coastal areas because marine reserves are used for spatial zoning. PMID:18294212

Claudet, Joachim; Osenberg, Craig W; Benedetti-Cecchi, Lisandro; Domenici, Paolo; García-Charton, José-Antonio; Pérez-Ruzafa, Angel; Badalamenti, Fabio; Bayle-Sempere, Just; Brito, Alberto; Bulleri, Fabio; Culioli, Jean-Michel; Dimech, Mark; Falcón, Jesús M; Guala, Ivan; Milazzo, Marco; Sánchez-Meca, Julio; Somerfield, Paul J; Stobart, Ben; Vandeperre, Frédéric; Valle, Carlos; Planes, Serge

2008-05-01

259

Cognitive reserve: The warehouse within  

PubMed Central

Dementia is characterized by progressive and mostly irreversible memory loss. Other neuropsychiatric disorders affect cognition in varying manner. Are all people affected with such disorders manifest clinically in similar manner or does our brain have some reserve to tolerate insults? Relevant researches over the last two decades were scrutinized to understand brain reserve, appreciate the conceptual change in the same over years, and how the same can be improved for better cognition and memory over the year. Literature evidence suggests that the cognitive reserve (CR) is a dynamic and functional concept. There is adequate evidence to suggest that enriched environment and various other measures are likely to improve CR across all age. Improving CR may delay or reverse the effects of aging or brain pathology.

Prakash, Jyoti; Ryali, VSSR; Srivastava, Kalpana; Bhat, P. S.; Shashikumar, R.

2011-01-01

260

Coal Reserves Data Base report  

SciTech Connect

The Coal Reserves Data Base (CRDB) Program is a cooperative data base development program sponsored by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). The objective of the CRDB Program is to involve knowledgeable coal resource authorities from the major coal-bearing regions in EIA's effort to update the Nation's coal reserves data. This report describes one of two prototype studies to update State-level reserve estimates. The CRDB data are intended for use in coal supply analyses and to support analyses of policy and legislative issues. They will be available to both Government and non-Government analysts. The data also will be part of the information used to supply United States energy data for international data bases and for inquiries from private industry and the public. (VC)

Jones, R.W.; Glass, G.B.

1991-12-05

261

Monte Carlo modeling of the ModuLeaf miniature MLC for small field dosimetry and quality assurance of the clinical treatment planning system.  

PubMed

The purpose of this investigation was the verification of both the measured data and quality of the implementation of the add-on ModuLeaf miniature multileaf collimator (ML mMLC) into the clinical treatment planning system for conformal stereotactic radiosurgery treatment. To this end the treatment head with ML mMLC was modeled in the BEAMnrc Monte Carlo (MC) code. The 6 MV photon beams used in the setup were first benchmarked with a set of measurements. A total ML mMLC transmission of 1.13% of the 10 x 10 cm2 open field dose was measured and reproduced with the BEAMnrc/DOSXYZnrc code. Correspondence between calculated and measured output factors (OFs) was within 2%. Correspondence between MC and measured profiles was within 2% dose and 2 mm distance, only for the smallest 0.5 x 0.5 cm2 field the results were within 3% dose. In the next step, the MC model was compared with Gafchromic film measurements and Pinnacle(3) 7.4 f (convolution superposition algorithm) calculated dose distributions, using a gamma evaluation comparison, for a multi-beam patient setup delivered to a Lucytrade mark phantom. The gamma evaluation of the MC versus Gafchromic film resulted in 3.4% of points not fulfilling gamma

Crop, F; Reynaert, N; Pittomvils, G; Paelinck, L; De Gersem, W; De Wagter, C; Vakaet, L; De Neve, W; Thierens, H

2007-06-01

262

A virtual photon source model of an Elekta linear accelerator with integrated mini MLC for Monte Carlo based IMRT dose calculation.  

PubMed

A dedicated, efficient Monte Carlo (MC) accelerator head model for intensity modulated stereotactic radiosurgery treatment planning is needed to afford a highly accurate simulation of tiny IMRT fields. A virtual source model (VSM) of a mini multi-leaf collimator (MLC) (the Elekta Beam Modulator (EBM)) is presented, allowing efficient generation of particles even for small fields. The VSM of the EBM is based on a previously published virtual photon energy fluence model (VEF) (Fippel et al 2003 Med. Phys. 30 301) commissioned with large field measurements in air and in water. The original commissioning procedure of the VEF, based on large field measurements only, leads to inaccuracies for small fields. In order to improve the VSM, it was necessary to change the VEF model by developing (1) a method to determine the primary photon source diameter, relevant for output factor calculations, (2) a model of the influence of the flattening filter on the secondary photon spectrum and (3) a more realistic primary photon spectrum. The VSM model is used to generate the source phase space data above the mini-MLC. Later the particles are transmitted through the mini-MLC by a passive filter function which significantly speeds up the time of generation of the phase space data after the mini-MLC, used for calculation of the dose distribution in the patient. The improved VSM model was commissioned for 6 and 15 MV beams. The results of MC simulation are in very good agreement with measurements. Less than 2% of local difference between the MC simulation and the diamond detector measurement of the output factors in water was achieved. The X, Y and Z profiles measured in water with an ion chamber (V = 0.125 cm(3)) and a diamond detector were used to validate the models. An overall agreement of 2%/2 mm for high dose regions and 3%/2 mm in low dose regions between measurement and MC simulation for field sizes from 0.8 x 0.8 cm(2) to 16 x 21 cm(2) was achieved. An IMRT plan film verification was performed for two cases: 6 MV head&neck and 15 MV prostate. The simulation is in agreement with film measurements within 2%/2 mm in the high dose regions (> or = 0.1 Gy = 5% D(max)) and 5%/2 mm in low dose regions (<0.1 Gy). PMID:17634643

Sikora, M; Dohm, O; Alber, M

2007-08-01

263

Detecting larval export from marine reserves  

PubMed Central

Marine reserve theory suggests that where large, productive populations are protected within no-take marine reserves, fished areas outside reserves will benefit through the spillover of larvae produced in the reserves. However, empirical evidence for larval export has been sparse. Here we use a simple idealized coastline model to estimate the expected magnitude and spatial scale of larval export from no-take marine reserves across a range of reserve sizes and larval dispersal scales. Results suggest that, given the magnitude of increased production typically found in marine reserves, benefits from larval export are nearly always large enough to offset increased mortality outside marine reserves due to displaced fishing effort. However, the proportional increase in recruitment at sites outside reserves is typically small, particularly for species with long-distance (on the order of hundreds of kilometers) larval dispersal distances, making it very difficult to detect in field studies. Enhanced recruitment due to export may be detected by sampling several sites at an appropriate range of distances from reserves or at sites downcurrent of reserves in systems with directional dispersal. A review of existing empirical evidence confirms the model's suggestion that detecting export may be difficult without an exceptionally large differential in production, short-distance larval dispersal relative to reserve size, directional dispersal, or a sampling scheme that encompasses a broad range of distances from the reserves.

Pelc, R. A.; Warner, R. R.; Gaines, S. D.; Paris, C. B.

2010-01-01

264

Strategic petroleum reserve. Quarterly report  

SciTech Connect

The Strategic Petroleum Reserve serves as one of our most important investments in reducing the Nation`s vulnerability to oil supply disruptions. Its existence provides an effective response mechanism should a disruption occur and a formidable deterrent to the use of oil as a political instrument. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve was created pursuant to the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of December 22, 1975, (Public Law 94-163) as amended, to reduce the impact of disruptions in supplies of petroleum products and to carry out obligations of the United States under the Agreement on an International Energy Program. Section 165(a) of the Act requires the submission of Annual Reports and Section 165(b)(1) requires the submission of Quarterly Reports. This Quarterly Report highlights activities undertaken during the first quarter of calendar year 1994, including: (1) inventory of petroleum products stored in the Reserve, under contract and in transit at the end of the calendar quarter; (2) fill rate for the current quarter and projected fill rate for the next calendar quarter; (3) average price of the petroleum products acquired during the calendar quarter; (4) current and projected storage capacity; (5) analysis of existing or anticipated problems with the acquisition and storage of petroleum products, and future expansion of storage capacity; (6) funds obligated by the Secretary from the SPR Petroleum Account and the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Account during the prior calendar quarter and in total; and (7) major environmental actions completed, in progress, or anticipated.

Not Available

1994-05-15

265

Keywords Lithocarpus densiflora . Seed reserves  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate how seed reserves affect early seedling performance, we conducted a factorial green- house experiment using Lithocarpus densiflora (Tanoak). Seedlings were grown from large (5.8±0.7 g) and small (3.2±0.4 g) seeds and, following shoot emergence, seeds were either removed or left attached. Seedlings were harvested for quantification of biomass and ? 13 C at seven

P. G. Kennedy; N. J. Hausmann; E. H. Wenk; T. E. Dawson

266

World petroleum resources and reserves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Up to 1965 the world produced and consumed only 10% of the oil available on this planet; between 1965 and 2040 we will use up 80% of the remaining reserves, leaving only 10% of the resource for the years to follow. Clearly, the epoch of petroleum is a transitory one. Nevertheless, petroleum is at present the most important component of

Riva; J. P. Jr

1983-01-01

267

Marine Reserves and Fisheries Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventional methods of regulating commercial fisheries restrict catch by limiting either the quantity or efficiency of fishing effort, or by putting direct limits on catch. These regulatory practices are neither feasible nor desir- able for many fisheries, and have failed to conserve fishery stocks in other fisheries. Marine reserves may be an effective alternative management strategy for some fisheries. Here

DANIEL S. HOLLAND; RICHARD J. BRAZEE

2002-01-01

268

Development of the Hopi Reservation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Repeated encroachments by Mormons and Navajos upon Arizona lands traditionally inhabited by the Hopi American Indians occasioned the Executive Order of December 16, 1882 and creation of the Executive Order Reservation. However, assignment of lands was not limited to the Hopi, for the Order stated that the lands should be "set apart for the use and…

Seig, Louis

269

The use of formative online quizzes to enhance class preparation and scores on summative exams  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Online quizzes were introduced into an undergraduate Exercise Physiology course to encourage students to read ahead and think critically about the course material before coming to class. The purpose of the study was to determine if the use of the online quizzes was associated with improvements in summative exam scores and if the online quizzes were valid predictors of summative exam performance. A retrospective analysis was performed on the course scores from three different groups of Exercise Physiology students. Students in group 1 completed the original version of the course, those in group 2 completed an updated version of the course that included more rigorous exam questions, and those in group 3 completed the same updated version of the course but with the addition of 10 required online quizzes. Results showed that the overall mean summative exam score from group 3 was significantly higher than that from group 2 (81.79 ñ 8.26 and 78.72 ñ 9.61, respectively). A significant positive correlation (r = 0.50) was also found between individual mean online quiz scores and individual mean exam scores for those students in group 3. It was concluded that the formative online quizzes did enhance summative exam performance and that the online quizzes were valid predictors of exam performance.

2008-12-01

270

Army Reserve Training Seat Allocation Model.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis reduces wasted Reserve training seats by one-fourth, improving resource use and increasing readiness. The Army Reserve currently uses approximately 80% of its scheduled Initial Entry Training seats each year (wasting over 3000 seats for soldie...

S. H. Brown

2002-01-01

271

Naval Reserve Telecommunication Program: Adequacy and Employment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Naval Reserve has recently been restructured to meet the criteria of the Total Force Policy. Part of that restructuring established a Reserve Telecommunication Program which supports Commander, Naval Telecommunication Command, in his mobilization requ...

1976-01-01

272

Reserve Growth of Alberta Oil Pools  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This Open-File Report is based on a presentation delivered at the Fourth U.S. Geological Survey Workshop on Reserve Growth on March 10-11, 2008. It summarizes the results of a study of reserve growth of oil pools in Alberta Province, Canada. The study is part of a larger effort involving similar studies of fields in other important petroleum provinces around the world, with the overall objective of gaining a better understanding of reserve growth in fields with different geologic/reservoir parameters and different operating environments. The goals of the study were to: 1. Evaluate historical oil reserve data and assess reserve growth. 2. Develop reserve growth models/functions to help forecast hydrocarbon volumes. 3. Study reserve growth sensitivity to various parameters ? for example, pool size, porosity, oil gravity, and lithology. 4. Compare reserve growth in oil pools/fields of Alberta provinces with those from other large petroleum provinces.

Verma, Mahendra K.; Cook, Troy

2008-01-01

273

75 FR 4349 - National Estuarine Reserve System  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Reserve lead State agencies or designated universities in coastal States the opportunity to...Reserve lead state agencies or designated universities in coastal states the opportunity to...toxic chemicals, introduction of non-indigenous species, impacts to endangered...

2010-01-27

274

28 CFR 115.135 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false [Reserved] 115.135 Section 115.135 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Lockups Training and Education § 115.135 [Reserved]...

2013-07-01

275

28 CFR 115.173 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false [Reserved] 115.173 Section 115.173 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Lockups Investigations § 115.173 [Reserved]...

2013-07-01

276

The use of low-osmolar water-soluble contrast in videofluoroscopic swallowing exams.  

PubMed

The selection of the contrast agent used during fluoroscopic exams is an important clinical decision. The purpose of this article is to document the usage of a nonionic, water-soluble contrast (iohexol) and barium contrast in adult patients undergoing fluoroscopic exams of the pharynx and/or esophagus and provide clinical indications for the use of each. For 1 year, data were collected on the use of iohexol and barium during fluoroscopic exams. The contrast agent used was selected by the speech language pathologist (SLP) or the radiologist based on the exam's indications. A total of 1,978 fluoroscopic exams were completed in the 12-month period of documentation. Of these exams, 60.6 % were completed for medical reasons and 39.4 % for surgical reasons. Fifty-five percent of the exams were performed jointly by a SLP and a radiologist and 45 % were performed by a radiologist alone. Aspiration was present in 22 % of the exams, vestibular penetration occurred in 38 %, extraluminal leakage of contrast was observed in 4.6 %, and both aspiration and leakage were seen in 1 % of the exams. In cases with aspiration, iohexol was used alone in 8 %, iohexol and barium were both used in 45 %, and barium was used alone in 47 %. In cases with extraluminal leakage, iohexol was used alone in 58 %, iohexol and barium were both used in 31 %, and barium was used alone in 11 %. No adverse effects were seen with the use of iohexol. When barium was used in cases of aspiration and extraluminal leakage, the amount of aspirated barium was small and the extraluminal barium in the instances of leakage was small. Iohexol is a useful screening contrast agent and can safely provide information, and its use reduces the risk of aspiration and the chance of leakage of large amounts of barium. PMID:23529533

Harris, Julie A; Bartelt, Detlef; Campion, Molly; Gayler, Bob W; Jones, Bronwyn; Hayes, Andrea; Haynos, Judith; Herbick, Seanne; Kling, Therese; Lingaraj, Arpana; Singer, Michele; Starmer, Heather; Smith, Christine; Webster, Kim

2013-12-01

277

Poverty and corruption compromise tropical forest reserves.  

