Science.gov

Sample records for examination exploration cerebrale

  1. Exploring examiner judgement of professional competence in rater based assessment.

    PubMed

    Naumann, Fiona L; Marshall, Stephen; Shulruf, Boaz; Jones, Philip D

    2016-10-01

    Exercise physiology courses have transitioned to competency based, forcing Universities to rethink assessment to ensure students are competent to practice. This study built on earlier research to explore rater cognition, capturing factors that contribute to assessor decision making about students' competency. The aims were to determine the source of variation in the examination process and document the factors impacting on examiner judgment. Examiner judgement was explored from both a quantitative and qualitative perspective. Twenty-three examiners viewed three video encounters of student performance on an OSCE. Once rated, analysis of variance was performed to determine where the variance was attributed. A semi-structured interview drew out the examiners reasoning behind their ratings. Results highlighted variability of the process of observation, judgement and rating, with each examiner viewing student performance from different lenses. However, at a global level, analysis of variance indicated that the examiner had a minimal impact on the variance, with the majority of variance explained by the student performance on task. One anomaly noted was in the assessment of technical competency, whereby the examiner had a large impact on the rating, linked to assessing according to curriculum content. The thought processes behind judgement were diverse and if the qualitative results had been used in isolation, may have led to the researchers drawing conclusions that the examined performances would have yielded widely different ratings. However, as a cohort, the examiners were able to distinguish good and poor levels of competency with the majority of student competency linked to the varying ability of the student. PMID:26796200

  2. eXamine: Exploring annotated modules in networks

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Biological networks have a growing importance for the interpretation of high-throughput “omics” data. Integrative network analysis makes use of statistical and combinatorial methods to extract smaller subnetwork modules, and performs enrichment analysis to annotate the modules with ontology terms or other available knowledge. This process results in an annotated module, which retains the original network structure and includes enrichment information as a set system. A major bottleneck is a lack of tools that allow exploring both network structure of extracted modules and its annotations. Results This paper presents a visual analysis approach that targets small modules with many set-based annotations, and which displays the annotations as contours on top of a node-link diagram. We introduce an extension of self-organizing maps to lay out nodes, links, and contours in a unified way. An implementation of this approach is freely available as the Cytoscape app eXamine Conclusions eXamine accurately conveys small and annotated modules consisting of several dozens of proteins and annotations. We demonstrate that eXamine facilitates the interpretation of integrative network analysis results in a guided case study. This study has resulted in a novel biological insight regarding the virally-encoded G-protein coupled receptor US28. PMID:25002203

  3. Goals for Near-Earth-Object Exploration Examined

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2010-09-01

    With Japan's Hayabusa space probe having returned a sample of the Itokawa asteroid this past June, and with NASA's Deep Impact spacecraft impactor having successfully struck comet Tempel 1 in 2006, among other recent missions, the study of near-Earth objects (NEOs) recently has taken some major steps forward. The recent discovery of two asteroids that passed within the Moon's distance of Earth on 8 September is a reminder of the need to further understand NEOs. During NASA's Exploration of Near-Earth Objects (NEO) Objectives Workshop, held in August in Washington, D. C., scientists examined rationales and goals for studying NEOs. Several recent documents have recognized NEO research as important as a scientific precursor for a potential mission to Mars, to learn more about the origins of the solar system, for planetary defense, and for resource exploitation. The October 2009 Review of Human Space Flight Plans Committee report (known as the Augustine report), for example, recommended a “flexible path ” for human exploration, with people visiting sites in the solar system, including NEOs. The White House's National Space Policy, released in June, indicates that by 2025, there should be “crewed missions beyond the moon, including sending humans to an asteroid.” In addition, NASA's proposed budget for fiscal year 2011 calls for the agency to send robotic precursor missions to nearby asteroids and elsewhere and to increase funding for identifying and cataloging NEOs.

  4. Exploring the Difficulty of Mathematics Examination Questions for Weaker Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crisp, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    This research investigated the difficulty of examination questions for students with weaker reading skills. Item level performance data were obtained for all candidates who took a maths examination (for 16 year olds). A sub-group of students who had access to a reader was identified (students with proven reading difficulties are permitted to have…

  5. Exploring the Nature of Examiner Thinking during the Process of Examination Marking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crisp, Victoria

    2008-01-01

    Despite the abundant literature on educational measurement there has been relatively little work investigating the psychological processes underpinning marking. This research investigated the processes involved when examiners mark examination responses. Scripts from two geography A-level examinations were used: one requiring short and medium…

  6. 43 CFR 23.5 - Technical examination of prospective surface exploration and mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... surface exploration and mining operations. 23.5 Section 23.5 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior SURFACE EXPLORATION, MINING AND RECLAMATION OF LANDS § 23.5 Technical examination of prospective surface exploration and mining operations. (a)(1) In connection with an...

  7. A study to examine the feasibility of using surface penetrators for mineral exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, A. S.; Anderson, D. W.

    1978-01-01

    The feasibility of using penetrators in earth applications is examined. Penetrator applications in exploration for mineral resources only is summarized. Instrumentation for future penetrators is described. Portions of this report are incorporated into a more extensive report examining other penetrator applications in exploration for fossil fuels, geothermal resources, and in environmental and engineering problems, which is to be published as a NASA technical publication.

  8. Does Family Structure Matter? A Domain-Specific Examination of Identity Exploration and Commitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartoszuk, Karin; Pittman, Joe F.

    2010-01-01

    This exploratory study examines identity exploration and commitment in different domains and how family structure (original/alternative), gender, and age affect these processes in a convenience sample of 388 college students. Results reveal that participants from alternative family structures explore more in the political and gender role domains…

  9. 25 CFR 216.4 - Technical examination of prospective surface exploration and mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... and mining operations. 216.4 Section 216.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS SURFACE EXPLORATION, MINING, AND RECLAMATION OF LANDS General Provisions § 216.4 Technical examination of prospective surface exploration and mining operations. (a)(1)...

  10. Exploring Group Forming Strategies by Examining Participation Behaviours during Whole Class Discussions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jahng, Namsook; Bullen, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore group forming strategies by examining participation behaviours during whole class discussions associated with active participation in a following small group activity. Written communication data, posted in class discussion forums (843 messages/70,432 words) and small group forums (732 messages/59,394…

  11. Exploration of the value of using a formula sheet for physics examinations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Wheijen; Shieh, Ruey S.

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore whether and how allowing students to prepare their own formula sheet (FS) for use in examinations helps them engage in meaningful learning and improve their academic performance. An action research is adopted to conduct the study. Three years (2009-11) of evaluation of the FS policy in introductory physics courses was undertaken. The data collection consists of the students' FS, examination results, and self-reported surveys. The results show that the students who were allowed to bring an FS to the examination outperformed those who were not. It is also found that the quality of individual students' FS was significantly correlated to their examination score (p < 0.001). The reported benefits of using an FS consists of facilitating conceptual understanding, highlighting cognitive demands in learning physics, and alleviating stress in examinations. The FS strategy appears to have the potential for strengthening students' understanding of physics concepts.

  12. Exploring the underperformance of male and minority ethnic medical students in first year clinical examinations.

    PubMed

    Woolf, Katherine; Haq, Inam; McManus, I Chris; Higham, Jenny; Dacre, Jane

    2008-12-01

    Evidence shows that medical students from Minority Ethnic (ME) backgrounds and male medical students underperform in undergraduate examinations. Our study confirmed these findings in first year clinical (year 3) medical students, and further explored this disparity in performance. We conducted a series of meta-analyses to measure the effects of sex and ethnic group on the written examination and Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) scores of three groups of year 3 medical students at two London UK medical schools (n = 1,051; 46.0% male; 48.7% White). Male and ME students scored lower on written and OSCE assessments. Both assessments were statistically significantly correlated (mean r = 0.45) and therefore the effects of sex and ethnic group were measured on each exam after being adjusted for the effect of the other. Although sex and ethnic differences remained on the OSCE when adjusted for written performance, these differences disappeared on the written when it was adjusted for OSCE performance. These findings may reflect a relative deficit in practical clinical knowledge in male and ME year 3 students. Results were unlikely to be due to examiner bias, as the machine-marked unadjusted written exam results showed significant sex and ethnic differences. PMID:17487565

  13. Exploring Specialized STEM High Schools: Three Dissertation Studies Examining Commonalities and Differences Across Six Case Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tofel-Grehl, Colby

    This dissertation is comprised of three independently conducted analyses of a larger investigation into the practices and features of specialized STEM high schools. While educators and policy makers advocate the development of many new specialized STEM high schools, little is known about the unique features and practices of these schools. The results of these manuscripts add to the literature exploring the promise of specialized STEM schools. Manuscript 1¹ is a qualitative investigation of the common features of STEM schools across multiple school model types. Schools were found to possess common cultural and academic features regardless of model type. Manuscript 2² builds on the findings of manuscript 1. With no meaningful differences found attributable to model type, the researchers used grounded theory to explore the relationships between observed differences among programs as related to the intensity of the STEM experience offered at schools. Schools were found to fall into two categories, high STEM intensity (HSI) and low STEM intensity (LSI), based on five major traits. Manuscript 3³ examines the commonalities and differences in classroom discourse and teachers' questioning techniques in STEM schools. It explicates these discursive practices in order to explore instructional practices across schools. It also examines factors that may influence classroom discourse such as discipline, level of teacher education, and course status as required or elective. Collectively, this research furthers the agenda of better understanding the potential advantages of specialized STEM high schools for preparing a future scientific workforce. ¹Tofel-Grehl, C., Callahan, C., & Gubbins, E. (2012). STEM high school communities: Common and differing features. Manuscript in preparation. ²Tofel-Grehl, C., Callahan, C., & Gubbins, E. (2012). Variations in the intensity of specialized science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) high schools. Manuscript in preparation

  14. When No Bilingual Examiner Is Available: Exploring the Use of Ancillary Examiners as a Viable Testing Solution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noland, Ramona M.

    2009-01-01

    Reliable and valid assessment of individuals who are English language learners (ELL) has presented a dilemma to psychologists, and school psychologists in particular, as it is complicated by the small number of professionals qualified to serve as bilingual examiners. Some psychologists use ancillary examiners during testing when no bilingual…

  15. Laying the Groundwork for NCLEX Success: An Exploration of Adaptive Quizzing as an Examination Preparation Method.

    PubMed

    Cox-Davenport, Rebecca A; Phelan, Julia C

    2015-05-01

    First-time NCLEX-RN pass rates are an important indicator of nursing school success and quality. Nursing schools use different methods to anticipate NCLEX outcomes and help prevent student failure and possible threat to accreditation. This study evaluated the impact of a shift in NCLEX preparation policy at a BSN program in the southeast United States. The policy shifted from the use of predictor score thresholds to determine graduation eligibility to a more proactive remediation strategy involving adaptive quizzing. A descriptive correlational design evaluated the impact of an adaptive quizzing system designed to give students ongoing active practice and feedback and explored the relationship between predictor examinations and NCLEX success. Data from student usage of the system as well as scores on predictor tests were collected for three student cohorts. Results revealed a positive correlation between adaptive quizzing system usage and content mastery. Two of the 69 students in the sample did not pass the NCLEX. With so few students failing the NCLEX, predictability of any course variables could not be determined. The power of predictor examinations to predict NCLEX failure could also not be supported. The most consistent factor among students, however, was their content mastery level within the adaptive quizzing system. Implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:25851560

  16. Exploring virtual reality technology and the Oculus Rift for the examination of digital pathology slides

    PubMed Central

    Farahani, Navid; Post, Robert; Duboy, Jon; Ahmed, Ishtiaque; Kolowitz, Brian J.; Krinchai, Teppituk; Monaco, Sara E.; Fine, Jeffrey L.; Hartman, Douglas J.; Pantanowitz, Liron

    2016-01-01

    Background: Digital slides obtained from whole slide imaging (WSI) platforms are typically viewed in two dimensions using desktop personal computer monitors or more recently on mobile devices. To the best of our knowledge, we are not aware of any studies viewing digital pathology slides in a virtual reality (VR) environment. VR technology enables users to be artificially immersed in and interact with a computer-simulated world. Oculus Rift is among the world's first consumer-targeted VR headsets, intended primarily for enhanced gaming. Our aim was to explore the use of the Oculus Rift for examining digital pathology slides in a VR environment. Methods: An Oculus Rift Development Kit 2 (DK2) was connected to a 64-bit computer running Virtual Desktop software. Glass slides from twenty randomly selected lymph node cases (ten with benign and ten malignant diagnoses) were digitized using a WSI scanner. Three pathologists reviewed these digital slides on a 27-inch 5K display and with the Oculus Rift after a 2-week washout period. Recorded endpoints included concordance of final diagnoses and time required to examine slides. The pathologists also rated their ease of navigation, image quality, and diagnostic confidence for both modalities. Results: There was 90% diagnostic concordance when reviewing WSI using a 5K display and Oculus Rift. The time required to examine digital pathology slides on the 5K display averaged 39 s (range 10–120 s), compared to 62 s with the Oculus Rift (range 15–270 s). All pathologists confirmed that digital pathology slides were easily viewable in a VR environment. The ratings for image quality and diagnostic confidence were higher when using the 5K display. Conclusion: Using the Oculus Rift DK2 to view and navigate pathology whole slide images in a virtual environment is feasible for diagnostic purposes. However, image resolution using the Oculus Rift device was limited. Interactive VR technologies such as the Oculus Rift are novel tools

  17. Judging the Grade: Exploring the Judgement Processes Involved in Examination Grading Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crisp, Victoria

    2010-01-01

    Examiners' grading judgements are central to the maintenance of examination standards. This research investigated the judgement processes underpinning examination grading. Operating under a think aloud protocol, six examiners conducted a grading exercise for each of two geography A level examinations. They also "thought aloud" whilst marking some…

  18. Examining Metasomatism in Low fO2 Environments: Exploring Sulfidation Reactions in Various Planetary Bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srinivasan, P.; Shearer, C. K.; McCubbin, F. M.; Bell, A. S.; Agee, C. B.

    2016-01-01

    Hydrothermal systems are common on Earth in a variety of tectonic environments and at different temperature and pressure conditions. These systems are commonly dominated by H2O, and they are responsible for element transport and the production of ore deposits. Unlike the Earth (fO2FMQ), many other planetary bodies (e.g., Moon and asteroids) have fO2 environments that are more reduced (IW+/-2), and H2O is not the important solvent responsible for element transport. One example of a texture that could result from element transport and metasomatism, which appears to occur on numerous planetary bodies, is sulfide-silicate intergrowths. These subsolidus assemblages are interpreted to form as a result of sulfidation reactions from a S-rich fluid phase. The composition of fluids may vary within and among parent bodies and could be sourced from magmatic (e.g. Moon) or impact processes (e.g. HED meteorites and Moon). For example, it has been previously demonstrated on the Moon that the interaction of olivine with a hydrogen- and sulfur-bearing vapor phase altered primary mineral assemblages, producing sulfides (e.g. troilite) and orthopyroxene. Formation of these types of "sulfidation" assemblages can be illustrated with the following reaction: Fe2SiO4(ol) + 1/2 S(2 system) = FeS(troi)+ FeSiO3(opx) + 1/2 O2 system. The products of this reaction, as seen in lunar rocks, is a vermicular or "worm-like" texture of intergrown orthopyroxene and troilite. Regardless of the provenance of the S-bearing fluid, the minerals in these various planetary environments reacted in the same manner to produce orthopyroxene and troilite. Although similar textures have been identified in a variety of parent bodies, a comparative study on the compositions and the origins of these sulfide-silicate assemblages has yet to be undertaken. The intent of this study is to examine and compare sulfide-silicate intergrowths from various planetary bodies to explore their petrogenesis and examine the nature

  19. Exploring Management Strategies to Reduce Cheating in Written Examinations: Case Study of Midlands State University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taderera, Ever; Nyikahadzoi, Loveness; Matamande, Wilson; Mandimika, Elinah

    2014-01-01

    This study was concerned about cheating in written examinations at Midlands State University (MSU). The study revealed that both male and female students cheat in written examination; business studies students cheat more than other faculties, and younger (lower class) students cheat more than (upper class) older students. Factors influencing…

  20. Coping with Examinations: Exploring Relationships between Students' Coping Strategies, Implicit Theories of Ability, and Perceived Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doron, Julie; Stephan, Yannick; Boiche, Julie; Le Scanff, Christine

    2009-01-01

    Background: Relatively little is known about the contribution of students' beliefs regarding the nature of academic ability (i.e. their implicit theories) on strategies used to deal with examinations. Aims: This study applied Dweck's socio-cognitive model of achievement motivation to better understand how students cope with examinations. It was…

  1. A Longitudinal Examination of Adolescent Career Planning and Exploration Using a Social Cognitive Career Theory Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Mary E.; Creed, Peter A.

    2011-01-01

    This study used social cognitive career theory (Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994), as a framework to investigate predictors of career choice actions, operationalised as career planning and career exploration. The model was tested cross-sectionally and longitudinally with 631 high school students enrolled in Grades 10-12. Students completed measures of…

  2. Changing Perspectives: Exploring a Pedagogy to Examine Other Perspectives about Stem Cell Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    France, Bev; Mora, Helen A.; Bay, Jacquie L.

    2012-01-01

    This study explores how teachers developed and critically evaluated a range of teaching strategies that could support the discussion of a socio-scientific issue (SSI) that had the potential to be controversial. The issue was stem cell research and six New Zealand teachers of senior biology students (grades 12/13) took part in an action research…

  3. Exploring Narcissism, Psychopathy, and Machiavellianism in Youth: Examination of Associations with Antisocial Behavior and Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Katherine S. L.; Marsee, Monica A.

    2013-01-01

    We sought to explore the differential associations of callous-unemotional (CU) traits, narcissistic traits, and Machiavellian traits with overt aggression, relational aggression, delinquency, behavioral dysregulation, and emotional dysregulation in a community sample of boys and girls (ages 11-17). Results indicated that the three personality…

  4. PISA Test Items and School-Based Examinations in Greece: Exploring the Relationship between Global and Local Assessment Discourses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anagnostopoulou, Kyriaki; Hatzinikita, Vassilia; Christidou, Vasilia; Dimopoulos, Kostas

    2013-01-01

    The paper explores the relationship of the global and the local assessment discourses as expressed by Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) test items and school-based examinations, respectively. To this end, the paper compares PISA test items related to living systems and the context of life, health, and environment, with Greek…

  5. To Examine and Plan for Occupational Requisites and Employment (Project EXPLORE) 1989-90. OREA Final Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Office of Research, Evaluation, and Assessment.

    An evaluation was done of New York City Board of Education's Project To Examine and Plan for Occupational Requisites and Employment (Project EXPLORE) for 1989-90. In its first year of funding, the project served 427 students of limited English proficiency and 58 English proficient students at Aviation and Long Island City High Schools in Queens.…

  6. Exploring the Relationship between Experienced Students' Preference for Open- and Closed-Book Examinations, Approaches to Learning and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karagiannopoulou, Evangelia; Milienos, Fotios S.

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between university students' approaches to learning and preference for the open- and closed-book examinations was investigated for 144 Greek undergraduate (56 third- and 88 fourth-year) students attending a Philosophy, Education and Psychology Department. The approaches were explored by the Approaches and Study Skills Inventory…

  7. Changing Perspectives: Exploring a pedagogy to examine other perspectives about stem cell research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    France, Bev; Mora, Helen A.; Bay, Jacquie L.

    2012-03-01

    This study explores how teachers developed and critically evaluated a range of teaching strategies that could support the discussion of a socio-scientific issue (SSI) that had the potential to be controversial. The issue was stem cell research and six New Zealand teachers of senior biology students (grades 12/13) took part in an action research project that was situational, collaborative and self-evaluative. The focus of the research was to identify communication barriers that interfered with classroom discussion and how teachers could help students cross cultural borders when they discussed SSIs that were outside their life worlds. The barriers to communication were access to relevant science knowledge, religion, language, an inability to question issues and cultural expectations of girls. Teachers trialled and adapted two discussion strategies, 'Drawing the Line' and 'Diamond Ranking' that provided a vehicle for their students to explore and discuss this issue from a range of perspectives. These discussion strategies enabled their students to take part in a dialogue where reciprocal conversation could occur because they had opportunities not only to explore their own perspectives but also other people's viewpoints.

  8. An Examination of Gender Differences in Today's Mathematics Classrooms: Exploring Single-Gender Mathematics Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunlap, Celeste Elizabeth

    Much research identifies a gender gap in mathematics and some research points to single-gender mathematics classrooms as a solution to the mathematics gender divide. A 7-week study was conducted in which 5th grade students (N=50) were organized into two mathematics classes. The goal was to examine whether single-gender mathematics classes had an…

  9. An Exploration of Behavioral Objectives for Police Promotional Examinations in New Jersey. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Leo S.

    An exploratory investigation of police promotional examinations was made in an attempt to improve the testing procedures that were in use. A primary goal of the study was to identify a pool of performances (tasks, behaviors) of police sergeants, lieutenants, and captains that might serve as referrents for job-related test items for promotional…

  10. Practices and Explorations on Talent-Training Mode of Self-Taught Higher Education Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Dong

    2011-01-01

    Since the existence of self-taught higher education examination, its fast development has contributed a lot to national higher education reform and economic development. This paper, based on analyzing the talent-training mode of China self-taught higher education, proposes countermeasures and suggestions for problems in the mode at present.

  11. Exploring the Core: An Examination of Required Courses in ALA-Accredited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Russell A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the required courses of ALA-accredited Library and Information Science programs as published on their websites. The study expands on previous research in this area. Findings show that the typical core curriculum has grown to include both research and information technology in addition to the more traditional subjects. The…

  12. Exploration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilburn, D.R.; Porter, K.E.

    1999-01-01

    This summary of international nonfuel mineral exploration activities for 1998 draws on available data from literature, industry and US Geological Survey (USGS) specialists. Data on exploration budgets by region and commodity are reported, significant mineral discoveries and exploration target areas are identified and government programs affecting the mineral exploration industry are discussed. Inferences and observations on mineral industry direction are drawn from these data and discussions.

  13. PISA Test Items and School-Based Examinations in Greece: Exploring the relationship between global and local assessment discourses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anagnostopoulou, Kyriaki; Hatzinikita, Vassilia; Christidou, Vasilia; Dimopoulos, Kostas

    2013-03-01

    The paper explores the relationship of the global and the local assessment discourses as expressed by Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) test items and school-based examinations, respectively. To this end, the paper compares PISA test items related to living systems and the context of life, health, and environment, with Greek school-based biology examinations' test items in terms of the nature of their textual construction. This nature is determined by the interplay of the notions of classification (content specialisation) and formality (code specialisation) modulated by both the linguistic and the visual expressive modes. The results of the analysis reveal disparities between assessment discourses promoted at the global and the local level. In particular, while PISA test items convey their scientific message (specialised content and code) principally through their visual mode, the specialised scientific meaning of school-based examinations test is mainly conveyed through their linguistic mode. On the other hand, the linguistic mode of PISA test items is mainly compatible with textual practices of the public domain (non-specialised content and code). Such a mismatch between assessment discourses at local and global level is expected to place Greek students at different discursive positions, promoting different types of knowledge. The expected shift from the epistemic positioning promoted in Greece to the one promoted by PISA could significantly restrict Greek students' ability to infer the PISA discursive context and produce appropriate responses. This factor could provide a meaningful contribution in the discussion of the relatively low achievement of Greek students in PISA scientific literacy assessment.

  14. Petrography of Rocks Examined by the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit within the Gusev Plains and Columbia Hills, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crumpler, L. S.; McSween, H.

    2005-12-01

    Petrographic and megascopic textures of rocks encountered along the traverse of the Spirit Mars Exploration Rover within the Gusev plains (landing site to hills) and within the Columbia Hills (West Spur to lower Husband Hill), together with chemical data based on in situ measurements with the Athena spectrometers, provide information about the mechanisms and conditions of rock emplacement. Primary igneous and low-grade alteration textures are identified within the plains whereas clastic and alteration textures dominate within the Columbia Hills. Plains rocks include primary igneous petrographic textures common to xenocrystic and phyric rocks, megascopic textures similar to that known to occur within differing vertical positions of terrestrial basaltic lavas, and uniform chemical compositions typical of batch melted mantle rocks. Apparent vesicularity (ratio of summed vesicle volume from area over rock unit volume) of rocks in the plains lava surface varied with host rock dimension and angularity. Vesicle distributions in the smaller clasts in the Gusev plains tend to be exponential, typical of upper sections, whereas, dis-tributions in larger, more angular Gusev plains blocks are characterized by hybrid distri-butions, typical of flow interiors. Since small vesicular clasts are a small fraction of the observed clast population, it is inferred that the upper vesicular zones within the Gusev plains lava flows were rela-tively thin (low vesicularity at shallow depths) compared with that predicted for lava flows on Earth. A thin upper vesicular zone in the Gusev plains lavas could be indirect evidence for atmospheric pressure close to current values at the time of Gusev plains basalt emplacement during the Hesperian. Rocks with volcaniclastic or impactite textures occur in outcrops visited within the Columbia Hills. Megascopic and microscopic (Microscopic Imager) textures were examined along apparent lamination planes at several outcrops of moderately consolidated

  15. A Preliminary Exploration of On-Line Study Question Performance and Response Certitude as Predictors of Future Examination Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grabe, Mark; Flannery, Kathryn

    2010-01-01

    This research evaluated an online study task intended to improve the study metacognition and examination performance of inexperienced college students. Existing research has commonly operationalized metacognition as the accuracy of examination score predictions. This research made use of the average discrepancy between rated confidence in…

  16. An Exploration of the Examination Script Features that Most Influence Expert Judgements in Three Methods of Evaluating Script Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suto, Irenka; Novakovic, Nadezda

    2012-01-01

    Some methods of determining grade boundaries within examinations, such as awarding, paired comparisons, and rank ordering, entail expert judgements of script quality. We aimed to identify the features of examinees' scripts that most influence judgements in the three methods. For contrasting examinations in biology and English, a Latin square…

  17. An Exploration of the Effect of Pre-Release Examination Materials on Classroom Practice in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Martin; Crisp, Victoria

    2009-01-01

    Although the school assessment context in England relies heavily on externally imposed forms of testing, it also takes many different forms, including the use of examinations with pre-release materials. These examinations allow teachers and students early access to materials that will be used during assessments at a later date. This project uses a…

  18. Exploring the Alignment between Post-Secondary Education Programs and Earnings: An Examination of 2005 Ontario Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Kristyn; Walters, David

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the influence that field of study and level of post-secondary education have on the earnings of recent graduates in Ontario. Graduates of trades, community college, and university programs are compared. Results suggest that graduates of applied and technical programs obtain higher earnings within two years of graduation than…

  19. Examination of Changes in Prospective Elementary Teachers' Epistemological Beliefs in Science and Exploration of Factors Meditating that Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deniz, Hasan

    2011-01-01

    Epistemological beliefs refer to an individual's thinking and beliefs about the nature of knowledge and knowing. The present study examined two research questions: (1) how do prospective elementary teachers' epistemological beliefs in science change as a result of instruction specifically designed to improve their epistemological beliefs and (2)…

  20. EyeSeeCam: an eye movement-driven head camera for the examination of natural visual exploration.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Erich; Villgrattner, Thomas; Vockeroth, Johannes; Bartl, Klaus; Kohlbecher, Stefan; Bardins, Stanislavs; Ulbrich, Heinz; Brandt, Thomas

    2009-05-01

    The prototype of a gaze-controlled, head-mounted camera (EyeSeeCam) was developed that provides the functionality for fundamental studies on human gaze behavior even under dynamic conditions like locomotion. EyeSeeCam incorporates active visual exploration by saccades with image stabilization during head, object, and surround motion just as occurs in human ocular motor control. This prototype is a first attempt to combine free user mobility with image stabilization and unrestricted exploration of the visual surround in a man-made technical vision system. The gaze-driven camera is supplemented by an additional wide-angle, head-fixed scene camera. In this scene view, the focused gaze view is embedded with picture-in-picture functionality, which provides an approximation of the foveated retinal content. Such a combined video clip can be viewed more comfortably than the saccade-pervaded image of the gaze camera alone. EyeSeeCam consists of a video-oculography (VOG) device and a camera motion device. The benchmark for the evaluation of such a device is the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR), which requires a latency on the order of 10 msec between head and eye (camera) movements for proper image stabilization. A new lightweight VOG was developed that is able to synchronously measure binocular eye positions at up to 600 Hz. The camera motion device consists of a parallel kinematics setup with a backlash-free gimbal joint that is driven by piezo actuators with no reduction gears. As a result, the latency between the rotations of an artificial eye and the camera was 10 msec, which is VOR-like. PMID:19645949

  1. Examination of Changes in Prospective Elementary Teachers' Epistemological Beliefs in Science and Exploration of Factors Meditating That Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deniz, Hasan

    2011-12-01

    Epistemological beliefs refer to an individual's thinking and beliefs about the nature of knowledge and knowing. The present study examined two research questions: (1) how do prospective elementary teachers' epistemological beliefs in science change as a result of instruction specifically designed to improve their epistemological beliefs and (2) what role does the conceptual ecology for epistemological beliefs play in their development? The study was correlational with a sample of 161 prospective elementary teachers (148 female, 13 male). Self-report questionnaires tapping four dimensions of epistemological beliefs (certainty-simplicity, justification, source, attainability of truth) were given to prospective elementary teachers at two time points during an introductory science course. Results indicated that prospective elementary teachers became more sophisticated in their beliefs across all four dimensions of epistemological beliefs. It was found that one component of conceptual ecology for epistemological beliefs, thinking dispositions, was related to the development of epistemological beliefs. Prospective teachers with high thinking dispositions developed more sophisticated beliefs in comparison to prospective teachers with low thinking dispositions.

  2. School-Based Assessments in High-Stakes Examinations in Bhutan: A Question of Trust? Exploring Inconsistencies between External Exam Scores, School-Based Assessments, Detailed Teacher Ratings, and Student Self-Ratings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luyten, Hans; Dolkar, Dechen

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the validity of school-based assessments when they serve to supplement scores on central tests in high-stakes examinations. The school-based continuous assessment (CA) marks are compared to the marks scored on the central written Bhutan Certificate of Secondary Education (BCSE) examination, to detailed teacher ratings of…

  3. Exploring the Nature of the H[subscript 2] Bond. 1. Using Spreadsheet Calculations to Examine the Valence Bond and Molecular Orbital Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halpern, Arthur M.; Glendening, Eric D.

    2013-01-01

    A three-part project for students in physical chemistry, computational chemistry, or independent study is described in which they explore applications of valence bond (VB) and molecular orbital-configuration interaction (MO-CI) treatments of H[subscript 2]. Using a scientific spreadsheet, students construct potential-energy (PE) curves for several…

  4. Sharing My Music with You: The Musical Presentation as a Tool for Exploring, Examining and Enhancing Self-Awareness in a Group Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bensimon, Moshe; Amir, Dorit

    2010-01-01

    Musical presentation (MP) is a diagnostic and therapeutic music therapy tool which focuses on the participant's emotional exploration and awareness-insight development. Using this tool people present themselves through music of their choice and subsequently receive feedback from their peers. This study investigates MP as a tool for enhancing…

  5. Enhancing Undergraduate Education: Examining Faculty Experiences during Their First Year in a Residential College and Exploring the Implications for Student Affairs Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jessup-Anger, Jody E.; Wawrzynski, Matthew R.; Yao, Christina W.

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative study employed a constructivist, case study approach to explore how faculty made meaning of their experiences in a newly developed residential college at a large, land-grant research university in the Midwest. Findings revealed that faculty focused on determining how to prioritize the numerous opportunities for involvement while…

  6. A Hierarchical Examination of the Immigrant Achievement Gap: The Additional Explanatory Power of Nationality and Educational Selectivity over Traditional Explorations of Race and Socioeconomic Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simms, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    This study compared immigrant and nonimmigrant educational achievement (i.e., the immigrant gap) in math by reexamining the explanatory power of race and socioeconomic status (SES)--two variables, perhaps, most commonly considered in educational research. Four research questions were explored through growth curve modeling, factor analysis, and…

  7. A Preliminary Examination of Identity Exploration and Commitment among Polish Adolescents with and without Motor Disability: Does Disability Constitute Diversity in Identity Development?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dominiak-Kochanek, Monika

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to define whether, and to what extent identity formation in late adolescence is disability specific. Ninety-eight adolescents participated in this study, including 43 students with motor disability and 55 students without disability. Identity exploration and commitment was measured by the Utrecht-Groningen Identity…

  8. Exploring the Research concerning Left Hemisphere/Right Hemisphere Cognitive Processes and Examining One Instructional Technique Which May Be Implemented across the Curriculum to Produce Holistic Thinkers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLendon, Gloria H.

    Current writings on the functions of the left and right hemispheres of the brain are examined, focusing upon possible implications for improving present educational techniques. It has been generally accepted by researchers that the organizational and verbalizing processes are functions of the left cerebral hemisphere, while creative and intuitive…

  9. An Examination of the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2003 Turkish Database with the Aim of Exploring the Relationship between Homework Variables and Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guzeller, Cem Oktay; Akin, Ayca

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between the amount of time spent on homework in all subjects (HTAS), the time spent on mathematics homework (MHT), confidence in doing mathematics homework (HCM) and the mathematics achievement of students in Turkey, based on data from the programme for international student assessment…

  10. Examination of the "Theory of Guidance" in the View of 'Ali Ibn Abi Talib (A): An Exploration into the Nahj Al-Balaghah

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rostami-Nasab, Abas Ali; Tajedini, Oranus; Sadatmoosavi, Ali

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the "Theory of Guidance" according to 'Ali ibn Abi Talib (a). This theory is based on three divine covenants or fundamentals in guidance including the divine Prophet, the divine Book, and the divine human nature ("fitrat"). Research in this regard seems essential because this theory has not been previously…

  11. Exploring Clinical Reasoning Strategies and Test-Taking Behaviors During Clinical Vignette Style Multiple-Choice Examinations: A Mixed Methods Study

    PubMed Central

    Heist, Brian Sanjay; Gonzalo, Jed David; Durning, Steven; Torre, Dario; Elnicki, David Michael

    2014-01-01

    Background Clinical vignette multiple-choice questions (MCQs) are widely used in medical education, but clinical reasoning (CR) strategies employed when approaching these questions have not been well described. Objectives The aims of the study were (1) to identify CR strategies and test-taking (TT) behaviors of physician trainees while solving clinical vignette MCQs; and (2) to examine the relationships between CR strategies and behaviors, and performance on a high-stakes clinical vignette MCQ examination. Methods Thirteen postgraduate year–1 level trainees completed 6 clinical vignette MCQs using a think-aloud protocol. Thematic analysis employing elements of grounded theory was performed on data transcriptions to identify CR strategies and TT behaviors. Participants' CR strategies and TT behaviors were then compared with their US Medical Licensing Examination Step 2 Clinical Knowledge scores. Results Twelve CR strategies and TT behaviors were identified. Individuals with low performance on Step 2 Clinical Knowledge demonstrated increased premature closure and increased faulty knowledge, and showed comparatively less ruling out of alternatives or admission of knowledge deficits. High performers on Step 2 Clinical Knowledge demonstrated increased ruling out of alternatives and admission of knowledge deficits, and less premature closure, faulty knowledge, or closure prior to reading the alternatives. Conclusions Different patterns of CR strategies and TT behaviors may be used by high and low performers during high-stakes clinical vignette MCQ examinations. PMID:26140123

  12. Examination of the Reelfoot Rift Petroleum System, south-central United States, and the elements that remain for potential exploration and development

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coleman, James; Pratt, Thomas L.

    2016-01-01

    No production has been established in the Reel-foot rift. However, at least nine of 22 exploratory wells have reported petroleum shows, mainly gas shows with some asphalt or solid hydrocarbon residue. Regional seismic profiling shows the presence of two large inversion structures (Blytheville arch and Pascola arch). The Blytheville arch is marked by a core of structurally thickened Elvins Shale, whereas the Pascola arch reflects the structural uplift of a portion of the entire rift basin. Structural uplift and faulting within the Reelfoot rift since the late Paleozoic appear to have disrupted older conventional hydrocarbon traps and likely spilled any potential conventional petroleum accumulations. The remaining potential resources within the Reelfoot rift are likely shale gas accumulations within the Elvins Shale; however, reservoir continuity and porosity as well as pervasive faulting appear to be significant future challenges for explorers and drillers.

  13. Exploring How to Walk the Talk: Examining the Practical Application of Models of Science Communication in Long-Term Ecological Research Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartock, L.; Rickard, L. N.

    2014-12-01

    This research investigates the relationship between science communication at a theoretical level and the practice of science communication in long-term ecological research sites (LTERs). In particular, we examine if and how the work of LTER science communication practitioners, individuals with the responsibility to communicate, report, or interpret the findings of his/her LTER with any other group, excluding through K-12 educational programs, aligns with theoretically established models of science communication. Broadly speaking, as over two decades of research in science communication attests, these models tend to emphasize the deficit approach, dialogue with and between audiences, and/or audience participation. Does the practitioners' work fall neatly into these three "ideal type" categories, or do their practices blur the boundaries of established models? Do practitioners appeal to more than one type of model in the course of their work? Is there evidence of hybrid approaches, or other, new models that have not yet been identified in the literature? Participating organizations will be selected from the Long Term Ecological Research Network, an organization of LTERs funded by the National Science Foundation. The LTER network is actively involved in science communication, as shown by the most recent LTER Strategic Communication Plan. Science communicators may be involved in variety of practices, such as creating translational materials for policymakers to better understand the findings of LTERs, developing training courses for conservation professionals, or organizing site tours for journalists or funders. Practitioners will participate in semi-structured interviews covering how their practices relate to established models of science communication, how they view their roles and responsibilities, and how they view their audience(s). This presentation will cover emerging results from ongoing analysis of interviews conducted with a purposive sample of these

  14. Exploring Size.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand, Judith, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    "Exploring" is a magazine of science, art, and human perception that communicates ideas museum exhibits cannot demonstrate easily by using experiments and activities for the classroom. This issue concentrates on size, examining it from a variety of viewpoints. The focus allows students to investigate and discuss interconnections among apparently…

  15. Aerial Explorers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Larry A.; Pisanich, Greg; Ippolito, Corey

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents recent results from a mission architecture study of planetary aerial explorers. In this study, several mission scenarios were developed in simulation and evaluated on success in meeting mission goals. This aerial explorer mission architecture study is unique in comparison with previous Mars airplane research activities. The study examines how aerial vehicles can find and gain access to otherwise inaccessible terrain features of interest. The aerial explorer also engages in a high-level of (indirect) surface interaction, despite not typically being able to takeoff and land or to engage in multiple flights/sorties. To achieve this goal, a new mission paradigm is proposed: aerial explorers should be considered as an additional element in the overall Entry, Descent, Landing System (EDLS) process. Further, aerial vehicles should be considered primarily as carrier/utility platforms whose purpose is to deliver air-deployed sensors and robotic devices, or symbiotes, to those high-value terrain features of interest.

  16. Ear examination

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003340.htm Ear examination To use the sharing features on this page, ... ear References King EF, Couch ME. History, physical examination, and the preoperative evaluation. In: Flint PW, Haughey ...

  17. Ear examination

    MedlinePlus

    King EF, Couch ME. History, physical examination, and the preoperative evaluation. In: Flint PW, Haughey BH, Lund LJ, et al, eds. Cummings Otolaryngology: Head & Neck Surgery . 6th ed. Philadelphia, ...

  18. [Examination procedures].

    PubMed

    Vassault, A; Arnaud, J; Szymanovicz, A

    2010-12-01

    Examination procedures have to be written for each examination according to the standard requirements. Using CE marked devices, technical inserts can be used, but because of their lack of homogeneity, it could be easier to document their use as a standard procedure. Document control policy applies for those procedures, the content of which could be as provided in this document. Electronic manuals can be used as well. PMID:21613016

  19. Biomorphic Explorers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thakoor, Sarita

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents, in viewgraph form, the first NASA/JPL workshop on Biomorphic Explorers for future missions. The topics include: 1) Biomorphic Explorers: Classification (Based on Mobility and Ambient Environment); 2) Biomorphic Flight Systems: Vision; 3) Biomorphic Explorer: Conceptual Design; 4) Biomorphic Gliders; 5) Summary and Roadmap; 6) Coordinated/Cooperative Exploration Scenario; and 7) Applications. This paper also presents illustrations of the various biomorphic explorers.

  20. Examining Children's Models of Seed.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jewell, Natalie

    2002-01-01

    Reports research that examines children's models of seed. Explores the conceptions held by children (N=75) of germination and seed formation. Concludes that children hold a restricted meaning for the term 'seed'. (DDR)

  1. Exploration Geophysics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savit, Carl H.

    1978-01-01

    Expansion of activity and confirmation of new technological directions characterized several fields of exploration geophysics in 1977. Advances in seismic-reflection exploration have been especially important. (Author/MA)

  2. Participatory Exploration

    NASA Video Gallery

    Kathy Nado delivers a presentation on Participatory Exploration on May 25, 2010, at the NASA Exploration Enterprise Workshop held in Galveston, TX. The purpose of this workshop was to present NASA'...

  3. Problematizing Assumptions, Examining Dilemmas, and Exploring Promising Possibilities in Culturally Relevant Pedagogy. A Response to "'I Didn't See It as a Cultural Thing': Supervisors of Student Teachers Define and Describe Culturally Responsive Supervision"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dantas-Whitney, Maria; Ulveland, R. Dana

    2016-01-01

    In response to the study and recommendations presented in the article "I Didn't See it as a Cultural Thing," written by Linda Griffin, Dyan Watson and Tonda Liggett, we explore three interrelated topics. First, we seek to problematize some of the assumptions in the study. We review some of the authors' approaches and assertions that seem…

  4. Vocational Rehabilitation: An Employment Program. Hearing on Examining the Vocational Rehabilitation System and the Rehabilitation Act, Focusing Slightly and Explore Some of the Issues, Including Linkage, the VR System Faces in Ohio, (Columbus, OH) before the Subcommittee on Employment and Training of the Committee on Labor and Human Resources. United States Senate, One Hundred Fifth Congress, First Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources.

