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1

Functions of the Caenorhabditis elegans regulatory myosin light chain genes mlc-1 and mlc-2.  

PubMed Central

Caenorhabditis elegans contains two muscle regulatory myosin light chain genes, mlc-1 and mlc-2. To determine their in vivo roles, we identified deletions that eliminate each gene individually and both genes in combination. Functions of mlc-1 are redundant to those of mlc-2 in both body-wall and pharyngeal muscle. mlc-1(0) mutants are wild type, but mlc-1(0) mlc-2(0) double mutants arrest as incompletely elongated L1 larvae, having both pharyngeal and body-wall muscle defects. Transgenic copies of either mlc-1(+) or mlc-2(+) rescue all defects of mlc-1(0) mlc-2(0) double mutants. mlc-2 is redundant to mlc-1 in body-wall muscle, but mlc-2 performs a nearly essential role in the pharynx. Approximately 90% of mlc-2(0) hermaphrodites arrest as L1 larvae due to pharyngeal muscle defects. Lethality of mlc-2(0) mutants is sex specific, with mlc-2(0) males being essentially wild type. Four observations suggest that hermaphrodite-specific lethality of mlc-2(0) mutants results from insufficient expression of the X-linked mlc-1(+) gene in the pharynx. First, mlc-1(0) mlc-2(0) double mutants are fully penetrant L1 lethals in both hermaphrodites and males. Second, in situ localization of mlc mRNAs demonstrates that both mlc-1 and mlc-2 are expressed in the pharynx. Third, transgenic copies of either mlc-1(+) or mlc-2(+) rescue the pharyngeal defects of mlc-1(0) mlc-2(0) hermaphrodites. Fourth, a mutation of the dosage compensation gene sdc-3 suppresses hermaphrodite-specific lethality of mlc-2(0) mutants.

Rushforth, A M; White, C C; Anderson, P

1998-01-01

2

Breast Exam  

MedlinePLUS

... self-exams Clinical breast exams by your doctor Mammography Used together, these screening methods can increase your ... breast cancer persists in the era of screening mammography. Journal of the American College of Surgeons. 2010; ...

3

Exam Professor  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The average professor or lecturer in today's educational environment might be on the lookout for a helpful way to facilitate exams, and this application is just that type of application. With Exam Professor, users can create exams quickly, publish them online, and even mix up the questions. On their website, visitors can learn about all of the features of the program, and take a look at a demonstration exam. This version allows users to create one exam at no charge, and is compatible with computers running Windows 2000, XP and Mac OS X 10.4 and newer.

2006-01-01

4

MLC++: A Machine Learning Library in C  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present MLC++ , a library of C++classes andtools for supervised Machine Learning. While MLC++provides general learning algorithms that can be usedby end users, the main objective is to provide researchersand experts with a wide variety of tools thatcan accelerate algorithm development, increase softwarereliability, provide comparison tools, and displayinformation visually. More than just a collection ofexisting algorithms, MLC++ is an

Ron Kohavi; George H. John; Richard Long; David Manley; Karl Pfleger

1994-01-01

5

Exam fairness  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is widely agreed that exams must be fair; yet what this exactly means is not made clear. One may mean fairness of treatment, but this merely propagates the fairness or unfairness of pre-existing rules. Fairness of opportunity on the other hand necessarily leads to identical grades for everyone, which clearly makes it inapplicable. Neither view is helpful to make

Mathieu Bouville

2008-01-01

6

Radio frequency noise from an MLC: a feasibility study of the use of an MLC for linac-MR systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Currently several groups are actively researching the integration of a megavoltage teletherapy unit with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging for real-time image-guided radiotherapy. The use of a multileaf collimator (MLC) for intensity-modulated radiotherapy for linac-MR units must be investigated. The MLC itself will likely reside in the fringe field of the MR and the motors will produce radio frequency (RF) noise. The RF noise power spectral density from a Varian 52-leaf MLC motor, a Varian Millennium MLC motor and a brushless fan motor has been measured as a function of the applied magnetic field using a near field probe set. For the Varian 52-leaf MLC system, the RF noise produced by 13 of 52 motors is studied as a function of distance from the MLC. Data are reported in the frequency range suitable for 0.2-1.5 T linac-MR systems. Below 40 MHz the Millennium MLC motor tested showed more noise than the Varian 52-leaf motor or the brushless fan motor. The brushless motor showed a small dependence on the applied magnetic field. Images of a phantom were taken by the prototype linac-MR system with the MLC placed in close proximity to the magnet. Several orientations of the MLC in both shielded and non-shielded configurations were studied. For the case of a non-shielded MLC and associated cables, the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) was reduced when 13 of 52 MLC leaves were moved during imaging. When the MLC and associated cables were shielded, the measured SNR of the images with 13 MLC leaves moving was experimentally the same as the SNR of the stationary MLC image. When the MLC and cables are shielded, subtraction images acquired with and without MLC motion contains no systematic signal. This study illustrates that the small RF noise produced by functioning MLC motors can be effectively shielded to avoid SNR degradation. A functioning MLC can be incorporated into a linac-MR unit.

Lamey, M.; Yun, J.; Burke, B.; Rathee, S.; Fallone, B. G.

2010-02-01

7

Radio frequency noise from an MLC: a feasibility study of the use of an MLC for linac-MR systems.  

PubMed

Currently several groups are actively researching the integration of a megavoltage teletherapy unit with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging for real-time image-guided radiotherapy. The use of a multileaf collimator (MLC) for intensity-modulated radiotherapy for linac-MR units must be investigated. The MLC itself will likely reside in the fringe field of the MR and the motors will produce radio frequency (RF) noise. The RF noise power spectral density from a Varian 52-leaf MLC motor, a Varian Millennium MLC motor and a brushless fan motor has been measured as a function of the applied magnetic field using a near field probe set. For the Varian 52-leaf MLC system, the RF noise produced by 13 of 52 motors is studied as a function of distance from the MLC. Data are reported in the frequency range suitable for 0.2-1.5 T linac-MR systems. Below 40 MHz the Millennium MLC motor tested showed more noise than the Varian 52-leaf motor or the brushless fan motor. The brushless motor showed a small dependence on the applied magnetic field. Images of a phantom were taken by the prototype linac-MR system with the MLC placed in close proximity to the magnet. Several orientations of the MLC in both shielded and non-shielded configurations were studied. For the case of a non-shielded MLC and associated cables, the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) was reduced when 13 of 52 MLC leaves were moved during imaging. When the MLC and associated cables were shielded, the measured SNR of the images with 13 MLC leaves moving was experimentally the same as the SNR of the stationary MLC image. When the MLC and cables are shielded, subtraction images acquired with and without MLC motion contains no systematic signal. This study illustrates that the small RF noise produced by functioning MLC motors can be effectively shielded to avoid SNR degradation. A functioning MLC can be incorporated into a linac-MR unit. PMID:20090187

Lamey, M; Yun, J; Burke, B; Rathee, S; Fallone, B G

2010-01-20

8

Radio frequency noise from an MLC: a feasibility study of the use of an MLC for linac-MR systems  

PubMed Central

Currently several groups are actively researching the integration of a megavoltage teletherapy unit with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging for real-time image-guided radiotherapy. The use of a multileaf collimator (MLC) for intensity-modulated radiotherapy for linac-MR units must be investigated. The MLC itself will likely reside in the fringe field of the MR and the motors will produce radio frequency (RF) noise. The RF noise power spectral density from a Varian 52-leaf MLC motor, a Varian Millennium MLC motor and a brushless fan motor has been measured as a function of the applied magnetic field using a near field probe set. For the Varian 52-leaf MLC system, the RF noise produced by 13 of 52 motors is studied as a function of distance from the MLC. Data are reported in the frequency range suitable for 0.2–1.5 T linac-MR systems. Below 40 MHz the Millennium MLC motor tested showed more noise than the Varian 52-leaf motor or the brushless fan motor. The brushless motor showed a small dependence on the applied magnetic field. Images of a phantom were taken by the prototype linac-MR system with the MLC placed in close proximity to the magnet. Several orientations of the MLC in both shielded and non-shielded configurations were studied. For the case of a non-shielded MLC and associated cables, the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) was reduced when 13 of 52 MLC leaves were moved during imaging. When the MLC and associated cables were shielded, the measured SNR of the images with 13 MLC leaves moving was experimentally the same as the SNR of the stationary MLC image. When the MLC and cables are shielded, subtraction images acquired with and without MLC motion contains no systematic signal. This study illustrates that the small RF noise produced by functioning MLC motors can be effectively shielded to avoid SNR degradation. A functioning MLC can be incorporated into a linac-MR unit.

Lamey, M; Yun, J; Burke, B; Rathee, S; Fallone, B G

2010-01-01

9

NeuroExam  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website outlines the main components of a neurological exam performed by clinicians and the basics of neuroanatomy. The website provides short video clips demonstrating the various neurological exams that a doctor may perform with a patient.

2011-08-01

10

The Neurological Exam  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website features a complete neurological exam with the following elements: 1) cranial nerves, 2) motor exam, 3) sensory exam, 4) stance & gait. Video demonstrations are used for each part of the exam. Text describes the examination technique, expected normal findings and common abnormal findings. A helpful glossary of terms is available in a separate frame at the bottom of the page for reference. A high bandwidth is recommended and a QuickTime player is necessary.Annotated: false

Hohol, Marika

2010-06-28

11

Exams: The Secret Ingredients  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This year, many high-school teachers in the district where the author teaches experienced exam anxiety because midterms--as they had come to know and love them--were no more. For a variety of reasons, the semester exam schedule looked very different. More to the point is the new philosophy about exam content and format that underpinned the…

DiJulio, Betsy

2012-01-01

12

Neuroprotective and neuroproliferative activities of NeuroAid (MLC601, MLC901), a Chinese medicine, in vitro and in vivo.  

PubMed

Although stroke remains a leading cause of death and adult disability, numerous recent failures in clinical stroke trials have led to some pessimism in the field. Interestingly, NeuroAid (MLC601), a traditional medicine, particularly used in China, South East Asia and Middle East has been reported to have beneficial effects in patients, particularly in post-stroke complications. Here, we demonstrate in a rodent model of focal ischemia that NeuroAid II (MLC901) pre- and post-treatments up to 3 h after stroke improve survival, protect the brain from the ischemic injury and drastically decrease functional deficits. MLC601 and MLC901 also prevent neuronal death in an in vitro model of excitotoxicity using primary cultures of cortical neurons exposed to glutamate. In addition, MLC601/MLC901 treatments were shown to induce neurogenesis in rodent and human cells, promote cell proliferation as well as neurite outgrowth and stimulate the development of a dense axonal and dendritic network. MLC601 and MLC901 clearly represent a very interesting strategy for stroke treatment at different stages of the disease. PMID:20064536

Heurteaux, C; Gandin, C; Borsotto, M; Widmann, C; Brau, F; Lhuillier, M; Onteniente, B; Lazdunski, M

2010-01-11

13

Examining Exam Reviews: A Comparison of Exam Scores and Attitudes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Instructors commonly use exam reviews to help students prepare for exams and to increase student success. The current study compared the effects of traditional, trivia, and practice test-based exam reviews on actual exam scores, as well as students' attitudes toward each review. Findings suggested that students' exam scores were significantly…

Hackathorn, Jana; Cornell, Kathryn; Garczynski, Amy M.; Solomon, Erin D.; Blankmeyer, Katheryn E.; Tennial, Rachel E.

2012-01-01

14

Quizzes, Tests, and Exams  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website features information on strategies for testing, including choosing appropriate testing methodologies and developing a test that assesses students as accurately and fairly as possible. Topics include different types of tests, construction of effective exams and alternative testing methods.

Davis, Barbara G.; Honolulu, University O.

15

AAPT Physics Bowl Exam Review  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The AAPT Physics Bowl is an annual contest sponsored by the American Association of Physics Teachers to generate interest in physics and to recognize outstanding high school physics students and their teachers. The exam consists of multiple choice questions and has a time limit of forty-five minutes. Copies of the 1994-2000 Physics Bowl exams have been provided here by the AAPT in the form of Adobe Acrobat .PDF files. The answers are provided at the end of each exam. The current exam may no longer be given in the format of the exams listed below. The CD available from the AAPT Store has questions and answers from 2001 through 2006. 1994 AAPT/Metrologic Physics Bowl Exam 1995 AAPT/Metrologic Physics Bowl Exam 1996 AAPT/Metrologic Physics Bowl Exam 1997 AAPT/Metrologic Physics Bowl Exam 1998 AAPT/Metrologic Physics Bowl Exam 1999 AAPT/Metrologic Physics Bowl Exam 2000 AAPT/Metrologic Physics Bowl Exam

2003-10-16

16

MLC tracking for Elekta VMAT: a modelling study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A model has been developed to simulate volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) delivery for Elekta control systems. The model was experimentally validated for static-tumour VMAT delivery and has been applied to the investigation of motion compensation with dynamic multileaf collimator (dMLC) delivery tracking for a series of VMAT lung treatment plans at various control point spacings for five patients. The relative increase in treatment time with dMLC tracking was calculated for four 1D rigid-body motion trajectories, and the effect of the control point spacing, the MLC leaf speed and an increased number of dose levels on the dMLC tracking delivery time evaluated. It has been observed that a faster leaf speed is advantageous for motion trajectories with shorter time periods and larger amplitudes. The accuracy of dMLC tracking was found to increase with a decreased control point spacing and is dependent on the amplitude and time period of the motion trajectory of the target. dMLC tracking is shown to be a promising emerging technology which can confer advantage over breath-hold motion-compensation techniques which more drastically reduce the efficiency of VMAT and are more invasive for the patient.

Davies, G. A.; Poludniowski, G.; Webb, S.

2011-12-01

17

Insights into MLC pathogenesis: GlialCAM is an MLC1 chaperone required for proper activation of volume-regulated anion currents.  

PubMed

Megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts (MLC) is a rare type of leukodystrophy caused by mutations in either MLC1 or GLIALCAM genes and is associated with myelin and astrocyte vacuolation. It has been suggested that MLC is caused by impaired cell volume regulation as a result of defective activation of astrocytic volume-regulated anion currents (VRAC). GlialCAM brings MLC1 and the ClC-2 Cl(-) channel to cell-cell junctions, even though the role of ClC-2 in MLC disease remains incompletely understood. To gain insights into the biological role of GlialCAM in the pathogenesis of MLC disease, here we analyzed the gain- and loss-of-function phenotypes of GlialCAM in Hela cells and primary astrocytes, focusing on its interaction with the MLC1 protein. Unexpectedly, GlialCAM ablation provoked intracellular accumulation and reduced expression of MLC1 at the plasma membrane. Conversely, over-expression of GlialCAM increased the cellular stability of mutant MLC1 variants. Reduction in GlialCAM expression resulted in defective activation of VRAC and augmented vacuolation, phenocopying MLC1 mutations. Importantly, over-expression of GlialCAM together with MLC1 containing MLC-related mutations was able to reactivate VRAC currents and to reverse the vacuolation caused in the presence of mutant MLC1. These results indicate a previously unrecognized role of GlialCAM in facilitating the biosynthetic maturation and cell surface expression of MLC1, and suggest that pharmacological strategies aimed to increase surface expression of MLC1 and/or VRAC activity may be beneficial for MLC patients. PMID:23793458

Capdevila-Nortes, Xavier; López-Hernández, Tania; Apaja, Pirjo M; López de Heredia, Miguel; Sirisi, Sònia; Callejo, Gerard; Arnedo, Tanit; Nunes, Virginia; Lukacs, Gergely L; Gasull, Xavier; Estévez, Raúl

2013-06-20

18

An experimental comparison of conventional two-bank and novel four-bank dynamic MLC tracking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The AccuLeaf mMLC featuring four multileaf-collimator (MLC) banks has been used for the first time for an experimental comparison of conventional two-bank with novel four-bank dynamic MLC tracking of a two-dimensional sinusoidal respiratory motion. This comparison was performed for a square aperture, and for three conformal treatment apertures from clinical radiotherapy lung cancer patients. The system latency of this prototype tracking system was evaluated and found to be 1.0 s and the frequency at which MLC positions could be updated, 1 Hz, and therefore accurate MLC tracking of irregular patient motion would be difficult with the system in its current form. The MLC leaf velocity required for two-bank-MLC and four-bank-MLC tracking was evaluated for the apertures studied and a substantial decrease was found in the maximum MLC velocity required when four-banks were used for tracking rather than two. A dosimetric comparison of the two techniques was also performed and minimal difference was found between two-bank-MLC and four-bank-MLC tracking. The use of four MLC banks for dynamic MLC tracking is shown to be potentially advantageous for increasing the delivery efficiency compared with two-bank-MLC tracking where difficulties are encountered if large leaf shifts are required to track motion perpendicular to the direction of leaf travel.

Davies, G. A.; Clowes, P.; McQuaid, D.; Evans, P. M.; Webb, S.; Poludniowski, G.

2013-03-01

19

The prostate exam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To help students, residents, and general practitioners to improve the technique, skills, and reproducibility of their prostate examination.Methods: We developed a comprehensive guideline outlining prostate anatomy, indications, patient preparation, positioning, technique, findings, and limitations of this ancient art of urological evaluation.Results: The prostate exam was the first diagnostic test used for prostate cancer screening and other urological conditions. Although

Frederico R Romero; Antonio W Romero; Thadeu Brenny Filho; David Kulysz; Fernando C Oliveira; Renato Tambara Filho

2012-01-01

20

Exam Question Exchange.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes a take-home exam story problem based on stoichiometry. Requires the student to determine the percentage of phosphoric acid in a large container of nitric acid if a man fell into it. Provides assumptions, clues, and an acceptable solution. (MVL)|

Ramette, R. W.

1988-01-01

21

Exam Question Exchange.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Two exam questions are presented. One suitable for advanced undergraduate or beginning graduate courses in organic chemistry, is on equivalent expressions for the description of several pericyclic reactions. The second, for general chemistry students, asks for an estimation of the rate of decay of a million-year-old Uranium-238 sample. (BB)|

Alexander, John J., Ed.

1978-01-01

22

Final exam scheduler - FES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Timetabling problems are constraint optimization problems proven to be NP complete. Furthermore, evaluation of violations is costly, and there is no common data format for representing timetabling problem instances. In this paper, a framework for designing memetic algorithms (MAs) to solve timetabling problems is described and a tool, named Final Exam Scheduler (FES) is introduced. FES is the first tool

Ender Özcan; Ersan Ersoy

2005-01-01

23

Digital rectal exam  

MedlinePLUS

... physical examination in both men and women. In men, the test is used to examine the prostate, looking for abnormal enlargement or other signs of prostate cancer . In women, a digital rectal exam may be performed during a routine gynecologic examination. ...

24

Automating preparation of exam questions: Exam Question Classification System (EQCS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently, there is no any available computerized mechanism to classify the exam questions prepared by the instructors. Everything is done manually by the instructors according to their own style. Written exam question has always been a method for educators to assess the level of understanding of students. A good exam question should consist of different levels of difficulties in order

Nor Diana Ahmad; Wan Adilah Wan Adnan; Maslina Abdul Aziz; Mohd Yusaimir Yusof

2011-01-01

25

The Lost Exam (A)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This case series (see also the B [UVA-E-0116] and C [UVA-E-0117] cases) provides examples of how a teacher treats commitment to his or her word as a complex situation unfolds. The ambiguity of a connected series of decision-making situations is highlighted as the potential to exploit a subtle form of cheating arises. The A case begins with a midterm exam

R. Freeman; Gordon Sollars

26

The Use of NeuroAiD (MLC601) in Postischemic Stroke Patients.  

PubMed

Aim. We aimed to assess the efficacy of MLC601 on functional recovery in patients given MLC601 after an ischemic stroke. Methods. This is a retrospective cohort study comparing poststroke patients given open-label MLC601 (n = 30; 9 female) for three months and matching patients who did not receive MLC601 from our Stroke Data Bank. Outcome assessed was modified Rankin Scale (mRS) at three months and analyzed according to: (1) achieving a score of 0-2, (2) achieving a score of 0-1, and (3) mean change in scores from baseline. Results. At three months, 21 patients on MLC601 became independent as compared to 17 patients not on MLC601 (OR 1.79; 95% CI 0.62-5.2; P = 0.29). There were twice as many patients (n = 16) on MLC601 who attained mRS scores similar to their prestroke state than in the non-MLC601 group (n = 8) (OR 3.14; 95% CI 1.1-9.27; P = 0.038). Mean improvement in mRS from baseline was better in the MLC601 group than in the non-MLC601 group (-1.7 versus -0.9; mean difference -0.73; 95% CI -1.09 to -0.38; P < 0.001). Conclusion. MLC601 improves functional recovery at 3 months postischemic stroke. An ongoing large randomized control trial of MLC601 will help validate these results. PMID:23304514

Navarro, Jose C; Molina, Mark C; Baroque Ii, Alejandro C; Lokin, Johnny K

2012-12-13

27

The dosimetric and delivery advantages of a new 160-leaf MLC.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to conduct a measurement and treatment planning study on the dosimetric and delivery advantages of a new 160-leaf multileaf collimator (MLC). Recently, a new 160-leaf multileaf collimator (Siemens 160 MLC(TM)) was introduced. The 160-MLC is a single focused design that consists of 160-leafs (80 pairs), each 95 mm thick with a projected leaf width of 5 mm at the machine isocenter. Compared to its double focused predecessors, the 82-leaf MLC (Siemens OPTIVIEW((tm)) MLC) and 58-leaf MLC (Siemens 3-D MLC((tm))), the 160-MLC has leaf widths of half the size. The most notable difference is the new slanted leaf design that replaced the tongue and groove system and allows for complete interdigitation. A systematic study that compared the dosimetric and delivery differences among the 160-MLC, 58-MLC, and divergent Cerrobend blocks was performed. Dosimetric conformity for each collimator type was determined by conforming each to circular targets of various diameters. The effective penumbra for each collimator type was calculated by conforming each, at various collimator angles, to a square stationary target. The quality of 3D conformal radiotherapy treatment (3D-CRT) plans and the quality intensity modulated radiation treatment (IMRT) plans were respectively compared with each collimator type. The 160-MLC was found to have improved dosimetric conformity over the 58-MLC. The divergent Cerrobend block showed marginal dosimetric conformity improvement over the 160-LMC. Overall, the 160-MLC had a 45% and 29% reduction in the 20/80 and 30/90 effective penumbra over the 58-MLC, respectively, while exhibiting only a slightly larger effective penumbra over the divergent Cerrobend block. Comparing 3D-CRT plans generated for small lesions of the head and neck, the V100 for the PTV of the plans generated with the Cerrobend blocks, the 58-MLC, and the 160-MLC were 97.78%, 92.51%, and 99.18%, respectively, while with regards to the OARs, the three produced similar DVHs. IMRT plans generated with the 160-MLC were found to significantly reduce the total delivered monitor units by up to 14.7% and the number of segments by as much as 10.7% compared to the 58-MLC. The average delivery time for the direct aperture optimized (DAO) IMRT plans generated with the 160-MLC was approximately 5 minutes. Overall, compared to the 58-MLC, the new 160-MLC was found to improve dosimetric conformity and IMRT delivery efficiency. PMID:21517128

Prah, D E; Kainz, K; Peng, C; Li, X A

2011-06-01

28

Data Mining Using MLC++: A Machine Learning Library in C  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data mining algorithms including machine learning, statistical analysis, and pattern recognition techniques can greatly improve our understanding of data warehouses that are now becoming more widespread. In this paper, we focus on classication algorithms and review the need for multiple classication algorithms. We describe a system calledMLC++, which was designed to help choose the appropriate classication algorithm for a given

Ron Kohavi; Dan Sommerfield; James Dougherty

1996-01-01

29

Supporting digital exams: riding class V rapids through exam policy, tech policy, and exam support  

Microsoft Academic Search

At NYU School of Law, all of our exams are administered using technology. By using the words 'exam' and 'technology' in the same sentence, you add challenges. This paper explores our user support strategy developed and refined over the past 6 years to address these challenges for in-class, take-home, and remotely administered exams. We will discuss our coordination and collaboration

Lisa Barnett; Darin Phelps

2010-01-01

30

MLC901, a traditional Chinese medicine protects the brain against global ischemia.  

PubMed

Global ischemia leads to damage in the hippocampal CA1 region and is associated with behavioral deficits. NeuroAid (MLC601 and MLC901), a Traditional Chinese Medicine is used in China for patients after stroke. We have investigated here the effects of MLC901 on brain injury and deficits after global ischemia in the rat. Global ischemia induced by four-vessel occlusion resulted in degeneration of CA1 neurons. MLC901 (0.074 mg/ml) prevented both necrosis and apoptosis of neurons up to 3 h after ischemia. These positive MLC901 effects were associated with a decrease in Bax expression and in levels of the lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde. Using the PI3-kinase inhibitor LY294002 we also demonstrated the critical role of the Akt pathway in MLC901-mediated neuroprotection. MLC901 enhanced neurogenesis. Furthermore, MLC901 improved functional recovery of rats after global ischemia as assessed by the Morris water maze. In this test MLC901 reduced the increase in escape latency and in swim distance induced by ischemia. MLC901 also improved post-ischemic grip strength. If observations made with rats can be extended to humans, then MLC901 will represent a novel therapeutic strategy after cardiac arrest with a clinically interesting time window of protection. PMID:21605573

Quintard, H; Borsotto, M; Veyssiere, J; Gandin, C; Labbal, F; Widmann, C; Lazdunski, M; Heurteaux, C

2011-05-14

31

Normal - Mental Status Exam - Attention Sub-exam - Patient 1  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this demonstration video, a patient is given a mental status exam. The patient is a female with no known neurological health problems who volunteered to act as a simulated patient in order to demonstrate 'normal' responses to exam techniques. Viewing the video requires installation of the free QuickTime Plug-in.

Pearson, John C.

2009-01-02

32

Normal - Mental Status Exam - Orientation Sub-exam - Patient 1  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video demonstrates a 'normal' mental status exam of a patient. The patient is a female with no known neurological health problems who volunteered to act as a simulated patient in order to demonstrate 'normal' responses to exam techniques. Viewing the video requires installation of the free QuickTime Plug-in.

Pearson, John C.

2009-01-02

33

Normal - Mental Status Exam - Memory Sub-exam - Patient 1  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video shows an example of a 'normal' mental status exam of a patient. Patient is a female with no known neurological health problems who volunteered to act as a simulated patient in order to demonstrate 'normal' responses to exam techniques. Viewing the video requires installation of the free QuickTime Plug-in.

Pearson, John C.

2009-04-07

34

Thermal and electrostrictive expansion characteristics of MLC (Multilayer Ceramic) capacitors  

SciTech Connect

We have measured by strain gauge technique, in-plane thermal expansivity (coefficient of thermal expansion) as a function of temperature and electrostrictive expansion as a function of applied DC voltage for ceramic capacitors with X7R, NPO and N1500 dielectrics. Multilayer Ceramic (MLC) capacitor materials from two commercial suppliers were evaluated. Thermal expansivities of these materials were compared to polyimide-quartz boards and alumina ceramic substrates. 4 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

Chanchani, R.; Hall, C.A.

1991-01-01

35

Linkage group HL-A-MLC-Bf (properdin factor B)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic linkage between the HL-A and Bf loci could be confirmed in 43 families with 168 offspring. In 4 families, 5 recombinants out of 82 informative meiotic divisions were observed (r=6.1%). The localisation of the Bf marker system was studied in 3 families with crossovers between HL-A and MLC. From these data the following map order of human chromosome 6

Ch. Rittner; H. Grosse-Wilde; B. Rittner; B. Netzel; S. Scholz; H. Lorenz; E. D. Albert

1975-01-01

36

EDILE : EXAM DISTANCE LEARNING ENVIRONMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evaluation is an important stage in the learning process, however when dealing with distance learning the evaluation becomes complicated. Hence, our research objective is to design and implement an exam distance learning environment (EDILE). The EDILE covers all stages of the assessment process, beginning from the edition of the exam until the correction of the student answers and the display

R. Mrabet; M. D. Ech-Cherif

37

Small field dosimetric characterization of a new 160-leaf MLC.  

PubMed

The goal of this work was to perform a 6 MV small field characterization of the new Agility 160-leaf multi-leaf collimator (MLC) from Elekta. This included profile measurement analysis and central axis relative output measurements using various diode detectors and an air-core fiber optic scintillation dosimeter (FOD). Data was acquired at a depth of 10.0 cm for field sizes of 1.0, 0.9, 0.8, 0.7, 0.6 and 0.5 cm. Three experimental data sets, comprised of five readings, were made for both the relative output and profile measurements. Average detector-specific output ratios ([Formula: see text]) were calculated with respect to a field size of 3.0 cm and small field replacement correction factors ([Formula: see text]) derived for the diodes using the scintillation dosimeter readings as the baseline. The standard experimental uncertainty on [Formula: see text] was calculated at a 90% confidence interval and the coefficient of variation (CV) used to characterize the detector-specific measurement precision. The positional accuracy of the collimation system was also investigated by analyzing the repeated profile measurements and field width constancy investigated as a function of collimator rotation. For comparison the output and profile measurements were repeated using the Elekta 80-leaf MLCi2 on a beam matched linac at 6 MV. The measured [Formula: see text] varied as a function of detector and MLC design. At the smallest field size the standard experimental uncertainty on [Formula: see text] was consistent across all detectors at approximately 0.5% and 1.0% for Agility and MLCi2 collimators respectively. The CV associated with the FOD measurements were greater than that of the diodes but did not translate into increased measurement uncertainty. At the smallest field size, the diode detector correction factors were approximately 2% greater for MLCi2 than that required for the Agility. Profile data revealed the Agility MLC to have a greater positional reproducibility than both the MLCi2 and the linac diaphragms (jaws), as also reflected in the experimental uncertainties on [Formula: see text]. The relative output, profile widths and associated uncertainties were all found to differ between the two MLC systems investigated, as were the field size specific diode detector replacement correction factors. The data also clearly showed that the Agility 160-leaf MLC performs to a tighter positional tolerance than the MLCi2. PMID:24077128

Cranmer-Sargison, G; Liu, P Z Y; Weston, S; Suchowerska, N; Thwaites, D I

2013-09-27

38

Dosimetric Studies of a mMLC for Intensity Modulated Radiation Surgery for Irregular Lesions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work we present the commissioning of a micro Multileaf Collimator (mMLC) of the Novalis™ Intensity Modulated Radiation Surgery (IMRS) system. This system can deliver conventional stereotactic radiosurgery, conformal arcs and beams, and IMRS. The last modalities are performed using the mMLC. In this work the dosimetric characteristics of the mMLC such as transmission across the leaves, penumbra and IMRS pattern verification are presented.

García-Garduño, Olivia Amanda; Rodríguez-Villafuerte, Mercedes; Lárraga-Gutiérrez, José Manuel; Celis-López, Miguel Ángel

2003-09-01

39

An experimental evaluation of the Agility MLC for motion-compensated VMAT delivery.  

PubMed

An algorithm for dynamic multileaf-collimator (dMLC) tracking of a target performing a known a priori, rigid-body motion during volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT), has been experimentally validated and applied to investigate the potential of the Agility (Elekta AB, Stockholm, Sweden) multileaf-collimator (MLC) for use in motion-compensated VMAT delivery. For five VMAT patients, dosimetric measurements were performed using the Delta(4) radiation detector (ScandiDos, Uppsala, Sweden) and the accuracy of dMLC tracking was evaluated using a gamma-analysis, with threshold levels of 3% for dose and 3 mm for distance-to-agreement. For a motion trajectory with components in two orthogonal directions, the mean gamma-analysis pass rate without tracking was found to be 58.0%, 59.0% and 60.9% and was increased to 89.1%, 88.3% and 93.1% with MLC tracking, for time periods of motion of 4 s, 6 s and 10 s respectively. Simulations were performed to compare the efficiency of the Agility MLC with the MLCi MLC when used for motion-compensated VMAT delivery for the same treatment plans and motion trajectories. Delivery time increases from a static-tumour to dMLC-tracking VMAT delivery were observed in the range 0%–20% for the Agility, and 0%–57% with the MLCi, indicating that the increased leaf speed of the Agility MLC is beneficial for MLC tracking during lung radiotherapy. PMID:23780400

Davies, G A; Clowes, P; Bedford, J L; Evans, P M; Webb, S; Poludniowski, G

2013-07-01

40

EXPOSURE ANALYSIS MODELING SYSTEM (EXAMS)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Exposure Analysis Modeling System (EXAMS), first published in 1982 (EPA-600/3-82-023), provides interactive computer software for formulating aquatic ecosystem models and rapidly evaluating the fate, transport, and exposure concentrations of synthetic organic chemicals--pesti...

41

Developing On-line Exams.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses advantages and limitations of online exams, describes available software tools for creating computer-based tests (CGI, JavaScript, commercial programs, course authoring tools), and offers suggestions for implementation. (JOW)|

Hartsell, Taralynn S.; Yuen, Steve Chi-Yin

2003-01-01

42

Developing On-line Exams.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses advantages and limitations of online exams, describes available software tools for creating computer-based tests (CGI, JavaScript, commercial programs, course authoring tools), and offers suggestions for implementation. (JOW)

Hartsell, Taralynn S.; Yuen, Steve Chi-Yin

2003-01-01

43

Exam timetabling using genetic algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present a case study concerning the exam timetabling problem we faced, and its genetic algorithm based solution. Several variations of the algorithm as well as the influence of algorithm parameters are analyzed.

M. Cuupic; Marin Golub; Domagoj Jakobovic

2009-01-01

44

Quantitative measurement of MLC leaf displacements using an electronic portal image device  

Microsoft Academic Search

The success of an IMRT treatment relies on the positioning accuracy of the MLC (multileaf collimator) leaves for both step-and-shoot and dynamic deliveries. In practice, however, there exists no effective and quantitative means for routine MLC QA and this has become one of the bottleneck problems in IMRT implementation. In this work we present an electronic portal image device (EPID)

Yong Yang; Lei Xing

2004-01-01

45

Are Online Exams an Invitation to Cheat?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this study, the authors use data from two online courses in principles of economics to estimate a model that predicts exam scores from independent variables of student characteristics. In one course, the final exam was proctored, and in the other course, the final exam was not proctored. In both courses, the first three exams were unproctored.…

Harmon, Oskar R.; Lambrinos, James; Kennedy, Peter, Ed.

2008-01-01

46

Are Online Exams an Invitation to Cheat?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, the authors use data from two online courses in principles of economics to estimate a model that predicts exam scores from independent variables of student characteristics. In one course, the final exam was proctored, and in the other course, the final exam was not proctored. In both courses, the first three exams were unproctored.…

Harmon, Oskar R.; Lambrinos, James; Kennedy, Peter, Ed.

2008-01-01

47

Small field dosimetric characterization of a new 160-leaf MLC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goal of this work was to perform a 6 MV small field characterization of the new Agility 160-leaf multi-leaf collimator (MLC) from Elekta. This included profile measurement analysis and central axis relative output measurements using various diode detectors and an air-core fiber optic scintillation dosimeter (FOD). Data was acquired at a depth of 10.0 cm for field sizes of 1.0, 0.9, 0.8, 0.7, 0.6 and 0.5 cm. Three experimental data sets, comprised of five readings, were made for both the relative output and profile measurements. Average detector-specific output ratios (\\overline {OR} _{det}^{f_{clin} }) were calculated with respect to a field size of 3.0 cm and small field replacement correction factors (\\mathop k\

Cranmer-Sargison, G.; Liu, P. Z. Y.; Weston, S.; Suchowerska, N.; Thwaites, D. I.

2013-10-01

48

Exam Schools Versus Magnet Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides background information to two opposing viewpoints, presented in other articles in this issue, on the relative merits and problems of exam schools and magnet schools. The articles were prompted by events in the Boston public school system's elite schools. (LHW)

Equity and Excellence, 1986

1986-01-01

49

Exam Schools Versus Magnet Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Provides background information to two opposing viewpoints, presented in other articles in this issue, on the relative merits and problems of exam schools and magnet schools. The articles were prompted by events in the Boston public school system's elite schools. (LHW)|

Equity and Excellence, 1986

1986-01-01

50

The ?1 subunit of the Na,K-ATPase pump interacts with megalencephalic leucoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts protein 1 (MLC1) in brain astrocytes: new insights into MLC pathogenesis  

PubMed Central

Megalencephalic leucoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts (MLC) is a rare congenital leucodystrophy caused by mutations in MLC1, a membrane protein of unknown function. MLC1 expression in astrocyte end-feet contacting blood vessels and meninges, along with brain swelling, fluid cysts and myelin vacuolation observed in MLC patients, suggests a possible role for MLC1 in the regulation of fluid and ion homeostasis and cellular volume changes. To identify MLC1 direct interactors and dissect the molecular pathways in which MLC1 is involved, we used NH2-MLC1 domain as a bait to screen a human brain library in a yeast two-hybrid assay. We identified the ?1 subunit of the Na,K-ATPase pump as one of the interacting clones and confirmed it by pull-downs, co-fractionation assays and immunofluorescence stainings in human and rat astrocytes in vitro and in brain tissue. By performing ouabain-affinity chromatography on astrocyte and brain extracts, we isolated MLC1 and the whole Na,K-ATPase enzyme in a multiprotein complex that included Kir4.1, syntrophin and dystrobrevin. Because Na,K-ATPase is involved in intracellular osmotic control and volume regulation, we investigated the effect of hypo-osmotic stress on MLC1/Na,K-ATPase relationship in astrocytes. We found that hypo-osmotic conditions increased MLC1 membrane expression and favoured MLC1/Na,K-ATPase-?1 association. Moreover, hypo-osmosis induced astrocyte swelling and the reversible formation of endosome-derived vacuoles, where the two proteins co-localized. These data suggest that through its interaction with Na,K-ATPase, MLC1 is involved in the control of intracellular osmotic conditions and volume regulation in astrocytes, opening new perspectives for understanding the pathological mechanisms of MLC disease.

Brignone, Maria S.; Lanciotti, Angela; Macioce, Pompeo; Macchia, Gianfranco; Gaetani, Matteo; Aloisi, Francesca; Petrucci, Tamara C.; Ambrosini, Elena

2011-01-01

51

Neuropathy - Coordination Exam - Lower Extremities Sub-exam - Patient 7  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video demonstrates a coordination exam of the lower extremities. This 61-year-old man has had slowly progressive gait disturbance and weakness of his legs for 14 years. He has developed a limp in both legs, and his feet trip on objects and on uneven floor surfaces resulting in falls. Weakness and numbness of the legs is limiting his ability to walk. Viewing the video requires installation of the free QuickTime Plug-in.

Pearson, John C.

2009-01-02

52

Yeast myosin light chain, Mlc1p, interacts with both IQGAP and class II myosin to effect cytokinesis.  

PubMed

MLC1 (myosin light chain) acts as a dosage suppressor of a temperature sensitive mutation in the gene encoding the S. cerevisiae IQGAP protein. Both proteins localize to the bud neck in mitosis although Mlc1p localisation precedes Iqg1p. Mlc1p is also found at the incipient bud site in G(1) and the growing bud tip during S and G(2) phases of the cell cycle. A dominant negative GST-Mlc1p fusion protein specifically blocks cytokinesis and prevents Iqg1p localisation to the bud neck, as does depletion of Mlc1p. These data support a direct interaction between the two proteins and immunoprecipitation experiments confirm this prediction. Mlc1p is also shown to interact with the class II conventional myosin (Myo1p). All three proteins form a complex, however, the interaction between Mlc1p and Iqg1p can be separated from the Mlc1p/Myo1p interaction. Mlc1p localisation and maintenance at the bud neck is independent of actin, Myo1p and Iqg1p. It is proposed that Mlc1p therefore functions to recruit Iqg1p and in turn actin to the actomyosin ring and that it is also required for Myo1p function during ring contraction. PMID:11082046

Boyne, J R; Yosuf, H M; Bieganowski, P; Brenner, C; Price, C

2000-12-01

53

Take home mid-term exam  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Qian Yu, University of Massachusetts-Amherst Summary This is the 2nd midterm exam for an introductory level GIS course at 2/3 of the semester. It is an open book take-home exam. This exam is held after student ...

Yu, Qian

54

Turning exams into a learning experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most students see exams as a stressful experience, having crammed as much as they possibly can and hoping that the material they have studied would indeed be on the exams, and the material that they did not have the time to study for, nor understand, would be overlooked by their professors. At the same time, instructors see exams as formal

Benjamin Yu; George Tsiknis; Meghan Allen

2010-01-01

55

Independent dose calculations for the corvus MLC IMRT.  