PubMed

We used the global fire detection record provided by the satellite-based Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to determine the number of fires detected inside 823 tropical and subtropical moist forest reserves and for contiguous buffer areas 5, 10, and 15 km wide. The ratio of fire detection densities (detections per square kilometer) inside reserves to their contiguous buffer areas provided an index of reserve effectiveness. Fire detection density was significantly lower inside reserves than in paired, contiguous buffer areas but varied by five orders of magnitude among reserves. The buffer: reserve detection ratio varied by up to four orders of magnitude among reserves within a single country, and median values varied by three orders of magnitude among countries. Reserves tended to be least effective at reducing fire frequency in many poorer countries and in countries beset by corruption. Countries with the most successful reserves include Costa Rica, Jamaica, Malaysia, and Taiwan and the Indonesian island of Java. Countries with the most problematic reserves include Cambodia, Guatemala, Paraguay, and Sierra Leone and the Indonesian portion of Borneo. We provide fire detection density for 3964 tropical and subtropical reserves and their buffer areas in the hope that these data will expedite further analyses that might lead to improved management of tropical reserves. PMID:17708206

Wright, S Joseph; Sanchez-Azofeifa, G Arturo; Portillo-Quintero, Carlos; Davies, Diane

2007-07-01

278

Linking US oil and gas reserve estimates  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the past decade, two reports on United States oil and gas reserves have been published: (1) the combined annual reports of the Committee on Reserves of the American Petroleum Institute (API) and the Committee on Natural Gas Reserves of the American Gas Association (AGA) for the years up to and including 1979, and (2) the annual reports of the

Nehring

1984-01-01

279

The Elite Illusion: Achievement Effects at Boston and New York Exam Schools. NBER Working Paper No. 17264  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Talented students compete fiercely for seats at Boston and New York exam schools. These schools are characterized by high levels of peer achievement and a demanding curriculum tailored to each district's highest achievers. While exam school students clearly do very well in school, the question of whether an exam school education adds value…

Abdulkadiroglu, Atila; Angrist, Joshua D.; Pathak, Parag A.

2011-01-01

280

Assessment of Validity, Reliability and Difficulty Indices for Teacher-Built Physics Exam Questions in First Year High School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the research is to determine high school teachers' skill rate in designing exam questions in physics subject. The statistical population was all of physics exam shits for two semesters in one school year from which a sample of 364 exam shits was drawn using multistage cluster sampling. Two experts assessed the shits and by using…

Jandaghi, Gholamreza

2010-01-01

281

18 CFR 1314.3 - Authority of Reserve Banks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2012-04-01 true Authority of Reserve Banks. 1314.3 Section 1314.3 Conservation...SECURITIES ISSUED THROUGH THE FEDERAL RESERVE BANKS § 1314.3 Authority of Reserve Banks. (a) Each Reserve Bank is hereby...

2013-04-01

282

Integrity of disposable nitrile exam gloves exposed to simulated movement.  

PubMed

Every year, millions of health care, first responder, and industry workers are exposed to chemical and biological hazards. Disposable nitrile gloves are a common choice as both a chemical and physical barrier to these hazards, especially as an alternative to natural latex gloves. However, glove selection is complicated by the availability of several types or formulations of nitrile gloves, such as low-modulus, medical grade, low filler, and cleanroom products. This study evaluated the influence of simulated movement on the physical integrity (i.e., holes) of different nitrile exam glove brands and types. Thirty glove products were evaluated out-of-box and after exposure to simulated whole-glove movement for 2 hr. In lieu of the traditional 1 L water-leak test, a modified water-leak test, standardized to detect a 0.15 ± 0.05 mm hole in different regions of the glove, was developed. A specialized air inflation method simulated bidirectional stretching and whole-glove movement. A worst-case scenario with maximum stretching was evaluated. On average, movement did not have a significant effect on glove integrity (chi-square; p=0.068). The average effect was less than 1% between no movement (1.5%) and movement (2.1%) exposures. However, there was significant variability in glove integrity between different glove types (p?0.05). Cleanroom gloves, on average, had the highest percentage of leaks, and 50% failed the water-leak test. Low-modulus and medical grade gloves had the lowest percentages of leaks, and no products failed the water-leak test. Variability in polymer formulation was suspected to account for the observed discrepancies, as well as the inability of the traditional 1 L water-leak test to detect holes in finger/thumb regions. Unexpectedly, greater than 80% of the glove defects were observed in the finger and thumb regions. It is recommended that existing water-leak tests be re-evaluated and standardized to account for product variability. PMID:21476169

Phalen, Robert N; Wong, Weng Kee

2011-05-01

283

Differences in BFU-E growth in different mouse strains after stimulation with a mixed lymphocyte culture supernatant (MLC-BPA).  

PubMed

The growth of hemopoietic colonies in methylcellulose from bone marrow and spleen of CBA/Ca, DBA/2, BDF1, C57Bl/6, and NMRI mice was studied under stimulation by a mixed lymphocyte culture supernatant (MLC-BPA) which was necessary for the burst-forming unit E (BFU-E) growth in all strains. The number of pure and mixed BFU-E and non-BFU-E and their proportion varied between the strains; the BFU-E concentrations in the marrow were high in CBA/Ca and DBA/2 mice and low in C57B1/6. Furthermore, differences were seen in the requirement for serum and for erythropoietin. Optimal growth conditions were 4% fetal calf serum, 20% MLC-BPA, and 1 U erythropoietin/ml, but BFU-E growth was also obtained in the absence of serum. The differences in the BFU-E concentrations did not correlate with the numbers of colony-forming units S or the proportion of erythroblasts in the bone marrow smears. PMID:6219467

Kreja, L; Seidel, H J

1982-01-01

284

Most Women Don't Need Regular Pelvic Exams, New Guidelines State  

MedlinePLUS

... Most Women Don't Need Regular Pelvic Exams, New Guidelines State Review found no evidence they benefit ... a routine part of women's health care, but new guidelines say there's no good reason for it. ...

285

[A retrospective study analysis of urinary hippuric acid levels in occupational toxicology exams].  

PubMed

Hippuric acid is the primary metabolite of toluene, a solvent widely used in industrial processes with considerable toxic effects, a fact which justifies regularly monitoring individuals with occupational exposure to this solvent. This work aims at evaluating urinary hippuric acid levels found in workers subject to biological monitoring. A retrospective study was carried out with data referring from 2002 to 2005, in which exams results and employment status were analyzed (periodic, post-employment, and pre-employment exams). Results indicate a significant reduction in hippuric acid levels for 2005. Periodic exams presented higher results than pre-employment and post-employment exams. No significant difference was found in individuals grouped according to their status in each of the established intervals, their reference numbers, and maximum biological levels allowed. Hippuric acid levels detected indicate low risk of toluene exposure for the population under evaluation, probably due to a growing concern with the deployment of measures regarding occupational hygiene. PMID:20640325

Gonzalez, Kelly Cristina; Sagebin, Fernando Rodrigues; Oliveira, Paola Garcia; Glock, Luiz; Thiesen, Flavia Valladão

2010-06-01

286

The effect of marriage on utilization of colorectal endoscopy exam in the United States  

PubMed Central

Purpose This study examines the association between marriage and colorectal endoscopy exam, and whether this association varies by gender and financial benefits of marriage including improved access to health insurance and pooled family income. Methods Representative survey data of the non-institutionalized United States population were used from the 2000, 2005, and 2008 National Health Interview Survey. Analyses targeted persons 50–85 years of age without a personal history of cancer and with complete information on all study variables (n = 21,760). Multivariate logistic regression was used to model marital status differences in the probability of undergoing a colorectal endoscopy exam with interaction effects used to model variation over time by gender, health insurance, and poverty level. Results Married persons were more likely than unmarried persons to report ever having undergone a colorectal endoscopy exam (odds ratio [OR], 1.21; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.12–1.29), and the difference between married and unmarried persons in the probability of undergoing a colorectal endoscopy exam remained stable over time. Married persons were more likely than unmarried persons to report having undergone a colorectal endoscopy exam within the past 10 years (OR, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.15–1.95). For each survey year, married men were significantly more likely than women and unmarried men to report having undergone a colorectal endoscopy exam. For example, in 2008, 56% of married men reported having undergone a colorectal endoscopy exam, compared to 49% of unmarried men, 52% of married women, and 50% of unmarried women. Among persons with health insurance, married persons were significantly more likely than unmarried persons to have undergone a colorectal endoscopy exam. Among persons who were poor, there was no difference by marital status in the likelihood of having undergone a colorectal endoscopy exam. However, among persons who were not poor, married persons were more likely than unmarried persons to have undergone a colorectal endoscopy exam. Conclusion Given that colorectal endoscopy exams are a potentially life-saving procedure, persistently higher uptake of colorectal endoscopy for married persons over time may be an important health promoting benefit of marriage. Therefore, clinicians and policy makers should focus on improving the use of cancer prevention services among unmarried persons.

Wilson, Fernando A.; Watanabe-Galloway, Shinobu; Peek, M. Kristen

2012-01-01

287

Realization and Research of Online Exam System Based on S2SH Framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

The online exam system which integrates with Struts2, Spring and Hibernate has been researched here. Based on completion of essential function of online exam system, the thought of S2SH (Struts2+Spring+Hibernate) framework has been adopted in our system which separates view tier, control tier, business logic tier and data accessing tier into different components, as well as utilizes MVC pattern (Model

Huang Darong; Huang Huimin

2010-01-01

288

Demand Response Spinning Reserve Demonstration  

SciTech Connect

The Demand Response Spinning Reserve project is a pioneeringdemonstration of how existing utility load-management assets can providean important electricity system reliability resource known as spinningreserve. Using aggregated demand-side resources to provide spinningreserve will give grid operators at the California Independent SystemOperator (CAISO) and Southern California Edison (SCE) a powerful, newtool to improve system reliability, prevent rolling blackouts, and lowersystem operating costs.

Eto, Joseph H.; Nelson-Hoffman, Janine; Torres, Carlos; Hirth,Scott; Yinger, Bob; Kueck, John; Kirby, Brendan; Bernier, Clark; Wright,Roger; Barat, A.; Watson, David S.

2007-05-01

289

The Belize Ethnobotany Reserve Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an excerpt from the book "The Biodiversity Crisis: Losing What Counts" which takes a look at an unusual international effort to preserve plant diversity. The goals of the Belize Ethnobotany Project are to study and conserve local knowledge of plant diversity and traditional medicinal uses. A diverse coalition organized this project, including groups from the U.S. and Central America. The project has resulted in the creation of a 6,000-acre forest reserve.

290

FRED: Federal Reserve Economic Data  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis provides this clearinghouse of financial and economic data. Central to this site are the data files, a compendium of hundreds of daily, weekly, monthly, and quarterly time series on financial, monetary, interest rate, producer and consumer price, employment, population, and exchange rate data, among others. Some files are in .zip or compressed format. The site also offers FRBSTL growth rate macros (Excel and Lotus formats) and a selection of the Bank's online publications.

291

Classification and analysis of multiple sclerosis lesions in spin-echo MR exams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The high resolution and excellent soft tissue contrast of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) have enabled direct, non- invasive visualization of Multiple Sclerosis (MS) lesions in vivo. This has allowed quantification of changes in the appearance of lesions in MR exams to be used as a measure of disease state. Nevertheless, accurate quantification techniques are subject to inter- and intra-operator variability, which may hinder monitoring of disease progression. We have developed a computer program to aid an experienced operator in the quantification of MS lesions in spin-echo MR exams. Assisted and manual quantification were used to study inter-operator and intra-operator variability under known conditions in exams of a test phantom, and under clinical conditions in 1.5T and 0.5T exams of an MS patient. Results of the phantom study show that accuracy was improved by assisted quantification. The patient exam results indicate that assisted quantification reduced both inter-operator and intra-operator variability, while quantification in 0.5T exams reduced the variability of manual quantification, but had no significant effect upon assisted quantification. Application of assisted quantification to the analysis and visualization of two large periventricular lesions reveals subtle changes over time in the internal composition of these apparently static lesions.

Mitchell, Ross; Karlik, Stephen J.; Lee, Donald H.; Fenster, Aaron

1994-09-01

292

Examining the Exam: A Critical Look at The California Critical Thinking Skills Test  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper examines the content of The California Critical Thinking Skills Test (1990). This report is not a statistical review. Instead it brings under scrutiny the content of the exam. This content will be of interest to the general reader, because the issues range from logic to ethics to pedagogy, and to questions of evidential and epistemological support. Anyone interested in clear thought and expression will find these issues of significance. Although the exam has a number of strengths and has the clearest instructions of all the presently available Critical Thinking exams, the content of 9 of the exams 34 questions is defective, namely the content of questions 6, 7, 8, 19, 21, 23, 24, 29, and 33. These questions make errors in critical thinking. Hence, no statistical results pertaining to the administration of these questions to students can be acceptable. The remaining questions are acceptable as to content. But until the problems are corrected, those who may use the exam should remove the defective questions from test administration or from data collection and reporting.The scope of the exam also is quite limited, but this may be unavoidable for any instrument designed to be completed in about an hour. Further, the scores resulting from any such testing can be understood only as a measure of minimal competency (below which remediation likely is needed) for the skills tested, but not as an adequate measure of critical thinking.

Fawkes, Don; O'Meara, Bill; Weber, Dave; et al.

293

Reserve selection with land market feedbacks.  

PubMed

How to best site reserves is a leading question for conservation biologists. Recently, reserve selection has emphasized efficient conservation: maximizing conservation goals given the reality of limited conservation budgets, and this work indicates that land market can potentially undermine the conservation benefits of reserves by increasing property values and development probabilities near reserves. Here we propose a reserve selection methodology which optimizes conservation given both a budget constraint and land market feedbacks by using a combination of econometric models along with stochastic dynamic programming. We show that amenity based feedbacks can be accounted for in optimal reserve selection by choosing property price and land development models which exogenously estimate the effects of reserve establishment. In our empirical example, we use previously estimated models of land development and property prices to select parcels to maximize coarse woody debris along 16 lakes in Vilas County, WI, USA. Using each lake as an independent experiment, we find that including land market feedbacks in the reserve selection algorithm has only small effects on conservation efficacy. Likewise, we find that in our setting heuristic (minloss and maxgain) algorithms perform nearly as well as the optimal selection strategy. We emphasize that land market feedbacks can be included in optimal reserve selection; the extent to which this improves reserve placement will likely vary across landscapes. PMID:23141878

Butsic, Van; Lewis, David J; Radeloff, Volker C

2013-01-15

294

Reserve a seat! Intelligent transportation reservation system for tourists  

SciTech Connect

Providing safe, predictable, and efficient transportation for tourists to and from various venues presents a major challenge. Special-event transportation is notoriously unreliable and usually congested at peak times. The rural nature of certain tourist locations (e.g., the Grand Canyon) further complicates the problem. The proposed Intelligent Transportation Reservation System will have three components, each of which performs different functions. On-vehicle component: this component has three purposes: (1) to keep a running count of the passengers on the bus in order to determine how many additional passengers can be accommodated based on the total capacity of the vehicle; (2) through use of Global Positioning Satellite (GPS) technology, to be able to determine the location of the bus at all times; (3) to transmit information to a central data facility. Together these three features provide location, available-space, and condition information to controllers at a central data facility and to prospective riders of the bus. Kiosk component: located at every loading/unloading point, the purpose is to allow passengers-to-be to determine when the next bus (or buses) will arrive and the availability of seating. Individuals can make a reservation for the next bus with sufficient seating and will know when that bus will arrive at the kiosk. Information component: located within hotels and at venue sites, this component will provide information on the buses in the system (e.g. route and current capacity), and loading/unloading locations throughout the network at any point in time.

Truett, L.F.; Tonn, B. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Conley, T. [GTE Wireless, Nashville, TN (United States)

1998-07-01

295

A General Business Model for Marine Reserves  

PubMed Central

Marine reserves are an effective tool for protecting biodiversity locally, with potential economic benefits including enhancement of local fisheries, increased tourism, and maintenance of ecosystem services. However, fishing communities often fear short-term income losses associated with closures, and thus may oppose marine reserves. Here we review empirical data and develop bioeconomic models to show that the value of marine reserves (enhanced adjacent fishing + tourism) may often exceed the pre-reserve value, and that economic benefits can offset the costs in as little as five years. These results suggest the need for a new business model for creating and managing reserves, which could pay for themselves and turn a profit for stakeholder groups. Our model could be expanded to include ecosystem services and other benefits, and it provides a general framework to estimate costs and benefits of reserves and to develop such business models.