    This congressional report contains testimony examining the vocational rehabilitation system and the Vocational Rehabilitation Act and exploring some of the issues, including linkage, faced by the vocational rehabilitation system in Ohio. Statements were provided by a U.S. senator (Mike DeWine, Ohio) and representatives of the following agencies…

  5. Examining the Pledge of Allegiance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Leisa A.

    2008-01-01

    To prepare students for effective citizenship, the author examines the Pledge of Allegiance and explores its meaning, history, and role in American history. The author includes quotes presenting different views of the U.S. Pledge of Allegiance and examples of pledges from different countries. Teachers are encouraged to have students examine their…

  6. Exploration Geochemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Closs, L. Graham

    1983-01-01

    Contributions in mineral-deposit model formulation, geochemical exploration in glaciated and arid environments, analytical and sampling problems, and bibliographic research were made in symposia held and proceedings volumes published during 1982. Highlights of these symposia and proceedings and comments on trends in exploration geochemistry are…

  7. Exploring the role nurses play at different stages of the birthing process. Developing strong and long-term relationships with women by examining relationship-building stages prior to delivery, during delivery, and after delivery.

    PubMed

    Peltier, J W; Schibrowski, J A; Westfall, J

    2000-01-01

    The health care community is becoming increasingly aware of the need to develop strong and long-term relationships with the women who make up the majority of the health care market. The perceived quality of obstetric care positively impacts future revenue streams by creating "family" loyalty for an umbrella of other health services offered by the provider organization. This article examines the differential impact that various service performance dimensions have on women's perceptions of quality for different stages of the birthing process, and how relationship-marketing principles can be utilized to develop loyal partnerships. The three distinct relationship-building stages are examined--birthing experiences prior to delivery, during delivery, and after delivery--along with their implications for perceptions of quality analyzed. PMID:11185870

  8. Human exploration mission studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cataldo, Robert L.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes several case studies of human space exploration, considered by the NASA's Office of Exploration in 1988. Special attention is given to the mission scenarios, the critical technology required in these expeditions, and the extraterrestrial power requirements of significant system elements. The cases examined include a manned expedition to Phobos, the inner Martian moon; a human expedition to Mars; the Lunar Observatory; and a lunar outpost to early Mars evolution.

  9. Explorer 24

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1964-01-01

    'This satellite, Explorer 24, was a 12-foot-diameter inflatable sphere developed by an engineering team at Langley. It provided information on complex solar radiation/air-density relationships in the upper atmosphere.' Explorer satellites were inflatable satellites--or satelloons, like Echo, and were developed as a follow-on program. They were intended as a vehicle to study the density of air in the upper atmosphere. Explorer 24 was launched in November 1964. Published in James R. Hansen, Spaceflight Revolution: NASA Langley Research Center From Sputnik to Apollo, NASA SP-4308, pp. 191-192.

  10. Exploring Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.

    2008-01-01

    With a temperature higher than the inside of your oven and atmospheric pressure equal to that a kilometer under the ocean, the surface of Venus is one of the most hostile environments in the solar system, and Venus exploration presents a challenge to technology. This lecture presents mission trade-offs and discusses a proposed mission concept for rover and aircraft based exploration of the surface and atmosphere of Venus. Several approaches to the technology, electronics, mechanical parts, and power systems, are discussed.

  11. Exploring the Alphabet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exploring, 1995

    1995-01-01

    This issue of "Exploring," is devoted primarily to examination of alphabets and the languages they represent. Major articles include: "Shrinking the Alphabet" (Pat Murphy), a comparison of alphabet composition for different languages; "The Puzzle of Linear B" (Paul Doherty), a history of archaeologists' deciphering of an early form of written…

  12. Antarctica: Discovery & Exploration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gascoigne, Toss; Collett, Peter

    An examination of Antarctica, from the first sightings to the heroic explorations of the late 18th and early 19th centuries to modern-day research, is presented in this book. Twelve chapters are as follows: (1) The search begins; (2) Whalers and sealers: bites and nibbles; (3) The new continent: first sight; (4) Wintering: the first party; (5)…

  13. The freedom to explore: examining the influence of independent mobility on weekday, weekend and after-school physical activity behaviour in children living in urban and inner-suburban neighbourhoods of varying socioeconomic status

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Children’s independent mobility (CIM) is critical to healthy development in childhood. The physical layout and social characteristics of neighbourhoods can impact opportunities for CIM. While global evidence is mounting on CIM, to the authors’ knowledge, Canadian data on CIM and related health outcomes (i.e., physical activity (PA) behaviour) are missing. The purpose of this study was to examine if CIM is related to multiple characteristics of accelerometry-measured PA behaviour (total PA, light PA, moderate-to-vigorous PA, time spent sedentary) and whether associations between CIM and PA behaviour systematically vary by place of residence, stratifying by gender and type of day/period (weekdays, after-school, weekend). Methods Participants were recruited through Project BEAT (Built Environment and Active Transport; http://www.beat.utoronto.ca). Children (n = 856) were stratified into four neighbourhood classifications based on the period of neighbourhood development (urban built environment (BE) (old BE) versus inner-suburban BE (new BE)) and socioeconomic status (SES; low SES and high SES). Physical activity was measured via accelerometry (ActiGraph GT1M). CIM was assessed via parental report and two categories were created (low CIM, n = 332; high CIM, n = 524). A series of two-factor ANOVAs were used to determine gender-specific differences in PA for weekdays, weekend days and the after-school period, according to level of CIM, across four neighbourhood classifications. Results Children who were granted at least some independent mobility (high CIM) had more positive PA profiles across the school week, during the after-school period, and over the weekend; they were also less sedentary. The influence of CIM on PA behaviour was particularly salient during the after-school period. Associations of CIM with PA varied by gender, and also by neighbourhood classification. CIM seemed to matter more in urban neighbourhoods for boys and suburban

  14. Exploring Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhns, William

    "Exploring Television" is an inquiry/discovery textbook designed to help students to understand, analyze, criticize, evaluate, and judge the experiences they have had in front of the television set. The text consists of three main parts. "The Medium" inquires into the radio-movie origins of television and prompts research into the networks and…

  15. Exploration Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Delores Beasley, NASA Public Affairs, introduces the panel who consist of: Scott "Doc" Horowitz, Associate Administrator of Exploration Systems from NASA Headquarters; Jeff Henley, Constellation Program Manager from NASA Johnson Space Flight Center; and Steve Cook, Manager Exploration Launch Office at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. Scott Horowitz presents a short video entitled, "Ares Launching the Future". He further explains how NASA personnel came up with the name of Ares and where the name Ares was derived. Jeff Henley, updates the Constellation program and Steve Cook presents two slide presentations detailing the Ares l crew launch vehicle and Ares 5 cargo launch vehicle. A short question and answer period from the news media follows.

  16. Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Jeffrey R.

    2006-01-01

    This abstract covers a one hour presentation on Space Exploration. The audience is elementary students; therefore there are few words on the slides, mostly pictures of living and working in space. The presentation opens with a few slides describing a day in the life of a space explorer. It begins with a launch, discussions of day-night cycles, eating, exercising, housekeeping, EVA, relaxation, and sleeping. The next section of the presentation shows photos of astronauts performing experiments on the ISS. Yokomi Elementary School launched this fall with the most advanced educational technology tools available in schools today. The science and technology magnet school is equipped with interactive white boards, digital projectors, integrated sound systems and several computers for use by teachers and students. The only elementary school in Fresno Unified with a science focus also houses dedicated science classrooms equipped specifically for elementary students to experience hands-on science instruction in addition to the regular elementary curriculum.

  17. Exploring Science Through Polar Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfirman, S. L.; Bell, R. E.; Zadoff, L.; Kelsey, R.

    2003-12-01

    Exploring the Poles is a First Year Seminar course taught at Barnard College, Columbia University. First Year Seminars are required of incoming students and are designed to encourage critical analysis in a small class setting with focused discussion. The class links historical polar exploration with current research in order to: introduce non-scientists to the value of environmental science through polar literature; discuss issues related to venturing into the unknown that are of relevance to any discipline: self-reliance, leadership, preparation, decisions under uncertainty; show students the human face of science; change attitudes about science and scientists; use data to engage students in exploring/understanding the environment and help them learn to draw conclusions from data; integrate research and education. These goals are met by bringing analysis of early exploration efforts together with a modern understanding of the polar environment. To date to class has followed the efforts of Nansen in the Fram, Scott and Amundsen in their race to the pole, and Shackleton's Endurance. As students read turn-of-the-century expedition journals, expedition progress is progressively revealed on an interactive map showing the environmental context. To bring the exploration process to life, students are assigned to expedition teams for specific years and the fates of the student "expeditions" are based on their own decisions. For example, in the Arctic, they navigate coastal sea ice and become frozen into the ice north of Siberia, re-creating Nansen's polar drift. Fates of the teams varied tremendously: some safely emerged at Fram Strait in 4 years, while others nearly became hopelessly lost in the Beaufort Gyre. Students thus learn about variability in the current polar environment through first hand experience, enabling them to appreciate the experiences, decisions, and, in some cases, the luck, of polar explorers. Evaluation by the Columbia Center for New Media, Teaching

  18. Global Explorers: An Examination of Program Processes and Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duerden, Mathew David

    2009-01-01

    This study utilizes longitudinal, mixed-method data drawn from participants in an environmental education/international immersion program for middle high-school students to study outcomes and processes associated with program participation. Studies of program outcomes and processes are important for better understanding the design and impact of…

  19. Human Challenges in Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lloyd, Charles W.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presents an overview using pictures some of the history of human exploration of the new frontiers of Earth and then examines some of the challenges to human exploration of space. Particular attention is given to the environmental factors and to the social and human factors that effect humans in space environments.

  20. Bringing life to space exploration.

    PubMed

    Noor, A K; Doyle, R J; Venneri, S L

    1999-11-01

    Characteristics of 21st century space exploration are examined. Characteristics discussed include autonomy, evolvability, robotic outposts, and an overview of future missions. Sidebar articles examine the application of lessons from biological systems to engineered systems and mission concepts taking shape at NASA. Those mission concepts include plans for Mars missions, sample return missions for Venus and a comet nucleus, Europa orbiter and lander missions, a Titan organics explorer, and a terrestrial planet finder. PMID:11542653

  1. Geoelectrical exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barseem, Mostafa Said; El Lateef, Talaat Ali Abd; Ezz El Deen, Hosny Mahomud; Abdel Rahman, Abd Allah Al Abaseiry

    2015-12-01

    Sinai development is a goal of successive governments in Egypt. The present study is a geoelectrical exploration to find appropriate solutions of the problems affecting the land of a Research Station in Southeast Al Qantara. This research station is one of the Desert Research Center stations to facilitate the development of desert land for agriculture by introducing applied research. It suffers from some problems which can be summarized in the shortage of irrigation water and water logging. The appropriate solutions of these problems have been delineated by the results of 1D and 2D geoelectrical measurements. Electrical resistivity (ER) revealed the subsurface sedimentary sequences and extension of subsurface layers in the horizontal and vertical directions, especially, the water bearing layer. Additionally it helped to choose the most suitable places to drill productive wells with a good condition.

  2. Cryogenic Fluid Transfer for Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chato, David J.

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses current plans and issues for exploration that involve the use of cryogenic transfer. The benefits of cryogenic transfer to exploration missions are examined. The current state of the art of transfer technology is reviewed. Mission concepts of operation for exploration are presented, and used to qualitatively discuss the performance benefits of transfer. The paper looks at the challenges faced to implement a cryogenic transfer system and suggest approaches to address them with advanced development research. Transfer rates required for exploration are shown to have already been achieved in ground test. Cost effective approaches to the required on-orbit demonstration are suggested.

  3. Cryogenic Fluid Transfer for Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chato, David J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses current plans and issues for exploration that involve the use of cryogenic transfer. The benefits of cryogenic transfer to exploration missions are examined. The current state of the art of transfer technology is reviewed. Mission concepts of operation for exploration are presented, and used to qualitatively discuss the performance benefits of transfer. The paper looks at the challenges faced to implement a cryogenic transfer system and suggest approaches to address them with advanced development research. Transfer rates required for exploration are shown to have already been achieved in ground test. Cost-effective approaches to the required on-orbit demonstration are suggested.

  4. [Exploring Aeronautics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Brandi

    2004-01-01

    This summer I have been working with the N.A.S.A. Project at Cuyahoga Community College (Tri-C) under the title of Exploring Aeronautics Project Leader. The class that I have worked with is comprised of students that will enter the eighth grade in the fall of 2004. The program primarily focuses upon math proficiency and individualized class projects. My duties have encompassed both realms. During the first 2-3 weeks of my internship, I worked at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) researching, organizing, and compiling information for weekly Scholastic Challenges and the Super Scholastic Challenge. I was able to complete an overview of Scholastic Challenge and staff responsibilities regarding the competition; a proposal for an interactive learning system, Quizdom; a schedule for challenge equipment, as well as a schedule listing submission deadlines for the staff. Also included in my tasks, during these first 2-3 weeks, were assisting Tammy Allen and Candice Thomas with the student application review and interview processes for student applicants. For the student and parent orientation, I was assigned publications and other varying tasks to complete before the start of the program. Upon the commencement of the program, I changed location from NASA GRC to Tri-C Metro Campus, where student classes for the Cleveland site are held. During the duration of the program, I work with the instructor for the Exploring Aeronautics class, kkkk, assisting in classroom management, daily attendance, curriculum, project building, and other tasks as needed. These tasks include the conducting of the weekly competition, known as Scholastic Challenge. As a Project Leader, I am also responsible for one subject area of the Scholastic Challenge aspect of the N.A.S.A. Project curriculum. Each week I have to prepare a mission that the participants will take home the following Monday and at least 10 questions that will be included in the pool of questions used for the Scholastic Challenge

  5. Examination Management and Examination Malpractice: The Nexus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogunji, James A.

    2011-01-01

    Examination malpractice or cheating has become a global phenomenon. In different countries of the world today, developed and developing, academic dishonesty especially cheating in examinations has heightened and taken frightening dimension. In many countries of the world this phenomenon has become a serious matter of concern that has left many…

  6. Project Explorer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dannenberg, K. K.; Henderson, A.; Lee, J.; Smith, G.; Stluka, E.

    1984-01-01

    PROJECT EXPLORER is a program that will fly student-developed experiments onboard the Space Shuttle in NASA's Get-Away Special (GAS) containers. The program is co-sponsored by the Alabama Space and Rocket Center, the Alabama-Mississippi Section of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Alabama A&M University and requires extensive support by the University of Alabama in Huntsville. A unique feature of this project will demonstrate transmissions to ground stations on amateur radio frequencies in English language. Experiments Nos. 1, 2, and 3 use the microgravity of space flight to study the solidification of lead-antimony and aluminum-copper alloys, the growth of potassium-tetracyanoplatinate hydrate crystals in an aqueous solution, and the germination of radish seeds. Flight results will be compared with Earth-based data. Experiment No. 4 features radio transmission and will also provide timing for the start of all other experiments. A microprocessor will obtain real-time data from all experiments as well as temperature and pressure measurements taken inside the canister. These data will be transmitted on previously announced amateur radio frequencies after they have been converted into the English language by a digitalker for general reception.

  7. An international Mars exploration program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rea, Donald G.; Cunningham, Glenn E.; Craig, Mark K.; Conway, Harold L.

    1989-01-01

    The scientific reasons for a Mars exploration program are reviewed, and the robotic phase of such a program is examined. The functions and requirements of the rovers, surface stations and penetrators are addressed, as are those of the imaging and communications orbiters. The navigational functions which support the aerocapture and landing vehicles are examined.

  8. Exploring Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breuil, Stéphanie

    2016-04-01

    Mars is our neighbour planet and has always fascinated humans as it has been seen as a potential abode for life. Knowledge about Mars is huge and was constructed step by step through numerous missions. It could be difficult to describe these missions, the associated technology, the results, the questions they raise, that's why an activity is proposed, that directly interests students. Their production is presented in the poster. Step 1: The main Mars feature and the first Mars explorations using telescope are presented to students. It should be really interesting to present "Mars Canals" from Percival Lowell as it should also warn students against flawed interpretation. Moreover, this study has raised the big question about extra-terrestrial life on Mars for the first time. Using Google Mars is then a good way to show the huge knowledge we have on the planet and to introduce modern missions. Step 2: Students have to choose and describe one of the Mars mission from ESA and NASA. They should work in pairs. Web sites from ESA and NASA are available and the teacher makes sure the main missions will be studied. Step 3: Students have to collect different pieces of information about the mission - When? Which technology? What were the main results? What type of questions does it raise? They prepare an oral presentation in the form they want (role play, academic presentation, using a poster, PowerPoint). They also have to produce playing cards about the mission that could be put on a timeline. Step 4: As a conclusion, the different cards concerning different missions are mixed. Groups of students receive cards and they have to put them on a timeline as fast as possible. It is also possible to play the game "timeline".

  9. Patient Eye Examinations - Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... Examinations, Adults Patient Eye Examinations, Children Refractive Errors Scientists in the Laboratory Visual Acuity Testing Patient Eye Examinations, Adults × Warning message Automatic fallback to the cURL connection method kicked in to handle the request. Result code ...

  10. Engagement, Exploration, Empowerment.

    PubMed

    Stoffel, Virginia Ginny

    2015-01-01

    Engagement, exploration, and empowerment are significant practice strategies used by occupational therapy practitioners as a means of getting to know what matters to clients and how to facilitate their participation in everyday life. Applied to the American Occupational Therapy Association (AOTA) as an organization, professional engagement, exploration of new service contexts, and empowerment of members to take an active role in shaping the profession's future are examined. This address, given at the 2015 AOTA Annual Convention & Expo, looks to the future in terms of engaging greater numbers of members; participating in Vision 2025, a strategic planning initiative that will be unveiled at the 2016 AOTA Annual Conference & Expo; and empowering members to achieve excellence in occupational therapy. PMID:26565090

  11. Transitions: exploring the frontier.

    PubMed

    Corless, Inge B

    End-of-life experiences go by various terms, including near-death experiences (NDEs), death bed visions, death bed phenomena, death bed coincidences, and nearing death awareness. Death bed escorts is the term applied to the vision of deceased family members or friends who inform the dying person that they will be accompanied in the transition from life. In this article, I examine the subject of NDEs and death bed escorts, starting with the rich body of work provided by Robert and Beatrice Kastenbaum. A subject of some interest to Robert Kastenbaum, he explored this frontier in his many writings on dying, death, and bereavement. Ever the pioneer and having made the ultimate transition, he may yet be exploring new frontiers. PMID:25351590

  12. Options for Mars exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pritchard, E. B.; Harrison, E. F.; Moore, J. W.

    1974-01-01

    The many possible post-Viking 1975 Mars mission options are explored. These include small atmospheric probe/landers (adaptations of the Venus Pioneer to Mars), repeat Vikings with and without science changes, long-life orbiters to provide coverage of both hemispheres for a full Martian year, small rovers deployed from the Viking lander with ranges of up to 1 km from it, large autonomous rovers, Mars sample-return missions and, finally, missions to the satellites of Mars, including sample return. The examination includes energy requirements and time frames.

  13. Exploring Big Haystacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollitt, Mark; Whitledge, Anthony

    The proliferation of computer-generated evidence in court proceedings during the last fifteen years has given rise to the new science of digital forensics and a new breed of law enforcement officials, "computer forensic examiners," who apply the rules of evidence, investigative methods and sophisticated technical skills to analyze digital data for use in court proceedings. This paper explores the technical challenges facing the law enforcement community and discusses the application of data mining and knowledge management techniques to cope with the increasingly massive data sets involved in digital forensic investigations.

  14. Examination Involving Students as Peer Examiners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ljungman, Anders G.; Silen, Charlotte

    2008-01-01

    The main interest in this article is students' involvement in assessment as a part of growth towards self-directedness in learning. In order to enhance students' development of autonomy in learning, a project involving "older" students as peer examiners for "younger" students was designed and carried out. Students in the sixth semester in a…

  15. Rod examination gauge

    SciTech Connect

    Bacvinskas, W.S.; Bayer, J.E.; Davis, W.W.; Fodor, G.; Kikta, T.J.; Matchett, R.L.; Nilsen, R.J.; Wilczynski, R.

    1991-12-31

    The present invention is directed to a semi-automatic rod examination gauge for performing a large number of exacting measurements on radioactive fuel rods. The rod examination gauge performs various measurements underwater with remote controlled machinery of high reliability. The rod examination gauge includes instruments and a closed circuit television camera for measuring fuel rod length, free hanging bow measurement, diameter measurement, oxide thickness measurement, cladding defect examination, rod ovality measurement, wear mark depth and volume measurement, as well as visual examination. A control system is provided including a programmable logic controller and a computer for providing a programmed sequence of operations for the rod examination and collection of data.

  16. Wood's lamp examination

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003386.htm Wood's lamp examination To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A Wood's lamp examination is a test that uses ultraviolet ( ...

  17. Wood's lamp examination

    MedlinePlus

    A Wood's lamp examination is a test that uses ultraviolet (UV) light to look at the skin closely. ... Gebhard RE. Wood's light examination. In: Pfenninger JL, Fowler GC, eds. ... Care . 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; 2010:chap ...

  18. The neurological examination.

    PubMed

    April, R S

    1995-06-01

    This chapter describes methods of clinical history taking and examination of the PLDD candidate with lumbar radicular symptoms. It stresses features of the classical neurological examination of the back and lower extremities in a concise, systematic fashion. PMID:10150641

  19. Wood's Lamp Examination

    MedlinePlus

    ... dermatologists to assist in the diagnosis of various pigment and infectious disorders. The examination is performed in ... lamp. If a fungal or bacterial infection or pigment disorder is present, Wood's lamp examination can strengthen ...

  20. Physics 300 Provincial Examination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education and Training, Winnipeg.

    This document consists of the physics 300 provincial examination (English version), a separate "provincial summary report" on the results of giving the test, and a separate French language version of the examination. This physics examination contains a 53-item multiple choice section and an 12 item free response section. Subsections of the test…

  1. Human exploration mission studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cataldo, Robert L.

    1989-01-01

    The Office of Exploration has established a process whereby all NASA field centers and other NASA Headquarters offices participate in the formulation and analysis of a wide range of mission strategies. These strategies were manifested into specific scenarios or candidate case studies. The case studies provided a systematic approach into analyzing each mission element. First, each case study must address several major themes and rationale including: national pride and international prestige, advancement of scientific knowledge, a catalyst for technology, economic benefits, space enterprise, international cooperation, and education and excellence. Second, the set of candidate case studies are formulated to encompass the technology requirement limits in the life sciences, launch capabilities, space transfer, automation, and robotics in space operations, power, and propulsion. The first set of reference case studies identify three major strategies: human expeditions, science outposts, and evolutionary expansion. During the past year, four case studies were examined to explore these strategies. The expeditionary missions include the Human Expedition to Phobos and Human Expedition to Mars case studies. The Lunar Observatory and Lunar Outpost to Early Mars Evolution case studies examined the later two strategies. This set of case studies established the framework to perform detailed mission analysis and system engineering to define a host of concepts and requirements for various space systems and advanced technologies. The details of each mission are described and, specifically, the results affecting the advanced technologies required to accomplish each mission scenario are presented.

  2. Life sciences and Mars exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sulzman, Frank M.; Rummel, John D.; Leveton, Lauren B.; Teeter, Ron

    1990-01-01

    The major life science considerations for Mars exploration missions are discussed. Radiation protection and countermeasures for zero gravity are discussed. Considerations of crew psychological health considerations and life support systems are addressed. Scientific opportunities presented by manned Mars missions are examined.

  3. Bibliotherapy: "Literature as Exploration" Reconsidered

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Justman, Stewart

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author examines Louise Rosenblatt's "Literature as Exploration," a popular textbook used since 1938 (in five successive editions) in high school English classrooms across America. He discusses how the one-time college roommate of Margaret Mead managed to transform teaching literature into a form of student therapy that…

  4. Computer grading of examinations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frigerio, N. A.

    1969-01-01

    A method, using IBM cards and computer processing, automates examination grading and recording and permits use of computational problems. The student generates his own answers, and the instructor has much greater freedom in writing questions than is possible with multiple choice examinations.

  5. Skylab Dental Examination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Skylab 2 Commander Charles Conrad is seen undergoing a dental examination by the Medical Officer, Joseph Kerwin in the Skylab Medical Facility. In the absence of an examination chair, Conrad simply rotated his body to an upside down position to facilitate the procedure.

  6. Examination Syllabus Comparisons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallatratt, J. L.

    1983-01-01

    A study was conducted based on an analysis of computer study courses leading to CSE and 0-level examinations. Several findings are discussed and questions about future developments are raised. Syllabus content (including history, hardware, basic computer science, programming, applications, and implications), format, and examinations are among the…

  7. Exploring the Universe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aviation/Space, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Highlights National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) space exploration studies, focusing on Voyager at Saturn, advanced Jupiter exploration, infrared observatory, space telescope, Dynamics Explorers (satellites designed to provide understanding of earth/sun energy relationship), and ozone studies. (JN)

  8. Intermodal Exploration and Perceptual Knowledge in Infancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spelke, Elizabeth S.; Owsley, Cynthia J.

    This report describes two exploration studies which examined the development of infants' intermodal knowledge by examining infants' auditorily guided visual search for objects. Experiment 1 examined intermodal search for the mother and father by 9 infants at each of three age levels: 3, 5, and 7 months of age; the final sample was 23 infants.…

  9. Explorations in Chaos Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maldonado, Armando; Bixler, David

    2012-03-01

    Chaos Theory is an interesting and important branch of physics. Many physical systems, such as weather or fluid flow, exhibit chaotic behavior. Experiments in simple mechanical or electrical systems, as well as simple simulations can be used as methods of studying chaos. Using a mechanical method, we connected a speaker and to a frequency modulator to bounce a table tennis ball. We recorded the ball's motion at different frequencies using a video camera. Using Tracker software we observed it's position versus it's velocity in order to analyze its chaotic behavior. For a simple simulation, we used the visual-based programming in LabView to examine chaotic behavior produced by some non-linear differential equations. Results from both the mechanical system and the simulations will be discussed. For future work, we plan to continue to explore some chaotic simulations and perform a sequence of experiments with an electrical system. Exploring these nonlinear chaotic systems can help us to better understand and model many phenomena found in nature.

  10. Exploration Technology Development & Demonstration

    NASA Video Gallery

    Chris Moore delivers a presentation from the Exploration Technology Development & Demonstration (ETDD) study team on May 25, 2010, at the NASA Exploration Enterprise Workshop held in Galveston, TX....

  11. Nanomaterials for Space Exploration Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moloney, Padraig G.

    2006-01-01

    Nano-engineered materials are multi-functional materials with superior mechanical, thermal and electrical properties. Nanomaterials may be used for a variety of space exploration applications, including ultracapacitors, active/passive thermal management materials, and nanofiltration for water recovery. Additional applications include electrical power/energy storage systems, hybrid systems power generation, advanced proton exchange membrane fuel cells, and air revitalization. The need for nanomaterials and their growth, characterization, processing and space exploration applications is discussed. Data is presented for developing solid-supported amine adsorbents based on carbon nanotube materials and functionalization of nanomaterials is examined.

  12. Endogenous strategy in exploration.

    PubMed

    Solman, Grayden J F; Kingstone, Alan

    2015-12-01

    We examined the characteristics of endogenous exploratory behaviors in a generalized search task in which guidance signals (e.g., landmarks, semantics, visual saliency, layout) were limited or precluded. Individuals looked for the highest valued cell in an array and were scored on the quality of the best value they could find. Exploration was guided only by the cells that had been previously examined, and the value of this guidance was manipulated by adjusting spatial autocorrelation to produce relatively smooth and rough landscapes-that is, arrays in which nearby cells had unrelated values (low correlation = rough) or similar values (high correlation = smooth). For search in increasingly rough as compared with smooth arrays, we found reduced performance despite increased sampling and increased time spent searching after revelation of a searcher's best cell. Spatially, sampling strategies tended toward more excursive, branching, and space-filling patterns as correlation decreased. Using a novel generalized-recurrence analysis, we report that these patterns reflect an increase in systematic search paths, characterized by regularized sweeps with localized infilling. These tendencies were likewise enhanced for high-performance as compared with low-performance participants. The results suggest a trade-off between guidance (in smooth arrays) and systematicity (in rough arrays), and they provide insight into the particular strategic approaches adopted by searchers when exogenous guiding information is minimized. PMID:26214501

  13. Introducing educational theory: vaginal examination.

    PubMed

    Killingley, Jo

    2015-09-01

    A vaginal examination (VE) is one of many core skills used in midwifery practice. Despite the controversy of whether it is necessary in all situations, in this article I take the standpoint that it is useful in providing a full clinical picture, especially at times when closer monitoring is recommended. Additionally, if the core skill is misinterpreted, the findings of the VE can distort the true clinical picture. To support the student, subjective assessment and individual learning pathways must be addressed to avoid unnecessary intervention and psychological impairment to the woman. This article explores some of the difficulties encountered with teaching and learning VE in clinical practice and offers concepts from educational theory to assist in clarifying the difficulties and offering new ways of thinking for both students and midwives. PMID:26547997

  14. Exploration for fossil and nuclear fuels from orbital altitudes. [results of ERTS program for oil exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Short, N. M.

    1974-01-01

    Results from the ERTS program pertinent to exploration for oil, gas, and uranium are discussed. A review of achievements in relevant geological studies from ERTS, and a survey of accomplishments oriented towards exploration for energy sources are presented along with an evaluation of the prospects and limitations of the space platform approach to fuel exploration, and an examination of continuing programs designed to prove out the use of ERTS and other space system in exploring for fuel resources.

  15. Examining the Effects of New Teacher Induction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wechsler, Marjorie E.; Caspary, Kyra; Humphrey, Daniel C.; Matsko, Kavita Kapadia

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this research is to explore comprehensively the effect of induction on new teachers. Through a mixed-method design, the authors examine both the inputs of induction (i.e., the types of support provided for new teachers, its content, and frequency) and a variety of outcomes (i.e., teacher efficacy, teacher-reported growth, teacher…

  16. An Examination of Latino Students' Homework Routines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Sylvia

    2011-01-01

    Homework appears to be positively associated with better student outcomes. Although some researchers have explored the connection between time spent on homework and minority student achievement, few have examined the homework routines of Latino youth. Interviews with Latino high school students show that they have some difficulty completing daily…

  17. Test Anxiety in Written and Oral Examinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparfeldt, Jorn R.; Rost, Detlef H.; Baumeister, Ulrike M.; Christ, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    The distinction of different test anxiety reactions (e.g., worry, emotionality) is well established. Recently, additional relevance has been given to school-subject-specific test anxiety factors. The present study explored a further aspect concerning the structure of test anxiety experiences, specifically oral versus written examination modes. A…

  18. Examining Factors Predicting Students' Digital Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatlevik, Ove Edvard; Guðmundsdóttir, Gréta Björk; Loi, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine factors predicting lower secondary school students' digital competence and to explore differences between students when it comes to digital competence. Results from a digital competence test and survey in lower secondary school will be presented. It is important to learn more about and investigate what…

  19. Dimensionality and DIF in a Licensure Examination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sykes, Robert C.; And Others

    The sources of multidimensionality found in several different forms of a licensure examination were studied. The relationship between one source of multidimensionality, differential item functioning (DIF) (or factors producing DIF), and content characteristics was explored in an attempt to isolate aspects of training or curriculum that could…

  20. Genesis Preliminary Examination Plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McNamara, K. M.; Stansbery, E. K.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of preliminary examination of the Genesis sample collectors is to provide information on the condition and availability of collector materials to the science community as a basis for allocation requests. Similarly, the information will be used by the Genesis Sample Allocation sub-committee of CAPTEM to determine the optimum allocation scheme, and by the Genesis Curator to determine the processing sequence for allocation production. The plan includes a decision process and detailed examination and documentation protocol for whole arrays and individual collectors (wafers, concentrator targets, bulk metallic glass, gold foil, and polished aluminum). It also includes a plan for communicating the information obtained to the scientific community. The plan does not include a detailed plan for preliminary examination of the SRC lid foil collectors, the process for removal of individual collectors from their frames, or for the subsequent subdivision of collector materials for allocation.

  1. Examining suicide: imaging's contributions.

    PubMed

    Church, Elizabeth J

    2015-01-01

    For many people, the death of hope leads inexorably to the conclusion that the only viable solution, the only way to put an end to unendurable pain, is suicide. What leads a person to commit this final, desperate act, and how might we predict, intervene, and prevent suicide? Health care workers, including radiologic technologists, can play an important role in detecting warning signs in patients and in better understanding what factors may lead to suicide. Although certain forms of suicide such as suicide bombings and assisted suicide are beyond its scope, this article explores medical imaging's contributions to the study of this phenomenon. PMID:25739108

  2. Scientist Examines Tornado Vortex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    In this Quick Time movie, a scientist examines what appears to be a tornado vortex (blue) coming out of a thunderstorm. The scientist uses 3D glasses to be able to see in 3 dimensions the different flows going out into the vortex. Earth science and weather studies are an important ongoing function of NASA and its affiliates.

  3. Curriculum Materials Examination System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, David J.

    This document is a guideline for selection and evaluation of social studies curriculum materials developed by the Marin Social Studies Project. Questions are presented which will help in the examination of materials so that specific strengths and weaknesses in the materials can be determined. Consideration is given to the objectives and rationale…

  4. Partly Tailored Examinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bedard, R.

    1974-01-01

    A type of examination in which additional questions are provided was used for Grade 12 Algebra and College 1 Introductory Calculus. An hypothesis was formulated that this procedure should reveal additional knowledge which whould be reflected in superior average scores for the class group. (Editor)

  5. Witness Disclaiming During Examination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stutman, Randall K.

    1986-01-01

    Supports research indicating that disclaimers have no effect on perceptions of source credibility. Reveals that frequency of disclaimer use was unrelated to subject-juror evaluations of witness credibility and testimony believability; females did not use more disclaimers than males during examination; and when females used disclaimers, they were…

  6. A National Teacher Examination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanker, Albert

    1985-01-01

    The author calls for a tough national teacher examination to make teaching a genuine profession, to convince the public to pay teachers what they're worth, to empower teachers to make educational decision, to attract the best and brightest, and to ensure high quality education. Problems and prospects are discussed. (BS)

  7. Examination of the Mouth

    PubMed Central

    Kidd, H. R.

    1976-01-01

    In an examination of the mouth, a definite order should be followed, finishing with the presenting lesion. This article lists the most frequent local or systemic origins of oral lesions, and makes a plea for better recording of oral abnormalities. PMID:21308080

  8. Examining the decomposed brain.

    PubMed

    MacKenzie, James Mackintosh

    2014-12-01

    Examination of the decomposed brain is a largely neglected area of forensic neuropathology. However, careful examination often yields valuable information that may assist in criminal proceedings. Decomposition encompasses the processes of autolysis, putrefaction, and decay. Most decomposed brains will be affected by both autolysis and putrefaction, resulting in a brain that may, at one end of the spectrum, be almost normal or, at the other end, pulpified, depending on the conditions in which the body remained after death and the postmortem interval. Naked eye examination may detect areas of hemorrhage and also guides appropriate sampling for histology. Histological appearances are often better than what would be predicted from the state of the brain. Histology often confirms macroscopic abnormalities and may also reveal other features such as ischemic injury. Silver staining demonstrates neuritic plaques, and immunocytochemistry for β-amyloid precursor protein and other molecules produces results comparable with those seen in well-preserved fixed brains. The usefulness of information derived from the examination of the decomposed brain in criminal proceedings is illustrated with 6 case reports drawn from the author's own practice. PMID:25384305

  9. An Investigation of Career Exploration among Undergraduate Business Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenhaus, Jeffrey H.; Connolly, Thomas F.

    1982-01-01

    Examined business students' career exploration, personal characteristics promoting exploration, relationship of exploration to occupational decision making, and students' perceptions of additional information needs. Results indicated a positive relationship between work role significance and exploration activity and that self-oriented exploration…

  10. Historic Cosmology Identity and Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nebergall, K.

    The role of the soul and spirit in the composition of human endeavour generally takes the form of motivational poster catch phrases or third-hand quotes. If the spirit equals the life of a creature, and one of the signs of life is locomotion, are humans not obliged by something even deeper than our humanity to explore the universe? This paper examines the roots and perspectives of our worldviews on identity, exploration, and the limitations and capacities of humanity. It will equip the reader to discuss the nature of exploration with audiences across a wide range of worldviews. Current cultures, regardless of religion or politics, are looped into a series of nihilistic patterns that must be broken by rediscovering our nature as living beings, and our obligations as human beings.

  11. Technology Needs to Support Future Mars Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nilsen, Erik N.; Baker, John; Lillard, Randolph P.

    2013-01-01

    The Mars Program Planning Group (MPPG) under the direction of Dr. Orlando Figueroa, was chartered to develop options for a program-level architecture for robotic exploration of Mars consistent with the objective to send humans to Mars in the 2030's. Scientific pathways were defined for future exploration, and multiple architectural options were developed that meet current science goals and support the future human exploration objectives. Integral to the process was the identification of critical technologies which enable the future scientific and human exploration goals. This paper describes the process for technology capabilities identification and examines the critical capability needs identified in the MPPG process. Several critical enabling technologies that have been identified to support the robotic exploration goals and with potential feedforward application to human exploration goals. Potential roadmaps for the development and validation of these technologies are discussed, including options for subscale technology demonstrations of future human exploration technologies on robotic missions.

  12. Explore with Us

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morales, Lester

    2012-01-01

    The fundamental goal of this vision is to advance U.S. scientific, security and economic interest through a robust space exploration program. Implement a sustained and affordable human and robotic program to explore the solar system and beyond. Extend human presence across the solar system, starting with a human return to the Moon by the year 2020, in preparation for human exploration of Mars and other destinations. Develop the innovative technologies, knowledge, and infrastructures both to explore and to support decisions about the destinations for human exploration. Promote international and commercial participation in exploration to further U.S. scientific, security, and economic interests.

  13. [Anamnesis and clinical examination].

    PubMed

    Grüne, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Anamnesis and clinical examination are the key functions of medical doctors to reveal the health problems of their patients. The correct assessment and handoff of these informations are the preconditions for a specific and cost saving diagnostic and therapy. The handoff can be made orally, in written form analogue or digital. The examination and documentation should be conducted in the order specified for every patient to avoid mistakes. New digital programs help to reach this aim but absorb the time of the medical doctor and depart him from the patients. Nurses and medical doctors should perform the rounds together for a mutually acquisition of information. This conduces towards a single-minded and cost-effectively diagnostic and therapy. PMID:26710199

  14. The neurologic examination.

    PubMed

    Averill, D R

    1981-08-01

    With practice, an orderly routine, and a basic understanding of neuroanatomy, the clinician should be able to tentatively localize lesions in the nervous system. Once the lesion is localized, ancillary studies are usually necessary to identify the disease process. In difficult cases when referral is impractical, an accurate description of the findings from the neurologic examination will greatly improve the value of consultation. PMID:6977917

  15. The independent medical examination.

    PubMed

    Ameis, Arthur; Zasler, Nathan D

    2002-05-01

    The physiatrist, owing to expertise in impairment and disability analysis, is able to offer the medicolegal process considerable assistance. This chapter describes the scope and process of the independent medical examination (IME) and provides an overview of its component parts. Practical guidelines are provided for performing a physiatric IME of professional standard, and for serving as an impartial, expert witness. Caveats are described regarding testifying and medicolegal ethical issues along with practice management advice. PMID:12122847

  16. Visual examination apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haines, R. F.; Fitzgerald, J. W.; Rositano, S. A. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    An automated visual examination apparatus for measuring visual sensitivity and mapping blind spot location including a projection system for displaying to a patient a series of visual stimuli. A response switch enables him to indicate his reaction to the stimuli, and a recording system responsive to both the visual stimuli per se and the patient's response. The recording system thereby provides a correlated permanent record of both stimuli and response from which a substantive and readily apparent visual evaluation can be made.

  17. Exploration and Mining Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2002-09-01

    This Exploration and Mining Technology Roadmap represents the third roadmap for the Mining Industry of the Future. It is based upon the results of the Exploration and Mining Roadmap Workshop held May 10 ñ 11, 2001.

  18. A Trigonometric Exploration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiDomenico, Angelo S.

    1992-01-01

    Gives an example of an open exploration using trigonometric relationships in which the law of cosines can be deduced from the law of sines. Discusses the characteristics and value of the exploration process. (MDH)

  19. Exploration cost-cutting

    SciTech Connect

    Huttrer, J.

    1996-12-31

    This presentation by Jerry Huttrer, President, Geothermal Management Company, discusses the general state of exploration in the geothermal industry today, and mentions some ways to economize and perhaps save costs of geothermal exploration in the future. He suggests an increased use of satellite imagery in the mapping of geothermal resources and the identification of hot spots. Also, coordinating with oil and gas exploration efforts, the efficiency of the exploration task could be optimized.

  20. Hot cell examination table

    DOEpatents

    Gaal, Peter S.; Ebejer, Lino P.; Kareis, James H.; Schlegel, Gary L.