PubMed

Two independent dose calculation methods have been explored to validate MLC-based IMRT plans from the NOMOS CORVUS system. After the plan is generated on the CORVUS planning system, the beam parameters are imported into an independent workstation. The beam parameters consist of intensity maps at each gantry angle. In addition, CT scans of the patient are imported into the independent workstation to obtain the external contour of the patient. The coordinate system is defined relative to the alignment point chosen in the CORVUS plan. The 2 independent calculation methods are based on a pencil beam kernel convolution and a Clarkson-type differential scatter summation, respectively. The pencil beam data for a 1 x 1-cm beam, as formed by the multileaf collimator, were measured for the 6-MV photon beam from a Siemens PRIMUS linear accelerator using film dosimetry. In the pencil beam method, the dose at a point is calculated using the depth and off-axis distance from a given pencil beam, corrected for beam intensity. The scatter summation method used the conversion of measured depth dose data into scatter maximum ratios. In this method, the differential scatter from each pencil beam is corrected for the beam intensity. Isodose distributions were generated using the independent dose calculations and compared to the CORVUS plans. Although isodose distributions from both methods show good agreement with the CORVUS plan, our implementation of the differential scatter summation approach seems more favorable. The 2 independent dose calculation algorithms are described in this paper. PMID:11444515

Ayyangar, K M; Nizin, P S; Saw, C B; Gearheart, D; Shen, B; Enke, C A

2001-01-01

56

Endogenous MLC2 phosphorylation and Ca 2+ -activated force in mechanically skinned skeletal muscle fibres of the rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method has been developed for measuring the level of phosphorylation of myosin regulatory light chains (MLC2) by the endogenous myosin light chain kinase in mechanically skinned skeletal muscle fibres. The method was used to characterize the endogeous MLC2 phosphorylation capacity of single fast-twitch fibres from the rat and to investigate the relationship between the endogenous MLC2 phosphorylation and the

Gabriela M. M. Stephenson; D. G. Stephenson

1993-01-01

57

Comparision of beam data requirements for MLC commissioning on a TPS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The treatment planning system (TPS) has become a key element in the radiotherapy process with the introduction of computer tomography (CT) based 3D conformal treatment planning. Commissioning of a MLC on a TPS either for conformal radiotherapy or intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) requires beam data to be generated on a linear accelerator. Most of the TPS require these beam data to be generated with routine collimator jaws. However some TPS demand the data to be provided for MLC shaped fields. This prompted us to investigate whether beam data with jaws differ than that with MLC and whether the jaw based beam data would suffice for the commissioning of a MLC on a TPS. Beam data like percentage depth dose (PDD), cross beam profiles and output factors was acquired for jaws and MLC defined square fields for 6, 10 and 23 MV photon beams. Percentage depth dose and cross beam profiles were acquired with a radiation field analyzer RFA-200, CC13-S ion chambers with active volume of 0.13 cm3 and OmniPro-Accept software from Scanditronix-Wellhofer. A Medtec-TG51 water tank with Max-4000 electrometer and 0.6 cc PTW ionization chamber and a mini phantom from Standard Imaging was utilized for output measurements for millennium-120 MLC (Varian Medical Systems) and SRS diode detector (Scanditronix-Wellhofer) of 0.6 mm diameter of active area and 0.3 mm of active volume thickness for micro-MLC (BrainLab). The difference in PDD in the build-up region for millennium MLC was ±1.0% for 6 MV photons. For 10 MV photons the PDD difference was within ±4.0%. The difference in PDD for 23 MV photons ranged from 0% to 40.0%. PDD difference from build-up depth to about 28 cm was within ±1.0%. Difference in PDD crossed ±1.0% at 30 cm depth for 6 MV photons. The difference in PDD in the build-up region for mMLC was ±8.0% for 6 MV photons. For the smallest field size studied with micro-MLC i.e. 0.6 × 0.6 cm2 difference in PDD was more than ±1.0% in the build-up region and beyond a depth of 8.0 cm. The profiles for jaws and MLC agreed within the umbra region. However in the penumbra region small differences in doses were observed. The collimator scatter factor (Sc), phantom scatter factor (Sp) and output factor values for MLC were different that those for jaws. The differences in beam characteristics could have implication for intensity modulated radiation therapy and stereotactic radiosurgery in terms of dose in the build up region, exit dose, dose to the planning target volume (PTV) and organ at risk (OAR). Impact of these dosimetric differences between jaw and MLC needs to be further studied in terms of dose volume histograms for PTV and OAR and its further impact on tumor control probability (TCP) and normal tissue complication probability (NTCP).

Solaiappan, Gopi; Singaravelu, Ganesan; Prakasarao, Aruna; Supe, Sanjay S.

2008-01-01

58

The suppression of myosin light chain (MLC) phosphorylation during the response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS): beneficial or detrimental to endothelial barrier?  

PubMed Central

Sepsis-induced vascular leakage is a major underlying cause of the respiratory dysfunction seen in severe sepsis. Here we studied the role of MLC phosphorylation in LPS-induced endothelial hyperpermeability and assessed how the changes in phospho-MLC distribution affect LPS-induced barrier dysfunction. We demonstrated that the changes in human lung microvascular endothelial permeability are preceded by the increase in intracellular calcium level, and increase in MYPT and MLC phosphorylation. Using the siRNA approach, we showed that both LPS-induced barrier dysfunction and MLC phosphorylation are attenuated by the depletion of the smooth muscle isoform of MLC kinase (MLCK) and Rho kinase ROCK2. Surprisingly, pharmacological inhibition of both ROCK1 and 2 with Y-27632 exacerbated LPS-induced drop in transendothelial resistance, although significantly decreasing MLC phosphorylation level. We next studied the involvement of protein kinase A (PKA)-dependent pathways in LPS-induced barrier dysfunction. We showed that LPS decreased the level of PKA-dependent phosphorylation in endothelial cells; and the pretreatment with forskolin or PKA activator bnz-cAMP counteracted this effect. Forskolin and bnz-cAMP also attenuated LPS-induced increase in MLC phosphorylation level. As we have shown earlier (Bogatcheva et al., 2009), forskolin and bnz-cAMP provide protection from LPS-induced barrier dysfunction. We compared the effects of bnz-cAMP and Y-27632 on phospho-MLC distribution and observed that while bnz-cAMP increased the association of the phospho-MLC signal with the cortical structures, Y-27632 decreased this association. These data indicate that an overall decrease in MLC phosphorylation could be either beneficial or detrimental to endothelial barrier, depending on the intracellular locale of major phospho-MLC changes.

Bogatcheva, Natalia V.; Zemskova, Marina A.; Poirier, Christophe; Mirzapoiazova, Tamara; Kolosova, Irina; Bresnick, Anne R.; Verin, Alexander D.

2011-01-01

59

Marine Reserves  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video explains the concept of marine reserves, protected areas where fish and other species are allowed to live longer and grow larger. Other topics include sustainable fishing practices, and a case study about a marine reserve established by fishermen off the Canary Islands.

60

CompTIA A+ Certifications and Exams  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A+ certification is one of the most widely recognized computer technician certification programs. Certification is granted by a non-profit trade organization CompTIA and is vendor neutral. This webpage (from CompTIA website) provides links to A+ certification exam preparation material). Links are given to sample test questions and pages providing information on exam objectives; finding training materials & providers; test taking tips; financial aid; and registering for the exam. Information, including a name and email address, are required.

2007-02-26

61

Neutron dose equivalent measured at the maze door with various openings for the jaws and MLC  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: This study was undertaken to explore the effects of the jaws and the MLC openings on the neutron dose equivalent (DE) at the maze door and neutron flux at the patient plane. Methods: The neutron dose equivalent was measured at the maze entrance door of a 15 MV therapy linear accelerator room. All measurements were performed using various field sizes up to 40 cm x 40 cm. Activation detectors constructed from natural Indium (In) were exposed at Cd envelope to neutrons in order to estimate relative changes of epithermal neutron fluences in the patient plane. Results: Our study showed that the dose equivalent at the maze door is at the highest when the jaw are closed and that maximal jaws opening reduces the DE by more than 20%. The neutron dose equivalent at the maze door measured for radiation fields defined by jaws do not differ significantly from the DE measured when MLC determines the same size radiation field. The epithermal capture reaction rate measured using different jaw openings differs by approximately 10%. When an MLC leaf is inserted into a fixed geometry for one opening of the jaws, an increase of the epithermal neutron capture reaction rate in Indium activation detectors was observed. Conclusions: There is no significant difference in the neutron DE when MLC defines radiation field instead of jaws. This leads to the conclusion that the overall number of neutrons remains similar and it does not depend on how primary photon beam was stopped--by the jaws or the MLC. An increase of the fast neutron capture reaction rate when MLC leaves are inserted probably originates from the neutron scattering.

Krmar, M.; Baucal, M.; Bozic, N.; Jovancevic, N.; Ciraj-Bjelac, O. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, University of Novi Sad, Novi Sad (Serbia); Oncology Institute of Vojvodina, Sremska Kamenica (Serbia); Guy's and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, St Thomas' Hospital, London SE1 7EH (United Kingdom); Physics Department, Faculty of Science, University of Novi Sad, Novi Sad (Serbia); Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Belgrade (Serbia)

2012-03-15

62

An MLC-based linac QA procedure for the characterization of radiation isocenter and room lasers' position  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have designed and implemented a new stereotactic linac QA test with stereotactic precision. The test is used to characterize gantry sag, couch wobble, cone placement, MLC offsets, and room lasers' positions relative to the radiation isocenter. Two MLC star patterns, a cone pattern, and the laser line patterns are recorded on the same imaging medium. Phosphor plates are used

Florin Rosca; Friedlieb Lorenz; Fred L. Hacker; Lee M. Chin; Naren Ramakrishna; Piotr Zygmanski

2006-01-01

63

Evaluation of two methods of predicting MLC leaf positions using EPID measurements.  

PubMed

In intensity modulated radiation treatments (IMRT), the position of the field edges and the modulation within the beam are often achieved with a multileaf collimator (MLC). During the MLC calibration process, due to the finite accuracy of leaf position measurements, a systematic error may be introduced to leaf positions. Thereafter leaf positions of the MLC depend on the systematic error introduced on each leaf during MLC calibration and on the accuracy of the leaf position control system (random errors). This study presents and evaluates two methods to predict the systematic errors on the leaf positions introduced during the MLC calibration. The two presented methods are based on a series of electronic portal imaging device (EPID) measurements. A comparison with film measurements showed that the EPID could be used to measure leaf positions without introducing any bias. The first method, referred to as the "central leaf method," is based on the method currently used at this center for MLC leaf calibration. It mimics the manner in which leaf calibration parameters are specified in the MLC control system and consequently is also used by other centers. The second method, a new method proposed by the authors and referred to as the "individual leaf method," involves the measurement of two positions for each leaf (-5 and +15 cm) and the interpolation and extrapolation from these two points to any other given position. The central leaf method and the individual leaf method predicted leaf positions at prescribed positions of -11, 0, 5, and 10 cm within 2.3 and 1.0 mm, respectively, with a standard deviation (SD) of 0.3 and 0.2 mm, respectively. The individual leaf method provided a better prediction of the leaf positions than the central leaf method. Reproducibility tests for leaf positions of -5 and +15 cm were performed. The reproducibility was within 0.4 mm on the same day and 0.4 mm six weeks later (1 SD). Measurements at gantry angles of 0 degrees, 90 degrees, and 270 degrees for leaf positions of -5 and +15 cm showed no significant effect of gravity. The individual leaf method could be used in various applications to improve the accuracy of radiotherapy treatment from planning to delivery. Three cases are discussed: IMRT beam verification, MLC calibration and dose calculation. PMID:17022210

Parent, Laure; Seco, Joao; Evans, Phil M; Dance, David R; Fielding, Andrew

2006-09-01

64

Effect of a Practice Placement Exam on Placement Exam Scores and Success in Calculus 1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Most colleges administer mathematics placement exams to place students into their first mathematics course. According to Hassett, Downs, and Jenkins (1992), the importance of these placement exams is not communicated to the students. As a consequence, stu...

M. A. Revak S. Frickenstein D. W. Cribb

1997-01-01

65

Acing the Bar Exam : A Checklist Approach to Taking the Bar Exam  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aid provides candidates with a complete guide to the bar exam - from pre-planning considerations through bar review and sitting for the exam. Every aspect of the process is explained in detail and by example. The bar exam is deconstructed, section by section, where candidates are led through the steps they need to follow to succeed. Approaches for

Suzanne Darrow-Kleinhaus

2008-01-01

66

From Exam Factories to Communities of Discovery  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The British current model of education has turned schools into exam factories and further education colleges and universities into skills factories for British industry. In their book, "From Exam Factories to Communities of Discovery: the Democratic Route," the authors offer an alternative way of thinking and talking about education, as well as…

Coffield, Frank; Williamson, Bill

2011-01-01

67

Using Competency Exams for Evaluating Training.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A competency exam can help determine whether a training program has been effective only if it can pass the test of content validity. Seven steps for ensuring validity are developing learning objectives, outlining content, establishing format, constructing test items, evaluating validity, administering the exam, and analyzing results. (JOW)

Smith, Jack E.; Merchant, Sharon

1990-01-01

68

Making Exam Preparation An Enjoyable Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During oral exams at the German distance learning university, we noticed that students fear that they will be faced with questions that they have not anticipated. In our opinion, this is mainly because students have no chance to train and thereby gather positive experiences with exam situations as they are distributed all over Germany and thus it…

Lukosch, Stephan; Schummer, Till

2006-01-01

69

NOTE: Verification of a rounded leaf-end MLC model used in a radiotherapy treatment planning system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new multileaf collimator (MLC) model has been incorporated into version 7.4 of the Pinnacle radiotherapy treatment planning system (Philips Radiation Oncology Systems, Milpitas, CA). The MLC model allows for rounded MLC leaf-ends and provides separate parameters for inter-leaf transmission, intra-leaf transmission and the tongue width of the MLC leaf. In this report we detail the method followed to commission the MLC model for a Varian 120-leaf Millennium MLC (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA, USA) for both 6 and 10 MV photons, and test the validity of the model for an IMRT field. Dose profiles in water were measured for a range of square MLC field sizes and compared to the Pinnacle computed dose profiles; in addition, the dose distribution for a series of adjacent MLC fields was measured to observe the model's behaviour along match-lines. Based on these results intra-leaf transmissions of 1.5% for 6 MV and 1.8% for 10 MV, leaf-tip radius of 12.0 cm, an inter-leaf transmission of 0.5%, and a tongue width of 0.1 cm were chosen. Using these values to compute the planar dose distribution for a 6 MV IMRT field, the new version of Pinnacle displayed improved dosimetric agreement with the dose-to-water EPID image and ion chamber measurements when compared to the old version of Pinnacle, particularly along the MLC tongue edge and across match-lines. Discrepancies of up to 5% were observed between calculated and measured doses along match-lines for both 6 MV and 10 MV photons; however, the new MLC model did predict the presence of match-lines and was a significant improvement on the previous model.

Williams, M. J.; Metcalfe, P.

2006-02-01

70

Exam Frequency Comparison in Introductory Soil Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article describes a study in which the number of exams administered in a semester was examined to determine its impact on students' grades and on course evaluations regarding their recommendation of the course and the instructor to other students. The course was an introductory soil science course in which, over 3 semesters, 5 exams were given per semester. For the next 5 semesters, the number of exams was increased to 10 per semester. For the most recent semesters, students responded that they preferred more frequent exams. Grouping of the semesters into those with either 5 or 10 tests showed a higher overall class grade-point average for the semesters with more tests, and a Chi-square test showed that the higher grades were due to an increase in the proportion of A's. This grouping also showed that giving more exams did not significantly affect the students' response concerning recommendations of the course or the instructor to other students.

Barbarick, K.

71

Use of an amorphous silicon EPID for measuring MLC calibration at varying gantry angle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amorphous silicon electronic portal imaging devices (EPIDs) are used to perform routine quality control (QC) checks on the multileaf collimators (MLCs) at this centre. Presently, these checks are performed at gantry angle 0° and are considered to be valid for all other angles. Since therapeutic procedures regularly require the delivery of MLC-defined fields to the patient at a wide range

M. F. Clarke; G. J. Budgell

2008-01-01

72

Use of an amorphous silicon EPID for measuring MLC calibration at varying gantry angle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amorphous silicon electronic portal imaging devices (EPIDs) are used to perform routine quality control (QC) checks on the multileaf collimators (MLCs) at this centre. Presently, these checks are performed at gantry angle 0 and are considered to be valid for all other angles. Since therapeutic procedures regularly require the delivery of MLC-defined fields to the patient at a wide range

M F Clarke; G J Budgell

2008-01-01

73

The sliding slit test for dynamic IMRT: a useful tool for adjustment of MLC related parameters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For treatments with dynamic intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), the adjustment of multileaf collimator (MLC) parameters affecting both the optimization algorithm and dose distributions is crucial. The main parameters characterizing the MLC are the transmission (T) and the dosimetric leaf separation (DLS). The aim of this study is twofold: a methodology based on the 'sliding slit' test is proposed to determine (T, DLS) combinations inducing the best conformity between calculations and measurements. Secondly, the effects of the MLC adjustment on measured dose and on optimization are presented for different configurations as the chair test and for the patient dosimetric quality control (DQC). Tests were performed with a Varian 23EX linac operated at 20 MV and equipped with a 120 leaf Millenium dynamic collimator. The treatment planning system was CadPlan/Helios (version 6.3.6). Results demonstrated that the sliding width (SW) strongly depends on the (T, DLS) combinations, and the measured dose is a linear function of the SW. Different (T, DLS) combinations induced a good agreement between calculations and measurements. The influence of the MLC calibration was found to be particularly important on the 'sliding slit' test (11.8% for a gap change of 0.8 mm) but not so much on the chair test and on the DQC. To detect small variations in leaf adjustment and to ensure consistency between calculation and actual dose delivered to patients, a daily check called IMRT MU check is proposed.

Chauvet, I.; Petitfils, A.; Lehobey, C.; Kristner, J. Y.; Brunet, Y.; Lembrez, R.; Gaboriaud, G.; Mazal, A.; Zefkili, S.; Rosenwald, J. C.

2005-02-01

74

Analytic IMRT dose calculations utilizing Monte Carlo to predict MLC fluence modulation  

SciTech Connect

A hybrid dose-computation method is designed which accurately accounts for multileaf collimator (MLC)-induced intensity modulation in intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) dose calculations. The method employs Monte Carlo (MC) modeling to determine the fluence modulation caused by the delivery of dynamic or multisegmental (step-and-shoot) MLC fields, and a conventional dose-computation algorithm to estimate the delivered dose to a phantom or a patient. Thus, it determines the IMRT fluence prediction accuracy achievable by analytic methods in the limit that the analytic method includes all details of the MLC leaf transport and scatter. The hybrid method is validated and benchmarked by comparison with in-phantom film dose measurements, as well as dose calculations from two in-house, and two commercial treatment planning system analytic fluence estimation methods. All computation methods utilize the same dose algorithm to calculate dose to a phantom, varying only in the estimation of the MLC modulation of the incident photon energy fluence. Gamma analysis, with respect to measured two-dimensional (2D) dose planes, is used to benchmark each algorithm's performance. The analyzed fields include static and dynamic test patterns, as well as fields from ten DMLC IMRT treatment plans (79 fields) and five SMLC treatment plans (29 fields). The test fields (fully closed MLC, picket fence, sliding windows of different size, and leaf-tip profiles) cover the extremes of MLC usage during IMRT, while the patient fields represent realistic clinical conditions. Of the methods tested, the hybrid method most accurately reproduces measurements. For the hybrid method, 79 of 79 DMLC field calculations have {gamma}{<=}1 (3%/3 mm) for more than 95% of the points (per field) while for SMLC fields, 27 of 29 pass the same criteria. The analytic energy fluence estimation methods show inferior pass rates, with 76 of 79 DMLC and 24 of 29 SMLC fields having more than 95% of the test points with {gamma}{<=}1 (3%/3 mm). Paired one-way ANOVA tests of the gamma analysis results found that the hybrid method better predicts measurements in terms of both the fraction of points with {gamma}{<=}1 and the average gamma for both 2%/2 mm and 3%/3 mm criteria. These results quantify the enhancement in accuracy in IMRT dose calculations when MC is used to model the MLC field modulation.

Mihaylov, I.B.; Lerma, F.A.; Wu, Y.; Siebers, J.V. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, P.O. Box 980058, Richmond, Virginia 23298 (United States)

2006-04-15

75

Quantifying the gantry sag on linear accelerators and introducing an MLC-based compensation strategy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Gantry sag is one of the well-known sources of mechanical imperfections that compromise the spatial accuracy of radiation dose delivery. The objectives of this study were to quantify the gantry sag on multiple linear accelerators (linacs), to investigate a multileaf collimator (MLC)-based strategy to compensate for gantry sag, and to verify the gantry sag and its compensation with film measurements. Methods: The authors used the Winston-Lutz method to measure gantry sag on three Varian linacs. A ball bearing phantom was imaged with megavolt radiation fields at 10 deg. gantry angle intervals. The images recorded with an electronic portal imaging device were analyzed to derive the radiation isocenter and the gantry sag, that is, the superior-inferior wobble of the radiation field center, as a function of the gantry angle. The authors then attempted to compensate for the gantry sag by applying a gantry angle-specific correction to the MLC leaf positions. The gantry sag and its compensation were independently verified using film measurements. Results: Gantry sag was reproducible over a six-month measurement period. The maximum gantry sag was found to vary from 0.7 to 1.0 mm, depending on the linac and the collimator angle. The radiation field center moved inferiorly (i.e., away from the gantry) when the gantry was rotated from 0 deg. to 180 deg. After the MLC leaf position compensation was applied at 90 deg. collimator angle, the maximum gantry sag was reduced to <0.2 mm. The film measurements at gantry angles of 0 deg. and 180 deg. verified the inferior shift of the radiation fields and the effectiveness of MLC compensation. Conclusions: The results indicate that gantry sag on a linac can be quantitatively measured using a simple phantom and an electronic portal imaging device. Reduction of gantry sag is feasible by applying a gantry angle-specific correction to MLC leaf positions at 90 deg. collimator angle.

Du Weiliang; Gao Song; Wang Xiaochun; Kudchadker, Rajat J. [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States)

2012-04-15

76

Quantifying the gantry sag on linear accelerators and introducing an MLC-based compensation strategy  

PubMed Central

Purpose: Gantry sag is one of the well-known sources of mechanical imperfections that compromise the spatial accuracy of radiation dose delivery. The objectives of this study were to quantify the gantry sag on multiple linear accelerators (linacs), to investigate a multileaf collimator (MLC)-based strategy to compensate for gantry sag, and to verify the gantry sag and its compensation with film measurements. Methods: The authors used the Winston–Lutz method to measure gantry sag on three Varian linacs. A ball bearing phantom was imaged with megavolt radiation fields at 10° gantry angle intervals. The images recorded with an electronic portal imaging device were analyzed to derive the radiation isocenter and the gantry sag, that is, the superior–inferior wobble of the radiation field center, as a function of the gantry angle. The authors then attempted to compensate for the gantry sag by applying a gantry angle-specific correction to the MLC leaf positions. The gantry sag and its compensation were independently verified using film measurements. Results: Gantry sag was reproducible over a six-month measurement period. The maximum gantry sag was found to vary from 0.7 to 1.0 mm, depending on the linac and the collimator angle. The radiation field center moved inferiorly (i.e., away from the gantry) when the gantry was rotated from 0° to 180°. After the MLC leaf position compensation was applied at 90° collimator angle, the maximum gantry sag was reduced to <0.2 mm. The film measurements at gantry angles of 0° and 180° verified the inferior shift of the radiation fields and the effectiveness of MLC compensation. Conclusions: The results indicate that gantry sag on a linac can be quantitatively measured using a simple phantom and an electronic portal imaging device. Reduction of gantry sag is feasible by applying a gantry angle-specific correction to MLC leaf positions at 90° collimator angle.

Du, Weiliang; Gao, Song; Wang, Xiaochun; Kudchadker, Rajat J.

2012-01-01

77

Real-time motion-adaptive delivery (MAD) using binary MLC: I. Static beam (topotherapy) delivery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Intra-fraction target motion hits the fundamental basis of IMRT where precise target positions are assumed. Real-time motion compensation is necessary to ensure that the same dose is delivered as planned. Strategies for conventional IMRT delivery for moving targets by dynamic multi-leaf collimators (MLC) tracking are well published. Binary MLC-based IMRT, such as TomoTherapy®, requires synchronized motion of MLC, the couch and the gantry, which suggests a unique motion management strategy. Thanks to its ultra-fast leaf response and fast projection rate, real-time motion compensation for binary MLC-based IMRT is feasible. Topotherapy is a new IMRT delivery technique, which can be implemented in commercial helical TomoTherapy® machines using only fixed gantry positions. In this paper, we present a novel approach for TopoTherapy delivery that adjusts for moving targets without additional hardware and control requirement. This technique uses the planned leaf sequence but rearranges the projection and leaf indices. It does not involve time-consuming operations, such as reoptimization. Unlike gating or breath-hold-based methods, this technique can achieve nearly a 100% duty cycle with little breath control. Unlike dynamic MLC-based tracking methods, this technique requires neither the whole target motion trajectory nor the velocity of target motion. Instead, it only requires instantaneous target positions, which greatly simplifies the system implementation. Extensive simulations, including the worst-case scenarios, validated the presented technique to be applicable to relatively regular or mild irregular respirations. The delivered dose conforms well to the target, and significant margin reduction can be achieved provided that accurate, real-time tumor localization is available.

Lu, Weiguo

2008-11-01

78

Do Proctored Exams Matter In Online Classes?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Does the format of assessment (proctored or un-proctored exams) affect test scores in online principles of economics classes? This study uses data from two courses of principles of economics taught by the same instructor to gain some insight into this issue. When final exam scores are regressed against human capital factors, the R-squared statistic is 61.6% for the proctored format

Oskar R. Harmon; James Lambrinos

2006-01-01

79

Quality assurance of MLC leaf position accuracy and relative dose effect at the MLC abutment region using an electronic portal imaging device  

PubMed Central

We investigated an electronic portal image device (EPID)-based method to see whether it provides effective and accurate relative dose measurement at abutment leaves in terms of positional errors of the multi-leaf collimator (MLC) leaf position. A Siemens ONCOR machine was used. For the garden fence test, a rectangular field (0.2 × 20 cm) was sequentially irradiated 11 times at 2-cm intervals. Deviations from planned leaf positions were calculated. For the nongap test, relative doses at the MLC abutment region were evaluated by sequential irradiation of a rectangular field (2 × 20 cm) 10 times with a MLC separation of 2 cm without a leaf gap. The integral signal in a region of interest was set to position A (between leaves) and B (neighbor of A). A pixel value at position B was used as background and the pixel ratio (A/B × 100) was calculated. Both tests were performed at four gantry angles (0, 90, 180 and 270°) four times over 1 month. For the nongap test the difference in pixel ratio between the first and last period was calculated. Regarding results, average deviations from planned positions with the garden fence test were within 0.5 mm at all gantry angles, and at gantry angles of 90 and 270° tended to decrease gradually over the month. For the nongap test, pixel ratio tended to increase gradually in all leaves, leading to a decrease in relative doses at abutment regions. This phenomenon was affected by both gravity arising from the gantry angle, and the hardware-associated contraction of field size with this type of machine.

Sumida, Iori; Yamaguchi, Hajime; Kizaki, Hisao; Koizumi, Masahiko; Ogata, Toshiyuki; Takahashi, Yutaka; Yoshioka, Yasuo

2012-01-01

80

Brushed permanent magnet DC MLC motor operation in an external magnetic field  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Linac-MR systems for real-time image-guided radiotherapy will utilize the multileaf collimators (MLCs) to perform conformal radiotherapy and tumor tracking. The MLCs would be exposed to the external fringe magnetic fields of the linac-MR hybrid systems. Therefore, an experimental investigation of the effect of an external magnetic field on the brushed permanent magnet DC motors used in some MLC systems was performed. Methods: The changes in motor speed and current were measured for varying external magnetic field strengths up to 2000 G generated by an EEV electromagnet. These changes in motor characteristics were measured for three orientations of the motor in the external magnetic field, mimicking changes in motor orientations due to installation and/or collimator rotations. In addition, the functionality of the associated magnetic motor encoder was tested. The tested motors are used with the Varian 120 leaf Millennium MLC (Maxon Motor half leaf and full leaf motors) and the Varian 52 leaf MKII MLC (MicroMo Electronics leaf motor) including a carriage motor (MicroMo Electronics). Results: In most cases, the magnetic encoder of the motors failed prior to any damage to the gearbox or the permanent magnet motor itself. This sets an upper limit of the external magnetic field strength on the motor function. The measured limits of the external magnetic fields were found to vary by the motor type. The leaf motor used with a Varian 52 leaf MKII MLC system tolerated up to 450{+-}10 G. The carriage motor tolerated up to 2000{+-}10 G field. The motors used with the Varian 120 leaf Millennium MLC system were found to tolerate a maximum of 600{+-}10 G. Conclusions: The current Varian MLC system motors can be used for real-time image-guided radiotherapy coupled to a linac-MR system, provided the fringe magnetic fields at their locations are below the determined tolerance levels. With the fringe magnetic fields of linac-MR systems expected to be larger than the tolerance levels determined, some form of magnetic shielding would be required.

Yun, J.; St Aubin, J.; Rathee, S.; Fallone, B. G. [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, 11322-89 Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2G7 (Canada) and Department of Oncology, Medical Physics Division, University of Alberta, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2 (Canada); Department of Medical Physics, Cross Cancer Institute, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2 (Canada) and Department of Oncology, Medical Physics Division, University of Alberta, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2 (Canada); Department of Physics, University of Alberta, 11322-89 Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2G7 (Canada); Department of Medical Physics, Cross Cancer Institute, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2 (Canada) and Department of Oncology, Medical Physics Division, University of Alberta, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2 (Canada)

2010-05-15

81

EPID-based verification of the MLC performance for dynamic IMRT and VMAT  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: In advanced radiotherapy treatments such as intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT), verification of the performance of the multileaf collimator (MLC) is an essential part of the linac QA program. The purpose of this study is to use the existing measurement methods for geometric QA of the MLCs and extend them to more comprehensive evaluation techniques, and to develop dedicated robust algorithms to quantitatively investigate the MLC performance in a fast, accurate, and efficient manner. Methods: The behavior of leaves was investigated in the step-and-shoot mode by the analysis of integrated electronic portal imaging device (EPID) images acquired during picket fence tests at fixed gantry angles and arc delivery. The MLC was also studied in dynamic mode by the analysis of cine EPID images of a sliding gap pattern delivered in a variety of conditions including different leaf speeds, deliveries at fixed gantry angles or in arc mode, and changing the direction of leaf motion. The accuracy of the method was tested by detection of the intentionally inserted errors in the delivery patterns. Results: The algorithm developed for the picket fence analysis was able to find each individual leaf position, gap width, and leaf bank skewness in addition to the deviations from expected leaf positions with respect to the beam central axis with sub-pixel accuracy. For the three tested linacs over a period of 5 months, the maximum change in the gap width was 0.5 mm, the maximum deviation from the expected leaf positions was 0.1 mm and the MLC skewness was up to 0.2 Degree-Sign . The algorithm developed for the sliding gap analysis could determine the velocity and acceleration/deceleration of each individual leaf as well as the gap width. There was a slight decrease in the accuracy of leaf performance with increasing leaf speeds. The analysis results were presented through several graphs. The accuracy of the method was assessed as 0.01 mm for both the gap size and peak position determination. Conclusions: This study provides fast, easy, and accurate test methods for routine QA of the MLC performance and helps in faster troubleshooting of MLC problems in both IMRT and VMAT treatments.

Rowshanfarzad, Pejman; Sabet, Mahsheed; Barnes, Michael P.; O'Connor, Daryl J.; Greer, Peter B. [School of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, University of Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW 2308 (Australia); Department of Radiation Oncology, Calvary Mater Newcastle Hospital, Newcastle, NSW 2310 (Australia); School of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, University of Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW 2308 (Australia); Department of Radiation Oncology, Calvary Mater Newcastle Hospital, Newcastle, NSW 2310, Australia and School of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, University of Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW 2308 (Australia)

2012-10-15

82

A method for testing the performance and the accuracy of the binary MLC used in helical tomotherapy.  

PubMed

During a helical tomotherapy a binary MLC is used for fluence modulation. The 64 pneumatically driven leaves of the MLC are either completely open or closed. The fast and frequent leaf movements result in a high demand of accuracy and stability of the MLC. This article is based on the analytical investigation of the accuracy and the stability of the MLC. Different patterns of MLC movements were generated to investigate the characteristics of the MLC. One of the considered aspects contains the friction between the leaves. The influence of variations of the compressed air on the MLC was also explored. The integrated MVCT detector of the tomotherapy system deposits the treatment data in a matrix. The detector is triggered with the linear accelerator, which is pulsed by 300Hz. The data matrix is available after the treatment. An IDL (Interactive Data Language) routine was programmed in order to analyse the matrix. The points of time, at which the leaves open (POT), and the period, in which the leaves stay open (LOT), were measured and compared with the desired values. That procedure has been repeated several times a week for approximately 6 months to investigate the stability of the MLC. Relative deviations of the LOT from -0.4% to -5.4% were measured. The friction between the leaves had no significant influence on the LOT. The available compressed air, that is used to move the leaves, depends on the number of moving leaves and also on the previous movements of the MLC. Variations of the compressed air resulted in deviations of the LOT from -1.8% to -3.7%. The measured POT deviates from the programmed POT up to -18.4ms±0.7ms. This maximal deviation correlates with a shift of the gantry angle of 0.52? which is negligible. The MLC has shown a stable behaviour over the 6 months. A separate consideration of the leaves showed no higher standard deviation of the LOT than ±0.7ms during the investigated time. The variation between the different leaves is much higher than the deviations of LOT caused by friction and changes of compressed air. The deviations of the LOT vary between -2.6ms and -11.0ms. The developed method is feasible in order to recognize a deterioration of the MLC performance. PMID:22921842

Lissner, Steffen; Schubert, Kai; Klüter, Sebastian; Oetzel, Dieter; Debus, Jürgen

2012-08-24

83

Energy-Aware Data Compression for MultiLevel Cell (MLC) Flash Memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discover significant value-dependent programming energy variations in multi-level cell (MLC) flash memories, and introduce an energy-aware data compression method that minimizes the flash programming energy rather than the size of the compressed data. We express energy-aware data compression as an entropy coding with unequal bit-pattern costs. Deploying a probabilistic approach, we derive the energy-optimal bit-pattern probabilities and the expected

Yongsoo Joo; Youngjin Cho; Donghwa Shin; Naehyuck Chang

2007-01-01

84

Energy-aware data compression for multi-level cell (MLC) flash memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discover significant value-dependent programming energy variations in multi-level cell (MLC) flash memories, and introduce an energy-aware data compression method that minimizes the flash programming energy rather than the size of the compressed data. We express energy-aware data compression as an entropy coding with unequal bit-pattern costs. Deploying a probabilistic approach, we derive the energy-optimal bit-pattern probabilities and the expected

Yongsoo Joo; Youngjin Cho; Donghwa Shin; Naehyuck Chang

2007-01-01

85

Chip-type LTCC-MLC baluns using the stepped impedance method  

Microsoft Academic Search

A chip-type low-temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC) multilayer ceramic (MLC) balun is presented in this paper. This balun is designed using the stepped impedance method. It uses a multilayer structure, meander lines, and multisection coupled lines. The use of multisection couple lines that have various characteristic impedance ratios can shrink the length of a quarter-wavelength coupled-transmission line and makes it very

Ching-Wen Tang; Jyh-Wen Sheen; Chi-Yang Chang

2001-01-01

86

Reliability and characterization of MLC decoupling capacitors with C4 interconnections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multilayer ceramic (MLC) capacitors are composite structures made of alternating layers of ceramic (dielectric material) and metal (electrodes). The dielectric material is barium titanate-based ceramic and the electrodes are made of platinum. C4 (controlled collapse chip connections) technology is used to provide multiple attachment points to substrates. A high dielectric constant of barium titanate-based ceramic helps to achieve a large

Donald Scheider; Donald Hopkins; Paul Zucco; Edward Moszczynski; Michael Griffin; Mark Takacs; John Galvagni

1996-01-01

87

Inhibition of MLC Phosphorylation Restricts Replication of Influenza Virus--A Mechanism of Action for Anti-Influenza Agents  

PubMed Central

Influenza A viruses are a severe threat worldwide, causing large epidemics that kill thousands every year. Prevention of influenza infection is complicated by continuous viral antigenic changes. Newer anti-influenza agents include MEK/ERK and protein kinase C inhibitors; however, the downstream effectors of these pathways have not been determined. In this study, we identified a common mechanism for the inhibitory effects of a significant group of anti-influenza agents. Our studies showed that influenza infection activates a series of signaling pathways that converge to induce myosin light chain (MLC) phosphorylation and remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton. Inhibiting MLC phosphorylation by blocking RhoA/Rho kinase, phospholipase C/protein kinase C, and HRas/Raf/MEK/ERK pathways with the use of genetic or chemical manipulation leads to the inhibition of influenza proliferation. In contrast, the induction of MLC phosphorylation enhances influenza proliferation, as does activation of the HRas/Raf/MEK/ERK signaling pathway. This effect is attenuated by inhibiting MLC phosphorylation. Additionally, in intracellular trafficking studies, we found that the nuclear export of influenza ribonucleoprotein depends on MLC phosphorylation. Our studies provide evidence that modulation of MLC phosphorylation is an underlying mechanism for the inhibitory effects of many anti-influenza compounds.

Haidari, Mehran; Zhang, Wei; Ganjehei, Leila; Ali, Muzammil; Chen, Zhenping

2011-01-01

88

Inhibition of MLC phosphorylation restricts replication of influenza virus--a mechanism of action for anti-influenza agents.  

PubMed

Influenza A viruses are a severe threat worldwide, causing large epidemics that kill thousands every year. Prevention of influenza infection is complicated by continuous viral antigenic changes. Newer anti-influenza agents include MEK/ERK and protein kinase C inhibitors; however, the downstream effectors of these pathways have not been determined. In this study, we identified a common mechanism for the inhibitory effects of a significant group of anti-influenza agents. Our studies showed that influenza infection activates a series of signaling pathways that converge to induce myosin light chain (MLC) phosphorylation and remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton. Inhibiting MLC phosphorylation by blocking RhoA/Rho kinase, phospholipase C/protein kinase C, and HRas/Raf/MEK/ERK pathways with the use of genetic or chemical manipulation leads to the inhibition of influenza proliferation. In contrast, the induction of MLC phosphorylation enhances influenza proliferation, as does activation of the HRas/Raf/MEK/ERK signaling pathway. This effect is attenuated by inhibiting MLC phosphorylation. Additionally, in intracellular trafficking studies, we found that the nuclear export of influenza ribonucleoprotein depends on MLC phosphorylation. Our studies provide evidence that modulation of MLC phosphorylation is an underlying mechanism for the inhibitory effects of many anti-influenza compounds. PMID:21731751

Haidari, Mehran; Zhang, Wei; Ganjehei, Leila; Ali, Muzammil; Chen, Zhenping

2011-06-23

89

The effect of hypnotherapy on exam anxiety and exam performance: a pilot randomised controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Hypnotherapy is used to treat a range of anxiety disorders. A systematic review in 2009 by Baker, Ainsworth, Torgerson and Torgerson showed that hypnotherapy is effective in reducing exam anxiety; however it was only able to locate five small randomised controlled trials. A full?scale randomised trial is therefore needed to assess whether hypnosis is effective in both reducing exam

Hannah R. Ainsworth; David J. Torgerson; Carole J. Torgerson; Janos Bene; Celia Grant; Sue Ford; Ian Watt

2010-01-01

90

Normal - Cranial Nerves Exam - Oculomotor, Trochlear, Abducens (CN III, IV, VI) Nerves Sub-exam  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video depicts a 'normal' cranial nerves exam. Patient is a female with no known neurological health problems who volunteered to act as a simulated patient in order to demonstrate 'normal' responses to exam techniques. Viewing the video requires installation of the free QuickTime Plug-in.

Pearson, John C.

2009-09-21

91

INSTA-EXAM: A Card-Based Exam Preparation System that Eliminates Repeated Typing and Proofreading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A system that rivals today's computer-based exam preparation systems is described. The INSTA-EXAM system is 10 times faster than the more traditional, labor-intensive method of typing directly on stencil masters. Its ability to quickly and efficiently change, update, and delete information makes it especially useful. (RM)|

Tauber, Robert T.

1984-01-01

92

Normal - Station and Gait Exam - Station Sub-exam - Patient 1  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video demonstrates a normal patient station and gait exam. The patient is a female with no known neurological health problems who volunteered to act as a simulated patient in order to demonstrate 'normal' responses to exam techniques. Viewing the video requires installation of the free QuickTime Plug-in.

Pearson, John C.