Sala, Enric; Costello, Christopher; Dougherty, Dawn; Heal, Geoffrey; Kelleher, Kieran; Murray, Jason H.; Rosenberg, Andrew A.; Sumaila, Rashid

2013-01-01

296

A comparison of student performance on discipline-specific versus integrated exams in a medical school course.  

PubMed

Curricular reform is a widespread trend among medical schools. Assessing the impact that pedagogical changes have on students is a vital step in review process. This study examined how a shift from discipline-focused instruction and assessment to integrated instruction and assessment affected student performance in a second-year medical school pathology course. We investigated this by comparing pathology exam scores between students exposed to traditional discipline-specific instruction and exams (DSE) versus integrated instruction and exams (IE). Exam content was controlled, and individual questions were evaluated using a modified version of Bloom's taxonomy. Additionally, we compared United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) step 1 scores between DSE and IE groups. Our findings indicate that DSE students performed better than IE students on complete pathology exams. However, when exam content was controlled, exam scores were equivalent between groups. We also discovered that the integrated exams were composed of a significantly greater proportion of questions classified on the higher levels of Bloom's taxonomy and that IE students performed better on these questions overall. USMLE step 1 exam scores were similar between groups. The finding of a significant difference in content complexity between discipline-specific and integrated exams adds to recent literature indicating that there are a number of potential biases related to curricular comparison studies that must be considered. Future investigation involving larger sample sizes and multiple disciplines should be performed to explore this matter further. PMID:24292915

Thompson, Andrew R; Braun, Mark W; O'Loughlin, Valerie D

2013-12-01

297

Reserve valuation in electric power systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Operational reliability is provided in part by scheduling capacity in excess of the load forecast. This reserve capacity balances the uncertain power demand with the supply in real time and provides for equipment outages. Traditionally, reserve scheduling has been ensured by enforcing reserve requirements in the operations planning. An alternate approach is to employ a stochastic formulation, which allows the explicit modeling of the sources of uncertainty. This thesis compares stochastic and reserve methods and evaluates the benefits of a combined approach for the efficient management of uncertainty in the unit commitment problem. Numerical studies show that the unit commitment solutions obtained for the combined approach are robust and superior with respect to the traditional approach. These robust solutions are especially valuable in areas with a high proportion of wind power, as their built-in flexibility allows the dispatch of practically all the available wind power while minimizing the costs of operation. The scheduled reserve has an economic value since it reduces the outage costs. In several electricity markets, reserve demand functions have been implemented to take into account the value of reserve in the market clearing process. These often take the form of a step-down function at the reserve requirement level, and as such they may not appropriately represent the reserve value. The value of reserve is impacted by the reliability, dynamic and stochastic characteristics of system components, the system operation policies, and the economic aspects such as the risk preferences of the demand. In this thesis, these aspects are taken into account to approximate the reserve value and construct reserve demand functions. Illustrative examples show that the demand functions constructed have similarities with those implemented in some markets.

Ruiz, Pablo Ariel

298

IGT calculates world reserves of fossil fuels  

SciTech Connect

The Institute of Gas Technology has published the IGT World Reserves Survey, giving their latest tabulation of world reserves of fossil fuels and uranium. The report contains 120 Tables and 41 Figures. Estimates are provided for proved reserves, resources, current production, and life indexes of the non-renewable energy sources of the US and of the world as a whole. World regional data are also provided in many cases. The data are summarized here. 2 figures, 5 tables.

Not Available

1986-12-01

299

Fiji's largest marine reserve benefits reef sharks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To provide more information about whether sharks benefit from no-take marine reserves, we quantified the relative abundance and biomass of reef sharks inside and outside of Namena, Fiji's largest reserve (60.6 km2). Using stereo baited remote underwater video systems (stereo-BRUVs), we found that the abundance and biomass of sharks was approximately two and four times greater in shallow and deep locations, respectively, within the Namena reserve compared to adjacent fished areas. The greater abundance and biomass of reef sharks inside Namena is likely a result of greater prey availability rather than protection from fishing. This study demonstrates that marine reserves can benefit sharks.

Goetze, J. S.; Fullwood, L. A. F.

2013-03-01

300

47 CFR 27.301 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Reserved] 27.301 Section 27.301 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Application, Licensing, and Processing Rules for WCS...

2013-10-01

301

Genomic Markers of Ovarian Reserve  

PubMed Central

Ovarian reserve and its utilization, over a reproductive life span, are determined by genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors. The establishment of the primordial follicle pool and the rate of primordial follicle activation have been under intense study to determine genetic factors that affect reproductive lifespan. Much has been learned from transgenic animal models about the developmental origins of the primordial follicle pool and mechanisms that lead to primordial follicle activation, folliculogenesis, and the maturation of a single oocyte with each menstrual cycle. Recent genome-wide association studies on the age of human menopause have identified approximately 20 loci, and shown the importance of factors involved in double-strand break repair and immunology. Studies to date from animal models and humans show that many genes determine ovarian aging, and that there is no single dominant allele yet responsible for depletion of the ovarian reserve. Personalized genomic approaches will need to take into account the high degree of genetic heterogeneity, family pedigree, and functional data of the genes critical at various stages of ovarian development to predict women's reproductive life span.

Wood, Michelle A.; Rajkovic, Aleksandar

2014-01-01

302

Computer lab reservations: improving how to manage multiple reservation life cycles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 2003, computer lab reservations during the summer semester have been growing more quickly than resources for managing computer lab reservations at the University of California, Berkeley. In the past one could easily manage the varying life cycles of lab reservations between May and August using notes and a paper calendar: the request, the lab's response to technical needs such

Nicole M. Sattler

2006-01-01

303

Parasite infection rates of impala ( Aepyceros melampus) in fenced game reserves in relation to reserve characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under certain conditions reserves can pose a threat to wildlife conservation by increasing the transmission of parasites and pathogens. In this study, I investigated associations between reserve characteristics including area, density and species richness and parasite infection rates in impala (Aepyceros melampus). Using coprological methods to measure gastrointestinal parasitism rates of impala inhabiting five fully or partially fenced game reserves

Vanessa O. Ezenwa

2004-01-01

304

Brain reserve and cognitive reserve in multiple sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Objective: We first tested the brain reserve (BR) hypothesis in multiple sclerosis (MS) by examining whether larger maximal lifetime brain volume (MLBV; determined by genetics) protects against disease-related cognitive impairment, and then investigated whether cognitive reserve (CR) gained through life experience (intellectually enriching leisure activities) protects against cognitive decline independently of MLBV (BR). Methods: Sixty-two patients with MS (41 relapsing-remitting MS, 21 secondary progressive MS) received MRIs to estimate BR (MLBV, estimated with intracranial volume [ICV]) and disease burden (T2 lesion load; atrophy of gray matter, white matter, thalamus, and hippocampus). Early-life cognitive leisure was measured as a source of CR. We assessed cognitive status with tasks of cognitive efficiency and memory. Hierarchical regressions were used to investigate whether higher BR (ICV) protects against cognitive impairment, and whether higher CR (leisure) independently protects against cognitive impairment over and above BR. Results: Cognitive status was positively associated with ICV (R2 = 0.066, p = 0.017). An ICV × disease burden interaction (R2 = 0.050, p = 0.030) revealed that larger ICV attenuated the impact of disease burden on cognition. Controlling for BR, higher education (R2 = 0.047, p = 0.030) and leisure (R2 = 0.090, p = 0.001) predicted better cognition. A leisure × disease burden interaction (R2 = 0.037, p = 0.030) showed that leisure independently attenuated the impact of disease burden on cognition. Follow-up analyses revealed that BR protected against cognitive inefficiency, not memory deficits, whereas CR was more protective against memory deficits than cognitive inefficiency. Conclusion: We provide evidence of BR in MS, and show that CR independently protects against disease-related cognitive decline over and above BR. Lifestyle choices protect against cognitive impairment independently of genetic factors outside of one's control.

Rocca, Maria A.; Leavitt, Victoria M.; Riccitelli, Gianna; Comi, Giancarlo; DeLuca, John; Filippi, Massimo

2013-01-01

305

Accuracy of early stand exam age estimates in the Swan Valley of Western Montana. Forest Service research note  

SciTech Connect

The stand exams conducted in western Montana over 50 years ago provide a valuable source of information on prefire suppression and preharvest condition of the region's forests. Of the early exam estimates of stand origin, 52 percent were within 20 years of estimates taken from stand exams conducted in the 1980's, and 73 percent were within 60 years. There was no significant bias toward either higher or lower age estimates. The early stand exam data can give an accurate estimate of stand age distributions over large areas.

Hart, M.; Lesica, P.

1994-04-01

306

Federal Reserve personal financial education initiatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recognizing the importance of successful personal financial management to individuals and the broader economy, the Federal Reserve System has in the past two years intensified its efforts to provide and promote personal financial education. Initiatives have ranged from a public outreach effort highlighting the importance of financial education, to local and regional Reserve Bank programs targeted to specific audiences, to

Lynn Fox; Joy Hoffmann

2004-01-01

307

Mathematical methods for spatially cohesive reserve design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of designing spatially cohesive nature reserve systems that meet biodiversity objectives is formulated as a nonlinear integer programming problem. The multiobjective function minimises a combination of boundary length, area and failed representation of the biological attributes we are trying to conserve. The task is to reserve a subset of sites that best meet this objective. We use data

Mark D. McDonnell; Hugh P. Possingham; Ian R. Ball; Elizabeth A. Cousins

2002-01-01

308

Army Reserve Prior Service Market Profile.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Only about 28 percent of the 177,023 enlisted losses to the Active Army in FY 1993 either transferred to the Reserve Components (RC) or had completed all of their obligated service and were eligible for reserve service (RE). Of these 48,000 RC and RE loss...

K. M. Kocher G. Thomas

1995-01-01

309

Italian marine reserve effectiveness: Does enforcement matter?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine protected areas (MPAs) have become popular tools worldwide for ecosystem conservation and fishery management. Fish assemblages can benefit from protection provided by MPAs, especially those that include fully no-take reserves. Fish response to protection can thus be used to evaluate the effectiveness of marine reserves. Most target fish are high-level predators and their overfishing may affect entire communities through

Paolo Guidetti; Marco Milazzo; Simona Bussotti; Andrea Molinari; Matteo Murenu; Antonio Pais; Nunziacarla Spanò; Raffaella Balzano; Tundi Agardy; Ferdinando Boero; Giancarlo Carrada; Riccardo Cattaneo-Vietti; Angelo Cau; Renato Chemello; Silvestro Greco; Antonio Manganaro; Giuseppe Notarbartolo di Sciara; Giovanni Fulvio Russo; Leonardo Tunesi

2008-01-01

310

The First International Biosphere Reserve Congress.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents objectives (and related activities) of a plan designed for international collaboration in conserving key natural areas (biosphere reserves) of the globe. The plan (focusing on such areas as management, conservation, research, monitoring, and environmental education/training) was formulated during the First International Biosphere Reserve

Laird, John

1984-01-01

311

Nutrient reserve dynamics of breeding canvasbacks  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We compared nutrients in reproductive and nonreproductive tissues of breeding Canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) to assess the relative importance of endogenous reserves and exogenous foods. Fat reserves of females increased during rapid follicle growth and varied more widely in size during the early phase of this period. Females began laying with ca. 205 g of fat in reserve and lost 1.8 g of carcass fat for every 1 g of fat contained in their ovary and eggs. Females lost body mass (primarily fat) at a declining rate as incubation advanced. Protein reserves increased directly with dry oviduct mass during rapid follicle growth. This direct relationship was highly dependent upon data from 2 birds and likely biased by structural size. During laying, protein reserves did not vary with the combined mass of dry oviduct and dry egg protein. Between laying and incubation, mean protein reserves decreased by an amount equal to the protein found in 2.1 Canvasback eggs. Calcium reserves did not vary with the cumulative total of calcium deposited in eggs. Mean calcium reserve declined by the equivalent content of 1.2 eggs between laying and incubation. We believe that protein and calcium were stored in small amounts during laying, and that they were supplemented continually by exogenous sources. In contrast, fat was stored in large amounts and contributed significantly to egg production and body maintenance. Male Canvasbacks lost fat steadily--but not protein or calcium--as the breeding season progressed.

Barzen, J. A.; Serie, J. R.

1990-01-01

312

Estimating U.S. uranium reserves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article presents information on the Energy Information Administration’s (U.S. Department of Energy) annual estimates of U.S. uranium reserves. Encompassed is information for year-end 1997’s uranium reserves, which were estimated by employing numerous resources.

Smith, L. L.

1998-12-01

313

Off-Reservation Indian Survey [Maine].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The needs of the off-reservation Indian population in Maine and recommendations for the correction of these needs are discussed. The program's objectives were (1) to determine the present level of services available to off-reservation Indians in Maine, (2) to determine present housing standards, educational levels, health programs, and geographic…

Sockabasin, Allen J., Comp; Stone, John G., Comp.

314

When can marine reserves improve fisheries management?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine reserves are a promising tool for fisheries management and conservation of biodiversity, but they are not a panacea for fisheries management problems. For fisheries that target highly mobile single species with little or no by-catch or habitat impact, marine reserves provide few benefits compared to conventional fishery management tools. For fisheries that are multi-species or on more sedentary stocks,

Ray Hilborn; Kevin Stokes; Jean-Jacques Maguire; Tony Smith; Louis W Botsford; Marc Mangel; José Orensanz; Ana Parma; Jake Rice; Johann Bell; Kevern L Cochrane; Serge Garcia; Stephen J Hall; G. P. Kirkwood; Keith Sainsbury; Gunnar Stefansson; Carl Walters

2004-01-01

315

The dynamics of the primordial follicle reserve.  

PubMed

The female germline comprises a reserve population of primordial (non-growing) follicles containing diplotene oocytes arrested in the first meiotic prophase. By convention, the reserve is established when all individual oocytes are enclosed by granulosa cells. This commonly occurs prior to or around birth, according to species. Histologically, the 'reserve' is the number of primordial follicles in the ovary at any given age and is ultimately depleted by degeneration and progression through folliculogenesis until exhausted. How and when the reserve reaches its peak number of follicles is determined by ovarian morphogenesis and germ cell dynamics involving i) oogonial proliferation and entry into meiosis producing an oversupply of oocytes and ii) large-scale germ cell death resulting in markedly reduced numbers surviving as the primordial follicle reserve. Our understanding of the processes maintaining the reserve comes primarily from genetically engineered mouse models, experimental activation or destruction of oocytes, and quantitative histological analysis. As the source of ovulated oocytes in postnatal life, the primordial follicle reserve requires regulation of i) its survival or maintenance, ii) suppression of development (dormancy), and iii) activation for growth and entry into folliculogenesis. The mechanisms influencing these alternate and complex inter-related phenomena remain to be fully elucidated. Drawing upon direct and indirect evidence, we discuss the controversial concept of postnatal oogenesis. This posits a rare population of oogonial stem cells that contribute new oocytes to partially compensate for the age-related decline in the primordial follicle reserve. PMID:23929903

Kerr, Jeffrey B; Myers, Michelle; Anderson, Richard A

2013-12-01

316

Unsatisfactory Performance of Ready Reserve Obligation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Directive reissues DoD Directive 1215.13, November 1, 1972, to update DoD policy on actions to be taken in regard to members of the Ready Reserve whose performance of duty or participation in Reserve training is unsatisfactory; and provides greater fl...

