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Sample records for examination exploration cerebrale

  1. Exploring examiner judgement of professional competence in rater based assessment.

    PubMed

    Naumann, Fiona L; Marshall, Stephen; Shulruf, Boaz; Jones, Philip D

    2016-10-01

    Exercise physiology courses have transitioned to competency based, forcing Universities to rethink assessment to ensure students are competent to practice. This study built on earlier research to explore rater cognition, capturing factors that contribute to assessor decision making about students' competency. The aims were to determine the source of variation in the examination process and document the factors impacting on examiner judgment. Examiner judgement was explored from both a quantitative and qualitative perspective. Twenty-three examiners viewed three video encounters of student performance on an OSCE. Once rated, analysis of variance was performed to determine where the variance was attributed. A semi-structured interview drew out the examiners reasoning behind their ratings. Results highlighted variability of the process of observation, judgement and rating, with each examiner viewing student performance from different lenses. However, at a global level, analysis of variance indicated that the examiner had a minimal impact on the variance, with the majority of variance explained by the student performance on task. One anomaly noted was in the assessment of technical competency, whereby the examiner had a large impact on the rating, linked to assessing according to curriculum content. The thought processes behind judgement were diverse and if the qualitative results had been used in isolation, may have led to the researchers drawing conclusions that the examined performances would have yielded widely different ratings. However, as a cohort, the examiners were able to distinguish good and poor levels of competency with the majority of student competency linked to the varying ability of the student. PMID:26796200

  2. eXamine: Exploring annotated modules in networks

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Biological networks have a growing importance for the interpretation of high-throughput “omics” data. Integrative network analysis makes use of statistical and combinatorial methods to extract smaller subnetwork modules, and performs enrichment analysis to annotate the modules with ontology terms or other available knowledge. This process results in an annotated module, which retains the original network structure and includes enrichment information as a set system. A major bottleneck is a lack of tools that allow exploring both network structure of extracted modules and its annotations. Results This paper presents a visual analysis approach that targets small modules with many set-based annotations, and which displays the annotations as contours on top of a node-link diagram. We introduce an extension of self-organizing maps to lay out nodes, links, and contours in a unified way. An implementation of this approach is freely available as the Cytoscape app eXamine Conclusions eXamine accurately conveys small and annotated modules consisting of several dozens of proteins and annotations. We demonstrate that eXamine facilitates the interpretation of integrative network analysis results in a guided case study. This study has resulted in a novel biological insight regarding the virally-encoded G-protein coupled receptor US28. PMID:25002203

  3. Goals for Near-Earth-Object Exploration Examined

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2010-09-01

    With Japan's Hayabusa space probe having returned a sample of the Itokawa asteroid this past June, and with NASA's Deep Impact spacecraft impactor having successfully struck comet Tempel 1 in 2006, among other recent missions, the study of near-Earth objects (NEOs) recently has taken some major steps forward. The recent discovery of two asteroids that passed within the Moon's distance of Earth on 8 September is a reminder of the need to further understand NEOs. During NASA's Exploration of Near-Earth Objects (NEO) Objectives Workshop, held in August in Washington, D. C., scientists examined rationales and goals for studying NEOs. Several recent documents have recognized NEO research as important as a scientific precursor for a potential mission to Mars, to learn more about the origins of the solar system, for planetary defense, and for resource exploitation. The October 2009 Review of Human Space Flight Plans Committee report (known as the Augustine report), for example, recommended a “flexible path ” for human exploration, with people visiting sites in the solar system, including NEOs. The White House's National Space Policy, released in June, indicates that by 2025, there should be “crewed missions beyond the moon, including sending humans to an asteroid.” In addition, NASA's proposed budget for fiscal year 2011 calls for the agency to send robotic precursor missions to nearby asteroids and elsewhere and to increase funding for identifying and cataloging NEOs.

  4. Exploring the Difficulty of Mathematics Examination Questions for Weaker Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crisp, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    This research investigated the difficulty of examination questions for students with weaker reading skills. Item level performance data were obtained for all candidates who took a maths examination (for 16 year olds). A sub-group of students who had access to a reader was identified (students with proven reading difficulties are permitted to have…

  5. Exploring the Nature of Examiner Thinking during the Process of Examination Marking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crisp, Victoria

    2008-01-01

    Despite the abundant literature on educational measurement there has been relatively little work investigating the psychological processes underpinning marking. This research investigated the processes involved when examiners mark examination responses. Scripts from two geography A-level examinations were used: one requiring short and medium…

  6. 43 CFR 23.5 - Technical examination of prospective surface exploration and mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... surface exploration and mining operations. 23.5 Section 23.5 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior SURFACE EXPLORATION, MINING AND RECLAMATION OF LANDS § 23.5 Technical examination of prospective surface exploration and mining operations. (a)(1) In connection with an...