2009-01-02

93

Treatment plan comparison between helical tomotherapy and MLC-based IMRT using radiobiological measures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rapid implementation of advanced treatment planning and delivery technologies for radiation therapy has brought new challenges in evaluating the most effective treatment modality. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) using multi-leaf collimators (MLC) and helical tomotherapy (HT) are becoming popular modes of treatment delivery and their application and effectiveness continues to be investigated. Presently, there are several treatment planning systems (TPS) that can generate and optimize IMRT plans based on user-defined objective functions for the internal target volume (ITV) and organs at risk (OAR). However, the radiobiological parameters of the different tumours and normal tissues are typically not taken into account during dose prescription and optimization of a treatment plan or during plan evaluation. The suitability of a treatment plan is typically decided based on dosimetric criteria such as dose-volume histograms (DVH), maximum, minimum, mean and standard deviation of the dose distribution. For a more comprehensive treatment plan evaluation, the biologically effective uniform dose ({\\bar{\\bar{D}}}) is applied together with the complication-free tumour control probability (P+). Its utilization is demonstrated using three clinical cases that were planned with two different forms of IMRT. In this study, three different cancer types at different anatomical sites were investigated: head and neck, lung and prostate cancers. For each cancer type, a linac MLC-based step-and-shoot IMRT plan and a HT plan were developed. The MLC-based IMRT treatment plans were developed on the Philips treatment-planning platform, using the Pinnacle 7.6 software release. For the tomotherapy HiArt plans, the dedicated tomotherapy treatment planning station was used, running version 2.1.2. By using {\\bar{\\bar{D}}} as the common prescription point of the treatment plans and plotting the tissue response probabilities versus {\\bar{\\bar{D}}} for a range of prescription doses, a number of plan trials can be compared based on radiobiological measures. The applied plan evaluation method shows that in the head and neck cancer case the HT treatment gives better results than MLC-based IMRT in terms of expected clinical outcome (P+ of 62.2% and 46.0%, {\\bar{\\bar{D}}} to the ITV of 72.3 Gy and 70.7 Gy, respectively). In the lung cancer and prostate cancer cases, the MLC-based IMRT plans are better over the clinically useful dose prescription range. For the lung cancer case, the HT and MLC-based IMRT plans give a P+ of 66.9% and 72.9%, {\\bar{\\bar{D}}} to the ITV of 64.0 Gy and 66.9 Gy, respectively. Similarly, for the prostate cancer case, the two radiation modalities give a P+ of 68.7% and 72.2%, {\\bar{\\bar{D}}} to the ITV of 86.0 Gy and 85.9 Gy, respectively. If a higher risk of complications (higher than 5%) could be allowed, the complication-free tumour control could increase by over 40%, 2% and 30% compared to the initial dose prescription for the three cancer cases, respectively. Both MLC-based IMRT and HT can encompass the often-large ITV required while they minimize the volume of the organs at risk receiving high doses. Radiobiological evaluation of treatment plans may provide an improved correlation of the delivered treatment with the clinical outcome by taking into account the dose-response characteristics of the irradiated targets and normal tissues. There may exist clinical cases, which may look dosimetrically similar but in radiobiological terms may be quite different. In such situations, traditional dose-based evaluation tools can be complemented by the use of P_ +{-}{\\bar{\\bar{D}}} diagrams to effectively evaluate and compare treatment plans.

Mavroidis, Panayiotis; Costa Ferreira, Brigida; Shi, Chengyu; Lind, Bengt K.; Papanikolaou, Nikos

2007-07-01

94

A Memetic Algorithm for University Exam Timetabling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: The scheduling of exams in institutions of higher education is knownto be a highly constrained problem. The advent of modularity in many institutionsin the UK has resulted in a significant increase in its complexity, imposing evenmore difficulties on university administrators who must find a solution, oftenwithout any computer aid.

Edmund K. Burke; James P. Newall; Rupert F. Weare

1995-01-01

95

English-Spanish Verbatim Translation Exam.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The development and validation of the English-Spanish Verbatim Translation Exam (ESVTE) is described. The test is for use by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) in the selection of applicants for the positions of Language Specialist or Contract Linguist. The report is divided into eight sections. Section 1 describes the need for the test,…

Stansfield, Charles W.; And Others

96

Expedition 32 Final Soyuz Qualification Exams  

NASA Video Gallery

Expedition 32 Flight Engineers Suni Williams, Yuri Malenchenko and Aki Hoshide take their final Soyuz systems qualification exams at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center in Star City, Russia. The trio is scheduled to launch to the International Space Station on July 14.

Russell Todd D

2012-06-20

97

Expedition 36 Final Exams and Training  

NASA Video Gallery

The Expedition 36 crew members conduct final training at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center before their May 28 launch to the International Space Station. Flight Engineers Karen Nyberg, Fyodor Yurchikhin, Luca Parmitano are in Star City, Russia, conducting Russian Soyuz and Russian segment qualification exams and simulations.

Russell Todd D

2013-04-30

98

Learning during a collaborative final exam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Collaborative testing has been suggested to serve as a good learning activity, for example, compared to individual testing. The aim of the present study was to measure learning at different levels of knowledge during a collaborative final exam in a course in basic methods and statistical procedures. Results on pre- and post-tests taken individually (N = 30) before and after the collaborative

Örjan Dahlström

2012-01-01

99

Redesigning the MCAT exam: balancing multiple perspectives.  

PubMed

The authors of this commentary discuss the recently completed review of the current Medical College Admission Test (MCAT), which has been used since 1991, and describe the blueprint for the new test that will be introduced in 2015. The design of the MCAT exam reflects changes in medical education, medical science, health care delivery, and the needs of the populations served by graduates of U.S. and Canadian medical schools. The authors describe how balancing the ambitious goals for the new exam and the varying priorities of the testing program's many stakeholders made blueprint design complex. They discuss the tensions and trade-offs that characterized the design process as well as the deliberations and data that shaped the blueprint.The blueprint for the MCAT exam balances the assessment of a broad range of competencies in the natural, social, and behavioral sciences and critical analysis and reasoning skills that are essential to entering students' success in medical school. The exam will include four sections: Biological and Biochemical Foundations of Living Systems; Chemical and Physical Foundations of Biological Systems; Psychological, Social, and Biological Foundations of Behavior; and Critical Analysis and Reasoning Skills.The authors also offer recommendations for admission committees, advising them to review applicants' test scores, course work, and other academic, personal, and experiential credentials as part of a holistic admission process and in relation to their institutions' educational, scientific, clinical, and service-oriented goals. PMID:23524933

Schwartzstein, Richard M; Rosenfeld, Gary C; Hilborn, Robert; Oyewole, Saundra Herndon; Mitchell, Karen

2013-05-01

100

History of New York State Regents Exams  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper is a brief history of the Regents subject-matter examinations and New York State's efforts to move towards educational equity. New York State was a leader in integrated curriculum and outcomes assessment in high schools for over a century. The first academic exit exam was administered in 1878 and it evolved into the controversial…

Johnson, Carol Siri

2009-01-01

101

Automatic Assessment of 3D Modeling Exams  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Computer-based assessment of exams provides teachers and students with two main benefits: fairness and effectiveness in the evaluation process. This paper proposes a fully automatic evaluation tool for the Graphic and Virtual Design (GVD) curriculum at the First School of Architecture of the Politecnico di Torino, Italy. In particular, the tool…

Sanna, A.; Lamberti, F.; Paravati, G.; Demartini, C.

2012-01-01

102

Digital Rectal Exam (DRE): What to Expect  

MedlinePLUS

A digital rectal exam (DRE) is a screening test that allows a doctor to check the prostate gland in men or the lower colon/rectum in men and women for cancer or other abnormalities. In addition, in association with a vaginal examination, a DRE can check for cancer of ...

103

Improving the performance of BICM-ID and MLC systems with different FEC codes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In bandwidth limited communication systems, the high data rate transmission with performance close to capacity limits is achieved by applying multilevel modulation schemes in association with powerful forward error correction (FEC) coding, i.e. coded modulation systems. The most important practical approaches to coded modulation systems are multilevel coding with multistage decoding (MLC/MSD) and bit interleaved coded modulation with iterative demapping and decoding (BICM-ID). Multilevel modulation formats such as M-QAM, which can be used as a part of coded modulation systems, have the capability of multilevel protection. Based on this fact, we investigate the methods to improve the performance of BICM-ID using multiple interleavers with different binary channel coding schemes such as convolutional codes, turbo codes and low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes. Moreover, an MLC system with parallel decoding on levels (PDL) at the receiver is considered. In our contribution, we propose to design the individual coding schemes using the extrinsic information transfer (EXIT) charts for individual bit levels in the constellation. Our simulation results show that the BICM-ID systems, taking into account different bit-level protections, can provide an improvement of 0.65 dB, 1.2 dB and 1.5 dB for 256-QAM with turbo, LDPC and convolutional codes, respectively. On the other hand, MLC systems with PDL designed using EXIT charts for individual bit levels can slightly improve the performance and eliminate the error floor compared to the systems with MSD.

Arafa, T.; Sauer-Greff, W.; Urbansky, R.

2013-07-01

104

Use of an amorphous silicon EPID for measuring MLC calibration at varying gantry angle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Amorphous silicon electronic portal imaging devices (EPIDs) are used to perform routine quality control (QC) checks on the multileaf collimators (MLCs) at this centre. Presently, these checks are performed at gantry angle 0° and are considered to be valid for all other angles. Since therapeutic procedures regularly require the delivery of MLC-defined fields to the patient at a wide range of gantry angles, the accuracy of the QC checks at other gantry angles has been investigated. When the gantry is rotated to angles other than 0° it was found that the apparent pixel size measured using the EPID varies up to a maximum value of 0.0015 mm per pixel due to a sag in the EPID of up to 9.2 mm. A correction factor was determined using two independent methods at a range of gantry angles between 0° and 360°. The EPID was used to measure field sizes (defined by both x-jaws and MLC) at a range of gantry angles and, after this correction had been applied, any residual gravitational sag was studied. It was found that, when fields are defined by the x-jaws and y-back-up jaws, no errors of greater than 0.5 mm were measured and that these errors were no worse when the MLC was used. It was therefore concluded that, provided the correction is applied, measurements of the field size are, in practical terms, unaffected by gantry angle. Experiments were also performed to study how the reproducibility of individual leaves is affected by gantry angle. Measurements of the relative position of each individual leaf (minor offsets) were performed at a range of gantry angles and repeated three times. The position reproducibility was defined by the RMS error in the position of each leaf and this was found to be 0.24 mm and 0.21 mm for the two leaf banks at a gantry angle of 0°. When measurements were performed at a range of gantry angles, these reproducibility values remained within 0.09 mm and 0.11 mm. It was therefore concluded that the calibration of the Elekta MLC is stable at all gantry angles.

Clarke, M. F.; Budgell, G. J.

2008-01-01

105

Comparative Analysis of Different Measurement Techniques for MLC Characterization: Preliminary Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radiation transmission, leakage and beam penumbra are essential dosimetric parameters related to the commissioning of a multileaf collimation system. This work shows a comparative analysis of commonly used film detectors: X-OMAT V2 and EDR2 radiographic films, and GafChromic EBT® radiochromic film. The results show that X-OMAT over-estimates radiation leakage and 80-20% beam penumbra. However, according to the reference values reported by the manufacturer for these dosimetric parameters, all three films are adequate for MLC dosimetric characterization, but special care must be taken when X-OMAT V2 film is used due to its low energy photon dependence.

Lárraga-Gutiérrez, J. M.; Ballesteros-Zebadúa, P.; García-Garduño, O. A.; Martínez-Dávalos, A.; Rodríguez-Villafuerte, M.; Moreno-Jiménez, S.; Celis, M. A.

2008-08-01

106

Performance of Breast Self-Exam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Breast cancer is a significant health threat for women and is currently the second-leading cause of cancer-related deaths in women. When breast cancer is diagnosed early in the disease process, the probability of survival is quite high, but when diagnosis is made at a later stage, mortality increases dramatically. Thus, early detection is crucial, and monthly breast self-exam (BSE) is

Angela D. Bryan

2001-01-01

107

Expedition 35/36 Final Exams  

NASA Video Gallery

Three Expedition 35/36 crew members prepare for their final exams in their Sokol launch and entry suits at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center in Star City, Russia. NASA astronaut Chris Cassidy and Roscosmos cosmonauts Pavel Vinogradov and Alexander Misurkin are scheduled to launch to the International Space Station on March 28, U.S. time (March 29, Kazakhstan time) in the Soyuz TMA-08M spacecraft.

Mark Garcia

2013-03-05

108

Sample Exams And Transfer In Introductory Mechanics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Why do novices use examples so extensively, no matter which subject area? Examples are often helpful because they reveal how to get from problem descriptions to theoretical re-formulations. Moreover, problem solving in semantically rich domains, like physics, requires one to translate a given problem description into theoretical concepts. We address some of the important issues of knowledge transfer, in the context of introductory mechanics, using data from an on-going sample-exam study conducted at Worcester Polytechnic Institute.

Koleci, Carolann

2010-01-18

109

[Microbiological exams and screenings during pregnancy].  

PubMed

Infections due to bacteria, virus or parasites are frequent during pregnancy and can have severe consequences. Moreover, the vaginal carriage of commensal bacteria or dramatic changes in the equilibrium of the vaginal flora can induce complications and cause fetal contaminations. With the help of the guidelines set up by the French Agency of Accreditation and Evaluation in Health (Anaes), the authors detail the microbiological exams and screening which take part in the management of different situations at risk. PMID:16243574

Judlin, P; Thiébaugeorges, O

2005-10-21

110

EXPOSURE ANALYSIS MODELING SYSTEM: REFERENCE MANUAL FOR EXAMS 2  

EPA Science Inventory

The Exposure Analysis Modeling System (EXAMS), published in 1982 (EPA-600/3-82-023), provides rapid evaluations of the behavior of synthetic organic chemicals in aquatic ecosystems. EXAMS combines laboratory data describing reactivity and thermodynamic properties of chemicals wit...

111

Activation of ATP-sensitive potassium channels as an element of the neuroprotective effects of the Traditional Chinese Medicine MLC901 against oxygen glucose deprivation.  

PubMed

NeuroAid (MLC601 and MLC901), a Traditional Medicine used in China for patients after stroke has been reported in preclinical models of ischemia to induce neuroprotection and neuroplasticity. This work shows the effects of MLC901 on an in vitro model of oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD). MLC901 prevents neuronal death induced by 120 min OGD and decreases the exaggerated Ca²? entry in mature cortical neurons exposed to 120 min OGD. The neuroprotective effect of MLC901 is associated with a large hyperpolarization of ?20 mV which is antagonized by glibenclamide, the specific inhibitor of K(ATP) channels. In addition MLC901 strengthens the activation of K(ATP) channels. MLC901 has been directly shown to act as an activator of K(ATP) channels as potent as the classical K(ATP) channel opener. The capacity of MLC901 to produce a large hyperpolarization, particularly in neurons that have suffered from energy deprivation probably plays an important role in the neuroprotective effects of this traditional medicine that comes in addition to its previously demonstrated neuroregenerative properties. PMID:22659084

Moha Ou Maati, H; Borsotto, M; Chatelain, F; Widmann, C; Lazdunski, M; Heurteaux, C

2012-05-30

112

Development of a Monte Carlo model for the Brainlab microMLC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stereotactic radiosurgery with several static conformal beams shaped by a micro multileaf collimator (?MLC) is used to treat small irregularly shaped brain lesions. Our goal is to perform Monte Carlo calculations of dose distributions for certain treatment plans as a verification tool. A dedicated ?MLC component module for the BEAMnrc code was developed as part of this project and was incorporated in a model of the Varian CL2300 linear accelerator 6 MV photon beam. As an initial validation of the code, the leaf geometry was visualized by tracing particles through the component module and recording their position each time a leaf boundary was crossed. The leaf dimensions were measured and the leaf material density and interleaf air gap were chosen to match the simulated leaf leakage profiles with film measurements in a solid water phantom. A comparison between Monte Carlo calculations and measurements (diode, radiographic film) was performed for square and irregularly shaped fields incident on flat and homogeneous water phantoms. Results show that Monte Carlo calculations agree with measured dose distributions to within 2% and/or 1 mm except for field size smaller than 1.2 cm diameter where agreement is within 5% due to uncertainties in measured output factors.

Belec, Jason; Patrocinio, Horacio; Verhaegen, Frank

2005-03-01

113

Oil reserve  

SciTech Connect

Argonne National Laboratory a facility run for the Department of Energy prepared a supplemental environmental impact statements for Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 (NPR-1) near Bakersfield, California. This paper concludes that NPR-1 might contribute to the decline of an endangered species the San Joaquin kit fox and contaminate nearby ground water. However, DOE disagreed with Argonne about the impact of NPR-1 operations on the endangered fox and nearby ground water. Because these disagreements were unresolved when DOE took over the preparation of the supplemental environmental impact statement the official draft of which is not yet completed it is unclear how Argonne's views will be reflected in the document when it is published for comment. DOE has not taken sufficient action to ensure that NPR-1 operations have complied with environmental laws and regulations governing endangered species, historic preservation, and wastewater sumping. Noncompliance with these requirements could result in legal action, fines, and even a possible shutdown of NPR-1 operations until compliance is achieved. The Department of Interior is investigating to see if prosecution is warranted for possible endangered species violations. Although DOE is trying to address possible problems, similar problems may occur at NPR-1 in the future unless DOE management controls are improved.

Not Available

1991-08-01

114

X-Ray Exam: Lower Leg (Tibia and Fibula)  

MedlinePLUS

X-Ray Exam: Lower Leg (Tibia and Fibula) KidsHealth > Parents > Doctors & Hospitals > Medical Tests & Exams > X-Ray Exam: Lower Leg (Tibia and Fibula) Print A ... If You Have Questions What It Is An X-ray of the tibia and fibula is a safe ...

115

Relationship Between Perceived Clothing Comfort and Exam Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent controlled laboratory studies have shown an effect of clothing comfort on cognitive performance. To test this relationship under naturalistic conditions, student scores on statistics exams were compared with comfort ratings. Prior to the exam, students rated their confidence in taking the exam, number of hours studied, comfort level, type of clothes being worn, and other relevant variables. To maintain

Rick Bell; Armand V. Cardello; Howard G. Schutz

2005-01-01

116

Effect of Paper Color and Question Order on Exam Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To deter cheating, teachers commonly use exams printed on differently colored paper or with varied question orders. Previous studies, however, reported that paper color and question order affect exam performance and suggested that teachers should adjust students' scores accordingly and discontinue the use of alternate exam forms. We conducted 2…

Tal, Ilanit R.; Akers, Katherine G.; Hodge, Gordon K.

2008-01-01

117

What Students Learn When Studying Physics Practice Exam Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We developed a web-based tool to provide students with access to old exam problems and solutions. By controlling the order in which students saw the problems, as well as their access to solutions, we obtained data about student learning by studying old exam problems. Our data suggest that in general students learn from doing old exam problems,…

Fakcharoenphol, Witat; Potter, Eric; Stelzer, Timothy

2011-01-01

118

Profile of State College Entrance Exam Policies. Delaware  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This individual profile provides information on Delaware's college entrance exam standards and polices. Some of the categories presented include: (1) College entrance exam policy; (2) Purpose; (3) Major changes in college entrance exam policy since the 2009-10 school year for financial reasons; (4) Preparation state offers to students taking…

Center on Education Policy, 2011

2011-01-01

119

The Effect of Announced Quizzes on Exam Performance: II  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|I administered announced, multiple-choice quizzes to 1 of 2 sections of a Psychology of Learning class in each of 2 consecutive fall semesters. The quizzes were administered between the first and second exams which were also multiple-choice. Quizzes were discontinued after the second exam. After the second exam, students completed a questionnaire…

Azorlosa, Julian L.

2011-01-01

120

Enhanced Security for Online Exams Using Group Cryptography  

Microsoft Academic Search

While development of the Internet has contributed to the spread of online education, online exams have not been widely adopted. An online exam is defined here as one that takes place over the insecure Internet, and where no proctor is in the same location as the examinees. This paper proposes an enhanced secure online exam management environment mediated by group

Im Young Jung; Heon Young Yeom

2009-01-01

121

Profile of State College Entrance Exam Policies. Kentucky  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This individual profile provides information on Kentucky's college entrance exam standards and polices. Some of the categories presented include: (1) College entrance exam policy; (2) Purpose; (3) Major changes in college entrance exam policy since the 2009-10 school year for financial reasons; (4) Preparation state offers to students taking…

Center on Education Policy, 2011

2011-01-01

122

Comparing the Lexical Difficulty of French Reading Comprehension Exam Texts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|There is an acknowledged difficulty in demonstrating that the standard of school exams remains constant over the years. It is a source of debate every summer when exam results come out. There is some evidence that foreign language exams, and French in particular, have declined in standard since the 1980s, but empirical measures to demonstrate…

Milton, James

2004-01-01

123

Teachers' Opinion Concerning Common Exams Administered in Elementary Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The common exams that have been administered in elementary school since 2007-2008 academic year are inter-classes mid-term evaluations. With these exams, measuring the teachers' performance as well as revealing the differences among the classes are aimed at. Therefore, evaluating these exams in terms of teachers' opinions is essentially important…

Caliskan, Huseyin

2011-01-01

124

In vitro study of cell survival following dynamic MLC intensity-modulated radiation therapy dose delivery  

SciTech Connect

The possibility of reduced cell kill following intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) compared to conventional radiation therapy has been debated in the literature. This potential reduction in cell kill relates to prolonged treatment times typical of IMRT dose delivery and consequently increased repair of sublethal lesions. While there is some theoretical support to this reduction in cell kill published in the literature, direct experimental evidence specific to IMRT dose delivery patterns is lacking. In this study we present cell survival data for three cell lines: Chinese hamster V79 fibroblasts, human cervical carcinoma, SiHa and colon adenocarcinoma, WiDr. Cell survival was obtained for 2.1 Gy delivered as acute dose with parallel-opposed pair (POP), irradiation time 75 s, which served as a reference; regular seven-field IMRT, irradiation time 5 min; and IMRT with a break for multiple leaf collimator (MLC) re-initialization after three fields were delivered, irradiation time 10 min. An actual seven-field dynamic MLC IMRT plan for a head and neck patient was used. The IMRT plan was generated for a Varian EX or iX linear accelerator with 120 leaf Millenium MLC. Survival data were also collected for doses 1x, 2x, 3x, 4x, and 5x 2.1 Gy to establish parameters of the linear-quadratic equation describing survival following acute dose delivery. Cells were irradiated inside an acrylic cylindrical phantom specifically designed for this study. Doses from both IMRT and POP were validated using ion chamber measurements. A reproducible increase in cell survival was observed following IMRT dose delivery. This increase varied from small for V79, with a surviving fraction of 0.8326 following POP vs 0.8420 following uninterrupted IMRT, to very pronounced for SiHa, with a surviving fraction of 0.3903 following POP vs 0.5330 for uninterrupted IMRT. When compared to IMRT or IMRT with a break for MLC initialization, cell survival following acute dose delivery was significantly different, p<0.05, in three out of six cases. In contrast, when cell survival following IMRT was compared to that following IMRT with a break for MLC initialization the difference was always statistically insignificant. When projected to a 30 fraction treatment, dose deficit to bring cell survival to the same value as in POP was calculated as 4.1, 24.9, and 31.1 Gy for V79, WiDr, and SiHa cell lines, respectively. The dose deficit did not relate to the {alpha}/{beta} ratio obtained in this study for the three cell lines. Clinical data do not show reduction in local control following IMRT. Possible reasons for this are discussed. The obtained data set can serve as a test data set for models designed to explore the effect of dose delivery prolongation/fractionation in IMRT on radiation therapy outcome.

Moiseenko, Vitali; Duzenli, Cheryl; Durand, Ralph E. [Vancouver Cancer Centre, British Columbia Cancer Agency, 600 West 10th Avenue, Vancouver, British Columbia V5Z 4E6 (Canada) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, 6224 Agricultural Road, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z1 (Canada); BCCA Cancer Research Centre, 675 West 10th Avenue, Vancouver, British Columbia V5Z 1L3 (Canada)

2007-04-15

125

Biological consequences of MLC calibration errors in IMRT delivery and QA  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The purpose of this work is threefold: (1) to explore biological consequences of the multileaf collimator (MLC) calibration errors in intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) of prostate and head and neck cancers, (2) to determine levels of planning target volume (PTV) and normal tissue under- or overdose flagged with clinically used QA action limits, and (3) to provide biologically based input for MLC QA and IMRT QA action limits. Methods: Ten consecutive prostate IMRT cases and ten consecutive head and neck IMRT cases were used. Systematic MLC offsets (i.e., calibration error) were introduced for each control point of the plan separately for X1 and X2 leaf banks. Offsets were from - 2 to 2 mm with a 0.5 mm increment. The modified files were imported into the planning system for forward dose recalculation. The original plan served as the reference. The generalized equivalent uniform dose (gEUD) was used as the biological index for the targets, rectum, parotid glands, brainstem, and spinal cord. Each plan was recalculated on a CT scan of a 27 cm diameter cylindrical phantom with a contoured 0.6 cc ion chamber. Dose to ion chamber and 3D gamma analysis were compared to the reference plan. QA pass criteria: (1) at least 95% of voxels with a dose cutoff of 50% of maximum dose have to pass at 3 mm/3% and (2) dose to chamber within 2% of the reference dose. Results: For prostate cases, differences in PTV and rectum gEUD greater than 2% were identified. However, a larger proportion of plans leading to greater than 2% difference in prostate PTV gEUD passed the ion chamber QA but not 3D gamma QA. A similar trend was found for the rectum gEUD. For head and neck IMRT, the QA pass criteria flagged plans leading to greater than 4% differences in PTV gEUD and greater than 5% differences in the maximum dose to brainstem. If pass criteria were relaxed to 90% for gamma and 3% for ion chamber QA, plans leading to a 5% difference in PTV gEUD and a 5%-8% difference in brainstem maximum dose would likely pass IMRT QA. A larger proportion of head and neck plans with greater than 2% PTV gEUD difference passed 3D gamma QA compared to ion chamber QA. Conclusions: For low modulation plans, there is a better chance to catch MLC calibration errors with 3D gamma QA rather than ion chamber QA. Conversely, for high modulation plans, there is a better chance to catch MLC calibration errors with ion chamber QA rather than with 3D gamma QA. Ion chamber and 3D gamma analysis IMRT QA can detect greater than 2% change in gEUD for PTVs and critical structures for low modulation treatment plans. For high modulation treatment plans, ion chamber and 3D gamma analysis can detect greater than 2% change in gEUD for PTVs and a 5% change in critical structure gEUD since either QA methods passes the QA criteria. For gEUD changes less than those listed above, either QA method has the same proportion of passing rate.

Moiseenko, Vitali; LaPointe, Vincent; James, Kerry; Yin Lingshu; Liu, Mitchell; Pawlicki, Todd

2012-04-15

126

Virginia's athletic exam form: results and revisions.  

PubMed

In followup of the expanded preparticipation physical exam form introduced by the Virginia High School League in 1989, the author finds substantial evidence of beneficial effects: 1) Perception by school administrators, parents, and students of distinctly improved physical evaluations. 2) Demonstration of previously unrecognized historical and physical findings of significance. 3) Newfound interest in the relationship of health, fitness, and sports among students, coaches, and physicians. 4) Recognition of Virginia's leadership in promoting safety among high school athletes. Suggestions from the medical community generated revisions in the form, which creates a more effective form and gives the physician more flexibility. PMID:1643120

Perriello, V A

1992-01-01

127

Normal - Cranial Nerves Exam - Facial Nerve (CN VII) Sub-exam - Patient 1  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video provides a demonstration of a patient's facial nerve examination. The patient is a female with no known neurological health problems who volunteered to act as a simulated patient in order to demonstrate 'normal' responses to exam techniques. Viewing the video requires installation of the free QuickTime Plug-in.

Pearson, John C.

2009-01-02

128

Engagement with Online Pre-Exam Formative Tests Improves Exam Performance and Feedback Satisfaction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The National Union of Students (NUS) National Student Experience Report identified examination feedback as an area where students had particular concerns. This finding was echoed in the authors' institution and triggered an action research project to investigate ways of improving students' perceptions of pre- and post-exam feedback. We report the…

Hope, Sheila A.; Polwart, Anthony

2012-01-01

129

Dosimetric verification of a Monte Carlo electron beam model for an add-on eMLC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dosimetric verification of a new Monte Carlo beam model for multi-leaf collimated electrons was performed using experimental data from an add-on electron multi-leaf collimator (eMLC) prototype. The measurements were compared against calculations using an electron phase space sampled from a parameterized electron beam model and the voxel Monte Carlo++ (VMC++) code for in-phantom energy deposition. Verification of the calculations was performed in a water phantom with the developed eMLC attached to a Varian 2100 C/D radiotherapy accelerator with nominal energies 6 MeV, 9 MeV, 12 MeV, 16 MeV and 20 MeV. The eMLC prototype consisting of 2 cm thick and 5 mm wide steel leaves is fixed under the 20 × 20 cm2 electron applicator with a source-to-leaf distance 97.2 cm. The eMLC prototype has non-motorized leaves with straight leaf edges and a maximum field size of 20 × 20 cm2 at SSD 100 cm. The beam model is a coupled multi-source model with parameters derived from detailed beam characterization measurements and a kernel model for the indirect leaf-scattered electrons. Typical calculation times with a 2% mean statistical uncertainty was under 5 min. In extensive set of in-water measurements 88% of the voxels were within 2%/2 mm acceptance criterion. Although at SSD 100 cm the dose near the phantom surface is slightly pronounced due to the short collimator-to-surface distance, the new beam model was suitable for dose calculation of the add-on type eMLC.

Vatanen, T.; Traneus, E.; Lahtinen, T.

2008-01-01

130

An algorithm for shifting MLC shapes to adjust for daily prostate movement during concurrent treatment with pelvic lymph nodes.  

PubMed

Concurrent treatment of the prostate and the pelvic lymph nodes encounters the problem of the prostate gland moving independently from the pelvic lymph nodes on a daily basis. The purpose of this study is to develop a leaf-tracking algorithm for adjustment of IMRT portals without requirement of online dose calculation to account for daily prostate position during concurrent treatment with pelvic lymph nodes. A leaf-shifting algorithm was developed and programmed to adjust the positions of selected MLC leaf pairs according to prostate movement in the plane perpendicular to each beam angle. IMRT plans from five patients with concurrent treatment of the prostate and pelvic lymph nodes were selected to test the feasibility of this algorithm by comparison with isocenter-shifted plans, using defined dose endpoints. When the prostate moved 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 cm along the anterior/posterior direction, the average doses to 95% of the prostate (D95%) for the iso-shift plans were similar to the MLC-shift plans, (54.7, 54.4, and 54.1 Gy versus 54.5, 54.3, and 53.9 Gy, respectively). The corresponding D95% averages to the pelvic lymph nodes were reduced from the prescription dose of 45 Gy to 42.7, 38.3, and 34.0 Gy for iso-shift plans (p = 0.04 for each comparison), while the D95% averages for the MLC-shift plans did not significantly differ from the prescription dose, at 45.0, 44.8, and 44.5 Gy. Compensation for prostate movement along the superior/inferior direction was more complicated due to a limiting MLC leaf width of 1.0 cm. In order to concurrently treat the prostate and pelvic lymph nodes with the prostate moving independently, shifting selected MLC leaf pairs may be a more practical adaptive solution than shifting the patient. PMID:18196802

Ludlum, Erica; Mu, Guangwei; Weinberg, Vivian; Roach, Mack; Verhey, Lynn J; Xia, Ping

2007-12-01

131

High-Dose Spatially Fractionated GRID Radiation Therapy (SFGRT): A Comparison of Treatment Outcomes With Cerrobend vs. MLC SFGRT  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Spatially fractionated GRID radiotherapy (SFGRT) using a customized Cerrobend block has been used to improve response rates in patients with bulky tumors. The clinical efficacy of our own multileaf collimator (MLC) technique is unknown. We undertook a retrospective analysis to compare clinical response rates attained using these two techniques. Methods and Materials: Seventy-nine patients with bulky tumors (median diameter, 7.6 cm; range, 4-30 cm) treated with SFGRT were reviewed. Between 2003 and late 2005, the Cerrobend block technique (n = 39) was used. Between late 2005 and 2008, SFGRT was delivered using MLC-shaped fields (n = 40). Dose was prescribed to dmax (depth of maximum dose) and was typically 15 Gy. Eighty percent of patients in both groups received external beam radiotherapy in addition to SFGRT. The two-sided Fisher-Freeman-Halton test was used to compare pain and mass effect response rates between the two groups. Results: Sixty-one patients (77%) were treated for palliative intent and 18 (23%) for curative intent. The majority of patients had either lung or head-and-neck primaries in both groups; the most frequent site of SFGRT application was the neck. The majority of patients complained of either pain (65%) or mass effect (58%) at intake. Overall response rates for pain and mass response were no different between the Cerrobend and MLC groups: pain, 75% and 74%, respectively (p = 0.50), and mass effect, 67% and 73%, respectively (p = 0.85). The majority of toxicities were Grade 1 or 2, and only 3 patients had late Grade 3-4 toxicities. Conclusions: MLC-based and Cerrobend-based SFGRT have comparable and encouraging response rates when used either in the palliative or curative setting. MLC-based SGFRT should allow clinics to more easily adopt this novel treatment approach for the treatment of bulky tumors.

Neuner, Geoffrey, E-mail: gneuner@umm.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Mohiuddin, Majid M. [Northwest Radiation Oncology and University of Texas Medical School at Houston, Houston, TX (United States); Vander Walde, Noam [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Goloubeva, Olga [Marlene and Stewart Greenebaum Cancer Center, University of Maryland Medical Center, Baltimore, MD (United States); Ha, Jonathan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California (United States); Yu, Cedric X.; Regine, William F. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States)

2012-04-01

132

Dosimetric evaluation of photon dose calculation under jaw and MLC shielding.  

PubMed

Purpose: The accuracy of photon dose calculation algorithms in out-of-field regions is often neglected, despite its importance for organs at risk and peripheral dose evaluation. The present work has assessed this for the anisotropic analytical algorithm (AAA) and the Acuros-XB algorithms implemented in the Eclipse treatment planning system. Specifically, the regions shielded by the jaw, or the MLC, or both MLC and jaw for flattened and unflattened beams have been studied.Methods: The accuracy in out-of-field dose under different conditions was studied for two different algorithms. Measured depth doses out of the field, for different field sizes and various distances from the beam edge were compared with the corresponding AAA and Acuros-XB calculations in water. Four volumetric modulated arc therapy plans (in the RapidArc form) were optimized in a water equivalent phantom, PTW Octavius, to obtain a region always shielded by the MLC (or MLC and jaw) during the delivery. Doses to different points located in the shielded region and in a target-like structure were measured with an ion chamber, and results were compared with the AAA and Acuros-XB calculations. Photon beams of 6 and 10 MV, flattened and unflattened were used for the tests.Results: Good agreement between calculated and measured depth doses was found using both algorithms for all points measured at depth greater than 3 cm. The mean dose differences (±1SD) were -8% ± 16%, -3% ± 15%, -16% ± 18%, and -9% ± 16% for measurements vs AAA calculations and -10% ± 14%, -5% ± 12%, -19% ± 17%, and -13% ± 14% for Acuros-XB, for 6X, 6 flattening-filter free (FFF), 10X, and 10FFF beams, respectively. The same figures for dose differences relative to the open beam central axis dose were: -0.1% ± 0.3%, 0.0% ± 0.4%, -0.3% ± 0.3%, and -0.1% ± 0.3% for AAA and -0.2% ± 0.4%, -0.1% ± 0.4%, -0.5% ± 0.5%, and -0.3% ± 0.4% for Acuros-XB. Buildup dose was overestimated with AAA, while Acuros-XB gave results more consistent with measurements. From RapidArc plan analysis the average difference between calculation and measurement in the shielded region was -0.3% ± 0.4% and -2.5% ± 1.2% for AAA and Acuros-XB, respectively, relative to the mean target dose value (1.6% ± 2.3%, -12.7% ± 4.0% if relative to each local value). These values were compared with the corresponding differences in the target structure: -0.7% ± 2.3% for AAA, and -0.5% ± 2.3% for Acuros-XB.Conclusions: The two algorithms analyzed showed encouraging results in predicting out-of-field region dose for clinical use. PMID:24089896

Fogliata, A; Clivio, A; Vanetti, E; Nicolini, G; Belosi, M F; Cozzi, L

2013-10-01

133

[The results of determining compatibility in the MLC reaction in hemoblastosis patients undergoing bone marrow transplantation from HLA-identical siblings].  

PubMed

Compatibility in mixed lymphocyte culture (MLC) test was determined for 60 hemoblastosis patients with their 71 HLA-identical sibs to transplant allogenic syngeneic bone marrow. A protocol for the MLC radioisotope micromethod with culturing in plates is described for the pair donor-recipient in the direct and reverse variants covering about 20 variants of mixed cultures. This secures the results' reliability. Plotting of the MLC compatibility results for each pair has been proposed. Incompatibility by MLC was revealed in 5 out of 71 pairs (7%). Bone marrow transplantation was performed in 30 patients from their HLA-identical/MLC-compatible sibs. The secondary disease due to incompatibility missed in the MLC reaction occurred in 5 cases (16.7%), transplant rejection in 2 cases (6.7%), which is less in number than literature data. It was established that determination of compatibility by MLC may serve a reliable criterion of assessing a genotypic pair HLA identity and should be conducted before each allogenic and syngeneic transplantation of bone marrow. The protocols of the method performance and compatibility parameters evaluation warrant high significance of the compatibility definition confirmed by clinical responses with minimal probability of secondary disease. PMID:8034164

Shpakova, A P; Bulycheva, T I; Dronova, V M; Okhrimenko, T N; Liubimova, L S; Mendeleeva, L P; Savchenko, V G

1993-05-01

134

Mlc is a transcriptional activator with a key role in integrating cyclic AMP receptor protein and integration host factor regulation of leukotoxin RNA synthesis in Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans.  

PubMed

Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, a periodontal pathogen, synthesizes leukotoxin (LtxA), a protein that helps the bacterium evade the host immune response. Transcription of the ltxA operon is induced during anaerobic growth. The cyclic AMP (cAMP) receptor protein (CRP) indirectly increases ltxA expression, but the intermediary regulator is unknown. Integration host factor (IHF) binds to and represses the leukotoxin promoter, but neither CRP nor IHF is responsible for the anaerobic induction of ltxA RNA synthesis. Thus, we have undertaken studies to identify other regulators of leukotoxin transcription and to demonstrate how these proteins work together to modulate leukotoxin synthesis. First, analyses of ltxA RNA expression from defined leukotoxin promoter mutations in the chromosome identify positions -69 to -35 as the key control region and indicate that an activator protein modulates leukotoxin transcription. We show that Mlc, which is a repressor in Escherichia coli, functions as a direct transcriptional activator in A. actinomycetemcomitans; an mlc deletion mutant reduces leukotoxin RNA synthesis, and recombinant Mlc protein binds specifically at the -68 to -40 region of the leukotoxin promoter. Furthermore, we show that CRP activates ltxA expression indirectly by increasing the levels of Mlc. Analyses of ?mlc, ?ihf, and ?ihf ?mlc strains demonstrate that Mlc can increase RNA polymerase (RNAP) activity directly and that IHF represses ltxA RNA synthesis mainly by blocking Mlc binding. Finally, a ?ihf ?mlc mutant still induces ltxA during anaerobic growth, indicating that there are additional factors involved in leukotoxin transcriptional regulation. A model for the coordinated regulation of leukotoxin transcription is presented. PMID:23475968

Childress, Catherine; Feuerbacher, Leigh A; Phillips, Linda; Burgum, Alex; Kolodrubetz, David

2013-03-08

135

Olympic Park Recreational Reserve Reserve Management Plan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document is a Management Plan for the Olympic Park Reserve within Waitakere and Auckland Cities. The Plan has been developed as a guide for the protection, use and development of the Reserve, with an emphasis on managing its organised and informal recreation while recognising its cultural heritage and ecological rehabilitation opportunities.

136

COGNITIVE RESERVE IN AGING  

PubMed Central

Cognitive reserve explains why those with higher IQ, education, occupational attainment, or participation in leisure activities evidence less severe clinical or cognitive changes in the presence of age-related or Alzheimer’s disease pathology. Specifically, the cognitive reserve hypothesis is that individual differences in how tasks are processed provide reserve against brain pathology. Cognitive reserve may allow for more flexible strategy usage, an ability thought to be captured by executive functions tasks. Additionally, cognitive reserve allows individuals greater neural efficiency, greater neural capacity, and the ability for compensation via the recruitment of additional brain regions. Taking cognitive reserve into account may allow for earlier detection and better characterization of age-related cognitive changes and Alzheimer’s disease. Importantly, cognitive reserve is not fixed but continues to evolve across the lifespan. Thus, even late-stage interventions hold promise to boost cognitive reserve and thus reduce the prevalence of Alzheimer’s disease and other age-related problems.