H. Bowe

1979-01-01

317

The Economics of NASA Mission Cost Reserves  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Increases in NASA mission costs are well-noted but not well-understood, and there is little evidence that they are decreasing in frequency or amount over time. The need to control spending has led to analysis of the causes and magnitude of historical mission overruns, and many program control efforts are being implemented to attempt to prevent or mitigate the problem (NPR 7120). However, cost overruns have not abated, and while some direct causes of increased spending may be obvious (requirements creep, launch delays, directed changes, etc.), the underlying impetus to spend past the original budget may be more subtle. Gaining better insight into the causes of cost overruns will help NASA and its contracting organizations to avoid .them. This paper hypothesizes that one cause of NASA mission cost overruns is that the availability of reserves gives project team members an incentive to make decisions and behave in ways that increase costs. We theorize that the presence of reserves is a contributing factor to cost overruns because it causes organizations to use their funds less efficiently or to control spending less effectively. We draw a comparison to the insurance industry concept of moral hazard, the phenomenon that the presence of insurance causes insureds to have more frequent and higher insurance losses, and we attempt to apply actuarial techniques to quantifY the increase in the expected cost of a mission due to the availability of reserves. We create a theoretical model of reserve spending motivation by defining a variable ReserveSpending as a function of total reserves. This function has a positive slope; for every dollar of reserves available, there is a positive probability of spending it. Finally, the function should be concave down; the probability of spending each incremental dollar of reserves decreases progressively. We test the model against available NASA CADRe data by examining missions with reserve dollars initially available and testing whether they are more likely to spend those dollars, and whether larger levels of reserves lead to higher cost overruns. Finally, we address the question of how to prevent reserves from increasing mission spending without increasing cost risk to projects budgeted without any reserves. Is there a "sweet spot"? How can we derive the maximum benefit associated with risk reduction from reserves while minimizing the effects of reserve spending motivation?

Whitley, Sally; Shinn, Stephen

2012-01-01

318

Effects of marine reserves on adjacent fisheries.  

PubMed

Marine reserves have been widely promoted as conservation and fishery management tools. There are robust demonstrations of conservation benefits, but fishery benefits remain controversial. We show that marine reserves in Florida (United States) and St. Lucia have enhanced adjacent fisheries. Within 5 years of creation, a network of five small reserves in St. Lucia increased adjacent catches of artisanal fishers by between 46 and 90%, depending on the type of gear the fishers used. In Florida, reserve zones in the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge have supplied increasing numbers of world record-sized fish to adjacent recreational fisheries since the 1970s. Our study confirms theoretical predictions that marine reserves can play a key role in supporting fisheries. PMID:11729316

Roberts, C M; Bohnsack, J A; Gell, F; Hawkins, J P; Goodridge, R

2001-11-30

319

40 CFR 52.150 - Yavapai-Apache Reservation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Arizona § 52.150 Yavapai-Apache Reservation. (a) The provisions...21 are applicable to the Yavapai-Apache Reservation, pursuant to § 52...CFR 52.21(g), the Yavapai-Apache Indian Reservation is designated as...

2009-07-01

320

40 CFR 52.150 - Yavapai-Apache Reservation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Arizona § 52.150 Yavapai-Apache Reservation. (a) The provisions...21 are applicable to the Yavapai-Apache Reservation, pursuant to § 52...CFR 52.21(g), the Yavapai-Apache Indian Reservation is designated as...

2010-07-01

321

7 CFR 623.13 - Wetlands reserve plan of operations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 false Wetlands reserve plan of operations...Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE...WATER RESOURCES EMERGENCY WETLANDS RESERVE PROGRAM § 623.13 Wetlands reserve plan of...

2010-01-01

322

7 CFR 623.13 - Wetlands reserve plan of operations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-01-01 false Wetlands reserve plan of operations...Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE...WATER RESOURCES EMERGENCY WETLANDS RESERVE PROGRAM § 623.13 Wetlands reserve plan of...

2009-01-01

323

40 CFR 73.26 - Conservation and renewable energy reserve.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Conservation and renewable energy reserve. 73.26 Section...73.26 Conservation and renewable energy reserve. The Administrator...allowances to the Conservation and Renewable Energy Reserve subaccount of...

2011-07-01

324

40 CFR 73.26 - Conservation and renewable energy reserve.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Conservation and renewable energy reserve. 73.26 Section...73.26 Conservation and renewable energy reserve. The Administrator...allowances to the Conservation and Renewable Energy Reserve subaccount of...

2012-07-01

325

32 CFR 728.23 - Reserve Officers' Training Corps (ROTC).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Personnel § 728.23 Reserve Officers' Training Corps (ROTC...Members of the Senior Reserve Officers' Training Corps of the...Medical, dental, pharmacy, veterinary or science allied to medicine students who are commissioned officers of a reserve component...

2010-07-01

326

32 CFR 728.23 - Reserve Officers' Training Corps (ROTC).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Personnel § 728.23 Reserve Officers' Training Corps (ROTC...Members of the Senior Reserve Officers' Training Corps of the...Medical, dental, pharmacy, veterinary or science allied to medicine students who are commissioned officers of a reserve component...

2009-07-01

327

Army Reserve Meeting Homeland Security Obligations Amidst Transformation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The United States Army Reserve is undergoing tremendous change during transformation to include Base Closure and Realignment (BRAC). It is closing 176 reserve centers, occupying 125 new joint reserve centers; disestablishing ten Regional Readiness Command...

S. H. Brown

2008-01-01

328

20 CFR 618.920 - Reserve fund distributions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Department as a reserve. Reserve funds will be used, as needed...States may not receive reserve funds for TAA administration or employment and case management services without a request for training funds. (b) A State...

2013-04-01

329

26 CFR 1.803-1 - Life insurance reserves.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...insurance company or association, life insurance reserves include...to any other use. (c) Life insurance reserves, except...express statutory provisions or by rules and regulations of the insurance...not conclusive; for example, life insurance reserves do...

2013-04-01

330

26 CFR 1.801-4 - Life insurance reserves.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...which the reserve is computed, life, health, or accident contingencies... For purposes of determining life insurance reserves, only...express statutory provisions or by rules and regulations of the...deducted from the company's life insurance reserves. For...

2013-04-01

331

42 CFR 409.65 - Lifetime reserve days.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Lifetime reserve days. 409.65 Section 409...Hospital Insurance Benefits § 409.65 Lifetime reserve days. (a) Election not to use lifetime reserve days. (1) Whenever a...

2013-10-01

332

42 CFR 409.65 - Lifetime reserve days.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-10-01 2009-10-01 false Lifetime reserve days. 409.65 Section 409...Hospital Insurance Benefits § 409.65 Lifetime reserve days. (a) Election not to use lifetime reserve days. (1) Whenever a...

2009-10-01

333

42 CFR 409.65 - Lifetime reserve days.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lifetime reserve days. 409.65 Section 409...Hospital Insurance Benefits § 409.65 Lifetime reserve days. (a) Election not to use lifetime reserve days. (1) Whenever a...

2010-10-01

334

Site Plan: Real Estate, Custer Reserve Forces Training Area, Military ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Site Plan: Real Estate, Custer Reserve Forces Training Area, Military Reservation, USACOE, 20 July 1948 - Fort Custer Military Reservation, Bounded by Territorial, Dickman, & Longman Roads & Route 94 Business, Battle Creek, Calhoun County, MI

335

Caught in the Middle: Arizona's English Language Learners and the High School Exit Exam  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since 2002, the Center on Education Policy (CEP) has been studying state high school exit examinations--tests that students must pass to receive a high school diploma. Each year, a national report has been published with findings about the 26 states that have or will soon implement exit exams. In addition, occasional reports have been published…

Kober, Nancy Ed.

2007-01-01

336

Algorithmic, LOCS and HOCS (Chemistry) Exam Questions: Performance and Attitudes of College Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studies the performance of freshmen biology and physics-mathematics majors and chemistry majors as well as pre- and in-service chemistry teachers at two Israeli universities on algorithmic (ALG), lower-order cognitive skills (LOCS), and higher-order cognitive skills (HOCS) chemistry exam questions. Finds that students in both universities…

Zoller, Uri

2002-01-01

337

The Application of Generalizability Theory to a College-Level French Placement Exam.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper involves an application of generalizability theory in assessing the dependability of a foreign language placement exam. The French Cloze test was administered to students within five levels of French classes and the results were scored by four different raters. Three specific generalizability coefficients are discussed along with…

Naccarato, Richard W.; Gillmore, Gerald M.

338

Study on exam electromagnetic radiation prediction system of mobile phone shielding devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nowadays, many large examinations need to use mobile phone shielding devices. Many students and parents feel concern about the electromagnetic radiation effect of mobile phone shielding devices. This paper considers the comprehensive effect of mobile phone from the electromagnetic radiation intensity, the main radiation direction and the distance with the radiation source. This paper designs the exam electromagnetic radiation prediction

Li Ma; Peng Zou

2011-01-01

339

Today's Students, Tomorrow's Citizens: Pathways for Learning, Mathematics. Alabama High School Graduation Exam.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is designed to assist classroom teachers in preparing students to successfully complete the Alabama High School Graduation Exam (AHSGE). It consists of activities that are correlated with the Alabama Course of Study: Mathematics, Bulletin 1997, No. 4, and Standards and Objectives (Reading Comprehension, Language, Mathematics, and…

Alabama State Dept. of Education, Montgomery. Div. of Instructional Services.

340

Can a picture ruin a thousand words? The effects of visual resources in exam questions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background When an exam question is read, a mental representation of the task is formed in each student's mind. This processing can be affected by features such as visual resources (e.g. pictures, diagrams, photographs, tables), which can come to dominate the mental representation due to their salience.Purpose The aim of this research was to investigate the effects of visual resources

Victoria Crisp; Ezekiel Sweiry

2006-01-01

341

Noncredible Effort during Pediatric Neuropsychological Exam: A Case Series and Literature Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neuropsychological test interpretation rests upon the assumption that the examinee has exerted full effort. If an individual provides inadequate effort during exam, the resulting data will be invalid and represent an underestimate of the person's true abilities. Although youth have been assumed historically to be less capable of deception than adults, acts of deception in childhood are not uncommon, even

Michael W. Kirkwood; John W. Kirk; Robert Z. Blaha; Pamela Wilson

2010-01-01

342

Managing the tabu list length using a fuzzy inference system: an application to exams timetabling  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present an application of Tabu Search (TS) to the exams timetabling problem. One of the drawback of this meta-heuristic is related with some parameter that can afiect the performance of the algorithm and must be tuned. One of such is tabu tenure which is much problem dependent. Our goal is to have a automatic process of

Tiago Cardal Pais; P. Amaral

2008-01-01

343

Verbal Final Exam in Introductory Biology Yields Gains in Student Content Knowledge and Longitudinal Performance  

PubMed Central

We studied gains in student learning over eight semesters in which an introductory biology course curriculum was changed to include optional verbal final exams (VFs). Students could opt to demonstrate their mastery of course material via structured oral exams with the professor. In a quantitative assessment of cell biology content knowledge, students who passed the VF outscored their peers on the medical assessment test (MAT), an exam built with 40 Medical College Admissions Test (MCAT) questions (66.4% [n = 160] and 62% [n = 285], respectively; p < 0.001);. The higher-achieving students performed better on MCAT questions in all topic categories tested; the greatest gain occurred on the topic of cellular respiration. Because the VF focused on a conceptually parallel topic, photosynthesis, there may have been authentic knowledge transfer. In longitudinal tracking studies, passing the VF also correlated with higher performance in a range of upper-level science courses, with greatest significance in physiology, biochemistry, and organic chemistry. Participation had a wide range but not equal representation in academic standing, gender, and ethnicity. Yet students nearly unanimously (92%) valued the option. Our findings suggest oral exams at the introductory level may allow instructors to assess and aid students striving to achieve higher-level learning.

Luckie, Douglas B.; Rivkin, Aaron M.; Aubry, Jacob R.; Marengo, Benjamin J.; Creech, Leah R.; Sweeder, Ryan D.

2013-01-01

344

Operating Characteristics of the Neurobehavioral Cognitive Status Exam Using Neuropsychological Assessment as the Criterion.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The performance characteristics of the Neurobehavioral Cognitive Status Exam (NCSE) (R. Kiernan and others, 1987) was studied with 50 outpatients, most with cognitive dysfunction using comprehensive neuropsychological assessment as the criterion. Results suggest that operating characteristics of the NCSE depend on the nature of the sample assessed…

Karzmark, Peter

1997-01-01

345

Retrieving Essential Material at the End of Lectures Improves Performance on Statistics Exams  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At the end of each lecture in a statistics for psychology course, students answered a small set of questions that required them to retrieve information from the same day's lecture. These exercises constituted retrieval practice for lecture material subsequently tested on four exams throughout the course. This technique is called the PUREMEM…

Lyle, Keith B.; Crawford, Nicole A.

2011-01-01

346

Student-Centered Pedagogy: Co-Construction of Knowledge through Student-Generated Midterm Exams  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using the example of student-generated midterm exams produced during a university classroom exercise, this narrative account examines student-centered pedagogy from both the university faculty and student perspectives. The central question revolved around how to actively engage a community of diverse university students from different academic,…

Ahn, Ruth; Class, Mary

2011-01-01

347

Where to Begin? The Evolving Role of Placement Exams for Students Starting College  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For years, colleges have used placement exams to determine whether to deem incoming students "college ready" or assign them to developmental education. But emerging information reveals the tests have little correlation to students' future success, casting doubt on their use even as the high stakes for students of taking remedial courses become…

Burdman, Pamela

2012-01-01

348

High Achievement on Advanced Placement Exams: The Relationship of School-Level Contextual Factors to Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the study was to identify school- and district-level variables that relate to advanced academic achievement, as defined by the ratio of number of scores of 3, 4, or 5 on Advanced Placement exams to school enrollment. The study initially included 46 variables for 339 public high schools in one Midwestern state. Hierarchical linear…

Burney, Virginia H.

2010-01-01

349

Exam Preparation and Grades: A System for Addressing Questions, Challenges and Problems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The system presented solves questions, challenges, and problems with preparing exams and grading. It includes detailed instructions, rationales, web pages, examples, and EXCEL spreadsheet templates. Use these components to keep grades, show grade distributions, calculate cumulative grades, make grade predictions based on assumptions of student performance, and inform students

PhD Augustine G DiGiovanna (Salisbury University Biological Sciences)

2004-06-15

350

A Working Model for Assessing Spanish Heritage Language Learners' Language Proficiency through a Placement Exam  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Having a clear idea of the knowledge in the heritage language that a student brings to the classroom is essential for a successful language-learning experience; for that reason, research in heritage language education has been focusing increasingly on assessment issues, especially language placement exams. Professionals debate whether assessment…

Fairclough, Marta

2012-01-01

351

Assessment of learning gains associated with independent exam analysis in introductory biology.  