    1991-01-01

    A table for use in a hot cell or similar controlled environment for use in examining specimens. The table has a movable table top that can be moved relative to a table frame. A shaft is fixedly mounted to the frame for axial rotation. A shaft traveler having a plurality of tilted rollers biased against the shaft is connected to the table top such that rotation of the shaft causes the shaft traveler to roll along the shaft. An electromagnetic drive is connected to the shaft and the frame for controllably rotating the shaft.

  1. Visual examination apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haines, R. F.; Fitzgerald, J. W.; Rositano, S. A. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    An automated visual examination apparatus for measuring visual sensitivity and mapping blind spot location is described. The apparatus includes a projection system for displaying to a patient a series of visual stimuli, a response switch enabling him to indicate his reaction to the stimuli, and a recording system responsive to both the visual stimuli per se and the patient's response. The recording system provides a correlated permanent record of both stimuli and response from which a substantive and readily apparent visual evaluation can be made.

  2. Explorations in Statistics: Regression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curran-Everett, Douglas

    2011-01-01

    Learning about statistics is a lot like learning about science: the learning is more meaningful if you can actively explore. This seventh installment of "Explorations in Statistics" explores regression, a technique that estimates the nature of the relationship between two things for which we may only surmise a mechanistic or predictive connection.…

  3. Lunar Exploration Architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perino, Maria Antonietta

    The international space exploration plans foresee in the next decades multiple robotic and human missions to Moon and robotic missions to Mars, Phobos and other destinations. Notably the US has since the announcement of the US space exploration vision by President G. W. Bush in 2004 made significant progress in the further definition of its exploration programme focusing in the next decades in particular on human missions to Moon. Given the highly demanding nature of these missions, different initiatives have been recently taken at international level to discuss how the lunar exploration missions currently planned at national level could fit in a coordinate roadmap and contribute to lunar exploration. Thales Alenia Space - Italia is leading 3 studies for the European Space Agency focus on the analysis of the transportation, in-space and surface architectures required to meet ESA provided stakeholders exploration objectives and requirements. Main result of this activity is the identification of European near-term priorities for exploration missions and European long-term priorities for capability and technology developments related to planetary exploration missions. This paper will present the main studies' results drawing a European roadmap for exploration missions and capability and technology developments related to lunar exploration infrastructure development, taking into account the strategic and programmatic indications for exploration coming from ESA as well as the international exploration context.

  4. Birth Control Explorer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Relationships STIs Media Facebook Twitter Tumblr Shares · 5 Birth Control Explorer Sort by all methods most effective methods ... MORE You are here Home » Birth Control Explorer Birth Control Explorer If you’re having sex —or if ...

  5. Examining Mars with SPICE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acton, Charles H.; Bachman, Nathaniel J.; Bytof, Jeff A.; Semenov, Boris V.; Taber, William; Turner, F. Scott; Wright, Edward D.

    1999-01-01

    The International Mars Conference highlights the wealth of scientific data now and soon to be acquired from an international armada of Mars-bound robotic spacecraft. Underlying the planning and interpretation of these scientific observations around and upon Mars are ancillary data and associated software needed to deal with trajectories or locations, instrument pointing, timing and Mars cartographic models. The NASA planetary community has adopted the SPICE system of ancillary data standards and allied tools to fill the need for consistent, reliable access to these basic data and a near limitless range of derived parameters. After substantial rapid growth in its formative years, the SPICE system continues to evolve today to meet new needs and improve ease of use. Adaptations to handle landers and rovers were prototyped on the Mars pathfinder mission and will next be used on Mars '01-'05. Incorporation of new methods to readily handle non-inertial reference frames has vastly extended the capability and simplified many computations. A translation of the SPICE Toolkit software suite to the C language has just been announced. To further support cartographic calculations associated with Mars exploration the SPICE developers at JPL have recently been asked by NASA to work with cartographers to develop standards and allied software for storing and accessing control net and shape model data sets; these will be highly integrated with existing SPICE components. NASA specifically supports the widest possible utilization of SPICE capabilities throughout the international space science community. With NASA backing the Russian Space Agency and Russian Academy of Science adopted the SPICE standards for the Mars 96 mission. The SPICE ephemeris component will shortly become the international standard for agencies using the Deep Space Network. U.S. and European scientists hope that ESA will employ SPICE standards on the Mars Express mission. SPICE is an open set of standards, and

  6. Microstructural examination of

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuoka, C.; Yoshizawa, H.; Nakagawa, Y. G.; Lapides, M. E.

    1993-10-01

    Fatigue tests were performed to examine how microstructural conditioning influences crack initiation and propagation in SA508 class 3 low-carbon steel. A 3-mm-long crack was introduced in compact tension (CT) fatigue test specimens under four different loads in order to obtain crack tip plastic zones at different stress intensity factor ranges, ΔK = 18, 36, 54, and 72 MPa√m. The microstructure of the plastic zones around the crack tip were examined by trans- mission electron microscopy (TEM) and selected area electron diffraction (SAD). Micro- orientation of the dislocation cells in the plastic zones of all of the CT samples increased to 4 deg from the level of an as-received sample. Four-point bending fatigue tests were performed for plate shape samples with a large cyclic strain range. The SAD value of the bending samples was also 4 deg in the damaged area where cracks already initiated at an early stage of the fatigue process. These test results indicate that the microstructural conditioning is a prerequisite for the fatigue crack initiation and propagation in SA508. These observations may lead to better under- standing of how fatigue initiation processes transit to cracks.

  7. Examining hydrogen transitions.

    SciTech Connect

    Plotkin, S. E.; Energy Systems

    2007-03-01

    This report describes the results of an effort to identify key analytic issues associated with modeling a transition to hydrogen as a fuel for light duty vehicles, and using insights gained from this effort to suggest ways to improve ongoing modeling efforts. The study reported on here examined multiple hydrogen scenarios reported in the literature, identified modeling issues associated with those scenario analyses, and examined three DOE-sponsored hydrogen transition models in the context of those modeling issues. The three hydrogen transition models are HyTrans (contractor: Oak Ridge National Laboratory), MARKAL/DOE* (Brookhaven National Laboratory), and NEMS-H2 (OnLocation, Inc). The goals of these models are (1) to help DOE improve its R&D effort by identifying key technology and other roadblocks to a transition and testing its technical program goals to determine whether they are likely to lead to the market success of hydrogen technologies, (2) to evaluate alternative policies to promote a transition, and (3) to estimate the costs and benefits of alternative pathways to hydrogen development.

  8. Mathematics Lecturers' Views of Examinations: Tensions and Possible Resolutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iannone, Paola; Simpson, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    If assessment drives learning and the closed book examination dominates the pattern of assessment for undergraduate mathematics (as it does in the UK), lecturers need to ensure that examinations reflect the learning they value. This article uses a mixed method approach to explore lecturers' views of the closed book examination in relation to other…

  9. Consistency and Inconsistency in PhD Thesis Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holbrook, Allyson; Bourke, Sid; Lovat, Terry; Fairbairn, Hedy

    2008-01-01

    This is a mixed methods investigation of consistency in PhD examination. At its core is the quantification of the content and conceptual analysis of examiner reports for 804 Australian theses. First, the level of consistency between what examiners say in their reports and the recommendation they provide for a thesis is explored, followed by an…

  10. Asteroid exploration and utilization: The Hawking explorer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, Alan; Date, Medha; Duarte, Manny; Erian, Neil; Gafka, George; Kappler, Peter; Patano, Scott; Perez, Martin; Ponce, Edgar; Radovich, Brian

    1991-01-01

    The Earth is nearing depletion of its natural resources at a time when human beings are rapidly expanding the frontiers of space. The resources which may exist on asteroids could have enormous potential for aiding and enhancing human space exploration as well as life on Earth. With the possibly limitless opportunities that exist, it is clear that asteroids are the next step for human existence in space. This report comprises the efforts of NEW WORLDS, Inc. to develop a comprehensive design for an asteroid exploration/sample return mission. This mission is a precursor to proof-of-concept missions that will investigate the validity of mining and materials processing on an asteroid. Project STONER (Systematic Transfer of Near Earth Resources) is based on two utilization scenarios: (1) moving an asteroid to an advantageous location for use by Earth; and (2) mining an asteroids and transporting raw materials back to Earth. The asteroid explorer/sample return mission is designed in the context of both scenarios and is the first phase of a long range plane for humans to utilize asteroid resources. The report concentrates specifically on the selection of the most promising asteroids for exploration and the development of an exploration scenario. Future utilization as well as subsystem requirements of an asteroid sample return probe are also addressed.

  11. Capability 9.1 Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckelkamp, Rick; Blacic, Jim

    2005-01-01

    The exploration challenge are: To build an efficient, cost effective exploration infrastructure, To coordinate exploration robots & crews from multiple. earth sites to accomplish science and exploration objectives. and To maximize self-sufficiency of the lunar/planetary exploration team.

  12. Flexible-Path Human Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherwood, B.; Adler, M.; Alkalai, L.; Burdick, G.; Coulter, D.; Jordan, F.; Naderi, F.; Graham, L.; Landis, R.; Drake, B.; Hoffman, S.; Grunsfeld, J.; Seery, B. D.

    2010-01-01

    In the fourth quarter of 2009 an in-house, multi-center NASA study team briefly examined "Flexible Path" concepts to begin understanding characteristics, content, and roles of potential missions consistent with the strategy proposed by the Augustine Committee. We present an overview of the study findings. Three illustrative human/robotic mission concepts not requiring planet surface operations are described: assembly of very large in-space telescopes in cis-lunar space; exploration of near Earth objects (NEOs); exploration of Mars' moon Phobos. For each, a representative mission is described, technology and science objectives are outlined, and a basic mission operations concept is quantified. A fourth type of mission, using the lunar surface as preparation for Mars, is also described. Each mission's "capability legacy" is summarized. All four illustrative missions could achieve NASA's stated human space exploration objectives and advance human space flight toward Mars surface exploration. Telescope assembly missions would require the fewest new system developments. NEO missions would offer a wide range of deep-space trip times between several months and two years. Phobos exploration would retire several Marsclass risks, leaving another large remainder set (associated with entry, descent, surface operations, and ascent) for retirement by subsequent missions. And extended lunar surface operations would build confidence for Mars surface missions by addressing a complementary set of risks. Six enabling developments (robotic precursors, ISS exploration testbed, heavy-lift launch, deep-space-capable crew capsule, deep-space habitat, and reusable in-space propulsion stage) would apply across multiple program sequence options, and thus could be started even without committing to a specific mission sequence now. Flexible Path appears to be a viable strategy, with meaningful and worthy mission content.

  13. Exploration Blueprint: Data Book

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drake, Bret G.

    2007-02-01

    The material contained in this report was compiled to capture the work performed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Exploration study team in the late 2002 timeframe. The "Exploration Blueprint Data Book" documents the analyses and findings of the 90-day Agency-wide study conducted from September - November 2002. During the summer of 2002, the NASA Deputy Administrator requested that a study be performed with the following objectives: (1) Develop the rationale for exploration beyond low-Earth orbit (2) Develop roadmaps for how to accomplish the first steps through humans to Mars (3) Develop design reference missions as a basis for the roadmaps 4) Make recommendations on what can be done now to effect this future This planning team, termed the Exploration Blueprint, performed architecture analyses to develop roadmaps for how to accomplish the first steps beyond LEO through the human exploration of Mars. The previous NASA Exploration Team activities laid the foundation and framework for development of NASA's Integrated Space Plan. The reference missions resulting from the analysis performed by the Exploration Blueprint team formed the basis for requirement definition, systems development, technology roadmapping, and risk assessments for future human exploration beyond low-Earth orbit. Emphasis was placed on developing recommendations on what could be done now to effect future exploration activities. The Exploration Blueprint team embraced the "Stepping Stone" approach to exploration where human and robotic activities are conducted through progressive expansion outward beyond low-Earth orbit. Results from this study produced a long-term strategy for exploration with near-term implementation plans, program recommendations, and technology investments. Specific results included the development of a common exploration crew vehicle concept, a unified space nuclear strategy, focused bioastronautics research objectives, and an integrated human

  14. Exploration Blueprint: Data Book

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, Bret G. (Editor)

    2007-01-01

    The material contained in this report was compiled to capture the work performed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Exploration study team in the late 2002 timeframe. The "Exploration Blueprint Data Book" documents the analyses and findings of the 90-day Agency-wide study conducted from September - November 2002. During the summer of 2002, the NASA Deputy Administrator requested that a study be performed with the following objectives: (1) Develop the rationale for exploration beyond low-Earth orbit (2) Develop roadmaps for how to accomplish the first steps through humans to Mars (3) Develop design reference missions as a basis for the roadmaps 4) Make recommendations on what can be done now to effect this future This planning team, termed the Exploration Blueprint, performed architecture analyses to develop roadmaps for how to accomplish the first steps beyond LEO through the human exploration of Mars. The previous NASA Exploration Team activities laid the foundation and framework for development of NASA's Integrated Space Plan. The reference missions resulting from the analysis performed by the Exploration Blueprint team formed the basis for requirement definition, systems development, technology roadmapping, and risk assessments for future human exploration beyond low-Earth orbit. Emphasis was placed on developing recommendations on what could be done now to effect future exploration activities. The Exploration Blueprint team embraced the "Stepping Stone" approach to exploration where human and robotic activities are conducted through progressive expansion outward beyond low-Earth orbit. Results from this study produced a long-term strategy for exploration with near-term implementation plans, program recommendations, and technology investments. Specific results included the development of a common exploration crew vehicle concept, a unified space nuclear strategy, focused bioastronautics research objectives, and an integrated human

  15. Commercial Driver Medical Examinations

    PubMed Central

    Moffitt, Gary; Hanowski, Richard J.; Kales, Stefanos N.; Porter, Richard J.; Hegmann, Kurt T.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to assess relationships between body mass index (BMI) and comorbid conditions within a large sample of truck drivers. Methods: Commercial driver medical examination data from 88,246 commercial drivers between 2005 and 2012 were analyzed for associations between BMI, medical disorders, and driver certification. Results: Most drivers were obese (53.3%, BMI >30.0 kg/m2) and morbidly obese (26.6%, BMI >35.0 kg/m2), higher than prior reports. Obese drivers were less likely to be certified for 2 years and more likely to report heart disease, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, nervous disorders, sleep disorders, and chronic low back pain (all P < 0.0001). There are relationships between multiple potentially disqualifying conditions and increasing obesity (P < 0.0001). Morbid obesity prevalence increased 8.9% and prevalence of three or more multiple conditions increased fourfold between 2005 and 2012. Conclusions: Obesity is related to multiple medical factors as well as increasing numbers of conditions that limit driving certification. PMID:25710607

  16. Diagnosis and complementary examinations.

    PubMed

    Menghini, Moreno; Duncan, Jacque L

    2014-01-01

    Development of neuroprotective therapies requires an understanding of the mechanisms of retinal degeneration and a way to monitor response to treatment. With the increasing availability of genetic testing, precise characterization of the retinal degeneration phenotype is essential. This chapter covers standard and innovative diagnostic techniques and complementary examinations needed for the evaluation and treatment of retinal degenerative diseases. It aims to provide an overview of functional and structural diagnostic tools for the evaluation of retinal degenerative diseases, but is not intended as a comprehensive reference. Subjective assessment of visual function includes psychophysical tests, such as perimetry and microperimetry. Electrophysiology tests, such as the electroretinogram and electro-oculogram, are crucial in the assessment of retinal degenerative diseases and provide an objective assessment of global photoreceptor and retinal pigment epithelial cell function. Retinal structural measures are correlated with measures of retinal function to characterize the disease phenotype, including fundus photography using color, near-infrared, and autofluorescence imaging. Ocular perfusion can be assessed using fluorescein, indocyanine green, and noninvasive angiography. Optical coherence tomography provides information about retinal structure. Resolution of all images of retinal structure can be improved using adaptive optics, which permits visualization of individual photoreceptors and retinal pigment epithelial cells in the macula. PMID:24732761

  17. NASA's Exploration Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tyburski, Timothy

    2006-01-01

    A Bold Vision for Space Exploration includes: 1) Complete the International Space Station; 2) Safely fly the Space Shuttle until 2010; 3) Develop and fly the Crew Exploration Vehicle no later than 2012; 4) Return to the moon no later than 2020; 5) Extend human presence across the solar system and beyond; 6) Implement a sustained and affordable human and robotic program; 7) Develop supporting innovative technologies, knowledge, and infrastructures; and 8) Promote international and commercial participation in exploration.

  18. Examining Archean methanotrophy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slotznick, Sarah P.; Fischer, Woodward W.

    2016-05-01

    The carbon isotope ratios preserved in sedimentary rocks can be used to fingerprint ancient metabolisms. Organic carbon in Late Archean samples stands out from that of other intervals with unusually low δ13C values (∼-45 to -60‰). It was hypothesized that these light compositions record ecosystem-wide methane cycling and methanotrophy, either of the aerobic or anaerobic variety. To test this idea, we studied the petrography and carbon and oxygen isotope systematics of well-known and spectacular occurrences of shallow water stromatolites from the 2.72 Ga Tumbiana Formation of Western Australia. We examined the carbonate cements and kerogen produced within the stromatolites, because methanotrophy is expected to leave an isotopic fingerprint in these carbon reservoirs. Mathematical modeling of Archean carbonate chemistry further reveals that methanotrophy should still have a discernible signature preserved in the isotopic record, somewhat diminished from those observed in Phanerozoic sedimentary basins due to higher dissolved inorganic carbon concentrations. These stromatolites contain kerogen with δ13Corg values of ∼ - 50 ‰. By microsampling different regions and textures within the stromatolites, we determined that the isotopic compositions of the authigenic calcite cements show a low degree of variation and are nearly identical to values estimated for seawater at this time; the lack of low and variable δ13Ccarb values implies that methanotrophy does not explain the low δ13Corg seen in the coeval kerogen. These observations do not support a methanotrophy hypothesis, but instead hint that the Late Archean may constitute an interval wherein autotrophs employed markedly different biochemical processes of energy conservation and carbon fixation.

  19. JPDR vessel steel examination

    SciTech Connect

    Corwin, W.R.; Broadhead, B.L.; Sokolov, M.A.

    1995-10-01

    There is a need to validate the results of irradiation effects research by the examination of material taken directly from the wall of a pressure vessel which has been irradiated during normal service. This task has been included with the HSSI Program to provide just such an evaluation of material from the wall of the pressure vessel from the JPDR. The JPDR was a small BWR that began operation in 1963. It operated until 1976, accumulating {approximately}17,000 h of operation, of which a little over 14,000 h were with the original 45-MWTh core, and the remaining fraction, late in life, with an upgraded 90-MWTh core. The pressure vessel of the JPDR, fabricated from A 302, grade B, modified steel with an internal weld overlay cladding of 304 stainless steel, is approximately 2 m ID and 73 mm thick. It was fabricated from two shell halves joined by longitudinal seam welds located 180{degrees} from each other. The rolling direction of the shell plates is parallel to the axis of the vessel. It operated at 273{degrees}C and reached a maximum fluence of about 2.3 x 10{sup 18} n/cm{sup 2} (> 1 MeV). The impurity contents in the base metal are 0.10 to 0.11% Cu and 0.010 to 0.017% P with a nickel content of 0.63 to 0.65%. Impurity contents of the weld metal are 0.11 to 0.14% Cu and 0.025 to 0.039% P with a nickel content of 0.59%.

  20. Technology Drives Exploration

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA is investing in the future by advancing its capabilities and developing transformative technologies required to reach the challenging destinations that await exploration. The Space Technology ...

  1. The Cosmic Background Explorer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gulkis, Samuel; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Outlines the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) mission to measure celestial radiation. Describes the instruments used and experiments involving differential microwave radiometers, and a far infrared absolute spectrophotometer. (YP)

  2. NASA Exploration Design Challenge

    NASA Video Gallery

    From the International Space Station, astronaut Sunita Williams welcomes participants to the NASA Exploration Design Challenge and explains the uncertainties about the effects of space radiation on...

  3. Teaching, Learning, and Planetary Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Robert A.

    2002-01-01

    This is the final report of a program that examined the fundamentals of education associated with space activities, promoted educational policy development in appropriate forums, and developed pathfinder products and services to demonstrate the utility of advanced communication technologies for space-based education. Our focus was on space astrophysics and planetary exploration, with a special emphasis on the themes of the Origins Program, with which the Principal Investigator (PI) had been involved from the outset. Teaching, Learning, and Planetary Exploration was also the core funding of the Space Telescope Science Institute's (ST ScI) Special Studies Office (SSO), and as such had provided basic support for such important NASA studies as the fix for Hubble Space Telescope (HST) spherical aberration, scientific conception of the HST Advanced Camera, specification of the Next-Generation Space Telescope (NGST), and the strategic plan for the second decade of the HST science program.

  4. Copernican Astronomy and Oceanic Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKittrick, Paul

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the relationships between the century long development of the “New Astronomy” (Copernicus’ axially rotating and solar orbiting earth, governed by Kepler’s laws of planetary motion) of the sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries and the emerging astronomical navigation technologies of the fifteenth and sixteenth century Iberian oceanic explorers and their sixteenth and seventeenth century Protestant competitors. Since the first breakthroughs in Portuguese astronomical navigation in ascertaining latitude at sea were based upon the theories and observations of classically trained Ptolemaic astronomers and cosmographers, it can be argued that the new heliocentric astronomy was not necessary for future developments in early modern navigation. By examining the history of the concurrent revolutions in early modern navigation and astronomy and focusing upon commonalities, we can identify the period during which the old astronomy provided navigators with insufficient results - perhaps hastening the acceptance of the new epistemology championed by Galileo and rejected by Bellarmine. Even though this happened during the period of northern protestant ascendancy in exploration, its roots can be seen during pre-Copernican acceptance in both Lutheran and Catholic Europe. Copernican mathematics was used to calculate Reinhold’s Prutenic Tables despite the author’s ontological rejection of the heliocentric hypothesis. These tables became essential for ascertaining latitude at sea. Kepler’s Rudophine Tables gained even more widespread currency across Europe. His theories were influenced by Gilbert’s work on magnetism - a work partially driven by the requirements of English polar exploration. Sailors themselves never needed to accept a heliocentric cosmography, but the data they brought back to the metropolis undermined Ptolemy, as better data kept them alive at sea. This exchange between theoretician and user in the early modern period drove both

  5. Explorer Program: X-ray Timing Explorer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This booklet describes the X-ray Timing Explorer (XTE), one in a series of Explorer missions administered by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Office of Space Science and managed by the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The X-ray astronomy observatory is scheduled for launch into low-Earth orbit by Delta 2 expendable launch vehicle in late summer of 1995. The mission is expected to operate for at least 2 years and will carry out in-depth timing and spectral studies of the X-ray sources in the 2 to 200 kilo-electron Volt (keV) range. XTE is intended to study the temporal and broad-band spectral phenomena associated with stellar and galactic systems containing compact objects, including neutron stars, white dwarfs, and black holes.

  6. The exploration metaphor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgreevy, Michael W.

    1991-01-01

    NASA's experience in planetary exploration has demonstrated that the desktop workstation is inadequate for many visualization situations. The primary mission displays for the unmanned Surveyor missions to the moon during the mid-1960's, for example, were environmental images assembled on the inside surfaces of spherical shells. Future exploration missions will greatly benefit from advances in digital computer and display technology, but there remain unmet user interface needs. Alternative user interfaces and metaphors are needed for planetary exploration and other interactions with complex spatial environments. These interfaces and metaphors would enable the user to directly explore environments and naturally manipulate objects in those environments. Personal simulators, virtual workstations, and telepresence user interfaces are systems capable of providing this integration of user space and task space. The Exploration Metaphor is a useful concept for guiding the design of user interfaces for virtual environments and telepresence. To apply the Exploration Metaphor is to assert that computing is like exploration, and to support objects, operations, and contexts comparable to those encountered in the exploration of natural environments. The Exploration Metaphor, under development for user interfaces in support of NASA's planetary exploration missions and goals, will also benefit other applications where complex spatial information must be visualized. Visualization methods and systems for planetary exploration are becoming increasingly integrated and interactive as computing technology improves. These advances will benefit from virtual environment and telepresence interface technology. A key development has been the processing of multiple images and other sensor data to create detailed digital models of the planets and moons. Data from images of the Earth, Mars, and Miranda, for example, have been converted into 3D models, and dynamic virtual fly-overs have been

  7. Stardust Interstellar Preliminary Examination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westphal, A.; Stardust Interstellar Preliminary Examation Team: http://www. ssl. berkeley. edu/~westphal/ISPE/

    2011-12-01

    A. J. Westphal, C. Allen, A. Ansari, S. Bajt, R. S. Bastien, H. A. Bechtel, J. Borg, F. E. Brenker, J. Bridges, D. E. Brownlee, M. Burchell, M. Burghammer, A. L. Butterworth, A. M. Davis, P. Cloetens, C. Floss, G. Flynn, D. Frank, Z. Gainsforth, E. Grün, P. R. Heck, J. K. Hillier, P. Hoppe, G. Huss, J. Huth, B. Hvide, A. Kearsley, A. J. King, B. Lai, J. Leitner, L. Lemelle, H. Leroux, R. Lettieri, W. Marchant, L. R. Nittler, R. Ogliore, F. Postberg, M. C. Price, S. A. Sandford, J.-A. Sans Tresseras, T. Schoonjans, S. Schmitz, G. Silversmit, A. Simionovici, V. A. Solé, R. Srama, T. Stephan, V. Sterken, J. Stodolna, R. M. Stroud, S. Sutton, M. Trieloff, P. Tsou, A. Tsuchiyama, T. Tyliszczak, B. Vekemans, L. Vincze, D. Zevin, M. E. Zolensky, >29,000 Stardust@home dusters ISPE author affiliations are at http://www.ssl.berkeley.edu/~westphal/ISPE/. In 2000 and 2002, a ~0.1m2 array of aerogel tiles and alumi-num foils onboard the Stardust spacecraft was exposed to the interstellar dust (ISD) stream for an integrated time of 200 days. The exposure took place in interplanetary space, beyond the orbit of Mars, and thus was free of the ubiquitous orbital debris in low-earth orbit that precludes effective searches for interstellar dust there. Despite the long exposure of the Stardust collector, <<100 ISD particles are expected to have been captured. The particles are thought to be ~1μm or less in size, and the total ISD collection is probably <10-6 by mass of the collection of cometary dust parti-cles captured in the Stardust cometary dust collector from the coma of the Jupiter-family comet Wild 2. Thus, although the first solid sample from the local interstellar medium is clearly of high interest, the diminutive size of the particles and the low numbers of particles present daunting challenges. Nevertheless, six recent developments have made a Preliminary Examination (PE) of this sample practical: (1) rapid automated digital optical scanning microscopy for three

  8. Mars exploration planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eppler, Dean B.; Buoni, Corinne; Niehoff, John

    1993-01-01

    Mars exploration planning is discussed which is based on three scientific objectives: to understand Mars' geologic and geophysical evolution; to understand the present state and past evolution of Martian climate, and to determine the state of present biological activity and past life. The plan assumes a 25-year planning horizon, from 1995-2020, and includes both broad-scale and local exploration capabilities.

  9. Explorations in Statistics: Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curran-Everett, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    Learning about statistics is a lot like learning about science: the learning is more meaningful if you can actively explore. This fifth installment of "Explorations in Statistics" revisits power, a concept fundamental to the test of a null hypothesis. Power is the probability that we reject the null hypothesis when it is false. Four things affect…

  10. We Are the Explorers

    NASA Video Gallery

    Why do we explore? Simply put, it is part of who we are, and it is something we have done throughout our history. In NASA’s new video, “We Are the Explorers,” we take a look at that tradition...

  11. Planetary Exploration in ESA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwehm, Gerhard H.

    2005-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on planetary exploration in the European Space Agency is shown. The topics include: 1) History of the Solar System Material; 2) ROSETTA: The Comet Mission; 3) A New Name For The Lander: PHILAE; 4) The Rosetta Mission; 5) Lander: Design Characteristics; 6) SMART-1 Mission; 7) MARS Express VENUS Express; 8) Planetary Exploration in ESA The Future.

  12. Why Man Explores

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    This NASA Educational Publication was prepared from a transcript of a panel discussion held on July 2, 1976, in conjunction with the Viking Missions to Mars. The members of the Why Man Explores panel were selected as authorities in classical disciplines relating to exploration.

  13. The Future of Human Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooke, Doug

    2001-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the near term future of human space exploration in terms of possible mission scenarios, propulsion technologies, orbital dynamics that lead to Low-Energy Transfer from Earth-Moon LI to Solar Libration Points and Return Potential Staging Point for Human Mars Missions. It also examines the required evolution of mission architecture, solar electric propulsion concept, vehicle concepts for future Mars missions, and an overview of a Mars Mission, Also in this presentation are pictures of several historic personages and occasions, and a view of a Mars Meteorite (i.e., ALH84001.0)

  14. LYMAN - The far ultraviolet explorer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moos, Warren; Osantowski, John F.

    1989-01-01

    The LYMAN FUSE mission concept for far ultraviolet astronomy is presented. The wavelength window from 100 to 1200 A provides access to a wide range of important scientific problems in cosmology, galactic structure, stellar evolution, and planetary magnetospheres, which cannot be studied in any other way. The LYMAN FUSE Phase A study is examining in detail mission operations, instrumentation technology, the construction of the instrument module, and the interfaces between the Instrument Module and the Explorer Platform Mission. Most of the mission observing time will be allotted through a competitive Guest Observer program analogous to that in operation for the IUE.

  15. Exploration Laboratory Analysis - ARC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krihak, Michael K.; Fung, Paul P.

    2012-01-01

    The Exploration Laboratory Analysis (ELA) project supports the Exploration Medical Capability (ExMC) risk, Risk of Inability to Adequately Treat an Ill or Injured Crew Member, and ExMC Gap 4.05: Lack of minimally invasive in-flight laboratory capabilities with limited consumables required for diagnosing identified Exploration Medical Conditions. To mitigate this risk, the availability of inflight laboratory analysis instrumentation has been identified as an essential capability in future exploration missions. Mission architecture poses constraints on equipment and procedures that will be available to treat evidence-based medical conditions according to the Space Medicine Exploration Medical Conditions List (SMEMCL). The SMEMCL provided diagnosis and treatment for the evidence-based medical conditions and hence, a basis for developing ELA functional requirements.

  16. Earthworms, Dirt, and Rotten Leaves: An Exploration in Ecology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Molly

    1994-01-01

    This article provides a model for inviting children to "an exploration in ecology" by observing earthworms. It gives reasons to explore earthworms and guides the investigator through a detailed examination of the worms to answer 21 observation questions. Explores the ways in which earthworms interact with their environment. (LZ)

  17. Lunar Daylight Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, Brand Norman

    2010-01-01

    With 1 rover, 2 astronauts and 3 days, the Apollo 17 Mission covered over 30 km, setup 10 scientific experiments and returned 110 kg of samples. This is a lot of science in a short time and the inspiration for a barebones, return-to-the-Moon strategy called Daylight Exploration. The Daylight Exploration approach poses an answer to the question, What could the Apollo crew have done with more time and today s robotics? In contrast to more ambitious and expensive strategies that create outposts then rely on pressurized rovers to drive to the science sites, Daylight Exploration is a low-overhead approach conceived to land near the scientific site, conduct Apollo-like exploration then leave before the sun goes down. A key motivation behind Daylight Exploration is cost reduction, but it does not come at the expense of scientific exploration. As a goal, Daylight Exploration provides access to the top 10 science sites by using the best capabilities of human and robotic exploration. Most science sites are within an equatorial band of 26 degrees latitude and on the Moon, at the equator, the day is 14 Earth days long; even more important, the lunar night is 14 days long. Human missions are constrained to 12 days because the energy storage systems required to operate during the lunar night adds mass, complexity and cost. In addition, short missions are beneficial because they require fewer consumables, do not require an airlock, reduce radiation exposure, minimize the dwell-time for the ascent and orbiting propulsion systems and allow a low-mass, campout accommodations. Key to Daylight Exploration is the use of piloted rovers used as tele-operated science platforms. Rovers are launched before or with the crew, and continue to operate between crew visits analyzing and collecting samples during the lunar daylight

  18. Explorer I Architects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1958-01-01

    The three men responsible for the success of Explorer 1, America's first Earth satellite which was launched January 31, 1958. At left is Dr. William H. Pickering, former director of JPL, which built and operated the satellite. Dr. James A. van Allen, center, of the State University of Iowa, designed and built the instrument on Explorer that discovered the radiation belts which circle the Earth. At right is Dr. Wernher von Braun, leader of the Army's Redstone Arsenal team which built the first stage Redstone rocket that launched Explorer 1.

  19. Human Exploration of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwynne, Owen; McKay, Chris; Zubrin, Robert

    1991-06-01

    Novel approaches to the human exploration of Mars are considered with emphasis on a space suit design, extraterrestrial surface mobility, and water supply. A possible way of transporting personnel on the surface of Mars uses a suborbital rocket that will hop from one site to the next, refuelling each time it lands and giving the Martian explorers effective global mobility. Telepresence could be used to avoid limiting the people on Mars to a small exploration area as a result of a lack of transportation infrastructure. Drawings and photographs are included.

  20. Why Do We Explore Space?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, E. W.; Skiles, J. W.

    2006-09-01

    The launch of the Soviet Sputnik satellite in 1957 challenged the American space enterprise to a race for political and technological superiority. During the Cold War era, the space program had a very clear goal - to show the world that we were the premier force and player in this new frontier. The American public could, therefore, relate to such a simplistic goal and largely was very supportive of the US space program. Since the end of the Cold War, the raison d'etre for space exploration has been less clear and not as well articulated. This paper is part of a dialogue hoping to solicit input from the public domain on the topic of space exploration. We first examine a previous study on some of the "why's" anticipated by the American public. Then we propose a triumvirate perspective to seek a balance among the romantic, pragmatic and scientific aspects of space faring ventures. Finally, we suggest a somewhat simplistic message that can be more easily related to the common person on the street. We assert that we go to space to "explore the Heavens, enhance the Earth and enrich humankind", and cite numerous concrete examples to support these three themes.(Disclaimer: these are personal ideas and opinions of the authors and do not represent an official NASA position. All references to NASA information are from NASA web pages or in the public domain. This paper is written from an American vantage point due to the authors' experience with the American space agency.)

  1. Explore and Discover

    NASA Video Gallery

    Train to improve your aerobic and anaerobic fitness by carrying weighted objects in this activity. The Train Like an Astronaut project uses the excitement of exploration to challenge students to se...

  2. Titanic: A Statistical Exploration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takis, Sandra L.

    1999-01-01

    Uses the available data about the Titanic's passengers to interest students in exploring categorical data and the chi-square distribution. Describes activities incorporated into a statistics class and gives additional resources for collecting information about the Titanic. (ASK)

  3. Academics explore humidity's benefits.

    PubMed

    Mortimer, Dave

    2008-11-01

    The effects of humidification on hospital superbugs are being explored by some of the UK's top academics, in what Dave Mortimer, national sales manager for Vapac Humidity Control, explains are the UK's first such studies. PMID:19044148

  4. More Electrostatic Explorations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Gay; Gallai, Ditta

    1998-01-01

    Presents worksheet activities that enable students to explore the concept of electrostatic induction and learn the meaning of grounding. Students build two classic devices, the electrophorus and the leaf electroscope. (DDR)

  5. Abdominal exploration - series (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... surgical exploration of the abdomen, also called an exploratory laparotomy, may be recommended when there is abdominal ... blunt trauma"). Diseases that may be discovered by exploratory laparotomy include: inflammation of the appendix (acute appendicitis) ...

  6. Mars Exploration Rover Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Barbara A.

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the Mars Exploration Rover Mission. The design of the Rover along with the Athena science payload is also described. Photographs of the Gusev Crater and Meridiani rocks are also shown.

  7. Mars Human Exploration Objectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briggs, Geoff

    1998-01-01

    This paper reviews the objectives and other considerations of Human exploration of Mars. The objectives of human exploration of Mars are: (1) to learn how Mars is similar to, and different from, Earth; (2) to explore possible life, past and present; (3) to discover what Mars is like now from the perspective of Geoscience and geologic history; and (4) how did Mars form and how did its formation differ from Earth. Considerations of human Martian exploration involve: (1) having a capable base laboratory; (2) having long range transportation; (3) having operational autonomy of the crew, and the requirement of the crew to possess a range of new cognitive processes along with easy communications with terrestrial colleagues; and finally (4) creating the human habitat along with human factors which involve more than just survivability.

  8. Speed Isn't Everything: A Study of Examination Marking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nadas, Rita; Suto, Irenka

    2010-01-01

    The question of whether marking speed is related to marking accuracy is important for training examiners and planning realistic marking schedules. We explored marking speed in the context of a past examination for an international biology qualification for 14- to 16-year-olds. Forty-two markers with differing backgrounds experimentally marked 23…

  9. Untying the Knots: Examining the Complexities of Reflective Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jay, Joelle K.

    This paper examines issues related to reflective teaching, noting its role in teaching in general. The first section surveys the literature on reflection, exploring reflection from different angles as it applies to teaching and noting that these angles comprise a single concept of reflection. The rest of the paper examines what reflection is, in…

  10. Sleeping in or Selecting out? Candidates' Absence from GCSE Examinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chamberlain, Suzanne

    2008-01-01

    For a multitude of reasons candidates do not always complete all assessments in the examinations they are entered for. Using examination data across a range of GCSE specifications offered by the Assessment and Qualifications Alliance, this article details the impact of "unaccepted" absence on educational attainment, and explores absence by mode of…

  11. An Examination of Emerging Adulthood in Romanian College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Larry J.

    2009-01-01

    Little work has been done to examine emerging adulthood in Eastern European countries such as Romania that are making the transition out of communism into the broader free-market economy of Western Europe. The purpose of this study was to (a) examine the criteria that college students in Romania have for adulthood, and (b) explore whether…

  12. Developing the MD Explorer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howie, Philip V.

    1993-04-01

    The MD Explorer is an eight-seat twin-turbine engine helicopter which is being developed using integrated product definition (IPD) team methodology. New techniques include NOTAR antitorque system for directional control, a composite fuselage, an all-composite bearingless main rotor, and digital cockpit displays. Three-dimensional CAD models are the basis of the entire Explorer design. Solid models provide vendor with design clarification, removing much of the normal drawing interpretation errors.

  13. The space exploration initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Priest, Pete

    1991-01-01

    A number of view graph charts are presented which outline the presentation. Outlined are reasons for going to Mars, why it is necessary to go to the Moon first, and the presidential decision on the space exploration initiative. Other representative charts are entitled: Lunar transportation system requirement drivers; Mars transportation system requirement drivers; National space policy goals; Exploration hardware needed; Mars mission profile; Science on the Moon and Mars; and Two independent reviews.

  14. Exploration Laboratory Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krihak, M.; Ronzano, K.; Shaw, T.

    2016-01-01

    The Exploration Laboratory Analysis (ELA) project supports the Exploration Medical Capability (ExMC) risk to minimize or reduce the risk of adverse health outcomes and decrements in performance due to in-flight medical capabilities on human exploration missions. To mitigate this risk, the availability of inflight laboratory analysis instrumentation has been identified as an essential capability for manned exploration missions. Since a single, compact space-ready laboratory analysis capability to perform all exploration clinical measurements is not commercially available, the ELA project objective is to demonstrate the feasibility of emerging operational and analytical capability as a biomedical diagnostics precursor to long duration manned exploration missions. The initial step towards ground and flight demonstrations in fiscal year (FY) 2015 was the down selection of platform technologies for demonstrations in the space environment. The technologies selected included two Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) performers: DNA Medicine Institutes rHEALTH X and Intelligent Optical Systems later flow assays combined with Holomics smartphone analyzer. The selection of these technologies were based on their compact size, breadth of analytical capability and favorable ability to process fluids in a space environment, among several factors. These two technologies will be advanced to meet ground and flight demonstration success criteria and requirements that will be finalized in FY16. Also, the down selected performers will continue the technology development phase towards meeting prototype deliverables in either late 2016 or 2017.

  15. Future Exploration of Venus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limaye, Sanjay

    Venus has been the target of exploration for half a century, before the successful Mariner 2 fly-by in December 1962. The decade after that was marked by growing sophistication in the instruments and spacecraft. During the second decade of Venus exploration (1972 - 1981) the instruments and spacecraft had advanced to make the first detailed survey of the planet and image the surface. During the third decade Venus was explored with more advanced instruments such as synthetic aperture radar and by balloons - the only balloons in another atmosphere ever flown till present. Then came a long pause until 2005 when ESA launched Venus Express, which is still orbiting the planet and returning data. The nearly two-dozen missions flown to Venus have painted a puzzling picture of Venus - we still do not have answers to some key questions. The foremost is why did Venus evolve so differently from Earth? International space agencies and scientists have been considering various approaches to exploring Venus through small and large missions. The Venus Exploration Analysis Group (NASA) has developed a Venus Exploration Roadmap and a comprehensive list of goals, objectives and investigations (www.lpi.usra.edu/vexag), but an international coordinated, comprehensive plan to explore Venus is needed. To fill this void, the COSPAR International Venus Exploration Working Group (IVEWG) has been active in fostering dialog and discussions among the space faring agencies. One small step in the future exploration of Venus is the formation of a joint Science Definition Team (SDT) (NASA and Roscosmos/IKI) for Russia’s Venera-D mission in early 2014. The team is expected to submit a report to respective agencies in early 2015. Towards identifying key surface regions and atmospheric regions of Venus, a workshop is being held in May 2014 by VEXAG to seek community input. It is likely that calls for proposals for missions will also be announced under the M class by ESA and under the Discovery

  16. Priorities for Venus Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glaze, L. S.; Beauchamp, P. M.; Chin, G.; Crisp, D.; Grimm, R. E.; Herrick, R. R.; Johnston, S.; Limaye, S. S.; Smrekar, S. E.; Ocampo, A.; Thompson, T. W.