  7. A study to examine the feasibility of using surface penetrators for mineral exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, A. S.; Anderson, D. W.

    1978-01-01

    The feasibility of using penetrators in earth applications is examined. Penetrator applications in exploration for mineral resources only is summarized. Instrumentation for future penetrators is described. Portions of this report are incorporated into a more extensive report examining other penetrator applications in exploration for fossil fuels, geothermal resources, and in environmental and engineering problems, which is to be published as a NASA technical publication.

  8. 25 CFR 216.4 - Technical examination of prospective surface exploration and mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... and mining operations. 216.4 Section 216.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS SURFACE EXPLORATION, MINING, AND RECLAMATION OF LANDS General Provisions § 216.4 Technical examination of prospective surface exploration and mining operations. (a)(1)...

  9. Does Family Structure Matter? A Domain-Specific Examination of Identity Exploration and Commitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartoszuk, Karin; Pittman, Joe F.

    2010-01-01

    This exploratory study examines identity exploration and commitment in different domains and how family structure (original/alternative), gender, and age affect these processes in a convenience sample of 388 college students. Results reveal that participants from alternative family structures explore more in the political and gender role domains…

  10. Exploring Group Forming Strategies by Examining Participation Behaviours during Whole Class Discussions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jahng, Namsook; Bullen, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore group forming strategies by examining participation behaviours during whole class discussions associated with active participation in a following small group activity. Written communication data, posted in class discussion forums (843 messages/70,432 words) and small group forums (732 messages/59,394…

  11. Exploration of the value of using a formula sheet for physics examinations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Wheijen; Shieh, Ruey S.

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore whether and how allowing students to prepare their own formula sheet (FS) for use in examinations helps them engage in meaningful learning and improve their academic performance. An action research is adopted to conduct the study. Three years (2009-11) of evaluation of the FS policy in introductory physics courses was undertaken. The data collection consists of the students' FS, examination results, and self-reported surveys. The results show that the students who were allowed to bring an FS to the examination outperformed those who were not. It is also found that the quality of individual students' FS was significantly correlated to their examination score (p < 0.001). The reported benefits of using an FS consists of facilitating conceptual understanding, highlighting cognitive demands in learning physics, and alleviating stress in examinations. The FS strategy appears to have the potential for strengthening students' understanding of physics concepts.

  12. Exploring the underperformance of male and minority ethnic medical students in first year clinical examinations.

    PubMed

    Woolf, Katherine; Haq, Inam; McManus, I Chris; Higham, Jenny; Dacre, Jane

    2008-12-01

    Evidence shows that medical students from Minority Ethnic (ME) backgrounds and male medical students underperform in undergraduate examinations. Our study confirmed these findings in first year clinical (year 3) medical students, and further explored this disparity in performance. We conducted a series of meta-analyses to measure the effects of sex and ethnic group on the written examination and Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) scores of three groups of year 3 medical students at two London UK medical schools (n = 1,051; 46.0% male; 48.7% White). Male and ME students scored lower on written and OSCE assessments. Both assessments were statistically significantly correlated (mean r = 0.45) and therefore the effects of sex and ethnic group were measured on each exam after being adjusted for the effect of the other. Although sex and ethnic differences remained on the OSCE when adjusted for written performance, these differences disappeared on the written when it was adjusted for OSCE performance. These findings may reflect a relative deficit in practical clinical knowledge in male and ME year 3 students. Results were unlikely to be due to examiner bias, as the machine-marked unadjusted written exam results showed significant sex and ethnic differences. PMID:17487565

  13. Exploring Specialized STEM High Schools: Three Dissertation Studies Examining Commonalities and Differences Across Six Case Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tofel-Grehl, Colby

    This dissertation is comprised of three independently conducted analyses of a larger investigation into the practices and features of specialized STEM high schools. While educators and policy makers advocate the development of many new specialized STEM high schools, little is known about the unique features and practices of these schools. The results of these manuscripts add to the literature exploring the promise of specialized STEM schools. Manuscript 1¹ is a qualitative investigation of the common features of STEM schools across multiple school model types. Schools were found to possess common cultural and academic features regardless of model type. Manuscript 2² builds on the findings of manuscript 1. With no meaningful differences found attributable to model type, the researchers used grounded theory to explore the relationships between observed differences among programs as related to the intensity of the STEM experience offered at schools. Schools were found to fall into two categories, high STEM intensity (HSI) and low STEM intensity (LSI), based on five major traits. Manuscript 3³ examines the commonalities and differences in classroom discourse and teachers' questioning techniques in STEM schools. It explicates these discursive practices in order to explore instructional practices across schools. It also examines factors that may influence classroom discourse such as discipline, level of teacher education, and course status as required or elective. Collectively, this research furthers the agenda of better understanding the potential advantages of specialized STEM high schools for preparing a future scientific workforce. ¹Tofel-Grehl, C., Callahan, C., & Gubbins, E. (2012). STEM high school communities: Common and differing features. Manuscript in preparation. ²Tofel-Grehl, C., Callahan, C., & Gubbins, E. (2012). Variations in the intensity of specialized science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) high schools. Manuscript in preparation

  14. When No Bilingual Examiner Is Available: Exploring the Use of Ancillary Examiners as a Viable Testing Solution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noland, Ramona M.