PubMed

This study evaluates the impact of an independent postmidterm question analysis exercise on the ability of students to answer subsequent exam questions on the same topics. It was conducted in three sections (?400 students/section) of introductory biology. Graded midterms were returned electronically, and each student was assigned a subset of questions answered incorrectly by more than 40% of the class to analyze as homework. The majority of questions were at Bloom's application/analysis level; this exercise therefore emphasized learning at these higher levels of cognition. Students in each section answered final exam questions matched by topic to all homework questions, providing a within-class control group for each question. The percentage of students who correctly answered the matched final exam question was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in the Topic Analysis versus Control Analysis group for seven of 19 questions. We identified two factors that influenced activity effectiveness: 1) similarity in topic emphasis of the midterm-final exam question pair and 2) quality of the completed analysis homework. Our data suggest that this easy-to-implement exercise will be useful in large-enrollment classes to help students develop self-regulated learning skills. Additional strategies to help introductory students gain a broader understanding of topic areas are discussed. PMID:22135369

Williams, Adrienne E; William, Adrienne E; Aguilar-Roca, Nancy M; Tsai, Michelle; Wong, Matthew; Beaupré, Marin Moravec; O'Dowd, Diane K

2011-01-01

352

VA State Profile. Virginia: Standards of Learning (SOL) End-of-Course Exams  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper provides information about Virginia's Standards of Learning (SOL) End-of-Course Exams. The purpose of the end-of-course assessments is to measure the achievement of students on the Standards of Learning adopted by the Virginia Board of Education for specific high school courses, and to ensure that students graduating from Virginia…

Center on Education Policy, 2010

2010-01-01

353

The Validity Argument of a Web-Based Spanish Listening Exam: Test Usefulness Evaluation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study describes research used for supporting a validity argument for a new Spanish Listening Exam, whose scores are intended to place examinees into appropriate levels of university Spanish classes. This study contributes to the field of argument-based approaches to language assessment by implementing Bachman's (2005) assessment use argument…

Pardo-Ballester, Cristina

2010-01-01

354

Internal Consistency of Medical Students' Scores in General and Baisc Science Exams, Kerman University, Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and purpose: Course-based assessment is a method to gather, analyze, disseminate, and use course data to improve student learning. We assessed the associations between medical students' scores in basic sciences and general courses in a university in Iran and compared these scores with their scores in comprehensive exam. Methods: We collected the scores of medical students in their courses

Haghdoost A; Esmaeili A

2006-01-01

355

The design of exam system on the basis of .net technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the research of domestic and foreign research situation, the paper analyses the importance of examination system in university and puts forward the development of examination that is based on .net technology. The system can set different authorities for different user groups by various university environments. It realizes automatically on paper setting and exam completely. Besides, the system adopts

Nan Yang; Xie Chenguang; Gao Weiwei; Ma Xianmin

2012-01-01

356

The development of a tool for gauging the demands of GCSE and A Level exam questions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two techniques from the psychological literature were used to identify demands in exam questions: Edwards' scale of cognitive demand (1981) and Kelly's Repertory Grid technique (1955). These two techniques were used to develop a tool for identifying and gauging the demands made in GCSE and A Level History, Chemistry and Geography questions. This paper reports on three phases of the

Sarah Hughes; Alastair Pollitt; Ayesha Ahmed

1998-01-01

357

Effect of Computer Tutorial Review Lessons on Exam Performance in Introductory College Physics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Computer tutorial review lessons for a one-quarter lecture course in introductory college physics were developed and used by approximately 500 students, on a voluntary basis, over a period of several years. The investigation shows that the exam grades of ...

O. M. Kromhout

1972-01-01

358

Indiana Teachers' Perspectives on Testing Accommodations for Limited English Proficient Students Taking the Graduation Qualifying Exam  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative case study examines teachers' perspectives on testing accommodations for Limited English Proficient (LEP) students taking Indiana's Graduation Qualifying Exam (GQE). The Indiana Department of Education (IDOE) states that the purpose of testing accommodations is to "level the playing field" between LEP students and their non-LEP…

Hetler, Angela Dawn

2010-01-01

359

Big Business and School-Exams: "Catching Johnny before He Falls"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper the author discusses the involvement of private corporations in administering educational exams. Specifically described are the company, Pearson Plc, a multi-national publishing and media conglomerate, and owner of Edexcel, one of England's three remaining "unitary awarding bodies." The intensification of the involvement of…

Yarker, Patrick

2005-01-01

360

The TRIPSE: A Process-Oriented Exam for Large Undergraduate Classes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The TRIPSE (tri-partite problem solving exercise), a process-oriented exam that mimics the scientific process, was used previously in small classes (15-25). Provided limited data, students frame explanations and design experimental tests that they later revise with additional information. Our 6-year experience using it with larger numbers…

Nastos, Stash; Rangachari, P. K.

2013-01-01

361

An Analysis of How Proctoring Exams in Online Mathematics Offerings Affects Student Learning and Course Integrity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents the results of a study focused on the issue of how proctored testing affects the learning outcomes and integrity in an Intermediate Algebra course setting. The study follows a model of assessment where students in one group have taken two of their five unit exams as proctored tests along with a proctored Comprehensive Final…

Flesch, Michael; Ostler, Elliott

2011-01-01

362

Comparing Intentions to Use University-Provided vs Vendor-Provided Multibiometric Authentication in Online Exams  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Concerns for information security in e-learning systems have been raised previously. In the pursuit for better authentication approaches, few schools have implemented students' authentication during online exams beyond passwords. This paper aims to assess e-learners' intention to provide multibiometric data and use of multibiometrics…

Levy, Yair; Ramim, Michelle M.; Furnell, Steven M.; Clarke, Nathan L.

2011-01-01

363

Predictors of the Elementary School Proficiency Exams and Issues of Equality in Educational Facilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The main purpose of this study is to determine whether school/student, classroom/student, teacher/student ratio, and the Human Development Index (I.G.E.) rates by province predict a province's total 6th and 7th grade Elementary School Proficiency Exam (SBS) scores. To determine the relationships between the province's total 6th and 7th grade SBS…

Erdogan, Irfan; Meseci Giorgetti, Filiz; Cifcili, Vakur

2011-01-01

364

A history and overview of the certification exam for medical dosimetrists  

SciTech Connect

During the last century, the creation and implementation of board certification has had a powerful impact on the medical community. Board certification has helped to shape the scope and practice of medical professionals and the care they provide, as well as to influence the way the health insurance industry sets standards for reimbursement. One profession that offers board certification to its members is medical dosimetry. The Medical Dosimetrist Certification Board exam has been administered since 1988 and its content covers a broad spectrum of information from the radiation therapy sciences. The exam has strict application requirements and is rather difficult to pass. Those who pass the exam can then call themselves Certified Medical Dosimetrists. For data purposes of this study, several members of the dosimetry community were solicited to participate in a survey regarding the exam's content and history, and to provide relevant statistical data. Currently 2,177 medical dosimetrists are board certified, with an additional 1,500 estimated to be working without certification. Although board certification is not currently required to practice medical dosimetry, new legislation known as the CARE Bill could change this. The CARE Bill, if passed, would mandate nationwide compulsory licensure and/or certification for medical dosimetrists and other medical professionals who want to work in radiation-related health care. Health maintenance organizations and other insurance carriers may likewise require certification for reimbursement purposes.

Pusey, Damien [Department of Radiation Oncology, UNC Hospitals, 101 Manning Drive, Chapel Hill, NC 27514 (United States); Smith, Lisette [Department of Radiation Oncology, UNC Hospitals, 101 Manning Drive, Chapel Hill, NC 27514 (United States); Zeman, Elaine M. [UNC School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7512 (United States); Adams, Robert [Department of Radiation Oncology, UNC Hospitals, 101 Manning Drive, Chapel Hill, NC 27514 (United States)]. E-mail: Robert_Adams@med.unc.edu

2005-06-30

365

Examining the Exam: A Critical Look at the California Critical Thinking Skills Test  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the content of The California Critical Thinking Skills Test (1990). This report is not a statistical review. Instead it brings under scrutiny the content of the exam. This content will be of interest to the general reader, because the issues range from logic to ethics to pedagogy, and to questions of evidential and…

Fawkes, Don; O'meara, Bill; Weber, Dave; Flage, Dan

2005-01-01

366

Spanish Teachers' Sense of Humor and Student Performance on the National Spanish Exams  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research suggests that second/foreign language teachers' sense of humor is directly related to many outcomes for teachers and their students. This research investigates the relationship between the perceived sense of humor of in-service Spanish teachers' (n?=?102) and their students' (n?=?5,419) score on the National Spanish Exams

Swanson, Peter B.

2013-01-01

367

Sugestões para o uso do mini-exame do estado mental no Brasil  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO - Modificações no mini-exame do estado mental (MEM) foram sugeridas anteriormente em nosso meio. Neste artigo relatamos sugestões para aplicação uniforme deste instrumento. Método: Avaliamos 433 indivíduos saudáveis sem queixas de memória através do MEM tendo seu desempenho sido avaliado quanto às variáveis demográficas. As modificações propostas foram detalhadamente descritas. Resultados: A escolaridade foi o principal fator que influenciou

Sonia M. D. Brucki; Ricardo Nitrini; Paulo Caramelli; Paulo H. F. Bertolucci; Ivan H. Okamoto

2003-01-01

368

Practice (Rather than Graded) Quizzes, with Answers, May Increase Introductory Psychology Exam Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors investigated whether practice (or graded) quizzes, with or without provision of correct answers, would be more beneficial for introductory psychology exam performance. In six sections (N = 249) of an introductory psychology class, taught by the same professor, different approaches to quizzes were applied across sections to measure…

Wickline, Virginia B.; Spektor, Valeriya G.

2011-01-01

369

Academic Goals, Goal Process Cognition, and Exam Performance among College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We investigated the nature of and linkages between student-generated academic goals, individual differences in self-regulatory thinking (goal process cognition), and exam performance among college students. In Study 1 (N = 365) and in Study 2 (N = 325), we elicited students' self-ascribed most important academic goals for introductory psychology…

Okun, Morris A.; Fairholme, Chris; Karoly, Paul; Ruehlman, Linda S.; Newton, Craig

2006-01-01

370

Examination of the Classification Accuracy of Music Education Special Aptitude Exams  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is critical both for candidates who apply for programs that require special aptitude and the professors who teach in these programs whether those students' scores on placement exams are correctly calculated. Because student's ability profile and the quality of education in these programs may be directly affected by how candidates…

Atar, Hakan Yavuz; Sayin, Ayfer; Atar, Burcu

2013-01-01

371

Physics Exam Problems Reconsidered: Using Logger Pro to Evaluate Student Understanding of Physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the past few decades, the physics teaching community has witnessed a surge in creative and often effective ways of using technology to improve physics instruction.1-3 Most of these findings suggest how technology can help instructors create interactive learning environments and how interactivity influences the effectiveness of physics learning.4 However, every physics teacher knows that in order for any teaching method to be effective, the exams have to test the skills and concepts addressed by the teacher. Exam content and style sends the clearest message to students about what skills and content are valued by instructors. The mismatch between what we intend to teach and what we effectively test in exams is of great concern to many science teachers. These were our motives for creating data-rich questions to be used in the exams in a large undergraduate first-year physics course at the University of British Columbia. These data-rich questions were developed to support the use of an innovative teaching pedagogy called Interactive Lecture Experiments.3

Milner-Bolotin, Marina; Moll, Rachel

2008-11-01

372

AD Challenge Exams: Two Approaches. Part One: Testing Knowledge and Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students, if they elect to challenge both first-year nursing courses, must take two corresponding series of written and practical tests. Steps in devising the challenge exam system, maintaining high standards, testing format, general education requirements, and evaluation are topics discussed. (MW)

Palmer, Patricia E.; Brown, Sandra K.

1974-01-01

373

Outcomes Assessment: An Examination of the ETS Major Field Test and the Comprehensive Business Exam  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study is the first to examine student performance differences between the major field test in business (MFTB) and the comprehensive business exam (CBE). Results reveal students performed at a statistically significant 50.8 percentile ranking on the CBE compared to a 38.0 percentile ranking on the MFTB. Additionally, this study finds that…

Hahn, William; Bowlin, Lyle L.; Welch, Timothy

2012-01-01

374

The Relationship of Academic Self-Efficacy to Class Participation and Exam Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the relationship of academic self-efficacy to engagement in class discussion and performance on major course exams among students (N = 165) in an undergraduate human development course. Cluster analysis was used to identify three levels of academic self-efficacy: high (n = 34), medium (n = 91), and low (n = 40). Results…

Galyon, Charles E.; Blondin, Carolyn A.; Yaw, Jared S.; Nalls, Meagan L.; Williams, Robert L.

2012-01-01

375

EFFECTS OF AN EDUCATIONAL INTERVENTION ON THE STRESSS OF A FIRST GYNECOLOGICAL EXAM  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sample of 132 university women were assigned to one of three variations of an educational program designed to reduce stress levels concerning a first pelvic exam. Although all three treatments significantly reduced levels of stress, the condition that combined a videotape with an oral presentation was the most effective method of reducing anxiety. Asian women demonstrated the highest levels

Robin G. Sawyer; Paul J. Pinciaro; Anne Anderson-Sawyer

1998-01-01

376

Difficult Exams: Cystocele, Rectocele, Stenotic Cervix\\/Cervical Dilatation, Nonsexually Active Women, Elderly Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a There are various anatomical conditions that can affect the performance of the pelvic exam and may lead to modifications of\\u000a your pelvic examination techniques. These conditions include examinations of women who are not sexually active, women with\\u000a cystoceles or rectoceles, women with atrophic vaginitis, and women with cervical stenosis.

Rhina Acevedo

377

A Stimulus Control Intervention in the Gynecological Exam with Sexual Abuse Survivors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effectiveness of a new examination gown, as a stimulus control intervention designed to reduce distress during the pelvic exam, was investigated in a sample of sexual abuse survivors and women without abuse histories. Sixty-nine participants from a women's health ambulatory center and a private practice in gynecology were randomly assigned to the experimental gown condition or the paper drape

Michelle S. Smith; Michael T. Smith

2000-01-01

378

Alternative Models of Entrance Exams and Access to Higher Education: The Case of the Czech Republic  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study compares the potential effects of a university admission exam model based on program-specific knowledge and an alternative model relying on general study aptitude (GSA) in the context of a strongly stratified educational system with considerable excess of demand over supply of university education. Using results of the "Sonda Maturant…

Konecny, Tomas; Basl, Josef; Myslivecek, Jan; Simonova, Natalie

2012-01-01

379

USER MANUAL FOR EXPRESS, THE EXAMS-PRZM EXPOSURE SIMULATION SHELL  

EPA Science Inventory

The Environmental Fate and Effects Division (EFED) of EPA's Office of Pesticide Programs(OPP) uses a suite of ORD simulation models for the exposure analysis portion of regulatory risk assessments. These models (PRZM, EXAMS, AgDisp) are complex, process-based simulation codes tha...

380

Fear of Routine Physical Exams in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Prevalence and Intervention Effectiveness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have a high prevalence of specific fears, including fear of general medical procedures, but research on the treatment of medical fears has been limited. Two studies are described in this article. The first study involved an assessment of the prevalence of fears associated with physical exams.…

Gillis, Jennifer M.; Hammond Natof, Tammy; Lockshin, Stephanie B.; Romanczyk, Raymond G.

2009-01-01

381

A Critical Analysis of the Validity of the Four Skills Exam.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study evaluated the overall evaluative validity of the Four Skills Exam, a Spanish language proficiency test designed to ensure that bilingual education teachers in New Mexico can meet Spanish language demands in the bilingual education classroom. The test's construct validity was limited for several reasons. In designing a test capturing…

Guerrero, Michael D.

382

An Innovative Excel Application to Improve Exam Reliability in Marketing Courses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Measures of survey reliability are commonly addressed in marketing courses. One statistic of reliability is "Cronbach's alpha." This paper presents an application of survey reliability as a reflexive application of multiple-choice exam validation. The application provides an interactive decision support system that incorporates survey item…

Keller, Christopher M.; Kros, John F.

2011-01-01

383

Do High-Stakes Placement Exams Predict College Success? CCRC Working Paper No. 41  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Community colleges are typically assumed to be nonselective, open-access institutions. Yet access to college-level courses at such institutions is far from guaranteed: the vast majority of two-year institutions administer high-stakes exams to entering students that determine their placement into either college-level or remedial education. Despite…

Scott-Clayton, Judith

2012-01-01

384

What To Look for in ESL Admission Tests: Cambridge Certificate Exams, IELTS, and TOEFL.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Familiarizes test users with issues to consider when employing assessments for screening and admission purposes. Examines the purpose, content, and scoring methods of three English-as-a-Second-Language admissions tests--the Cambridge certificate exams, International English Language Teaching System, and Test of English as a Foreign…

Chalhoub-Deville, Micheline; Turner, Carolyn E.