Tucker, Adrienne M.; Stern, Yaakov

2011-01-01

137

Gas reserves debate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysts are optimistic or pessimistic about natural gas reserves according to their view of the Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978. The American Gas Association (AGA) finds evidence that reserves are plentiful at 106% replacement levels, while the Energy Information Adminstration (EIA) Office finds only a 24% level of new production replacing reserves. According to the EIA, mature fields in

1984-01-01

138

The effect of NeuroAiD™ (MLC601) on cerebral blood flow velocity in subjects' post brain infarct in the middle cerebral artery territory  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundStroke is the third common cause of mortality and the most common cause of morbidity in adults. MLC601 (NeuroAiD™) is a treatment indicated for post stroke recovery. An increase of impaired cerebral blood flow may be an important parameter for recovery processes. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of MLC601 on cerebral blood flow velocity as

Reza Bavarsad Shahripour; Gholamreza Shamsaei; Hosein Pakdaman; Nastaran Majdinasab; Ehsan Mohammadiani Nejad; Seyed Aidin Sajedi; Mehdi Norouzi; Ahmad Hemmati; Reza Haj Manouchehri; Abolfazl Shiravi

2011-01-01

139

Exit Exams Face Pinch in Common-Core Push  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|With many states crafting assessments based on the common-core standards--and an increasing emphasis on college and career readiness--some are rethinking the kind of tests high school students must pass to graduate, or whether to use such exit exams at all. Twenty-five states, enrolling a total of 34.1 million students, make exit exams a…

Ujifusa, Andrew

2012-01-01

140

The Impact of Daily Extra Credit Quizzes on Exam Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined whether offering daily extra credit quizzes predicted exam performance in an advanced psychology course (n = 36). Results revealed that extra credit performance was a strong predictor of exam performance, above and beyond gender, college grade point average, and ACT scores. In addition, results suggested that nearly half of…

Padilla-Walker, Laura M.

2006-01-01

141

A One-Hour Practical Lab Exam for Organic Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A lab practical exam for second-year organic chemistry is presented that tests multiple lab skills and theory that the students have acquired directly from laboratory experiences. This exam motivates students to learn lab skills and is an effective end-of-term test for many of those skills. (Contains 2 figures.)|

Neeland, Edward G.

2007-01-01

142

Some humor in an A.I. qualifying exam  

Microsoft Academic Search

George L. Sicherman has recently taken the Special Area Qualifying Exam in A.I. in my department. In addition to six bona fide q, he was asked to answer two light-hearted ones. I think his responses are funny enough to be published in this forum. It was a take-home exam which fact enable him to \\

Nicholas V. Findler

1981-01-01

143

Problematizing High School Certificate Exam in Pakistan: A Washback Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes and evaluates the Higher-Secondary School Certificate (HSC) exam in Pakistan that has been in place in its present form for more than thirty years. The author recounts her experience as a teacher of English in a representative high school in Pakistan and, reflecting on the impact of high school public exam, she argues that the…

Jilani, Raana

2009-01-01

144

Commitment to Study as a Technique to Improve Exam Performance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reports on a technique that could increase study time by reducing procrastination. Randomly selected college students (N=197) made written commitments to study for an exam. Students in the commitment condition reported significantly more study time than did students in a control group; they also performed significantly better on the exam. (RJM)|

Leeming, Frank C.

1997-01-01

145

Writing about testing worries boosts exam performance in the classroom.  

PubMed

Two laboratory and two randomized field experiments tested a psychological intervention designed to improve students' scores on high-stakes exams and to increase our understanding of why pressure-filled exam situations undermine some students' performance. We expected that sitting for an important exam leads to worries about the situation and its consequences that undermine test performance. We tested whether having students write down their thoughts about an upcoming test could improve test performance. The intervention, a brief expressive writing assignment that occurred immediately before taking an important test, significantly improved students' exam scores, especially for students habitually anxious about test taking. Simply writing about one's worries before a high-stakes exam can boost test scores. PMID:21233387

Ramirez, Gerardo; Beilock, Sian L

2011-01-14

146

What students learn when studying physics practice exam problems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We developed a web-based tool to provide students with access to old exam problems and solutions. By controlling the order in which students saw the problems, as well as their access to solutions, we obtained data about student learning by studying old exam problems. Our data suggest that in general students learn from doing old exam problems, and that having access to the problem solutions increases their learning. However, the data also suggest the depth of learning may be relatively shallow. In addition, the data show that doing old exam problems provides important formative assessment about the student’s overall preparedness for the exam and their particular areas of strength and weakness.

Fakcharoenphol, Witat; Potter, Eric; Stelzer, Timothy

2011-06-01

147

Experimental verification of a Monte Carlo-based MLC simulation model for IMRT dose calculations in heterogeneous media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

IMRT often requires delivering small fields which may suffer from electronic disequilibrium effects. The presence of heterogeneities, particularly low-density tissues in patients, complicates such situations. In this study, we report on verification of the DPM MC code for IMRT treatment planning in heterogeneous media, using a previously developed model of the Varian 120-leaf MLC. The purpose of this study is twofold: (a) design a comprehensive list of experiments in heterogeneous media for verification of any dose calculation algorithm and (b) verify our MLC model in these heterogeneous type geometries that mimic an actual patient geometry for IMRT treatment. The measurements have been done using an IMRT head and neck phantom (CIRS phantom) and slab phantom geometries. Verification of the MLC model has been carried out using point doses measured with an A14 slim line (SL) ion chamber inside a tissue-equivalent and a bone-equivalent material using the CIRS phantom. Planar doses using lung and bone equivalent slabs have been measured and compared using EDR films (Kodak, Rochester, NY).

Tyagi, N.; Curran, B. H.; Roberson, P. L.; Moran, J. M.; Acosta, E.; Fraass, B. A.

2008-02-01

148

Dosimetric comparison between two MLC systems commonly used for stereotactic radiosurgery and radiotherapy: a Monte Carlo and experimental study.  

PubMed

In this work dosimetric parameters of two multi-leaf collimator (MLC) systems, namely the beam modulator (BM), which is the MLC commercial name for Elekta "Synergy S" linear accelerator and Radionics micro-MLC (MMLC), are compared using measurements and Monte Carlo simulations. Dosimetric parameters, such as percentage depth doses (PDDs), in-plane and cross-plane dose profiles, and penumbras for different depths and field sizes of the 6 MV photon beams were measured using ionization chamber and a water tank. The collimator leakages were measured using radiographic films. MMLC and BM were modeled using the EGSnrc-based BEAMnrc Monte Carlo code and above dosimetric parameters were calculated. The energy fluence spectra for the two MLCs were also determined using the BEAMnrc and BEAMDP. Dosimetric parameters of the two MLCs were similar, except for penumbras. Leaf-side and leaf-end 80-20% dose penumbras at 10 cm depth for a 10×10 cm(2) field size were 4.8 and 5.1mm for MMLC and 5.3 mm and 6.3 mm for BM, respectively. Both Radionics MMLC and Elekta BM can be used effectively based on their dosimetric characteristics for stereotactic radiosurgery and radiotherapy, although the former showed slightly sharper dose penumbra especially in the leaf-end direction. PMID:22658764

Asnaashari, K; Chow, James C L; Heydarian, Mostafa

2012-05-31

149

Investigation of the sag in linac secondary collimator and MLC carriage during arc deliveries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In modern radiotherapy, it is vitally important to monitor the performance of all linac components including the collimation system. In this study, a simple measurement method and accurate algorithm are introduced for investigation of the secondary and tertiary collimator sag during radiotherapy arc treatments. The method is based on cine EPID images of a ball bearing marker fixed to the gantry head and determines the jaw and MLC sag in all directions relative to the reference at zero gantry angle. Analysis was performed using different field sizes and collimator angles, different linacs and different gantry rotation directions. The accuracy of the method was tested and was less than 0.02 mm. The repeatability and reproducibility of the method was 0.005 and 0.09 mm, respectively. The setup is easy and quick and the algorithm is fast and fully automatic with sub-pixel accuracy. This method is suitable to be included in the routine quality assurance of linacs to monitor the collimator system performance.

Rowshanfarzad, Pejman; Sabet, Mahsheed; O'Connor, Daryl J.; Greer, Peter B.

2012-06-01

150

Air Force Health Care Providers Incidence of Performing Testicular Exams and Instruction of Testicular Self-Exam.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this study was to describe the incidence of Air Force Health Care Provider's performance of testicular exams and their incidence of teaching testicular self-exam (TSE) within an Air Force healthcare setting. The study is also designed to de...

N. S. Adams

1999-01-01

151

Experimental investigation of a moving averaging algorithm for motion perpendicular to the leaf travel direction in dynamic MLC target tracking  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: In dynamic multileaf collimator (MLC) motion tracking with complex intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) fields, target motion perpendicular to the MLC leaf travel direction can cause beam holds, which increase beam delivery time by up to a factor of 4. As a means to balance delivery efficiency and accuracy, a moving average algorithm was incorporated into a dynamic MLC motion tracking system (i.e., moving average tracking) to account for target motion perpendicular to the MLC leaf travel direction. The experimental investigation of the moving average algorithm compared with real-time tracking and no compensation beam delivery is described. Methods: The properties of the moving average algorithm were measured and compared with those of real-time tracking (dynamic MLC motion tracking accounting for both target motion parallel and perpendicular to the leaf travel direction) and no compensation beam delivery. The algorithm was investigated using a synthetic motion trace with a baseline drift and four patient-measured 3D tumor motion traces representing regular and irregular motions with varying baseline drifts. Each motion trace was reproduced by a moving platform. The delivery efficiency, geometric accuracy, and dosimetric accuracy were evaluated for conformal, step-and-shoot IMRT, and dynamic sliding window IMRT treatment plans using the synthetic and patient motion traces. The dosimetric accuracy was quantified via a {gamma}-test with a 3%/3 mm criterion. Results: The delivery efficiency ranged from 89 to 100% for moving average tracking, 26%-100% for real-time tracking, and 100% (by definition) for no compensation. The root-mean-square geometric error ranged from 3.2 to 4.0 mm for moving average tracking, 0.7-1.1 mm for real-time tracking, and 3.7-7.2 mm for no compensation. The percentage of dosimetric points failing the {gamma}-test ranged from 4 to 30% for moving average tracking, 0%-23% for real-time tracking, and 10%-47% for no compensation. Conclusions: The delivery efficiency of moving average tracking was up to four times higher than that of real-time tracking and approached the efficiency of no compensation for all cases. The geometric accuracy and dosimetric accuracy of the moving average algorithm was between real-time tracking and no compensation, approximately half the percentage of dosimetric points failing the {gamma}-test compared with no compensation.

Yoon, Jai-Woong; Sawant, Amit; Suh, Yelin; Cho, Byung-Chul; Suh, Tae-Suk; Keall, Paul [Department of Biomedical Engineering, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea 131-700 and Research Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, 131-700 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States) and Department of Radiation Oncology, Asan Medical Center, Seoul, 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Biomedical Engineering, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, 131-700 and Research Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, 131-700 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States) and Radiation Physics Laboratory, Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, 2006 (Australia)

2011-07-15

152

Experimental investigation of a moving averaging algorithm for motion perpendicular to the leaf travel direction in dynamic MLC target tracking  

PubMed Central

Purpose: In dynamic multileaf collimator (MLC) motion tracking with complex intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) fields, target motion perpendicular to the MLC leaf travel direction can cause beam holds, which increase beam delivery time by up to a factor of 4. As a means to balance delivery efficiency and accuracy, a moving average algorithm was incorporated into a dynamic MLC motion tracking system (i.e., moving average tracking) to account for target motion perpendicular to the MLC leaf travel direction. The experimental investigation of the moving average algorithm compared with real-time tracking and no compensation beam delivery is described.Methods: The properties of the moving average algorithm were measured and compared with those of real-time tracking (dynamic MLC motion tracking accounting for both target motion parallel and perpendicular to the leaf travel direction) and no compensation beam delivery. The algorithm was investigated using a synthetic motion trace with a baseline drift and four patient-measured 3D tumor motion traces representing regular and irregular motions with varying baseline drifts. Each motion trace was reproduced by a moving platform. The delivery efficiency, geometric accuracy, and dosimetric accuracy were evaluated for conformal, step-and-shoot IMRT, and dynamic sliding window IMRT treatment plans using the synthetic and patient motion traces. The dosimetric accuracy was quantified via a ?-test with a 3%/3 mm criterion.Results: The delivery efficiency ranged from 89 to 100% for moving average tracking, 26%–100% for real-time tracking, and 100% (by definition) for no compensation. The root-mean-square geometric error ranged from 3.2 to 4.0 mm for moving average tracking, 0.7–1.1 mm for real-time tracking, and 3.7–7.2 mm for no compensation. The percentage of dosimetric points failing the ?-test ranged from 4 to 30% for moving average tracking, 0%–23% for real-time tracking, and 10%–47% for no compensation.Conclusions: The delivery efficiency of moving average tracking was up to four times higher than that of real-time tracking and approached the efficiency of no compensation for all cases. The geometric accuracy and dosimetric accuracy of the moving average algorithm was between real-time tracking and no compensation, approximately half the percentage of dosimetric points failing the ?-test compared with no compensation.

Yoon, Jai-Woong; Sawant, Amit; Suh, Yelin; Cho, Byung-Chul; Suh, Tae-Suk; Keall, Paul

2011-01-01

153

Real-time motion-adaptive delivery (MAD) using binary MLC: II. Rotational beam (tomotherapy) delivery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

TomoTherapy delivery is controlled by a planned, projection-wised leaf sequence (sinogram) that is optimized during treatment planning. In this paper, we developed a software solution for real-time motion compensation that delivers helical TomoTherapy plans without modifying the hardware and workflow of the TomoTherapy delivery system. Unlike the dynamic MLC-based method, our technique only requires instantaneous tumor positions, which greatly simplifies its implementation. This technique re-uses the planned sinogram by shuffling its projections and leaf sequences. In order to compensate for longitudinal tumor motion in real-time, instead of sequential execution of the planned sinogram, the projections are executed out of order. That is, we may choose a past or future projection of the planned sinogram rather than the current projection depending on tumor motion, so that the planned radiation source position of the chosen projection is the same as the radiation source position at the current delivery time in the tumor reference frame. The transverse tumor motion is further compensated for by shifting and scaling the leaf open time of the chosen projection. We tested different planned sinograms that were optimized using various synthetic tumor/OAR configurations, as well as planned sinogram of a lung cancer patient, all with zero motion margins. Various TomoTherapy machine parameters and both regular and irregular respiratory traces were used in calculations. By applying the motion-adaptive delivery (MAD) technique, the delivered dose matched the planned dose very well in both DVH and dose profiles. As for the regular and minor irregular respiration, the dose errors were well below 3 mm and 3% criteria. No hot and cold spots were noticeable. For irregular respiration with some missing breathing cycles, this method demonstrates the capability for motion margin reduction.

Lu, Weiguo

2008-11-01

154

X-Ray Exam: Bone Age Study (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... adrenal gland disorders genetic growth disorders, such as Turner syndrome (TS) orthopedic or orthodontic problems in which the ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Turner Syndrome Bones, Muscles, and Joints X-Ray Exam: Wrist ...

155

Exposure Analysis Modeling System (EXAMS): User Manual and System Documentation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Exposure Analysis Modeling System (EXAMS) was designed for rapid evaluation of the behavior of synthetic organic chemicals in aquatic ecosystems. From the chemistry of a compound and the relevant transport and physical/chemical characteristics of the ...

D. M. Cline L. A. Burns R. R. Lassiter

1982-01-01

156

EXAM: A Two-State Thermodynamic Analysis Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

EXAM is a computer program written for the analysis of data from calorimetric or spectroscopic data on the denaturation of proteins, oligonucleotides, lipids and other macromolecules in terms of a two-state model of thermodynamic equilibrium.

W. H. Kirchhoff

1993-01-01

157

Do Weekly Quizzes Improve Student Performance on General Biology Exams?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluates the impact of quizzes on student performance among non-biology major freshmen. Administers weekly quizzes and compares with the control group who experience no quizzes. Reports no significant improvement in exam scores. (YDS)

Haberyan, Kurt A.

2003-01-01

158

Comparative Racial Analysis of Enlisted Advancement Exams: Item Differentiation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A comparative racial analysis of item differentiation was conducted to determine whether advancement exam items are similarly differentiating between good and poor performers of racial groups. Techniques were also investigated to improve test quality as m...

D. J. Morena D. W. Robertson M. H. Royle

1977-01-01

159

Your First Pelvic Exam: A Guide for Teens  

MedlinePLUS

... belly or around the pelvic area, where your vagina is Vaginal discharge or wetness on your underwear ... skin that partly covers the opening to your vagina). What should I do before the exam? When ...

160

Implementation of Screening and Exams for Diabetic Retinopathy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Diabetes is the leading cause of legal blindness in the US. Diabetic retinopathy is preventable if caught early and sight saving treatment is given; nevertheless, many diabetics simply don't have regular eye exams. Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation (J...

R. A. Goldstein

2001-01-01

161

Skin Cancer: Need for Skin Exam Increases with Age  

MedlinePLUS

... are middle-aged and older. Why Age Increases Skin Cancer Risk By the time we reach middle ... freckle should be examined by a dermatologist. Regular Skin Exams Can Detect Skin Cancer The purpose of ...

162

Successful student remediation following repeated failures on the HESI exam.  

PubMed

A problem-based remediation plan was developed and implemented to improve the clinical reasoning abilities and standardized test taking abilities of 9 students following 2 failures of the HESI exam. Prior to implementation students were assessed for learning needs, presence of anxiety, and learning styles. After completing the remediation sessions, all students successfully passes the HESI Exam with scores of 99.99. PMID:16913567

English, Jujuan B; Gordon, Debra K

163

Successful student remediation following repeated failures on the HESI Exam.  

PubMed

A problem-based remediation plan was developed and implemented to improve the clinical reasoning abilities and standardized test taking abilities of 9 students following 2 failures of the HESI exam. Prior to implementation students were assessed for learning needs, presence of anxiety, and learning styles. After completing the remediation sessions, all students successfully passes the HESI Exam with scores of 99.99. PMID:18791396

English, Jujuan B; Gordon, Debra K

164

Successful student remediation following repeated failures on the HESI exam.  

PubMed

A problem-based remediation plan was developed and implemented to improve the clinical reasoning abilities and standardized test taking abilities of 9 students following 2 failures of the HESI exam. Prior to implementation students were assessed for learning needs, presence of anxiety, and learning styles. After completing the remediation sessions, all students successfully passed the HESI Exam with scores of 99.99. PMID:15586125

English, Jujuan B; Gordon, Debra K

165

Solving Exam Timetabling Problems with the Flex-Deluge Algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this abstract we present a new exam timetabling algorithm together with a set of results on the university exam timetabling problems from the University of Toronto collection, available at ftp:\\/\\/ftp. mie. utoronto. ca\\/pub\\/carter\\/testprob\\/. A number of recent papers have studied these problems e. g. Carter et al. [7], Caramia et al. [6], Casey & Thompson [8], Abdullah et al.

Edmund K. Burke; Yuri Bykov

166

Implications of a high-definition multileaf collimator (HD-MLC) on treatment planning techniques for stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT): a planning study  

PubMed Central

Purpose To assess the impact of two multileaf collimator (MLC) systems (2.5 and 5 mm leaf widths) on three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy, intensity-modulated radiotherapy, and dynamic conformal arc techniques for stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) of liver and lung lesions. Methods Twenty-nine SBRT plans of primary liver (n = 11) and lung (n = 18) tumors were the basis of this study. Five-millimeter leaf width 120-leaf Varian Millennium (M120) MLC-based plans served as reference, and were designed using static conformal beams (3DCRT), sliding-window intensity-modulated beams (IMRT), or dynamic conformal arcs (DCA). Reference plans were either re-optimized or recomputed, with identical planning parameters, for a 2.5-mm width 120-leaf BrainLAB/Varian high-definition (HD120) MLC system. Dose computation was based on the anisotropic analytical algorithm (AAA, Varian Medical Systems) with tissue heterogeneity taken into account. Each plan was normalized such that 100% of the prescription dose covered 95% of the planning target volume (PTV). Isodose distributions and dose-volume histograms (DVHs) were computed and plans were evaluated with respect to target coverage criteria, normal tissue sparing criteria, as well as treatment efficiency. Results Dosimetric differences achieved using M120 and the HD120 MLC planning were generally small. Dose conformality improved in 51.7%, 62.1% and 55.2% of the IMRT, 3DCRT and DCA cases, respectively, with use of the HD120 MLC system. Dose heterogeneity increased in 75.9%, 51.7%, and 55.2% of the IMRT, 3DCRT and DCA cases, respectively, with use of the HD120 MLC system. DVH curves demonstrated a decreased volume of normal tissue irradiated to the lower (90%, 50% and 25%) isodose levels with the HD120 MLC. Conclusion Data derived from the present comparative assessment suggest dosimetric merit of the high definition MLC system over the millennium MLC system. However, the clinical significance of these results warrants further investigation in order to determine whether the observed dosimetric advantages translate into outcome improvements.

Tanyi, James A; Summers, Paige A; McCracken, Charles L; Chen, Yiyi; Ku, Li-Chung; Fuss, Martin

2009-01-01

167

National strategic petroleum reserve.  

PubMed

The Strategic Petroleum Reserve is intended to reduce the vulnerability of the United States to interruptions in the oil supply from foreign sources. Storage for 248 million barrels of crude oil in salt caverns and mines, with equipment for pumping and distribution, was constructed and operationally tested in a 4-year period. Its present inventory is the largest known crude oil reserve in the world. Facilities for expanding the reserve's capacity by another 290 million barrels are being developed by solution-mining in salt domes. PMID:17847458

Davis, R M

1981-08-01

168

American Indians by Reservations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report presents previously unpublished data from the 1970 Census on the American Indian population living on reservations. Detailed tables contain data on characteristics such as age, sex, marital status, relationship to head of household, families by...

J. R. Corn

1980-01-01

169

National Estuarine Research Reserves  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Through linked programs of stewardship, education, and research, the NERRS enhances informed management and scientific understanding of the nation's estuarine and coastal habitats. Includes information on monitoring (water quality, weather, nutrients, etc.), restoration, invasive species, fellowships, and much more. With reserves all over coastal U.S., educators and scientists can access an abundance of information on the reserves right around the corner and ones on the other side of the country.

170

Comparison of secondary neutron dose in proton therapy resulting from the use of a tungsten alloy MLC or a brass collimator system  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To apply the dual ionization chamber method for mixed radiation fields to an accurate comparison of the secondary neutron dose arising from the use of a tungsten alloy multileaf collimator (MLC) as opposed to a brass collimator system for defining the shape of a therapeutic proton field. Methods: Hydrogenous and nonhydrogenous ionization chambers were constructed with large volumes to enable measurements of absorbed doses below 10{sup -4} Gy in mixed radiation fields using the dual ionization chamber method for mixed-field dosimetry. Neutron dose measurements were made with a nominal 230 MeV proton beam incident on a closed tungsten alloy MLC and a solid brass block. The chambers were cross-calibrated against a {sup 60}Co-calibrated Farmer chamber in water using a 6 MV x-ray beam and Monte Carlo simulations were performed to account for variations in ionization chamber response due to differences in secondary neutron energy spectra. Results: The neutron and combined proton plus {gamma}-ray absorbed doses are shown to be nearly equivalent downstream from either a closed tungsten alloy MLC or a solid brass block. At 10 cm downstream from the distal edge of the collimating material the neutron dose from the closed MLC was (5.3 {+-} 0.4) x 10{sup -5} Gy/Gy. The neutron dose with brass was (6.4 {+-} 0.7) x 10{sup -5} Gy/Gy. Further from the secondary neutron source, at 50 cm, the neutron doses remain close for both the MLC and brass block at (6.9 {+-} 0.6) x 10{sup -6} Gy/Gy and (6.3 {+-} 0.7) x 10{sup -6} Gy/Gy, respectively. Conclusions: The dual ionization chamber method is suitable for measuring secondary neutron doses resulting from proton irradiation. The results of measurements downstream from a closed tungsten alloy MLC and a brass block indicate that, even in an overly pessimistic worst-case scenario, secondary neutron production in a tungsten alloy MLC leads to absorbed doses that are nearly equivalent to those seen from brass collimators. Therefore, the choice of tungsten alloy in constructing the leaves of a proton MLC is appropriate, and does not lead to a substantial increase in the secondary neutron dose to the patient compared to that generated in a brass collimator.

Diffenderfer, Eric S.; Ainsley, Christopher G.; Kirk, Maura L.; McDonough, James E.; Maughan, Richard L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States)

2011-11-15

171

Catabolic regulation analysis of Escherichia coli and its crp, mlc, mgsA, pgi and ptsG mutants  

PubMed Central

Background Most bacteria can use various compounds as carbon sources. These carbon sources can be either co-metabolized or sequentially metabolized, where the latter phenomenon typically occurs as catabolite repression. From the practical application point of view of utilizing lignocellulose for the production of biofuels etc., it is strongly desirable to ferment all sugars obtained by hydrolysis from lignocellulosic materials, where simultaneous consumption of sugars would benefit the formation of bioproducts. However, most organisms consume glucose prior to consumption of other carbon sources, and exhibit diauxic growth. It has been shown by fermentation experiments that simultaneous consumption of sugars can be attained by ptsG, mgsA mutants etc., but its mechanism has not been well understood. It is strongly desirable to understand the mechanism of metabolic regulation for catabolite regulation to improve the performance of fermentation. Results In order to make clear the catabolic regulation mechanism, several continuous cultures were conducted at different dilution rates of 0.2, 0.4, 0.6 and 0.7 h-1 using wild type Escherichia coli. The result indicates that the transcript levels of global regulators such as crp, cra, mlc and rpoS decreased, while those of fadR, iclR, soxR/S increased as the dilution rate increased. These affected the metabolic pathway genes, which in turn affected fermentation result where the specific glucose uptake rate, the specific acetate formation rate, and the specific CO2 evolution rate (CER) were increased as the dilution rate was increased. This was confirmed by the 13C-flux analysis. In order to make clear the catabolite regulation, the effect of crp gene knockout (?crp) and crp enhancement (crp+) as well as mlc, mgsA, pgi and ptsG gene knockout on the metabolism was then investigated by the continuous culture at the dilution rate of 0.2 h-1 and by some batch cultures. In the case of ?crp (and also ?mlc) mutant, TCA cycle and glyoxylate were repressed, which caused acetate accumulation. In the case of crp+ mutant, glycolysis, TCA cycle, and gluconeogenesis were activated, and simultaneous consumption of multiple carbon sources can be attained, but the glucose consumption rate became less due to repression of ptsG and ptsH by the activation of Mlc. Simultaneous consumption of multiple carbon sources could be attained by mgsA, pgi, and ptsG mutants due to increase in crp as well as cyaA, while glucose consumption rate became lower. Conclusions The transcriptional catabolite regulation mechanism was made clear for the wild type E. coli, and its crp, mlc, ptsG, pgi, and mgsA gene knockout mutants. The results indicate that catabolite repression can be relaxed and crp as well as cyaA can be increased by crp+, mgsA, pgi, and ptsG mutants, and thus simultaneous consumption of multiple carbon sources including glucose can be made, whereas the glucose uptake rate became lower as compared to wild type due to inactivation of ptsG in all the mutants considered.

2011-01-01

172

The effect of electron collimator leaf shape on the build-up dose in narrow electron MLC fields.  

PubMed

Previously, we have found that the build-up dose from abutting narrow electron beams formed with unfocussed electron multi-leaf collimator (eMLC) steal leaves was higher than with the respective open field. To investigate more closely the effect of leaf material and shape on dose in the build-up region, straight, round (radius 1.5 cm) and leaf ends with a different front face angle of alpha (leaf front face pointing towards the beam axis at an angle of 90 - alpha) made of steel, brass and tungsten were modelled using the BEAMnrc code. Based on a treatment head simulation of a Varian 2100 C/D linac, depth-dose curves and profiles in water were calculated for narrow 6, 12 and 20 MeV eMLC beams (width 1.0 cm, length 10 cm) at source-to-surface distances (SSD) of 102 and 105 cm. The effects of leaf material and front face angle were evaluated based on electron fluence, angle and energy spectra. With a leaf front face angle of 15 degrees, the dose in the build-up region of the 6 MeV field varied between 91 and 100%, while for straight and round leaf shapes the dose varied between 89 and 100%. The variation was between 94 and 100% for 12 and 20 MeV. For abutting narrow 6 MeV fields with total field size 5 x 10 cm(2), the build-up doses at 5 mm depth for the face angle 15 degrees and straight and round leaf shapes were 96% and 86% (SSD 102 cm) and 89% and 85% (SSD 105 cm). With higher energies, the effect of eMLC leaf shape on dose at 5 mm was slight (3-4% units with 12 MeV) and marginal with 20 MeV. The fluence, energy and angle spectra for total and leaf scattered electrons were practically the same for different leaf materials with 6 MeV. With high energies, the spectra for tungsten were more peaked due to lower leaf transmission. Compared with straight leaf ends, the face angle of 15 degrees and round leaf ends led to a 1 mm (for 6 MeV) and between 1 and 5 mm (12 and 20 MeV at a SSD of 105 cm) decrease of therapeutic range and increase of the field size, respectively. However, profile flatness was better for abutting 6 MeV beams with round (2.5%) and face angle 15 degrees leaves (3.0%) compared to straight leaf shape (5.2%). The eMLC leaves with a face angle of 15 degrees resulted in a marked increase in the build-up dose for the single narrow eMLC beam and thus in the dose in the build-up region from matched abutting fields. PMID:19920308

Vatanen, T; Traneus, E; Väänänen, A; Lahtinen, T

2009-11-17

173

The effect of electron collimator leaf shape on the build-up dose in narrow electron MLC fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previously, we have found that the build-up dose from abutting narrow electron beams formed with unfocussed electron multi-leaf collimator (eMLC) steal leaves was higher than with the respective open field. To investigate more closely the effect of leaf material and shape on dose in the build-up region, straight, round (radius 1.5 cm) and leaf ends with a different front face angle of ? (leaf front face pointing towards the beam axis at an angle of 90 - ?) made of steel, brass and tungsten were modelled using the BEAMnrc code. Based on a treatment head simulation of a Varian 2100 C/D linac, depth-dose curves and profiles in water were calculated for narrow 6, 12 and 20 MeV eMLC beams (width 1.0 cm, length 10 cm) at source-to-surface distances (SSD) of 102 and 105 cm. The effects of leaf material and front face angle were evaluated based on electron fluence, angle and energy spectra. With a leaf front face angle of 15°, the dose in the build-up region of the 6 MeV field varied between 91 and 100%, while for straight and round leaf shapes the dose varied between 89 and 100%. The variation was between 94 and 100% for 12 and 20 MeV. For abutting narrow 6 MeV fields with total field size 5 × 10 cm2, the build-up doses at 5 mm depth for the face angle 15° and straight and round leaf shapes were 96% and 86% (SSD 102 cm) and 89% and 85% (SSD 105 cm). With higher energies, the effect of eMLC leaf shape on dose at 5 mm was slight (3-4% units with 12 MeV) and marginal with 20 MeV. The fluence, energy and angle spectra for total and leaf scattered electrons were practically the same for different leaf materials with 6 MeV. With high energies, the spectra for tungsten were more peaked due to lower leaf transmission. Compared with straight leaf ends, the face angle of 15° and round leaf ends led to a 1 mm (for 6 MeV) and between 1 and 5 mm (12 and 20 MeV at a SSD of 105 cm) decrease of therapeutic range and increase of the field size, respectively. However, profile flatness was better for abutting 6 MeV beams with round (2.5%) and face angle 15° leaves (3.0%) compared to straight leaf shape (5.2%). The eMLC leaves with a face angle of 15° resulted in a marked increase in the build-up dose for the single narrow eMLC beam and thus in the dose in the build-up region from matched abutting fields.

Vatanen, T.; Traneus, E.; Väänänen, A.; Lahtinen, T.

2009-12-01

174

An improved MLC segmentation algorithm and software for step-and-shoot IMRT delivery without tongue-and-groove error.  

PubMed

We present an improved multileaf collimator (MLC) segmentation algorithm, denoted by SLS(NOTG) (static leaf sequencing with no tongue-and-groove error), for step-and-shoot intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) delivery. SLS(NOTG) is an improvement over the MLC segmentation algorithm called SLS that was developed by Luan et al. [Med. Phys. 31(4), 695-707 (2004)], which did not consider tongue-and-groove error corrections. The aims of SLS(NOTG) are (1) shortening the treatment times of IMRT plans by minimizing their numbers of segments and (2) minimizing the tongue-and-groove errors of the computed IMRT plans. The input to SLS(NOTG) is intensity maps (IMs) produced by current planning systems, and its output is (modified) optimized leaf sequences without tongue-and-groove error. Like the previous SLS algorithm [Luan et al., Med. Phys. 31(4), 695-707 (2004)], SLS(NOTG) is also based on graph algorithmic techniques in computer science. It models the MLC segmentation problem as a weighted minimum-cost path problem, where the weight of the path is the number of segments and the cost of the path is the amount of tongue-and-groove error. Our comparisons of SLS(NOTG) with CORVUS indicated that for the same intensity maps, the numbers of segments computed by SLS(NOTG) are up to 50% less than those by CORVUS 5.0 on the Elekta LINAC system. Our clinical verifications have shown that the dose distributions of the SLS(NOTG) plans do not have tongue-and-groove error and match those of the corresponding CORVUS plans, thus confirming the correctness of SLS(NOTG). Comparing with existing segmentation methods, SLS(NOTG) also has two additional advantages: (1) SLS(NOTG) can compute leaf sequences whose tongue-and-groove error is minimized subject to a constraint on the maximum allowed number of segments, which may be desirable in clinical situations where a treatment with the complete correction of tongue-and-groove error takes too much time, and (2) SLS(NOTG) can be used to minimize a more general type of error called the tongue-or-groove error. PMID:16752555

Luan, Shuang; Wang, Chao; Chen, Danny Z; Hu, Xiaobo S; Naqvi, Shahid A; Wu, Xingen; Yu, Cedric X

2006-05-01

175

An improved MLC segmentation algorithm and software for step-and-shoot IMRT delivery without tongue-and-groove error  

SciTech Connect

We present an improved multileaf collimator (MLC) segmentation algorithm, denoted by SLS{sub NOTG} (static leaf sequencing with no tongue-and-groove error), for step-and-shoot intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) delivery. SLS{sub NOTG} is an improvement over the MLC segmentation algorithm called SLS that was developed by Luan et al. [Med. Phys. 31(4), 695-707 (2004)], which did not consider tongue-and-groove error corrections. The aims of SLS{sub NOTG} are (1) shortening the treatment times of IMRT plans by minimizing their numbers of segments and (2) minimizing the tongue-and-groove errors of the computed IMRT plans. The input to SLS{sub NOTG} is intensity maps (IMs) produced by current planning systems, and its output is (modified) optimized leaf sequences without tongue-and-groove error. Like the previous SLS algorithm [Luan et al., Med. Phys. 31(4), 695-707 (2004)], SLS{sub NOTG} is also based on graph algorithmic techniques in computer science. It models the MLC segmentation problem as a weighted minimum-cost path problem, where the weight of the path is the number of segments and the cost of the path is the amount of tongue-and-groove error. Our comparisons of SLS{sub NOTG} with CORVUS indicated that for the same intensity maps, the numbers of segments computed by SLS{sub NOTG} are up to 50% less than those by CORVUS 5.0 on the Elekta LINAC system. Our clinical verifications have shown that the dose distributions of the SLS{sub NOTG} plans do not have tongue-and-groove error and match those of the corresponding CORVUS plans, thus confirming the correctness of SLS{sub NOTG}. Comparing with existing segmentation methods, SLS{sub NOTG} also has two additional advantages: (1) SLS{sub NOTG} can compute leaf sequences whose tongue-and-groove error is minimized subject to a constraint on the maximum allowed number of segments, which may be desirable in clinical situations where a treatment with the complete correction of tongue-and-groove error takes too much time, and (2) SLS{sub NOTG} can be used to minimize a more general type of error called the tongue-or-groove error.

Luan Shuang; Wang Chao; Chen, Danny Z.; Hu, Xiaobo S.; Naqvi, Shahid A.; Wu Xingen; Yu, Cedric X. [Department of Computer Science, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131 (United States); Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21201 (United States)

2006-05-15

176

Reserve Component Personnel Issues: Questions and Answers  

Microsoft Academic Search

[Excerpt] The term “Reserve Component” is used to refer collectively to the seven individual reserve components of the armed forces: the Army National Guard of the United States, the Army Reserve, the Navy Reserve, the Marine Corps Reserve, the Air National Guard of the United States, the Air Force Reserve, and the Coast Guard Reserve. The purpose of these seven

Lawrence Kapp

2008-01-01

177

A Multistage Longitudinal Comparative (MLC) Design Stage II: Evaluation of the Changing Lives Program (CLP)--The Possible Selves Questionnaire-Qualitative Extensions (PSQ-QE)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The study reported in this paper, a Multistage Longitudinal Comparative (MLC) Design Stage II evaluation conducted as a planned preliminary efficacy evaluation (psychometric evaluation of measures, short-term controlled outcome studies, etc.) of the Changing Lives Program (CLP), provided evidence for the reliability and validity of qualitative…

Kortsch, Gabrielle; Kurtines, William M.; Montgomery, Marilyn J.

2008-01-01

178

NOTE: Does the option to rotate the Elekta Beam Modulator MLC during VMAT IMRT delivery confer advantage?—a study of 'parked gaps'  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When delivering intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) using the volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) technique on an Elekta accelerator equipped with the Elekta Beam Modulator multileaf collimator (MLC), the orientation of the MLC, relative to the accelerator head, is generally fixed during the delivery. However, it has the ability to rotate about its axis as the gantry simultaneously rotates. This note shows that this can confer a potential advantage when planning and delivering IMRT via VMAT. A computer model has been built in which the MLC rotation angle could be varied with each control point (gantry location) within the constraints of the specified MLC rotation speed and the time available for rotation. The model was used to optimize the orientation trajectory in such a way as to minimize the number of parked gaps between leaves which are needed for some gantry orientations but not for others (and which cannot reach the shielding safety of surrounding jaws in the time available). The presented work started with the simple situation of collimating gantry-successive single convex shapes. As a broad statement some 40% reduction in such parked gaps could be achieved. The study was then extended to investigate the optimized trajectories for multiple separate concave shapes with, once again, a saving in unwanted parked gaps or unwanted over-irradiation.

Webb, S.

2010-06-01

179

A Multistage Longitudinal Comparative (MLC) Design Stage II: Evaluation of the Changing Lives Program (CLP)--The Possible Selves Questionnaire-Qualitative Extensions (PSQ-QE)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study reported in this paper, a Multistage Longitudinal Comparative (MLC) Design Stage II evaluation conducted as a planned preliminary efficacy evaluation (psychometric evaluation of measures, short-term controlled outcome studies, etc.) of the Changing Lives Program (CLP), provided evidence for the reliability and validity of qualitative…

Kortsch, Gabrielle; Kurtines, William M.; Montgomery, Marilyn J.

2008-01-01

180

Residency Applicants Misinterpret Their United States Medical Licensing Exam Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Proper interpretation of the results of the United States Medical Licensing Exam (USMLE) is important for program directors, residents, and faculty who advise applicants about applying for residency positions. We suspected that applicants often misinterpreted their performance in relationship to others who took the same examination. In 2005, 54…

Jones, Roger C.; Desbiens, Norman A.

2009-01-01

181

Construct validity in a high-fidelity prostate exam simulator  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:All health care practitioners should be facile in the digital rectal exam (DRE) as it provides prostate, rectal and neurological information. The purpose of this study was first to justify our hypothesis that tissue elasticity is indicative of carcinomatous changes. Second, we employed urological surgeons to evaluate our prostate simulator in three ways: (1) authenticate that the elasticity of the

C G Kowalik; G J Gerling; A J Lee; W C Carson; J Harper; C A Moskaluk; T L Krupski

2012-01-01

182

From Exam Factories to Communities of Discovery: The Democratic Route  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|"From Exam Factories to Communities of Discovery" passionately calls for educators to challenge the dominant market-led model of education and instead build a more democratic one, better able to face threats such as environmental damage; intensified global competition; corrosive social inequalities in and between nations in the world; and the…

Coffield, Frank; Williamson, Bill

2011-01-01

183

THE IMPACT OF EXAMS ON ANXIETY LEVELS AMONG UNIVERSITY STUDENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To explore the anxiety levels in exam situations among female college students at a female nursing college. Methods: The participants were 50 first year, 46-second year, 44 third year and 47 fourth year students. The Arabic version of the Test Anxiety Inventory was used as a measure of the students' anxiety proneness to evaluative situations such as tests or

Mousa A. Al-Doughmi; Nasser T. Shuriquie; Mona Abdulhamid; Ali Al-Ghwairy; Waleed Shuneigat

184

Psychosocial Factors Associated with Skin Self-Exam Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The authors examined psychosocial factors associated with skin self-exam (SSE) performance by young adults. Participants and Methods: The authors administered surveys to 218 US college students (aged 18-26 years) attending a large midwestern university. Results: Contrary to prior research, men (44%) and women (49%) were relatively…

Jensen, Jakob D.; Moriarty, Cortney M.