    2009-01-01

    Reliable and valid assessment of individuals who are English language learners (ELL) has presented a dilemma to psychologists, and school psychologists in particular, as it is complicated by the small number of professionals qualified to serve as bilingual examiners. Some psychologists use ancillary examiners during testing when no bilingual…

  15. Laying the Groundwork for NCLEX Success: An Exploration of Adaptive Quizzing as an Examination Preparation Method.

    PubMed

    Cox-Davenport, Rebecca A; Phelan, Julia C

    2015-05-01

    First-time NCLEX-RN pass rates are an important indicator of nursing school success and quality. Nursing schools use different methods to anticipate NCLEX outcomes and help prevent student failure and possible threat to accreditation. This study evaluated the impact of a shift in NCLEX preparation policy at a BSN program in the southeast United States. The policy shifted from the use of predictor score thresholds to determine graduation eligibility to a more proactive remediation strategy involving adaptive quizzing. A descriptive correlational design evaluated the impact of an adaptive quizzing system designed to give students ongoing active practice and feedback and explored the relationship between predictor examinations and NCLEX success. Data from student usage of the system as well as scores on predictor tests were collected for three student cohorts. Results revealed a positive correlation between adaptive quizzing system usage and content mastery. Two of the 69 students in the sample did not pass the NCLEX. With so few students failing the NCLEX, predictability of any course variables could not be determined. The power of predictor examinations to predict NCLEX failure could also not be supported. The most consistent factor among students, however, was their content mastery level within the adaptive quizzing system. Implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:25851560

  16. Exploring virtual reality technology and the Oculus Rift for the examination of digital pathology slides

    PubMed Central

    Farahani, Navid; Post, Robert; Duboy, Jon; Ahmed, Ishtiaque; Kolowitz, Brian J.; Krinchai, Teppituk; Monaco, Sara E.; Fine, Jeffrey L.; Hartman, Douglas J.; Pantanowitz, Liron

    2016-01-01

    Background: Digital slides obtained from whole slide imaging (WSI) platforms are typically viewed in two dimensions using desktop personal computer monitors or more recently on mobile devices. To the best of our knowledge, we are not aware of any studies viewing digital pathology slides in a virtual reality (VR) environment. VR technology enables users to be artificially immersed in and interact with a computer-simulated world. Oculus Rift is among the world's first consumer-targeted VR headsets, intended primarily for enhanced gaming. Our aim was to explore the use of the Oculus Rift for examining digital pathology slides in a VR environment. Methods: An Oculus Rift Development Kit 2 (DK2) was connected to a 64-bit computer running Virtual Desktop software. Glass slides from twenty randomly selected lymph node cases (ten with benign and ten malignant diagnoses) were digitized using a WSI scanner. Three pathologists reviewed these digital slides on a 27-inch 5K display and with the Oculus Rift after a 2-week washout period. Recorded endpoints included concordance of final diagnoses and time required to examine slides. The pathologists also rated their ease of navigation, image quality, and diagnostic confidence for both modalities. Results: There was 90% diagnostic concordance when reviewing WSI using a 5K display and Oculus Rift. The time required to examine digital pathology slides on the 5K display averaged 39 s (range 10–120 s), compared to 62 s with the Oculus Rift (range 15–270 s). All pathologists confirmed that digital pathology slides were easily viewable in a VR environment. The ratings for image quality and diagnostic confidence were higher when using the 5K display. Conclusion: Using the Oculus Rift DK2 to view and navigate pathology whole slide images in a virtual environment is feasible for diagnostic purposes. However, image resolution using the Oculus Rift device was limited. Interactive VR technologies such as the Oculus Rift are novel tools

  17. Judging the Grade: Exploring the Judgement Processes Involved in Examination Grading Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crisp, Victoria

    2010-01-01

    Examiners' grading judgements are central to the maintenance of examination standards. This research investigated the judgement processes underpinning examination grading. Operating under a think aloud protocol, six examiners conducted a grading exercise for each of two geography A level examinations. They also "thought aloud" whilst marking some…

  18. Examining Metasomatism in Low fO2 Environments: Exploring Sulfidation Reactions in Various Planetary Bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srinivasan, P.; Shearer, C. K.; McCubbin, F. M.; Bell, A. S.; Agee, C. B.