2000-01-01

385

Passing the Leadership Test: Strategies for Success on the Leadership Licensure Exam. Second Edition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Passing the Leadership Test: Strategies for Success on the Leadership Licensure Exam" is a study guide for the School Leaders Licensure Examination (SLLA.) The book presents a comprehensive, practical guide for preparing for the SLLA. It is divided into two sections: basic principles of test preparation and the ISLLC standards with implications…

Jones, Leslie; Kennedy, Eugene

2012-01-01

386

The Use of Formative Online Quizzes to Enhance Class Preparation and Scores on Summative Exams  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Online quizzes were introduced into an undergraduate Exercise Physiology course to encourage students to read ahead and think critically about the course material before coming to class. The purpose of the study was to determine if the use of the online quizzes was associated with improvements in summative exam scores and if the online quizzes…

Dobson, John L.

2008-01-01

387

Proposals for Standardizing and Improving the Policy of Adding Points on the Entrance Exam  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reviews policies for adding points on the College Entrance Examination. It analyzes the rationales and specific implementation strategies of various policies for adding points on the entrance exam, as well as their advantages and pitfalls. Based on these observations and analysis, the author also offers policy recommendations on the…

Yuhong, Deng

2013-01-01

388

"It's Different Now:" How Exit Exams Are Affecting Teaching and Learning in Jackson and Austin  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since much of the previous research on exit exams, including CEP's own work, has looked at national patterns of implementation and passing rates, this study aimed to benefit policy and practice by focusing on the local level. Specifically, case studies were conducted in Jackson, MS and Austin, TX that examined how classroom instruction and other…

Zabala, Dalia; Minnici, Angela; Kober, Nancy, Ed.

2007-01-01

389

American Diploma Project (ADP) End-of-Course Exams: 2010 Annual Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To assess the raised expectations of college and career readiness for all students, a group of American Diploma Project (ADP) Network states formed the ADP Assessment Consortium in 2005. The Consortium created Algebra I and II end-of-course exams, based in large part on Achieve's ADP mathematics benchmarks, which would provide an honest assessment…

Achieve, Inc., 2010

2010-01-01

390

Creation of a diagnostic exam for introductory, undergraduate electricity and magnetism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To fill the need for a tool testing introductory, undergraduates' knowledge of basic concepts in electricity and magnetism (EM), the investigator has developed a sixty-six item, multiple-choice diagnostic exam (DEEM). This thesis chronicles the iterative development of the DEEM. The exam is intended to provide physics instructors with a psychometrically sound instrument that serves three general purposes: (1) gauge students' pre-instructional knowledge (baseline assessment), assess students' post- instructional achievement, and provide scores to determine students' conceptual learning gains; (2) yield results that are maximally diagnostic to instructors by highlighting students' most common misconceptions and reveling patterns of responses which are easily interpreted by physics instructors; and (3) provide the physics education research community with a tool to measure the relative effectiveness of various curricula. The exam covers the following basic concepts of EM: forces on charged particles in electric or magnetic fields; properties of electric fields and magnetic fields; properties of electrostatic potential and potential energy; Maxwell's Equations; and induction, with Lenz's Law. Items comprising the DEEM do not require calculus, explicit calculations, or memorization of fundamental constants; are pictorially based; and generally explore high-symmetry scenarios. The most recent field-tested version of the DEEM (Version 3.0) yielded a coefficient alpha of 0.74 (post-test), a significant gain in score from pre-test to post-test, and no significant gender bias. The investigator established the exam's validity by surveying experienced instructors and widely used introductory physics textbooks during development of the DEEM. In addition, over 150 physics educators from around the world reviewed versions of this exam and offered comments and criticism on its content, emphasis, and layout.

Marx, Jeffrey David

391

US coal reserves: A review and update  

SciTech Connect

This report is the third in series of ``U.S. Coal Reserves`` reports. As part of the Administration of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) program to provide information on coal, it presents detailed estimates of domestic coal reserves, which are basic to the analysis and forecasting of future coal supply. It also describes the data, methods, and assumptions used to develop such estimates and explain terminology related to recent data programs. In addition, the report provides technical documentation for specific revisions and adjustments to the demonstrated reserve base (DRB) of coal in the United States and for coal quality and reserve allocations. It makes the resulting data available for general use by the public. This report includes data on recoverable coal reserves located at active mines and on the estimated distribution of rank and sulfur content in those reserves. An analysis of the projected demand and depletion in recoverable reserves at active mines is used to evaluate the areas and magnitude of anticipated investment in new mining capacity.

NONE

1996-08-01

392

On the optimal size of marine reserves.  

PubMed

The excessive and unsustainable exploitation of our marine resources has led to the promotion of marine reserves as a fisheries management tool. Marine reserves, areas in which fishing is restricted or prohibited, can offer opportunities for the recovery of exploited stock and fishery enhancement. This study examines the impact of the creation of marine protected areas, from both economic and biological perspectives. The consequences of reserve establishment on the long-run equilibrium fish biomass and fishery catch levels are evaluated. We include reserve size as control variable to maximize catch at equilibrium. A continuous time model is used to simulate the effects of reserve size on fishing catch. Fish movements between the sites is assumed to take place at a faster time scale than the variation of the stock and the change of the fleet size. We take advantage of these two time scales to derive a reduced model governing the dynamics of the total fish stock and the fishing effort. Simulation results suggest that the establishment of a protected marine reserve will always lead to an increase in total fish biomass, an optimal size of a marine reserve can achieve to maximize the catch at equilibrium. PMID:23381499

Bensenane, M; Moussaoui, A; Auger, P

2013-03-01

393

Payment of Advanced Placement Exam Fees by Virginia Public School Divisions and Its Impact on Advanced Placement Enrollment and Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of Virginia school divisions' policy of paying the fee for students to take Advanced Placement exams on Advanced Placement course enrollment, the number of Advanced Placement exams taken by students, the average scores earned and the percent of students earning qualifying scores of 3, 4, or 5…

Cirillo, Mary Grupe

2010-01-01

394

46 CFR 71.50-3 - Drydock examination, internal structural examination, underwater survey, and alternate hull exam...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...examination, internal structural examination, underwater survey, and alternate hull exam intervals...examination, internal structural examination, underwater survey, and alternate hull exam intervals...unless it has been approved to undergo an underwater survey per § 71.50-5 of this...

2013-10-01

395

An enterprise system component based on graph colouring for exam timetabling : A case study in a Tunisian university  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper aims to consider the exam timetabling of the re-sit session in the Faculty of Economics and Management Sciences of Sfax. The objective is to find a timetable which minimizes the number of timeslots for exams required by the enrolled students. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Two heuristic procedures based on graph colouring are developed and tested on real data

Abdelaziz Dammak; Abdelkarim Elloumi; Hichem Kamoun

2007-01-01

396

So Many Choices, So Little Time: Strategies for Understanding and Taking Multiple-Choice Exams in History  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Learning as much as possible about what to expect and how best to select among response choices enables students to improve their scores so as to reflect more fully their knowledge and abilities, whether taking the SAT, ACT, AP history exams, multiple-choice exams in college courses, the GRE, or any other standardized examinations that include…

Blackey, Robert

2009-01-01

397

Cheat Sheet or Open-Book? A Comparison of the Effects of Exam Types on Performance, Retention, and Anxiety  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The differences between open-book, cheat sheet, and closed-book exams were examined in two different types of psychology courses. A total of 297 students enrolled in eight sections of Introductory Psychology and 99 students enrolled in four sections of Statistics participated in this study. Exam types were counterbalanced across sections of the…

Gharib, Afshin; Phillips, William; Mathew, Noelle

2012-01-01

398

Strategic Petroleum Reserve: Annual/quarterly report  

SciTech Connect

This report briefly covers the program legislation and the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Plan and its amendments. The current status of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve is outlined in Section II and the appropriations, budget and finances to date are provided in Section III. Section IV addresses organization, management, and contractor support. A discussion of the drawdown system and vulnerability impact are set forth in Section V. The Appendix contains detailed information on the status of each Strategic Petroleum Reserve site and crude oil specificcations. 8 figs., 8 tabs.

Not Available

1988-02-15

399

Current status of Reserve Recognition Accounting  

SciTech Connect

The authors examine the current and possible future status of Reserve Recognition Accounting (RRA) and provide some substantiative insights, in non-oil-and-gas industry terms, into the contents of the RRA disclosures. 3 figures.

Koester, R.J.; Munter, P.; Ratcliffe, T.A.

1981-12-01

400

21 CFR 211.170 - Reserve samples.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01...samples. 211.170 Section 211.170 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...FINISHED PHARMACEUTICALS Laboratory Controls § 211.170 Reserve...

2013-04-01

401

25 CFR 286.19 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false [Reserved] 286.19 Section 286.19 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ECONOMIC ENTERPRISES INDIAN BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM § 286.19...

2011-04-01

402

Strategic Petroleum Reserve annual/quarterly report  

SciTech Connect

The Secretary of Energy is required to submit annual and quarterly reports to the President and the Congress on developmental activities of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve in accordance with Section 165 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975. This report combines the fourth quarter 1985 Quarterly Report and the 1985 Annual Report and is presented in five sections with an Appendix. The introductory section briefly covers the program legislation and the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Plan and its amendments. The current status of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve is outlined in Section II and the appropriations, budget and finances to date are provided in Section III. Section IV addresses organization, management and contractor support. A discussion of the drawdown system and vulnerability impact are set forth in Section V. The Appendix contains detailed information on the status of each Strategic Petroleum Reserve Site. 9 figs., 8 tabs.

Not Available

1986-02-15

403

47 CFR 11.53 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false [Reserved] 11.53 Section 11.53 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL EMERGENCY ALERT SYSTEM (EAS) Emergency Operations § 11.53...

2012-10-01

404

41 CFR 302-12.110 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true [Reserved] 302-12.110 Section 302-12.110 Public Contracts and Property Management ...RELOCATION ALLOWANCES RESIDENCE TRANSACTION ALLOWANCES 12-USE OF A RELOCATION SERVICES COMPANY...

2013-07-01

405

19 CFR 12.35 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE White Phosphorus Matches § 12.35 [Reserved] Narcotic...

2013-04-01

406

42 CFR 51.44 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Reserved] 51.44 Section 51.44 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS REQUIREMENTS...PROTECTION AND ADVOCACY FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH MENTAL ILLNESS PROGRAM Access to Records,...

2013-10-01

407

42 CFR 51.9 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Reserved] 51.9 Section 51.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS REQUIREMENTS...PROTECTION AND ADVOCACY FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH MENTAL ILLNESS PROGRAM Basic Requirements §...

2013-10-01

408

44 CFR 4.4 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01...false [Reserved] 4.4 Section 4.4 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY...

2013-10-01

409

Developing Leaders in the Army Reserve.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper will examine leadership in the United States Army Reserve Troop Program Unit (TPU). It will examine the selection process and the training backgrounds required for the position as commander of a TPU. Leadership competencies and unit effectivene...

D. L. Nall

2005-01-01

410

Army Reserve (AR) Educational Assistance (EA) Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Problem Statement: *This study will investigate current trends and results of Army Reserve (AR) educational assistance (EA) program allocation, administration, execution, and cost on AR recruitment, retention, and attrition of Troop Program Unit (TPU) enl...

A. McGrath A. R. Cunningham D. Cherry

2008-01-01

411

30 CFR 585.619 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ALTERNATE USES OF EXISTING FACILITIES ON THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Plans and Information Requirements Activities Under An Approved Sap § 585.619 [Reserved] Construction and Operations Plan for Commercial...

2013-07-01

412

30 CFR 585.814 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CONTINENTAL SHELF Environmental and Safety Management, Inspections, and Facility Assessments for Activities Conducted Under SAPs, COPs and GAPs Maintenance and Shutdowns § 585.814 [Reserved] Equipment Failure and Adverse Environmental...

2013-07-01

413

25 CFR 286.6 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false [Reserved] 286.6 Section 286.6 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ECONOMIC ENTERPRISES INDIAN BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM § 286.6...

2011-04-01

414

42 CFR 110.100 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Reserved] 110.100 Section 110.100 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES VACCINES COUNTERMEASURES INJURY COMPENSATION PROGRAM Covered Countermeasures Injury Tables § 110.100...

2013-10-01

415

40 CFR 63.11403 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Carbon Black Production Area Sources Standards and Compliance Requirements § 63.11403 [Reserved] Other...

2013-07-01

416

31 CFR 1010.640 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FINANCIAL CRIMES ENFORCEMENT NETWORK, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY GENERAL...Special Due Diligence for Correspondent Accounts and Private Banking Accounts § 1010.640 [Reserved] Special...

2013-07-01

417

47 CFR 11.53 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false [Reserved] 11.53 Section 11.53 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL EMERGENCY ALERT SYSTEM (EAS) Emergency Operations § 11.53...

2013-10-01

418

25 CFR 162.537 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Section 162.537 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER LEASES AND PERMITS Wind and Solar Resource Leases Weel Compliance and Enforcement § 162.537 [Reserved] WSR...

2013-04-01

419

21 CFR 211.170 - Reserve samples.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...examination shall be recorded and maintained with other stability data on the drug product. Reserve samples of compressed medical gases need not be retained. The retention time is as follows: (1) For a drug product other than those...

2010-04-01

420

21 CFR 211.170 - Reserve samples.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...examination shall be recorded and maintained with other stability data on the drug product. Reserve samples of compressed medical gases need not be retained. The retention time is as follows: (1) For a drug product other than those...

2009-04-01

421

Modernization of Ohio's coal reserves, Phase 1  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this project were to determine state-level totals of the estimated economic resource, minable reserve base, and recoverable coal in Ohio, allocated to specified ranges of sulfur and heat content. In addition, resources and reserves were to be categorized by mining methods (surface and underground). Land use and environmental restrictions, needed to determine remaining minable reserves, were to be delineated and percentages of restricted coal calculated. In context of a Phase 1, one-year project, the objectives of this project were to update Ohio's coal reserves and resources for as many counties as time allowed, and to deplete production tonnages to January 1, 1991, on the remaining coal-producing counties. For the depleted counties, only estimated economic resources were required or possible with the data available. 24 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

Carlton, R.W.

1991-09-27

422

31 CFR 1029.530 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01...Reserved] 1029.530 Section 1029.530 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FINANCIAL CRIMES ENFORCEMENT...

2013-07-01

423

Sociology of Army Reserves: An Organizational Assessment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report outlines the ways in which conventional military sociology is inappropriate for an understanding of reserve components. Issues include potential for using'professional reservists; on a part-time basis, alleviating unit pressures on reservists ...

C. Moskos

1990-01-01

424

24 CFR 40.5 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Reserved] 40.5 Section 40.5 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development ACCESSIBILITY STANDARDS FOR DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION, AND ALTERATION OF PUBLICLY OWNED RESIDENTIAL...

2013-04-01

425

40 CFR 19.3 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false [Reserved] 19.3 Section 19.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ADJUSTMENT OF CIVIL MONETARY PENALTIES FOR INFLATION § 19.3...

2013-07-01

426

The Problem of Managing a Strategic Reserve.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The problem of managing the reserve of cobalt is presented, followed by a method for bringing the stockpiled amount from any level to a desired goal. Solving a stochastic programming problem is involved. The procedure is discussed in detail. (MNS)

Cole, David; And Others

1986-01-01

427

28 CFR 115.168 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false [Reserved] 115.168 Section 115.168 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Lockups Official Response Following A Detainee Report § 115.168...