    2013-12-01

    Venus remains one of the most enigmatic bodies in our Solar System. Important questions remain regarding the origin and evolution of the atmosphere, the history of the surface and interior, and how the surface and atmosphere interact. In a broader context, understanding Venus has implications for understanding the evolution of terrestrial planets in our Solar System as well as for interpreting the growing set of observations of extra-solar planets. The Venus Exploration Analysis Group (VEXAG), established in 2005, is chartered by NASA's Planetary Science Division and reports its findings to the NASA Advisory Council. Open to all interested scientists, VEXAG regularly evaluates Venus exploration goals, scientific objectives, investigations and critical measurement requirements, including especially recommendations in the NRC Decadal Survey and the Solar System Exploration Strategic Roadmap. At the last general meeting in November 2012, VEXAG resolved to update the scientific priorities and strategies for Venus exploration. To achieve this goal, three major tasks were defined for 2013, (1) update the document prioritizing Goals, Objectives and Investigations for Venus Exploration, (2) develop a Roadmap for Venus exploration that is consistent with VEXAG priorities as well as Planetary Decadal Survey priorities, and (3) develop a white paper on technologies for Venus missions. Proposed versions of all three documents were presented at the VEXAG general meeting in November 2013. Here, we present the findings and final versions of all three documents for community comment and feedback. A follow-on Workshop on Venus Exploration Targets is also being planned for the early summer of 2014. The workshop will provide a forum for the Venus science community to discuss approaches for addressing high priority investigations. Participants will be encouraged to present their ideas for specific targets on Venus (interior, surface and atmosphere) as well as to present specific data

  17. The Chinese Cult of Examinations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krebs, Sylvia H.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses how the cult of examinations continues to affect both teachers and students in China, and concludes that any serious reform of Chinese education depends on thoroughly rethinking the role of examinations in learning. (SR)

  18. Timing of the Medical Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christian, Cindy W.

    2011-01-01

    The medical examination of the sexually abused child may have evidentiary, medical, and therapeutic purposes, and the timing of the examination requires consideration of each of these objectives. In cases of acute sexual assault, emergent examinations may be needed to identify injury, collect forensic evidence, and provide infection and pregnancy…

  19. External Examining: Fit for Purpose?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloxham, Sue; Price, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    In a context of international concern about academic standards, the practice of external examining is widely admired for its role in defending standards. Yet a contradiction exists between this faith in examining and continuing concerns about standards. This article argues that external examining rests on assumptions about standards which are…

  20. Examining Chemistry at CSE Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeoman, G. D.

    1972-01-01

    Discusses advantages and disadvantages of centralized examination system in assessing affective and other non-cognitive abilities of students in England. Describes three modes of teaching and assessment: (1) syllabus set and examined by Regional Boards; (2) school, or small group of schools, may set syllabus which is examined by the Board; (3)…

  1. Interactive chemical reactivity exploration.

    PubMed

    Haag, Moritz P; Vaucher, Alain C; Bosson, Maël; Redon, Stéphane; Reiher, Markus

    2014-10-20

    Elucidating chemical reactivity in complex molecular assemblies of a few hundred atoms is, despite the remarkable progress in quantum chemistry, still a major challenge. Black-box search methods to find intermediates and transition-state structures might fail in such situations because of the high-dimensionality of the potential energy surface. Here, we propose the concept of interactive chemical reactivity exploration to effectively introduce the chemist's intuition into the search process. We employ a haptic pointer device with force feedback to allow the operator the direct manipulation of structures in three dimensions along with simultaneous perception of the quantum mechanical response upon structure modification as forces. We elaborate on the details of how such an interactive exploration should proceed and which technical difficulties need to be overcome. All reactivity-exploration concepts developed for this purpose have been implemented in the samson programming environment. PMID:25205397

  2. Preparing for Human Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, Bret G.; Joosten, B. Kent

    1998-01-01

    NASA's Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) Enterprise is defining architectures and requirements for human exploration that radically reduce the costs of such missions through the use of advanced technologies, commercial partnerships and innovative systems strategies. In addition, the HEDS Enterprise is collaborating with the Space Science Enterprise to acquire needed early knowledge about Mars and to demonstrate critical technologies via robotic missions. This paper provides an overview of the technological challenges facing NASA as it prepares for human exploration. Emphasis is placed on identifying the key technologies including those which will provide the most return in terms of reducing total mission cost and/or reducing potential risk to the mission crew. Top-level requirements are provided for those critical enabling technology options currently under consideration.

  3. Asteroid exploration and utilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radovich, Brian M.; Carlson, Alan E.; Date, Medha D.; Duarte, Manny G.; Erian, Neil F.; Gafka, George K.; Kappler, Peter H.; Patano, Scott J.; Perez, Martin; Ponce, Edgar

    1992-01-01

    The Earth is nearing depletion of its natural resources at a time when human beings are rapidly expanding the frontiers of space. The resources possessed by asteroids have enormous potential for aiding and enhancing human space exploration as well as life on Earth. Project STONER (Systematic Transfer of Near Earth Resources) is based on mining an asteroid and transporting raw materials back to Earth. The asteroid explorer/sample return mission is designed in the context of both scenarios and is the first phase of a long range plan for humans to utilize asteroid resources. Project STONER is divided into two parts: asteroid selection and explorer spacecraft design. The spacecraft design team is responsible for the selection and integration of the subsystems: GNC, communications, automation, propulsion, power, structures, thermal systems, scientific instruments, and mechanisms used on the surface to retrieve and store asteroid regolith. The sample return mission scenario consists of eight primary phases that are critical to the mission.

  4. Exploring E-Learning. IES Report 376.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollard, E.; Hillage, J.

    This guide summarizes current research and commentary on e-learning, examining the key issues facing organizations exploring e-learning for employee development. The guide contains six sections. The first section provides an introduction to the issue of e-learning and a summary of the issues discussed in the remainder of the guide. Section 2…

  5. Exploring Literary Devices in Graphic Novels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dallacqua, Ashley K.

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the possibilities of graphic novels with young readers. During the 2009-2010 school year, while working with four fifth-grade students, the author examined the question "In what ways do readers engage while reading a graphic novel?" The fifth graders took part in book discussions and one-on-one interviews after reading two…

  6. Intrigue and potential of space exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Losh, H.

    1972-01-01

    A brief history of astronomy is presented. A chronology of events in the space program is summarized. The possibilities of interplanetary exploration are postulated. The accomplishments of astronomy in pointing the way to manned spaceflight and improved understanding of the solar system are examined.

  7. Career Exploration in Hospitality and Recreation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiley, Benaree; And Others

    This curriculum guide is designed to help students develop career decisionmaking skills which they may use throughout their lives and examine and explore hospitality and recreation occupations. Nine units are included, with each consisting of a teacher's guide and student materials. The teacher's guide includes an overview, objectives, rationale,…

  8. Exploring Issues with Students Despite the Barriers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onosko, Joseph J.

    1995-01-01

    Examines possible reasons for the lack of issues-oriented instruction in social studies classrooms. Provides curriculum suggestions to remedy this, including exploring debatable issues that can be researched and are interesting. Includes 12 instructional strategies designed to maintain student interest and smooth over rough spots. (MJP)

  9. Exploring Different Dimensions of Language Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coffin, Caroline

    2003-01-01

    Explores the way in which language teachers can diagnose language learners' competence from both a sociocultural and linguistic perspective. Uses two sample "letters of complaint" to consider competence in terms of how well the writers organize and structure their texts in relation to their social purpose and cultural context and then examines the…

  10. Let's Find out! Preschoolers as Scientific Explorers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brenneman, Kimberly

    2009-01-01

    Scientific Explorers both tall and small, ask questions about objects, living things, and events that interest or puzzle them. They seek answers by examining the world in specific ways that allow them to understand more about it. Young children are often described as natural scientists. They earn this description because they engage in many of the…

  11. Teaching Leadership as Exploring Sacred Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Getz, Cheryl

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the sacred space of teaching and learning by examining a five-year personal inquiry into the study and practice of teaching leadership. The research described exposes the value of engaging in action inquiry as a heuristic in the ongoing process of teaching and learning about leadership. The writing reflects five years of work…

  12. Exploring Individual Differences in Language Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Murray; Doering, Jeffrey C.

    2014-01-01

    Understanders appear to routinely and immediately evaluate the congruence of discourse at many levels of analysis, processes often labeled "validation." This study was an initial exploration of individual differences in discourse validation. Text "reading-time" profiles were examined as a function of two negligibly correlated…

  13. Principals' Learning Mechanisms: Exploring an Emerging Construct

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schechter, Chen; Qadach, Mowafaq

    2016-01-01

    This exploration of principal learning mechanisms (PLM) to support a learning-centered school aimed to develop, field-test, and validate a PLM-measuring instrument. Following exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses of items to examine factorial validity, the developed scale was correlated with other work-related established constructs (e.g.,…

  14. Exploring Technological Frontiers: Autonomy in Legal Scholarship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moses, Lyria Bennett

    2010-01-01

    In 1999, Barton Beebe critiqued a "golden age" of space law in the 1950s and 1960s in which obscure legal issues concerning space exploration and aliens were addressed. This article describes a more recent "golden age" in legal scholarship, namely that relating to virtual worlds such as World of Warcraft and Second Life. The author examines the…

  15. High temperature electronics applications in space exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jurgens, R. F.

    1981-01-01

    The extension of the range of operating temperatures of electronic components and systems for planetary exploration is examined. In particular, missions which utilize balloon-borne instruments to study the Venusian and Jovian atmospheres are discussed. Semiconductor development and devices including power sources, ultrastable oscillators, transmitters, antennas, electromechanical devices, and deployment systems are addressed.

  16. Exploring Space and Place with Walking Interviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Phil; Bunce, Griff; Evans, James; Gibbs, Hannah; Hein, Jane Ricketts

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the use of walking interviews as a research method. In spite of a wave of interest in methods which take interviewing out of the "safe," stationary environment, there has been limited work critically examining the techniques for undertaking such work. Curiously for a method which takes an explicitly spatial approach, few…

  17. Solar system exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, Clark R.; Ramlose, Terri (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    The goal of planetary exploration is to understand the nature and development of the planets, as illustrated by pictures from the first two decades of spacecraft missions and by the imaginations of space artists. Planets, comets, asteroids, and moons are studied to discover the reasons for their similarities and differences and to find clues that contain information about the primordial process of planet origins. The scientific goals established by the National Academy of Sciences as the foundation of NASA's Solar System Exploration Program are covered: to determine the nature of the planetary system, to understand its origin and evolution, the development of life on Earth, and the principles that shape present day Earth.

  18. Multivariate Data EXplorer (MDX)

    SciTech Connect

    Steed, Chad Allen

    2012-08-01

    The MDX toolkit facilitates exploratory data analysis and visualization of multivariate datasets. MDX provides and interactive graphical user interface to load, explore, and modify multivariate datasets stored in tabular forms. MDX uses an extended version of the parallel coordinates plot and scatterplots to represent the data. The user can perform rapid visual queries using mouse gestures in the visualization panels to select rows or columns of interest. The visualization panel provides coordinated multiple views whereby selections made in one plot are propagated to the other plots. Users can also export selected data or reconfigure the visualization panel to explore relationships between columns and rows in the data.

  19. Robotics for Human Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fong, Terrence; Deans, Mathew; Bualat, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Robots can do a variety of work to increase the productivity of human explorers. Robots can perform tasks that are tedious, highly repetitive or long-duration. Robots can perform precursor tasks, such as reconnaissance, which help prepare for future human activity. Robots can work in support of astronauts, assisting or performing tasks in parallel. Robots can also perform "follow-up" work, completing tasks designated or started by humans. In this paper, we summarize the development and testing of robots designed to improve future human exploration of space.

  20. Improving Career Exploration. Implementation Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southwest Iowa Learning Resources Center, Red Oak.

    This junior high/middle school career exploration implementation manual is designed to assist in implementing a comprehensive career exploration program using four career exploration components developed in the Improving Career Exploration project. The first of six sections addresses career exploration and career/vocational development. Basic…

  1. International solar system exploration - Opportunities and obstacles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, J. W.; Parks, R. J.

    1982-01-01

    A review is conducted of the exploration of the solar system carried out with the aid of various types of spacecraft during the past two decades, taking into account also space missions planned for thy next few years. A wealth of information has been obtained regarding the planets and their satellites. However, there remain many important questions concerning the solar system, and a continuation of space exploration for the solution of these questions appears highly desirable, particularly when the comparatively little cost of these missions is taken into account. However, major fiscal limitations within the U.S. economy have led to pressure to postpone any new solar system exploration projects unless there can be major reductions in their cost. A special committee has been studying the options for future low-cost solar system exploration missions, giving attention also to some options for international implementation. Various aspects of joint space projects are examined.

  2. Human Exploration of Near-Earth Asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abell, Paul

    2013-01-01

    A major goal for NASA's human spaceflight program is to send astronauts to near-Earth asteroids (NEA) in the coming decades. Missions to NEAs would undoubtedly provide a great deal of technical and engineering data on spacecraft operations for future human space exploration while conducting in-depth scientific examinations of these primitive objects. However, before sending human explorers to NEAs, robotic investigations of these bodies would be required to maximize operational efficiency and reduce mission risk. These precursor missions to NEAs would fill crucial strategic knowledge gaps concerning their physical characteristics that are relevant for human exploration of these relatively unknown destinations. Dr. Paul Abell discussed some of the physical characteristics of NEOs that will be relevant for EVA considerations, reviewed the current data from previous NEA missions (e.g., Near-Earth Asteroid Rendezvous (NEAR) Shoemaker and Hayabusa), and discussed why future robotic and human missions to NEAs are important from space exploration and planetary defense perspectives.

  3. Physical examination during space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, B. A. Jr; Billica, R. D.; Bishop, S. L.; Blackwell, T.; Layne, C. S.; Harm, D. L.; Sandoz, G. R.; Rosenow, E. C. 3rd

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To develop techniques for conducting a physical examination in microgravity and to describe and document the physiologic changes noted with use of a modified basic physical examination. DESIGN: On the basis of data gathered from physical examinations on KC-135 flights, three physical variables were assessed serially in astronauts during two shuttle missions (of 8- and 10-day duration, respectively). Preflight, in-flight, and postflight examinations were conducted by trained physician-astronauts or flight surgeons, who used this modified examination. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Five male and two female crewmembers participated in the "hands-on" physical examination of all physiologic systems except the genitourinary system. Level of edema, intensity of bowel sounds, and peripheral reflexes were assessed and graded. RESULTS: This investigation identified unique elements of a physical examination performed during space flight that will assist in the development of standard methods for conducting examinations of astronauts in weightlessness. In addition, demonstrable changes induced by microgravity were noted in most physiologic systems examined. CONCLUSION: The data support the hypothesis that the microgravity examination differs from that conducted on earth or in a 1g environment. In addition, alterations in the physiologic response can be detected with use of hands-on technique. These data are invaluable in the development of optimal medical care for humans in space.

  4. Exploratorium: Exploring Water.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand, Judith, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This issue of Exploratorium focuses on water and its varied uses in our environment. Articles include: (1) "Adventures with Water" (Eric Muller); (2) "Water: The Liquid of Life" (Karen E. Kalumuck); (3) "Water-Drop Projector" (Gorazd Planinsic); (4) "Waterways and Means" (Pearl Tesler); (5) "Explore Natural Phenomena in the Museum--and Just…

  5. Oil Exploration Mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    After concluding an oil exploration agreement with the Republic of Yemen, Chevron International needed detailed geologic and topographic maps of the area. Chevron's remote sensing team used imagery from Landsat and SPOT, combining images into composite views. The project was successfully concluded and resulted in greatly improved base maps and unique topographic maps.

  6. Telescopes and space exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandt, J. C.; Maran, S. P.

    1976-01-01

    The necessity for different types of telescopes for astronomical investigations is discussed. Major findings in modern astronomy by ground-based and spaceborne telescopes are presented. Observations of the Crab Nebula, solar flares, interstellar gas, and the Black Hole are described. The theory of the oscillating universe is explored. Operating and planned telescopes are described.

  7. Exploring the Educational Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merritt, Elizabeth E.

    2012-01-01

    Futures studies uses scenarios--stories of the future--to explore how trends and events shaping our world may play out in future decades. This article features a short scenario set in California in 2037, depicting twelve-year-old Moya and her brother mart, whose "fenced community" has opted for a system of self-directed, online learning to educate…

  8. Exploring Japan through Rice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wojtan, Linda S.

    1998-01-01

    Explores the role of rice in Japanese culture by presenting historical background and teaching activities in a variety of categories, such as language, sociology, history, and contemporary politics. Suggests teachers create cross-cultural comparisons; for example, the role of corn in the United States. Provides a list of teacher resources. (CMK)

  9. Exploring Careers. Transportation Occupations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    "Exploring Careers" is a career education resource program, published in fifteen separate booklets, for junior high school-age students. It provides information about the world of work and offers its readers a way of learning about themselves and relating that information to career choices. The publications aim to build career awareness by means…

  10. Exploring Careers. Office Occupations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    "Exploring Careers" is a career education resource program, published in fifteen separate booklets, for junior high school-age students. It provides information about the world of work and offers its readers a way of learning about themselves and relating that information to career choices. The publications aim to build career awareness by means…

  11. Exploring Careers. Health Occupations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    "Exploring Careers" is a career education resource program, published in fifteen separate booklets, for junior high school-age students. It provides information about the world of work and offers its readers a way of learning about themselves and relating that information to career choices. The publications aim to build career awareness by means…

  12. Exploring Manufacturing Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iley, John; And Others

    These teacher's materials for an eight-unit course were developed to help students develop technological literacy, career exploration, and problem-solving skills relative to the manufacturing industries. The eight units include an overview of manufacturing, manufacturing enterprises and systems, manufacturing materials and selection, manufacturing…

  13. Youth Exploring Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Diane

    2008-04-01

    This session features Youth Exploring Science (YES), Saint Louis Science Center's nationally recognized work-based teen development program. In YES, underserved audiences develop interest and understanding in physics through design engineering projects. I will discuss breaking down barriers, helping youth develop skills, and partnering with community organizations, universities and engineering firms.

  14. Exploring Volumetrically Indexed Cups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Dustin L.

    2011-01-01

    This article was inspired by a set of 12 cylindrical cups, which are volumetrically indexed; that is to say, the volume of cup "n" is equal to "n" times the volume of cup 1. Various sets of volumetrically indexed cylindrical cups are explored. I demonstrate how this children's toy is ripe for mathematical investigation, with connections to…

  15. Exploring Global Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Needler, Toby; Goodman, Bonnie

    The eight units in this volume are designed for use by an art teacher/specialist. Thematic ideas are presented, while skills, techniques, and materials are not dictated. The lessons encourage students to compare and contrast cultures, understand their own cultural experiences, and explore differences and commonalities among cultures. The materials…

  16. Exploring Careers. Sales Occupations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    "Exploring Careers" is a career education resource program, published in fifteen separate booklets, for junior high school-age students. It provides information about the world of work and offers its readers a way of learning about themselves and relating that information to career choices. The publications aim to build career awareness by means…

  17. Exploring Consumer Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Virginia; Sumrall, William; Mott, Michael; Mitchell, Elizabeth; Theobald, Becky

    2015-01-01

    Methods for facilitating students' standards-based consumer literacy are addressed via the use of problem solving with food and product labels. Fifth graders will be able to: (1) provide detailed analysis of food and product labels; (2) understand large themes, including production, distribution, and consumption; and (3) explore consumer…

  18. Exploring the Conceptual Universe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemp, Charles

    2012-01-01

    Humans can learn to organize many kinds of domains into categories, including real-world domains such as kinsfolk and synthetic domains such as sets of geometric figures that vary along several dimensions. Psychologists have studied many individual domains in detail, but there have been few attempts to characterize or explore the full space of…

  19. Exploring Careers in Music.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cincinnati Public Schools, OH.

    The career exploration program for grades 9 through 10, as part of a comprehensive K through 10 career development program, attempts to develop an awareness of and appreciation for work, extend knowledge of the variety of career opportunities, and provide experiences in career areas of individual interest. The document, a collection of materials…

  20. Exploring Sound with Insects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Laura; Meyer, John R.

    2010-01-01

    Differences in insect morphology and movement during singing provide a fascinating opportunity for students to investigate insects while learning about the characteristics of sound. In the activities described here, students use a free online computer software program to explore the songs of the major singing insects and experiment with making…

  1. International Ultraviolet Explorer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This report is the November 6, 1996 - October 9, 1997, IUE Final Report for the International Ultraviolet Explorer Final Archive contract. The ultimate objective of this contract is the completion of the archival reprocessing of all IUE data obtained at GSFC between 1978 and 1995.

  2. Exploration of Retailing Careers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkie, Barbara J.

    Designed as a semester unit of instruction at the middle or junior high school level in the exploration of retailing careers, this distributive education curriculum guide is divided into two sections: The Teacher's Guide and Student Materials. One of the elective courses intended as a followup to "Orientation to Marketing Careers," it provides the…

  3. Robotic Lunar Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Echols, Raymond

    2006-01-01

    This presentation describes current Lunar Exploration plans and objectives. It begins with specific statements from the President s vision for U.S. Space Exploration which pertain to robotic lunar missions. An outline of missions objectives is provided, along with a high-level schedule of events through the year 2025. Focus is then given to the Lunar Robotic and Precursor Program (LPRP) to describe objectives and goals. Recent developments in the Program are explained - specifically, the renaming of the RLEP program to "LPRP" and the movement of the program office to MSFC. A brief summary of the synergy expected between the robotic and crewed missions, with the LSAM descent stage Project is given. The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter mission, with its co-manifested Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS), is then described with an overview of the payloads and mission objectives. Finally, information is given about the expected future of the LPRP program and Exploration and the development of a compressive Lunar Exploration Architecture.

  4. Vision for Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Bryan K.

    2007-01-01

    Vision tasks include: a) Complete the International Space Station; b) Safely fly the Space Shuttle until 2010; c) Develop and fly the Crew Exploration Vehicle (by 2014); d) Return to the moon (by 2020); e) Sustained and affordable human and robotic program; f) Develop innovative technologies, knowledge, and infrastructures; and g) Promote international and commercial participation.

  5. Exploration Medical Capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watkins, Sharmila; Baumann, David; Wu, Jimmy; Barsten, Kristina

    2010-01-01

    Exploration Medical Capability (ExMC) is an element of NASA's Human Research Program (HRP). ExMC's goal is to address the risk of the Inability to Adequately Recognize or Treat an Ill or Injured Crewmember. This poster highlights the approach ExMC has taken to address this goal and our current areas of interest. The Space Medicine Exploration Medical Condition List (SMEMCL) was created to identify medical conditions of concern during exploration missions. The list was derived from space flight medical incidents, the shuttle medical checklist, the International Space Station medical checklist, and expert opinion. The conditions on the list were prioritized according to mission type by a panel comprised of flight surgeons, physician astronauts, engineers, and scientists. From the prioritized list, the ExMC element determined the capabilities needed to address the medical conditions of concern. Where such capabilities were not currently available, a gap was identified. The element s research plan outlines these gaps and the tasks identified to achieve the desired capabilities for exploration missions. This poster is being presented to inform the audience of the gaps and tasks being investigated by ExMC and to encourage discussions of shared interests and possible future collaborations.

  6. Exploring Worlds Together

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castle, Lisa; Breen, Susan; Tandy, Lynne

    2006-01-01

    At Waite End Primary School in Waterlooville, Hampshire, the authors are involved in a research project with the University of Winchester and the pharmaceutical company Astra- Zeneca called "Teachers and young children exploring their worlds together". The project focuses around their belief that "the younger a child is the more scientifically…

  7. Arne — Sublunarean Explorer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, M. S.; Thanga, J.; Wagner, R. V.; Hernandez, V. A.

    2014-10-01

    We propose a simple and cost effective reconnaissance of the Mare Tranquillitatis Pit with Arne, a small lander (<130 kg) that carries three flying microbots (or pit-bots) each with mass of 3 kg. Objectives serve key science and exploration needs.

  8. Skylab Explores the Earth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    This book describes the Skylab 4 Earth Explorations Project. Photographs of the earth taken by the Skylab astronauts are reproduced here and accompanied by an analytical and explanatory text. Some of the geological and geographical topics covered are: (1) global tectonics - some geological analyses of observations and photographs from Skylab; (2)…

  9. Exploration of Business (9).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg.

    This guide provides teachers with a business exploration curriculum for grade 9. The course is designed to introduce beginning students to the language of business, to careers, to consumerism, to economics, and to technology. An "Overview" section presents the rationale, describes the program structure, and lists program goals and objectives. The…

  10. Explorers of the Universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alvarez, Marino C.; Busby, Michael R.; Sotoohi, Goli; Rodriguez, William J.; Hennig, Lee Ann; Berenty, Jerry; King, Terry; Grener, Doreen; Kruzan, John

    1998-01-01

    The Explorers of the Universe is a multifaceted scientific/literacy project that involves teachers and their students with problem oriented situations using authentic materials. This paper presents examples of self-directed cases researched by high school students and the met acognitive tools they use in the planning, carrying out, and finalizing their reports.

  11. Multimodal Information Exploration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stock, Oliviero; Zancanaro, Massimo; Strapparava, Carlo

    1997-01-01

    Discussion of information exploration and software design in computer-based educational systems focuses on the integration of hypermedia and natural language dialog. AlFRESCO is described, an interactive natural language-centered multimodal system that was developed for users interested in frescoes and paintings. (LRW)

  12. Exploring the Exploratorium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neill, Shirley Boes

    1978-01-01

    Describes a San Francisco, California, science museum whose design is based on the exploration of perception. The museum is arranged in sections on patterns, light color, eye logic, third dimension, sound, hearing, electricity, and the tactile gallery. Programs include teacher training, student learning experience, field trips and study projects,…

  13. Introduction to Exploring Machines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Early Childhood Today, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Young children are fascinated by how things "work." They are at a stage of development where they want to experiment with the many ways to use an object or take things apart and put them back together. In the process of exploring tools and machines, children use the scientific method and problem-solving skills. They observe how things work, wonder…

  14. Exploring Racism through Photography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fey, Cass; Shin, Ryan; Cinquemani, Shana; Marino, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    Photography is a powerful medium with which to explore social issues and concerns through the intersection of artistic form and concept. Through the discussions of images and suggested activities, students will understand various ways photographers have documented and addressed racism and discrimination. This Instructional Resource presents a…

  15. ALTE Handbook of European Language Examinations and Examination Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Language Testers in Europe, Cambridge (England).

    The handbook describes language examinations offered and examination systems administered by members of the Association of Language Testers in Europe (ALTE). An introductory section describes the rationale behind the founding of the organization, lists its 22 current members, and states its aims and objectives. Subsequent sections detail the…

  16. Biospheres and solar system exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paine, Thomas O.

    1990-01-01

    The implications of biosphere technology is briefly examined. The exploration status and prospects of each world in the solar system is briefly reviewed, including the asteroid belt, the moon, and comets. Five program elements are listed as particularly critical for future interplanetary operations during the coming extraterrestrial century. They include the following: (1) a highway to Space (earth orbits); (2) Orbital Spaceports to support spacecraft assembly, storage, repair, maintenance, refueling, launch, and recovery; (3) a Bridge Between Worlds to transport cargo and crews to the moon and beyond to Mars; (4) Prospecting and Resource Utilization Systems to map and characterize the resources of planets, moons, and asteroids; and (5) Closed Ecology Biospheres. The progress in these five field is reviewed.

  17. Exploring Placentophagy in Humans: Problems and Recommendations.

    PubMed

    Marraccini, Marisa E; Gorman, Kathleen S

    2015-01-01

    Placentophagy, the practice of afterbirth ingestion among humans, has grown among middle-class, white women in Western societies. Although the reasons for placentophagy are varied, it is generally promoted as a means to help postpartum women stabilize mood, enhance recovery, and increase milk production. Virtually no studies have explored the effects of placentophagy on humans, and several researchers have called for studies examining the effects of human placentophagy. However, prior to examining the effects of placentophagy, a number of methodological issues need to be addressed. The present review explores research examining the effects of placentophagy in animals and humans and presents the theoretical assumptions behind placentophagy and its effects. Methodological issues related to placentophagy research are clarified, and existing research related to the nutritional and hormonal components of the placenta and their effects on milk production and postpartum depression are reviewed. Finally, implications and recommendations for future research are discussed. PMID:26255799

  18. Planetary Exploration in the Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slivan, S. M.; Binzel, R. P.

    1997-07-01

    We have developed educational materials to seed a series of undergraduate level exercises on "Planetary Exploration in the Classroom." The goals of the series are to teach modern methods of planetary exploration and discovery to students having both science and non-science backgrounds. Using personal computers in a "hands-on" approach with images recorded by planetary spacecraft, students working through the exercises learn that modern scientific images are digital objects that can be examined and manipulated in quantitative detail. The initial exercises we've developed utilize NIH Image in conjunction with images from the Voyager spacecraft CDs. Current exercises are titled "Using 'NIH IMAGE' to View Voyager Images", "Resolving Surface Features on Io", "Discovery of Volcanoes on Io", and "Topography of Canyons on Ariel." We expect these exercises will be released during Fall 1997 and will be available via 'anonymous ftp'; detailed information about obtaining the exercises will be on the Web at "http://web.mit.edu/12s23/www/pec.html." This curriculum development was sponsored by NSF Grant DUE-9455329.

  19. Exploring the Woodland Floor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banner, Pat

    1974-01-01

    The article discusses the often ignored information that can be discovered by examining ground characteristics in woods and forests. Woodland cycles, the food chain, animal habitats, and nature's recycling are included. (KM)

  20. Exploring Online Purchasing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fickes, Michael

    2001-01-01

    Examines the setup of American University's electronic procurement system and explains how it works and the benefits it brings to the school. Cautionary advice on setting up an online purchasing system is also offered. (GR)

  1. Examination Regimes and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cosentino de Cohen, Clemencia

    2010-01-01

    Examination regimes at the end of secondary school vary greatly intra- and cross-nationally, and in recent years have undergone important reforms often geared towards increasing student achievement. This research presents a comparative analysis of the relationship between examination regimes and student achievement in the OECD. Using a micro…

  2. Learning Communities: Examining Positive Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrade, Maureen S.

    2008-01-01

    Learning communities, designed primarily to increase student persistence and academic achievement, are a common first-year initiative on university campuses. Assessments of learning communities frequently examine indicators that are easily quantifiable such as student persistence and academic achievement, but also examine factors thought to affect…

  3. Energy Education/Conservation Examination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wert, Jonathan M.

    This examination is designed to measure the general awareness level of high school students, teachers, and citizens in the area of energy development and conservation. It is composed of 100 true-false statements concerning energy education concepts. A sample examinee answer sheet and an examiner key are included. Reproduction of the exam is…

  4. Assessment and Examinations in Armenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bethell, George; Harutyunyan, Karine

    2008-01-01

    This profile describes traditional assessment practices in Armenia--many of which are typical of those formerly practised throughout the Soviet Union--and the ongoing efforts to reform formal examinations and school-based evaluation techniques. The extraordinarily high stakes associated with the examination currently used to select applicants for…

  5. Legal Challenges to Licensing Examinations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pyburn, Keith M., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Discrepancies between court and professional association views of licensing examinations are discussed. Litigation associated with Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and constitutional law is considered. Courts should examine professional standards and apply those that are consistent with the court's determination of the proper…

  6. Examining Sensory Quadrants in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kern, Janet K.; Garver, Carolyn R.; Carmody, Thomas; Andrews, Alonzo A.; Trivedi, Madhukar H.; Mehta, Jyutika A.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine sensory quadrants in autism based on Dunn's Theory of Sensory Processing. The data for this study was collected as part of a cross-sectional study that examined sensory processing (using the Sensory Profile) in 103 persons with autism, 3-43 years of age, compared to 103 age- and gender-matched community…

  7. Investigating Phd Thesis Examination Reports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holbrook, A.; Bourke, S.; Lovat, T.; Dally, K.

    2004-01-01

    There has been a slow but steady accretion of findings on doctoral assessment and examination processes over the past decade and a half. The study of Australian PhD examination reported here draws on the written reports on 301 theses across all discipline areas. Text categories identified in the reports are linked to other data including the…

  8. The Primordial Inflation Explorer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kogut, Alan J.

    2012-01-01

    The Primordial Inflation Explorer is an Explorer-class mission to measure the gravity-wave signature of primordial inflation through its distinctive imprint on the linear polarization of the cosmic microwave background. PIXIE uses an innovative optical design to achieve background-limited sensitivity in 400 spectral channels spanning 2.5 decades in frequency from 30 GHz to 6 THz (1 cm to 50 micron wavelength). The principal science goal is the detection and characterization of linear polarization from an inflationary epoch in the early universe, with tensor-to-scalar ratio r < 10(exp -3) at 5 standard deviations. The rich PIXIE data set will also constrain physical processes ranging from Big Bang cosmology to the nature of the first stars to physical conditions within the interstellar medium of the Galaxy. I describe the PIXIE instrument and mission architecture needed to detect the inflationary signature using only 4 semiconductor bolometers.

  9. Relativistic astrophysics explorer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaaret, P.

    2004-01-01

    The great success of the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) has shown that X-ray timing is an excellent tool for the study of strong gravitational fields and the measurement of fundamental physical properties of black holes and neutron stars. Here, we describe a next-generation X-ray timing mission, the Relativistic Astrophysics Explorer (RAE), designed to fit within the envelope of a medium-sized mission. The instruments will be a narrow-field X-ray detector array with an area of 6 m 2 equal to 10 times that of RXTE and a wide-field X-ray monitor. We describe the science made possible with this mission, the design of the instruments, and results on prototype large-area X-ray detectors.

  10. The Relativistic Astrophysics Explorer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaaret, P.

    The great success of the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) has shown that X-ray timing is an excellent tool for the study of strong gravitational fields and the measurement of fundamental physical properties of black holes and neutron stars. Here, we describe a next-generation X-ray timing mission, the Relativistic Astrophysics Explorer (RAE), designed to fit within the envelope of a medium-sized mission. The instruments will be a narrow-field X-ray detector array with an area of 60,000 cm2 equal to ten times that of RXTE and a wide-field X-ray monitor. We describe the science made possible with this mission, the design of the instruments, and results on prototype large-area X-ray detectors.

  11. Asteroid and comet exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arrhenius, G.; Alfven, H.; Fitzgerald, R.

    1973-01-01

    Exploration of Venus, Mars, and the Moon have had two major scientific objectives. One was to clarify the processes which control planetary evolution. The fulfillment of this purpose, although far from complete, was eminently successful in generating entirely new perspectives on the growth and differentiation of earth. The second objective, particularly prominent in the planning of the lunar exploration, was to augment the understanding of the virtually unknown preplanetary history of the solar system. This would include the fundamental questions of the origin, emplacement, and state of matter gathered around the sun and some planets. Preplanetary history also inquires into the problems of fractionation, condensation, and non-gravitation aggregation of circumsolar and circumplanetary matter.

  12. Exploring Invisible Frontiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, John W.

    2000-09-01

    The success of the human genome project reminds us that every so often we ought to step back from our day-to-day duties and view with wonder the myriad possibilities that chemistry presents. Chemistry is a wondrous frontier that should stimulate students' intellect and imagination. Perhaps our course titles should be more like "Adventures in the Nanoworld" or "Stalking the Self-Assembled Structure". This would reflect the excitement and exploration that await students who participate actively in the study of chemistry. Of course, such titles would require living up to. Otherwise students might feel shortchanged. With or without catchy titles, courses that capitalize on the molecular-scale maps that new scientific explorations constantly present to us are what our students ought to have.

  13. Scientific Resource EXplorer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Z.; Wormuth, A.; Smith, A.; Arca, J.; Lu, Y.; Sayfi, E.

    2014-12-01

    Inquisitive minds in our society are never satisfied with curatedimages released by a typical public affairs office. They always want tolook deeper and play directly on original data. However, most scientificdata products are notoriously hard to use. They are immensely large,highly distributed and diverse in format. In this presentation,we will demonstrate Resource EXplorer (REX), a novel webtop applicationthat allows anyone to conveniently explore and visualize rich scientificdata repositories, using only a standard web browser. This tool leverageson the power of Webification Science (w10n-sci), a powerful enabling technologythat simplifies the use of scientific data on the web platform.W10n-sci is now being deployed at an increasing number of NASA data centers,some of which are the largest digital treasure troves in our nation.With REX, these wonderful scientific resources are open for teachers andstudents to learn and play.

  14. Universe exploration vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Handley, D.; Swan, P.; Sadeh, W.

    1992-01-01

    U.S. space policy is discussed in terms of present and planned activities in the solar system and beyond to develop a concept for expanding space travel. The history of space exploration is briefly reviewed with references to the Mariner II, Apollo, and Discoverer programs. Attention is given to the issues related to return trips to the moon, sprint vs repetitive missions to Mars, and the implications of propulsion needs. The concept of terraforming other bodies within the solar system so that they can support human activity is identified as the next major phase of exploration. The following phase is considered to be the use of robotic or manned missions that extend beyond the solar system. Reference is given to a proposed Thousand Astronomical Units mission as a precursor to exploratory expansion into the universe, and current robotic mission activities are mentioned.

  15. Multivariate Data EXplorer (MDX)

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2012-08-01

    The MDX toolkit facilitates exploratory data analysis and visualization of multivariate datasets. MDX provides and interactive graphical user interface to load, explore, and modify multivariate datasets stored in tabular forms. MDX uses an extended version of the parallel coordinates plot and scatterplots to represent the data. The user can perform rapid visual queries using mouse gestures in the visualization panels to select rows or columns of interest. The visualization panel provides coordinated multiple views wherebymore » selections made in one plot are propagated to the other plots. Users can also export selected data or reconfigure the visualization panel to explore relationships between columns and rows in the data.« less

  16. Space exploration outlook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rea, D. G.

    1984-01-01

    The exploration of the solar system has been one of NASA's most significant achievements. Currently Voyager 2 is on its way to Uranus and Neptune, and Galileo is being readied for detailed investigation of Jupiter and its Galilean satellites. A new phase of exploration will be inaugurated in the mid-80s with the start of the Planetary Observers and Mariner Mark II missions. A major thrust during this phase will be to cut mission costs by emphasizing spacecraft inheritance and multi-mission automated mission operations. More ambitious missions, e.g., Mars Sample Return, are under study but probably will not be candidates for new start funding till the mid-90s. Another exciting area is the potential utilization of resources on the moon and near earth asteroids.

  17. Exploration for deep coal

    SciTech Connect

    2008-12-15

    The most important factor in safe mining is the quality of the roof. The article explains how the Rosebud Mining Co. conducts drilling and exploration in 11 deep coal mine throughout Pennsylvania and Ohio. Rosebud uses two Atlas Copco CS10 core drilling rigs mounted on 4-wheel drive trucks. The article first appeared in Atlas Copco's in-house magazine, Deep Hole Driller. 3 photos.

  18. Exploring neural network technology

    SciTech Connect

    Naser, J.; Maulbetsch, J.

    1992-12-01

    EPRI is funding several projects to explore neural network technology, a form of artificial intelligence that some believe may mimic the way the human brain processes information. This research seeks to provide a better understanding of fundamental neural network characteristics and to identify promising utility industry applications. Results to date indicate that the unique attributes of neural networks could lead to improved monitoring, diagnostic, and control capabilities for a variety of complex utility operations. 2 figs.

  19. Exploring volumetrically indexed cups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Dustin L.

    2011-03-01

    This article was inspired by a set of 12 cylindrical cups, which are volumetrically indexed; that is to say, the volume of cup n is equal to n times the volume of cup 1. Various sets of volumetrically indexed cylindrical cups are explored. I demonstrate how this children's toy is ripe for mathematical investigation, with connections to geometry, algebra and differential calculus. Students with an understanding of these topics should be able to complete the analysis and related exercises contained herein.

  20. Seismic refraction exploration

    SciTech Connect

    Ruehle, W.H.

    1980-12-30

    In seismic exploration, refracted seismic energy is detected by seismic receivers to produce seismograms of subsurface formations. The seismograms are produced by directing seismic energy from an array of sources at an angle to be refracted by the subsurface formations and detected by the receivers. The directivity of the array is obtained by delaying the seismic pulses produced by each source in the source array.

  1. Juno I -- Explorer I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1958-01-01

    Juno I, a slightly modified Jupiter-C launch vehicle, shortly before the January 31, 1958 launch of America's first satellite, Explorer I. The Jupiter-C, developed by Dr. Wernher von Braun and the rocket team at Redstone Arsenal in Huntsville, Alabama, consisted of a modified version of the Redstone rocket's first stage and two upper stages of clustered Baby Sergeant rockets developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

  2. Geothermal exploration in Indonesia

    SciTech Connect

    Radja, V.T.

    1984-03-01

    Indonesia is blessed with geothermal resources. This fortunate aspect is directly related to the fact that the archipelago is an island arc created by a subduction zone. Evidence of geothermal activity is common throughout the Islands. Among the islands' many active volcanos are numerous geothermal phenomena. Almost half of the volcanic centers in Indonesia (88 out of 177 centers) contain fumarole and sulfatare features. A brief history of the exploration for geothermal energy in Indonesia is presented.