2008-01-01

185

Spanish-English Verbatim Translation Exam. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The development and validation of the Spanish-English Verbatim Translation Exam (SEVTE) is described. The test is for use by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) in the selection of applicants for the positions of Language Specialist or Contract Linguist. The report is divided into eight sections. Section 1 describes the need for the test,…

Stansfield, Charles W.; And Others

186

From Exam Factories to Communities of Discovery: The Democratic Route  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"From Exam Factories to Communities of Discovery" passionately calls for educators to challenge the dominant market-led model of education and instead build a more democratic one, better able to face threats such as environmental damage; intensified global competition; corrosive social inequalities in and between nations in the world; and the need…

Coffield, Frank; Williamson, Bill

2011-01-01

187

State High School Exit Exams: A Policy in Transition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Since 2002, the Center on Education Policy (CEP) at The George Washington University, a national advocate for public education and improving public schools, has been studying state high school exit examinations--tests students must pass to receive a high school diploma. This year marks the 11th year CEP has reported on exit exams in order to help…

McIntosh, Shelby

2012-01-01

188

College Admissions under a Centralized Entrance Exam: A Compromised Solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The centralized college admissions via a centralized entrance exam are known to be fair. This multi-category serial dictatorship mechanism gives the colleges their optimal student placement but it is far from optimal for the students. This paper discusses a mechanism of submitting students' preferences after receiving the test results. This adjustment transforms the original mechanism into a pref- erence revelation

Chris Y. Tung

189

Structure of Freshmen's Causal Attributions for Exam Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores the structure underlying causal attribution for achievement in an actual academic context. Ss were 859 university freshmen drawn from 4 samples. First, they rated the influence of 10 possible causes on their exam performance. Procrustes factor analysis of the causes revealed 4 factors in each of the samples reflecting the dimensions of locus, stability, control, and globality.

Frank Van Overwalle

1989-01-01

190

Psychosocial Factors Associated with Skin Self-Exam Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: The authors examined psychosocial factors associated with skin self-exam (SSE) performance by young adults. Participants and Methods: The authors administered surveys to 218 US college students (aged 18-26 years) attending a large midwestern university. Results: Contrary to prior research, men (44%) and women (49%) were relatively…

Jensen, Jakob D.; Moriarty, Cortney M.

2008-01-01

191

Reserves in western basins  

SciTech Connect

This project requires generation of producible tight gas sand reserve estimates for three western basins. The requirement is to perform such reserve estimates using industry accepted practices so that results will have high credibility and acceptance by the oil and gas industry. The ultimate goal of the project is to encourage development of the tight gas formation by industry through reduction of the technical and economic risks of locating, drilling and completing commercial gas wells. The three geological basins selected for study are the Greater Green River Basin, Uinta Basin and Piceance Basin, located in the Colorado, Utah and Wyoming Rocky Mountain region.

Caldwell, R.H.; Cotton, B.W.

1992-06-01

192

Reserves in western basins  

SciTech Connect

This project requires generation of producible tight gas sand reserve estimates for three western basins. The requirement is to perform such reserve estimates using industry accepted practices so that results will have high credibility and acceptance by the oil and gas industry. The ultimate goal of the project is to encourage development of the tight gas formation by industry through reduction of the technical and economic risks of locating, drilling and completing commercial gas wells. The three geological basins selected for study are the Greater Green River Basin, Uinta Basin and Piceance Basin, located in the Colorado, Utah and Wyoming Rocky Mountain region.

Caldwell, R.H.; Cotton, B.W.

1992-01-01

193

Wetlands Reserve Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Recognizing that the health of the nation's wetlands depends on the fate of private (as well as public-owned) wetlands, the Wetlands Reserve Program is an important, voluntary initiative led by the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) to provide "technical and financial support" to help private landowners restore their wetlands. This straightforward site describes the Wetlands Reserve Program (WRP), including a map showing national WRP acreage, several question/ answer fact sheets, state programs and contacts, and a slide show (PowerPoint) entitled Producing Wildlife Habitat Results. Although the site targets the general public, students and educators will find it useful and instructive.

194

The use of intensity-modulated radiation therapy photon beams for improving the dose uniformity of electron beams shaped with MLC  

SciTech Connect

Electrons are ideal for treating shallow tumors and sparing adjacent normal tissue. Conventionally, electron beams are collimated by cut-outs that are time-consuming to make and difficult to adapt to tumor shape throughout the course of treatment. We propose that electron cut-outs can be replaced using photon multileaf collimator (MLC). Two major problems of this approach are that the scattering of electrons causes penumbra widening because of a large air gap, and available commercial treatment planning systems (TPSs) do not support MLC-collimated electron beams. In this study, these difficulties were overcome by (1) modeling electron beams collimated by photon MLC for a commercial TPS, and (2) developing a technique to reduce electron beam penumbra by adding low-energy intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) photons (4 MV). We used blocks to simulate MLC shielding in the TPS. Inverse planning was used to optimize boost photon beams. This technique was applied to a parotid and a central nervous system (CNS) clinical case. Combined photon and electron plans were compared with conventional plans and verified using ion chamber, film, and a 2D diode array. Our studies showed that the beam penumbra for mixed beams with 90 cm source to surface distance (SSD) is comparable with electron applicators and cut-outs at 100 cm SSD. Our mixed-beam technique yielded more uniform dose to the planning target volume and lower doses to various organs at risk for both parotid and CNS clinical cases. The plans were verified with measurements, with more than 95% points passing the gamma criteria of 5% in dose difference and 5 mm for distance to agreement. In conclusion, the study has demonstrated the feasibility and potential advantage of using photon MLC to collimate electron beams with boost photon IMRT fields.

Mosalaei, Homeira, E-mail: homeira.mosalaei@lhsc.on.ca [London Regional Cancer Program, London Health Science Centre, Ontario (Canada); Karnas, Scott [London Regional Cancer Program, London Health Science Centre, Ontario (Canada); University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario (Canada); Shah, Sheel [University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario (Canada); Van Doodewaard, Sharon [McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); Foster, Tim [University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario (Canada); Chen, Jeff [London Regional Cancer Program, London Health Science Centre, Ontario (Canada); University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario (Canada)

2012-04-01

195

Pennogenin Tetraglycoside Induces Rat Myometrial Contraction and MLC20 Phosphorylation via PLC-IP3 and RhoA/Rho Kinase Signaling Pathways  

PubMed Central

Background Total steroidal saponins extracted from the rhizome of Paris polyphylla Sm. var. yunnanensis (TSSPs) have been widely used in China for the treatment of abnormal uterine bleeding. We previously studied the main active constituents of TSSPs and their structure-activity relationships with respect to rat myometrial contractions. Tg (pennogenin tetraglycoside) was identified as one of the active ingredients in TSSPs able to induce rat myometrial contractions. However, the mechanisms underlying the pharmacological actions on uterine activity have not been described clearly. Methods Here Tg was screened for effects on contractile activity in isolated uterine strips from estrogen-primed rats and on MLC20 phosphorylation and related signaling pathways in cultured rat myometrial cells as determined by Western blot. Intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) was monitored under a confocal microscope using Fluo-4 AM-loaded myometrial cells. Results Tg dose-dependently stimulated rat myometrial contractions as well as MLC20 phosphorylation in vitro, which could be completely suppressed by an inhibitor of myosin light chain kinase (MLCK). Use of Ca2+ channel blockers and kinase inhibitors demonstrated that Tg-induced myometrial contractions are mediated by activation of the phospholipase C (PLC)-inositol triphosphate (IP3) signaling pathway, resulting in increased MLC20 phosphorylation. Furthermore, Y27632, a specific inhibitor of Rho kinase (ROK), notably suppressed Tg-stimulated myometrial contractions and decreased MLC20 phosphorylation. Conclusions These data provide evidence that rat myometrial contractility induced by Tg results from enhanced MLC20 phosphorylation, while both PLC-IP3 and RhoA/ROK signaling pathways mediate the process. These mechanisms may be responsible for the therapeutic effects of TSSPs on abnormal uterine bleeding.

Liu, Xiaolan; Kang, Liping; Cong, Yue; Shan, Yajun; Zhao, Zhenhu; Ma, Baiping; Cong, Yuwen

2012-01-01

196

Selective mode suppression in microstrip differential lines by means of electric-LC (ELC) and magnetic-LC (MLC) resonators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, it is demonstrated that the so-called electric-LC (ELC) resonators, and their dual counterparts, the magnetic-LC (MLC) resonators, are useful for the selective suppression of either the differential or the common mode in microstrip differential lines. The key point to mode suppression is the alignment of the resonator with the electric (differential mode) or magnetic (common mode) wall of the line. It is shown that by simply rotating the resonators 90? we can selectively choose the suppressed mode in the vicinity of the resonator's fundamental resonance frequency. The theory is validated through full-wave electromagnetic simulation, the lumped element equivalent circuit models of the proposed structures and experimental data.

Naqui, J.; Durán-Sindreu, M.; Martín, F.

2013-10-01

197

The Role of End-of-Course Exams and Minimum Competency Exams in Standards-Based Reforms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this article, the authors looked at the effects of one old-style educational reform--higher course graduation requirements--and five standard-based reforms--(1) school report cards; (2) rewards for school improvement; (3) sanctions for failing schools; (4) minimum competency examinations; and (5) hybrid minimum competency exam

Bishop, John H.; Mane, Ferran; Bishop, Michael; Moriarty, Joan Y.

2001-01-01

198

Intensity- and energy-modulated electron radiotherapy by means of an xMLC for head and neck shallow tumors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this paper is to assess the feasibility of delivering intensity- and energy-modulated electron radiation treatment (MERT) by a photon multileaf collimator (xMLC) and to evaluate the improvements obtained in shallow head and neck (HN) tumors. Four HN patient cases covering different clinical situations were planned by MERT, which used an in-house treatment planning system that utilized Monte Carlo dose calculation. The cases included one oronasal, two parotid and one middle ear tumors. The resulting dose-volume histograms were compared with those obtained from conventional photon and electron treatment techniques in our clinic, which included IMRT, electron beam and mixed beams, most of them using fixed-thickness bolus. Experimental verification was performed with plane-parallel ionization chambers for absolute dose verification, and a PTW ionization chamber array and radiochromic film for relative dosimetry. A MC-based treatment planning system for target with compromised volumes in depth and laterally has been validated. A quality assurance protocol for individual MERT plans was launched. Relative MC dose distributions showed a high agreement with film measurements and absolute ion chamber dose measurements performed at a reference point agreed with MC calculations within 2% in all cases. Clinically acceptable PTV coverage and organ-at-risk sparing were achieved by using the proposed MERT approach. MERT treatment plans, based on delivery of intensity-modulated electron beam using the xMLC, for superficial head and neck tumors, demonstrated comparable or improved PTV dose homogeneity with significantly lower dose to normal tissues. The clinical implementation of this technique will be able to offer a viable alternative for the treatment of shallow head and neck tumors.

Salguero, Francisco Javier; Arráns, Rafael; Atriana Palma, Bianey; Leal, Antonio

2010-03-01

199

Strategic Petroleum Reserve.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The House passed H.R. 6, the Energy Policy Act of 2005, on April 21, 2005 (249- 183). The legislation would permanently authorize the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) and require, as expeditiously as practicable, expansion of the SPR to its authorized ma...

R. Bamberger

2005-01-01

200

World Uranium Reserves  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This American Energy Independence website provides a brief overview of potential supplies of uranium for nuclear energy. The author, nuclear engineer James Hopf, believes that there are large reserves of uranium available, and that more will be discovered if needed. Links to literature cited and related resources are included.

Hopf, James; Independence, American E.

201

Reservation readiness training project  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Reservation Readiness Training Project (RRTP) was created to give persons with disabilities a competitive edge when applying for jobs in the travel industry. RRTP, based on the Projects With Industry concept, utilizes specific vocational training and is guided by a Business Advisory Council (BAC) which is made up of employers in the travel industry. Besides providing training on a

A. R. McNeal

1992-01-01

202

School Shootings Stun Reservation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article deals with the impact brought by the school shootings at Red Lake Indian Reservation in Minnesota to the school community. A deeply troubled 16-year-old student shot and killed seven other people and himself at a high school. The nation's deadliest school attack since the 1999 slayings at Colorado's suburban Columbine High School…

Borja, Rhea R.; Cavanagh, Sean

2005-01-01

203

Analysis of Reserve Market Survey.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A survey of most of the US Army Reserves was conducted in 1980-1981 to obtain information on the opinions which the Reservists had concerning the US Army Reserve and on factors which influenced the individual to join the Reserves. Although the analysis in...

G. A. Klopp

1982-01-01

204

Sociology of the Army Reserves.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents a conceptual framework of reserve components. The focus is on the Selected Reserves of the U.S. Army. The guiding principle of the report is that reserve components are more than just an organizational variation of active components. ...

C. C. Moskos

1990-01-01

205

Does the Number of Hours Studied Affect Exam Performance?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article describes a study in which the number of hours that students studied (determined by askng them) was examined to see how it affected exam performance. The study covered two courses at different institutions over a total of six semesters. Using the overall exam averages and regression analysis, the researchers calculated that students needed to invest from 3.0 to 4.4 hours to earn an average score and from 4.5 to 6.4 hours to earn an A (90 percent or 45 points out of 50) on average. In addition, they determined that the ratio of hours studied to lecture hours needed to earn a score of 90 percent ranged from 1.5 to 2.1 hours with a mean of 1.7, less than the "Carnegie Rule" of 2 hours of outside study time per week for each course credit (where a course credit is equivalent to 1 hour of lecture).

Barbarick, K.

206

Success on Algorithmic and LOCS vs. Conceptual Chemistry Exam Questions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of freshman science, engineering, and in-service teacher students in three Israeli and American universities on algorithmic, lower-order cognitive skills (LOCS), and conceptual chemistry exam questions was investigated. The driving force for the study was an interest in moving chemistry instruction from an algorithm-oriented factual recall approach dominated by LOCS to a decision-making, problem-solving, and critical thinking approach dominated

Uri Zoller; Aviva Lubezky; Mary B. Nakhleh; Barbara Tessier; Yehudit J. Dori

1995-01-01

207

Quantitative growth measurement of lesions in hepatic interval CT exams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Standard clinical radiological techniques for determining lesion volume changes in interval exams are, as far as we know, quantitatively non-descriptive or approximate at best. We investigate two new registration based methods that help sketch an improved quantitative picture of lesion volume changes in hepatic interval CT exams. The first method, Jacobian Integration, employs a constrained Thin Plate Spline warp to compute the deformation of the lesion of interest over the intervals. The resulting jacobian map of the deformation is integrated to yield the net lesion volume change. The technique is fast, accurate and requires no segmentation, but is sensitive to misregistration. The second scheme uses a Weighted Gray Value Difference image of two registered interval exams to estimate the change in lesion volume. A linear weighting and trimming curve is used to accurately account for the contribution of partial voxels. This technique is insensitive to slight misregistration and useful in analyzing simple lesions with uniform contrast or lesions with insufficient mutual information to allow the computation of an accurate warp. The methods are tested on both synthetic and in vivo liver lesions and results are evaluated against estimates obtained through careful manual segmentation of the lesions. Our findings so far have given us reason to believe that the estimators are reliable. Further experiments on numerous in vivo lesions will probably establish the improved efficacy of these methods in supporting earlier detection of new disease or conversion from stable to progressive disease in comparison to existing clinical estimation techniques.

Sarkar, Saradwata; Narayanan, Ramkrishnan; Park, Hyunjin; Ma, Bing; Bland, Peyton H.; Meyer, Charles R.

2008-04-01

208

Reserves in Western Basins  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to investigate the reserves potential of overpressured tight (OPT) gas reservoirs in three Rocky Mountain basins. These are the Greater Green River Basin (GGRB), Uinta Basin and Piceance Basin. By documenting productive characteristics in these basins and characterizing the nature of the vast gas resources in place, the reserves potential may be understood and quantified. Through this understanding, it is hoped that the oil and gas industry will be encouraged to pursue exploitation of this resource. At this point in time, the GGRB work has been completed and the final report submitted for publication. Work on the Uinta basin has just commenced and work on the Piceance basin will commence next year. Since the GGRB portion of this project has been completed, further discussion centers upon this Basin.

Caldwell, R.H.; Cotton, B.W.

1993-12-31

209

The Strategic Petroleum Reserve  

SciTech Connect

The Strategic Petroleum Reserve program was set into motion by the 1975 Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA). By 1990, 590 million barrels of oil had been placed in storage. Salt domes along the Gulf Coast offered ideal storage. Both sweet'' and sour'' crude oil have been acquired using various purchase options. Drawdown, sale, and distribution of the oil would proceed according to guidelines set by EPCA in the event of a severe energy supply disruption. (SM)

Not Available

1991-01-01

210

Group Collaboration and Learning Through Online Assessments: Comparison of Collaborative and Participatory Online Exams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Online environments are regarded as well constructed to support collaborative and social learning. This research investigates\\u000a small group collaboration and learning in the context of online exams. Incorporating constructivism and collaborative learning\\u000a theories, the online Collaborative Exam features students’ active participation in various phases of the exam process through\\u000a small group activities. The online Participatory Exam features similar processes except

Jia Shen; Starr Roxanne Hiltz; Michael Bieber

2007-01-01

211

Effects of the Implementation of State-Wide Exit Exams on Students' Self-Regulated Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Whereas several studies investigated the effects of implementation of state-wide exit exams on student achievement, there is still little known about the impacts of the exams on students' self-regulated learning. This paper examines the question as to whether the implementation of state-wide high school exit exams is associated with a change in…

Merki, Katharina Maag

2011-01-01

212

Assessing Conceptual and Algorithmic Knowledge in General Chemistry with ACS Exams  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In 2005, the ACS Examinations Institute released an exam for first-term general chemistry in which items are intentionally paired with one conceptual and one traditional item. A second-term, paired-questions exam was released in 2007. This paper presents an empirical study of student performances on these two exams based on national samples of…

Holme, Thomas; Murphy, Kristen

2011-01-01

213

Results of a remediation program for students at risk for failure on the NCLEX exam.  

PubMed

Forty-seven nursing students identified as at risk for failure on the NCLEX licensure exam took a commercially available exit exam before and after participation in a remedial test-taking course. Results indicated that participation in the course contributed to a significant increase (p < .001) in exit exam scores. PMID:17380960

Sifford, Susan; McDaniel, D Mike

214

Combined online and in?class pretesting improves exam performance in general psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the effect of distributed questioning on learning and retention in a college lecture course. A total of 48 question pairs were presented over four exams. The 16 question pairs associated with each of the three blocks of the course appeared on the block exams, and all 48 appeared on the final exam. The two questions in each

Arnold Lewis Glass; Gary Brill; Margaret Ingate

2008-01-01

215

How Does Student Performance on Formative Assessments Relate to Learning Assessed by Exams?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A retrospective analysis examines the relationships between formative assessments and exam grades in two undergraduate geoscience courses. Pair and group-work grades correlate weakly with individual exam grades. Exam performance correlates to individual, weekly online assessments. Student attendance and use of assessment feedback are also essential factors.

Smith, Gary

2007-07-01

216

Impact of MLC leaf position errors on simple and complex IMRT plans for head and neck cancerPresented at the 48th Annual Meeting of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine, 30 July 2006  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dosimetric impact of random and systematic multi-leaf collimator (MLC) leaf position errors is relatively unknown for head and neck intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) patients. In this report we studied 17 head and neck IMRT patients, including 12 treated with simple plans (100 segments). Random errors (?2 to +2 mm) and systematic errors (0.5 mm and 1 mm) in MLC leaf

G Mu; E Ludlum; P Xia

2008-01-01

217

76 FR 6190 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam Toll...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

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2011-02-03

218

76 FR 37893 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam Toll...  

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2011-06-28

219

76 FR 6189 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam...  

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2011-02-03

220

76 FR 56879 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam...  

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2011-09-14

221

76 FR 22170 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam...  

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2011-04-20

222

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2011-04-20

223

76 FR 46897 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam...  

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2011-08-03

224

76 FR 56880 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam Toll...  

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2011-09-14

225

76 FR 63715 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam...  

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2011-10-13

226

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2011-02-28

227

76 FR 63716 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam Toll...  

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2011-10-13

228

76 FR 2193 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam...  

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2011-01-12

229

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2011-01-12

230

76 FR 17996 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam Toll...  

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2011-03-31

231

76 FR 17995 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam...  

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2011-03-31

232

76 FR 46897 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam Toll...  

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2011-08-03

233

Impact of Global Transcriptional Regulation by ArcA, ArcB, Cra, Crp, Cya, Fnr, and Mlc on Glucose Catabolism in Escherichia coli  

Microsoft Academic Search

Even though transcriptional regulation plays a key role in establishing the metabolic network, the extent to which it actually controls the in vivo distribution of metabolic fluxes through different pathways is essentially unknown. Based on metabolism-wide quantification of intracellular fluxes, we systematically elucidated the relevance of global transcriptional regulation by ArcA, ArcB, Cra, Crp, Cya, Fnr, and Mlc for aerobic

Annik Perrenoud; Uwe Sauer

2005-01-01

234

Dose engine verification of a dual-level mMLC-based TPS CrossPlan benchmarked by MCNPX and Pinnacle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To evaluate and verify a dose engine by comparing the three-dimensional dose matrix calculated by dual- level micro multileaf collimator based TPS and a Monte Carlo-based code MCNPX. Method and Materials: An irregular aperture shape was created by a dual-level mMLC and dose was delivered through the aperture to a cylindrical solid water phantom by a 6MV Varian 600C

Yaxi Liu; Chengyu Shi; Sotirios Stathakis; Niko Papanikolaou

235

Monte Carlo model of the Elekta SLiplus accelerator: validation of a new MLC component module in BEAM for a 6 MV beam  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new component module (CM), called MLCE, has been implemented in the BEAM program. The CM takes into account the particular 'tongue-and-groove' design of the Elekta multi-leaf collimator (MLC) and the air gap between the leaves. The model was validated by two series of measurements and simulations. The first benchmarking series focuses on the interleaf leakage and the intraleaf transmission. The measurement showed a total transmission through the MLC of 1.42% of the open field dose. Two Monte Carlo (MC) simulations were made, the first with the new CM MLCE (inclusive of air gap) and the second with the CM MLCQ (exclusive of air gap), which is available in the BEAM distribution. When the air gap between the leaves was determined by varying the parameters of the leaf geometry within tolerance limits on the technical drawing, the total measured transmission of 1.42% was well reproduced by the CM MLCE. In contrast, MC simulations with MLCQ showed that the transmission through the MLC calculated without the interleaf leakage is only 44% of the total transmitted radiation. The relevance of the detailed MLC modelling was demonstrated also by studying the 'adjacent' tongue-and-groove effect, where two adjacent (not opposing) leaves are complementary, opened or closed. The two complementary leaf settings were simulated both with the CM MLCE and MLCQ. A comparison with measurements was made. In regions covered by two or more leaves, the dose increased by 14% for two leaves and by 40% for more than two leaves when the interleaf leakage was included in the transmission. The tongue-and-groove effect was perfectly reproduced by the MLCE module.

Van de Walle, J.; Martens, C.; Reynaert, N.; Palmans, H.; Coghe, M.; DeNeve, W.; DeWagter, C.; Thierens, H.

2003-02-01

236

Implications of a high-definition multileaf collimator (HD-MLC) on treatment planning techniques for stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT): a planning study  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: To assess the impact of two multileaf collimator (MLC) systems (2.5 and 5 mm leaf widths) on three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy, intensity-modulated radiotherapy, and dynamic conformal arc techniques for stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) of liver and lung lesions. METHODS: Twenty-nine SBRT plans of primary liver (n = 11) and lung (n = 18) tumors were the basis of this

James A Tanyi; Paige A Summers; Charles L McCracken; Yiyi Chen; Li-Chung Ku; Martin Fuss

2009-01-01

237

The use of intensity-modulated radiation therapy photon beams for improving the dose uniformity of electron beams shaped with MLC  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrons are ideal for treating shallow tumors and sparing adjacent normal tissue. Conventionally, electron beams are collimated by cut-outs that are time-consuming to make and difficult to adapt to tumor shape throughout the course of treatment. We propose that electron cut-outs can be replaced using photon multileaf collimator (MLC). Two major problems of this approach are that the scattering of

Homeira Mosalaei; Scott Karnas; Sheel Shah; Sharon Van Doodewaard; Tim Foster; Jeff Chen

238

Effects of tertiary MLC configuration on secondary neutron spectra from 18 MV x-ray beams for the Varian 21EX linear accelerator  

PubMed Central

The effect of the jaw configuration and the presence and configuration of the tertiary multileaf collimator (MLC) on the secondary neutron spectra for an 18 MV Varian 21EX linear accelerator (linac) is investigated in detail. The authors report the measured spectra for four collimator (jaw-and-MLC) configurations. These configurations represent the extreme settings of the jaws and MLC and should therefore describe the range of possible fluence and spectra that may be encountered during use of this linac. In addition to measurements, a Monte Carlo model was used to simulate the four collimator configurations and calculate the energy spectra and fluence at the same location as it was measured. The Monte Carlo model was also used to calculate the sources of neutron production in the linac head for each collimator configuration. They found that photoneutron production in the linac treatment head is dominated by the order in which the primary photon beam intercepts the high-Z material. The primary collimator, which has the highest position in the linac head (in a fixed location), is the largest source of secondary neutrons. Thereafter, the collimator configuration plays a role in where the neutrons originate. For instance, if the jaws are closed, they intercept the beam and contribute substantially to the secondary neutron production. Conversely, if the jaws are open, the MLC plays a larger role in neutron production (assuming, of course, that it intercepts the beam). They found that different collimator configurations make up to a factor of 2 difference in the ambient dose equivalent.

Howell, Rebecca M.; Kry, Stephen F.; Burgett, Eric; Followill, David; Hertel, Nolan E.

2009-01-01

239

MR-1 modulates proliferation and migration of human hepatoma HepG2 cells through myosin light chains-2 (MLC2)/focal adhesion kinase (FAK)/Akt signaling pathway.  

PubMed

The key of cell migration process on solid substrates is phosphorylation of myosin light chain-2 (MLC2), which is implicated in a variety of intracellular functions. The previous data show that MLC2 interacts with a novel human gene, myofibrillogenesis regulator 1 (MR-1). Here, we reported that MR-1 was specially overexpressed in human hepatoma HepG2 cells. Transient treatment of cells with small interfering RNA (siRNA) against MR-1 or stable transfection of cells with plasmid expressing MR-1-siRNA led to inhibitions of cell proliferation, migration, and adhesion. Following down-regulation of MR-1, the phosphorylations of MLC2, focal adhesion kinase (FAK), and Akt were dramatically decreased, and the formation of stress fiber was destroyed by MR-1-siRNAs in hepatoma HepG2 cells. In addition, exogenous MR-1-induced as well as inherent phosphorylations of FAK and Akt were decreased by MLC kinase (MLCK) inhibitor, and F-actin polymerization inhibitor also decreased phosphorylations of FAK and Akt. Correspondingly, MR-1-enhanced migration of cells was also inhibited by these two inhibitors. These indicated that MLC2 activation and intact actin cytoskeleton were pivotal for MR-1 function. In vivo data showed that MR-1-siRNA markedly inhibited growth of human HepG2. This study suggested that overexpression of MR-1 was associated with cancer cell proliferation and migration through MLC2 and that MR-1 might be a potential cancer therapeutic target. PMID:18948272

Ren, Kaihuan; Jin, Haixia; Bian, Chunjing; He, Hongwei; Liu, Xia; Zhang, Shenghua; Wang, Yiguang; Shao, Rong-guang

2008-10-23

240

Cytokine dysregulation associated with exam stress in healthy medical students.  

PubMed

The mechanisms of stress-related immune alterations have not been fully elucidated. Cell-mediated immune responses as well as antibody and certain cytokines are reported as being suppressed during times of high stress. However, the role of suppression vs dysregulation has not been established in human stress models. The effect of exam stress on regulatory cytokines in 16 healthy medical students was assessed by measuring type-1 (IFN-gamma) and type-2 (IL-10) cytokines from 72-h PHA/PMA-stimulated PBMC 4 weeks before and 48 h after exams. Results demonstrated decreased IFN-gamma accompanied by increased IL-10 during exam stress that resulted in a decreased IFN-gamma:IL-10 ratio. There was a significant correlation between the cytokine response to PHA/PMA and number and subjective adjustment to daily hassles. Additionally, students who reported greater levels of loneliness also reported greater numbers of and poorer subjective adjustment to hassles. The differences were consistent in both males and females but did not correlate with AM cortisol levels. Additionally, when individuals were grouped into high vs low preexam hassle levels, the type-1/type-2 shift in the IFN-gamma:IL-10 ratio occurred in the low hassles group only. These data suggest that psychologically stressful situations shift type-1/type-2 cytokine balance toward type-2 and result in an immune dysregulation rather than overall immunosuppression. This may partially explain the increased incidence of type-2-mediated conditions such as increased viral infections, latent viral expression, allergic/asthmatic reactions, and autoimmunity reported during periods of high stress. PMID:10080859

Marshall, G D; Agarwal, S K; Lloyd, C; Cohen, L; Henninger, E M; Morris, G J

1998-12-01

241

The HESI Exit Exam: progression benchmark and remediation guide.  

PubMed

Evidence exists indicating that remediation positively affects NCLEX success of students with known academic deficits. However, specific benchmarks that identify students who are at risk of NCLEX failure and in need of remediation have not been identified. Following publication of research findings that established the reliability and validity of the HESI Exit Exam (E) as an accurate measure of students' NCLEX preparedness, nurse educators increasingly chose administer the E to their senior students. This study investigated using the E as a benchmark for progression and as a guide for remediation. PMID:18791395

Nibert, Ainslie T; Young, Anne; Britt, Robin

242

Teaching about substance abuse with objective structured clinical exams  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Although residents commonly manage substance abuse disorders, optimal approaches to teaching these specialized interviewing\\u000a and intervention skills are unknown.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a OBJECTIVE: We developed a Substance Abuse Objective Structured Clinical Exam (OSCE) to teach addiction medicine competencies using immediate\\u000a feedback. In this study we evaluated OSCE performance, examined associations between performance and self-assessed interest\\u000a and competence in substance abuse, and assessed

Sharon J. Parish; Megha Ramaswamy; Melissa R. Stein; Elizabeth K. Kachur; Julia H. Arnsten

2006-01-01

243

Delivery of four-dimensional radiotherapy with TrackBeam for moving target using a dual-layer MLC: dynamic phantoms study  

PubMed Central

Respiratory motion has been considered a clinical challenge for lung tumor treatments due to target motion. In this study, we aimed to perform an experimental evaluation based on dynamic phantoms using MLC-based beam tracking. TrackBeam, a prototype real-time beam tracking system, has been assembled and evaluated in our clinic. TrackBeam includes an orthogonal dual-layer micro multileaf collimator (DmMLC), an on-board mega-voltage (MV) portal imaging device, and an image processing workstation. With a fiducial marker implanted in a moving target, the onboard imaging device can capture the motion. The TrackBeam workstation processes the online MV fluence and detects and predicts tumor motion. The DmMLC system then dynamically repositions each leaf to form new beam apertures based on the movement of the fiducial marker. In this study, a dynamic phantom was used for the measurements. Three delivery patterns were evaluated for dosimetric verification based on radiographic films: no-motion lung-tumor (NMLT), three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT), and four-dimensional tracking radiotherapy (4DTRT). The displacement between the DmMLC dynamic beam isocenter and the fiducial marker was in the range of 0.5 mm to 1.5 mm. With radiographic film analysis, the planar dose histogram difference between 3DCRT and NLMT was 48.6% and 38.0% with dose difference tolerances of 10% and 20%, respectively. The planar dose histogram difference between 4DTRT and NLMT was 15.2% and 4.0%, respectively. Based on dose volume histogram analysis, 4DTRT reduces the mean dose for the surrounding tissue from 35.4 Gy to 19.5 Gy, reduces the relative volume of the total lung from 28% to 18% at V20, and reduces the amount of dose from 35.2 Gy to 15.0 Gy at D20. The experimental results show that MLC-based real-time beam tracking delivery provides a potential solution to respiratory motion control. Beam tracking delivers a highly conformal dose to a moving target, while sparing surrounding normal tissue.

Liu, Yaxi; Shi, Chengyu; Lin, Bryan; Ha, Chul Soo; Papanikolaou, Niko

2009-01-01

244

How accurately can students estimate their performance on an exam and how does this relate to their actual performance on the exam?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Research has shown students' beliefs regarding their own abilities in math and science can influence their performance in these disciplines. I investigated the relationship between students' estimated performance and actual performance on five exams in a second semester calculus-based physics class. Students in a second-semester calculus-based physics class were given about 72 hours after the completion of each of five exams, to estimate their individual and class mean score on each exam. Students were given extra credit worth 1% of the exam points for estimating their score correct within 2% of the actual score and another 1% extra credit for estimating the class mean score within 2% of the correct value. I compared students' individual and mean score estimations with the actual scores to investigate the relationship between estimation accuracies and exam performance of the students as well as trends over the semester.

Rebello, N. Sanjay

2012-02-01

245

How accurately can students estimate their performance on an exam and how does this relate to their actual performance on the exam?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Research has shown students' beliefs regarding their own abilities in math and science can influence their performance in these disciplines. I investigated the relationship between students' estimated performance and actual performance on five exams in a second semester calculus-based physics class. Students in a second-semester calculus-based physics class were given about 72 hours after the completion of each of five exams, to estimate their individual and class mean score on each exam. Students were given extra credit worth 1% of the exam points for estimating their score correct within 2% of the actual score and another 1% extra credit for estimating the class mean score within 2% of the correct value. I compared students' individual and mean score estimations with the actual scores to investigate the relationship between estimation accuracies and exam performance of the students as well as trends over the semester.

Rebello, N. S.

2012-05-15

246

Emergency medicine residents' attitudes and opinions of in-training exam preparation  

PubMed Central

Purpose Emergency Medicine (EM) residents take the American Board of Emergency Medicine (ABEM) in-training exam, and performance on this exam has been shown to correlate to performance on the ABEM qualifying exam. Though many residencies have in-training exam preparation activities, there is little data on the effectiveness of these efforts. This study aimed to elicit resident perspectives about the exam and exam preparation in order to generate hypotheses and better inform future preparation efforts. Methods Second- and third-year EM residents at a single institution were interviewed using a semi-structured format. Qualitative methodology was used to analyze the data. Results Thirteen EM residents participated in the study. Eight major themes and 18 sub-themes were identified. These were further characterized as relating to the exam itself or to exam preparation. Residents generally value the in-training exam. Sixty-nine percent noted that it provided an assessment of their current knowledge and deficiencies. Thirty-eight percent noted that it improved familiarity with the qualifying exam. Regarding exam preparation, residents stated that a question format was preferred, especially when accompanying explanations were of high quality. Additionally, practical considerations, such as portability, impacted resident selection of study tools. Conclusion Residents value the in-training exam as a marker of their academic progress and for their ability to gain familiarity with the qualifying exam. They prefer question-based preparation over text-based learning, as long as there is a detailed explanation of each answer. Educators creating structured in-training review may want to focus on question-based material with detailed explanations.

Eastin, Travis R; Bernard, Aaron W

2013-01-01

247

Estimated oil and gas reserves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Remaining recoverable reserves of oil and gas in the Gulf of Mexico Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) have been estimated to be 3.50 billion barrels of oil and 42.4 trillion cubic feet of gas, as of December 31, 1987. These reserves are recoverable from 666 studied fields located in Federal waters. For any field contained partly in State waters and partly

J. M. Melancon; J. P. Brooke; J. W. Compton; J. H. Knipmeyer

1987-01-01

248

Marine Forces Reserve in Transition.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The last 5 years have demonstrated that the Marine Corps Reserve is a full partner in the Total Force Marine Corps. Marine Forces Reserve remains committed to the rapid and efficient activation of combat-ready ground, air, and logistics units, as well as ...

J. W. Bergman

2006-01-01

249

Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Quarterly Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During the second quarter of 1982, the Department of Energy continued to expand the storage capacity for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) and to take advantage of the favorable international oil market for the purchase of oil to fill the Reserve. The...

1982-01-01

250

Federal Reserve Rate Cuts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This week's In the News chronicles recent Federal Reserve Board decisions to lower interest rates. The eleven resources discussed provide news, opinion, and consumer information on the FRB BOG action. Following the first US interest rate cut in three years on September 29, 1998, FED Chairman Alan Greenspan caught fire from Wall Street. "Traders were disappointed" in the mere quarter point drop, according to Time business reporter Bernard Baumohl, but "Greenspan will have to make do with the gratitude of the rest of the world." Although the DOW initially fell 54 points Tuesday, a second 0.25% cut to short-term interest rates on October 15, 1998 sent stocks soaring 330 points--the third largest one-day point gain in history. Analysts now hope that US investor optimism--coupled with IMF and World Bank action in Brazil, Russia, and Asia--will ease the world-wide economic crises.

Waters, Megan.

1998-01-01

251

Zimbabwe's coal reserves  

SciTech Connect

The coal potential of Zimbabwe is not widely known, but the country has proved and inferred reserves of around 30,000,000,000 metric tons and intends to become an exporter by 1985. At present there is only one operating coal company in Zimbabwe, the Wankie Colliery Company Limited, but the interest in other coalfields is intensifying. Coal is seen as one of the country's resources with the greatest potential for production increases. The plan is to export 5,000,000 tons per year by 1985, increasing to 10,000,000 tons by 1990. Current exports are insignificant. Current production, from Wankie, is around 3,000,000 tons per year but, with the construction of a new power station, this is to be increased to 7,000,000 tons. Wankie currently operates two underground and three open pit mines.

Chadwick, J.R.

1981-03-01

252

Documented Problem Solving: Calculating Bank Reserves  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The lecture focused on the banking system and included a discussion about total reserves, required reserves and excess reserves. Students practiced calculating each category in pairs and then compared their solutions with those of the instructor.

Wilson, Linda

253

21 CFR 211.170 - Reserve samples.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...appropriately identified reserve sample that is representative of...product labeling. The reserve sample shall be stored in the same immediate container-closure system in which...characteristics. The reserve sample consists of at least...

2013-04-01

254

Enhancement of electron-beam surface dose with an electron multi-leaf collimator (eMLC): a feasibility study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Use of a water-equivalent bolus in electron-beam radiotherapy is sometimes impractical and non-hygienic. Therefore, the feasibility of applying adjacent narrow beams for producing high surface dose electron beams without a bolus was investigated. Depth dose curves and profiles in water were calculated and measured for 6 and 9 MeV electron-beam segments (width 0.3-1.5 cm, length 10 cm) for source-to-surface distances (SSD) 102 and 105 cm. Segment shaping was performed with an add-on electron multi-leaf collimator prototype attached to the Varian 2100 C/D linac. Dose calculations were performed with the Voxel Monte Carlo++ algorithm. Resulting dose distributions in typical clinical cases were compared with the bolus technique. With a composite segmental field with 1.0 cm wide segments the surface dose was over 90% of the depth dose maximum for both energies. The build-up area practically disappeared with a 0.5 cm wide single beam. This led to decrease in the therapeutic range for composite fields with segment widths smaller than 1.0 cm. The new technique yielded similar surface doses as the bolus technique. The photon contamination was 4% with a 9 × 10 cm2 field (1.0 cm wide segments) compared to 1% for the respective open field with 9 MeV with a bolus. The calculated dose agreed within 2 mm and 3% of the measured dose in 93.7% and 85.2% of the voxels. Adjacent narrow eMLC beams with a 1.0 cm width are suitable to produce electron fields with high surface dose. Despite a slight nonuniformity in the surface profiles in the lateral part of the field at SSD 102 cm, surface dose and target coverage are comparable with the bolus technique.

Vatanen, T.; Traneus, E.; Lahtinen, T.

2009-04-01

255

A history of interpersonal trauma and the gynecological exam.  

PubMed

Cervical cancer is preventable, in part, by routine Papanicolaou (Pap) testing, but some women avoid routine screening. African American women have the greatest mortality among all groups of women in the United States. Personal reasons have been found to contribute to screening avoidance behavior, such as a history of sexual abuse and intimate partner violence. Fifteen African American women with a trauma history participated in personal interviews. The Interaction Model of Client Behavior was employed for exploring the women's social influence, previous health care experience, cognitive appraisal, affective response, and motivation associated with routine Pap testing. Study findings suggest that providers need to assess and provide accurate information about Pap testing and cervical cancer to increase patients' knowledge. Personally reflecting on one's approach to conducting a woman's gynecologic exam (and how it is performed) might prevent triggering unwanted memories, making that visit a positive experience and facilitating repeat screening behavior. PMID:22068042

Ackerson, Kelly

2011-11-07

256

Predicting NCLEX-PN success with the HESI Exit Exam.  