2013-07-01

428

28 CFR 115.181 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false [Reserved] 115.181 Section 115.181 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Lockups Medical and Mental Care § 115.181...

2013-07-01

429

28 CFR 115.243 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false [Reserved] 115.243 Section 115.243 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Community Confinement Facilities Screening for Risk of Sexual...

2013-07-01

430

28 CFR 115.133 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false [Reserved] 115.133 Section 115.133 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Lockups Training and Education § 115.133...

2013-07-01

431

28 CFR 115.314 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false [Reserved] 115.314 Section 115.314 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Juvenile Facilities Prevention Planning § 115.314...

2013-07-01

432

Corals fail to recover at a Caribbean marine reserve despite ten years of reserve designation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of reserves to replenish fish stocks is relatively well documented, but the evidence of their ability to induce\\u000a positive effects on benthic communities remains inconclusive. Here, we test whether 10 years of reserve designation have translated\\u000a into positive effects on coral communities in Glover’s Reef, Belize. Surveys of 87 patch reefs inside and outside the reserve\\u000a revealed no clear

B. E. Huntington; M. Karnauskas; D. Lirman

433

Lognormal mixed models for reported claims reserves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional claims-reserving techniques are based on so-called run-off triangles containing aggregate claim figures. Such a triangle provides a summary of an underlying data set with individual claim figures. This contribution explores the interpretation of the available individual data in the framework of longitudinal data analysis. Making use of the theory of linear mixed models, a flexible model for loss reserving

Katrien Antonio; Jan Beirlant; Tom Hoedemakers; Robert Verlaak

2006-01-01

434

Asymptotic Resource Consumption in Multicast Reservation Styles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of network design is to meet the needs of residentapplications in an efficient manner. Adding real-timeservice and point-to-multipoint multicast routing to the Internet's traditional point-to-point best effort service modelwill greatly increase the Internet's efficiency in handlingpoint-to-multipoint real-time applications. Recently, theRSVP resource reservation protocol has introduced the conceptof "reservation styles", which control how reservationsare aggregated in...

Danny J. Mitzel; Scott Shenker

1994-01-01

435

Disaggregating reserve-to-production ratios: An algorithm for United States oil and gas reserve development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reserve-to-production ratios for oil and gas development are utilized by oil and gas producing states to monitor oil and gas reserve and production dynamics. These ratios are used to determine production levels for the manipulation of oil and gas prices while maintaining adequate reserves for future development. These aggregate reserve-to-production ratios do not provide information concerning development cost and the best time necessary to develop newly discovered reserves. Oil and gas reserves are a semi-finished inventory because development of the reserves must take place in order to implement production. These reserves are considered semi-finished in that they are not counted unless it is economically profitable to produce them. The development of these reserves is encouraged by profit maximization economic variables which must consider the legal, political, and geological aspects of a project. This development is comprised of a myriad of incremental operational decisions, each of which influences profit maximization. The primary purpose of this study was to provide a model for characterizing a single product multi-period inventory/production optimization problem from an unconstrained quantity of raw material which was produced and stored as inventory reserve. This optimization was determined by evaluating dynamic changes in new additions to reserves and the subsequent depletion of these reserves with the maximization of production. A secondary purpose was to determine an equation for exponential depletion of proved reserves which presented a more comprehensive representation of reserve-to-production ratio values than an inadequate and frequently used aggregate historical method. The final purpose of this study was to determine the most accurate delay time for a proved reserve to achieve maximum production. This calculated time provided a measure of the discounted cost and calculation of net present value for developing new reserves. This study concluded that the theoretical model developed by this research may be used to provide a predictive equation for each major oil and gas state so that a net present value to undiscounted net cash flow ratio might be calculated in order to establish an investment signal for profit maximizers. This equation inferred how production decisions were influenced by exogenous factors, such as price, and how policies performed which lead to recommendations regarding effective policies and prudent planning.

Williams, Charles William

436

Phosphorus reserves increase grass regrowth after defoliation.  

PubMed

Accumulation of P above levels that promote growth, a common plant response called "luxury consumption", can be considered as a form of reserve to support future growth when the nutrient can subsequently be mobilized. However, the effect of P reserves on regrowth following defoliation has not been demonstrated. We tested the hypothesis that P luxury consumption increases plant tolerance to defoliation. We performed two experiments with four grass species from a continuously grazed temperate grassland in the Flooding Pampa (Argentina). The first experiment, aimed at generating P luxury consumption by fertilization, resulted in one species (Sporobolus indicus) showing luxury consumption. In this way, we were able to obtain plants of S. indicus with similar biomass but contrasting amounts of P reserves. The second experiment evaluated the subsequent regrowth following defoliation on a P-free medium of these plants differing in P reserves. Regrowth was larger for plants that had shown P luxury consumption during a previous period than for plants with lower levels of P reserves. During regrowth these plants showed a clear pattern of P remobilization from the stubble, crown, and root compartments to the regrowing tissue, in addition to a likely reutilization of P present in leaf-growth zones. This work is the first showing that high levels of P reserves can confer tolerance to defoliation by promoting compensatory growth under P deficiency. PMID:19132398

Oyarzabal, Mariano; Oesterheld, Martín

2009-04-01

437

Deranged Exams  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses a triangle of numbers that are related to the derangement numbers. These numbers satisfy a Pascal-like recurrence relation with subtraction instead of addition. We describe how they relate to numbers studied by other authors and use them to generalize Euler's famous recurrence relation for the derangement numbers.

Spivey, Michael Z.

2010-01-01

438

Land Use Change Around Nature Reserves: Implications for Sustaining Biodiversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of land use change outside of reserves on biodiversity within reserves is not well studied. This paper draws on research from Yellowstone, East Africa, Yucatan, Borneo, and Wolong, China to examine land use effects on nature reserves. Objectives are: quantify rates of change in land use around reserves; examine consequences for biodiversity within the context of specific ecological

A. J. Hansen; R. Defries; L. Curran; J. Liu; R. Reid; B. Turner

2004-01-01

439

Environmental and developmental origins of ovarian reserve.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND Oocyte number is established early in life before a gradual loss of this ovarian reserve during reproductive life until oocyte availability becomes limiting at the menopause. Although there is a large genetic component to the ovarian reserve achieved before birth, other influences including the maternal endocrine and nutritional milieu, and environmental factors may represent important developmental determinants. Environmental and nutritional factors may also modify the downward trajectory of ovarian reserve in adult life. The combination of these early and later life influences has the potential to lead to diminished ovarian reserve, compromising fertility in later reproductive years and altering age at natural menopause. METHODS Literature searches of the ISI Web of Knowledge database were carried out using the main terms 'ovarian reserve' and 'menopause AND age' in conjunction with a range of other terms encompassing a variety of factors with potential effects on ovarian reserve. The various searches were inspected manually and the relevant papers selected for critical analysis and interpretation. RESULTS Evidence was identified supporting the view that elevated prenatal androgens have an adverse effect on the early establishment of ovarian reserve, although the implications for ovarian reserve in the polycystic ovary syndrome (which may also be programmed through prenatal androgen exposure) remain uncertain. Recent evidence is cited suggesting that effects of maternal nutrient restriction on ovarian reserve may also involve changes in prenatal androgen exposure. A general rationale is developed through examination of evidence which emphasizes the roles of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) and the estrogen receptor (ER) systems in ovarian reserve modulation. Because of their similarity to the natural ligands, many environmental compounds have the ability to bind to these receptors (albeit at lower affinities) and thereby have the potential to influence either the initial setting of ovarian reserve during development or the trajectory of ovarian reserve during adult life. For example, exposure to compounds in cigarette smoke may accelerate loss of ovarian reserve in smokers leading to diminished ovarian reserve, earlier age at last child and earlier menopause. Socioenocomic factors are clearly associated with age at natural menopause, with correlations with economic status and education level. However, such effects in western societies are in general small, and the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. CONCLUSIONS Exposure to many environmental compounds, particularly to those that leach from plastics and other synthetic materials, is commonplace in modern societies to the extent that many are found at measurable concentrations in body fluids within most of the population. Relating fluid levels of individual compounds to parameters reflecting ovarian reserve in selected populations appears to be an effective way forward and, indeed, some early-stage findings do show some cause for concern. There is a pressing need for the development of practical advice enabling women to minimize their intake of AHR/ER ligands, perhaps through dietary/cosmetic choices or improved food packaging. PMID:24287894

Richardson, M C; Guo, M; Fauser, B C J M; Macklon, N S

2014-01-01

440

Chaperone use by residents during pelvic, breast, testicular, and rectal exams  

Microsoft Academic Search

We designed a questionnaire survey to study internal medicine residents’ plans to use a chaperone during the pelvic, breast,\\u000a rectal, and testicular examinations. We found chaperone use by male and female residents differed markedly, and neither group\\u000a planned to use chaperones universally. When examining female patients, male residents overall were very likely to use a chaperone\\u000a during a pelvic exam,

Deborah B. Ehrenthal; Neil J. Farber; Virginia U. Collier; Brian M. Aboff

2000-01-01

441

Creation of a Diagnostic Exam for Introductory, Undergraduate Electricity and Magnetism  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

To fill the need for a tool testing introductory, undergraduatesâ knowledge of basic concepts in electricity and magnetism (EM), the investigator has developed a sixty-six item, multiple-choice diagnostic exam (DEEM). The exam is intended to provide physics instructors with a psychometrically sound instrument that serves three general purposes: (1) gauge students' pre-instructional knowledge (baseline assessment), assess students' post-instructional achievement, and provide scores to determine studentsâ conceptual learning gains; (2) yield results that are maximally diagnostic to instructors by highlighting students' most common misconceptions and reveling patterns of responses which are easily interpreted by physics instructors; and (3) provide the physics education research community with a tool to measure the relative effectiveness of various curricula. The exam covers the following basic concepts of EM: forces on charged particles in electric or magnetic fields; properties of electric fields and magnetic fields; properties of electrostatic potential and potential energy; Maxwellâs Equations; and induction, with Lenzâs Law. Items comprising the DEEM do not require calculus, explicit calculations, or memorization of fundamental constants; are pictorially based; and generally explore high-symmetry scenarios.

Marx, Jeffrey

2006-06-15

442

Assessing high-level scientific reasoning in a physics exam: Pipe-dream or reality?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

What do we want students to be able to do when they have finished their introductory physics course? In addition to learning the physics content, we want students to learn to think like physicists. We want students to develop specific scientific reasoning abilities that are the hall-mark of scientific thinking. These include, analyzing and interpreting experimental data, designing an experiment to test different hypotheses, identifying assumptions in a physical model amongst many others. Physics courses such as the Investigative Science Learning Environment (ISLE) have been developed to focus specifically on developing students' scientific reasoning abilities. Research has shown that ISLE is successful in achieving its goal. We would like our assessments to directly reflect our learning goals for our students. In order to measure higher-level scientific reasoning, we can, for example, require students to participate in a laboratory practical exam in which they have to engage in experimental design and analysis. However, this assessment method could become very difficult to administer and grade in a large-enrollment class. Is it possible to assess scientific thinking abilities of students using traditional formats such as paper and pencil exams? In this talk I will present some of our latest ideas about how to re-design traditional exam questions to measure a range of scientific reasoning abilities.

Brookes, David

2012-02-01

443

Do racial and ethnic group differences in performance on the MCAT exam reflect test bias?  

PubMed

The Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) is a standardized examination that assesses fundamental knowledge of scientific concepts, critical reasoning ability, and written communication skills. Medical school admission officers use MCAT scores, along with other measures of academic preparation and personal attributes, to select the applicants they consider the most likely to succeed in medical school. In 2008-2011, the committee charged with conducting a comprehensive review of the MCAT exam examined four issues: (1) whether racial and ethnic groups differ in mean MCAT scores, (2) whether any score differences are due to test bias, (3) how group differences may be explained, and (4) whether the MCAT exam is a barrier to medical school admission for black or Latino applicants. This analysis showed that black and Latino examinees' mean MCAT scores are lower than white examinees', mirroring differences on other standardized admission tests and in the average undergraduate grades of medical school applicants. However, there was no evidence that the MCAT exam is biased against black and Latino applicants as determined by their subsequent performance on selected medical school performance indicators. Among other factors which could contribute to mean differences in MCAT performance, whites, blacks, and Latinos interested in medicine differ with respect to parents' education and income. Admission data indicate that admission committees accept majority and minority applicants at similar rates, which suggests that medical students are selected on the basis of a combination of attributes and competencies rather than on MCAT scores alone. PMID:23478636

Davis, Dwight; Dorsey, J Kevin; Franks, Ronald D; Sackett, Paul R; Searcy, Cynthia A; Zhao, Xiaohui

2013-05-01

444

Conservation and economic viability of nature reserves: An emergy evaluation of the Yancheng Biosphere Reserve  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evaluating the ecological and economic benefits of nature reserves in a fair way is a difficult problem confronting not only conservation scientists and managers but also governments and private land owners. Nature reserves and other social and economic land uses must be evaluated on an objective basis to provide an accurate measure of relative benefits for decision-making. The ecological and

Hongfang Lu; Daniel Campbell; Jie Chen; Pei Qin; Hai Ren

2007-01-01

445

APPLICATION OF ECOLOGICAL CRITERIA IN SELECTING MARINE RESERVES AND DEVELOPING RESERVE NETWORKS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine reserves are being established worldwide in response to a growing recognition of the conservation crisis that is building in the oceans. However, designation of reserves has been largely opportunistic, or protective measures have been implemented (often overlapping and sometimes in conflict) by different entities seeking to achieve dif- ferent ends. This has created confusion among both users and enforcers,

Callum M. Roberts; George Branch; Rodrigo H. Bustamante; Juan Carlos Castilla; Jenifer Dugan; Benjamin S. Halpern; Kevin D. Lafferty; Heather Leslie; Jane Lubchenco; Deborah McArdle; Mary Ruckelshaus; Robert R. Warner

2003-01-01

446

Parasite infection rates of impala (Aepyceros melampus) in fenced game reserves in relation to reserve characteristics  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Under certain conditions reserves can pose a threat to wildlife conservation by increasing the transmission of parasites and pathogens. In this study, I investigated associations between reserve characteristics including area, density and species richness and parasite infection rates in impala (Aepyceros melampus). Using coprological methods to measure gastrointestinal parasitism rates of impala inhabiting five fully or partially fenced game reserves in central Kenya, I found that bovid species richness was correlated with parasite taxa richness across reserves, and that prevalence rates of multi-host strongyle nematodes were higher in reserves with more species. In addition, reserve size was also implicated as a potential predictor of infection risk. Overall, these results suggest that wildlife inhabiting highly diverse and small reserves may suffer from higher than normal rates of infection. Given the potential debilitating effects increases in parasitism can have on wildlife, these results underscore the importance of considering parasite transmission dynamics in the management of small, fenced protected areas. ?? 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Ezenwa, V. O.

2004-01-01

447

Do Commercial Fishers Aggregate around Marine Reserves? Evidence from Big Creek Marine Ecological Reserve, Central California  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine reserves have been widely touted as a promising strategy for managing fisheries and protecting marine biodiversity. However, their establishment can involve substantial social conflict and may not produce the anticipated biological and economic benefits. A crucial factor associated with the success of marine reserves for enhancing fisheries and protecting biodiversity is the spatial distribution of fishing activity. Fishers may

Chris Wilcox; Caroline Pomeroy

2003-01-01

448

Advanced Placement[R] Exam-Taking and Performance: Relationships with First-Year Subject Area College Grades. Research Report 2011-4  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of Advanced Placement[R] (AP[R]) exam participation and performance on college grades for courses taken in the same subject area as students' AP Exam(s). Students' first-year college subject area grade point averages (SGPAs) were examined in nine subject areas: mathematics, computer science,…

Patterson, Brian F.; Packman, Sheryl; Kobrin, Jennifer L.