  3. History of neurologic examination books.

    PubMed

    Boes, Christopher J

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study was to create an annotated list of textbooks dedicated to teaching the neurologic examination. Monographs focused primarily on the complete neurologic examination published prior to 1960 were reviewed. This analysis was limited to books with the word "examination" in the title, with exceptions for the texts of Robert Wartenberg and Gordon Holmes. Ten manuals met the criteria. Works dedicated primarily to the neurologic examination without a major emphasis on disease description or treatment first appeared in the early 1900s. Georg Monrad-Krohn's "Blue Book of Neurology" ("Blue Bible") was the earliest success. These treatises served the important purpose of educating trainees on proper neurologic examination technique. They could make a reputation and be profitable for the author (Monrad-Krohn), highlight how neurology was practiced at individual institutions (McKendree, Denny-Brown, Holmes, DeJong, Mayo Clinic authors), and honor retiring mentors (Mayo Clinic authors). PMID:25829645

  4. Explorers from space

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fary, Raymond W., Jr.

    1967-01-01

    The statement that a new era in exploration is opening will almost surely bring to mind the venturing of man into space and the ever more imminent exploration of the moon. The reference here, however, is to exploration of earth itself and to the unique capabilities for study of the earth that space technology will provide. Demands for water, minerals, energy, food, and for working, living and recreational space are outrunning our ability to meet them by traditional methods. In order to satisfy these demands, it is necessary now, just as it has been in the past, to look to the activities, the instruments, and the technologies that in part create the pressures for aid in meeting them. Studies being made at the U.S. Geological Survey and elsewhere of the potential applications of remote sensors in space to earth resources research indicate that now, at last, it will be possible to approach solutions on a regional or global basis. This paper discusses the plans for an Earth Resources Observational Satellites Program which will be designed for that purpose.

  5. Exploration potential of Albania

    SciTech Connect

    Silverman, M.R. )

    1991-08-01

    Albania is rich in natural resources, especially crude oil and natural gas. It has far greater petroleum reserves for its size than any other country in Eastern Europe. The nation consists of three principal geologic provinces. Strongly folded upper Paleozoic and Mesozoic strata comprise the Sub-Pelagonian and Pelagonian massifs in the northeast Albania. The search for oil and gas in the future is likely to be concentrated in the coastal basins and offshore in the relatively shallow waters of the Adriatic Sea. Hydrocarbons have been trapped onshore in anticlines and tilted fault blocks, primarily in lenticular upper Miocene sandstones and in Helvetian limestones. Exploration for stratigraphic and other nonstructural traps may represent the best potential for future discoveries onshore. Albania's greatest oil and gas potential is probably in the Albanian shelf of the Durres basin, offshore. No wells have ever been drilled offshore, and exploration is confined to a limited, nearshore seismic survey. Recent access to Albanian data suggests most published regional interpretations are many years out of date. Albania's offshore potential includes several zones of hydrocarbon generation in Mesozoic to Paleogene strata. Potential reservoirs include Neogene flysch sandstones and Mesozoic platform carbonates. Albania has recently invited foreign oil companies to apply for offshore exploration rights. As Albania is opened to foreign investment in the petroleum sector, there is little doubt that modern seismic techniques and the deliberate search for subtle traps may be expected to lead to substantial new discoveries.

  6. Photonics Explorer Workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, Amrita; Debaes, Nathalie

    2014-07-01

    The Photonics Explorer is an intra-curricular educational kit developed in a European project with a pan-European collaboration of over 35 teachers and science education professors. Unlike conventional educational outreach kits, the Photonics Explorer is specifically designed to integrate seamlessly in school curricula and enhance and complement the teaching and learning of science and optics in the classroom. The kit equips teachers with class sets of experimental components, provided within a supporting didactic framework and is designed for lower and upper secondary students (12-18 years). The kit is provided completely free of charge to teachers in conjunction with teacher training courses. The workshop will provide an overview of the Photonics Explorer intra-curricular kit and give teachers the opportunity to work hands-on with the material and didactic content of two modules, `Light Signals' (lower secondary) and `Diffraction and Interference'(upper secondary). We also aim to receive feedback regarding the content, components and didactic framework from teachers from non- European countries, to understand the relevance of the kit for their teaching and the ability for such a kit to integrate into non-EU curricula.

  7. The Nuclear Astrophysics Explorer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matteson, J. L.; Teegarden, B. J.; Gehrels, N.; Mahoney, W. A.

    1989-01-01

    The Nuclear Astrophysics Explorer was proposed in 1986 for NASA's Explorer Concept Study Program by an international collaboration of 25 scientists from nine institutions. The one-year feasibility study began in June 1988. The Nuclear Astrophysics Explorer would obtain high resolution observations of gamma-ray lines, E/Delta E about 1000, at a sensitivity of about 0.000003 ph/sq cm s, in order to study fundamental problems in astrophysics such as nucleosynthesis, supernovae, neutron star and black-hole physics, and particle acceleration and interactions. The instrument would operate from 15 keV to 10 Mev and use a heavily shielded array of nine cooled Ge spectrometers in a very low background configuration. Its 10 deg FWHM field of view would contain a versatile coded mask system which would provide two-dimensional imaging with 4 deg resolution, one-dimensional imaging with 2 deg resolution, and efficiendt measurements of diffuse emission. An unshielded Ge spectrometer would obtain wide-field measurements of transient gamma-ray sources. The earliest possible mission would begin in 1995.

  8. Bayesian Adaptive Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loredo, Thomas J.

    2004-04-01

    I describe a framework for adaptive scientific exploration based on iterating an Observation-Inference-Design cycle that allows adjustment of hypotheses and observing protocols in response to the results of observation on-the-fly, as data are gathered. The framework uses a unified Bayesian methodology for the inference and design stages: Bayesian inference to quantify what we have learned from the available data and predict future data, and Bayesian decision theory to identify which new observations would teach us the most. When the goal of the experiment is simply to make inferences, the framework identifies a computationally efficient iterative ``maximum entropy sampling'' strategy as the optimal strategy in settings where the noise statistics are independent of signal properties. Results of applying the method to two ``toy'' problems with simulated data-measuring the orbit of an extrasolar planet, and locating a hidden one-dimensional object-show the approach can significantly improve observational efficiency in settings that have well-defined nonlinear models. I conclude with a list of open issues that must be addressed to make Bayesian adaptive exploration a practical and reliable tool for optimizing scientific exploration.

  9. Exploration EVA System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kearney, Lara

    2004-01-01

    In January 2004, the President announced a new Vision for Space Exploration. NASA's Office of Exploration Systems has identified Extravehicular Activity (EVA) as a critical capability for supporting the Vision for Space Exploration. EVA is required for all phases of the Vision, both in-space and planetary. Supporting the human outside the protective environment of the vehicle or habitat and allow ing him/her to perform efficient and effective work requires an integrated EVA "System of systems." The EVA System includes EVA suits, airlocks, tools and mobility aids, and human rovers. At the core of the EVA System is the highly technical EVA suit, which is comprised mainly of a life support system and a pressure/environmental protection garment. The EVA suit, in essence, is a miniature spacecraft, which combines together many different sub-systems such as life support, power, communications, avionics, robotics, pressure systems and thermal systems, into a single autonomous unit. Development of a new EVA suit requires technology advancements similar to those required in the development of a new space vehicle. A majority of the technologies necessary to develop advanced EVA systems are currently at a low Technology Readiness Level of 1-3. This is particularly true for the long-pole technologies of the life support system.

  10. Information Illiteracy: Examining Our Assumptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Rosemary

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the notion of information illiteracy in relation to doctoral students' information literacy activities. Findings from a qualitative study of the doctoral literature review process portray learners as competent, rather than information illiterate, even though they may not have received information literacy interventions.

  11. An Exploration Perspective of Beamed Energy Propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, John

    2008-04-01

    The Vision for Exploration is currently focused on flying the Space Shuttle safely to complete our Space Station obligations, retiring the Shuttle in 2010, then returning humans to the Moon and learning how to proceed to Mars and beyond. The NASA budget still includes funds for science and aeronautics but the primary focus is on human exploration. Fiscal constraints have led to pursuing exploration vehicles that use heritage hardware, particularly existing boosters and engines, with the minimum modifications necessary to satisfy mission requirements. So, pursuit of immature technologies is not currently affordable by NASA. Beamed energy is one example of an immature technology, from a human exploration perspective, that may eventually provide significant benefits for human exploration of space, but likely not in the near future. Looking to the more distant future, this paper will examine some of the criteria that must be achieved by beamed energy propulsion to eventually contribute to human exploration of the solar system. The analysis focuses on some of the implications of increasing the payload fraction of a launch vehicle, with a quick look at trans-lunar injection. As one would expect, there is potential for benefit, and there are concerns. The analysis concludes with an assessment of the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) for some beamed energy propulsion components, indicating that TRL 2 is close to being completed.

  12. An Exploration Perspective of Beamed Energy Propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, John

    2008-04-28

    The Vision for Exploration is currently focused on flying the Space Shuttle safely to complete our Space Station obligations, retiring the Shuttle in 2010, then returning humans to the Moon and learning how to proceed to Mars and beyond. The NASA budget still includes funds for science and aeronautics but the primary focus is on human exploration. Fiscal constraints have led to pursuing exploration vehicles that use heritage hardware, particularly existing boosters and engines, with the minimum modifications necessary to satisfy mission requirements. So, pursuit of immature technologies is not currently affordable by NASA. Beamed energy is one example of an immature technology, from a human exploration perspective, that may eventually provide significant benefits for human exploration of space, but likely not in the near future. Looking to the more distant future, this paper will examine some of the criteria that must be achieved by beamed energy propulsion to eventually contribute to human exploration of the solar system. The analysis focuses on some of the implications of increasing the payload fraction of a launch vehicle, with a quick look at trans-lunar injection. As one would expect, there is potential for benefit, and there are concerns. The analysis concludes with an assessment of the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) for some beamed energy propulsion components, indicating that TRL 2 is close to being completed.

  13. An Exploration Perspective of Beamed Energy Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, John W.

    2007-01-01

    The Vision for Exploration is currently focused on flying the Space Shuttle safely to complete our Space Station obligations, retiring the Shuttle in 2010, then returning humans to the Moon and learning how to proceed to Mars and beyond. The NASA budget still includes funds for science and aeronautics but the primary focus is on human exploration. Fiscal constraints have led to pursuing exploration vehicles that use heritage hardware, particularly existing boosters and engines, with the minimum modifications necessary to satisfy mission requirements. So, pursuit of immature technologies is not currently affordable by NASA. Beamed energy is one example of an immature technology, from a human exploration perspective, that may eventually provide significant benefits for human exploration of space, but likely not in the near future. Looking to the more distant future, this paper will examine some of the criteria that must be achieved by beamed energy propulsion to eventually contribute to human exploration of the solar system. The analysis focuses on some of the implications of increasing the payload fraction of a launch vehicle, with a quick look at trans-lunar injection. As one would expect, there is potential for benefit, and there are concerns. The analysis concludes with an assessment of the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) for some beamed energy propulsion components, indicating that TRL 2 is close to being completed.

  14. Clues for success on examinations.

    PubMed

    Roberts, G H; Davis, L G

    1988-01-01

    To sum up, the best advise is to manage time effectively and efficiently both before and during the examination. The days prior to the examination should be spent in a constructive manner allowing time for institution of good study habits, rest and relaxation. A state of good physical health should be maintained by regular dietary habits, sleep habits, and physical exercise. Students should do their homework and be positive about the outcome. Each individual can provide himself with the best opportunity to pass the examination. PMID:3194508

  15. 46 CFR 189.40-3 - Drydock examination, internal structural examination, cargo tank internal examination, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... that operate in salt water must undergo two drydock and two internal structural examinations within any... operate in fresh water at least six months in every 12 month period since the last drydock examination... five year period regardless of the type of water in which they operate. No more than three years...

  16. 46 CFR 189.40-3 - Drydock examination, internal structural examination, cargo tank internal examination, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... that operate in salt water must undergo two drydock and two internal structural examinations within any... operate in fresh water at least six months in every 12 month period since the last drydock examination... five year period regardless of the type of water in which they operate. No more than three years...

  17. 46 CFR 189.40-3 - Drydock examination, internal structural examination, cargo tank internal examination, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... operate in fresh water at least six months in every 12 month period since the last drydock examination... that operate in salt water must undergo two drydock and two internal structural examinations within any... five year period regardless of the type of water in which they operate. No more than three years...

  18. 46 CFR 189.40-3 - Drydock examination, internal structural examination, cargo tank internal examination, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... operate in fresh water at least six months in every 12 month period since the last drydock examination... that operate in salt water must undergo two drydock and two internal structural examinations within any... five year period regardless of the type of water in which they operate. No more than three years...

  19. Examining the Examiners: How Inexperienced Examiners Approach the Assessment of Research Theses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiley, M.; Mullins, G.

    2004-01-01

    Earlier research by Mullins and Kiley (2002) [Studies in higher education, 27(4), 369-386] reported on the processes that experienced examiners go through when they assess research theses. Since that study two further studies have been undertaken, interviews with novice Australian examiners, reported here, and the analysis of approximately 100…

  20. 46 CFR 189.40-3 - Drydock examination, internal structural examination, cargo tank internal examination, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... that operate in salt water must undergo two drydock and two internal structural examinations within any... operate in fresh water at least six months in every 12 month period since the last drydock examination... five year period regardless of the type of water in which they operate. No more than three years...

  1. Sexual assault examinations and forensic medical samples.

    PubMed

    Ranson, David

    2011-09-01

    Recent studies and a review in the United States have identified that tens of thousands of used but untested sexual assault examination kits containing medical examination specimens are to be found in police station evidence rooms, forensic science laboratories, hospitals and rape crisis centres. A 2007 survey undertaken by the National Institute of Justice in the United States explored some of the reasons why forensic specimens are not tested by forensic science laboratories. Many of these relate to lack of knowledge on the part of investigators as to how scientific information can assist the investigation process, even if not used subsequently at trial. Cost factors and laboratory casework overload were also identified as significant. For the medical practitioner, the lack of testing poses issues that include quality management of the forensic medical examination and informed consent in a setting requiring the balancing of public and private benefits for the examinee. Limiting scientific testing, even with intelligence-led triaging of sample testing, could have an adverse effect on both prosecution and defence decision-making and ultimately could adversely affect trial outcomes. PMID:21988007

  2. History of neurologic examination books

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to create an annotated list of textbooks dedicated to teaching the neurologic examination. Monographs focused primarily on the complete neurologic examination published prior to 1960 were reviewed. This analysis was limited to books with the word “examination” in the title, with exceptions for the texts of Robert Wartenberg and Gordon Holmes. Ten manuals met the criteria. Works dedicated primarily to the neurologic examination without a major emphasis on disease description or treatment first appeared in the early 1900s. Georg Monrad-Krohn's “Blue Book of Neurology” (“Blue Bible”) was the earliest success. These treatises served the important purpose of educating trainees on proper neurologic examination technique. They could make a reputation and be profitable for the author (Monrad-Krohn), highlight how neurology was practiced at individual institutions (McKendree, Denny-Brown, Holmes, DeJong, Mayo Clinic authors), and honor retiring mentors (Mayo Clinic authors). PMID:25829645

  3. Examining Classroom Interactions & Mathematical Discourses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Melva R.

    2009-01-01

    This investigation examined interactions in three classrooms to determine how they influenced Discourses related to mathematics learning and teaching. Mathematics education literature suggests that effective mathematics instruction includes mathematical Discourses. However, effective mathematical Discourses within mathematics classrooms vary…

  4. Physics in NASA Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Callaghan, Fred

    2004-01-01

    The primary focus of the workshop was NASA's new concentration on sending crewed missions to the Moon by 2020, and then on to Mars and beyond. Several speakers, including JPL s Fred O Callaghan and NASA's Mark Lee, broached the problem that there is now a serious reduction of capability to perform experiments in the ISS, or to fly significant mass in microgravity by other means. By 2010, the shuttle fleet will be discontinued and Russian craft will provide the only access to the ISS. O Callaghan stated that the Fundamental Physics budget is being reduced by 70%. LTMPF and LCAP are slated for termination. However, ground-based experiments are continuing to be funded at present, and it will be possible to compete for $80-90 million in new money from the Human Research Initiative (HRI). The new program thrust is for exploration, not fundamental physics. Fundamental, we were told by Lee, does not ring well in Washington these days. Investigators were advised to consider how their work can benefit missions to the Moon and Mars. Work such as that regarding atomic clocks is looked upon with favor, for example, because it is considered important to navigation and planetary GPS. Mark Lee stressed that physicists must convey to NASA senior management that they are able and willing to contribute to the new exploration research programs. The new mentality must be we deliver products, not do research. This program needs to be able to say that it is doing at least 50% exploration-related research. JPL s Ulf Israelsson discussed the implications to OBPR, which will deliver methods and technology to assure human health and performance in extraterrestrial settings. The enterprise will provide advanced life-support systems and technology that are reliable, capable, simpler, less massive, smaller, and energy-efficient, and it may offer other necessary expertise in areas such as low-gravity behavior. Like Dr. Lee, he stated that the focus must be on products, not research. While there

  5. Astrobiology and Venus exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grinspoon, David H.; Bullock, Mark A.

    For hundreds of years prior to the space age, Venus was considered among the most likely homes for extraterrestrial life. Since planetary exploration began, Venus has not been considered a promising target for Astrobiological exploration. However, Venus should be central to such an exploration program for several reasons. At present Venus is the only other Earth-sized terrestrial planet that we know of, and certainly the only one we will have the opportunity to explore in the foreseeable future. Understanding the divergence of Earth and Venus is central to understanding the limits of habitability in the inner regions of habitable zones around solar-type stars. Thus Venus presents us with a unique opportunity for putting the bulk properties, evolution and ongoing geochemical processes of Earth in a wider context. Many geological and meteorological processes otherwise active only on Earth at present are currently active on Venus. Active volcanism most likely affects the climate and chemical equilibrium state of the atmosphere and surface, and maintains the global cloud cover. Further, if we think beyond the specifics of a particular chemical system required to build complexity and heredity, we can ask what general properties a planet must possess in order to be considered a possible candidate for life. The answers might include an atmosphere with signs of flagrant chemical disequilibrium and active, internally driven cycling of volatile elements between the surface, atmosphere and interior. At present, the two planets we know of which possess these characteristics are Earth and Venus. Venus almost surely once had warm, habitable oceans. The evaporation of these oceans, and subsequent escape of hydrogen, most likely resulted in an oxygenated atmosphere. The duration of this phase is poorly understood, but during this time the terrestrial planets were not isolated. Rather, due to frequent impact transport, they represented a continuous environment for early microbial

  6. S8DR shield examination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, D. G.; Mccurnin, W. R.

    1973-01-01

    The SNAP 8 developmental reactor lithium hydride shield was examined after being irradiated for over 7000 hours at relatively low temperature. A crack was located in the seam weld of the containment vessel, probably the result of hot short cracking under thermal stress. The LiH was visually examined at two locations and its appearance was typical of low temperature irradiated LiH. The adherence of the chrome oxide emittance coating was found to be excellent.

  7. Instrumentation for interstellar exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruntman, M.

    The time has arrived for designing, building, and instrumenting a spacecraft for a dedicated foray into interstellar space surrounding our star, the Sun. This region was probed in the past by remote techniques and it will be explored in situ by the Interstellar Probe mission. The mission will significantly advance our understanding of the nature of the local interstellar medium and explore the distant frontier of the solar system by revealing the details of the interaction between the Sun and Galaxy. This mission will also be an important practical step toward interstellar flight of the future. Reaching interstellar space in reasonable time requires high escape velocities and will likely be enabled by non-chemical propulsion such as nuclear-powered electric propulsion or solar sailing. Unusually high spacecraft velocities, enormous distances from the Sun, and non-chemical propulsion will significantly influence the design of the mission, spacecraft and scientific instrumentation. We will review measurement objectives of the first mission into interstellar space and outline constrains on the instrumentation. Measurement of particles, fields, and dust in the interstellar medium will be complemented by search for complex molecules and remote sensing capabilities in various spectral bands. A "look" back at our solar system will also be a glimpse of wh at a flyby mission of the distant future would encounter in approaching another star. The instrumentation for interstellar exploration presents numerous challenges. Mass, telemetry, and power constraints would place a premium on miniaturization and autonom . There are, however,y physical limits on how small the sensors could be. New instrument concepts may be required to achieve the desired measurement capabilities under the stringent constraints of a realistic interstellar mission.

  8. Instrumentation for interstellar exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruntman, Mike

    2004-01-01

    The time has arrived for designing, building, and instrumenting a spacecraft for a dedicated foray into the galactic environment surrounding our star, the sun. This region was probed in the past by remote techniques and it will be explored in situ by the NASA's planned Interstellar Probe mission. The mission will significantly advance our understanding of the nature of the local interstellar medium and explore the distant frontier of the solar system by revealing the details of the interaction between the sun and the Galaxy. This mission will also be an important practical step toward interstellar flight of the future. Reaching interstellar space in reasonable time requires high escape velocities and will likely be enabled by non-chemical propulsion such as nuclear-powered electric propulsion or solar sailing. Unusually high spacecraft velocities, enormous distances from the Sun, and non-chemical propulsion will significantly influence design of the mission, spacecraft, and scientific instrumentation. We will review measurement objectives of the first dedicated mission into interstellar space and outline constraints on the instrumentation. Measurement of particles, fields, and dust in the interstellar medium will be complemented by search for complex organic molecules and remote sensing capabilities in various spectral bands. A "look" back at our solar system will also be a glimpse of what a truly-interstellar mission of the distant future would encounter in approaching a target star. The instrumentation for interstellar exploration presents numerous challenges. Mass, telemetry, and power constraints would place a premium on miniaturization and autonomy. There are, however, physical limits on how small the sensors could be. New instrument concepts may be required to achieve the desired measurement capabilities under the stringent constraints of a realistic interstellar mission.

  9. NASA's Exoplanet Exploration Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devirian, Michael

    2009-01-01

    September 24, 2008 NASA has established the Exoplanet Exploration Program (ExEP) to conduct scientific investigations in one of the most exciting new fields of astronomy, the exploration and characterization of planets around other stars in search of those that might show signs of harboring life. In this paper, we will describe that program and how it is expected to work. Key to success in this field is the advancement of optical capabilities to unprecedented levels of precision and stability. The technology program conducted by ExEP will strive to achieve these advancements to enable near-term moderate scale missions and eventually lead to large flagship-class missions that will deeply probe the most promising earth-like planets for signs of biogenic activity. Significant opportunities for community participation in technology development will be available through NASA research solicitations that will call for technology advancements in specific areas. These developments will focus on challenges posed by a strategy for the progression of scientific investigations developed by the science community through bodies such as the Exoplanet Task Force, the Exoplanet Science Forum and ultimately the NRC Decadal Survey. ExEP will be advised in its tactical implementation of this strategy by Exoplanet Program Analysis Group (ExoPAG), which will engage a broad segment of the community in deliberation and then focus its reports through a core group appointed by NASA HQ. The coming decade offers opportunities for continued exoplanet investigations through ground observations, sub-orbital platforms and moderate scale space missions, and the anticipated process and timing of these opportunities will be described. The Exoplanet Exploration Program is managed for NASA at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology.

  10. The Cosmic Background Explorer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gulkis, Samuel; Lubin, Philip M.; Meyer, Stephan S.; Silverberg, Robert F.

    1990-01-01

    The Cosmic Background Explorer (CBE), NASA's cosmological satellite which will observe a radiative relic of the big bang, is discussed. The major questions connected to the big bang theory which may be clarified using the CBE are reviewed. The satellite instruments and experiments are described, including the Differential Microwave Radiometer, which measures the difference between microwave radiation emitted from two points on the sky, the Far-Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer, which compares the spectrum of radiation from the sky at wavelengths from 100 microns to one cm with that from an internal blackbody, and the Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment, which searches for the radiation from the earliest generation of stars.

  11. Zeolites: Exploring Molecular Channels

    SciTech Connect

    Arslan, Ilke; Derewinski, Mirek

    2015-05-22

    Synthetic zeolites contain microscopic channels, sort of like a sponge. They have many uses, such as helping laundry detergent lather, absorbing liquid in kitty litter, and as catalysts to produce fuel. Of the hundreds of types of zeolites, only about 15 are used for catalysis. PNNL catalysis scientists Ilke Arslan and Mirek Derewinksi are studying these zeolites to understand what make them special. By exploring the mystery of these microscopic channels, their fundamental findings will help design better catalysts for applications such as biofuel production.

  12. Exploring Existence Value

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madariaga, Bruce; McConnell, Kenneth E.

    1987-05-01

    The notion that individuals value the preservation of water resources independent of their own use of these resources is discussed. Issues in defining this value, termed "existence value," are explored. Economic models are employed to assess the role of existence value in benefit-cost analysis. The motives underlying existence value are shown to matter to contingent valuation measurement of existence benefits. A stylized contingent valuation experiment is used to study nonusers' attitudes regarding projects to improve water quality in the Chesapeake Bay. Survey results indicate that altruism is one of the motives underlying existence value and that goods other than environmental and natural resources may provide existence benefits.

  13. Time Series Explorer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loredo, Thomas

    The key, central objectives of the proposed Time Series Explorer project are to develop an organized collection of software tools for analysis of time series data in current and future NASA astrophysics data archives, and to make the tools available in two ways: as a library (the Time Series Toolbox) that individual science users can use to write their own data analysis pipelines, and as an application (the Time Series Automaton) providing an accessible, data-ready interface to many Toolbox algorithms, facilitating rapid exploration and automatic processing of time series databases. A number of time series analysis methods will be implemented, including techniques that range from standard ones to state-of-the-art developments by the proposers and others. Most of the algorithms will be able to handle time series data subject to real-world problems such as data gaps, sampling that is otherwise irregular, asynchronous sampling (in multi-wavelength settings), and data with non-Gaussian measurement errors. The proposed research responds to the ADAP element supporting the development of tools for mining the vast reservoir of information residing in NASA databases. The tools that will be provided to the community of astronomers studying variability of astronomical objects (from nearby stars and extrasolar planets, through galactic and extragalactic sources) will revolutionize the quality of timing analyses that can be carried out, and greatly enhance the scientific throughput of all NASA astrophysics missions past, present, and future. The Automaton will let scientists explore time series - individual records or large data bases -- with the most informative and useful analysis methods available, without having to develop the tools themselves or understand the computational details. Both elements, the Toolbox and the Automaton, will enable deep but efficient exploratory time series data analysis, which is why we have named the project the Time Series Explorer. Science

  14. Dynamics explorer guest investigator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sojka, J. J.

    1985-01-01

    The use of Dynamics Explorer (DE) data sets to model the auroral inputs for the time dependent ionospheric model (TDIM) is reported. The modelling requires DE-1 SAI images and simultaneous DE-2 LAPI particle data. The data sets allow the large scale relative auroral variations and local absolute energy flexes and characteristics energies to be defined. The images enabled global scale auroral modelling with 12 min. time resolution and the LAPI data presented a detailed energy flux and characteristic energy calibration of the image model. The auroral model is used as an input to the TDIM and studies ionospheric storms.

  15. Lunar Hydrospheric Explorer (HYDROX)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, J. F.; Paschalidis, N.; Sittler, E. C., Jr.; Jones, S. L.; Stubbs, T. J.; Sarantos, M.; Khurana, K. K.; Angelopoulos, V.; Jordan, A. P.; Schwadron, N. A.

    2015-01-01

    The Lunar Hydrospheric Explorer (HYDROX) is a 6U CubeSat designed to further confirm the existence of lunar exospheric water, and to determine source processes and surface sites, through ion mass spectrometer measurements of water group (O+, OH+, H2O+) and related ions at energy charge up to 2 keV/e. and mass/charge 1-40amu/e. HYDROX would follow up on the now-concluded exospheric compositional measurements by the Neutral Mass Spectrometer on the NASA LADEE mission and on other remote sensing surface and exospheric measurements (LADEE,LRO, etc.).

  16. Exploration Medical System Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubin, D. A.; Watkins, S. D.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Exploration class missions will present significant new challenges and hazards to the health of the astronauts. Regardless of the intended destination, beyond low Earth orbit a greater degree of crew autonomy will be required to diagnose medical conditions, develop treatment plans, and implement procedures due to limited communications with ground-based personnel. SCOPE: The Exploration Medical System Demonstration (EMSD) project will act as a test bed on the International Space Station (ISS) to demonstrate to crew and ground personnel that an end-to-end medical system can assist clinician and non-clinician crew members in optimizing medical care delivery and data management during an exploration mission. Challenges facing exploration mission medical care include limited resources, inability to evacuate to Earth during many mission phases, and potential rendering of medical care by non-clinicians. This system demonstrates the integration of medical devices and informatics tools for managing evidence and decision making and can be designed to assist crewmembers in nominal, non-emergent situations and in emergent situations when they may be suffering from performance decrements due to environmental, physiological or other factors. PROJECT OBJECTIVES: The objectives of the EMSD project are to: a. Reduce or eliminate the time required of an on-orbit crew and ground personnel to access, transfer, and manipulate medical data. b. Demonstrate that the on-orbit crew has the ability to access medical data/information via an intuitive and crew-friendly solution to aid in the treatment of a medical condition. c. Develop a common data management framework that can be ubiquitously used to automate repetitive data collection, management, and communications tasks for all activities pertaining to crew health and life sciences. d. Ensure crew access to medical data during periods of restricted ground communication. e. Develop a common data management framework that

  17. Airships for Planetary Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colozza, Anthony

    2004-01-01

    The feasibility of utilizing an airship for planetary atmospheric exploration was assessed. The environmental conditions of the planets and moons within our solar system were evaluated to determine their applicability for airship flight. A station-keeping mission of 50 days in length was used as the baseline mission. Airship sizing was performed utilizing both solar power and isotope power to meet the baseline mission goal at the selected planetary location. The results show that an isotope-powered airship is feasible within the lower atmosphere of Venus and Saturn s moon Titan.

  18. Gas pipe explorer robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, Brian (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A gas pipe explorer formed of a plurality of connecting elements, and an articulation element between the connected elements. The connected elements include drive capabilities, and the articulation element allows the connected elements to traverse gas pipes of arbitrary shapes and sizes. A sensor may sends the characteristics of the gas pipe, and the communication element may send back those sends characteristics. The communication can be wired, over a tether connecting the device to a remote end. Alternatively, the connection can be wireless, driven by either a generator or a battery.

  19. Lunar Hydrospheric Explorer (HYDROX)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, J. F.; Paschalidis, N.; Sittler, E. C.; Jones, S. L.; Stubbs, T. J.; Sarantos, M.; Khurana, K. K.; Angelopoulos, V.; Jordan, A. P.; Schwadron, N. A.

    2015-10-01

    The Lunar Hydrospheric Explorer (HYDROX) is a 6U CubeSat designed to further confirm the existence of lunar exospheric water, and to determine source processes and surface sites, through ion mass spectrometer measurements of water group (O+, OH+, H2O+) and related ions at energy/charge up to 2 keV/e. and mass/charge 1 - 40 amu/e. HYDROX would follow up on the now-concluded exospheric compositional measurements by the Neutral Mass Spectrometer on the NASA LADEE mission and on other remote sensing surface and exospheric measurements (LADEE, LRO, etc.).

  20. Exploring Crossing Differential Item Functioning by Gender in Mathematics Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ong, Yoke Mooi; Williams, Julian; Lamprianou, Iasonas

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore crossing differential item functioning (DIF) in a test drawn from a national examination of mathematics for 11-year-old pupils in England. An empirical dataset was analyzed to explore DIF by gender in a mathematics assessment. A two-step process involving the logistic regression (LR) procedure for…

  1. Profiles of Identity Exploration and Commitment across Domains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartoszuk, Karin; Pittman, Joe F.

    2010-01-01

    We examined the relationships between family structure, gender and age and profiles of identity exploration and commitment in the ideological (occupation, values, politics, religion, gender roles) and interpersonal identity (dating, friendships, and family) domains among 388 young adults. The general profile revealed low exploration in both…

  2. A survey of candidate missions to explore Saturn's rings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wells, W. C.; Price, M. J.

    1972-01-01

    The ring system around Saturn is discussed. Exploration of the rings is required for an understanding of their origin and the hazard they represent to spacecraft near Saturn. In addition the rings may provide useful clues to the origin of the solar system. This study examines the problem of ring system exploration and recommends a sequence of missions which will collect the data required.

  3. Exploring Shop Window Displays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christopoulou, Martha

    2011-01-01

    Using visual resources from everyday life in art lessons can enrich students' knowledge about the creation of visual images, artifacts, and sites, and develop their critical understanding about the cultural impact of these images and their effects on people's lives. Through examining an exhibition in the windows of Selfridges department store in…

  4. Exploring the Industrial Subculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Barry A.

    This book is an attempt to create a theoretical vocabulary for those who believe that the sociology of industrial organizations should concern itself with discovering the ways in which people in industry define their life-position and with examining the collective and organizational consequences of these views which they hold of themselves. Using…

  5. Exploring Inclusive Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florian, Lani; Black-Hawkins, Kristine

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on a study designed to examine teachers' craft knowledge of their practice of "inclusion" in terms of what they do, why and how. The research approach offers an important alternative to studies of students with "additional needs" and the search to articulate the specialist knowledge and skill required to teach them. Through…

  6. Exploring Home Schooling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyer, Wanda A. R.

    2002-01-01

    Examines concerns expressed by home-schooling parents in the context of guidelines of the World Organization for Early Childhood Education and the Association for Childhood Education International. Connects guidelines to recent literature to suggest effective strategies for meeting parental needs and responding to the diverse responsibilities of…

  7. The Galaxy Evolution Explorer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Christopher; Barlow, Thomas; Barnhart, William; Bianchi, Luciana; Blakkolb, Brian K.; Bruno, Dominique; Bushman, Joseph; Byun, Yong-Ik; Chiville, Michael; Conrow, Timothy; Cooke, Brian; Donas, Jose; Fanson, James L.; Forster, Karl; Friedman, Peter G.; Grange, Robert; Griffiths, David; Heckman, Timothy; Lee, James; Jelinsky, Patrick N.; Kim, Sug-Whan; Lee, Siu-Chun; Lee, Young-Wook; Liu, Dankai; Madore, Barry F.; Malina, Roger; Mazer, Alan; McLean, Ryan; Milliard, Bruno; Mitchell, William; Morais, Marco; Morrissey, Patrick F.; Neff, Susan G.; Raison, Frederic; Randall, David; Rich, Michael; Schiminovich, David; Schmitigal, Wes; Sen, Amit; Siegmund, Oswald H. W.; Small, Todd; Stock, Joseph M.; Surber, Frank; Szalay, Alexander; Vaughan, Arthur H.; Weigand, Timothy; Welsh, Barry Y.; Wu, Patrick; Wyder, Ted; Xu, C. Kevin; Zsoldas, Jennifer

    2003-02-01

    The Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX), a NASA Small Explorer Mission planned for launch in Fall 2002, will perform the first Space Ultraviolet sky survey. Five imaging surveys in each of two bands (1350-1750Å and 1750-2800Å) will range from an all-sky survey (limit mAB~20-21) to an ultra-deep survey of 4 square degrees (limit mAB~26). Three spectroscopic grism surveys (R=100-300) will be performed with various depths (mAB~20-25) and sky coverage (100 to 2 square degrees) over the 1350-2800Å band. The instrument includes a 50 cm modified Ritchey-Chrétien telescope, a dichroic beam splitter and astigmatism corrector, two large sealed tube microchannel plate detectors to simultaneously cover the two bands and the 1.2 degree field of view. A rotating wheel provides either imaging or grism spectroscopy with transmitting optics. We will use the measured UV properties of local galaxies, along with corollary observations, to calibrate the UV-global star formation rate relationship in galaxies. We will apply this calibration to distant galaxies discovered in the deep imaging and spectroscopic surveys to map the history of star formation in the universe over the red shift range zero to two. The GALEX mission will include an Associate Investigator program for additional observations and supporting data analysis. This will support a wide variety of investigations made possible by the first UV sky survey.

  8. Exploring Metric Symmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Zwart, P.H.; Grosse-Kunstleve, R.W.; Adams, P.D.

    2006-07-31

    Relatively minor perturbations to a crystal structure can in some cases result in apparently large changes in symmetry. Changes in space group or even lattice can be induced by heavy metal or halide soaking (Dauter et al, 2001), flash freezing (Skrzypczak-Jankun et al, 1996), and Se-Met substitution (Poulsen et al, 2001). Relations between various space groups and lattices can provide insight in the underlying structural causes for the symmetry or lattice transformations. Furthermore, these relations can be useful in understanding twinning and how to efficiently solve two different but related crystal structures. Although (pseudo) symmetric properties of a certain combination of unit cell parameters and a space group are immediately obvious (such as a pseudo four-fold axis if a is approximately equal to b in an orthorhombic space group), other relations (e.g. Lehtio, et al, 2005) that are less obvious might be crucial to the understanding and detection of certain idiosyncrasies of experimental data. We have developed a set of tools that allows straightforward exploration of possible metric symmetry relations given unit cell parameters and a space group. The new iotbx.explore{_}metric{_}symmetry command produces an overview of the various relations between several possible point groups for a given lattice. Methods for finding relations between a pair of unit cells are also available. The tools described in this newsletter are part of the CCTBX libraries, which are included in the latest (versions July 2006 and up) PHENIX and CCI Apps distributions.

  9. Mars Exploration Rover mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crisp, Joy A.; Adler, Mark; Matijevic, Jacob R.; Squyres, Steven W.; Arvidson, Raymond E.; Kass, David M.

    2003-10-01

    In January 2004 the Mars Exploration Rover mission will land two rovers at two different landing sites that show possible evidence for past liquid-water activity. The spacecraft design is based on the Mars Pathfinder configuration for cruise and entry, descent, and landing. Each of the identical rovers is equipped with a science payload of two remote-sensing instruments that will view the surrounding terrain from the top of a mast, a robotic arm that can place three instruments and a rock abrasion tool on selected rock and soil samples, and several onboard magnets and calibration targets. Engineering sensors and components useful for science investigations include stereo navigation cameras, stereo hazard cameras in front and rear, wheel motors, wheel motor current and voltage, the wheels themselves for digging, gyros, accelerometers, and reference solar cell readings. Mission operations will allow commanding of the rover each Martian day, or sol, on the basis of the previous sol's data. Over a 90-sol mission lifetime, the rovers are expected to drive hundreds of meters while carrying out field geology investigations, exploration, and atmospheric characterization. The data products will be delivered to the Planetary Data System as integrated batch archives.

  10. Exploration Supply Chain Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Exploration Supply Chain Simulation project was chartered by the NASA Exploration Systems Mission Directorate to develop a software tool, with proper data, to quantitatively analyze supply chains for future program planning. This tool is a discrete-event simulation that uses the basic supply chain concepts of planning, sourcing, making, delivering, and returning. This supply chain perspective is combined with other discrete or continuous simulation factors. Discrete resource events (such as launch or delivery reviews) are represented as organizational functional units. Continuous resources (such as civil service or contractor program functions) are defined as enabling functional units. Concepts of fixed and variable costs are included in the model to allow the discrete events to interact with cost calculations. The definition file is intrinsic to the model, but a blank start can be initiated at any time. The current definition file is an Orion Ares I crew launch vehicle. Parameters stretch from Kennedy Space Center across and into other program entities (Michaud Assembly Facility, Aliant Techsystems, Stennis Space Center, Johnson Space Center, etc.) though these will only gain detail as the file continues to evolve. The Orion Ares I file definition in the tool continues to evolve, and analysis from this tool is expected in 2008. This is the first application of such business-driven modeling to a NASA/government-- aerospace contractor endeavor.

  11. Astrobiology and Venus exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grinspoon, David H.; Bullock, Mark A.

    For hundreds of years prior to the space age, Venus was considered among the most likely homes for extraterrestrial life. Since planetary exploration began, Venus has not been considered a promising target for Astrobiological exploration. However, Venus should be central to such an exploration program for several reasons. At present Venus is the only other Earth-sized terrestrial planet that we know of, and certainly the only one we will have the opportunity to explore in the foreseeable future. Understanding the divergence of Earth and Venus is central to understanding the limits of habitability in the inner regions of habitable zones around solar-type stars. Thus Venus presents us with a unique opportunity for putting the bulk properties, evolution and ongoing geochemical processes of Earth in a wider context. Many geological and meteorological processes otherwise active only on Earth at present are currently active on Venus. Active volcanism most likely affects the climate and chemical equilibrium state of the atmosphere and surface, and maintains the global cloud cover. Further, if we think beyond the specifics of a particular chemical system required to build complexity and heredity, we can ask what general properties a planet must possess in order to be considered a possible candidate for life. The answers might include an atmosphere with signs of flagrant chemical disequilibrium and active, internally driven cycling of volatile elements between the surface, atmosphere and interior. At present, the two planets we know of which possess these characteristics are Earth and Venus. Venus almost surely once had warm, habitable oceans. The evaporation of these oceans, and subsequent escape of hydrogen, most likely resulted in an oxygenated atmosphere. The duration of this phase is poorly understood, but during this time the terrestrial planets were not isolated. Rather, due to frequent impact transport, they represented a continuous environment for early microbial

  12. Exploring for Martian Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farmer, Jack D.

    1997-04-01

    During the coming decade, robotic field science will play a fundamental role in advancing our understanding of the history of Mars. In particular, capable rovers are needed to survey a broad array of Martian rock types for in situ mineralogy and chemistry as a basis for interpreting globally-distributed remote sensing data obtained from orbit. The interplay between orbital and landed science will be fundamental in selecting sites for future missions aimed at exploring the ancient rock record for evidence of A) past life or prebiotic chemistry, B) the volatile and climate history of Mars, and C) materials for in situ resource utilization. The recent suggestion of evidence for life in the Martian meteorite, ALH84001 (McKay, D.S., E.K. Gibson, K.L. Thomas-Keprta, H. Vali, C.S. Romanek, S.J. Clemett, X.D.F. Chillier, C.R. Maechling, R.N. Zare. 1996. Search for past life on Mars: Possible relic biogenic activity in Martian meteorite ALH84001. Science) 273, 924-930has placed Exobiology in a more central position in the Mars exploration (The Search for Evidence of Life on Mars. Unpublished report, Mars Expeditions Strategy Group, 1996.)