PubMed

Surveys were mailed to directors of 72 randomly selected practical nursing (PN) schools that administered Elsevier's HESI Exit Exam for Practical Nurses (E2-PN) during the 2006-2007 academic year. Data were collected regarding students' NCLEX-PN outcomes and the schools' benchmarking and remediation policies. The first version of the E2-PN was 99.48% accurate in predicting NCLEX-PN success. Versions two and three of the E2-PN, which were administered to students who were remediated because they did not achieve the faculty-designated benchmark, were also highly accurate in predicting NCLEX-PN success. Most faculties set 850 as their school's E2-PN benchmark, and 73% of the respondents required remediation for students who did not achieve the benchmark score. The most frequently cited remediation strategy was tutoring. PMID:21534440

Young, Anne; Willson, Pamela

2010-01-01

257

Language Placement and Beyond: Guidelines for the Design and Implementation of a Computerized Spanish Heritage Language Exam  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper outlines the design, implementation, and analysis of a computerized Spanish heritage language (SHL) placement exam. The exam created by the authors exemplifies how to design a simple yet effective placement exam with limited resources. It is suggested that an SHL placement exam should be developed in-house due not only to the diversity…

Beaudrie, Sara M.; Ducar, Cynthia

2012-01-01

258

The Effect of Using Water-based Gel Lubricant During a Speculum Exam On Pap Smear Results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Cervical cancer is a pervasive yet preventable killer. Although routine screening exams are available to aid in the early detection of cervical cancer, women often avoid getting their routine annual screening exams. One explanation of this could be due to the discomfort of speculum exams. One way to minimize the discomfort of the speculum exam is to use gel-lubricant.

Jessica L. Wright

2010-01-01

259

Content validity of manual spinal palpatory exams - A systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background Many health care professionals use spinal palpatory exams as a primary and well-accepted part of the evaluation of spinal pathology. However, few studies have explored the validity of spinal palpatory exams. To evaluate the status of the current scientific evidence, we conducted a systematic review to assess the content validity of spinal palpatory tests used to identify spinal neuro-musculoskeletal dysfunction. Methods Review of eleven databases and a hand search of peer-reviewed literature, published between 1965–2002, was undertaken. Two blinded reviewers abstracted pertinent data from the retrieved papers, using a specially developed quality-scoring instrument. Five papers met the inclusion/exclusion criteria. Results Three of the five papers included in the review explored the content validity of motion tests. Two of these papers focused on identifying the level of fixation (decreased mobility) and one focused on range of motion. All three studies used a mechanical model as a reference standard. Two of the five papers included in the review explored the validity of pain assessment using the visual analogue scale or the subjects' own report as reference standards. Overall the sensitivity of studies looking at range of motion tests and pain varied greatly. Poor sensitivity was reported for range of motion studies regardless of the examiner's experience. A slightly better sensitivity (82%) was reported in one study that examined cervical pain. Conclusions The lack of acceptable reference standards may have contributed to the weak sensitivity findings. Given the importance of spinal palpatory tests as part of the spinal evaluation and treatment plan, effort is required by all involved disciplines to create well-designed and implemented studies in this area.

Najm, Wadie I; Seffinger, Michael A; Mishra, Shiraz I; Dickerson, Vivian M; Adams, Alan; Reinsch, Sibylle; Murphy, Linda S; Goodman, Arnold F

2003-01-01

260

[Difference analysis among majors in medical parasitology exam papers by test item bank proposition].  

PubMed

The quality index among "Medical Parasitology" exam papers and measured data for students in three majors from the university in 2010 were compared and analyzed. The exam papers were formed from the test item bank. The alpha reliability coefficients of the three exam papers were above 0.70. The knowledge structure and capacity structure of the exam papers were basically balanced. But the alpha reliability coefficients of the second major was the lowest, mainly due to quality of test items in the exam paper and the failure of revising the index of test item bank in time. This observation demonstrated that revising the test items and their index in the item bank according to the measured data can improve the quality of test item bank proposition and reduce the difference among exam papers. PMID:22908821

Jia, Lin-Zhi; Ya-Jun, Ma; Cao, Yi; Qian, Fen; Li, Xiang-Yu

2012-04-30

261

Developing, deploying, and analyzing exam wrappers in a large introductory physics class  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a typical semester, approximately 2000 students are registered into a calculus based introductory physics course at Georgia Tech. In each course, approximately 75 percent of a student's final grade is based on exam performance. Our goal was to encourage students into the feedback cycle of self-regulated learning by asking them to complete exam wrappers; post examination assignments that ask student to reflect on their study habits and errors made during an exam. We cluster students into groups based on how they partitioned their study time. We analyze exam and overall course performance for each group. In addition, we compare the performance of students who completed exam wrappers with those that did not. We find that exam wrappers are useful tool for both the instructor and student.

Greco, Edwin

2012-03-01

262

How compliant is compliant? Evaluating adherence with breast self-exam positions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined compliance with the three recommended breast self-examination (BSE) positions over a 6-month follow-up period. An ongoing behavioral measure that provided information about the type of exam performed during each BSE occasion was employed. Results indicated that adherence to all three position types was obtained in only 40% of the exams. Forty-two percent of exams were comprised

Vivian M. Stevens; Joseph W. Hatcher; Barbara K. Bruce

1994-01-01

263

Protein and lipid oxidative damage in healthy students during and after exam stress.  

PubMed

Oxidative damage at cellular level is thought to be one of the mechanisms in the pathogenesis of psychological stress (anxiety). The aim of this study was to investigate lipid and protein oxidative damage in exam anxiety conditions. Blood samples were collected in two stages (during the exam period and post vacation) from 51 healthy female students after responding to Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) and test anxiety questionnaire. Protein carbonyl, total thiol and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were determined in serum. Participants reported significantly higher levels of subjective anxiety during the exam period than post vacation. Also the level of total thiol was significantly lower during the exam period compared with post vacation (p<0.001). Meanwhile, protein carbonyl and MDA levels during the exams were significantly higher than those in post-exam period (p<0.01). During the exam period, there was a negative correlation between serum total thiol levels and the severity of anxiety (r=-0.45, p<0.01). A significant positive correlation between the changes in serum protein carbonyl and MDA levels, also between those markers and anxiety score was found during the exam period. The high level of protein carbonyl and MDA, also low level of total thiol during the exam period demonstrated an oxidative damage to proteins and lipids in stress conditions. Our results suggest that oxidative damage to cellular compounds may be one of the mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of anxiety. PMID:23688949

Nakhaee, Alireza; Shahabizadeh, Fatemeh; Erfani, Mozhgan

2013-05-18

264

Want to Reduce Guessing and Cheating While Making Students Happier? Give More Exams!  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is almost universally agreed that more frequent formative assessment (homework, clicker questions, practice tests, etc.) leads to better student performance and generally better course evaluations.1 There is, however, only anecdotal evidence that the same would be true for more frequent summative assessment (exams). There maybe many arguments against giving more exams, including the general ``pain'' associated with examinations, as well as reduced teaching time, since classroom sessions are dedicated to exams rather than lecturing. We present evidence that increasing the number of exams in fact does lead to better learning success, less cheating and guessing on homework, and better student course evaluations.

Laverty, James T.; Bauer, Wolfgang; Kortemeyer, Gerd; Westfall, Gary

2012-12-01

265

A practical method to calculate head scatter factors in wedged rectangular and irregular MLC shaped beams for external and internal wedges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Factor based methods for absorbed dose or monitor unit calculations are often based on separate data sets for open and wedged beams. The determination of basic beam parameters can be rather time consuming, unless equivalent square methods are applied. When considering irregular wedged beams shaped with a multileaf collimator, parametrization methods for dosimetric quantities, e.g. output ratios or wedge factors as a function of field size and shape, become even more important. A practical method is presented to derive wedged output ratios in air (Sc,w) for any rectangular field and for any irregular MLC shaped beam. This method was based on open field output ratios in air (Sc) for a field with the same collimator setting, and a relation fw between Sc,w and Sc. The relation fw can be determined from measured output ratios in air for a few open and wedged fields including the maximum wedged field size. The function fw and its parametrization were dependent on wedge angle and treatment head design, i.e. they were different for internal and external wedges. The proposed method was tested for rectangular wedged fields on three accelerators with internal wedges (GE, Elekta, BBC) and two accelerators with external wedges (Varian). For symmetric regular beams the average deviation between calculated and measured Sc,w/Sc ratios was 0.3% for external wedges and about 0.6% for internal wedges. Maximum deviations of 1.8% were obtained for elongated rectangular fields on the GE and ELEKTA linacs with an internal wedge. The same accuracy was achieved for irregular MLC shaped wedged beams on the accelerators with MLC and internal wedges (GE and Elekta), with an average deviation <1% for the fields tested. The proposed method to determine output ratios in air for wedged beams from output ratios of open beams, combined with equivalent square approaches, can be easily integrated in empirical or semi-empirical methods for monitor unit calculations.

Georg, Dietmar; Olofsson, Jörgen; Künzler, Thomas; Aiginger, Hannes; Karlsson, Mikael

2004-10-01

266

Real-time target position estimation using stereoscopic kV/MV imaging and external respiratory monitoring for dynamic MLC tracking  

PubMed Central

Purpose To develop a real-time target position estimation method using stereoscopic kV/MV imaging and external respiratory monitoring, and investigate the performance of a dynamic MLC tracking system employing this method. Method and Materials Real-time 3D internal target position estimation was established by creating a time-varying correlation model that connects external respiratory signals with internal target motion measured intermittently by kV/MV imaging. The method was integrated into a dynamic MLC tracking system. Tracking experiments were performed for 10 thoracic/abdominal traces. A 3D motion platform carrying a gold marker and a separate 1D motion platform were used to reproduce the target and external respiratory motion, respectively. Target positions were detected by kV (1Hz) and MV (5.2Hz) imaging, while external respiratory motion was captured by an optical system (30Hz). Beam-target alignment error was quantified as the positional difference between the target and circular beam-center on MV images acquired during tracking. Correlation model error was quantified by comparing a model estimate and measured target positions. Results The root-mean-square errors (RMSE) in beam-target alignment that ranged from 3.1 to 7.6mm without tracking were reduced to less than 1.5 mm with tracking, except during the model-building period (6 sec). The RMSE in the correlation model was sub-mm in all directions. Conclusions A novel real-time target position estimation method has been developed and integrated into a dynamic MLC tracking system demonstrating on average sub-mm geometric accuracy after initializing the internal/external model. The method uses hardware tools available on linear accelerators and therefore shows promise for clinical implementation.

Cho, Byungchul; Poulsen, Per Rugaard; Sawant, Amit; Ruan, Dan; Keall, Paul J

2010-01-01

267

National Estuarine Research Reserve System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Established in 1972 through the Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA), the National Estuarine Research Reserve System (NERR) is a network of protected areas representing different types of estuaries and biogeographic regions. Operated by coastal states with input from local communities and regional groups, NERR studies address coastal watershed management issues. The homepage provides an overview of the NERR System with links to specific information on (most) reserves, detailed case studies on six focal reserves, publications and research resources, educational materials, and links to related resources.

268

Canadian biomass reserves for biorefining.  

PubMed

A lignocellulosic-based biorefining strategy may be supported by biomass reserves, created initially with residues from wood product processing or agriculture. Biomass reserves might be expanded using innovative management techniques that reduce vulnerability of feedstock in the forest products or agricultural supply chain. Forest-harvest residue removal, disturbance isolation, and precommercial thinnings might produce 20-33 x 10(6) mt/yr of feedstock for Canadian biorefineries. Energy plantations on marginal Canadian farmland might produce another 9-20 mt. Biomass reserves should be used to support first-generation biorefining installations for bioethanol production, development of which will lead to the creation of future high-value coproducts. Suggestions for Canadian policy reform to support biomass reserves are provided. PMID:16915629

Mabee, Warren E; Fraser, Evan D G; McFarlane, Paul N; Saddler, John N

2006-01-01

269

46 CFR Appendix A - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MERCHANT MARINE OFFICERS AND SEAMEN CHEMICAL TESTING Management Information System Management Information System requirements. Appendix A [Reserved] 46 CFR Ch. I (10-1-12 Edition)...

2012-10-01

270

46 CFR Appendix A - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MERCHANT MARINE OFFICERS AND SEAMEN CHEMICAL TESTING Management Information System Management Information System requirements. Appendix A [Reserved] 46 CFR Ch. I (10-1-11 Edition)...

2011-10-01

271

Storage Reliability of Reserve Batteries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report concerns the storage reliability of reserve batteries. Items developed for munitions have a 20 yr. shelf life requirement over a wide temperature range. Developers need to prove storage reliability. Actual documentation is preferred. Science c...

J. Swank A. Goldberg

2001-01-01

272

Reserve Officers Foreign Exchange Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Directive establishes policy, assigns responsibilities, and prescribes procedures for the management and administration of a Reserve Officers Foreign Exchange Program between the Department of Defense and foreign ministries of defense.

E. Kufeldt

1986-01-01

273

Nonlife insurance: pricing and reserving  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The purpose of this Chapter is to introduce the fundamentals of the actuarial valuation of non-life insurance covers. First\\u000a we give an overview of the contents of non-life insurance products, then we focus on premium calculation and reserving issues.\\u000a While numerical examples are provided, specific covers are not dealt with in detail. To develop premiums and reserves for\\u000a specific lines

Annamaria Olivieri; Ermanno Pitacco

274

Marine reserves: size and age do matter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine reserves are widely used throughout the world to prevent overfishing and conserve biodiversity, but uncertainties remain about their optimal design. The effects of marine reserves are heterogeneous. Despite theoretical findings, empirical studies have previously found no effect of size on the effectiveness of marine reserves in protecting commercial fish stocks. Using 58 datasets from 19 European marine reserves, we

Joachim Claudet; Craig W. Osenberg; Lisandro Benedetti-Cecchi; Paolo Domenici; José-Antonio García-Charton; Ángel Pérez-Ruzafa; Fabio Badalamenti; Just Bayle-Sempere; Alberto Brito; Fabio Bulleri; Jean-Michel Culioli; Mark Dimech; Jesús M. Falcón; Ivan Guala; Marco Milazzo; Julio Sánchez-Meca; Paul J. Somerfield; Ben Stobart; Frédéric Vandeperre; Carlos Valle; Serge Planes

2008-01-01

275

Veterinary Science Students, Center Changing a Reservation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Kayenta is a rural community located in northeastern Arizona on a Navajo reservation. On the reservation, many families rely on their livestock for income, and as a result, many reservation high school students show a great interest in agricultural education. Having livestock on the reservation is not just a source of income, but also part of a…

Blackwater, Jasmine

2011-01-01

276

Estimated oil and gas reserves  

SciTech Connect

Remaining recoverable reserves of oil and gas in the Gulf of Mexico Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) have been estimated to be 3.50 billion barrels of oil and 42.4 trillion cubic feet of gas, as of December 31, 1987. These reserves are recoverable from 666 studied fields located in Federal waters. For any field contained partly in State waters and partly in Federal waters, reserves are estimated for the Federal portion only. An additional 84 fields, discovered since December 31, 1985, have not sufficiently developed to permit a reasonably accurate estimate of reserves. Original recoverable reserves are estimated to have been 10.76 billion barrels of oil and 122.1 trillion cubic feet of gas from 704 fields in the same geographic area. Included in this number are 38 fields that are depleted and abandoned; not included are the 84 insufficiently developed fields. Estimates were made for individual reservoirs based on geologic mapping and reserve evaluation of 495 fields. Engineering studies were conducted for another 209 fields.

Melancon, J.M.; Brooke, J.P.; Compton, J.W.; Knipmeyer, J.H.

1987-01-01

277

Assessing Assessment: The Effects of Two Exam Formats on Course Achievement and Evaluation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research examines the effect of two testing strategies on academic achievement and summative evaluations in an introductory statistics course. In 2001, 63 students underwent an hourly midterm format; and in 2002, 68 students underwent a bi-weekly exam format. Other than the exam format, the class lectures and labs were identical in terms of…

Myers, Carrie B.; Myers, Scott M.

2007-01-01

278

Pick-N Multiple Choice-Exams: A Comparison of Scoring Algorithms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|To compare different scoring algorithms for Pick-N multiple correct answer multiple-choice (MC) exams regarding test reliability, student performance, total item discrimination and item difficulty. Data from six 3rd year medical students' end of term exams in internal medicine from 2005 to 2008 at Munich University were analysed (1,255 students,…

Bauer, Daniel; Holzer, Matthias; Kopp, Veronika; Fischer, Martin R.

2011-01-01

279

The ACS Exams Institute Undergraduate Chemistry Anchoring Concepts Content Map I: General Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To provide tools for programmatic assessment related to the use of ACS Exams in undergraduate chemistry courses, the ACS Exams Institute has built a content map that applies to the entire undergraduate curriculum. At the top two levels, the grain size of the content classification is large and spans the entire undergraduate curriculum. At the…

Holme, Thomas; Murphy, Kristen

2012-01-01

280

Academic Self-Efficacy and Malleability of Relevant Capabilities as Predictors of Exam Performance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Results of a study involving 438 college freshmen indicated that academic self-efficacy and personal goals contributed to exam performance. In a second study with the same students, the mean exam performance of participants with high self-efficacy appraisals and strong malleability beliefs was better than that of students with low self-efficacy…

Vrugt, Anneke J.; Hoogstraten, Johan; Langereis, Marjan P.

1997-01-01

281

Investigating the Relationship between Faculty Cognitive Expectations about Learning Chemistry and the Construction of Exam Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We have investigated chemistry faculty's cognitive expectations about learning chemistry and their influence upon the construction of exam questions in a general chemistry curriculum. Faculty cognitive expectations for learning chemistry were measured using QUIMX. Learning objectives and exam questions for a year-long general chemistry sequence…

Sanabria-Rios, David; Bretz, Stacey Lowery

2010-01-01

282

The ACS Exams Institute Undergraduate Chemistry Anchoring Concepts Content Map I: General Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|To provide tools for programmatic assessment related to the use of ACS Exams in undergraduate chemistry courses, the ACS Exams Institute has built a content map that applies to the entire undergraduate curriculum. At the top two levels, the grain size of the content classification is large and spans the entire undergraduate curriculum. At the…

Holme, Thomas; Murphy, Kristen

2012-01-01

283

Exam Analysis Procedure. Loma Linda University School of Nursing Learning Assistance Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An exam analysis procedure was developed at Loma Linda University School of Nursing to help students who do poorly on tests identify problem areas. Using the student's exam paper, the student and instructor discuss each incorrectly answered question, and record the problem on a check sheet. The procedure makes it possible to identify how many…

Condon, Vaneta M.

284

Examining the Effects of Flexible Online Exams on Students' Engagement in E-Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Online assessments are essential parts of online learning. There are some debates on quality of online assessments. Nevertheless the study considered online exams as an instructional activity and aimed to examine the effects of online exams on students' engagements related to course goals. The study was conducted on two cases, which are…

Karaman, Selcuk

2011-01-01

285

A Valid and Reliable Instrument for Cognitive Complexity Rating Assignment of Chemistry Exam Items  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The design and use of a valid and reliable instrument for the assignment of cognitive complexity ratings to chemistry exam items is described in this paper. Use of such an instrument provides a simple method to quantify the cognitive demands of chemistry exam items. Instrument validity was established in two different ways: statistically…

Knaus, Karen; Murphy, Kristen; Blecking, Anja; Holme, Thomas

2011-01-01

286

Controversies Surrounding the Rape Kit Exam in the 1980s: Issues and Alternatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on a study of 130 organizations in Florida that deal with survivors of sexual assault, controversies that surround the “rape kit exam”—medical examination for purposes of evidence collection—are identified and discussed. After an overview of the rape kit examination and typical sites and personnel for performing it, the article focuses on issues relative to the exam including the following:

Patricia Yancey Martin; Diana DiNitto; Sharon Maxwell; Diane Blum Norton

1985-01-01

287

Providing the Answers Does Not Improve Performance on a College Final Exam  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In the context of an upper-level psychology course, even when students were given an opportunity to refer to text containing the answers and change their exam responses in order to improve their exam scores, their performance on these questions improved slightly or not at all. Four experiments evaluated competing explanations for the students'…

Glass, Arnold Lewis; Sinha, Neha

2013-01-01

288

The ACT of Enrollment: The College Enrollment Effects of State-Required College Entrance Exam Testing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since 2001 Colorado, Illinois, and Maine have all enacted policies that require high school juniors to take college entrance exams--the SAT or the ACT. One goal of these policies was to increase college enrollment based on the belief that requiring students to take these exams would make students more likely to consider college as a viable option.…

Klasik, Daniel

2013-01-01

289

Systematically designed license exams in non-native countries to accelerate globalizing pace  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is important for a technician to get the vocational licenses. The system of the vocational license exam is highly appreciated by many countries. Therefore, it is helpful to globalization to have a systematically designed license exams related to internationalization. We propose the vocational licenses can be classified as globalizing type (GT) and domestic type (DT). For example, interpreters, bartenders,

Bing-Yuh Lu; Ming-Li Tung; Mau-Yuan Wang; Hao-Li Liu; Tzu-Ching Shih

2004-01-01

290

Use of a Consumer-Grade Digital Camera to Archive Written Exams  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of a photocopier to archive exams consumes photocopier resources and generates a large amount of waste. As an alternative, I have been using a consumer-grade digital camera to document exams in an upper-division biology course. The approach is inexpensive and offers a number of advantages over photocopies. (Contains 2 figures.)

Maduro, Morris

2006-01-01

291

Effects of Online Testing on Student Exam Performance and Test Anxiety  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Increased use of course management software to administer course exams online for face-to-face classes raises the question of how well test anxiety and other emotions generalize from the classroom to an online setting. We hypothesized that administering regular course exams in an online format would reduce test anxiety experienced at the time of…

Stowell, Jeffrey R.; Bennett, Dan

2010-01-01

292

Student Grade Motivation as a Determinant of Performance on the Business Major Field ETS Exam  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper examines the determinants of performance on the business major field achievement ETS exam with a focus on the impact of applying ETS exam scores to part of the capstone course grade as a performance incentive. The sample consists of 150 students at a midsized regional institution located in the Southwestern region of the United States.…

Terry, Neil; Mills, LaVelle; Sollosy, Marc

2008-01-01

293

A Study of the Relationship between Student Final Exam Performance and Simulation Game Participation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes study that investigated the relationship between participation in a business simulation game and performance on a final exam in a principles of marketing course. Past research on business games is reviewed; the use of midterm exam performance level as a pretest variable is explained; and question classification is described. (44…

Whiteley, T. R.; Faria, A. J.

1989-01-01

294

A Study of the Relationship between Student Final Exam Performance and Simulation Game Participation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes study that investigated the relationship between participation in a business simulation game and performance on a final exam in a principles of marketing course. Past research on business games is reviewed; the use of midterm exam performance level as a pretest variable is explained; and question classification is described. (44…

Whiteley, T. R.; Faria, A. J.

1989-01-01

295

Research on the general exam system model based on ontology and multi-agent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considering the limitation of the traditional and current examination system, this paper brings forward a framework and be used for the general exam system. The general exam system is based on three layers: the user layer, the application logic layer and the data services layer with ontology base, user feature base, method base and knowledge base. In the system, ontology

Chunhong Wang; Lele Qin

2009-01-01

296

Engaging students and evaluating learning progress using collaborative exams in introductory courses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Collaborative exams, with subsections in which students have an opportunity to work with each other, are not yet widely used in introductory geoscience courses. This type of exam structure, with other participatory teaching strategies, was employed in two different courses, and results were found to provide a sensitive and revealing tool for analyzing the progress of students' individual and collaborative

Timothy T. Eaton

2009-01-01

297

Exam High Schools and Academic Achievement: Evidence from New York City. NBER Working Paper No. 17286  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Publicly funded exam schools educate many of the world's most talented students. These schools typically contain higher achieving peers, more rigorous instruction, and additional resources compared to regular public schools. This paper uses a sharp discontinuity in the admissions process at three prominent exam schools in New York City to provide…

Dobbie, Will; Fryer, Roland G., Jr.

2011-01-01

298

Use of a Consumer-Grade Digital Camera to Archive Written Exams  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The use of a photocopier to archive exams consumes photocopier resources and generates a large amount of waste. As an alternative, I have been using a consumer-grade digital camera to document exams in an upper-division biology course. The approach is inexpensive and offers a number of advantages over photocopies. (Contains 2 figures.)|

Maduro, Morris

2006-01-01

299

Democracy in the Israeli Education System: The Case of the English Matriculation Exam  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This research investigates the extent to which indices of social justice and democratic rights are expressed in Israel in the crucial national English matriculation exam, as perceived by Palestinian Arab high school pupils studying for these exams and their English teachers. The research employed Critical Theory as a paradigm, case study as a…

Zaher, Rana

2012-01-01

300

Lack of Follow-Up Exams after Failed School Vision Screenings: An Investigation of Contributing Factors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Programs to facilitate professional eye exams after failed school vision screenings often are based on the assumption that funding and access to services are major obstacles to care. Despite such programs, many children do not receive professional exams. The purpose of this study was to identify additional barriers to follow-up eye care. School…

Kimel, Linda S.

2006-01-01

301

Knowledge Assessment of Food Safety Managers in Utah and Its Implications on the Exam and Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Food Safety Manager's Certification is offered through a state-local Extension partnership in Utah using an online course management system. Exams and course materials were created by an Extension Specialist at Utah State Univ. Extension Agents provide exam and curriculum facilitation in each county. This form of distance education enables access…

Nummer, Brian A.; Guy, Stanley M.; Bentley, Joanne P. H.

2010-01-01

302

Unraveling the Myths of Accountability: A Case Study of the California High School Exit Exam  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Believing that accountability could be a vehicle for change, the California Department of Education (CDE) requires all high school students to pass the California High School Exit Exam (CAHSEE) in order to graduate. In doing so, California joins many others states in mandating a high school exit exam as a current or future requirement for…

Ullucci, Kerri; Spencer, Joi

2009-01-01

303

Approaches to studying and academic performance in short-essay exams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research has generallyfailed to find a relation between the waystudents approach the task of studying andtheir exam grades. The present studyinvestigated why it is that a deep approach tostudying, which has been shown to result in ahigher quality of learning, does notconsistently result in higher exam grades. Theparticipants in the study were 49 third-yearpsychology students. They completedquestionnaires that assessed

Amirali Minbashian; Gail F. Huon; Kevin D. Bird

2004-01-01

304

Exam High Schools and Academic Achievement: Evidence from New York City. NBER Working Paper No. 17286  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Publicly funded exam schools educate many of the world's most talented students. These schools typically contain higher achieving peers, more rigorous instruction, and additional resources compared to regular public schools. This paper uses a sharp discontinuity in the admissions process at three prominent exam schools in New York City to provide…

Dobbie, Will; Fryer, Roland G., Jr.

2011-01-01

305

Examining the Effects of Flexible Online Exams on Students' Engagement in E-Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Online assessments are essential parts of online learning. There are some debates on quality of online assessments. Nevertheless the study considered online exams as an instructional activity and aimed to examine the effects of online exams on students' engagements related to course goals. The study was conducted on two cases, which are…

Karaman, Selcuk

2011-01-01

306

Work In Progress – Do Women Score Lower Than Men on Computer Engineering Exams?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Women have long been underrepresented in undergraduate engineering programs. Women may drop out of engineering programs when they become discouraged by low exam scores. In this project, we examine whether women earn lower exam scores than men and whether Dweck's model of self-theories explains the difference. Dweck proposed two categories for individuals' beliefs about intelligence: incremental theories and entity theories.

I-Ju Liao; Michael C. Loui

2005-01-01

307

Does Eating Breakfast Affect the Performance of College Students on Biology Exams?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined the breakfast eating habits of 1,259 college students over an eleven year period to determine if eating breakfast had an impact upon their grade on a General Biology exam. The study determined that there was a significant difference in the performance on the exam with a higher percent of the participants, who had eaten…

Phillips, Gregory W.

2005-01-01

308

Sensitivity in detecting free intraperitoneal fluid with the pelvic views of the FAST exam  

Microsoft Academic Search

The multiple-view focused assessment with sonography for trauma (FAST) exam is an integral tool in the assessment of blunt abdominal trauma. A prospective observational study was performed to compute the average minimum volume of detectable intraperitoneal fluid with the pelvic views of the FAST exam. All adult patients from October 1999 to May 2001, who presented to the ED with

Dietrich Von Kuenssberg Jehle; Greg Stiller; David Wagner

2003-01-01

309

The Effect of Tutoring on Math Scores for the Praxis I Exam  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Praxis test is one of a series of national teacher certification exams written and administered by the Education Testing Service (ETS) since 1947. Currently, forty states now require some form of the Praxis Series (Educational Testing Service, 2011). Using pre- and post-tests similar to the Praxis I math exam, this study examined the affect…

Longwell-Grice, Robert; McIlheran, Janine; Schroeder, Mark; Scheele, Steve

2013-01-01

310

Training children with autism spectrum disorders to be compliant with a physical exam  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to train children with autism spectrum disorders to be compliant with a 10-component physical examination. After a physician assistant administered an exam pretest, noncompliance on steps of the exam were considered with respect to a skill deficit and escape from aversive stimuli. A package of training procedures was implemented, including preference assessment, priming DVD,

Anthony J. Cuvo; Amanda Law Reagan; Julie Ackerlund; Rachel Huckfeldt; Cheri Kelly

2010-01-01

311

Experience using radio frequency laptops to access the electronic medical record in exam rooms.  

PubMed Central

Kaiser Permanente, Northwest, evaluated the use of laptop computers to access our existing comprehensive Electronic Medical Record in exam rooms via a wireless radiofrequency (RF) network. Eleven of 22 clinicians who were offered the laptops successfully adopted their use in the exam room. These clinicians were able to increase their exam room time with the patient by almost 4 minutes (25%), apparently without lengthening their overall work day. Patient response to exam room computing was overwhelmingly positive. The RF network response time was similar to the hardwired network. Problems cited by some laptop users and many of the eleven non-adopters included battery issues, different equipment layout and function, and inadequate training. IT support needs for the RF laptops were two to four times greater than for hardwired desktops. Addressing the reliability and training issues should increase clinician acceptance, making a successful general roll-out for exam room computing more likely.

Dworkin, L. A.; Krall, M.; Chin, H.; Robertson, N.; Harris, J.; Hughes, J.

1999-01-01

312

Extractive reserves in Brazilian Amazonia  

SciTech Connect

In 1985 an opportunity arose for maintaining tracts of Amazonian forest under sustainable use. Brazil's National Council of Rubber Tappers and the Rural Worker's Union proposed the creation of a set of reserves of a new type, called extractive reserves. The first six are being established in one of the Brazilian states most threatened by deforestatation. The creation of extractive reserves grants legal protection to forest land traditionally used by rubber tappers, Brazil-nut gatherers, and other extractivists. The term extrativismo (extractivism) in Brazil refers to removing nontimber forest products, such as latex, resins, and nuts, without felling the trees. Approximately 30 products are collected for commercial sale. Many more types of forest materials are gathered, for example as food and medicines, for the extractivists' own use. The reserve proposal is attractive for several reasons related to social problems. It allows the rubber tappers to continue their livelihood rather than be expelled by deforestation. However, it is unlikely that sufficient land will be set aside as extractive reserves to employ all the tappers. Displaced rubber tappers already swell the ranks of urban slum dwellers in Brazil's Amazonian cities, and they have become refugees to continue their profession in the forests of neighboring countries, such as Bolivia.

Fearnside, P.M (National Institute for Research in the Amazon, Manaus-Amazonas (Brazil))

1989-06-01

313

Multiple-Choice Exams: An Obstacle for Higher-Level Thinking in Introductory Science Classes  

PubMed Central

Learning science requires higher-level (critical) thinking skills that need to be practiced in science classes. This study tested the effect of exam format on critical-thinking skills. Multiple-choice (MC) testing is common in introductory science courses, and students in these classes tend to associate memorization with MC questions and may not see the need to modify their study strategies for critical thinking, because the MC exam format has not changed. To test the effect of exam format, I used two sections of an introductory biology class. One section was assessed with exams in the traditional MC format, the other section was assessed with both MC and constructed-response (CR) questions. The mixed exam format was correlated with significantly more cognitively active study behaviors and a significantly better performance on the cumulative final exam (after accounting for grade point average and gender). There was also less gender-bias in the CR answers. This suggests that the MC-only exam format indeed hinders critical thinking in introductory science classes. Introducing CR questions encouraged students to learn more and to be better critical thinkers and reduced gender bias. However, student resistance increased as students adjusted their perceptions of their own critical-thinking abilities.

Stanger-Hall, Kathrin F.

2012-01-01

314

Multiple-choice exams: an obstacle for higher-level thinking in introductory science classes.  

PubMed

Learning science requires higher-level (critical) thinking skills that need to be practiced in science classes. This study tested the effect of exam format on critical-thinking skills. Multiple-choice (MC) testing is common in introductory science courses, and students in these classes tend to associate memorization with MC questions and may not see the need to modify their study strategies for critical thinking, because the MC exam format has not changed. To test the effect of exam format, I used two sections of an introductory biology class. One section was assessed with exams in the traditional MC format, the other section was assessed with both MC and constructed-response (CR) questions. The mixed exam format was correlated with significantly more cognitively active study behaviors and a significantly better performance on the cumulative final exam (after accounting for grade point average and gender). There was also less gender-bias in the CR answers. This suggests that the MC-only exam format indeed hinders critical thinking in introductory science classes. Introducing CR questions encouraged students to learn more and to be better critical thinkers and reduced gender bias. However, student resistance increased as students adjusted their perceptions of their own critical-thinking abilities. PMID:22949426

Stanger-Hall, Kathrin F

2012-01-01

315

Coal Reserves Data Base report  

SciTech Connect

The Coal Reserves Data Base (CRDB) Program is a cooperative data base development program sponsored by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). The objective of the CRDB Program is to involve knowledgeable coal resource authorities from the major coal-bearing regions in EIA's effort to update the Nation's coal reserves data. This report describes one of two prototype studies to update State-level reserve estimates. The CRDB data are intended for use in coal supply analyses and to support analyses of policy and legislative issues. They will be available to both Government and non-Government analysts. The data also will be part of the information used to supply United States energy data for international data bases and for inquiries from private industry and the public. (VC)

Jones, R.W.; Glass, G.B.

1991-12-05

316

Improved Effectiveness of Reserve Forces During Reserve Duty Training.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The problem areas of motivation, job enrichment, recruiting, and retention are addressed from the viewpoint of the behavioral scientist. Special attention is given to relating job enrichment and motivation techniques, as successfully demonstrated in industry, to the United State Army Reserve. Research method utilized was a literature review…

Treadaway, Harry H.

317

A real-time dynamic-MLC control algorithm for delivering IMRT to targets undergoing 2D rigid motion in the beam's eye view.  

PubMed

An MLC control algorithm for delivering intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) to targets that are undergoing two-dimensional (2D) rigid motion in the beam's eye view (BEV) is presented. The goal of this method is to deliver 3D-derived fluence maps over a moving patient anatomy. Target motion measured prior to delivery is first used to design a set of planned dynamic-MLC (DMLC) sliding-window leaf trajectories. During actual delivery, the algorithm relies on real-time feedback to compensate for target motion that does not agree with the motion measured during planning. The methodology is based on an existing one-dimensional (ID) algorithm that uses on-the-fly intensity calculations to appropriately adjust the DMLC leaf trajectories in real-time during exposure delivery [McMahon et al., Med. Phys. 34, 3211-3223 (2007)]. To extend the 1D algorithm's application to 2D target motion, a real-time leaf-pair shifting mechanism has been developed. Target motion that is orthogonal to leaf travel is tracked by appropriately shifting the positions of all MLC leaves. The performance of the tracking algorithm was tested for a single beam of a fractionated IMRT treatment, using a clinically derived intensity profile and a 2D target trajectory based on measured patient data. Comparisons were made between 2D tracking, 1D tracking, and no tracking. The impact of the tracking lag time and the frequency of real-time imaging were investigated. A study of the dependence of the algorithm's performance on the level of agreement between the motion measured during planning and delivery was also included. Results demonstrated that tracking both components of the 2D motion (i.e., parallel and orthogonal to leaf travel) results in delivered fluence profiles that are superior to those that track the component of motion that is parallel to leaf travel alone. Tracking lag time effects may lead to relatively large intensity delivery errors compared to the other sources of error investigated. However, the algorithm presented is robust in the sense that it does not rely on a high level of agreement between the target motion measured during treatment planning and delivery. PMID:18841838

McMahon, Ryan; Berbeco, Ross; Nishioka, Seiko; Ishikawa, Masayori; Papiez, Lech

2008-09-01

318

A real-time dynamic-MLC control algorithm for delivering IMRT to targets undergoing 2D rigid motion in the beam's eye view  

SciTech Connect

An MLC control algorithm for delivering intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) to targets that are undergoing two-dimensional (2D) rigid motion in the beam's eye view (BEV) is presented. The goal of this method is to deliver 3D-derived fluence maps over a moving patient anatomy. Target motion measured prior to delivery is first used to design a set of planned dynamic-MLC (DMLC) sliding-window leaf trajectories. During actual delivery, the algorithm relies on real-time feedback to compensate for target motion that does not agree with the motion measured during planning. The methodology is based on an existing one-dimensional (1D) algorithm that uses on-the-fly intensity calculations to appropriately adjust the DMLC leaf trajectories in real-time during exposure delivery [McMahon et al., Med. Phys. 34, 3211-3223 (2007)]. To extend the 1D algorithm's application to 2D target motion, a real-time leaf-pair shifting mechanism has been developed. Target motion that is orthogonal to leaf travel is tracked by appropriately shifting the positions of all MLC leaves. The performance of the tracking algorithm was tested for a single beam of a fractionated IMRT treatment, using a clinically derived intensity profile and a 2D target trajectory based on measured patient data. Comparisons were made between 2D tracking, 1D tracking, and no tracking. The impact of the tracking lag time and the frequency of real-time imaging were investigated. A study of the dependence of the algorithm's performance on the level of agreement between the motion measured during planning and delivery was also included. Results demonstrated that tracking both components of the 2D motion (i.e., parallel and orthogonal to leaf travel) results in delivered fluence profiles that are superior to those that track the component of motion that is parallel to leaf travel alone. Tracking lag time effects may lead to relatively large intensity delivery errors compared to the other sources of error investigated. However, the algorithm presented is robust in the sense that it does not rely on a high level of agreement between the target motion measured during treatment planning and delivery.

McMahon, Ryan; Berbeco, Ross; Nishioka, Seiko; Ishikawa, Masayori; Papiez, Lech [School of Health Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Division of Medical Physics, Dana-Farber/Brigham and Women's Cancer Center and Harvard Medical School, 75 Francis Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States); NTT East-Japan Sapporo Hospital, Sapporo (Japan); Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo (Japan); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas-Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75390 (United States)

2008-09-15

319

Synthesis and Evaluation of an Anti-MLC1 x Anti-CD90 Bispecific Antibody for Targeting and Retaining Bone-Marrow Derived Multipotent Stromal Cells in Infarcted Myocardium  

PubMed Central

A key issue regarding the use of stem cells in cardiovascular regenerative medicine is their retention in target tissues. Here, we have generated and assessed a bispecific antibody heterodimer designed to improve the retention of bone marrow–derived multipotent stromal cells (BMMSC) in cardiac tissue damaged by myocardial infarction. The heterodimer comprises an anti-human CD90 monoclonal antibody (mAb) (clone 5E10) and an anti-myosin light chain 1 (MLC1) mAb (clone MLM508) covalently cross-linked by a bis-aryl hydrazone. We modified the anti-CD90 antibody with a pegylated-4-formylbenzamide moiety to a molar substitution ratio (MSR) of 2.6 and the anti-MLC1 antibody with a 6-hydrazinonicotinamide moiety to a MSR of 0.9. The covalent modifications had no significant deleterious effect on mAb epitope binding. Furthermore, the binding of anti-CD90 antibody to BMMSCs did not prevent their differentiation into adipo-, chondro-, or osteogenic lineages. Modified antibodies were combined under mild conditions (RT, pH 6, 1 h) in the presence of a catalyst (aniline) to allow for rapid generation of the covalent bis-aryl hydrazone, which was monitored at A354. We evaluated epitope immunoreactivity for each mAb in the construct. Flow cytometry demonstrated binding of the bispecific construct to BMMSCs that was competed by free anti-CD90 mAb, verifying that modification and cross-linking were not detrimental to the anti-CD90 complementarity-determining region. Similarly, ELISA-based assays demonstrated bispecific antibody binding to plastic-immobilized recombinant MLC1. Excess anti-MLC1 mAb competed for bispecific antibody binding. Finally, the anti-CD90 × anti-MLC1 bispecific antibody construct induced BMMSC adhesion to plastic-immobilized MLC1 that was resistant to shear stress, as measured in parallel-plate flow chamber assays. We used mAbs that bind both human antigens and the respective pig homologues. Thus, the anti-CD90 × anti-MLC1 bispecific antibody may be used in large animal studies of acute myocardial infarction and may provide a starting point for clinical studies.