2011-01-01

449

Design and implementation of land reservation system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Land reservation is defined as a land management policy for insuring the government to control primary land market. It requires the government to obtain the land first, according to plan, by purchase, confiscation and exchanging, and then exploit and consolidate the land for reservation. Underlying this policy, it is possible for the government to satisfy and manipulate the needs of land for urban development. The author designs and develops "Land Reservation System for Eastern Lake Development District" (LRSELDD), which deals with the realistic land requirement problems in Wuhan Eastern Lake Development Districts. The LRSELDD utilizes modern technologies and solutions of computer science and GIS to process multiple source data related with land. Based on experiments on the system, this paper will first analyze workflow land reservation system and design the system structure based on its principles, then illustrate the approach of organization and management of spatial data, describe the system functions according to the characteristics of land reservation and consolidation finally. The system is running to serve for current work in Eastern Lake Development Districts. It is able to scientifically manage both current and planning land information, as well as the information about land supplying. We use the LRSELDD in our routine work, and with such information, decisions on land confiscation and allocation will be made wisely and scientifically.

Gao, Yurong; Gao, Qingqiang

2009-10-01

450

Re-engineering of multiple-choice exam-form production tools: Cost-effective and quality-assurance approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: This study aims at designing and implementing an exam-form generation software tool (named ExPro) for multiple-choice-based (MCB) exams. The study is motivated by the fact that student number in Jordanian universities is continuously growing at high rate. This growth is not accompanied by an equivalent growth of educational resources (instructors, labs, ...etc). A result of this situation is having

Sulieman Bani-Ahmad; Ahmad Audeh

2010-01-01

451

Social class and access to higher education in Greece: supportive preparation lessons and success in national exams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Participation in the national exams is a very difficult task for Greek lyceum students as their access to higher education is highly dependent on their performance in them. This paper focuses on the students' preparation for the national exams and especially their resort to out?of?school supportive lessons in relation to their socio?economic background. The study examines whether the widening of

2008-01-01

452

Strategic petroleum reserve data acquisition system  

SciTech Connect

The Strategic Petroleum Reserve Data Acquisition System is a general purpose, digital data acquisition system designed for field use in the DOE's Strategic Petroleum Reserve testing and monitoring program. The system is computer driven, under the control of an operator. The system is designed to allow the operator to perform pre-test system configuration; test monitoring and control; and post test analysis. This document is a system description and an operator users manual. Topics covered include: configuration and running on-line tests, software documentation, and maintenance programming information.

Merillat, P D; Bauer, A G

1980-10-01

453

Marine Reserve Design: Simulating stakeholder options  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are provided with information about a hypothetical island state, named Udubia, including a detailed map with infrastructure, bathymetry, currents, and a standardized grid. Data on fisheries, biodiversity, and marine mammal and endangered species populations are also provided, and are referenced to the mapÃÂs grid. A table (natural_history.doc) that summarizes the natural history of the species is also provided and can either be provided to the students or kept for instructor reference. Each student will choose a character representing a stakeholder in the placement and design of the marine reserve. Groups of stakeholders propose marine reserves and debate the proposals.

Selkin, Peter A.

2011-08-24

454

NREL Variability and Reserves Analysis for the Western Interconnect (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

Additional variability and uncertainty increase reserve requirements. In this light, this presentation discusses how use of generation reserves can be optimized for managing variability and uncertainty. Conclusions of this presentation are: (1) Provided a method for calculating additional reserve requirements due to wind and solar production; (2) Method is based on statistical analysis of historical time series data; (3) Reserves are dynamic, produced for each hour; (4) Reserve time series are calculated from and synchronized to simulation data; (5) PROMOD can not model directly, but workarounds exist for regulation and spin; and (6) Other production modeling packages have varying capability for reserves modeling.

Milligan, M.; King, J.

2011-10-01

455

Role of RhoA and its effectors ROCK and mDia1 in the modulation of deformation-induced FAK, ERK, p38, and MLC motogenic signals in human Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cells  

PubMed Central

Repetitive deformation enhances intestinal epithelial migration across tissue fibronectin. We evaluated the contribution of RhoA and its effectors Rho-associated kinase (ROK/ROCK) and mammalian diaphanous formins (mDia1) to deformation-induced intestinal epithelial motility across fibronectin and the responsible focal adhesion kinase (FAK), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), p38, and myosin light chain (MLC) signaling. We reduced RhoA, ROCK1, ROCK2, and mDia1 by smart-pool double-stranded short-interfering RNAs (siRNA) and pharmacologically inhibited RhoA, ROCK, and FAK in human Caco-2 intestinal epithelial monolayers on fibronectin-coated membranes subjected to 10% repetitive deformation at 10 cycles/min. Migration was measured by wound closure. Stimulation of migration by deformation was prevented by exoenzyme C3, Y27632, or selective RhoA, ROCK1, and ROCK2 or mDia1 siRNAs. RhoA, ROCK inhibition, or RhoA, ROCK1, ROCK2, mDia1, and FAK reduction by siRNA blocked deformation-induced nuclear ERK phosphorylation without preventing ERK phosphorylation in the cytoplasmic protein fraction. Furthermore, RhoA, ROCK inhibition or RhoA, ROCK1, ROCK2, and mDia1 reduction by siRNA also blocked strain-induced FAK-Tyr925, p38, and MLC phosphorylation. These results suggest that RhoA, ROCK, mDia1, FAK, ERK, p38, and MLC all mediate the stimulation of intestinal epithelial migration by repetitive deformation. This pathway may be an important target for interventions to promote mechanotransduced mucosal healing during inflammation.

Chaturvedi, Lakshmi S.; Marsh, Harold M.

2011-01-01

456

Evaluation and management of outlet obstruction in women without anatomical abnormalities on physical exam or cystoscopy.  

PubMed

Bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) in women can be either anatomic or functional. Anatomic causes for BOO are often readily apparent by history and physical exam. On the other hand, causes for functional obstruction, including dysfunctional voiding, primary bladder neck obstruction, and detrusor-external sphincter dyssynergia, are more difficult to establish. Because the appropriate treatment for functional obstruction drastically varies according to etiology, making an accurate diagnosis is paramount. Videourodynamics, interpreted in the context of individual clinical symptoms, remains the diagnostic gold standard in women with functional obstruction. PMID:22872500

Hickling, Duane; Aponte, Margarita; Nitti, Victor

2012-10-01

457

A novel approach to teaching the pelvic organ prolapse quantification (POP-Q) exam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction and hypothesis  The purpose of this study is to develop an inexpensive, feasible, and useful 3-D model for teaching and performing the pelvic\\u000a organ prolapse quantification (POP-Q) exam.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We constructed POP-Q models using socks and cardboard tubing. During lectures at two residency programs, residents completed\\u000a a self-assessment before and after using the model. We dichotomized learners into “beginner learners” (PGY-1-2s)

Brent A. Parnell; Gena C. Dunivan; Elizabeth J. Geller; AnnaMarie Connolly

2011-01-01

458

The Effect of Seat Location on Exam Grades and Student Perceptions in an Introductory Biology Class  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The effect of seat location on learning has received surprisingly little attention in education literature (Weinstein 1979). Classroom experience and education literature suggest that students who sit in the front of a lecture hall are more likely to get As than students in the back (Benedict and Hoag 2004; Holliman and Anderson 1986; Pedersen 1994). The explanation may seem obvious--front-row students get better grades because they are better students. An experiment shows that sitting in the back of a lecture hall rather than the front does not have a detrimental effect on student performance on exams.

Taper, Mark L.; Kalinowki, Steven

2007-01-01

459

Designing Marine Reserves for Fishery Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent reports have raised serious concerns about the rapid declines of historically productive marine fishery resources and the degradation of essential fish habitats. This global crisis has spurred development of innovative management strategies to rebuild depleted fisheries and marine ecosystems. One highly touted strategy involves the design and creation of marine reserves (areas off limits to extractive uses) to rebuild

Geoffrey A. Meester; Anuj Mehrotra; Jerald S. Ault; Edward K. Baker

2004-01-01

460

Biophysical Properties of the Streletskaya Steppe Reserve  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biophysical properties were measured at the Streletskaya Steppe Reserve of the Russian Republic in July 1991 for the Kursk Experiment (KUREX-91) and at the Konza Prairie in Kansas during the summer of 1989 for the First ISLSCP Field Experiment (FIFE89). Leaf area index, leaf angle distribution, mean tilt angle, canopy height, leaf spectral properties, and leaf water potential data are

M. A. Mesarch; E. A. Walter-Shea; B. L. Blad; C. J. Hays

1992-01-01

461

Uneven Reserves: Geographies of Banking Trade Unionism  

Microsoft Academic Search

WILLS J. (1996) Uneven reserves: geographies of banking trade unionism, Reg. Studies30, 359–372. This paper explores the geography of trade union organization in the retail banking sector. Spatial variations in union membership, and the reasons for these differences, are excavated using empirical material collected in two high street banks in Welwyn Garden City (Hertfordshire) and Warrington (Cheshire) during 1993. Despite

Jane Wills

1996-01-01

462

Off-Reservation Boarding School Survey.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigating the Bureau of Indian Affairs' (BIA) boarding schools, a survey team of researchers in law, accounting, education, and psychology gathered data from the 18 BIA off-reservation boarding schools (3 elementary, 12 secondary, and 3 post secondary schools). Data were utilized to examine: student characteristics; teacher-pupil ratios;…

Underwood, George W.

463

PUBLIC WATER SUPPLY WELLS ON TRIBAL RESERVATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

Tribes provided lat./longs. for all federally-regulated water supply wells on Tribal Reservations, or provided quad maps with those wells identified thereupon. Scale: 1:24,000. Extent: ID/OR/WA. Major Attributes: Tribe name, public water supply name (EPA) & number, tribes we...

464

SUSTAINABLE HOUSING AT PINE RIDGE RESERVATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The Pine Ridge Reservation, located in rural South Dakota is plagued with deteriorating infrastructure, poverty, lack of local employment, and high utility bills. Many of the residents, the Oglala Lakota Nation, live in mobile homes or substandard housing and spend nearly 25% of...

465

North Carolina National Estuarine Research Reserve Publications  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Publications page of the NCNERR. Downloadable field guides, NCNERR newsletters, and reports. Field guides demonstrate the flora and fauna found in the NC Research Reserves. Guides include the common name, scientific name, a drawing and a short description for each organism. Annual reports detail current issues facing coastal communities. The newsletters report current research and the latest news and events.

466

Engineering, geology hike Black Bayou reserves  

Microsoft Academic Search

New wells drilled in strategic locations, combined with well-engineered attic-oil recovery projects, have added more than 20 million bbl of recoverable oil to Shell Oil Co's reserves in Black Bayou field, Cameron Parish, Louisiana. Development wells discover the small reservoirs in the highly faulted field and up dig gas injection assures Shell of getting all the oil possible. A continuous

Bleakley

1971-01-01

467

Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Coral Reef Ecosystem Reserve  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page describes the unique Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) Ecosystem Reserve. Provides resources focused on NWHI coral reef ecosystems, and introductions to reef research, management and protection activities. Educational outreach includes: teacher workshops; student activities, and a Discovery Center in Hilo, Hawaii that features exhibits and activities for schools and the public.

2011-04-22

468

Federal Reserve Bank of Boston Working Papers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Federal Reserve Bank of Boston has released four new working papers (97-4 to 97-7). Working Paper No. 97-4 titled "Managers' Opportunistic Trading of Their Firms' Shares: A Case Study of Executives in the Banking Industry" by John S. Jordan examines the trading practices of bank managers and reveals the opportunistic behaviors exhibited by these managers.

2007-07-19

469

Federal Reserve Bank of Boston Working Papers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Federal Reserve Bank of Boston has released four new working papers (97-4 to 97-7). Working Paper No. 97-4 titled "Managers' Opportunistic Trading of Their Firms' Shares: A Case Study of Executives in the Banking Industry" by John S. Jordan examines the trading practices of bank managers and reveals the opportunistic behaviors exhibited by these managers.

1991-01-01

470

43 CFR 11.19 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false [Reserved] 11.19 Section 11.19 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Introduction § 11.19...

2013-10-01

471

43 CFR 11.16 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false [Reserved] 11.16 Section 11.16 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Introduction § 11.16...

2013-10-01

472

Federal Reserve Glos'sa-ry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed for the general public and possibly suitable also for high school economics students, this booklet briefly explains the terminology associated with general economic concepts about banking and the Federal Reserve System. Part 1 deals with financial regulators and institutions, including nondeposit intermediaries and depository…

Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, Washington, DC.

473

Oak Ridge Reservation Waste Management Plan  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the waste management plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation facilities. The primary purpose is to convey what facilities are being used to manage wastes, what forces are acting to change current waste management systems, and what plans are in store for the coming fiscal year.

Turner, J.W. [ed.

1995-02-01

474

Blunted coronary flow reserve in systemic sclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. We investigated whether the non-invasive determination of coronary flow reserve (CFR), as evaluated by transthoracic Doppler echocardiography, might be a potential method to detect early dysfunction of cardiovascular system in patients affected by systemic sclerosis (SSc) without clinical signs or symptoms of cardiac impairment. The possible correlations between the CFR values and the duration of the disease, specific autoantibodies

A. Sulli; M. Ghio; G. P. Bezante; L. Deferrari; C. Craviotto; V. Sebastiani; M. Setti; A. Barsotti; M. Cutolo; F. Indiveri

2004-01-01

475

Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Coral Reef Ecosystem Reserve  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Describes the unique Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) Ecosystem Reserve. Provides resources focused on NWHI coral reef ecosystems, and introductions to reef research, management and protection activities. Educational outreach includes: teacher workshops; student activities, and a Discovery Center in Hilo, Hawaii that features exhibits and activities for schools and the public.

476

40 CFR 405.83 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

40 Ç Protection of Environment Ç 27 Ç 2004-07-01 Ç 2003-07-01 Ç true Ç [Reserved] Ç 405.83 Ç Section 405.83 Ç Protection of Environment Ç ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) Ç EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS Ç DAIRY PRODUCTS PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Ç Ice Cream, Frozen...

2004-07-01

477

40 CFR 405.53 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

40 Ç Protection of Environment Ç 27 Ç 2004-07-01 Ç 2003-07-01 Ç true Ç [Reserved] Ç 405.53 Ç Section 405.53 Ç Protection of Environment Ç ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) Ç EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS Ç DAIRY PRODUCTS PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Ç Cottage Cheese and...

2004-07-01

478

New lithium oxyhalide reserve battery technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high power, light weight lithium oxyhalide reserve battery has been developed for the Theater High Altitude Area Defense (THAAD) missile program under sponsorship of the Atmospheric Interceptor Technology (AIT) program. This battery has two electrically isolated sections composed of 8 and 9 cells combined in series to provide required power when operating between 24.0 volts and 34.5 volts. One

S. McKay; M. Peabody; J. Brazzell

2000-01-01

479

Multiple reservations and the Oklahoma update  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multiple reservation approach that allows atomic updates of multiple shared variables and simplifies concurrent and nonblocking codes for managing shared data structures such as queues and linked lists is presented. The method can be implemented as an extension to any cache protocol that grants write access to at most one processor at a time. Performance improvement, automatic restart, and

Janice M. Stone; H. S. Stone; P. Heidelberger; J. Turek

1993-01-01

480