  13. Religion and Lunar Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pop, V.

    1969: The Eagle lands on the Moon. A moment that would not only mark the highest scientific achievement of all times, but would also have significant religious impli- cations. While the island of Bali lodges a protest at the United Nations against the US for desecrating a sacred place, Hopi Indians celebrate the fulfilment of an ancient prophecy that would reveal the "truth of the Sacred Ways". The plaque fastened to the Eagle - "We Came in Peace for All Mankind" would have contained the words "under God" as directed by the US president, if not for an assistant administrator at NASA that did not want to offend any religion. In the same time, Buzz Aldrin takes the Holy Communion on the Moon, and a Bible is left there by another Apollo mission - not long after the crew of Apollo 8 reads a passage from Genesis while circling the Moon. 1998: Navajo Indians lodge a protest with NASA for placing human ashes aboard the Lunar Prospector, as the Moon is a sacred place in their religion. Past, present and fu- ture exploration of the Moon has significant religious and spiritual implications that, while not widely known, are nonetheless important. Is lunar exploration a divine duty, or a sacrilege? This article will feature and thoroughly analyse the examples quoted above, as well as other facts, as for instance the plans of establishing lunar cemeteries - welcomed by some religions, and opposed by others.

  14. NSB endorses Explorer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    The National Science Board (NSB) recently voted to endorse a program of scientific ocean drilling that would replace the 14-yearold Glomar Challenger with the Glomar Explorer as the pillar of scientific drilling. This vote by the policymaking arm of the National Science Foundation (NSF) gives another boost to the proposed drilling plan. The plan also has the blessings of the Conference on Scientific Ocean Drilling (COSOD) and of the National Academy of Sciences' Committee on Ocean Drilling.NSF now will approach the Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) and the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) to request that $9 million of NSF funds be transferred to the Advanced Ocean Drilling (AOD) program in fiscal 1983 for the next design stages for the Explorer (Eos, March 2, 1982, p. 179). With the support of NSB, COSOD, and the NAS committee, the request goes to OSTP and OMB with strong backing. If OSTP and OMB give the transfer the green light, Congress will review the request.

  15. UWC geothermal resource exploration

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    A program was developed to explore the strength of the geothermal and hot dry rock (HDR) resource at the Montezuma Hot Springs at the United World College (UWC). The purpose of the UWC {number_sign}1 well is to obtain hydrologic, geologic, and temperature information for ongoing geothermal evaluation of the Montezuma Hot Springs area. If sufficient fluids are encountered, the hole will be cased with a 4 1/2 inch production casing and re-permitted as a geothermal low-temperature well. If no fluid is encountered, the well will be abandoned per Oil Conservation Division regulation. The objectives of the exploration are to evaluate the resource potential to provide space heating for the entire campus of the United World College, determine the effect of a well on the Hot Springs outflow, accurately measure the UWC heating loads versus time, evaluate the potential to support local thermal industry development, assess the feasibility of HDR development, and create an educational program from the collection of data derived from the research effort.

  16. The planetary exploration programme after two decades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, J. N.

    1981-01-01

    The possible future of the United States program of planetary exploration in the next two decades is examined. The scientific goals and strategy for the exploration of the solar system outside of the earth-moon system are outlined, and the increasing cost effectiveness (per bit of data returned) of the first two decades of space exploration is pointed out. Attention is then given to the next two missions which are currently authorized and under development, the Galileo Jupiter orbiter and descent probe mission and the International Solar Polar Mission, and to possible missions for the next two decades, which would require additional thrust capabilities, including cometary missions, the Venus Orbiting Imaging Radar mission, a follow-on solar probe mission, a Saturn-Titan dual probe, and a Mars sample return mission.

  17. Baseline antenna design for space exploration initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Y. L.; Nasir, M. A.; Lee, S. W.; Zaman, Afroz

    1993-01-01

    A key element of the future NASA Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) mission is the lunar and Mars telecommunication system. This system will provide voice, image, and data transmission to monitor unmanned missions to conduct experiments, and to provide radiometric data for navigation. In the later half of 1991, a study was conducted on antennas for the Mars Exploration Communication. Six antenna configurations were examined: three reflector and three phased array. The conclusion was that due to wide-angle scan requirement, and multiple simultaneous tracking beams, phased arrays are more suitable. For most part, this report studies phased array antenna designs for two different applications for Space Exploration Initiative. It also studies one design for a tri-reflector type antenna. These antennas will be based on a Mars orbiting satellite.

  18. Mini-rovers for Mars explorations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, David P.

    1990-01-01

    Rovers are desirable for surface exploration because they allow sampling, and sample returns from several diverse locations on a planet's surface. Unfortunately, the rovers currently being examined for Mars exploration have several undesirable features. These rovers are quite massive (500 kg to one ton), have very complicated operations, and are very expensive. A possible alternative is described to using large rovers for exploring the surface of Mars. The idea of mini-rovers is proposed. Mini-rovers weigh less than 5 kg, are trivial to control from the ground, and can do a more thorough survey of the terrain (per kilogram of mass) than can be obtained by large rovers. By redesigning the Mars sample return mission to accommodate the idea of mini-rovers and small spacecraft, considerable mass and cost savings can be achieved.

  19. Cerro Prieto geothermal field: exploration during exploitation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-07-01

    Geological investigations at Momotombo included photogeology, field mapping, binocular microscope examination of cuttings, and drillhole correlations. Among the geophysical techniques used to investigate the field sub-structure were: Schlumberger and electromagnetic soundings, dipole mapping and audio-magnetotelluric surveys, gravity and magnetic measurements, frequency domain soundings, self-potential surveys, and subsurface temperature determinations. The geochemical program analyzed the thermal fluids of the surface and in the wells. The description and results of exploration methods used during the investigative stages of the Momotombo Geothermal Field are presented. A conceptual model of the geothermal field was drawn from the information available at each exploration phase. The exploration methods have been evaluated with respect to their contributions to the understanding of the field and their utilization in planning further development.

  20. Vicarious Trauma Among Sexual Assault Nurse Examiners.

    PubMed

    Raunick, Cara Berg; Lindell, Deborah F; Morris, Diana Lynn; Backman, Theresa

    2015-01-01

    Vicarious trauma (VT), the phenomenon of changes in cognition and worldview that result from empathic response and repeated exposure to narratives of trauma, is a risk for helping professionals. This descriptive, correlational study sought to examine levels of VT among sexual assault nurse examiners (SANEs) as compared with other women's health nurses. It also explored whether levels of VT are different for nurses who have experienced primary trauma alone, VT alone, or both personal trauma and VT. VT was assessed through an anonymous online survey using the nurses' total scores on the Trauma and Attachment Belief Scale. Trauma and Attachment Belief Scale scores were significantly higher for SANEs (M = 178.5, SD = 42.6) than for women's health nurses (M = 168.1, SD = 41.4; p = 0.025), indicating higher levels of trauma-related cognitive disruption in the SANE group. Scores were also significantly higher for both groups with personal trauma histories at the p < 0.05 level compared with the women's health nurses with no personal history. SANEs who had no personal history of trauma did not differ significantly from either group of nurses who did, suggesting that VT from working as an SANE is associated with levels of cognitive disruption similar to oneself having experienced trauma. Nurses should be aware of this phenomenon and its sequelae when choosing to pursue the specialty of sexual assault nursing. Hospitals and other organizations employing SANEs should also be aware of VT and provide a support system with resources in place to mitigate these effects. Future research should further explore effects of primary trauma versus VT, clinical manifestations and significance of varying levels of VT, and interventions and strategies for dealing with VT. PMID:26226351

  1. NASA Robotics for Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, RIchard T.

    2007-01-01

    This presentation focuses on NASA's use of robotics in support of space exploration. The content was taken from public available websites in an effort to minimize any ITAR or EAR issues. The agenda starts with an introduction to NASA and the "Vision for Space Exploration" followed by NASA's major areas of robotic use: Robotic Explorers, Astronaut Assistants, Space Vehicle, Processing, and In-Space Workhorse (space infrastructure). Pictorials and movies of NASA robots in use by the major NASA programs: Space Shuttle, International Space Station, current Solar Systems Exploration and Mars Exploration, and future Lunar Exploration are throughout the presentation.

  2. The Solar System: Recent Exploration Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.

    2006-01-01

    The solar system has been visited by space probes, ranging from the Mariner Mercury-Venus mission exploring inward toward the sun, and continuing through the Voyager probes out into interstellar space and (on its way now) the New Horizons probe to Pluto and the Kuiper belt. This talk examines what we know of the planets of the solar system from probes, and talks about where we will go from here.

  3. Sustainable and Autonomic Space Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinchey, Michael G.; Sterritt, Roy; Rouff, Christopher; Rash, James L.; Truszkowski, Walter

    2006-01-01

    Visions for future space exploration have long term science missions in sight, resulting in the need for sustainable missions. Survivability is a critical property of sustainable systems and may be addressed through autonomicity, an emerging paradigm for self-management of future computer-based systems based on inspiration from the human autonomic nervous system. This paper examines some of the ongoing research efforts to realize these survivable systems visions, with specific emphasis on developments in Autonomic Policies.

  4. Human exploration of space and power development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Aaron

    1991-01-01

    The possible role of Solar Power Satellites (SPS) in advancing the goals of the Space Exploration Initiative is considered. Three approaches are examined: (1) the use of lunar raw materials to construct a large SPS in GEO, (2) the construction of a similar system on the lunar surface, and (3) a combination of (1) and (2). Emphasis is given to the mining of He-3 from the moon and its use by the SPS.

  5. Apollo scientific exploration of the moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Compton, W. D.

    1987-01-01

    The fundamental dichotomy of space exploration, unmanned versus manned projects, is discussed from an historical perspective. The integration of science into Apollo operations is examined with attention given to landing sites, extending the missions, and crew selection. A Science Working Group composed of scientists and Manned Spacecraft Center flight planners was formed in an attempt to produce the most scientific information possible within those operational limits that were considered absolutely inviolable.

  6. Curriculum Type as a Differentiating Factor in Medical Licensing Examinations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Linjun

    This study assessed the effects of the type of medical curriculum on differential item functioning (DIF) and group differences at the test level in Level 1 of the Comprehensive Osteopathic Medical Licensing Examinations (COMLEX). The study also explored the relationship of the DIF and group differences at the test level. There are generally two…

  7. Partying before the Party: Examining Prepartying Behavior among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedersen, Eric R.; LaBrie, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The authors examined the phenomenon known to college students as "prepartying," which is the consumption of alcohol prior to attending an event or activity (eg, party, bar, concert) at which more alcohol may be consumed. Participants: To explore the extent of this behavior, the authors surveyed 227 college students about each drinking…

  8. Examining Activism in Practice: A Qualitative Study of Archival Activism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novak, Joy Rainbow

    2013-01-01

    While archival literature has increasingly discussed activism in the context of archives, there has been little examination of the extent to which archivists in the field have accepted or incorporated archival activism into practice. Scholarship that has explored the practical application of archival activism has predominately focused on case…

  9. Re-Examining Conceptual Boundaries: Peer and Intergenerational Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chappell, Neena L.

    1980-01-01

    Reviews existing gerontological literature, pointing to the prevailing familial, nonfamilial distinction, and presents an argument for drawing conceptual boundaries along peer, intergenerational lines. Explores the potential utility of this distinction by examining home care, to draw attention to a potentially useful distinction which has been…

  10. The End of Handwriting? Using Computers in Traditional Essay Examinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mogey, N.; Sarab, G.; Haywood, J.; van Heyningen, S.; Dewhurst, D.; Hounsell, D.; Neilson, R.

    2008-01-01

    Most of our students complete most of their written assignments using a word processor, but they are still asked to handwrite responses in an examination. It could be argued that they have not practiced this task and the validity of the assessment could thus be questioned. This paper explores the possibility of bringing computers into the…

  11. On Being Examined: Do Students and Faculty Agree?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perrella, Andrew; Koenig, Joshua; Kwon, Henry; Nastos, Stash; Rangachari, P. K.

    2015-01-01

    Students measure out their lives, not with coffee spoons, but with grades on examinations. But what exams mean and whether or not they are a bane or a boon is moot. Senior undergraduates (A. Perrella, J. Koenig, and H. Kwon) designed and administered a 15-item survey that explored the contrasting perceptions of both students (n = 526) and faculty…

  12. Examining Variables Related to Successful Collaboration on the Hospice Team

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker-Oliver, Debra; Bronstein, Laura R.; Kurzejeski, Lori

    2005-01-01

    Although social work participation on interdisciplinary teams is long-standing, little research has been done to examine its effectiveness. This study used the Index of Interdisciplinary Collaboration to explore relationships between selected variables and teamwork in the hospice setting. The findings indicate that hospice social workers report a…

  13. "Mem's the Word": Examining the Writing of Mem Fox.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilles, Carol

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on the work of Mem Fox. Explores Fox's life in order to better understand her work; examines books she has written for teachers and for parents; and reviews her children's books, emphasizing children's and teachers comments. Looks at best-loved books, bedtime books, predictable books for early readers, books that play with language, and…

  14. An Examination of Addiction Treatment Completion by Gender and Ethnicity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Connie R.; Lorah, Peggy

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the discharge status of all clients admitted to an intensive outpatient facility over the course of 1 year, specifically exploring differences based on client gender and ethnicity. The article also argues the need for more culturally sensitive addiction treatment and addresses some alternative approaches. The purpose of the…

  15. [Radiological examinations that have disappeared].

    PubMed

    Puylaert, Carl B A J; Puylaert, Julien B C M

    2011-01-01

    If a radiologist from 1950 could travel in time to 2011, he or she would be baffled to see how few of the radiological examinations he was familiar with, remain. We review the radiological examinations that have disappeared since X-rays were discovered, and include the causes of their disappearance. Barium studies have mainly been replaced by endoscopy, oral cholecystography by ultrasound, and intravenous urography by CT-scan. Angiography by means of a direct puncture of carotid artery and aorta has been replaced by Seldinger angiography. Pneumencephalography and myelography have been replaced by CT and MRI. Bronchography has been replaced by bronchoscopy and CT-scan, arthrography by MRI and arthroscopy. Many other radiological examinations have been replaced by ultrasound, CT or MRI. PMID:21447222

  16. Exploring Seafloor Volcanoes in Cyberspace: NOAA's "Ocean Explorer" Inspires Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hjelm, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Seafloor exploration being done by scientists is an ideal way to introduce students to technology as a tool for inquiry. The same technology that allows scientists to share data in near real time can also provide students the tools to become researchers. NOAA's Ocean Explorer Explorations website is a rich research data bank that can be used by…

  17. [Diagnosis. History and physical examination].

    PubMed

    Pérez Martín, Álvaro

    2014-01-01

    Family physicians play a key role in the diagnosis and management of patients with osteoarthritis. Diagnosis is mainly clinical and radiological. A complete history should be taken with meticulous physical examination of the joints. The history-taking should aim to detect risk factors and compatible clinical symptoms. Pain characteristics should be identified, distinguishing between mechanical and inflammatory pain, and an exhaustive examination of the joints should be performed, with evaluation of the presence of pain, deformity, mobility restrictions (both active and passive), crepitus, joint effusion, and inflammation. A differential diagnosis should be made with all diseases that affect the joints and/or produce joint stiffness. PMID:24467956

  18. Physical examination. Frequently observed errors.

    PubMed

    Wiener, S; Nathanson, M

    1976-08-16

    A method allowing for direct observation of intern and resident physicians while interviewing and examining patients has been in use on our medical wards for the last five years. A large number of errors in the performance of the medical examination by young physicians were noted and a classification of these errors into those of technique, omission, detection, interpretation, and recording was made. An approach to detection and correction of each of these kinds of errors is presented, as well as a discussion of possible reasons for the occurrence of these errors in physician performance. PMID:947266

  19. ELECTROMYOGRAPHIC EXAMINATION IN THE OFFICE

    PubMed Central

    Golseth, James G.

    1957-01-01

    During a recent 12-month period, a total of 560 patients were referred for electromyographic examinations. They were sent by orthopedic surgeons, neurosurgeons, internists, general practitioners, neuropsychiatrists and practitioners of physical medicine. Orthopedic surgeons referred more than any other specialists. Results of examination of patients referred because of suspicion of root compression were much more often negative than positive. Results were positive for the disease in all cases in which referral was because of suspicion of lower motor neuron disease, primary muscle disorders and upper motor neuron disease. Short electromyographic reports that concentrate on interpreting the electromyographic data were found to be preferred by the referring physicians. PMID:13472467

  20. Method of examining microcircuit patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suszko, S. F. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    Examination of microstructures of LSI and VLSI devices is facilitated by employing a method in which the device is photographed through a darkfield illumination optical microscope and the resulting negative subjected to inverse processing to form a positive on a photographic film. The film is then developed to form photographic prints or transparencies which clearly illustrate the structure of the device. The entire structure of a device may be examined by alternately photographing the device and selectively etching layers of the device in order to expose underlying layers.

  1. Nutrition for Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.

    2005-01-01

    Nutrition has proven to be critical throughout the history of human exploration, on both land and water. The importance of nutrition during long-duration space exploration is no different. Maintaining optimal nutritional status is critical for all bodily systems, especially in light of the fact that that many are also affected by space flight itself. Major systems of concern are bone, muscle, the cardiovascular system, the immune system, protection against radiation damage, and others. The task ahead includes defining the nutritional requirements for space travelers, ensuring adequacy of the food system, and assessing crew nutritional status before, during, and after flight. Accomplishing these tasks will provide significant contributions to ensuring crew health on long-duration missions. In addition, development and testing of nutritional countermeasures to effects of space flight is required, and assessment of the impact of other countermeasures (such as exercise and pharmaceuticals) on nutrition is also critical for maintaining overall crew health. Vitamin D stores of crew members are routinely low after long-duration space flight. This occurs even when crew members take vitamin D supplements, suggesting that vitamin D metabolism may be altered during space flight. Vitamin D is essential for efficient absorption of calcium, and has numerous other benefits for other tissues with vitamin D receptors. Protein is a macronutrient that requires additional study to define the optimal intake for space travelers. Administration of protein to bed rest subjects can effectively mitigate muscle loss associated with disuse, but too much or too little protein can also have negative effects on bone. In another bed rest study, we found that the ratio of protein to potassium was correlated with the level of bone resorption: the higher the ratio, the more bone resorption. These relationships warrant further study to optimize the beneficial effect of protein on both bone and muscle

  2. Exploring bacterial lignin degradation.

    PubMed

    Brown, Margaret E; Chang, Michelle C Y

    2014-04-01

    Plant biomass represents a renewable carbon feedstock that could potentially be used to replace a significant level of petroleum-derived chemicals. One major challenge in its utilization is that the majority of this carbon is trapped in the recalcitrant structural polymers of the plant cell wall. Deconstruction of lignin is a key step in the processing of biomass to useful monomers but remains challenging. Microbial systems can provide molecular information on lignin depolymerization as they have evolved to break lignin down using metalloenzyme-dependent radical pathways. Both fungi and bacteria have been observed to metabolize lignin; however, their differential reactivity with this substrate indicates that they may utilize different chemical strategies for its breakdown. This review will discuss recent advances in studying bacterial lignin degradation as an approach to exploring greater diversity in the environment. PMID:24780273

  3. Exploring Oman's Energy Sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Saqlawi, Juman; Madani, Kaveh; Mac Dowell, Niall

    2016-04-01

    Located in a region where over 40% of the world's oil and gas reserves lie and in a trend similar to that of its neighbors, Oman's economy has been reliant on crude oil export since the 1970's. Being aware of the dangers of this reliance along with the discovery of Natural Gas since the 1980s, the Omani government's policy of diversifying its economy has shifted its reliance on Oil to another fossil fuel, namely Natural Gas. Given that energy is the lifeline of Oman's economy, effective and efficient forward planning and policy development is essential for the country's current and future economic development. This presentation explores the current status of the energy sector in Oman from home production and import to eventual final uses. The presentation highlights the major issues with Oman's current energy policies and suggests various strategies that could be adopted by Oman for a more efficient and sustainable future.

  4. Dawn's Exploration of Vesta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rayman, Marc D.; Mase, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    On 16 July 2011, after completing nearly four years of interplanetary flight, Dawn entered orbit around (4) Vesta, the second most massive body in the main asteroid belt. Dawn used solar electric propulsion to spiral to a series of six different orbits to accomplish its science campaign. Although the transfers to progressively lower orbits presented significant challenges, all were executed smoothly. During its nearly 14 months in orbit, Dawn spiraled down to 210 km above the surface and back up, before initiating the gradual departure to travel to dwarf planet (1) Ceres for a 2015 rendezvous. Dawn's exploration of Vesta has shown it to be geologically complex and fascinating, resembling terrestrial planets more than typical asteroids. Among the principal features is a 500-km diameter impact basin within which is the second tallest mountain known in the solar system. This paper presents Dawn's operations at Vesta and summarizes the principal findings.

  5. Exploring Ensemble Visualization

    PubMed Central

    Phadke, Madhura N.; Pinto, Lifford; Alabi, Femi; Harter, Jonathan; Taylor, Russell M.; Wu, Xunlei; Petersen, Hannah; Bass, Steffen A.; Healey, Christopher G.

    2012-01-01

    An ensemble is a collection of related datasets. Each dataset, or member, of an ensemble is normally large, multidimensional, and spatio-temporal. Ensembles are used extensively by scientists and mathematicians, for example, by executing a simulation repeatedly with slightly different input parameters and saving the results in an ensemble to see how parameter choices affect the simulation. To draw inferences from an ensemble, scientists need to compare data both within and between ensemble members. We propose two techniques to support ensemble exploration and comparison: a pairwise sequential animation method that visualizes locally neighboring members simultaneously, and a screen door tinting method that visualizes subsets of members using screen space subdivision. We demonstrate the capabilities of both techniques, first using synthetic data, then with simulation data of heavy ion collisions in high-energy physics. Results show that both techniques are capable of supporting meaningful comparisons of ensemble data. PMID:22347540

  6. Multinational Mars exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rea, Donald G.

    1989-01-01

    A primary concern in the formation of a multinational Mars-exploration program is that of technology transfer, which would be most acute in the U.S./U.S.S.R. case but would exist in lesser degree among other nations. Another concern is that of management-complexity, which could inflate total costs and substantially counteract the anticipated benefits of spreading program costs among a number of nations. It is presently suggested that these problems can be substantially reduced by having each nation become responsible for one (or more) complete flight system. Each nation's role in mission operations must be clear, and the cleanliness of interfaces among flight systems must carry over into mission operations.

  7. Methods for seismic exploration

    SciTech Connect

    Savit, C. H.

    1985-10-01

    Sweeps of seismic signals consisting of pulse trains having a predetermined number of pulses in which the periods or durations of the pulses are randomized and in which the wave shape and relative time displacements of the pulses in different trains provides substantially constant spectral level over a frequency range containing several octaves even though the durations of the pulses correspond to a frequency range not exceeding an octave during the sweep are transmitted through the medium being explored such as an earth formation to receptors such as geophones or hydrophones. Groups of signals contained in less than the entire length of the sweep which are transmitted and which are received can be cross correlated to vary the effective duration of the sweep. The cross correlation output of successively occurring sweeps may be stacked to reduce the side lobe amplitude of the cross correlation outputs from each sweep, from which outputs seismograms may be constructed.

  8. Ice Giant Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rymer, A. M.; Arridge, C. S.; Masters, A.; Turtle, E. P.; Simon, A. A.; Hofstadter, M. D.; Turrini, D.; Politi, R.

    2015-12-01

    The Ice Giants in our solar system, Uranus and Neptune, are fundamentally different from their Gas Giant siblings Jupiter and Saturn, from the different proportions of rock and ice to the configuration of their planetary magnetic fields. Kepler space telescope discoveries of exo-planets indicate that planets of this type are among the most ubiquitous universally and therefore a future mission to explore the nature of the Ice Giants in our own solar system will provide insights into the nature of extra-solar system objects in general. Uranus has the smallest self- luminosity of all the planets, potentially related to catastrophic events early in the planet's history, which also may explain Uranus' large obliquity. Uranus' atmosphere is subject to extreme seasonal forcing making it unique in the Solar System. Neptune is also unique in a number of ways, notably its large moon Triton which is likely a captured Kuiper Belt Object and one of only two moons in the solar system with a robustly collisional atmosphere. Similar to Uranus, the angle between the solar wind and the magnetic dipole axis is subject to large-amplitude variations on both diurnal and seasonal timescales, but peculiarly it has one of the quietest magnetospheres of the solar system, at least according to Voyager 2, the only spacecraft to encounter Neptune to date. A comprehensive mission, as advocated in the Decadal Survey, would provide enormous science return but is also challenging and expensive. In this presentation we will discuss mission scenarios and suggest how collaboration between disciplines and internationally can help us to pursue a mission that includes Ice Giant exploration.

  9. Innovative interstellar explorer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNutt, Ralph L.; Gold, Robert E.; Krimigis, Tom; Roelof, Edmond C.; Gruntman, Mike; Gloeckler, George; Koehn, Patrick L.; Kurth, William S.; Oleson, Steven R.; Fiehler, Douglas I.; Horanyi, Mihaly; Mewaldt, Richard A.; Leary, James C.; Anderson, Brian J.

    2006-09-01

    An interstellar ``precursor'' mission has been under discussion in the scientific community for at least 30 years. Fundamental scientific questions about the interaction of the Sun with the interstellar medium can only be answered with in situ measurements that such a mission can provide. The Innovative Interstellar Explorer (IIE) and its use of Radioisotope Electric Propulsion (REP) is being studied under a NASA ``Vision Mission'' grant. Speed is provided by a combination of a high-energy launch, using current launch vehicle technology, a Jupiter gravity assist, and long-term, low-thrust, continuous acceleration provided by an ion thruster running off electricity provided by advanced radioisotope electric generators. A payload of ten instruments with an aggregate mass of ~35 kg and requiring ~30 W has been carefully chosen to address the compelling science questions. The nominal 20-day launch window opens on 22 October 2014 followed by a Jupiter gravity assist on 5 February 2016. The REP system accelerates the spacecraft to a ``burnout'' speed of 7.8 AU per year at 104 AU on 13 October 2032 (Voyager 1's current speed is ~3.6 AU/yr). The spacecraft will return at least 500 bits per second from at least 200 AU ~30 years after launch. Additional (backup) launch opportunities occur every 13 months to early 2018. In addition to addressing basic heliospheric science, the mission will ensure continued information on the far-heliospheric galactic cosmic ray population after the Voyagers have fallen silent and as the era of human Mars exploration begins.

  10. Ionospheric Scintillation Explorer (ISX)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iuliano, J.; Bahcivan, H.

    2015-12-01

    NSF has recently selected Ionospheric Scintillation Explorer (ISX), a 3U Cubesat mission to explore the three-dimensional structure of scintillation-scale ionospheric irregularities associated with Equatorial Spread F (ESF). ISX is a collaborative effort between SRI International and Cal Poly. This project addresses the science question: To what distance along a flux tube does an irregularity of certain transverse-scale extend? It has been difficult to measure the magnetic field-alignment of scintillation-scale turbulent structures because of the difficulty of sampling a flux tube at multiple locations within a short time. This measurement is now possible due to the worldwide transition to DTV, which presents unique signals of opportunity for remote sensing of ionospheric irregularities from numerous vantage points. DTV spectra, in various formats, contain phase-stable, narrowband pilot carrier components that are transmitted simultaneously. A 4-channel radar receiver will simultaneously record up to 4 spatially separated transmissions from the ground. Correlations of amplitude and phase scintillation patterns corresponding to multiple points on the same flux tube will be a measure of the spatial extent of the structures along the magnetic field. A subset of geometries where two or more transmitters are aligned with the orbital path will be used to infer the temporal development of the structures. ISX has the following broad impact. Scintillation of space-based radio signals is a space weather problem that is intensively studied. ISX is a step toward a CubeSat constellation to monitor worldwide TEC variations and radio wave distortions on thousands of ionospheric paths. Furthermore, the rapid sampling along spacecraft orbits provides a unique dataset to deterministically reconstruct ionospheric irregularities at scintillation-scale resolution using diffraction radio tomography, a technique that enables prediction of scintillations at other radio frequencies, and

  11. Future Exploration of Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, R. D.; Titan Decadal Panel Collaboration

    2001-11-01

    Titan promises to be the Mars of the Outer Solar System - the focus of not only the broadest range of investigations in planetary science but also the focus of public attention. The reasons for exploring Titan are threefold: 1. Titan and Astrobiology : Titan ranks with Mars and Europa as a prime body for astrobiological study due to its abundant organics. Like Europa, it may well have a liquid water interior. 2. Titan - A world in its own right. Titan deserves study even only to put other satellites (its remarkably smaller Saturnian siblings, and its same-sized but volatile-poor Jovian counterparts) in context. The added dimension of an atmosphere makes Titan's origin and evolution particularly interesting. 3. Titan - an environmental laboratory for Earth. Titan will be an unrivalled place to investigate meteorological, oceanographical and other processes. Many of these (e.g. wave generation by wind) are only empirically parameterized - the very different physical parameters of the Titan environment will bring new insights to these phenomena. While Cassini-Huygens will dramatically boost our knowledge of Titan, it will likely only whet our appetite for more. The potential for prebiotic materials at various locations (in particular where liquid water has interacted with photochemical deposits) and the need to monitor Titan's meteorology favor future missions that may exploit Titan's unique thick-atmosphere, low-gravity environment - a mobile platform like an airship or helicopter, able to explore on global scales, but access the surface for in-situ chemical analysis and probe the interior by electromagnetic and seismic means. Such missions have dramatic potential to capture the public's imagination, on both sides of the Atlantic.

  12. Exploring family physician stress

    PubMed Central

    Lee, F. Joseph; Brown, Judith Belle; Stewart, Moira

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To explore the nature of professional stress and the strategies used by family physicians to deal with this stress. DESIGN Qualitative study. SETTING Kitchener-Waterloo, Ont. PARTICIPANTS Ten key-informant family physicians. METHODS In-depth interviews were conducted with key informants. A total of 40 key informants were identified, based on selected criteria; 24 provided consent. The potential participants were rank-ordered for interviews to provide maximum variation in age, sex, and years in practice. Interviews were conducted, audiotaped, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed until thematic saturation was reached, as determined through an iterative process. This occurred after 10 in-depth interviews. Immersion and crystallization techniques were used. MAIN FINDINGS The participants described professional stresses and strategies at the personal, occupational, and health care system levels. Personal stressors included personality traits and the need to balance family and career, which were countered by biological, psychological, social, and spiritual strategies. Occupational stressors included challenging patients, high workload, time limitations, competency issues, challenges of documentation and practice management, and changing roles within the workplace. Occupational stressors were countered by strategies such as setting limits, participating in continuing medical education, soliciting support from colleagues and staff, making use of teams, improving patient-physician relationships, exploring new forms of remuneration, and scheduling appropriately. Stressors affecting the wider health care system included limited resources, imposed rules and regulations, lack of support from specialists, feeling undervalued, and financial concerns. CONCLUSION Family physicians face a multitude of challenges at personal, occupational, and health care system levels. A systems approach provides a new framework in which proactive strategies can augment more than

  13. 25 CFR 216.4 - Technical examination of prospective surface exploration and mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ecological values; and control of erosion, flooding, and pollution of water; the isolation of toxic materials; the prevention of air pollution; the reclamation by revegetation, replacement of soil or by other... quality below standards established by the appropriate State water pollution control agency, or by...

  14. 43 CFR 23.5 - Technical examination of prospective surface exploration and mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...; the control of erosion, flooding, and pollution of water; the isolation of toxic materials; the prevention of air pollution; the reclamation by revegetation, replacement of soil, or by other means, of... lowering of water quality below standards established by the appropriate State water pollution...

  15. 43 CFR 23.5 - Technical examination of prospective surface exploration and mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...; the control of erosion, flooding, and pollution of water; the isolation of toxic materials; the prevention of air pollution; the reclamation by revegetation, replacement of soil, or by other means, of... lowering of water quality below standards established by the appropriate State water pollution...

  16. 25 CFR 216.4 - Technical examination of prospective surface exploration and mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ecological values; and control of erosion, flooding, and pollution of water; the isolation of toxic materials; the prevention of air pollution; the reclamation by revegetation, replacement of soil or by other... quality below standards established by the appropriate State water pollution control agency, or by...

  17. 25 CFR 216.4 - Technical examination of prospective surface exploration and mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ecological values; and control of erosion, flooding, and pollution of water; the isolation of toxic materials; the prevention of air pollution; the reclamation by revegetation, replacement of soil or by other... quality below standards established by the appropriate State water pollution control agency, or by...

  18. 43 CFR 23.5 - Technical examination of prospective surface exploration and mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...; the control of erosion, flooding, and pollution of water; the isolation of toxic materials; the prevention of air pollution; the reclamation by revegetation, replacement of soil, or by other means, of... lowering of water quality below standards established by the appropriate State water pollution...

  19. Exploring Specialized STEM High Schools: Three Dissertation Studies Examining Commonalities and Differences across Six Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tofel-Grehl, Colby

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation is comprised of three independently conducted analyses of a larger investigation into the practices and features of specialized STEM high schools. While educators and policy makers advocate the development of many new specialized STEM high schools, little is known about the unique features and practices of these schools. The…

  20. Sexual history disclosure polygraph examinations with cybercrime offences: a first Dutch explorative study.

    PubMed

    Buschman, Jos; Bogaerts, Stefan; Foulger, Sarah; Wilcox, Daniel; Sosnowski, Daniel; Cushman, Barry

    2010-06-01

    This article presents the first study on post-conviction polygraphy in the Netherlands. Importantly, it exclusively focuses on cybercrime offenders. The study is designed to systematically address the different child sexual behaviours exhibited by 25 participants who are in treatment for possessing child abuse images. The results indicate that post-conviction polygraphy can provide additional data to inform the development of theory in this area and contribute to the treatment, supervision, and more effective containment of offending behaviour and the reduction of future victimization. PMID:19389838

  1. What Constitutes Doctoral Knowledge? Exploring Issues of Power and Subjectivity in Doctoral Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devos, Anita; Somerville, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    Globalisation has brought increasing diversity in student populations and therefore the potential for different sorts of knowledges to enter the academy. At the same time there is heightened surveillance brought about in response to the pressures of global competition, including increasing standardisation, marketisation and performativity…

  2. Exploring Equity Properties in Equating Using AP® Examinations. Research Report No. 2012-4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Eunjung; Lee, Won-Chan; Brennan, Robert L.

    2012-01-01

    In almost all high-stakes testing programs, test equating is necessary to ensure that test scores across multiple test administrations are equivalent and can be used interchangeably. Test equating becomes even more challenging in mixed-format tests, such as Advanced Placement Program® (AP®) Exams, that contain both multiple-choice and constructed…

  3. 43 CFR 23.5 - Technical examination of prospective surface exploration and mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...; the control of erosion, flooding, and pollution of water; the isolation of toxic materials; the... of quality is necessary to economic and social development and will not preclude any assigned...

  4. 25 CFR 216.4 - Technical examination of prospective surface exploration and mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ecological values; and control of erosion, flooding, and pollution of water; the isolation of toxic materials... lowering of quality is necessary to economic and social development and will not preclude any assigned...

  5. NSF Examines Technical Job Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Using 1972 statistics, examines the following job characteristics of chemists, chemical engineers, and other technical professionals: type of job, tenure in 1972 jobs, status prior to obtaining those jobs, tendency to hold a second job, and basic salary level in the primary job. (MLH)

  6. Legal Implications of Physical Examinations

    PubMed Central

    Felton, Jean Spencer

    1978-01-01

    With the new national emphasis on the prevention of occupationally incurred disease, legislative constraints have been placed in connection with the medical examination of employed persons at health risk. Concurrently, there is mandated a system of communication to the worker of the significant clinical findings encountered on his physical and laboratory inventories. PMID:636417

  7. Learning Style Profile: Examiner's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keefe, James W.; Monk, John S.

    This examiner's manual accompanies the Learning Style Profile (LSP), which measures cognitive skills as well as affective and environmental preferences. Charles Letteri's General Operations Model was accepted as the prototype for relating learning styles to cognitive information processing. The LSP was developed from 1983 to 1986; several versions…

  8. Report on the CDE Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haga, Enoch J.

    1971-01-01

    The Certificate in Data Education (Basic) examination is designed to certify that successful candidates are academically proficient in those principles and concepts of automation, computing, and data processing (including social and user implications) which are usually taught in basic introductory courses at the college or university level. (CK)

  9. Data Analysis in Physics Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forster, Patricia A.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a critical analysis of data analysis requirements in physics tertiary entrance examinations. The setting is Western Australia. Common aspects of the questions asked over 14 years and changes in the questions since a major syllabus reform are identified. Similar changes in other jurisdictions are referenced. The data analysis…

  10. The Timing of Student Examinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dugdale, Alan E.

    1975-01-01

    Proposes a plan by which medical students could take a final examination 80 percent of the way through a course, allowing students to learn in their own way with more efficient use of teacher time and less stress of terminal exams because all students would have two chances without penalty. (JT)

  11. Examining Controversies in Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreitlow, Burton W.; And Others

    Controversies over adult education purposes, methods, audiences, and procedures are examined. After outlining a procedure for reviewing competing positions on controversial topics, the book pairs the contrasting views of two authors on each of 10 key issues facing adult education. Chapters cover: philosophies at issue (David L. Boggs); identifying…

  12. South Carolina Trade Examinations Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crook, Shirley J.

    The South Carolina Trade Examinations for Trade and Industrial Education teachers are administered semi-annually by the South Carolina State Department of Education, Office of Vocational Education, Vocational Teacher Education Programs Unit. This handbook is designed to provide prospective trade and industrial education teachers, vocational…

  13. School Vouchers: Examining the Evidence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnoy, Martin

    This study reviews recent empirical research on the effect of school vouchers on student achievement (particularly for low-income minorities attending private schools) and the effect of the threat of vouchers on low-performing public schools. The study examines the Milwaukee voucher experiment, the Cleveland voucher program, and new voucher…

  14. Canadian Accountants: Examining Workplace Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hicks, Elizabeth; Bagg, Robert; Doyle, Wendy; Young, Jeffrey D.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to examine workplace learning strategies, learning facilitators and learning barriers of public accountants in Canada across three professional levels--trainees, managers, and partners. Design/methodology/approach: Volunteer participants from public accounting firms in Nova Scotia and New Brunswick completed a demographic…

  15. Orion Exploration Mission-1 Animation

    NASA Video Gallery

    Animation of the Orion spacecraft’s Exploration Mission-1 in 2017. Exploration Mission-1 will be the first integrated flight test with both the Orion spacecraft and NASA’s new Space Launch System.

  16. NASA's Solar System Exploration Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, James

    2005-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation describing NASA's Solar System Exploration Program is shown. The topics include: 1) Solar System Exploration with Highlights and Status of Programs; 2) Technology Drivers and Plans; and 3) Summary

  17. Translational Research in Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iyengar, M. Sriram; Johnson-Throop, Kathy A.; Bernstam, Elmer; Meric-Bernstam, Funda

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews NASA's role in medical translational research, and the importance in research for space exploration. The application of medical research for space exploration translates to health care in space medicine, and on earth.

  18. Exploration of Near-Earth Asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abell, Paul

    2013-01-01

    A major goal for NASA's human spaceflight program is to send astronauts to near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) in the coming decades. Missions to NEAs would undoubtedly provide a great deal of technical and engineering data on spacecraft operations for future human space exploration while conducting in-depth scientific examinations of these primitive objects. However, prior to sending human explorers to NEAs, robotic investigations of these bodies would be required in order to maximize operational efficiency and reduce mission risk. These precursor missions to NEAs would fill crucial strategic knowledge gaps concerning their physical characteristics that are relevant for human exploration of these relatively unknown destinations. Information obtained from a human investigation of a NEA, together with ground-based observations and prior spacecraft investigations of asteroids and comets, will also provide a real measure of ground truth to data obtained from terrestrial meteorite collections. Major advances in the areas of geochemistry, impact history, thermal history, isotope analyses, mineralogy, space weathering, formation ages, thermal inertias, volatile content, source regions, solar system formation, etc. can be expected from human NEA missions. Samples directly returned from a primitive body would lead to the same kind of breakthroughs for understanding NEAs that the Apollo samples provided for understanding the Earth-Moon system and its formation history. In addition, robotic precursor and human exploration missions to NEAs would allow the NASA and its international partners to gain operational experience in performing complex tasks (e.g., sample collection, deployment of payloads, retrieval of payloads, etc.) with crew, robots, and spacecraft under microgravity conditions at or near the surface of a small body. This would provide an important synergy between the worldwide Science and Exploration communities, which will be crucial for development of future

  19. The idea of space exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazlish, B.

    1985-01-01

    Public reactions to the space program, especially to the 1969 Moon landing are discussed. Space exploration is compared to explorations during the Age of Discovery. It is argued that space exploration has failed to capture the public's imagination, that it has had few economic or social consequences of any importance, and that it has had a minimum impact on national prestige.