Gundlach, C. William; Caivano, Amy; Cabreira-Hansen, Maria da Graca; Gahremanpour, Amir; Brown, Wells S.; Zheng, Yi; McIntyre, Bradley W.; Willerson, James T.; Dixon, Richard A.F.; Perin, Emerson C.; Woodside, Darren G.

2011-01-01

320

The Relationship between AP[R] Exam Performance and College Outcomes. Research Report No. 2009-4  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study focused on the relationship between students' Advanced Placement Program[R] (AP[R]) performance in AP English Language, Biology, Calculus, and U.S. History, and their subsequent college success. For each AP Exam studied, students were divided into three groups according to their AP Exam performance (no AP Exam taken, score of 1 or 2,…

Mattern, Krista D.; Shaw, Emily J.; Xiong, Xinhui

2009-01-01

321

The Elite Illusion: Achievement Effects at Boston and New York Exam Schools. NBER Working Paper No. 17264  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Talented students compete fiercely for seats at Boston and New York exam schools. These schools are characterized by high levels of peer achievement and a demanding curriculum tailored to each district's highest achievers. While exam school students clearly do very well in school, the question of whether an exam school education adds value…

Abdulkadiroglu, Atila; Angrist, Joshua D.; Pathak, Parag A.

2011-01-01

322

Assessment of Validity, Reliability and Difficulty Indices for Teacher-Built Physics Exam Questions in First Year High School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the research is to determine high school teachers' skill rate in designing exam questions in physics subject. The statistical population was all of physics exam shits for two semesters in one school year from which a sample of 364 exam shits was drawn using multistage cluster sampling. Two experts assessed the shits and by using…

Jandaghi, Gholamreza

2010-01-01

323

Strategic petroleum reserve annual report  

SciTech Connect

Section 165 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (Public Law 94- 163), as amended, requires the Secretary of Energy to submit annual reports to the President and the Congress on activities of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). This report describes activities for the year ending December 31, 1995.

NONE

1996-02-15

324

Civil Reserve Air Fleet (CRAF).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Civil Reserve Air Fleet (CRAF) supports Department of Defense (DoD) airlift requirements in emergencies when the need for airlift exceeds the capability of the military aircraft fleet. All CRAF participants must be U.S. carriers fully certified by the...

C. Bolkcom

2006-01-01

325

FEA Reports on Proved Reserves  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains the way in which oil and gas reserves are estimated, and the variation in these estimates according to the year of the resources' estimation and the group undertaking the survey. A recent Federal Energy Administration study suggests that recoverable oil and gas resources have limits that may be approached in the next 50 years. (MLH)

Geotimes, 1975

1975-01-01

326

24 CFR 572.125 - Replacement reserves.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Homeownership Program Requirements-Implementation Grants § 572.125 Replacement reserves. (a) Purpose. A single replacement reserve may be established for the homeownership program only if HUD determines it is necessary to...

2009-04-01

327

24 CFR 572.125 - Replacement reserves.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Homeownership Program Requirements-Implementation Grants § 572.125 Replacement reserves. (a) Purpose. A single replacement reserve may be established for the homeownership program only if HUD determines it is necessary to...

2013-04-01

328

24 CFR 572.125 - Replacement reserves.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Homeownership Program Requirements-Implementation Grants § 572.125 Replacement reserves. (a) Purpose. A single replacement reserve may be established for the homeownership program only if HUD determines it is necessary to...

2010-04-01

329

Modeling Reserve Recruiting Estimates of Enlistments.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As reserve forces have become more important to military operations, reserve recruiting has faced many of the same challenges that have confronted recruiting for the active forces. These include more attractive civilian opportunities and a declining prope...

J. Arkes M. R. Kilburn

2005-01-01

330

Reserve Growth of Alberta Oil Pools  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This Open-File Report is based on a presentation delivered at the Fourth U.S. Geological Survey Workshop on Reserve Growth on March 10-11, 2008. It summarizes the results of a study of reserve growth of oil pools in Alberta Province, Canada. The study is part of a larger effort involving similar studies of fields in other important petroleum provinces around the world, with the overall objective of gaining a better understanding of reserve growth in fields with different geologic/reservoir parameters and different operating environments. The goals of the study were to: 1. Evaluate historical oil reserve data and assess reserve growth. 2. Develop reserve growth models/functions to help forecast hydrocarbon volumes. 3. Study reserve growth sensitivity to various parameters ? for example, pool size, porosity, oil gravity, and lithology. 4. Compare reserve growth in oil pools/fields of Alberta provinces with those from other large petroleum provinces.

Verma, Mahendra K.; Cook, Troy

2008-01-01

331

Marine reserve effects on fishery profit  

PubMed Central

Some studies suggest that fishery yields can be higher with reserves than under conventional management. However, the economic performance of fisheries depends on economic profit, not fish yield. The predictions of higher yields with reserves rely on intensive fishing pressures between reserves; the exorbitant costs of harvesting low-density populations erode profits. We incorporated this effect into a bioeconomic model to evaluate the economic performance of reserve-based management. Our results indicate that reserves can still benefit fisheries, even those targeting species that are expensive to harvest. However, in contrast to studies focused on yield, only a moderate proportion of the coast in reserves (with moderate harvest pressures outside reserves) is required to maximize profit. Furthermore, reserve area and harvest intensity can be traded off with little impact on profits, allowing for management flexibility while still providing higher profit than attainable under conventional management. Ecology Letters (2008) 11: 370–379

White, Crow; Kendall, Bruce E; Gaines, Steven; Siegel, David A; Costello, Christopher

2008-01-01

332

Relationship of the Gesell Developmental Exam and the Bracken Basic Concept Scale to Academic Achievement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Administered the Gesell Development Exam and the Bracken Basic Concept Scale (BBCS) to kindergarten graduates (N=80). Found the BBCS may be a better predictor of achievement from a current state of readiness. (Author/ABL)|

Sterner, Anne G.; McCallum, R. Steve

1988-01-01

333

The impact of general chemistry course structure on students' exam performance, attitudes and problem solving strategies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analysis of the effect of course structure, including motivational tools, laboratory and how problem solving was presented in lecture on students' exam performance, attitudes toward the subject of chemistry, and problem solving strategy use. Exam performance indicates that the use of ressurection points on the final exam benefits students' learning, especially for the Middle Bottom quartile of students. Laboratory improves students' understanding when the exams correspond to laboratory content. Attitude differences, as measured by the Attitude toward the subject of chemistry inventory version 2, show some differences and the influence of the level of expertise in graduate student teaching assistants. The use of dimensional analysis to solve stoichiometry problems in lecture leads students to use that process to solve novel tasks in a similiar way, even if it is not efficient or effective. The students' familiarity with the content, as well as the problem solving process, influence how they solve tasks.

Caruthers, Heather Anne

334

NOTE: Real-time tracking of tumor motions and deformations along the leaf travel direction with the aid of a synchronized dynamic MLC leaf sequencer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Advanced radiotherapeutical techniques like intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) are based on an accurate knowledge of the location of the radiation target. An accurate dose delivery, therefore, requires a method to account for the inter- and intrafractional target motion and the target deformation occurring during the course of treatment. A method to compensate in real time for changes in the position and shape of the target is the use of a dynamic multileaf collimator (MLC) technique which can be devised to automatically arrange the treatment field according to real-time image information. So far, various approaches proposed for leaf sequencers have had to rely on a priori known target motion data and have aimed to optimize the overall treatment time. Since for a real-time dose delivery the target motion is not known a priori, the velocity range of the leading leaves is restricted by a safety margin to c × vmax while the following leaves can travel with an additional maximum speed to compensate for the respective target movements. Another aspect to be considered is the tongue and groove effect. A uniform radiation field can only be achieved if the leaf movements are synchronized. The method presented in this note is the first to combine a synchronizing sequencer and real-time tracking with a dynamic MLC. The newly developed algorithm is capable of online optimizing the leaf velocities by minimizing the overall treatment time while at the same time it synchronizes the leaf trajectories in order to avoid the tongue and groove effect. The simultaneous synchronization is performed with the help of an online-calculated mid-time leaf trajectory which is common for all leaf pairs and which takes into account the real-time target motion and deformation information.

Tacke, Martin; Nill, Simeon; Oelfke, Uwe

2007-11-01

335

Student Learning with Performance-Based, In-Class and Learner-Centered, Online Exams  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to explore the experience of students with performance-based, in-class and learner-centered, online assessment and the effects of these formats on comprehensive exam scores in an educational psychology course required of participants in a teacher education program. In our quantitative analysis, we investigated the effects of in-class and online exams on undergraduate students' performance on

Katherine Greenberg; Jessica N. Lester; Kathy Evans; Michele Williams; Carolyn Hacker; Olivia Halic

2009-01-01

336

Comparing intentions to use university-provided vs vendor-provided multibiometric authentication in online exams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Concerns for information security in e-learning systems have been raised previously. In the pursuit for better authentication approaches, few schools have implemented students' authentication during online exams beyond passwords. This paper aims to assess e-learners' intention to provide multibiometric data and use of multibiometrics during online exams. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Based on data collected from 163 e-learners from two

Yair Levy; Michelle M. Ramim; Steven M. Furnell; Nathan L. Clarke

2011-01-01

337

Impact of implementing an EMR on physical exam documentation by ambulance personnel  

PubMed Central

Objectives Georgetown University has a student run Emergency Medical Services (EMS) organization with over 100 emergency medical technicians (EMTs). We set out to determine whether implementing an electronic patient care report (ePCR) system was associated with improved physical exam documentation. Methods This study evaluated documentation of the physical exam on prehospital patient care reports (PCRs). An ePCR system was implemented. ePCR documentation was compared to that of the previously used paper PCRs. This study looked retrospectively at 154 PCRs. 77 were hand written PCRs from before the electronic system. The PCRs involved chief complaints that were primarily respiratory, neurologic, or both. 77 ePCRs of matching chief complaint categories were used for comparison. Each chart was reviewed for completion of certain physical exam findings. The mean percentage of documented components from the ePCRs was compared to that of the hand written PCRs. The null hypothesis was that the absolute increase in the mean was not more than 20 percent. The two exclusion criteria were PCRs completed by study investigators after the design of the project and partially or completely missing PCRs. Results The absolute increase in mean physical exam component documentation was 36% (95% CI = 29–43%). A weighted kappa of 0.894 showed very good agreement between chart reviewers. Conclusions This study rejected the null hypothesis that the ePCR system was associated with a mean increase of no more than 20%. It observed increase in physical exam documentation. Limitations of this study included the inability to determine whether documentation of physical exam findings reflected performance of the physical exam, and what components of the ePCR system bundle were responsible for the increase in physical exam component documentation.

Katzer, R.; Barton, D.J.; Adelman, S.; Clark, S.; Seaman, E.L.; Hudson, K.B.

2012-01-01

338

On the Exams of a Multi-Attribute Decision Making Electronic Course  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper gives brief information about a new electronic course for enhanced learning in making optimal decisions using the\\u000a Multi-Attribute Decision Making paradigm. Emphasis is put on the construction of the exams of this electronic course. In order\\u000a to provide ready to use tests for students’ exams, an algorithm based on a Monte Carlo method was conceived. This algorithm\\u000a and

Cornel Resteanu; Marius Somodi; Marin Andreica

2006-01-01

339

IRT Modeling of Tutor Performance to Predict End-of-Year Exam Scores  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interest in end-of-year accountability exams has increased dramatically since the passing of the No Child Left Behind Act in 2001. With this increased interest comes a desire to use student data collected throughout the year to estimate student proficiency and predict how well they will perform on end-of-year exams. This article uses student performance on the Assistment System, an online

Elizabeth Ayers; Brian Junker

2008-01-01

340

Would climate change drive species out of reserves? An assessment of existing reserve-selection methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concern for climate change has not yet been integrated in protocols for reserve selection. However if climate changes as projected, there is a possibility that current reserve- selection methods might provide solutions that are inadequate to ensure species' long- term persistence within reserves. We assessed, for the first time, the ability of existing reserve-selection methods to secure species in a

MIGUEL B. A RAUJO; M AR C ABEZA; W ILFRIED T HUILLER

2004-01-01

341

The Social Cost of Foreign Exchange Reserves  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been a very rapid rise since the early 1990s in foreign reserves held by developing countries. These reserves have climbed to almost 30 percent of developing countries' GDP and 8 months of imports. Assuming reasonable spreads between the yield on reserve assets and the cost of foreign borrowing, the income loss to these countries amounts to close to

Dani Rodrik

2006-01-01

342

The Undergraduate Reserve Collection: An Open Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes the planning, design, and service issues involved in the successful transition from a closed reserve collection to an open, self-serve reserve room. A questionnaire answered by 200 patrons revealed a high level of satisfaction with the new system, indicated a need for more photocopiers, identified reserve materials used most frequently,…

McCaskill, Sandra D.

1995-01-01

343

Poverty and corruption compromise tropical forest reserves.  

PubMed

We used the global fire detection record provided by the satellite-based Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to determine the number of fires detected inside 823 tropical and subtropical moist forest reserves and for contiguous buffer areas 5, 10, and 15 km wide. The ratio of fire detection densities (detections per square kilometer) inside reserves to their contiguous buffer areas provided an index of reserve effectiveness. Fire detection density was significantly lower inside reserves than in paired, contiguous buffer areas but varied by five orders of magnitude among reserves. The buffer: reserve detection ratio varied by up to four orders of magnitude among reserves within a single country, and median values varied by three orders of magnitude among countries. Reserves tended to be least effective at reducing fire frequency in many poorer countries and in countries beset by corruption. Countries with the most successful reserves include Costa Rica, Jamaica, Malaysia, and Taiwan and the Indonesian island of Java. Countries with the most problematic reserves include Cambodia, Guatemala, Paraguay, and Sierra Leone and the Indonesian portion of Borneo. We provide fire detection density for 3964 tropical and subtropical reserves and their buffer areas in the hope that these data will expedite further analyses that might lead to improved management of tropical reserves. PMID:17708206

Wright, S Joseph; Sanchez-Azofeifa, G Arturo; Portillo-Quintero, Carlos; Davies, Diane

2007-07-01

344

Resource Reservation for Voice Support in MANETs  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose an adaptive reservation protocol for voice and data support. Proposed scheme allocates slots to voice sources each time they wake up and gives them high priority to send their reservation requests over data sources. Bandwidth unused by idle voice sources is rendered temporarily available for reservation. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme improves performance of voice traffic

Ghalem Boudour; Cédric Teyssié; Zoubir Mammeri

2009-01-01

345

17 CFR 229.1202 - (Item 1202) Disclosure of reserves.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...registrant discloses probable or possible reserves, discuss the uncertainty related to such reserves estimates. (6) If the...reserves; (vii) A discussion regarding the inherent uncertainties of reserves estimates; (viii) A statement that...

2013-04-01

346

What is Normal Ovarian Reserve?  

PubMed

While hormonal and ultrasonographic measures of ovarian reserve are often used to counsel patients about their fertility potential, normative data for these markers in the general population are lacking. Most studies are cross sectional and take place within specific subpopulations. Antral follicle count and anti-Mullerian hormone have been shown to be the best indicators of a woman's total follicular reserve. Ovarian volume, inhibin B, estradiol, and follicle-stimulating hormone are less helpful. Antral follicle count and anti-Mullerian hormone decrease with age and have been used to attempt to predict the length of the fertile window. Additional longitudinal data are needed for these biomarkers in populations of young, healthy, multiethnic women to assess for the presence of cofactors and determine the rate of age-related decline. Currently, these biomarkers are insufficient as predictors of fertility potential or advancement to menopause and no definitive determinations can be made about what constitutes "normal" levels of each measure. PMID:24101223

Dillon, Katherine E; Gracia, Clarisa R

2013-10-07

347

Strategic Petroleum Reserve quarterly report  

SciTech Connect

This Quarterly Report highlights activities undertaken during the second quarter of calendar year 1993, including: inventory of petroleum products stored in the Reserve, under contract and in transit at the end of the calendar quarter; fill rate for the current quarter and projected fill rate for the next calendar quarter; average price of the petroleum products acquired during the calendar quarter; current and projected storage capacity and plans to accelerate the acquisition or construction of such capacity; analysis of existing or anticipated problems with the acquisition and storage of petroleum products, and future expansion of storage capacity; funds obligated by the Secretary from the SPR Petroleum Account and the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Account during the prior calendar quarter and in total; and major environmental actions completed, in progress, or anticipated.

Not Available

1993-08-15

348

Spillover of fish naïveté from marine reserves.  

PubMed

Spillover of adult fish biomass is an expected benefit from no-take marine reserves to adjacent fisheries. Here, we show fisher-naïve behaviour in reef fishes also spills over from marine reserves, potentially increasing access to fishery benefits by making fishes more susceptible to spearguns. The distance at which two targeted families of fishes began to flee a potential fisher [flight initiation distance (FID)] was lower inside reserves than in fished areas, and this reduction extended outside reserve boundaries. Reduced FID persisted further outside reserves than increases in fish biomass. This finding could help increase stakeholder support for marine reserves and improve current models of spillover by informing estimates for spatial changes in catchability. Behavioural changes of fish could help explain differences between underwater visual census and catch data in quantifying the spatial extent of spillover from marine reserves, and should be considered in the management of adjacent fisheries. PMID:23126388

Januchowski-Hartley, Fraser A; Graham, Nicholas A J; Cinner, Joshua E; Russ, Garry R

2012-11-06

349

FRED: Federal Reserve Economic Data  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis provides this clearinghouse of financial and economic data. Central to this site are the data files, a compendium of hundreds of daily, weekly, monthly, and quarterly time series on financial, monetary, interest rate, producer and consumer price, employment, population, and exchange rate data, among others. Some files are in .zip or compressed format. The site also offers FRBSTL growth rate macros (Excel and Lotus formats) and a selection of the Bank's online publications.

350

Federal reservation of geothermal resources  

SciTech Connect

Union Oil had developed or was seeking to develop wells on the land in Sonoma County, California in order to produce geothermal steam for generating electricity. The US Attorney General brought a quiet title action pursuant to 21(b) of the Geothermal Steam Act of 1970 to determine whether geothermal resources are included in the mineral reservation under the Homestead Act. The US District Court granted Union Oil's motion to dismiss for failure to state a claim upon which relief may be granted. On appeal, the Ninth Circuit reversed and remanded. In summary, the court concluded on the basis of the legislative history of the Stock-Raising Homestead Act that sources of energy are intended to remain in the government's possession, and the purposes of the Act will be best served by including geothermal resources in the reservation of mineral interests. Noting the strictly agricultural purpose of the Act, the subsurface estate reservation was broadly interpreted, even though title passed to all rights that were not expressly reserved. The court left open on remand the question of estoppel of the government from interfering with private lessees by developing subsurface resources compensation.This is a unique and intriguing decision, as it opens wide the definition of ''mineral interest,'' construing it in the timely terms of a valuable natural resource that may be in great demand for future energy needs. The decision is being appealed to the United States Supreme Court, and it will be interesting to observe whether this liberal interpretation of mineral interests will be upheld.

Silver, R.M.

1978-01-01

351

Strategic Petroleum Reserve annual/quarterly report  

SciTech Connect

During 1992 the Department continued planning activities for the expansion of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve to one billion barrels. A draft Environmental Impact Statement for the five candidate sites was completed in October 1992, and a series of public hearings was held during December 1992. Conceptual design engineering activities, life cycle cost estimates and geotechnical studies to support the technical requirements for an Strategic Petroleum Reserve Plan Amendment were essentially completed in December 1992. At the end of 1992, the Strategic Petroleum Reserve crude oil inventory was 574.7 million barrels and an additional 1.7 million barrels was in transit to the Reserve. During 1992 approximately 6.2 million barrels of crude oil were acquired for the Reserve. A Department of Energy Tiger Team Environmental, Safety and Health (ES&H) Assessment was conducted at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve from March 9 through April 10, 1992. In general, the Tiger Team found that Strategic Petroleum Reserve activities do not pose undue environmental, safety or health risks. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve`s Final Corrective Action Plan, prepared in response to the Tiger Team assessment, was submitted for Department approval in December 1992. On November 18, 1992, the Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy selected DynMcDennott Petroleum Operations Company to provide management and operating services for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve for a period of 5 years commencing April 1, 1993. DynMcDermott will succeed Boeing Petroleum Services, Inc.

Not Available

1993-02-16

352

Reserve selection with land market feedbacks.  

PubMed

How to best site reserves is a leading question for conservation biologists. Recently, reserve selection has emphasized efficient conservation: maximizing conservation goals given the reality of limited conservation budgets, and this work indicates that land market can potentially undermine the conservation benefits of reserves by increasing property values and development probabilities near reserves. Here we propose a reserve selection methodology which optimizes conservation given both a budget constraint and land market feedbacks by using a combination of econometric models along with stochastic dynamic programming. We show that amenity based feedbacks can be accounted for in optimal reserve selection by choosing property price and land development models which exogenously estimate the effects of reserve establishment. In our empirical example, we use previously estimated models of land development and property prices to select parcels to maximize coarse woody debris along 16 lakes in Vilas County, WI, USA. Using each lake as an independent experiment, we find that including land market feedbacks in the reserve selection algorithm has only small effects on conservation efficacy. Likewise, we find that in our setting heuristic (minloss and maxgain) algorithms perform nearly as well as the optimal selection strategy. We emphasize that land market feedbacks can be included in optimal reserve selection; the extent to which this improves reserve placement will likely vary across landscapes. PMID:23141878

Butsic, Van; Lewis, David J; Radeloff, Volker C

2012-11-09

353

Lack of follow-up exams after failed school vision screenings: an investigation of contributing factors.  

PubMed

Programs to facilitate professional eye exams after failed school vision screenings often are based on the assumption that funding and access to services are major obstacles to care. Despite such programs, many children do not receive professional exams. The purpose of this study was to identify additional barriers to follow-up eye care. School nurses in an urban, midwestern public school district identified elementary school students who had not received follow-up eye exams after failed school vision screenings. Parents of these students were interviewed during the summer to determine financial, logistical, social/family, and perceptual barriers to care. Family issues, parental perceptions of vision problems, and difficulty planning ahead were found to be significant factors. Strategies to increase follow-up compliance and recommendations for overcoming barriers to care were also identified. PMID:16704285

Kimel, Linda S

2006-06-01

354

A unified optimization platform comparison of three radiosurgery techniques: Gamma Knife, BrainLAB micro-MLC, and NOMOS MIMiC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this research is to build a unified optimization treatment planning system in order to accurately compare the three modalities unburdened by underlying assumptions that could alter the outcome of the comparison. The hypothesis for the dissertation is: Three photon radiosurgery delivery mechanisms are utilized for the delivery of necrotic radiation doses to a cranial lesion: the Gamma Knife, micro-MLC intensity modulated radiosurgery, and MIMiC based intensity modulated radiosurgery. Each modality has its own strength and weaknesses in their ability to deliver radiosurgery treatments. We hypothesize the MIMiC based intensity modulated radiosurgery will allow improvements to radiosurgery treatments compared to the conventional Gamma Knife and micro-MLC, as quantified by the following metrics: isodose line display, dose volume histograms, Ian Paddick conformality index, homogeneity index, and objective function score. The specific aims for the dissertation are: (1) Develop a radiosurgery treatment planning software platform to import image and structure data and to offer evaluation tools. The evaluation tools will include isodose line display, dose volume histogram, Ian Paddick conformality index, homogeneity index, and objective function score. (2) Develop a simulated annealing optimization routine, with an associated objective function, that will determine the optimal treatment plan for the defined solution space. The objective, or cost function will be based on Ian Paddick conformality index. (3) Perform multiple repeat optimizations of each modality for a given lesion in order to gather statistical information about the minimum solution found. This test will quantify the ability of the optimization routine to arrive at a similar local minimum and therefore quantify the reliability of the comparison performed in specific aim five. (4) Investigate the affect of the Gamma Knife's shot limitation on the resulting dose distribution for a given lesion. Five optimizations will be performed with a shot limit of 5, 10, 25, 50, and unlimited. This comparison will help facilitate the appropriate shot limit for the comparison of the three methodologies in specific aim five. (5) Perform a comparison of the three delivery modalities based on three clinical targets: 1.4cc Acoustic Neuroma, 0.71cc Arteriovenous Malformation, and 0.77cc Metastatic disease. The comparison will be based on dose volume histograms, Ian Paddick conformality index, objective function score, homogeneity index, and physician's judgment. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Cheek, Dennis Allen

355

A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Randomized Phase II Pilot Study to Investigate the Potential Efficacy of the Traditional Chinese Medicine Neuroaid (MLC 601) in Enhancing Recovery after Stroke (TIERS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Objective: Previous clinical studies have shown that Neuroaid (MLC 601) may be beneficial in post-stroke rehabilitation. Our aim was to investigate the efficacy of Neuroaid on motor recovery in ischemic stroke patients using rehabilitation endpoints in accordance with the International Conference on Harmonization\\/Good Clinical Practice guidelines, in order to provide predictive information for further larger trials. Methods:This is

Keng He Kong; Seng Kwee Wee; Chwee Yin Ng; Karen Chua; Kay Fei Chan; N. Venketasubramanian; Christopher Chen

2009-01-01

356

Effects of exam-room computing on clinician-patient communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of exam-room computers on communication between clinicians and patients.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a DESIGN AND METHODS: Longitudinal, qualitative study using video-tapes of regularly scheduled visits from 3 points in time: 1 month before, 1\\u000a month after, and 7 months after introduction of computers into the exam room.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a SETTING: Primary care medical clinic in a large integrated delivery system.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a PARTICIPANTS:

Richard Frankel; Andrea Altschuler; Sheba George; James Kinsman; Holly Jimison; Nan R. Robertson; John Hsu

2005-01-01

357

A systematic review and meta?analysis of randomised controlled trials evaluating the effect of hypnosis on exam anxiety  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exam anxiety affects many students and may lead them to underperform. Hypnosis has been hypothesised as a method of reducing exam anxiety. A systematic review of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) was undertaken to assess whether or not hypnosis reduces exam?related anxiety. Five electronic databases were searched: ERIC; AMED; PsychInfo; Web of Science; MedLine until October 2007. Five small RCTs of

Jennifer Baker; Hannah Ainsworth; Carole Torgerson; David Torgerson

2009-01-01

358

7 CFR 1206.24 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.24 [Reserved] National Mango Promotion...

2012-01-01

359

7 CFR 1206.24 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.24 [Reserved] National Mango Promotion...

2013-01-01

360

Fiji's largest marine reserve benefits reef sharks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To provide more information about whether sharks benefit from no-take marine reserves, we quantified the relative abundance and biomass of reef sharks inside and outside of Namena, Fiji's largest reserve (60.6 km2). Using stereo baited remote underwater video systems (stereo-BRUVs), we found that the abundance and biomass of sharks was approximately two and four times greater in shallow and deep locations, respectively, within the Namena reserve compared to adjacent fished areas. The greater abundance and biomass of reef sharks inside Namena is likely a result of greater prey availability rather than protection from fishing. This study demonstrates that marine reserves can benefit sharks.

Goetze, J. S.; Fullwood, L. A. F.

2013-03-01

361

48 CFR 3046.702 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false [Reserved] 3046.702 Section 3046.702 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, HOMELAND SECURITY ACQUISITION REGULATION (HSAR) CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Warranties...

2011-10-01

362

40 CFR 63.1504 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Secondary Aluminum Production General § 63.1504 [Reserved] Emission Standards and Operating...

2012-07-01

363

IGT world reserves survey. 1984  

SciTech Connect

This report is an updating of previous IGT reports on U.S. and world conventional fossil fuel and uranium proved reserves and remaining recoverable resources. It also provides data on current and cumulative production of these nonrenewable energy sources and their life expectancies at selected annual consumption growth rates. Tables VII-1, VII-2, and VII-3, which provide resource data for the United States and the world as a whole, are abstracted below with minor modifications to assure comparability. The United States is endowed with roughly one-fifth of the world's proved reserves of conventional fossil fuels and nearly 9% of the uranium in the free world. It is particularly fortunate in having vast amounts of coal, oil shale, and peat. Although these underutilized resources present difficult economic and environmental challenges with regards to extraction and ease of use, a serious effort should be made to use them to a much greater extent to reduce our dependence on imported oil and insure abundant sources of energy for the future.

Not Available

1986-01-01

364

76 FR 64250 - Reserve Requirements of Depository Institutions: Reserves Simplification and Private Sector...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...10(b) (rates of interest paid on balances...at Reserve Banks...the Reserve Banks pay interest on balances...requirements at a rate designed...Reserve Banks currently pay explicit interest on excess balances at a rate that is...

2011-10-18

365

Central bank reserve management: Aggregate targets and interest payments on reserves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tindall and Spencer [1997] presented a dynamic stochastic theory of borrowed reserves that explained the observed nonlinear relationship between borrowing and the spread between the federal funds rate and the discount rate. It showed that borrowed reserves are a function of deposit variation. This paper extends that research, providing a general dynamic model of all key bank reserve aggregates. Nearly

Michael L. Tindall; Roger W. Spencer

2000-01-01

366

Computer lab reservations: improving how to manage multiple reservation life cycles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 2003, computer lab reservations during the summer semester have been growing more quickly than resources for managing computer lab reservations at the University of California, Berkeley. In the past one could easily manage the varying life cycles of lab reservations between May and August using notes and a paper calendar: the request, the lab's response to technical needs such

Nicole M. Sattler

2006-01-01

367

Reviewing for Exams: Do Crossword Puzzles Help in the Success of Student Learning?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this project was to further our understanding of how students learn. Does re- viewing for exams using certain teaching methods actually enhance students' learning of course material? Through a comparative analysis of two sections of the same class the re- searchers tested to see if using crossword puzzles as a 'fun' review technique actually af- fects students'

Tricia M. Davis; Brooke Shepherd; Tara Zwiefelhofer

368

Quantifying palpation techniques in relation to performance in a clinical prostate exam  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper seeks to quantify finger palpation techniques in the prostate clinical exam, determine their relationship with performance in detecting abnormalities, and differentiate the tendencies of nurse practitioner students and resident physicians. One issue with the digital rectal examination (DRE) is that performance in detecting abnormalities varies greatly and agreement between examiners is low. The utilization of particular palpation techniques

Ninghuan Wang; Gregory J. Gerling; Reba Moyer Childress; Marcus L. Martin

2010-01-01

369

Operating Characteristics of the Neurobehavioral Cognitive Status Exam Using Neuropsychological Assessment as the Criterion.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The performance characteristics of the Neurobehavioral Cognitive Status Exam (NCSE) (R. Kiernan and others, 1987) was studied with 50 outpatients, most with cognitive dysfunction using comprehensive neuropsychological assessment as the criterion. Results suggest that operating characteristics of the NCSE depend on the nature of the sample…

Karzmark, Peter

1997-01-01

370

Facilitating Self-Regulated Learning with Technology: Evidence for Student Motivation and Exam Improvement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The authors examined the extent to which student access to the MyGrade application in Blackboard may facilitate motivation and exam improvement via grade monitoring. In support of self-regulated learning and feedback principles, students indicated that the MyGrade application helped them better monitor their course performance and increased their…

Barber, Larissa K.; Bagsby, Patricia G.; Grawitch, Matthew J.; Buerck, John P.

2011-01-01

371

The Timing of Online Lecture Slide Availability and Its Effect on Attendance, Participation, and Exam Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of PowerPoint slides has become an almost ubiquitous practice in university classrooms, however little research has examined whether the timing of lecture slide availability to students (either before or after lecture) affects classroom behaviour or exam performance. Using a 2 (slide availability condition) x 2 (course type)…

Babb, Kimberley A.; Ross, Craig

2009-01-01

372

Retrieving Essential Material at the End of Lectures Improves Performance on Statistics Exams  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At the end of each lecture in a statistics for psychology course, students answered a small set of questions that required them to retrieve information from the same day's lecture. These exercises constituted retrieval practice for lecture material subsequently tested on four exams throughout the course. This technique is called the PUREMEM…

Lyle, Keith B.; Crawford, Nicole A.

2011-01-01

373

Want to Reduce Guessing and Cheating While Making Students Happier? Give More Exams!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|It is almost universally agreed that more frequent formative assessment (homework, clicker questions, practice tests, etc.) leads to better student performance and generally better course evaluations. There is, however, only anecdotal evidence that the same would be true for more frequent summative assessment (exams). There maybe many arguments…

Laverty, James T.; Bauer, Wolfgang; Kortemeyer, Gerd; Westfall, Gary

2012-01-01

374

An Innovative Excel Application to Improve Exam Reliability in Marketing Courses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Measures of survey reliability are commonly addressed in marketing courses. One statistic of reliability is "Cronbach's alpha." This paper presents an application of survey reliability as a reflexive application of multiple-choice exam validation. The application provides an interactive decision support system that incorporates survey item…

Keller, Christopher M.; Kros, John F.

2011-01-01

375

The Forum: Helping Students Respond Meaningfully to Poetry as Well as Pass Exams.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an action research investigation into overcoming a tension felt in a particular approach to teaching literature. Wishes to make studying literature a meaningful experience for students and have them pass exams. Uses the idea of the forum, as described by J. Bruner, as a way of holding these two thrusts together. Evaluates effectiveness…

Trelawny-Ross, David

1998-01-01

376

Hidden Norms in Assessment of Students' Exam Essays in Norwegian Upper Secondary Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article presents the cultural background, methodological design, theory, and results of a comprehensive research project where the doxa and textual norms of the judges at the national writing exam in Norway were studied. The background of the study is the quite comprehensive reforms in Norway of the way writing is taught in the upper secondary…

Berge, Kjell Lars

2002-01-01

377

Predicting Minority and Majority Medical Student Performance on the National Board Exams.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report is one of a series of reports which resulted from a study dealing with medical school admissions and performance as measured by National Board Exam scores. The report presents problems of and a means for predicting performance of minority and ...

J. E. Rolph A. P. Williams A. L. Laniear W. D. Cooper

1978-01-01

378

Predictive accuracy of the HESI Exit Exam: a follow-up study.  

PubMed

This follow-up study compares the accuracy of the HESI Exit Exam (E) in predicting NCLEX success for the academic years 1996-97 (N = 2,809) and 1997-98 (N = 3,752) and is designed to replicate the study of Lauchner et al and to implement recommendations suggested by the authors for further research. The E was again found to be highly predictive of licensure success, regardless of the type of program tested: associate degree, baccalaureate degree, diploma, or practical nurse programs. The predictive accuracy of the E was 98.27% for the RN group and 99.34% for the PN group. The E was again found to be significantly more accurate when administration of the exam was monitored than when it was not monitored (P = 0.05). In the 1997-98 academic year, NCLEX success of low-scoring E students was examined. Significantly more (P = 0.001) of the low-scoring E students failed the licensure exam than high-scoring E students. However, significantly fewer (p = 0.05) of these low-scoring E students failed the licensing exam when the E was used as a benchmark or guide for remediation. PMID:18791385

Newman, Mary; Britt, Robin B; Lauchner, Kathryn A

379

Passing the Leadership Test: Strategies for Success on the Leadership Licensure Exam. Second Edition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Passing the Leadership Test: Strategies for Success on the Leadership Licensure Exam" is a study guide for the School Leaders Licensure Examination (SLLA.) The book presents a comprehensive, practical guide for preparing for the SLLA. It is divided into two sections: basic principles of test preparation and the ISLLC standards with implications…

Jones, Leslie; Kennedy, Eugene

2012-01-01

380

Improvements to an Electrical Engineering Skill Audit Exam to Improve Student Mastery of Core EE Concepts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The San Jose State University Electrical Engineering (EE) Department implemented a skill audit exam for graduating seniors in 1999 with the purpose of assessing the teaching and the students' mastery of core concepts in EE. However, consistent low scores for the first years in which the test was administered suggested that students had little…

Parent, D. W.

2011-01-01

381

Making Sense of Exit Exam Policies: A Phenomenological Study of English Language Development Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|There is a lack of understanding regarding how sensemaking could be incorporated into a professional development program to improve teacher quality and student achievement. The lived experiences of high school English language development teachers as they interpret English language development and one state's high school exit exam instructional…

Forrest, Scott N.

2010-01-01

382

Single-Voxel Proton Brain Spectroscopy Exam (PROBEISV) in Patients with Primary Brain Tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE. The Single-Voxel Proton Brain Exam (PROBEJSV) is an automated MR spectroscopic technique. The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of PROBEJSV as a diagnostic tool in patients with primary brain tumors and to compare our findings with the known information obtained from conventional nonautomated MR spectroscopic techniques. SUBJECTS AND METHODS. We used PROBEJSV to image 10

P. H. Lai; J. S. Smith; F. Lazeyras

383

Reflections on Teaching Mathematics in an Exam-Driven School: An Autoethnography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concerns over how I changed my own teaching style during a year of mathematics teaching gave rise to the content of this paper. I will disc uss how the influence of the culture of an exam-driven school and the impact of examinations enacted on me, and my teaching practice. In this paper I tell my story using autoe thnography. This

Fiona Hagan

384

Learning by Exams: The Impact of Two-Stage Cooperative Tests  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Decades of research have documented the positive impacts of cooperative learning on student success: increased learning, retention through graduation, improved critical thinking, and intrinsic motivation. One cooperative teaching technique, however, has received relatively little attention. In the two-stage cooperative, group, or "pyramid" exam

Zipp, John F.

2007-01-01

385

I Knew It Cold Before the Exam: A Test of the Anxiety-Blockage Hypothesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anxiety arousal is associated with decrements in academic performance. Almost without exception, an interference interpretation of these findings has been advanced, in which anxiety is said to temporarily disrupt otherwise normal intellectual functioning. In this study, we investigated the hypothesis that anxiety inhibits test performance by temporarily blocking previously learned responses. Following a midterm exam in an introductory psychology course,

Martin V. Covington; Carol L. Omelich

1987-01-01

386

Multiple-Choice Exams: An Obstacle for Higher-Level Thinking in Introductory Science Classes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Learning science requires higher-level (critical) thinking skills that need to be practiced in science classes. This study tested the effect of exam format on critical-thinking skills. Multiple-choice (MC) testing is common in introductory science courses, and students in these classes tend to associate memorization with MC questions and may not…

Stanger-Hall, Kathrin F.

2012-01-01

387

Validation of the Face Name Associative Memory Exam in cognitively normal older individuals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recently developed Face Name Associative Memory Exam (FNAME), a challenging paired associative learning task, shows promise in detecting the subtle cognitive changes characteristic of preclinical Alzheimer's disease. In this study, we evaluated the validity and reliability of the FNAME in 210 cognitively normal older individuals (58–90 years of age). Construct validity of the measure was assessed by principal components

Rebecca E. Amariglio; Katherine Frishe; Lauren E. Olson; Lauren P. Wadsworth; Natacha Lorius; Reisa A. Sperling; Dorene M. Rentz

2012-01-01

388

Retrieving Essential Material at the End of Lectures Improves Performance on Statistics Exams  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|At the end of each lecture in a statistics for psychology course, students answered a small set of questions that required them to retrieve information from the same day's lecture. These exercises constituted retrieval practice for lecture material subsequently tested on four exams throughout the course. This technique is called the PUREMEM…

Lyle, Keith B.; Crawford, Nicole A.

2011-01-01

389

The Validity Argument of a Web-Based Spanish Listening Exam: Test Usefulness Evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study describes research used for supporting a validity argument for a new Spanish Listening Exam, whose scores are intended to place examinees into appropriate levels of university Spanish classes. This study contributes to the field of argument-based approaches to language assessment by implementing Bachman's (2005) assessment use argument framework. The validity argument is supported by research providing backing for

Cristina Pardo-Ballester

2010-01-01

390

Predicting success in college on the basis of the results of unified national exam  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of econometric study on predicting first-year grade point average and dropout probability with national examination (EGE) results at the bachelor program in Economics in the Higher School of Economics. The use of a sum of four exams — math, social studies, Russian language and foreign language — shows worse fitting than a sum of three

Oleg Poldin

2011-01-01

391

Improved early stroke detection: Wavelet-based perception enhancement of computerized tomography exams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nonenhanced computerized tomography (CT) exams were used to detect acute stroke by notification of hypodense area. Infarction perception improvement by data denoising and local contrast enhancement in multi-scale domain was proposed. The wavelet-based image processing method enhanced the subtlest signs of hypodensity, which were often invisible in standard CT scan review. Thus improved detection efficiency of perceptual ischemic changes was

A. Przelaskowski; K. Sklinda; P. Bargie?; J. Walecki; M. Biesiadko-Matuszewska; M. Kazubek

2007-01-01

392

Rethinking Exams and Letter Grades: How Much Can Teachers Delegate to Students?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this article we report a 3-yr study of a large-enrollment Cell Biology course focused on developing student skill in scientific reasoning and data interpretation. Specifically, the study tested the hypothesis that converting the role of exams from summative grading devices to formative tools would increase student success in acquiring those…

Kitchen, Elizabeth; King, Summer H.; Robison, Diane F.; Sudweeks, Richard R.; Bradshaw, William S.; Bell, John D.

2006-01-01

393

The Relationship of Academic Self-Efficacy to Class Participation and Exam Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined the relationship of academic self-efficacy to engagement in class discussion and performance on major course exams among students (N = 165) in an undergraduate human development course. Cluster analysis was used to identify three levels of academic self-efficacy: high (n = 34), medium (n = 91), and low (n = 40). Results…

Galyon, Charles E.; Blondin, Carolyn A.; Yaw, Jared S.; Nalls, Meagan L.; Williams, Robert L.

2012-01-01

394

Circumscribed Agency: The Relevance of Standardized College Entrance Exams for Low SES High School Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors interviewed Black and Latino students from five high-poverty high schools as they attempted to make the transition into college. Their ability to exert individual agency with regard to their entrance exams and their college transition was circumscribed by the messages and behavioral norms that dominated their low-performing high school…

Deil-Amen, Regina; Tevis, Tenisha LaShawn

2010-01-01

395

Comparing Intentions to Use University-Provided vs Vendor-Provided Multibiometric Authentication in Online Exams  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: Concerns for information security in e-learning systems have been raised previously. In the pursuit for better authentication approaches, few schools have implemented students' authentication during online exams beyond passwords. This paper aims to assess e-learners' intention to provide multibiometric data and use of multibiometrics…

Levy, Yair; Ramim, Michelle M.; Furnell, Steven M.; Clarke, Nathan L.

2011-01-01

396

An Investigation of Adult Attachment and Coping with Exam-Related Stress  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Students differ in how they cope with and manage stress associated with university life. This study investigates associations between adult attachment and coping strategies for exam-related stress. Fifty-seven students at a university in the north of England completed online questionnaires to assess attachment anxiety and avoidance, helpful and…

Berry, Katherine; Kingswell, Sarah

2012-01-01

397

Improvements to an Electrical Engineering Skill Audit Exam to Improve Student Mastery of Core EE Concepts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The San Jose State University Electrical Engineering (EE) Department implemented a skill audit exam for graduating seniors in 1999 with the purpose of assessing the teaching and the students' mastery of core concepts in EE. However, consistent low scores for the first years in which the test was administered suggested that students had little…

Parent, D. W.

2011-01-01

398

Assessment of Learning Gains Associated with Independent Exam Analysis in Introductory Biology  

PubMed Central

This study evaluates the impact of an independent postmidterm question analysis exercise on the ability of students to answer subsequent exam questions on the same topics. It was conducted in three sections (?400 students/section) of introductory biology. Graded midterms were returned electronically, and each student was assigned a subset of questions answered incorrectly by more than 40% of the class to analyze as homework. The majority of questions were at Bloom's application/analysis level; this exercise therefore emphasized learning at these higher levels of cognition. Students in each section answered final exam questions matched by topic to all homework questions, providing a within-class control group for each question. The percentage of students who correctly answered the matched final exam question was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in the Topic Analysis versus Control Analysis group for seven of 19 questions. We identified two factors that influenced activity effectiveness: 1) similarity in topic emphasis of the midterm–final exam question pair and 2) quality of the completed analysis homework. Our data suggest that this easy-to-implement exercise will be useful in large-enrollment classes to help students develop self-regulated learning skills. Additional strategies to help introductory students gain a broader understanding of topic areas are discussed.

William, Adrienne E.; Aguilar-Roca, Nancy M.; Tsai, Michelle; Wong, Matthew; Beaupre, Marin Moravec; O'Dowd, Diane K.

2011-01-01

399

Effect of Curriculum Change on Exam Performance in a 4-Week Psychiatry Clerkship  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: The authors investigated whether curriculum change could produce improved performance, despite a reduction in clerkship length from 8 to 4 weeks. Methods: The exam performance of medical students completing a 4-week clerkship in psychiatry was compared to national data from the National Board of Medical Examiners' Psychiatry Subject…

Niedermier, Julie; Way, David; Kasick, David; Kuperschmidt, Rada

2010-01-01

400

Noncredible Effort during Pediatric Neuropsychological Exam: A Case Series and Literature Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neuropsychological test interpretation rests upon the assumption that the examinee has exerted full effort. If an individual provides inadequate effort during exam, the resulting data will be invalid and represent an underestimate of the person's true abilities. Although youth have been assumed historically to be less capable of deception than adults, acts of deception in childhood are not uncommon, even

Michael W. Kirkwood; John W. Kirk; Robert Z. Blaha; Pamela Wilson

2010-01-01

401

Practice (Rather than Graded) Quizzes, with Answers, May Increase Introductory Psychology Exam Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors investigated whether practice (or graded) quizzes, with or without provision of correct answers, would be more beneficial for introductory psychology exam performance. In six sections (N = 249) of an introductory psychology class, taught by the same professor, different approaches to quizzes were applied across sections to measure…

Wickline, Virginia B.; Spektor, Valeriya G.

2011-01-01

402

An Innovative Excel Application to Improve Exam Reliability in Marketing Courses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Measures of survey reliability are commonly addressed in marketing courses. One statistic of reliability is "Cronbach's alpha." This paper presents an application of survey reliability as a reflexive application of multiple-choice exam validation. The application provides an interactive decision support system that incorporates survey item…

Keller, Christopher M.; Kros, John F.

2011-01-01

403

American Diploma Project (ADP) End-of-Course Exams: 2010 Annual Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|To assess the raised expectations of college and career readiness for all students, a group of American Diploma Project (ADP) Network states formed the ADP Assessment Consortium in 2005. The Consortium created Algebra I and II end-of-course exams, based in large part on Achieve's ADP mathematics benchmarks, which would provide an honest…

Achieve, Inc., 2010

2010-01-01

404

Outcomes Assessment: An Examination of the ETS Major Field Test and the Comprehensive Business Exam  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study is the first to examine student performance differences between the major field test in business (MFTB) and the comprehensive business exam (CBE). Results reveal students performed at a statistically significant 50.8 percentile ranking on the CBE compared to a 38.0 percentile ranking on the MFTB. Additionally, this study finds that…

Hahn, William; Bowlin, Lyle L.; Welch, Timothy

2012-01-01

405

Processor Capacity Reserves for Multimedia Operating Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multimedia applications have timing requirements that cannot generally be satisfied using time-sharing scheduling algorithms and system structures. To effective ly support these types of programs, operating systems must support processor capacity reservation. A capacity reservation and enforcement mechanism isolates programs from the timing and execution characteri stics of other programs in the same way that a memory protection system isolates

Clifford W. Mercer; Stefan Savage; Hideyuki Tokuda

406

Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Draft Environmental Impact Statement.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Federal Energy Administration proposes to implement the Strategic Petroleum Reserve, Title I, Part B of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 (P.L. 94-163). The purpose of the Reserve is to mitigate the economic impacts of any future interrup...

1976-01-01

407

Representative freshwater reserves: better late than never  

Microsoft Academic Search

Representative reserves (protected areas) are an accepted component of terrestrial and marine biodiversity conservation programs. Additionally, representative reserves have important values in protecting ecosystems of special importance, and in providing ecologically based benchmarks useful in assessing the sustainability of management programs. However, in spite of international and national commitments, Australian State governments have been slow to establish systems of representative

J. Nevill; N. Phillips

2002-01-01

408

Off-Reservation Indian Survey [Maine].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The needs of the off-reservation Indian population in Maine and recommendations for the correction of these needs are discussed. The program's objectives were (1) to determine the present level of services available to off-reservation Indians in Maine, (2) to determine present housing standards, educational levels, health programs, and geographic…

Sockabasin, Allen J., Comp; Stone, John G., Comp.

409

5 CFR 890.503 - Reserves.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...letter of credit (LOC) account maintained...purposes of this section, an average month's...to the carrier's LOC account. (ii...of all reserves of an experience-rated...contingency reserve in an amount and under conditions...carriers funded by LOC, the returned...

2013-01-01

410

Reservation wages, labour market participation and health  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of the reservation wage has played an important role in labour market theory, particularly in models of job search, labour supply and labour market participation. We focus on the determinants of reservation wages, with a particular focus on health, which has attracted very little attention despite its importance from a policy perspective. Using UK data we estimate an

Sarah Brown; Jennifer Roberts; Karl Taylor

2010-01-01

411

Can We Build a Full Strength Reserve.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The essay examines the attitudes and phobias of young Americans with respect to military service in the army reserve forces, and analyzes the reasons why so few of our youth embrace a part-time career in the Army Reserve or National Guard. It predicts the...

G. C. Meadows

1973-01-01

412

When will fossil fuel reserves be diminished?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crude oil, coal and gas are the main resources for world energy supply. The size of fossil fuel reserves and the dilemma that “when non-renewable energy will be diminished” is a fundamental and doubtful question that needs to be answered. This paper presents a new formula for calculating when fossil fuel reserves are likely to be depleted and develops an

Shahriar Shafiee; Erkan Topal

2009-01-01

413

40 CFR 35.2020 - Reserves.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...are not used for these purposes, may be used by the State for any other purpose under title II of the Act. (g) Marine estuary reserve. The Administrator shall reserve, before allotment of funds to the States, 1 percent of the funds...

2013-07-01

414

A Guide to Federal Reserve Regulations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System and the Federal Reserve Banks administer more than two dozen regulations affecting a wide variety of financial activities. The regulations concern the functions of the central bank and its relationships with financial institutions, the activities of commercial banks and bank holding companies,…

Federal Reserve Bank of New York, NY.

415

Designing a Tropical Reserve System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An optimally designed biological reserve system requires the integration and application of knowledge from several sources. Students are given a map of a region of some tropical country with a list of important geographic and biological information about the areas; a set of specific need, limitations, and governmental objectives are also provided. Each student is assigned a specific role and is placed within a larger planning group. The individual must see that his or her specific needs are addressed. The group task is to design and locate a set of conservation areas that best accommodates as many of the stated needs and priorities as possible. The group must present, explain, and defend their plan to the class or discussion.

BEGIN:VCARD VERSION:2.1 FN:James R Serach N:R Serach;James ORG:Lawrence Academy REV:2005-04-15 END:VCARD

1995-06-30

416

World petroleum resources and reserves  

SciTech Connect

Up to 1965 the world produced and consumed only 10% of the oil available on this planet; between 1965 and 2040 we will use up 80% of the remaining reserves, leaving only 10% of the resource for the years to follow. Clearly, the epoch of petroleum is a transitory one. Nevertheless, petroleum is at present the most important component of the energy base supporting the industrialized world. This book describes and analyzes the geological basis for the current world petroleum situation. Mr. Riva exaplains the formation and accumulation of conventional and unconventional oil and gas, methods used by geologists in search for petroleum and petroleum-containing basins, and techniques for petroleum production. He then discusses the uneven distribution of the world's oil, focusing on the Arabian-Iranian basin, which contains half of the world's known recoverable reserves, and examines the petroleum prospects in several distinctly different areas of the world. The United States is presented as an example of an area in general decline already exhaustively explored. In contrast, the case study of the Soviet petroleum industry and a geological assessment of Soviet production prospects show a region at the peak of its oil production, with its decline about to begin. He chooses Indonesia as the focus for a typical Southeast Asian petroleum history and develops a profile of Mexico's petroleum situation as an example of an area with increasing production potential. Mr. Riva concludes with an assessment of the prospects for future world petroleum discoveries and a geologically based estimate of the earth's total original stock of recoverable petroleum.

Riva, J.P. Jr.

1983-01-01

417

7 CFR 985.57 - Reserve pool requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...shall pool identified excess oil as reserve oil in such manner as to accurately...disposition. The Committee shall store reserve oil for the account of the producer and maintain the identity of the reserve oil by producer's name, the...

2010-01-01

418

7 CFR 985.57 - Reserve pool requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...shall pool identified excess oil as reserve oil in such manner as to accurately...disposition. The Committee shall store reserve oil for the account of the producer and maintain the identity of the reserve oil by producer's name, the...

2009-01-01

419

7 CFR 1124.11 - Cooperative reserve supply unit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 false Cooperative reserve supply unit. 1124.11 Section 1124.11 Agriculture...Definitions § 1124.11 Cooperative reserve supply unit. Cooperative reserve supply unit means any cooperative...

2013-01-01

420

7 CFR 1124.11 - Cooperative reserve supply unit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-01-01 false Cooperative reserve supply unit. 1124.11 Section 1124.11 Agriculture...Definitions § 1124.11 Cooperative reserve supply unit. Cooperative reserve supply unit means any cooperative...

2012-01-01

421

14 CFR 27.727 - Reserve energy absorption drop test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 false Reserve energy absorption drop test. 27.727 Section 27.727...Landing Gear § 27.727 Reserve energy absorption drop test. The reserve energy absorption drop test must be conducted as...

2013-01-01

422

14 CFR 23.727 - Reserve energy absorption drop test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Reserve energy absorption drop test. 23.727 Section 23...Gear § 23.727 Reserve energy absorption drop test. (a) If compliance with the reserve energy absorption requirement in §...

2013-01-01

423

14 CFR 29.727 - Reserve energy absorption drop test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 false Reserve energy absorption drop test. 29.727 Section 29.727...Landing Gear § 29.727 Reserve energy absorption drop test. The reserve energy absorption drop test must be conducted as...

2013-01-01

424

48 CFR 1632.770 - Contingency reserve payments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...1632.770 Contingency reserve payments. (a) Payments from the contingency reserve...apply to OPM at any time for a payment from the contingency reserve...the plan's preferred minimum balance for the contingency...

2011-10-01

425

43 CFR 3811.2-3 - Lands in Indian reservations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-10-01 false Lands in Indian reservations. 3811.2-3 Section...Purchase § 3811.2-3 Lands in Indian reservations. All lands contained within the boundaries of an established Indian Reservation are withdrawn from...

2012-10-01

426

7 CFR 993.65 - Disposition of reserve prunes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...of the agreement or other provisions of this part. The committee may sell reserve prunes into any outlet in which direct selling is determined to be more appropriate. (c) Offers to sell reserve prunes. No offer to sell reserve...

2013-01-01

427

38 CFR 36.4526 - Issuance of fund reservation commitments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Issuance of fund reservation commitments. 36.4526 Section 36.4526 ...4526 Issuance of fund reservation commitments. (a) Any builder or sponsor...eligible for direct loans may apply for a commitment for the reservation of direct...

2013-07-01

428

14 CFR 27.727 - Reserve energy absorption drop test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 false Reserve energy absorption drop test. 27.727 Section 27.727...Landing Gear § 27.727 Reserve energy absorption drop test. The reserve energy absorption drop test must be conducted as...

2010-01-01

429

7 CFR 623.13 - Wetlands reserve plan of operations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Wetlands reserve plan of operations. 623.13 Section...OF AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES EMERGENCY WETLANDS RESERVE PROGRAM § 623.13 Wetlands reserve plan of operations. (a)...

2013-01-01

430

40 CFR 73.26 - Conservation and renewable energy reserve.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Conservation and renewable energy reserve. 73.26 Section...73.26 Conservation and renewable energy reserve. The Administrator...allowances to the Conservation and Renewable Energy Reserve subaccount of...

2013-07-01

431

Individual Accountability in Cooperative Learning Groups at the College Level: Differential Effects on High, Average, and Low Exam Performers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over a three-semester period in a large undergraduate human development course, students were assigned to 5–7 member groups to work together in preparing for an exam in one of the five content units in the course. Their exam performance was tracked over three units: a baseline unit in which students worked only individually, a unit in which they worked in

Robert L. Williams; Erin Carroll; Briana Hautau

2005-01-01

432

So Many Choices, So Little Time: Strategies for Understanding and Taking Multiple-Choice Exams in History  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Learning as much as possible about what to expect and how best to select among response choices enables students to improve their scores so as to reflect more fully their knowledge and abilities, whether taking the SAT, ACT, AP history exams, multiple-choice exams in college courses, the GRE, or any other standardized examinations that include…

Blackey, Robert

2009-01-01

433

Finite element modelling of the glenohumeral capsule can help assess the tested region during a clinical exam  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this research was to examine the efficacy of evaluating the region of the glenohumeral capsule being tested by clinical exams for shoulder instability using finite element (FE) models of the glenohumeral joint. Specifically, the regions of high capsule strain produced by glenohumeral joint positions commonly used during a clinical exam were identified. Kinematics that simulated a simple

Benjamin J. Ellis; Nicholas J. Drury; Susan M. Moore; Patrick J. McMahon; Jeffrey A. Weiss; Richard E. Debski

2010-01-01

434

What is the utility of the Focused Assessment with Sonography in Trauma (FAST) exam in penetrating torso trauma?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study objectiveA recent Cochrane Review has demonstrated that emergency ultrasonography decreases the amount of computerised tomographic scans in blunt abdominal trauma.13 However, there is no systematic review that has evaluated the utility of the Focused Assessment with Sonography for Trauma (FAST) exam in penetrating torso trauma. We systematically reviewed the medical literature for the utility of the FAST exam to

Antonia C. Quinn; Richard Sinert

2011-01-01

435

Final Exam.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Explains the use of a maintenance-management assessment process that educational facility managers can use to improve facility conditions and to provide evidence for future capital investments in maintenance management. Discusses questions a maintenance-management audit can answer and describes how to analyze the data to gain maximum…

Coullahan, Richard

1998-01-01

436

A study of the usefulness of the HESI Exit Exam in predicting NCLEX-RN failure.  

PubMed

Schools of nursing across the country are implementing progression policies that prohibit students from graduating or from taking the nursing licensure examination, sometimes based solely on a single predictive test score. In addition, little empirical evidence exists that supports progression policies as effective in increasing a school's NCLEX-RN pass rates. This article reports on a study conducted when one school did not achieve the results they expected after implementing a progression policy. With use of logistic regression, diagnostic indexes, and other methods, reasons for the disparity between expected and observed NCLEX-RN pass rates were examined. Results revealed that the Health Education Systems, Inc. (HESI) Exit Exam was not able to accurately predict NCLEX-RN outcomes for graduates and, further, that progression policies that allow retest after retest so as to achieve a minimum score on the HESI Exit Exam are not supported empirically. Conclusions and suggestions for schools using or considering progression policies are provided. PMID:18468292

Spurlock, Darrell R; Hunt, Linda A

2008-04-01

437

How Adequate is Digital Rectal Exam for Prostate Cancer Screening at Colonoscopy? Can Adequacy be Improved?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose Screening by digital rectal exam (DRE) has been advocated as a means of detecting early-stage prostate cancer. We sought\\u000a to determine the adequacy of prostate palpation at DRE at colonoscopy, and to devise a method of improving adequacy when the\\u000a gland is incompletely felt. Materials and Methods Adequacy of prostate palpation in the left lateral position was prospectively assessed

John B. Marshall

2008-01-01

438

Spatio-temporal registration of cardiac perfusion MRI exams using high-dimensional mutual information  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compensating for cardio-thoracic motion artifacts in contrast-enhanced cardiac perfusion MRI (p-MRI) sequences is a key issue for the quantitative assessment of myocardial iscæmia. The classical paradigm consists of registering each sequence frame on some reference using an intensity-based matching criterion. In this paper, we present a novel unsupervised method for the groupwise registration of cardiac p-MRI exams based on mutual

Sameh Hamrouni; Nicolas Rougon; F. Pre?teux

2010-01-01

439

Establishing Individual Accountability for Learning in an Exam-less, Group Project Course  

Microsoft Academic Search

We work toward a process model to establish individual accountability for learning in an exam-less, group-project course using an evolutionary approach and vertical slicing. We allow students to evolve into self-directed, cooperative learners over the duration of the three courses that comprise our Computer Science Engineering Sequence and then evaluate their learning using a group project. The first course is

Paul Stanton; Duane Fairfax

440

Algorithmic, LOCS and HOCS (chemistry) exam questions: performance and attitudes of college students  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of freshmen biology and physics-mathematics majors and chemistry majors as well as pre- and in-service chemistry teachers in two Israeli universities on algorithmic (ALG), lower-order cognitive skills (LOCS), and higher-order cognitive skills (HOCS) chemistry exam questions were studied. The driving force for the study was an interest in moving science and chemistry instruction from an algorithmic and factual

Uri Zoller

2002-01-01

441

Benefiting from Multiple?Choice Exams: The positive impact of answer switching  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extent and benefit of answer switching when completing multiple?choice exams was investigated in an undergraduate course (n = 1,152) and a postgraduate course (n = 1,624). Answer switching was identified in 1.7% and 2.4% of cases, respectively. In both samples, more than half the participants changed at least one answer and, of these, approximately 50% increased their test score

Lee Di Milia

2007-01-01

442

Assessing high-level scientific reasoning in a physics exam: Pipe-dream or reality?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

What do we want students to be able to do when they have finished their introductory physics course? In addition to learning the physics content, we want students to learn to think like physicists. We want students to develop specific scientific reasoning abilities that are the hall-mark of scientific thinking. These include, analyzing and interpreting experimental data, designing an experiment to test different hypotheses, identifying assumptions in a physical model amongst many others. Physics courses such as the Investigative Science Learning Environment (ISLE) have been developed to focus specifically on developing students' scientific reasoning abilities. Research has shown that ISLE is successful in achieving its goal. We would like our assessments to directly reflect our learning goals for our students. In order to measure higher-level scientific reasoning, we can, for example, require students to participate in a laboratory practical exam in which they have to engage in experimental design and analysis. However, this assessment method could become very difficult to administer and grade in a large-enrollment class. Is it possible to assess scientific thinking abilities of students using traditional formats such as paper and pencil exams? In this talk I will present some of our latest ideas about how to re-design traditional exam questions to measure a range of scientific reasoning abilities.

Brookes, David

2012-02-01

443

40 CFR 63.11156 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Secondary Copper Smelting Area Sources Standards and Compliance Requirements § 63.11156 [Reserved] Other Requirements and...

2012-07-01

444

19 CFR 10.79 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. General Provisions Products of American Fisheries § 10.79 [Reserved] Salt For Curing...

2013-04-01

445

7 CFR 1207.344 - Operating reserve.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan Expenses and Assessments § 1207.344 Operating reserve....

2012-01-01

446

41 CFR 302-12.110 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false [Reserved] 302-12.110 Section 302-12.110 Public Contracts and Property Management ...RELOCATION ALLOWANCES RESIDENCE TRANSACTION ALLOWANCES 12-USE OF A RELOCATION SERVICES COMPANY...

2012-07-01

447

48 CFR 916.601 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Reserved] 916.601 Section 916.601 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Time and Materials, Labor Hour, and Letter Contracts 916.601...

2011-10-01

448

48 CFR 916.601 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Reserved] 916.601 Section 916.601 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Time and Materials, Labor Hour, and Letter Contracts 916.601...

2012-10-01

449

41 CFR 101-6.4901 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false [Reserved] 101-6.4901 Section 101-6.4901 Public Contracts and Property Management ...FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS GENERAL 6-MISCELLANEOUS REGULATIONS 6.49-Illustrations...

2012-07-01

450

The Problem of Managing a Strategic Reserve.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The problem of managing the reserve of cobalt is presented, followed by a method for bringing the stockpiled amount from any level to a desired goal. Solving a stochastic programming problem is involved. The procedure is discussed in detail. (MNS)|

Cole, David; And Others

1986-01-01

451

Communicating marine reserve science to diverse audiences  

PubMed Central

As human impacts cause ecosystem-wide changes in the oceans, the need to protect and restore marine resources has led to increasing calls for and establishment of marine reserves. Scientific information about marine reserves has multiplied over the last decade, providing useful knowledge about this tool for resource users, managers, policy makers, and the general public. This information must be conveyed to nonscientists in a nontechnical, credible, and neutral format, but most scientists are not trained to communicate in this style or to develop effective strategies for sharing their scientific knowledge. Here, we present a case study from California, in which communicating scientific information during the process to establish marine reserves in the Channel Islands and along the California mainland coast expanded into an international communication effort. We discuss how to develop a strategy for communicating marine reserve science to diverse audiences and highlight the influence that effective science communication can have in discussions about marine management.

Grorud-Colvert, Kirsten; Lester, Sarah E.; Airame, Satie; Neeley, Elizabeth; Gaines, Steven D.

2010-01-01

452

Aeromedical Evacuation: Validating Civil Reserve Air Fleet.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The strategic requirement of the Aeromedical Evacuation (AE) segment of the Civil Reserve Air Fleet (CRAF) has never been formally tested and validated during an actual joint or interagency exercise or operation. Research indicates that January 2002 was t...

D. K. Gooch

2009-01-01

453

48 CFR 3015.603 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false [Reserved] 3015.603 Section 3015.603 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, HOMELAND SECURITY ACQUISITION REGULATION (HSAR) CONTRACT METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY...

2011-10-01

454

7 CFR 18.6 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false [Reserved] 18.6 Section 18.6 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY IN THE STATE COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICES § 18.6...

2012-01-01

455

29 CFR 4.109 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor LABOR STANDARDS FOR FEDERAL SERVICE CONTRACTS Application of the McNamara-O'Hara Service Contract Act Agencies Whose Contracts May Be Covered § 4.109 [Reserved] Covered Contracts...

2009-07-01

456

40 CFR 63.11604 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Area Sources: Paints and Allied Products Manufacturing Standards, Monitoring, and Compliance Requirements § 63.11604 [Reserved]...

2012-07-01

457

76 FR 68440 - Federal Reserve Bank Services  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...separately reflected in comparison with the GDP price index. 5. 2012 Price Index...Reserve Banks'' priced services with the GDP price index. Compared with the price index...comparison, for the period 2002 to 2010, the GDP price index...

2011-11-04

458

Reforming Military Intelligence Reserve Components 1995 - 2005.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Military Intelligence (MI) Reserve Components (RC) are not optimally managed. MI RC assets receive limited support from their administrative chain-of-command, while being expected to perform normal operational missions from CAPSTONE or active components. ...

T. R. Cagley

1991-01-01

459

Federal Reserve System: The Surplus Account.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objectives of this report are to describe (1) the Federal Reserve Boards rationale for maintaining the capital surplus account, (2) policies and practices of selected foreign central banks regarding accounts that serve similar functions, (3) the frequ...

2002-01-01

460

45 CFR 400.24 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Reserved] 400.24 Section 400.24 Public Welfare OFFICE OF REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT, ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT PROGRAM General Administration § 400.24...

2012-10-01

461

45 CFR 400.3 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Reserved] 400.3 Section 400.3 Public Welfare OFFICE OF REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT, ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT PROGRAM Introduction § 400.3...

2012-10-01

462

40 CFR 63.11403 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Carbon Black Production Area Sources Standards and Compliance Requirements § 63.11403 [Reserved] Other...

2013-07-01

463

42 CFR 110.100 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Reserved] 110.100 Section 110.100 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES VACCINES COUNTERMEASURES INJURY COMPENSATION PROGRAM Covered Countermeasures Injury Tables § 110.100...

2012-10-01

464

42 CFR 110.100 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Reserved] 110.100 Section 110.100 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES VACCINES COUNTERMEASURES INJURY COMPENSATION PROGRAM Covered Countermeasures Injury Tables § 110.100...

2011-10-01

465

40 CFR 420.27 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

40 Protection of Environment 30 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false [Reserved] 420.27 Section 420.27 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON...

2012-07-01

466

40 CFR 415.553 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

40 Protection of Environment 30 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false [Reserved] 415.553 Section 415.553 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS...

2012-07-01

467

Report to the Congress: Regional Petroleum Reserves.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report will address actions taken to determine the benefits and costs of establishing in-region Regional Petroleum Reserves (RPR's) and the extent to which existing analyses reflect DOE's current assessments of US and world supply/demand conditions, ...

1982-01-01

468

9 CFR 147.4 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false [Reserved] 147.4 Section 147.4 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...PROVISIONS ON NATIONAL POULTRY IMPROVEMENT PLAN Blood Testing Procedures § 147.4...

2013-01-01

469

40 CFR 63.1514 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Secondary Aluminum Production Monitoring and Compliance Requirements § 63.1514 [Reserved] Notifications, Reports, And...

2012-07-01

470

The Federal Reserve's foreign exchange swap lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The financial crisis that began in August 2007 disrupted U.S. dollar funding markets not only in the United States but also overseas. To address funding pressures internationally, the Federal Reserve introduced a system of reciprocal currency arrangements, or \\

Michael J. Fleming; Nicholas J. Klagge

2010-01-01

471

Training Readiness in the Army Reserve Components.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report documents research on the training readiness of high-priority Army Reserve Component (RC) units that participated in the Army's training enhancement pilot program, 'Bold Shift,' in 1992. The authors seek to understand the training achievements...

R. E. Sortor T. F. Lippiatt J. M. Polich J. C. Crowley

1994-01-01

472

Sociology of Army Reserves: An Organizational Assessment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report outlines the ways in which conventional military sociology is inappropriate for an understanding of reserve components. Issues include potential for using'professional reservists; on a part-time basis, alleviating unit pressures on reservists ...

C. Moskos

1990-01-01

473

40 CFR 63.11156 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Secondary Copper Smelting Area Sources Standards and Compliance Requirements § 63.11156 [Reserved] Other Requirements and...

2013-07-01

474

Suicides on a Southwestern American Indian Reservation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Results showed suicides clustered by day of the week, season, and reservation location, and typical victims as young, unmarried males holding unskilled or semiskilled jobs. Suggested are strategies maximizing suicide prevention efforts. Journal availability: see RC 503 481. (DS)|

Miller, Marv

1979-01-01

475

25 CFR 162.537 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Section 162.537 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER LEASES AND PERMITS Wind and Solar Resource Leases Weel Compliance and Enforcement § 162.537 [Reserved] WSR...

2013-04-01

476

19 CFR 12.35 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE White Phosphorus Matches § 12.35 [Reserved] Narcotic...

2013-04-01

477

43 CFR 2653.11 - Conveyance reservations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) ALASKA NATIVE SELECTIONS Miscellaneous Selections § 2653.11 Conveyance reservations. (a) Conveyances...

2012-10-01

478

Asymptotic Resource Consumption in Multicast Reservation Styles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of network design is to meet the needs of residentapplications in an efficient manner. Adding real-timeservice and point-to-multipoint multicast routing to the Internet's traditional point-to-point best effort service modelwill greatly increase the Internet's efficiency in handlingpoint-to-multipoint real-time applications. Recently, theRSVP resource reservation protocol has introduced the conceptof "reservation styles", which control how reservationsare aggregated in...

Danny J. Mitzel; Scott Shenker

1994-01-01

479

Marine reserves: the need for systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Highly protected marine reserves are areas of the sea in which human disturbances are minimised so that the full natural biological\\u000a diversity is maintained or, more often, allowed to recover to a more natural state. Europe has very few marine reserves;\\u000a they are very small and almost all are in the Mediterranean. There are at present no official plans to

W. J. Ballantine; T. J. Langlois

2008-01-01

480

Marine reserves: the need for systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Highly protected marine reserves are areas of the sea in which human disturbances are minimised so that the full natural biological\\u000a diversity is maintained or, more often, allowed to recover to a more natural state. Europe has very few marine reserves; they\\u000a are very small and almost all are in the Mediterranean. There are at present no official plans to

W. J. Ballantine; T. J. Langlois

481

Designing effective reserve networks for nonequilibrium metacommunities.  

PubMed

The proliferation of efficient fishing practices has promoted the depletion of commercial stocks around the world and caused significant collateral damage to marine habitats. Recent empirical studies have shown that marine reserves can play an important role in reversing these effects. Equilibrium metapopulation models predict that networks of marine reserves can provide similar benefits so long as individual reserves are sufficiently large to achieve self-sustainability, or spaced based on the extent of dispersal of the target species in order to maintain connectivity between neighboring reserves. However, these guidelines have not been tested in nonequilibrium metacommunity models that exhibit the kinds of complex spatiotemporal dynamics typically seen in natural marine communities. Here, we used a spatially explicit predator-prey model whose predictions have been validated in a marine system to show that current guidelines are not optimal for metacommunities. In equilibrium metacommunities, there is a community-level trade-off for designing effective reserves: Networks whose size and spacing are smaller than the extent of dispersal maximize global predator abundance but minimize global prey abundance because of trophic cascades, whereas the converse is true for reserve networks whose size and spacing are larger than the extent of dispersal. In nonequilibrium metacommunities, reserves whose size and spacing match the extent of spatial autocorrelation in adult abundance (i.e., the extent of patchiness) escape this community-level trade-off by maximizing global abundance and persistence of both the prey and the predator. Overall, these results suggest that using the extent of adult patchiness instead of the extent of larval dispersal as the size and spacing of reserve networks is critical for designing community-based management strategies. By emphasizing patchiness over dispersal distance, our results show how the apparent complexity of nonequilibrium communities can actually simplify management guidelines and reduce uncertainty associated with the assessment of dispersal in marine environments. PMID:24147418

Gouhier, Tarik C; Guichard, Frédéric; Menge, Bruce A

2013-09-01

482

Membrane Reserves and Hypotonic Cell Swelling  

Microsoft Academic Search

To accommodate expanding volume (V) during hyposmotic swelling, animal cells change their shape and increase surface area\\u000a (SA) by drawing extra membrane from surface and intracellular reserves. The relative contributions of these processes, sources\\u000a and extent of membrane reserves are not well defined. In this study, the SA and V of single substrate-attached A549, 16HBE14o?, CHO and NIH 3T3 cells

Nicolas Groulx; Francis Boudreault; Sergei N. Orlov; Ryszard Grygorczyk

2006-01-01

483

Lognormal mixed models for reported claims reserves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional claims-reserving techniques are based on so-called run-off triangles containing aggregate claim figures. Such a triangle provides a summary of an underlying data set with individual claim figures. This contribution explores the interpretation of the available individual data in the framework of longitudinal data analysis. Making use of the theory of linear mixed models, a flexible model for loss reserving

Katrien Antonio; Jan Beirlant; Tom Hoedemakers; Robert Verlaak

2006-01-01

484

Resource Sharing in Reservation-Based Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, real-time operating systems began to sup- port the resource reservation paradigm. This technique has proved to be very effective in providing QoS to both, real-ti me and legacy applications, ensuring that the temporal misbe- havior of an application does not affect any other (temporal isolation). However, resource sharing in a reservation sys - tem is still not

Dionisio De Niz; Saowanee Saewong; Ragunathan Rajkumar; Luca Abeni

2001-01-01

485

Disaggregating reserve-to-production ratios: An algorithm for United States oil and gas reserve development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reserve-to-production ratios for oil and gas development are utilized by oil and gas producing states to monitor oil and gas reserve and production dynamics. These ratios are used to determine production levels for the manipulation of oil and gas prices while maintaining adequate reserves for future development. These aggregate reserve-to-production ratios do not provide information concerning development cost and the best time necessary to develop newly discovered reserves. Oil and gas reserves are a semi-finished inventory because development of the reserves must take place in order to implement production. These reserves are considered semi-finished in that they are not counted unless it is economically profitable to produce them. The development of these reserves is encouraged by profit maximization economic variables which must consider the legal, political, and geological aspects of a project. This development is comprised of a myriad of incremental operational decisions, each of which influences profit maximization. The primary purpose of this study was to provide a model for characterizing a single product multi-period inventory/production optimization problem from an unconstrained quantity of raw material which was produced and stored as inventory reserve. This optimization was determined by evaluating dynamic changes in new additions to reserves and the subsequent depletion of these reserves with the maximization of production. A secondary purpose was to determine an equation for exponential depletion of proved reserves which presented a more comprehensive representation of reserve-to-production ratio values than an inadequate and frequently used aggregate historical method. The final purpose of this study was to determine the most accurate delay time for a proved reserve to achieve maximum production. This calculated time provided a measure of the discounted cost and calculation of net present value for developing new reserves. This study concluded that the theoretical model developed by this research may be used to provide a predictive equation for each major oil and gas state so that a net present value to undiscounted net cash flow ratio might be calculated in order to establish an investment signal for profit maximizers. This equation inferred how production decisions were influenced by exogenous factors, such as price, and how policies performed which lead to recommendations regarding effective policies and prudent planning.

Williams, Charles William

486

Ecological Planning and Ecotourism Development in Kimbi Game Reserve, Cameroon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Game reserves and other protected areas are potential areas for the development of ecotourism because of their biodiversity, landscapes and cultural heritage of local or indigenous people. This study investigates the environmental sustainability of game reserves using a sample of the Kimbi Game Reserve. It assesses the potentials of the reserve for the development of ecotourism by employing a combination

Ndenecho Emmanuel Neba

2009-01-01

487

Marine Reserves: A Closer Look at What They Can Accomplish  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presents a theoretical analysis of the operation of a commercial fishery in the presence of marine reserves. The sustainable yield and revenue curves for reserves are derived and compared to the analogous curves with no reserves. It is sho wn that reserves will always reduce the sustainable harvest for any total stock size but in certain, but not all

Lee G. Anderson

2000-01-01

488

Designing marine reserves for interacting species: Insights from theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary goals of marine reserves include protecting biodiversity and ecosystem structure. Therefore, a multispecies approach to designing and monitoring reserve networks is necessary. To gain insight into how the interactions between species in marine communities may affect reserve design, we synthesize marine reserve community models and community models with habitat destruction and fragmentation, and we develop new extensions of

Marissa L. Baskett; Fiorenza Micheli; Simon A. Levin

2007-01-01

489

Reserves Protect against Deforestation Fires in the Amazon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Reserves are the principal means to conserve forests and biodiversity, but the question of whether reserves work is still debated. In the Amazon, fires are closely linked to deforestation, and thus can be used as a proxy for reserve effectiveness in protecting forest cover. We ask whether reserves in the Brazilian Amazon provide effective protection against deforestation and consequently

J. Marion Adeney; Norman L. Christensen Jr; Stuart L. Pimm

2009-01-01

490

Federal Reserve Information and the Behavior of Interest Rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper tests for the existence of asymmetric information between the Federal Reserve and the public by examining Federal Reserve and commercial inflation forecasts. It demonstrates that the Federal Reserve has considerable information about inflation beyond what is known to commercial forecasters. It also shows that monetary-policy actions provide signals of the Federal Reserve's information and that commercial forecasters modify

Christina D. Romer; David H. Romer

2000-01-01

491

Cerebral reserve capacity: implications for alcohol and drug abuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cerebral reserve capacity (or functional reserve) refers to the brain's ability to maintain function when confronted by degenerative processes. Functional reserve can be estimated by several associated measures, including premorbid brain size, premorbid IQ, and level of education attained. There is accumulating evidence that the magnitude of reserve capacity is important in determining the onset and progression of the clinical

George Fein; Victoria Di Sclafani

2004-01-01

492

Multipath bandwidth splitting reservation in ad hoc networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a novel bandwidth reservation mechanism called the multipath bandwidth splitting reservation (MBSR) for ad hoc networks. In MBSR, an overall bandwidth B-quest is split into several smaller bandwidth requests, and these requests will be reserved on multiple disjoint paths respectively. Both theoretical analysis and simulation results prove that the probability of successful reservation of MBSR is higher

Guanghong Wang; Yantai Shu; Yongjie Fan; Lei Wang; O. W. W. Yang

2003-01-01

493

A new approach to ovarian reserve testing  

PubMed Central

Objective To critically examine ovarian reserve testing prior to assisted reproduction. Design A PUBMED computer search to identify relevant literature. Setting Multiple sites Interventions Testing for ovarian reserve Main Outcome Measures IVF and pregnancy outcomes Result(s) The prevalence of ovarian insufficiency varies significantly for women aged 30–45 years. Generalization or averaging of threshold values across different aged women leads to very poor sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value for all tests of ovarian reserve. Because of the changing prevalence of ovarian insufficiency, there is no single, suitable threshold value for any screening test of ovarian reserve. Our analysis supports dividing impaired ovarian reserve into two groups: age-dependent ovarian aging (physiologic) and premature (non-physiologic) reductions in the oocyte pool. Interpretation of any screening test used requires that age is considered as a variable. To guide clinical interpretation of test results, we suggest using a nomogram of FSH values versus expected delivery rate-per-cycle-start with ART for a given age. Conclusions(s) Proper interpretation of screening tests for ovarian insufficiency in couples considering ART is important since the presence of impaired ovarian reserve is associated with a low likelihood of pregnancy. The condition of premature (non-physiologic) ovarian insufficiency warrants additional research.

Sun, Wenjie; Stegmann, Barbara J.; Henne, Melinda; Catherino, William H.; Segars, James H.

2008-01-01

494

Advanced Placement[R] Exam-Taking and Performance: Relationships with First-Year Subject Area College Grades. Research Report 2011-4  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of Advanced Placement[R] (AP[R]) exam participation and performance on college grades for courses taken in the same subject area as students' AP Exam(s). Students' first-year college subject area grade point averages (SGPAs) were examined in nine subject areas: mathematics, computer science,…

Patterson, Brian F.; Packman, Sheryl; Kobrin, Jennifer L.

2011-01-01