  20. Explorations in Statistics: Permutation Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curran-Everett, Douglas

    2012-01-01

    Learning about statistics is a lot like learning about science: the learning is more meaningful if you can actively explore. This eighth installment of "Explorations in Statistics" explores permutation methods, empiric procedures we can use to assess an experimental result--to test a null hypothesis--when we are reluctant to trust statistical…

  1. Explorations in Statistics: the Bootstrap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curran-Everett, Douglas

    2009-01-01

    Learning about statistics is a lot like learning about science: the learning is more meaningful if you can actively explore. This fourth installment of Explorations in Statistics explores the bootstrap. The bootstrap gives us an empirical approach to estimate the theoretical variability among possible values of a sample statistic such as the…

  2. Seeing by exploring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, Richard L.

    1989-01-01

    The classical notion of how things are seen is that perception is passive, that the eyes are windows, and in floods reality. Physiological work of the 19th century cast doubt on this view that perception is passive acceptance of reality. Perception is not at the present time a popular topic for philosophers. This must be partly because scientific accounts of perception have now gone a long way away from appearances. They depend on physiological and psycho-physical experiments which require technical investigation and do not fall within traditional concepts of philosophy. Theories of visual perception are examined, both from a physical and psycho-physical standpoint.

  3. Designing for Human Space Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynerson, Charles M.

    2004-02-01

    This presentation addresses a concept-level model that produces technical design parameters and economic feasibility information addressing future human spaceflight exploration platforms. This paper uses a design methodology and analytical tools to create feasible concept design information for these space platforms. The design tool has been validated against a number of actual facility designs, and appropriate modal variables are adjusted to ensure that statistical approximations are valid for subsequent analyses. The tool is then employed in the examination of the impact of various payloads on the power, size (volume), and mass of the platform proposed. The development of the analytical tool employed an approach that accommodated possible payloads characterized as simplified parameters such as power, weight, volume, crew size, and endurance. In creating the approach, basic principles are employed and combined with parametric estimates as necessary. Key system parameters are identified in conjunction with overall system design. Typical ranges for these key parameters are provided based on empirical data extracted from actual human spaceflight systems. In order to provide a credible basis for a valid engineering model, an extensive survey of existing manned space platforms was conducted. This survey yielded key engineering specifications that were incorporated in the engineering model. Data from this survey is also used to create parametric equations and graphical representations in order to establish a realistic range of engineering quantities used in the design of manned space platforms.

  4. Exploration decisions and firms in the mineral industries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Attanasi, E.D.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how physical characteristics of deposits and results of past exploration enter future exploration decisions. A proposed decision model is presented that is consistent with a set of primitive probabilistic assumptions associated with deposit size distributions and discoverability. Analysis of optimal field exploration strategy showed the likely firm responses to alternative exploration taxes and effects on the distribution of future discoveries. Examination of the probabilistic elements of the decision model indicates that changes in firm expectations associated with the distribution of deposits cannot be totally offset by changes in economic variables. ?? 1981.

  5. Exploring membrane respiratory chains.

    PubMed

    Marreiros, Bruno C; Calisto, Filipa; Castro, Paulo J; Duarte, Afonso M; Sena, Filipa V; Silva, Andreia F; Sousa, Filipe M; Teixeira, Miguel; Refojo, Patrícia N; Pereira, Manuela M

    2016-08-01

    Acquisition of energy is central to life. In addition to the synthesis of ATP, organisms need energy for the establishment and maintenance of a transmembrane difference in electrochemical potential, in order to import and export metabolites or to their motility. The membrane potential is established by a variety of membrane bound respiratory complexes. In this work we explored the diversity of membrane respiratory chains and the presence of the different enzyme complexes in the several phyla of life. We performed taxonomic profiles of the several membrane bound respiratory proteins and complexes evaluating the presence of their respective coding genes in all species deposited in KEGG database. We evaluated 26 quinone reductases, 5 quinol:electron carriers oxidoreductases and 18 terminal electron acceptor reductases. We further included in the analyses enzymes performing redox or decarboxylation driven ion translocation, ATP synthase and transhydrogenase and we also investigated the electron carriers that perform functional connection between the membrane complexes, quinones or soluble proteins. Our results bring a novel, broad and integrated perspective of membrane bound respiratory complexes and thus of the several energetic metabolisms of living systems. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'EBEC 2016: 19th European Bioenergetics Conference, Riva del Garda, Italy, July 2-6, 2016', edited by Prof. Paolo Bernardi. PMID:27044012

  6. The cosmic background explorer

    SciTech Connect

    Gulkis, G. ); Lubin, P.M. ); Meyer, S.S. ); Silverberg, R.F.

    1990-01-01

    Late last year the National Aeronautics and Space Administration launched its first satellite dedicated to the study of phenomena related to the origins of the universe. The satellite, called the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE), carries three complementary detectors that will make fundamental measurements of the celestial radiation. Part of that radiation is believed to have originated in processes that occurred at the very dawn of the universe. By measuring the remnant radiation at wavelengths from one micrometer to one centimeter across the entire sky, scientists hope to be able to solve many mysteries regarding the origin and evolution of the early universe. Unfortunately, these radiative relics of the early universe are weak and veiled by local astrophysical and terrestrial sources of radiation. The wavelengths of the various cosmic components may also overlap, thereby making the understanding of the diffuse celestial radiation a challenge. Nevertheless, the COBE instruments, with their full-sky coverage, high sensitivity to a wide range of wavelengths and freedom from interference from the earth's atmosphere, will constitute for astrophysicists an observatory of unprecedented sensitivity and scope. The interesting cosmic signals will then be separated from one another and from noncosmic radiation sources by a comprehensive analysis of the data.

  7. International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boehm, Karl-Heinz

    1992-01-01

    The observation, data reduction, and interpretation of ultraviolet spectra (obtained with the International Ultraviolet Explorer) of Herbig-Haro objects, stellar jets, and (in a few cases) reflection nebulae in star-forming regions is discussed. Intermediate results have been reported in the required semi-annual reports. The observations for this research were obtained in 23 (US1) IUE shifts. The spectra were taken in the low resolution mode with the large aperture. The following topics were investigated: (1) detection of UV spectra of high excitation Herbig-Haro (HH) objects, identification of emission lines, and a preliminary study of the energy distribution of the ultraviolet continuum; (2) details of the continuum energy distribution of these spectra and their possible interpretation; (3) the properties of the reddening (extinction) of HH objects; (4) the possible time variation of strong emission lines in high excitation HH objects; (5) the ultraviolet emission of low excitation HH objects, especially in the fluorescent lines of the H2 molecule; (6) the ultraviolet emission in the peculiar object HH24; (7) the spatial emission distribution of different lines and different parts of the continuum in different HH objects; and (8) some properties of reflection nebula, in the environment of Herbig-Haro objects. Each topic is discussed.

  8. Innovative interstellar explorer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNutt, R.; Innovative Interstellar Explorer Team

    Fundamental scientific questions about the interaction of the Sun with the interstellar medium can only be answered with in situ measurements. The problem is the development of a probe that can provide the required measurements and can reach a heliocentric distance of at least 200 astronomical units (AU) in 15 years or less, an average speed almost four times the 3.6 AU/yr speed of Voyager 1. The Innovative Interstellar Explorer (IIE) and its use of Radioisotope Electric Propulsion (REP) is now being studied under a NASA Vision Mission grant to enable such a mission. Speed is provided by a high-energy launch using current launch vehicle technology followed by long-term, low-thrust, continuous acceleration. The latter is provided by a kilowatt-class ion thruster running off of electricity provided by advanced Stirling radioisotope generators (SRGs) powered by Pu-238. While subject to mass and power limitations for the instruments on board, such an approach relies on known General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) Pu-238 technology and current launch vehicles for speed, both of which require little new development and have well-known regulatory requirements for launch. In addition, this approach avoids the intrinsically large masses associated with nuclear fission reactors and incorporates launch of all nuclear material directly into an Earth-escape trajectory. We discuss the ongoing trade studies and development of this approach to an Interstellar Probe

  9. Dynamics Explorer guest investigator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sojka, Jan J.

    1991-01-01

    A data base of satellite particle, electric field, image, and plasma data was used to determine correlations between the fields and the particle auroral boundaries. A data base of 8 days of excellent coverage from all instruments was completed. The geomagnetic conditions associated with each of the selected data periods, the number of UV image passes per study day that were obtained, and the total number of UV images for each day are given in tabular form. For each of the days listed in Table 1, both Vector Electric Field Instrument (VEFI) electric potential data and LAPI integrated particle energy fluxes were obtained. On the average, between 8 and 11 passes of useful data per day were obtained. These data are displayed in a format such that either the statistical electric field model potential or the statistical precipitation energy flux could be superimposed. The Heppner and Maynard (1987) and Hardy et al. (1987) models were used for the electric potential and precipitation, respectively. In addition, the auroral image intensity along the Dynamics Explorer-2 satellite pass could be computed and plotted along with the LAPI precipitation data and Hardy et al. (1987) values.

  10. MESSENGER: Exploring Mercury's Magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slavin, James A.

    2008-01-01

    The MESSENGER mission to Mercury offers our first opportunity to explore this planet's miniature magnetosphere since Mariner 10's brief fly-bys in 1974-5. Mercury's magnetosphere is unique in many respects. The magnetosphere of Mercury is the smallest in the solar system with its magnetic field typically standing off the solar wind only - 1000 to 2000 km above the surface. For this reason there are no closed dri-fi paths for energetic particles and, hence, no radiation belts; the characteristic time scales for wave propagation and convective transport are short possibly coupling kinetic and fluid modes; magnetic reconnection at the dayside magnetopause may erode the subsolar magnetosphere allowing solar wind ions to directly impact the dayside regolith; inductive currents in Mercury's interior should act to modify the solar In addition, Mercury's magnetosphere is the only one with its defining magnetic flux tubes rooted in a planetary regolith as opposed to an atmosphere with a conductive ionosphere. This lack of an ionosphere is thought to be the underlying reason for the brevity of the very intense, but short lived, approx. 1-2 min, substorm-like energetic particle events observed by Mariner 10 in Mercury's magnetic tail. In this seminar, we review what we think we know about Mercury's magnetosphere and describe the MESSENGER science team's strategy for obtaining answers to the outstanding science questions surrounding the interaction of the solar wind with Mercury and its small, but dynamic magnetosphere.

  11. Human Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeevarajan, Antony

    2014-01-01

    The Mars probe, launched by India a few months ago, is on its way to Mars. At this juncture, it is appropriate to talk about the opportunities presented to us for the Human Exploration of Mars. I am planning to highlight some of the challenges to take humans to Mars, descend, land, stay, ascend and return home safely. The logistics of carrying the necessary accessories to stay at Mars will be delivered in multiple stages using robotic missions. The primary ingredients for human survival is air, water, food and shelter and the necessity to recycle the primary ingredients will be articulated. Humans have to travel beyond the van Allen radiation belt under microgravity condition during this inter-planetary travel for about 6 months minimum one way. The deconditioning of human system under microgravity conditions and protection of humans from Galactic cosmic radiation during the travel should be taken into consideration. The multi-disciplinary effort to keep the humans safe and functional during this journey will be addressed.

  12. Exploring digital professionalism.

    PubMed

    Ellaway, Rachel H; Coral, Janet; Topps, David; Topps, Maureen

    2015-01-01

    The widespread use of digital media (both computing devices and the services they access) has blurred the boundaries between our personal and professional lives. Contemporary students are the last to remember a time before the widespread use of the Internet and they will be the first to practice in a largely e-health environment. This article explores concepts of digital professionalism and their place in contemporary medical education, and proposes a series of principles of digital professionalism to guide teaching, learning and practice in the healthcare professions. Despite the many risks and fears surrounding their use, digital media are not an intrinsic threat to medical professionalism. Professionals should maintain the capacity for deliberate, ethical, and accountable practice when using digital media. The authors describe a digital professionalism framework structured around concepts of proficiency, reputation, and responsibility. Digital professionalism can be integrated into medical education using strategies based on awareness, alignment, assessment, and accountability. These principles of digital professionalism provide a way for medical students and medical practitioners to embrace the positive aspects of digital media use while being mindful and deliberate in its use to avoid or minimize any negative consequences. PMID:26030375

  13. The CISM Data Explorer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehmeyr, M.; Weigel, R.; Wiltberger, M.

    2004-12-01

    We introduce the CISM Data Explorer: a collection of data, models, and tools for analysis and visualization, to be used by space physics researchers and students. It relies heavily on well--documented programs and examples written in OpenDX, Octave, Perl, C, and FORTRAN. This project began in response to a need to simplify model (both empirical and numerical) and data (both measurements and model output) exchange between CISM group members. The CISM_DX package is a community--developed collection of (1) Code for side--by--side visualization and analysis of the output of space physics numerical models; (2) Data sets put into a standard file format and form, and provided with code for display in IDL, Matlab, Octave, and OpenDX; (3) Tools, together with examples of their use, for space physics research, including coordinate transformation codes, and scripts that transforms data from many data providers into a standard file format and form; (4) Code for running the CISM Forecast model and code for carrying out the validation of the CISM Forecast Models using comparison data in the standard data set distributed with CISM_DX. All of the codes in the package have been tested on computers running the Red Hat Enterprise or the Fedora Core OS, and many components can be run also on different operating systems.

  14. Having a Voice: An Exploration of Children's Rights and Advocacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalrymple, Jane, Ed.; Hough, Jan, Ed.

    This book explores the concept of advocacy in British society with regard to children and young people, examining advocacy from a number of different perspectives, and taking into account the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child and legislation that affects children and young people. The three parts of the book examine why young people need an…

  15. Exploring Reasons for Bed Pressures in Winnipeg Acute Care Hospitals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menec, Verena H.; Bruce, Sharon; MacWilliam, Leonard R.

    2005-01-01

    Hospital overcrowding has plagued Winnipeg and other Canadian cities for years. This study explored factors related to overcrowding. Hospital files were used to examine patterns of hospital use from fiscal years 1996/1997 to 1999/2000. Chart reviews were conducted to examine appropriateness of admissions and hospital stays during one pressure…

  16. 46 CFR 91.40-3 - Drydock examination, internal structural examination, cargo tank internal examination, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... follows: (1) Except under paragraph (a)(2) of this section, vessels that operate in salt water must be....40-3(a)—Salt Water Service Vessels Examination Intervals in Years Single hull ship and barge Double... independent tanks 3 Wood hull ship and barge Unmanned deck cargo barge 4 Unmanned double hull freight barge...

  17. 46 CFR 91.40-3 - Drydock examination, internal structural examination, cargo tank internal examination, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... follows: (1) Except under paragraph (a)(2) of this section, vessels that operate in salt water must be....40-3(a)—Salt Water Service Vessels Examination Intervals in Years Single hull ship and barge Double... independent tanks 3 Wood hull ship and barge Unmanned deck cargo barge 4 Unmanned double hull freight barge...

  18. 46 CFR 91.40-3 - Drydock examination, internal structural examination, cargo tank internal examination, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... follows: (1) Except under paragraph (a)(2) of this section, vessels that operate in salt water must be....40-3(a)—Salt Water Service Vessels Examination Intervals in Years Single hull ship and barge Double... independent tanks 3 Wood hull ship and barge Unmanned deck cargo barge 4 Unmanned double hull freight barge...

  19. 46 CFR 31.10-21 - Drydock examination, internal structural examination, cargo tank internal examination, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    .... (2) The location where the underwater survey will be accomplished. (3) The method to be used to..., cargo tank internal examination, and underwater survey intervals-TB/ALL. 31.10-21 Section 31.10-21... underwater survey intervals—TB/ALL. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (b) through (g) of this...

  20. Planetary Exploration Panel PEX: Support for lunar exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrenfreund, Pascale

    2010-05-01

    The new era of space exploration will be international, human-centric, transdisciplinary and participatory. It will also provide an opportunity to inspire, motivate, and involve an ever increasing number of countries. The objective of the COSPAR Panel on Space Exploration (PEX) is to provide the best, independent, input to support the development of worldwide space exploration programs and to safeguard the scientific assets of solar system objects. The input will be drawn from expertise provided via the contacts maintained by COSPAR's various Associates within the international community and scientific entities. For lunar exploration, the International Lunar Exploration Working Group (ILEWG) and the Lunar Exploration Analysis Group (LEAG), as well as other committees, represent important foci for an even broader base of expertise. Seven NASA Lunar Science Institute nodes are actively supporting space exploration in the US. In addition, the International Space Exploration Coordination group ISECG was established to implement the Global Exploration Strategy GES, contained in a document that was elaborated by representatives of 14 space agencies. PEX provides synergies of existing documents and roadmaps of each of these bodies to support existing space exploration groups, foster transnational alliances and support joint research and education.

  1. Distractibility during infants' examining and repetitive rhythmic activity.

    PubMed

    Doolittle, E J; Ruff, H A

    1998-05-01

    The goal of this study was to assess the role of examining and repetitive rhythmic activity in infants' exploration of novel objects. Sixteen 8-month-old infants played with novel toys as auditory-visual slide distractors occurred on one side at random intervals. The results showed that examining, but not repetitive activities, declined with exposure to the objects. They also showed that infants had different patterns of distractibility during examining and repetitive rhythmic activities. The infants were slower to turn to the distractor if they were examining the toy than if they were engaged in other activity, but the probability of a response did not differ. In contrast, when engaged in repetitive rhythmic activity, infants were less likely to respond to the distractor than when engaged in other activities, including examining; the speed with which they responded, however, did not differ. The results suggest that, during these two activities, the mechanisms for resisting distraction are quite different. PMID:9589216

  2. Exploring the retinal connectome

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, James R.; Jones, Bryan W.; Watt, Carl B.; Shaw, Margaret V.; Yang, Jia-Hui; DeMill, David; Lauritzen, James S.; Lin, Yanhua; Rapp, Kevin D.; Mastronarde, David; Koshevoy, Pavel; Grimm, Bradley; Tasdizen, Tolga; Whitaker, Ross

    2011-01-01

    Purpose A connectome is a comprehensive description of synaptic connectivity for a neural domain. Our goal was to produce a connectome data set for the inner plexiform layer of the mammalian retina. This paper describes our first retinal connectome, validates the method, and provides key initial findings. Methods We acquired and assembled a 16.5 terabyte connectome data set RC1 for the rabbit retina at ≈2 nm resolution using automated transmission electron microscope imaging, automated mosaicking, and automated volume registration. RC1 represents a column of tissue 0.25 mm in diameter, spanning the inner nuclear, inner plexiform, and ganglion cell layers. To enhance ultrastructural tracing, we included molecular markers for 4-aminobutyrate (GABA), glutamate, glycine, taurine, glutamine, and the in vivo activity marker, 1-amino-4-guanidobutane. This enabled us to distinguish GABAergic and glycinergic amacrine cells; to identify ON bipolar cells coupled to glycinergic cells; and to discriminate different kinds of bipolar, amacrine, and ganglion cells based on their molecular signatures and activity. The data set was explored and annotated with Viking, our multiuser navigation tool. Annotations were exported to additional applications to render cells, visualize network graphs, and query the database. Results Exploration of RC1 showed that the 2 nm resolution readily recapitulated well known connections and revealed several new features of retinal organization: (1) The well known AII amacrine cell pathway displayed more complexity than previously reported, with no less than 17 distinct signaling modes, including ribbon synapse inputs from OFF bipolar cells, wide-field ON cone bipolar cells and rod bipolar cells, and extensive input from cone-pathway amacrine cells. (2) The axons of most cone bipolar cells formed a distinct signal integration compartment, with ON cone bipolar cell axonal synapses targeting diverse cell types. Both ON and OFF bipolar cells receive

  3. Exploring linkage disequilibrium.

    PubMed

    Baird, Stuart J E

    2015-09-01

    Linkage disequilibrium (LD, association of allelic states across loci) is poorly understood by many evolutionary biologists, but as technology for multilocus sampling improves, we ignore LD at our peril. If we sample variation at 10 loci in an organism with 20 chromosomes, we can reasonably treat them as 10 'independent witnesses' of the evolutionary process. If instead, we sample variation at 1000 loci, many are bound to be close together on a chromosome. With only one or two crossovers per meiosis, associations between close neighbours decay so slowly that even LD created far in the past will not have dissipated, so we cannot treat the 1000 loci as independent witnesses (Barton ). This means that as marker density on genomes increases classic analyses assuming independent loci become mired in the problem of overconfidence: if 1000 independent witnesses are assumed, and that number should be much lower, any conclusion will be overconfident. This is of special concern because our literature suffers from a strong publication bias towards confident answers, even when they turn out to be wrong (Knowles ). In contrast, analyses that take into account associations across loci both control for overconfidence and can inform us about LD generating events far in the past, for example human/Neanderthal admixture (Fu et al. ). With increased marker density, biologists must increase their awareness of LD and, in this issue of Molecular Ecology Resources, Kemppainen et al. () make software available that can only help in this process: LDna allows patterns of LD in a data set to be explored using tools borrowed from network analysis. This has great potential, but realizing that potential requires understanding LD. PMID:26261040

  4. Geospace Exploration: ERG project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyoshi, Yoshizumi; Kasaba, Yasumasa; Shiokawa, Kazuo; Hirahara, Masafumi; Nagatsuma, Tsutomu; Takashima, Takeshi; Seki, Kanako; Kumamoto, Atsushi; Asamura, Kazushi; Kojima, Hirotsugu; Ono, DTakayuki; Matsuoka, Ayako; Fujimoto, Masaki

    2012-07-01

    The ERG (Energization and Radiation in Geospace) is a geospace exploration mission in Japan for the solar maximum and subsequent declining phase of solar cycle 24. The mission is especially focusing on the relativistic electron acceleration mechanism in the context of the cross-energy coupling via wave-particle interactions as well as the dynamics of space storms. The interplay among different plasma/particle populations of the inner magnetosphere; plasmasphere, ring current/plasma sheet, and radiation belts is a key to understand the energetic particle accelerations. The cross-regional coupling such as magnetosphere-ionosphere via FAC and the potential electric fields causes the spontaneous variations of the ambient fields. The ERG project consists of the satellite observation team, the ground-based observation team, and integrated-data analysis/simulation team, as well as the science working team and the project science team. The SPRINT-B/ERG satellite of ISAS/JAXA will be launched into inner magnetosphere in FY2014-2015. The comprehensive instruments for plasma/particles, field and waves are installed in the SPRING-B/ERG satellite to elucidate the electron acceleration processes. The newly developed system will directly measure the flow of the Poynting flux between particles and waves in the wave-particle interactions. The Japanese ground-network teams including magnetometer, SuperDARN radar, optical imager, VLF, etc. join the ERG project, which are very powerful tool for geospace remote sensing. The integrated data analysis and simulation team is now developing the simulation tools which can be compared directly with the observations. In this talk, we will present the current status of the ERG project and possible collaborations with other geospace satellite missions such as THEMIS, RBSP and RESONANCE etc. as well as the ground-based observations and simulation studies.

  5. An Optometric Clinical Practicum Examination Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eskridge, Jess B.

    1979-01-01

    A practical clinical examination model for use by state board examiners in optometry is described including purpose, format, examination design, procedures, evaluation examples and administration. (JMF)

  6. Chronic osteomyelitis examined by CT

    SciTech Connect

    Wing, V.W.; Jeffrey, R.B. Jr.; Federle, M.P.; Helms, C.A.; Trafton, P.

    1985-01-01

    CT examination of 25 patients who had acute exacerbations of chronic osteomyelitis allowed for the correct identification of single or multiple sequestra in 14 surgical patients. Plain radiographs were equivocal for sequestra in seven of these patients, because the sequestra were too small or because diffuse bony sclerosis was present. CT also demonstrated a foreign body and five soft tissue abscesses not suspected on the basis of plain radiographs. CT studies, which helped guide the operative approach, were also useful in treating those patients whose plain radiographs were positive for sequestra. The authors review the potential role of CT in evaluating patients with chronic osteomyelitis.

  7. Postirradiation examination of beryllium pebbles

    SciTech Connect

    Gelles, D.S.

    1998-03-01

    Postirradiation examinations of COBRA-1A beryllium pebbles irradiated in the EBR-II fast reactor at neutron fluences which generated 2700--3700 appm helium have been performed. Measurements included density change, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The major change in microstructure is development of unusually shaped helium bubbles forming as highly non-equiaxed thin platelet-like cavities on the basal plane. Measurement of the swelling due to cavity formation was in good agreement with density change measurements.

  8. [Ultrasound examination of hidradenitis suppurativa].

    PubMed

    Martorell, A; Segura Palacios, J M

    2015-11-01

    Hidradenitis suppurativa is a debilitating chronic, recurrent, inflammatory cutaneous disease of the hair follicle that usually presents with painful, deep and inflamed lesions in the areas of the body with apocrine glands, most frequently the axillary, groin and anogenital regions. This entity is difficult to manage since it can be difficult to determine the true nature and extension of the lesions. Cutaneous ultrasound allows real-time visualization of the cutaneous structures under examination, defining the type of lesion, its anatomical extension, and the degree of inflammatory activity, which affects adequate patient management. The present review analyses the importance of ultrasound in the assessment of patients with hidradenitis suppurativa. PMID:26895939

  9. Examining pauses in Alzheimer's discourse.

    PubMed

    Davis, Boyd H; Maclagan, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    This discussion examines how speaker pauses, both filled and silent, are keyed to functions within a conversation and to functions within narration. In Alzheimer's discourse, pause-fillers can be both placeholders and hesitation markers; they may be ohs and ums or longer formulaic phrases. Extracts from the speech of 4 older women from the United States and from New Zealand are reviewed for changes in syntactic complexity, for retention of story components, and for pauses. The extracts illustrate these functions for silent pauses: as word-finding; as planning at word, phrase, and narrative component levels; and as pragmatic compensation as other interactional and narrative skills decrease. PMID:19150969

  10. Examining 'risks' of overspecifying TMVs.

    PubMed

    Makin, Tom; Tench, Ken

    2014-05-01

    Dr. Tom Makin, a highly experienced microbiologist and former Directorate manager at the Department of Medical Microbiology at the Royal Liverpool University Hospital, and Ken Tench, compliance manager, Estates and Facilities Directorate, at Central Manchester University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, who has worked in operational estate functions since 1984, examine the widespread use of thermostatic mixing valves, or TMVs, in healthcare premises. They argue that such devices have, in recent years especially, been overspecified, particularly given the potential for increased contamination of the outlets, and the resulting heightened risk of spread of potentially life-threatening nosocomial waterborne diseases. PMID:24930184

  11. Postirradiation examination of HTR fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Nabielek, H.; Reitsamer, G.; Kania, M.J.

    1986-01-01

    Fuel for the High Temperature Reactor (HTR) consists of 1 mm diameter coated particles uniformly distributed in a graphite matrix within a cold-molded 60 mm diameter spherical fuel element. Fuel performance demonstrations under simulated normal operation conditions are conducted in accelerated neutron environments available in Material Test Reactors and in real-time environments such as the Arbeitsgemeinschaft Versuchsreaktor (AVR) Juelich. Postirradiation examinations are then used to assess fuel element behavior and the detailed performance of the coated particles. The emphasis in postirradiation examination and accident testing is on assessment of the capability for fuel elements and individual coated particles to retain fission products and actinide fuel materials. To accomplish this task, techniques have been developed which measures fission product and fuel material distributions within or exterior to the particle: Hot Gas Chlorination - provides an accurate method to measure total fuel material concentration outside intact particles; Profile Electrolytic Deconsolidation - permits determination of fission product distribution along fuel element diameter and retrieval of fuel particles from positions within element; Gamma Spectrometry - provides nondestructive method to measure defect particle fractions based on retention of volatile metallic fission products; Particle Cracking - permits a measure of the partitioning of fission products between fuel kernel and particle coatings, and the derivation of diffusion parameters in fuel materials; Micro Gas Analysis - provides gaseous fission product and reactive gas inventory within free volume of single particles; and Mass-spectrometric Burnup Determination - utilizes isotope dilution for the measurement of heavy metal isotope abundances.

  12. OCT for Examination of Artwork

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Targowski, Piotr; Iwanicka, Magdalena; Rouba, Bogumiła J.; Frosinini, Cecilia

    In this chapter the application of OCT to examination of objects of cultural heritage is given. The knowledge about the structure of the object of art is necessary both for inventory purposes and planning/monitoring of conservation-restoration treatments. Due to its noninvasiveness OCT is well suited for such applications. The major limitation is in the lack of transparency of certain structures. Specific requirements, advantages and limitations of use of the OCT technique in this area are discussed first. Then the overview of applications to easel paintings, historic glass, and craftsmanship is given, followed by two examples of monitoring the laser ablation with OCT: very local in case of Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS), and more general in case of laser ablation of the varnish layer. Then the examples of application of OCT to examination of paintings are given: investigation of deterioration of the varnish layer in the "Adoration of the Magi" by Leonardo da Vinci (Uffizi, Italy), imaging of overpaintings on two 17th and 18th c. oil paintings on canvas, and visualization of specific case of retouching located between two layers of varnish in the "Madonna with Yarnwinder" (attributed to L. da Vinci, private property).

  13. Using Oral Examination as a Technique to Assess Student Understanding and Teaching Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roecker, Lee

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of oral examinations to assess student understanding in a general chemistry course and in an advanced inorganic chemistry course. Examination design, administration, and grading are explored, as well as the benefits to both instructors and students. Students react positively to the oral examination format and generally…

  14. Towards a Model of the Judgement Processes Involved in Examination Marking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crisp, Victoria

    2010-01-01

    The judgement processes underpinning examination marking are central to achieving fair assessment but are under-researched. This article draws on existing literature and uses additional analysis of data collected in a previous article "Exploring the nature of examiner thinking during the process of examination marking", to start to piece together…

  15. Who Are Truant Youth? Examining Distinctive Profiles of Truant Youth Using Latent Profile Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maynard, Brandy R.; Salas-Wright, Christopher P.; Vaughn, Michael G.; Peters, Kristen E.

    2012-01-01

    The present study explored the heterogeneity of truant youth to provide a more nuanced examination of the nature of adolescent truancy and examine distinct profiles of truant youth as they relate to externalizing behaviors. Latent profile analysis was employed to examine the heterogeneity of truant youth by using a nationally representative sample…

  16. Small rover exploration capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salotti, Jean-Marc; Laithier, Corentin; Machut, Benoit; Marie, Aurélien; Bruneau, Audrey; Grömer, Gernot; Foing, Bernard H.

    2015-05-01

    For a human mission to the Moon or Mars, an important question is to determine the best strategy for the choice of surface vehicles. Recent studies suggest that the first missions to Mars will be strongly constrained and that only small unpressurized vehicles will be available. We analyze the exploration capabilities and limitations of small surface vehicles from the user perspective. Following the “human centered design” paradigm, the team focused on human systems interactions and conducted the following experiments: - Another member of our team participated in the ILEWG EuroMoonMars 2013 simulation at the Mars Desert Research Station in Utah during the same period of time. Although the possible traverses were restricted, a similar study with analog space suits and quads has been carried out. - Other experiments have been conducted in an old rock quarry close to Bordeaux, France. An expert in the use of quads for all types of terrains performed a demonstration and helped us to characterize the difficulties, the risks and advantages and drawbacks of different vehicles and tools. The vehicles that will be used on the surface of Mars have not been defined yet. Nevertheless, the results of our project already show that using a light and unpressurized vehicle (in the order of 150 kg) for the mobility on the Martian surface can be a true advantage. Part of the study was dedicated to the search for appropriate tools that could be used to make

  17. The virtual space exploration education portal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliver, C. A.

    2007-06-01

    New information technologies have evolved from space exploration—3-D visualisation ‘lenses’ and a growing suite of tools that allow access to exploration, analysis and interpretation of often complex information by a range of end users including the public, communicators, and policy makers. These tools have only become viable in the past year or two with the combination of the availability of inexpensive, but powerful, personal computers and widespread use of the Internet. A new study group under Commission 6 has been established, entitled ‘Future Directions of Space Exploration Education’, to build a Virtual Global Space Exploration Education Portal (VGSEEP) to open this revolution to all audiences, not just students. This paper describes the initial stages of VGSEEP. The NASA Learning Technologies suite of ‘lenses’ and tools will be demonstrated: World Wind, a 3-D globe that provides insights into our planet from space and almost down to ground level; the Virtual Field Trip that explores at ground level in 3-D; the Virtual Lab, which allows a range of samples to be examined via a virtual light microscope and/or a Scanning Electron Microscope and What’s the Difference?, which allows users to manipulate information in a multi-graphical interface.

  18. Virtual Alternative to the Oral Examination for Emergency Medicine Residents

    PubMed Central

    McGrath, Jillian; Kman, Nicholas; Danforth, Douglas; Bahner, David P.; Khandelwal, Sorabh; Martin, Daniel R.; Nagel, Rollin; Verbeck, Nicole; Way, David P.; Nelson, Richard

    2015-01-01

    . Virtual environments for oral examinations should continue to be explored, particularly since they offer an inexpensive, more comfortable, yet equally rigorous alternative. PMID:25834684

  19. Aerial Explorers and Robotic Ecosystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Larry A.; Pisanich, Greg

    2004-01-01

    A unique bio-inspired approach to autonomous aerial vehicle, a.k.a. aerial explorer technology is discussed. The work is focused on defining and studying aerial explorer mission concepts, both as an individual robotic system and as a member of a small robotic "ecosystem." Members of this robotic ecosystem include the aerial explorer, air-deployed sensors and robotic symbiotes, and other assets such as rovers, landers, and orbiters.

  20. Atmosphere Explorer set for launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The Atmosphere Explorer-D (Explorer-54) is described which will explore in detail an area of the earth's outer atmosphere where important energy transfer, atomic and molecular processes, and chemical reactions occur that are critical to the heat balance of the atmosphere. Data are presented on the mission facts, launch vehicle operations, AE-D/Delta flight events, spacecraft description, scientific instruments, tracking, and data acquisition.

  1. Bill would expand ocean exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    Legislation introduced by U.S. Congressman James Greenwood (R-Penn.) on June 9 could lead to increased study and exploration of the world's oceans.“The Exploration of the Seas Act” (House Resolution 2090) would direct the Secretary of Commerce to contract with the National Academy of Sciences to establish a Coordinated Oceanographic Program Advisory Panel to report to Congress on the adoption and establishment of an international effort to explore the potential of the oceans.

  2. Exploration Systems Town Hall Meeting

    NASA Video Gallery

    Doug Cooke, Associate Administrator for NASA's Exploration Systems Mission Directorate, discusses the future during a question and answer session with employees at NASA Headquarters on April 19, 2010.

  3. Materials Challenges in Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vickers, John; Shah, Sandeep

    2005-01-01

    The new vision of space exploration encompasses a broad range of human and robotic missions to the Moon, Mars and beyond. Extended human space travel requires high reliability and high performance systems for propulsion, vehicle structures, thermal and radiation protection, crew habitats and health monitoring. Advanced materials and processing technologies are necessary to meet the exploration mission requirements. Materials and processing technologies must be sufficiently mature before they can be inserted into a development program leading to an exploration mission. Exploration will be more affordable by in-situ utilization of materials on the Moon and Mars.

  4. Exploration and Sustainability Expo Welcome

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Ames Deputy Associate Director Dr. Yvonne Pendleton welcomes attendees to the 2009 Exploration and Sustainability Expo held at NASA Ames Research Center. She highlights the emerging technologi...

  5. Exploration of the solar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, A., Jr. (Editor); Grey, J.

    1974-01-01

    The potential achievements of solar system exploration are outlined, and a course of action is suggested which will maximize the rewards. Also provided is a sourcebook of information on the solar system and the technology being brought to bear for its exploration. The document explores the degree to which three practical questions can be answered: why it is necessary to explore the solar system, why understanding of the solar system is important to us, and why we cannot wait until all terrestrial problems are solved before an attempt is made to solve problems in space.

  6. Genesis Preliminary Examination: Ellipsometry Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stansbery, E. K.; McNamara, K. M.

    2005-01-01

    The Genesis spacecraft returned to Earth on September 8, 2004, experiencing a non-nominal reentry in which both the drogue and main parachutes failed to deploy causing the capsule to impact the surface of the UTTR desert at a speed of approximately 310 kph (193 mph). The impact caused severe damage to the capsule and a breach of the science canister in the field. The science canister was recovered and transported to the cleanroom at UTTR within approximately 8 hours of reentry. Although the ground water table did not rise to canister level before removal, damp soil and debris from the heat shield and other spacecraft components did enter the canister and contaminate some collector surfaces. The objective of preliminary examination of the Genesis collectors is to provide the science community with the information necessary to request the most useful samples for their analysis.

  7. Stokes examines NASA program management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leath, Audrey T.

    As NASA gears up for another attempt at redesigning Space Station Freedom, some in Congress are wondering whether the space agency has learned any lessons from a number of costly past mistakes. Louis Stokes (D-Ohio), the new chairman of the House Appropriations Veterans Affairs, Housing and Urban Development, and Independent Agencies Subcommittee, held a hearing on March 17 to examine unanticipated cost growth in a variety of projects, including the space toilet, the advanced turbo pump for the shuttle, and the Mars Observer, as well as the space station. Stokes seemed well-suited to this oversight role, asking well-informed and probing questions rather than accusatory ones. The witnesses, NASA head Daniel Goldin and many of his top managers (most of whom were not in their present positions when the projects were initiated), analyzed past errors and offered useful measures for avoiding similar problems in the future.

  8. Anxiety and classroom examination performance.

    PubMed

    Daniels, B; Hewitt, J

    1978-04-01

    Studied classroom examination performance over the course of an entire semester as a function of (a) students' anxiety level (high, medium, low); (b) difficulty level of exam question (more vs. less difficult); (c) type of exam question (rote memory vs. generalization); (d) sex of S; and (e) intelligence level of S. As expected, there was a strong main effect of anxiety and a significant interaction between anxiety and item difficulty. The latter was consistent with the Hull-Spence formulation of learning and performance--as the habit strength of incorrect responses increases (i.e., as the items become more difficult), the superiority of low over high anxious Ss also should increase. When item difficulty was held constant, anxiety did not interact with type of exam question. PMID:681509

  9. MESSENGER: Exploring Mercury's Magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slavin, James A.; Krimigis, Stamatios M.; Acuna, Mario H.; Anderson, Brian J.; Baker, Daniel N.; Koehn, Patrick L.; Korth, Haje; Levi, Stefano; Mauk, Barry H.; Solomon, Sean C.; Zurbuchen, Thomas H.

    2005-01-01

    The MESSENGER mission to Mercury offers our first opportunity to explore this planet s miniature magnetosphere since the brief flybys of Mariner 10. Mercury s magnetosphere is unique in many respects. The magnetosphere of Mercury is among the smallest in the solar system; its magnetic field typically stands off the solar wind only - 1000 to 2000 km above the surface. For this reason there are no closed drift paths for energetic particles and, hence, no radiation belts. The characteristic time scales for wave propagation and convective transport are short and kinetic and fluid modes may be coupled. Magnetic reconnection at the dayside magnetopause may erode the subsolar magnetosphere allowing solar wind ions to impact directly the regolith. Inductive currents in Mercury s interior may act to modify the solar wind interaction by resisting changes due to solar wind pressure variations. Indeed, observations of these induction effects may be an important source of information on the state of Mercury s interior. In addition, Mercury s magnetosphere is the only one with its defining magnetic flux tubes rooted in a planetary regolith as opposed to an atmosphere with a conductive ionospheric layer. This lack of an ionosphere is probably the underlying reason for the brevity of the very intense, but short-lived, - 1-2 min, substorm-like energetic particle events observed by Mariner 10 during its first traversal of Mercury s magnetic tail. Because of Mercury s proximity to the sun, 0.3 - 0.5 AU, this magnetosphere experiences the most extreme driving forces in the solar system. All of these factors are expected to produce complicated interactions involving the exchange and re-cycling of neutrals and ions between the solar wind, magnetosphere, and regolith. The electrodynamics of Mercury s magnetosphere are expected to be equally complex, with strong forcing by the solar wind, magnetic reconnection at the magnetopause and in the tail, and the pick-up of planetary ions all

  10. Exploring Black Hole Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Hyeyoun

    2015-10-01

    This thesis explores the evolution of different types of black holes, and the ways in which black hole dynamics can be used to answer questions about other physical systems. We first investigate the differences in observable gravitational effects between a four-dimensional Randall-Sundrum (RS) braneworld universe compared to a universe without the extra dimension, by considering a black hole solution to the braneworld model that is localized on the brane. When the brane has a negative cosmological constant, then for a certain range of parameters for the black hole, the intersection of the black hole with the brane approximates a Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli (BTZ) black hole on the brane with corrections that fall off exponentially outside the horizon. We compute the quasinormal modes of the braneworld black hole, and compare them to the known quasinormal modes of the three-dimensional BTZ black hole. We find that there are two distinct regions for the braneworld black hole solutions that are reflected in the dependence of the quasinormal modes on the black hole mass. The imaginary parts of the quasinormal modes display phenomenological similarities to the quasinormal modes of the three-dimensional BTZ black hole, indicating that nonlinear gravitational effects may not be enough to distinguish between a lower-dimensional theory and a theory derived from a higher-dimensional braneworld. Secondly, we consider the evolution of non-extremal black holes in N=4, d=2 supergravity, and investigate how such black holes might evolve over time if perturbed away from extremality. We study this problem in the probe limit by finding tunneling amplitudes for a Dirac field in a single-centered background, which gives the decay rates for the emission of charged probe black holes from the central black hole. We find that there is no minimum to the potential for the probe particles at a finite distance from the central black hole, so any probes that are emitted escape to infinity. If

  11. Stardust interstellar preliminary examination (ISPE).

    SciTech Connect

    Westphal, A.J.; Allen, C.; Bajt, S.; Basset, R.; Flynn, G.L.; Sutton, S.

    2009-03-23

    The Stardust Interstellar Preliminary Examination (ISPE) is a three-year effort to characterize the Stardust interstellar dust collection and collector using non-destructive techniques. We summarize the status of the ISPE. In January 2006 the Stardust sample return capsule returned to Earth bearing the first solid samples from a primitive solar system body, Comet 81P/Wild2, and a collector dedicated to the capture and return of contemporary interstellar dust. Both collectors were {approx}0.1 m{sup 2} in area and were composed of aerogel tiles (85% of the collecting area) and aluminum foils. The Stardust Interstellar Dust Collector (SIDC) was exposed to the interstellar dust stream for a total exposure factor of 20 m{sup 2}-day during two periods before the cometary encounter. The Stardust Interstellar Preliminary Examination (ISPE) is a three-year effort to characterize the collection using nondestructive techniques. The goals and restrictions of the ISPE are described in Westphal et al. The ISPE consists of six interdependent projects: (1) Candidate identification through automated digital microscopy and a massively distributed, calibrated search; (2) Candidate extraction and photodocumentation; (3) Characterization of candidates through synchrotron-based Fourier-Tranform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning X-Ray Fluoresence Microscopy (SXRF), and Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscopy (STXM); (4) Search for and analysis of craters in foils through FESEM scanning, Auger Spectroscopy and synchrotron-based Photoemission Electron Microscopy (PEEM); (5) Modeling of interstellar dust transport in the solar system; and (6) Laboratory simulations of hypervelocity dust impacts into the collecting media.

  12. The adult well male examination.

    PubMed

    Heidelbaugh, Joel J; Tortorello, Michelle

    2012-05-15

    The adult well male examination should incorporate evidence-based guidance toward the promotion of optimal health and well-being, including screening tests shown to improve health outcomes. Nearly one-third of men report not having a primary care physician. The medical history should include substance use; risk factors for sexually transmitted infections; diet and exercise habits; and symptoms of depression. Physical examination should include blood pressure and body mass index screening. Men with sustained blood pressures greater than 135/80 mm Hg should be screened for diabetes mellitus. Lipid screening is warranted in all men 35 years and older, and in men 20 to 34 years of age who have cardiovascular risk factors. Ultrasound screening for abdominal aortic aneurysm should occur between 65 and 75 years of age in men who have ever smoked. There is insufficient evidence to recommend screening men for osteoporosis or skin cancer. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force has provisionally recommended against prostate-specific antigen-based screening for prostate cancer because the harms of testing and overtreatment outweigh potential benefits. Screening for colorectal cancer should begin at 50 years of age in men of average risk and continue until at least 75 years of age. Screening should be performed by high-sensitivity fecal occult blood testing every year, flexible sigmoidoscopy every five years combined with [corrected] fecal occult blood testing every three years. [corrected]. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommends against screening for testicular cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Immunizations should be recommended according to guidelines from the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. PMID:22612046

  13. Liquid Hydrogen Sensor Considerations for Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moran, Matthew E.

    2006-01-01

    The on-orbit management of liquid hydrogen planned for the return to the moon will introduce new considerations not encountered in previous missions. This paper identifies critical liquid hydrogen sensing needs from the perspective of reliable on-orbit cryogenic fluid management, and contrasts the fundamental differences in fluid and thermodynamic behavior for ground-based versus on-orbit conditions. Opportunities for advanced sensor development and implementation are explored in the context of critical Exploration Architecture operations such as on-orbit storage, docking, and trans-lunar injection burn. Key sensing needs relative to these operations are also examined, including: liquid/vapor detection, thermodynamic condition monitoring, mass gauging, and leak detection. Finally, operational aspects of an integrated system health management approach are discussed to highlight the potential impact on mission success.

  14. Explorations in dark energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozek, Brandon

    This dissertation describes three research projects on the topic of dark energy. The first project is an analysis of a scalar field model of dark energy with an exponential potential using the Dark Energy Task Force (DETF) simulated data models. Using Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling techniques we examine the ability of each simulated data set to constrain the parameter space of the exponential potential for data sets based on a cosmological constant and a specific exponential scalar field model. We compare our results with the constraining power calculated by the DETF using their "w 0--wa" parameterization of the dark energy. We find that respective increases in constraining power from one stage to the next produced by our analysis give results consistent with DETF results. To further investigate the potential impact of future experiments, we also generate simulated data for an exponential model background cosmology which can not be distinguished from a cosmological constant at DETF Stage 2, and show that for this cosmology good DETF Stage 4 data would exclude a cosmological constant by better than 3sigma. The second project details this analysis on a Inverse Power Law (IPL) or "Ratra-Peebles" (RP) model. This model is a member of a popular subset of scalar field quintessence models that exhibit "tracking" behavior that make this model particularly theoretically interesting. We find that the relative increase in constraining power on the parameter space of this model is consistent to what was found in the first project and the DETF report. We also show, using a background cosmology based on an IPL scalar field model that is consistent with a cosmological constant with Stage 2 data, that good DETF Stage 4 data would exclude a cosmological constant by better than 3sigma. The third project extends the Causal Entropic Principle to predict the preferred curvature within the "multiverse". The Causal Entropic Principle (Bousso, et al.) provides an alternative approach

  15. Examining Rotational Ground Motion Induced by Tornados

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kessler, Elijah; Dunn, Robert

    2016-03-01

    Ring lasers are well known for their ability to detect rotation and to serve as replacements for mechanical gyroscopes. The sensitivity of large ring lasers to various forms of ground motion is less familiar. Since ring lasers preferentially measure rotational ground motion and a standard seismograph is designed to measure translational and vertical ground motion, each device responds to different aspects of ground movement. Therefore, the two instruments will be used to explore responses to microseisms, earthquake generated shear waves, and in particular tornado generated ground movement. On April 27, 2014 an EF4 tornado devastated Vilonia, AR a small town ~ 21 km from the Hendrix College ring laser. The proximity of the tornado's path to the ring laser interferometer and to a seismograph located in Vilonia provided the opportunity to examine the response of these instruments to tornadic generated ground motion. Our measurements suggest tornadic weather systems can produce both rotational and lateral ground motion. This contention is supported by an after the fact damage survey which found that the tornado flattened a forest in which trees were uprooted and laid down in a pair of converging arcs with the centerline pointed in the direction of the tornado's path.

  16. National Postirradiation Examination Workshop Report

    SciTech Connect

    Schulthess, Jason L

    2011-06-01

    A National Post-Irradiation-Examination (PIE) Workshop was held March 29-30, 2011, in Washington D.C., stimulated by the DOE Acting Assistant Secretary for Nuclear Energy approval on January 31, 2011 of the “Mission Need Statement for Advanced Post-Irradiation Examination Capability”. As stated in the Mission Need, “A better understanding of nuclear fuels and material performance in the nuclear environment, at the nanoscale and lower, is critical to the development of innovative fuels and materials required for tomorrow’s nuclear energy systems.” (2011) Developing an advanced post-irradiation capability is the most important thing we can do to advance nuclear energy as an option to meeting national energy goals. Understanding the behavior of fuels and materials in a nuclear reactor irradiation environment is the limiting factor in nuclear plant safety, longevity, efficiency, and economics. The National PIE Workshop is part of fulfilling or addressing Department of Energy (DOE) missions in safe and publically acceptable nuclear energy. Several presentations were given during the opening of the workshop. Generally speaking, these presentations established that we cannot continue to rely on others in the world to provide the capabilities we need to move forward with nuclear energy technology. These presentations also generally identified the need for increased microstructural understanding of fuels and materials to be coupled with modeling and simulation, and increased accessibility and infrastructure to facilitate the interaction between national laboratories and participating organizations. The overall results of the work of the presenters and panels was distilled into four primary needs 1. Understanding material changes in the extreme nuclear environment at the nanoscale. Nanoscale studies have significant importance due to the mechanisms that cause materials to degrade, which actually occur on the nanoscale. 2. Enabling additional proficiency in

  17. Mars exploration: follow the water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Young Ho

    2004-01-01

    Over the centuries, the red planet Mars has been a subject of imagination as well as intense scientific interest. As the overwhelming success of two Mars Exploration Rovers unfolds before us, this article provides an overview of and rationale for NASA's Mars exploration program.

  18. Great Explorers to the East.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Rosalie F., Ed.; Baker, Charles F. III, Ed.

    1990-01-01

    This issue of "Calliope," a world history magazine for young people is devoted to "Great Explorers of the East" and features articles on famous explorers of the eastern hemisphere. The following articles are included: "Ancient Egyptian Mariners"; "Alexander: The Great Reconciler"; "Marco Polo: Describing the World"; "By Water to India";…

  19. Learning, Exploration and Chaotic Policies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potapov, Alexei B.; Ali, M. K.

    We consider different versions of exploration in reinforcement learning. For the test problem, we use navigation in a shortcut maze. It is shown that chaotic ɛ-greedy policy may be as efficient as a random one. The best results were obtained with a model chaotic neuron. Therefore, exploration strategy can be implemented in a deterministic learning system such as a neural network.

  20. Exploration of the solar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, A., Jr.; Grey, J.

    1974-01-01

    A sourcebook of information on the solar system and the technology used for its exploration is presented. An outline of the potential achievements of solar system exploration is given along with a course of action which maximizes the rewards to mankind.

  1. Explorations in Statistics: Confidence Intervals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curran-Everett, Douglas

    2009-01-01

    Learning about statistics is a lot like learning about science: the learning is more meaningful if you can actively explore. This third installment of "Explorations in Statistics" investigates confidence intervals. A confidence interval is a range that we expect, with some level of confidence, to include the true value of a population parameter…

  2. TMI-2 quick look examination

    SciTech Connect

    Franz, W.A.; Rider, R.L.; Austin, W.A.; Cole, N.

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of this work, conducted under the Department of Energy's Reactor Evaluation Program, was to gain the earliest possible access to the TMI-2 reactor vessel and to determine the condition of the plenum assembly and the reactor core. Completion of this examination has also provided substantial progress towards removal of the reactor vessel head and eventual defueling. Two methods were developed for gaining through-head access. The first involves removal of an entire CRDM, providing a 6.8-cm-diameter access through the nozzle. In case normal uncoupling proved unsuccessful, contingency techniques were developed to disconnect the leadscrew. Two contingency procedures, one ex-head and one in-head, were developed. A second technique for through-head access, the so-called Quick Look technique, was developed at the suggestion of the Technical Assessment and Advisory Group (TAAG), a group of senior technical people funded by DOE to advise GPU Nuclear on the TMI-2 recovery. This simplified method involves uncoupling and removing a CRDM leadscrew by basically normal methods and inserting a Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) camera directly through the space vacated by the leadscrew.

  3. Examining the Synergy of Practice

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Public health nurses in Ireland are charged with conducting a home visit to every postnatal mother within 48 hours of hospital discharge. This represents the beginning of a long-term relationship, not only with the mother and newborn child but also with the family. This article fundamentally demonstrates the essential work of the public health nurse in promoting the health of the baby within a family. In this article, the expertise the public health nurse uses in the first visit is examined in the context of 3 competencies: communication, partnerships with the family, and partnerships with individual family members. This expertise provides the foundation for a long-term therapeutic relationship with the family to the essential benefit of the baby’s early childhood growth and developmental milestones. Consequently, the first postnatal visit by public health nursing in Ireland represents a synergy of practice, which provides the foundation for enduring family relationships focused on potentializing both individual family members’ health and the family as a dynamic unit. PMID:27335911

  4. Classification and examination of halitosis.

    PubMed

    Murata, T; Yamaga, T; Iida, T; Miyazaki, H; Yaegaki, K

    2002-06-01

    In this paper, the classification of halitosis and the examination procedures used in diagnosing halitosis are outlined. Halitosis is classified into categories of genuine halitosis, pseudo-halitosis and halitophobia. Genuine halitosis is subclassified into physiologic halitosis and pathologic halitosis. Pathologic halitosis itself is subdivided into oral and extraoral halitosis. Patients diagnosed with pseudo-halitosis and halitophobia usually complain about having oral malodour that does not really exist. Pseudohalitosis can be treated by dental practitioners, but halitophobic patients must be referred to psychological specialists. Oral malodour can be measured using an organoleptic measurement or a gas chromatography analysis. The organoleptic measurement is the most practical procedure with which one can evaluate oral malodour. Gas chromatography (GC) analysis using a flame photometric detector has been shown to be the gold standard for measuring oral malodour, owing its reputation to its objectivity and reproducibility. Moreover, GC is specific for volatile sulphur compounds (VSC), which are the main causes of oral malodour. It has been demonstrated that there is a high correlation between the intensity of oral malodour and the VSC concentration as measured by GC. PMID:12090449

  5. Stardust Interstellar Preliminary Examination (ISPE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westphal, A. J.; Allen, C.; Bajt, S.; Basset, R.; Bastien, R.; Bechtel, H.; Bleuet, P.; Borg, J.; Brenker F.; Bridges, J.

    2009-01-01

    In January 2006 the Stardust sample return capsule returned to Earth bearing the first solid samples from a primitive solar system body, C omet 81P/Wild2, and a collector dedicated to the capture and return o f contemporary interstellar dust. Both collectors were approximately 0.1m(exp 2) in area and were composed of aerogel tiles (85% of the co llecting area) and aluminum foils. The Stardust Interstellar Dust Col lector (SIDC) was exposed to the interstellar dust stream for a total exposure factor of 20 m(exp 2-) day during two periods before the co metary encounter. The Stardust Interstellar Preliminary Examination ( ISPE) is a three-year effort to characterize the collection using no ndestructive techniques. The ISPE consists of six interdependent proj ects: (1) Candidate identification through automated digital microsco py and a massively distributed, calibrated search (2) Candidate extr action and photodocumentation (3) Characterization of candidates thro ugh synchrotronbased FourierTranform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), S canning XRay Fluoresence Microscopy (SXRF), and Scanning Transmission Xray Microscopy (STXM) (4) Search for and analysis of craters in f oils through FESEM scanning, Auger Spectroscopy and synchrotronbased Photoemission Electron Microscopy (PEEM) (5) Modeling of interstell ar dust transport in the solar system (6) Laboratory simulations of h ypervelocity dust impacts into the collecting media

  6. Examining pharmaceuticals using terahertz spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulovská, Kateřina; Křesálek, Vojtěch

    2015-10-01

    Pharmaceutical trafficking is common issue in countries where they are under stricter dispensing regime with monitoring of users. Most commonly smuggled pharmaceuticals include trade names Paralen Plus, Modafen, Clarinase repetabs, Aspirin complex, etc. These are transported mainly from Eastern Europe (e.g. Poland, Ukraine, Russia) to countries like Czech Republic, which is said to have one of the highest number of methamphetamine producers in Europe. The aim of this paper is to describe the possibility of terahertz spectroscopy utilization as an examining tool to distinguish between pharmaceuticals containing pseudoephedrine compounds and those without it. Selected medicaments for experimental part contain as an active ingredient pseudoephedrine hydrochloride or pseudoephedrine sulphate. Results show a possibility to find a pseudoephedrine compound spectra in samples according to previously computed and experimentally found ones, and point out that spectra of same brand names pills may vary according to their expiration date, batch, and amount of absorbed water vapours from ambience. Mislead spectrum also occurs during experimental work in a sample without chosen active ingredient, which shows persistent minor inconveniences of terahertz spectroscopy. All measurement were done on the TPS Spectra 3000 instrument.

  7. AGR-1 Post Irradiation Examination Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Demkowicz, Paul Andrew

    2015-08-01

    The post-irradiation examination (PIE) of the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR)-1 experiment was a multi-year, collaborative effort between Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to study the performance of UCO (uranium carbide, uranium oxide) tristructural isotropic (TRISO) coated particle fuel fabricated in the U.S. and irradiated at the Advanced Test Reactor at INL to a peak burnup of 19.6% fissions per initial metal atom. This work involved a broad array of experiments and analyses to evaluate the level of fission product retention by the fuel particles and compacts (both during irradiation and during post-irradiation heating tests to simulate reactor accident conditions), investigate the kernel and coating layer morphology evolution and the causes of coating failure, and explore the migration of fission products through the coating layers. The results have generally confirmed the excellent performance of the AGR-1 fuel, first indicated during the irradiation by the observation of zero TRISO coated particle failures out of 298,000 particles in the experiment. Overall release of fission products was determined by PIE to have been relatively low during the irradiation. A significant finding was the extremely low levels of cesium released through intact coatings. This was true both during the irradiation and during post-irradiation heating tests to temperatures as high as 1800°C. Post-irradiation safety test fuel performance was generally excellent. Silver release from the particles and compacts during irradiation was often very high. Extensive microanalysis of fuel particles was performed after irradiation and after high-temperature safety testing. The results of particle microanalysis indicate that the UCO fuel is effective at controlling the oxygen partial pressure within the particle and limiting kernel migration. Post-irradiation examination has provided the final body of data that speaks to the quality of the AGR-1 fuel, building

  8. Exploring the expansion history of the universe

    SciTech Connect

    Linder, Eric V.

    2002-08-30

    Exploring the recent expansion history of the universe promises insights into the cosmological model, the nature of dark energy, and potentially clues to high energy physics theories and gravitation. They examine the extent to which precision distance-redshift observations can map out the history, including the acceleration-deceleration transition, and the components and equations of state of the energy density. They consider the ability to distinguish between various dynamical scalar field models for the dark energy, as well as higher dimension and alternate gravity theories. Finally, they present a new, advantageous parametrization for the study of dark energy.

  9. Robotics and automation in Mars exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourke, Roger D.; Sturms, Francis M., Jr.; Golombek, Matthew P.; Gamber, R. T.

    1992-01-01

    A new approach to the exploration of Mars is examined which relies on the use of smaller and simpler vehicles. The new strategy involves the following principles: limiting science objectives to retrieval of rock samples from several different but geologically homogeneous areas; making use of emerging microspacecraft technologies to significantly reduce the mass of hardware elements; simplifying missions to the absolutely essential elements; and managing risk through the employment of many identical independent pieces some of which may fail. The emerging technologies and their applications to robotic Mars missions are discussed.

  10. Exploring the expansion history of the universe.

    PubMed

    Linder, Eric V

    2003-03-01

    Exploring the recent expansion history of the universe promises insights into the cosmological model, the nature of dark energy, and potentially clues to high energy physics theories and gravitation. We examine the extent to which precision distance-redshift observations can map out the history, including the acceleration-deceleration transition, and the components and equations of state of the energy density. We consider the ability to distinguish between various dynamical scalar field models for the dark energy, as well as higher dimension and alternate gravity theories. Finally, we present a new, advantageous parametrization for the study of dark energy. PMID:12689209

  11. Exploring bullying: Implications for nurse educators.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Sharon L; O'Connell, Claire Frances

    2007-01-01

    This article examines briefly the issue of workplace violence and bullying in the hospital environment, but more importantly how the same and different styles of bullying and intra-staff bullying are emerging in nurse education. The content describes the aetiology of violence and bullying and their place in the National Health Service (NHS) including nursing. It explores bullying as the principle form of intimidation in nurse education, the different types and subtle forms of bullying, why individuals become bullies, dealing with and the consequences of bullying. The legislation, guidelines, policies are part of the recommendations for practice. PMID:17689421

  12. Advanced flight computers for planetary exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephenson, R. Rhoads

    Research concerning flight computers for use on interplanetary probes is reviewed. The history of these computers from the Viking mission to the present is outlined. The differences between ground commercial computers and computers for planetary exploration are listed. The development of a computer for the Mariner Mark II comet rendezvous asteroid flyby mission is described. Various aspects of recently developed computer systems are examined, including the Max real time, embedded computer, a hypercube distributed supercomputer, a SAR data processor, a processor for the High Resolution IR Imaging Spectrometer, and a robotic vision multiresolution pyramid machine for processsing images obtained by a Mars Rover.

  13. Advanced flight computers for planetary exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephenson, R. Rhoads

    1988-01-01

    Research concerning flight computers for use on interplanetary probes is reviewed. The history of these computers from the Viking mission to the present is outlined. The differences between ground commercial computers and computers for planetary exploration are listed. The development of a computer for the Mariner Mark II comet rendezvous asteroid flyby mission is described. Various aspects of recently developed computer systems are examined, including the Max real time, embedded computer, a hypercube distributed supercomputer, a SAR data processor, a processor for the High Resolution IR Imaging Spectrometer, and a robotic vision multiresolution pyramid machine for processsing images obtained by a Mars Rover.

  14. An experimental task to examine the mirror system in rats

    PubMed Central

    Takano, Yuji; Ukezono, Masatoshi

    2014-01-01

    The mirror system in the brain is considered to be a neural basis of sociality, but previous studies have been limited to primates. Here we report an experimental task to examine the mirror system in rats. We show that a rat could reach to a pellet and grasp and eat it in front of another rat that was observing the reaching, which indicates that the task will enable us to start exploring the rat mirror system. PMID:25323637

  15. Exploring Ancient Skies: An Encyclopedic Survey of Archaeoastronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, David H.; Milone, Eugene F.

    Exploring Ancient Skies uses modern science to examine ancient astronomy throughout the World, that is, to use the methods of archaeology and insights of modern astronomy explore how astronomy was practiced before the invention of the telescope. It thus reviews an enormous and growing body of literature on the cultures of the ancient Mediterranean, the Far East, and the New World, particularly Mesoamerica, putting the ancient astronomical materials into their archaeological and cultural contexts.

  16. Low Cost Mars Surface Exploration: The Mars Tumbleweed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antol, Jeffrey; Calhoun, Philip; Flick, John; Hajos, Gregory; Kolacinski, Richard; Minton, David; Owens, Rachel; Parker, Jennifer

    2003-01-01

    The "Mars Tumbleweed," a rover concept that would utilize surface winds for mobility, is being examined as a low cost complement to the current Mars exploration efforts. Tumbleweeds carrying microinstruments would be driven across the Martian landscape by wind, searching for areas of scientific interest. These rovers, relatively simple, inexpensive, and deployed in large numbers to maximize coverage of the Martian surface, would provide a broad scouting capability to identify specific sites for exploration by more complex rover and lander missions.

  17. Scientific Exploration of Near-Earth Objects via the Crew Exploration Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abell, Paul A.; Korsmeyer, D. J.; Landis, R. R.; Lu, E.; Adamo (D.); Jones (T.); Lemke, L.; Gonzales, A.; Gershman, B.; Morrison, D.; Sweetser, T.; Johnson, L.

    2007-01-01

    The concept of a crewed mission to a Near-Earth Object (NEO) has been analyzed in depth in 1989 as part of the Space Exploration Initiative. Since that time two other studies have investigated the possibility of sending similar missions to NEOs. A more recent study has been sponsored by the Advanced Programs Office within NASA's Constellation Program. This study team has representatives from across NASA and is currently examining the feasibility of sending a Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) to a near-Earth object (NEO). The ideal mission profile would involve a crew of 2 or 3 astronauts on a 90 to 120 day flight, which would include a 7 to 14 day stay for proximity operations at the target NEO. One of the significant advantages of this type of mission is that it strengthens and validates the foundational infrastructure for the Vision for Space Exploration (VSE) and Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS) in the run up to the lunar sorties at the end of the next decade (approx.2020). Sending a human expedition to a NEO, within the context of the VSE and ESAS, demonstrates the broad utility of the Constellation Program s Orion (CEV) crew capsule and Ares (CLV) launch systems. This mission would be the first human expedition to an interplanetary body outside of the cislunar system. Also, it will help NASA regain crucial operational experience conducting human exploration missions outside of low Earth orbit, which humanity has not attempted in nearly 40 years.

  18. [Postural examination in daily occlusodontology].

    PubMed

    Serviere, F

    1989-03-01

    According to the osteopathic and chiropractic concepts, facing a TMJ problem, the practitioner has to determine if the trouble observed in the stomatognatic apparatus is the cause or the effect of the structural problems present anywhere else in the body. The postural examination allows to answer this question. Tow techniques can be used. First a static and dynamic posture test proposed by Bricot. The level of the cranium, the eyes, the shoulders, the wrists, the pelvis and the ankles is analysed, from a front view; from the side, the gravity line is inspected: vertex, auditory meatus, shoulder, hip joint, anterior side of the tibia, ankle joint. The vertical posture can be studied from the front: the arms are held straight and the antero-posterior length between the fingers is measured. From the back, one notes the recoil of the buttocks on one side. An ocular convergence test is performed. Then one uses a Romberg test (oscillation of the body when the eyes are closed), and a Fukuda stepping test. The patient is then asked to bite on a compress, and the same exams are redone. If no change occurs, we are dealing with an ascending problem: the origin of the problem is not the stomatognathic system. The second technique is the Meerssemann test that needs the practice of Applied Kinesiology muscle testing. The patient is lying supine and one tests: the dental occlusion, the two TMJs, the temporal muscles, masseters, pterygoids, sterno-cleido-mastoids, upper tapezius, left and right sacro-iliac joints, psoas muscles bilaterally.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2636023

  19. International Collaboration for Venus Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cutts, James; Limaye, Sanjay; Zasova, Ludmila; Wilson, Colin; Ocampo, Adriana; Glaze, Lori; Svedhem, H.; Nakamura, Masato; Widemann, Thomas

    The Venus Exploration Analysis Group (VEXAG) was established by NASA in July 2005 to identify scientific priorities and strategy for exploration of Venus. From the outset, VEXAG has been open to the international community participation and has followed the progress of the ESA Venus Express Mission and the JAXA Akasuki mission as well exploring potential broad international partnerships for Venus exploration through coordinated science and missions. This paper discussed three mechanisms through which these collaborations are being explored in which VEXAG members participate One pathway for international collaboration has been through COSPAR. The International Venus Exploration Working Group (IVEWG) was formed during the 2012 COSPAR general assembly in Mysore, India. Another potentially significant outcome has been the IVEWG’s efforts to foster a formal dialog between IKI and NASA/PSD on the proposed Venera D mission resulting in a meeting in June 2013 to be followed by a discussion at the 4MS3 conference in October 2013. This has now resulted in an agreement between NASA/PSD and IKI to form a joint Science Definition Team for Venera D. A second pathway has been through an international focus on comparative climatology. Scientists from the established space faring nations participated in a first international conference on Comparative Climatology for Terrestrial Planet (CCTP) in Boulder Colorado in June 2012 sponsored by several international scientific organizations. A second conference is planned for 2015. The Planetary Robotics Exploration Coordinating Group (PRECG) of International Academy of Astronautics (IAA) the IAA has been focusing on exploring affordable contributions to the robotic exploration by non-space-faring nations wishing to get involved in planetary exploration. PRECG has sponsored a two year study of Comparative Climatology for which Venus is the focal point and focused on engaging nations without deep space exploration capabilities. A third

  20. Human space exploration - From surviving to performing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clément, Gilles; Bukley, Angelia P.

    2014-07-01

    This paper explores the evolution of human spaceflight by examining the space programs of the United States, Russia, including the former Soviet Union, and China. A simple analysis of the numbers of humans who have flown into space, the durations of the missions flown, and the accumulated flight time of the individuals reveals that spaceflight is decidedly male-dominated and that approximately one out of six individuals flown was a non-career astronaut. In addition, 31 individuals have accumulated long-duration flight experience equivalent to a round trip to Mars. An examination of the evolution of spacecraft that have made these missions possible indicates that the time to accomplish the first four to five flights of a new human space vehicle has increased from less than one year to nearly 10 years.

  1. Planetary exploration - Earth's new horizon /Twelfth von Karman Lecture/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schurmeier, H. M.

    1975-01-01

    Planetary exploration is examined in terms of the interaction of technological growth with scientific progress and the intangibles associated with exploring the unknown. The field is limited to unmanned exploration of the planets and their satellites. A descriptive model of the endeavor, its activities and achievements in the past decade, a characterization of the current state of the art, and a look at some of the planetary mission opportunities for the next decade are presented. A case is made for the value to civilization of ongoing planetary exploration. The pioneering U.S. planetary explorers, Mars, Venus, and Jupiter, are discussed in the second part of the work. Launch velocity, navigation, the remote system, the earth base, and management technology are considered in the third part. Authorized near-term U.S. planetary projects and opportunities of the next decade are described in the last section.

  2. 7 CFR 4290.690 - Examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Examinations. 4290.690 Section 4290.690 Agriculture... Recordkeeping, Reporting, and Examination Requirements for RBICs Examinations of Rbics by the Secretary for Regulatory Compliance § 4290.690 Examinations. All RBICs must submit to annual examinations by or at...

  3. 13 CFR 107.690 - Examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Examinations. 107.690 Section 107... Recordkeeping, Reporting, and Examination Requirements for Licensees Examinations of Licensees by Sba for Regulatory Compliance § 107.690 Examinations. SBA will examine all Licensees for the purpose of...

  4. 14 CFR 183.23 - Pilot examiners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pilot examiners. 183.23 Section 183.23... REGULATIONS REPRESENTATIVES OF THE ADMINISTRATOR Kinds of Designations: Privileges § 183.23 Pilot examiners. Any pilot examiner, instrument rating examiner, or airline transport pilot examiner may— (a)...

  5. 14 CFR 183.23 - Pilot examiners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pilot examiners. 183.23 Section 183.23... REGULATIONS REPRESENTATIVES OF THE ADMINISTRATOR Kinds of Designations: Privileges § 183.23 Pilot examiners. Any pilot examiner, instrument rating examiner, or airline transport pilot examiner may— (a)...

  6. The Fear Factor: Students' Experiences of Test Anxiety when Taking A-Level Examinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chamberlain, Suzanne; Daly, Anthony Leslie; Spalding, Victoria

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of a pilot study that explored students' experiences of test anxiety when taking A-level examinations. Four focus groups were convened with a sample of 19 participants in the south of England to explore the triggers of test anxiety and the perceived need for interventions to assist high test-anxious students cope…

  7. Effects of Item Exposure for Conventional Examinations in a Continuous Testing Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hertz, Norman R.; Chinn, Roberta N.

    This study explored the effect of item exposure on two conventional examinations administered as computer-based tests. A principal hypothesis was that item exposure would have little or no effect on average difficulty of the items over the course of an administrative cycle. This hypothesis was tested by exploring conventional item statistics and…

  8. Geothermal Exploration Cost and Time

    DOE Data Explorer

    Jenne, Scott

    2013-02-13

    The Department of Energy’s Geothermal Technology Office (GTO) provides RD&D funding for geothermal exploration technologies with the goal of lowering the risks and costs of geothermal development and exploration. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) was tasked with developing a metric in 2012 to measure the impacts of this RD&D funding on the cost and time required for exploration activities. The development of this cost and time metric included collecting cost and time data for exploration techniques, creating a baseline suite of exploration techniques to which future exploration cost and time improvements can be compared, and developing an online tool for graphically showing potential project impacts (all available at http://en.openei.org/wiki/Gateway: Geothermal). This paper describes the methodology used to define the baseline exploration suite of techniques (baseline), as well as the approach that was used to create the cost and time data set that populates the baseline. The resulting product, an online tool for measuring impact, and the aggregated cost and time data are available on the Open Energy Information website (OpenEI, http://en.openei.org) for public access. - Published 01/01/2013 by US National Renewable Energy Laboratory NREL.

  9. STS Derived Exploration Launch Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Best, Joel; Sorge, L.; Siders, J.; Sias, Dave

    2004-01-01

    A key aspect of the new space exploration programs will be the approach to optimize launch operations. A STS Derived Launch Vehicle (SDLV) Program can provide a cost effective, low risk, and logical step to launch all of the elements of the exploration program. Many benefits can be gained by utilizing the synergy of a common launch site as an exploration spaceport as well as evolving the resources of the current Space Shuttle Program (SSP) to meet the challenges of the Vision for Space Exploration. In particular, the launch operation resources of the SSP can be transitioned to the exploration program and combined with the operations efficiencies of unmanned EELVs to obtain the best of both worlds, resulting in lean launch operations for crew and cargo missions of the exploration program. The SDLV Program would then not only capture the extensive human space flight launch operations knowledge, but also provide for the safe fly-out of the SSP through continuity of system critical skills, manufacturing infrastructure, and ability to maintain and attract critical skill personnel. Thus, a SDLV Program can smoothly transition resources from the SSP and meet the transportation needs to continue the voyage of discovery of the space exploration program.

  10. Health reform: examining the alternatives.

    PubMed

    Custer, W

    1994-03-01

    This Issue Brief examines the major issues of the health reform debate. The issues that must be resolved before reform can be enacted include: allocation of health care resources, universal coverage versus universal access, composition of risk pools, employer and individual mandates, and distribution of health care services' costs. This report also contains short descriptions and analyses of the following proposals: McDermott-Wellstone, Clinton administration, Cooper-Breaux, Chafee-Thomas, Michel-Lott, Nickles-Stearns, and Gramm. Proposals without an individual mandate will not achieve universal coverage. An individual mandate raises significant enforcement issues. An employer mandate will not achieve universal coverage by itself. Depending on the number of hours an employee must work to be included in a mandate, an employer mandate could potentially extend health insurance coverage to as many as 85 percent of the currently uninsured. Each individual has a risk of needing health care services. Restructuring the health insurance market is accomplished by changing the way individuals and their risks are pooled. The composition of these risk pools will determine the costs of health insurance and the distribution of these costs. The theory behind medical saving accounts is that the market for health insurance currently leads to health care cost inflation because many events covered under most health insurance plans are not truly insurable. There are two issues involved in medical savings accounts--the impact on low-income individuals and individuals' ability to evaluate the quality of care they receive. The present market does not provide individuals with adequate information for assessing the quality or effectiveness of medical care. Among the critical issues in health reform is how to reduce the rate of health care cost inflation. The effect of proposals that impose explicit budget caps or price controls on health care cost inflation can be more easily estimated than

  11. Exploring Venus: the Venus Exploration Analysis Group (VEXAG)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ocampo, A.; Atreya, S.; Thompson, T.; Luhmann, J.; Mackwell, S.; Baines, K.; Cutts, J.; Robinson, J.; Saunders, S.

    In July 2005 NASA s Planetary Division established the Venus Exploration Analysis Group VEXAG http www lpi usra edu vexag in order to engage the scientific community at large in identifying scientific priorities and strategies for the exploration of Venus VEXAG is a community-based forum open to all interested in the exploration of Venus VEXAG was designed to provide scientific input and technology development plans for planning and prioritizing the study of Venus over the next several decades including a Venus surface sample return VEXAG regularly evaluates NASA s Venus exploration goals scientific objectives investigations and critical measurement requirements including the recommendations in the National Research Council Decadal Survey and NASA s Solar System Exploration Strategic Roadmap VEXAG will take into consideration the latest scientific results from ESA s Venus Express mission and the MESSENGER flybys as well as the results anticipated from JAXA s Venus Climate Orbiter together with science community inputs from venues such as the February 13-16 2006 AGU Chapman Conference to identify the scientific priorities and strategies for future NASA Venus exploration VEXAG is composed of two co-chairs Sushil Atreya University of Michigan Ann Arbor and Janet Luhmann University of California Berkeley VEXAG has formed three focus groups in the areas of 1 Planetary Formation and Evolution Surface and Interior Volcanism Geodynamics etc Focus Group Lead Steve Mackwell LPI 2 Atmospheric Evolution Dynamics Meteorology

  12. Data exploration systems for databases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greene, Richard J.; Hield, Christopher

    1992-01-01

    Data exploration systems apply machine learning techniques, multivariate statistical methods, information theory, and database theory to databases to identify significant relationships among the data and summarize information. The result of applying data exploration systems should be a better understanding of the structure of the data and a perspective of the data enabling an analyst to form hypotheses for interpreting the data. This paper argues that data exploration systems need a minimum amount of domain knowledge to guide both the statistical strategy and the interpretation of the resulting patterns discovered by these systems.

  13. Engineering Innovations for Exploration Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dumbacher, Daniel L.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews some of the engineering innovations requirements for the challenges of space exploration which NASA has and will be involved in. It reviews some significant successes in space transportation, exploration and science accomplished during 2009, and it reviews some of the places that are available for exploration in the near term and the specific missions that NASA has assigned to Marshall. It also reviews the project lifecycle management model, that is designed to reduce undefined, but known, risks. It also demonstrates the sustainable long-term program of block upgrades that contribute to long-term success of programs.

  14. Virtual reality and planetary exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgreevy, Michael W.

    1992-01-01

    NASA-Ames is intensively developing virtual-reality (VR) capabilities that can extend and augment computer-generated and remote spatial environments. VR is envisioned not only as a basis for improving human/machine interactions involved in planetary exploration, but also as a medium for the more widespread sharing of the experience of exploration, thereby broadening the support-base for the lunar and planetary-exploration endeavors. Imagery representative of Mars are being gathered for VR presentation at such terrestrial sites as Antarctica and Death Valley.

  15. Aeroassist Technology Planning for Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munk, Michelle M.; Powell, Richard W.

    2000-01-01

    Now that the International Space Station is undergoing assembly, NASA is strategizing about the next logical exploration strategy for robotic missions and the next destination for humans. NASA's current efforts are in developing technologies that will both aid the robotic exploration strategy and make human flight to other celestial bodies both safe and affordable. One of these enabling technologies for future robotic and human exploration missions is aeroassist. This paper will (1) define aeroassist, (2) explain the benefits and uses of aeroassist, and (3) describe a method, currently used by the NASA Aeroassist Working Group, by which widely geographically distributed teams can assemble, present, use, and archive technology information.

  16. High-School Exit Examinations and the Schooling Decisions of Teenagers: Evidence from Regression-Discontinuity Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papay, John P.; Murnane, Richard J.; Willett, John B.

    2014-01-01

    We examine whether barely failing one or more state-mandated high school exit examinations in Massachusetts affects the probability that students enroll in college. We extend the exit examination literature in two ways. First, we explore longer term effects of failing these tests. We find that barely failing an exit examination, for students on…

  17. Shielding Strategies for Human Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson J. W. (Editor); Miller, J. (Editor); Konradi, A. (Editor); Cucinotta, F. A. (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    A group of twenty-nine scientists and engineers convened a 'Workshop on Shielding Strategies for Human Space Exploration' at the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas. The provision of shielding for a Mars mission or a Lunar base from the hazards of space radiations is a critical technology since astronaut radiation safety depends on it and shielding safety factors to control risk uncertainty appear to be great. The purpose of the workshop was to define requirements for the development and evaluation of high performance shield materials and designs and to develop ideas regarding approaches to radiation shielding. The workshop was organized to review the recent experience on shielding strategies gained in studies of the 'Space Exploration Initiative (SEI),' to review the current knowledge base for making shield assessment, to examine a basis for new shielding strategies, and to recommend a strategy for developing the required technologies for a return to the moon or for Mars exploration. The uniqueness of the current workshop arises from the expected long duration of the missions without the protective cover of the geomagnetic field in which the usually small and even neglected effects of the galactic cosmic rays (GCR) can no longer be ignored. It is the peculiarity of these radiations for which the inter-action physics and biological action are yet to be fully understood.

  18. Human Exploration of Earth's Neighborhood and Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Condon, Gerald

    2003-01-01

    The presentation examines Mars landing scenarios, Earth to Moon transfers comparing direct vs. via libration points. Lunar transfer/orbit diagrams, comparison of opposition class and conjunction class missions, and artificial gravity for human exploration missions. Slides related to Mars landing scenarios include: mission scenario; direct entry landing locations; 2005 opportunity - Type 1; Earth-mars superior conjunction; Lander latitude accessibility; Low thrust - Earth return phase; SEP Earth return sequence; Missions - 200, 2007, 2009; and Mission map. Slides related to Earth to Moon transfers (direct vs. via libration points (L1, L2) include libration point missions, expeditionary vs. evolutionary, Earth-Moon L1 - gateway for lunar surface operations, and Lunar mission libration point vs. lunar orbit rendezvous (LOR). Slides related to lunar transfer/orbit diagrams include: trans-lunar trajectory from ISS parking orbit, trans-Earth trajectories, parking orbit considerations, and landing latitude restrictions. Slides related to comparison of opposition class (short-stay) and conjunction class (long-stay) missions for human exploration of Mars include: Mars mission planning, Earth-Mars orbital characteristics, delta-V variations, and Mars mission duration comparison. Slides related to artificial gravity for human exploration missions include: current configuration, NEP thruster location trades, minor axis rotation, and example load paths.

  19. Exploring the gender gap on nuclear disarmament

    SciTech Connect

    Cherrin, S.J.

    1987-01-01

    This research explores the relationship between sex/gender factors and attitudes toward peace and militarism to determine whether more women than men favor non-military solutions to peace to examine the effect of gender identity on these attitudes. The investigation also looks at participation in a peace group, a military setting, child care, and the traditional homemaker role, to see what effect these activities might have on attitudes toward peace and militarism. In addition, the study explores whether there is a correlation between attitudes favorable to feminism and orientation toward war and peace issues. This study is guided by the sociological perspective which assumes that sex and gender differences, to the extent they exist, may be influenced by the social roles defined as appropriate for women and men. In this exploration there is not a sex gap on peace and military attitudes. A feminine gender identity does not have an effect on the direction of attitudes toward peace or militarism. However, an overall identification with masculine traits, plus believing oneself to be dominant, competitive and aggressive is correlated with a non-pacifist world view. Results of this study show that participation in a peace group is the best determinant of a pro-peace attitude, whereas participation in a military setting tends to be associated with a pro-military attitude.

  20. New NASA Technologies for Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calle, Carlos I.

    2015-01-01

    NASA is developing new technologies to enable planetary exploration. NASA's Space Launch System is an advance vehicle for exploration beyond LEO. Robotic explorers like the Mars Science Laboratory are exploring Mars, making discoveries that will make possible the future human exploration of the planet. In this presentation, we report on technologies being developed at NASA KSC for planetary exploration.