    2016-01-01

    Hydrothermal systems are common on Earth in a variety of tectonic environments and at different temperature and pressure conditions. These systems are commonly dominated by H2O, and they are responsible for element transport and the production of ore deposits. Unlike the Earth (fO2FMQ), many other planetary bodies (e.g., Moon and asteroids) have fO2 environments that are more reduced (IW+/-2), and H2O is not the important solvent responsible for element transport. One example of a texture that could result from element transport and metasomatism, which appears to occur on numerous planetary bodies, is sulfide-silicate intergrowths. These subsolidus assemblages are interpreted to form as a result of sulfidation reactions from a S-rich fluid phase. The composition of fluids may vary within and among parent bodies and could be sourced from magmatic (e.g. Moon) or impact processes (e.g. HED meteorites and Moon). For example, it has been previously demonstrated on the Moon that the interaction of olivine with a hydrogen- and sulfur-bearing vapor phase altered primary mineral assemblages, producing sulfides (e.g. troilite) and orthopyroxene. Formation of these types of "sulfidation" assemblages can be illustrated with the following reaction: Fe2SiO4(ol) + 1/2 S(2 system) = FeS(troi)+ FeSiO3(opx) + 1/2 O2 system. The products of this reaction, as seen in lunar rocks, is a vermicular or "worm-like" texture of intergrown orthopyroxene and troilite. Regardless of the provenance of the S-bearing fluid, the minerals in these various planetary environments reacted in the same manner to produce orthopyroxene and troilite. Although similar textures have been identified in a variety of parent bodies, a comparative study on the compositions and the origins of these sulfide-silicate assemblages has yet to be undertaken. The intent of this study is to examine and compare sulfide-silicate intergrowths from various planetary bodies to explore their petrogenesis and examine the nature

  19. Coping with Examinations: Exploring Relationships between Students' Coping Strategies, Implicit Theories of Ability, and Perceived Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doron, Julie; Stephan, Yannick; Boiche, Julie; Le Scanff, Christine

    2009-01-01

    Background: Relatively little is known about the contribution of students' beliefs regarding the nature of academic ability (i.e. their implicit theories) on strategies used to deal with examinations. Aims: This study applied Dweck's socio-cognitive model of achievement motivation to better understand how students cope with examinations. It was…

  20. Exploring Management Strategies to Reduce Cheating in Written Examinations: Case Study of Midlands State University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taderera, Ever; Nyikahadzoi, Loveness; Matamande, Wilson; Mandimika, Elinah

    2014-01-01

    This study was concerned about cheating in written examinations at Midlands State University (MSU). The study revealed that both male and female students cheat in written examination; business studies students cheat more than other faculties, and younger (lower class) students cheat more than (upper class) older students. Factors influencing…

  1. A Longitudinal Examination of Adolescent Career Planning and Exploration Using a Social Cognitive Career Theory Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Mary E.; Creed, Peter A.

    2011-01-01

    This study used social cognitive career theory (Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994), as a framework to investigate predictors of career choice actions, operationalised as career planning and career exploration. The model was tested cross-sectionally and longitudinally with 631 high school students enrolled in Grades 10-12. Students completed measures of…

  2. Changing Perspectives: Exploring a Pedagogy to Examine Other Perspectives about Stem Cell Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    France, Bev; Mora, Helen A.; Bay, Jacquie L.

    2012-01-01

    This study explores how teachers developed and critically evaluated a range of teaching strategies that could support the discussion of a socio-scientific issue (SSI) that had the potential to be controversial. The issue was stem cell research and six New Zealand teachers of senior biology students (grades 12/13) took part in an action research…

  3. Exploring Narcissism, Psychopathy, and Machiavellianism in Youth: Examination of Associations with Antisocial Behavior and Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Katherine S. L.; Marsee, Monica A.

    2013-01-01

    We sought to explore the differential associations of callous-unemotional (CU) traits, narcissistic traits, and Machiavellian traits with overt aggression, relational aggression, delinquency, behavioral dysregulation, and emotional dysregulation in a community sample of boys and girls (ages 11-17). Results indicated that the three personality…

  4. PISA Test Items and School-Based Examinations in Greece: Exploring the Relationship between Global and Local Assessment Discourses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anagnostopoulou, Kyriaki; Hatzinikita, Vassilia; Christidou, Vasilia; Dimopoulos, Kostas

    2013-01-01

    The paper explores the relationship of the global and the local assessment discourses as expressed by Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) test items and school-based examinations, respectively. To this end, the paper compares PISA test items related to living systems and the context of life, health, and environment, with Greek…

  5. To Examine and Plan for Occupational Requisites and Employment (Project EXPLORE) 1989-90. OREA Final Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Office of Research, Evaluation, and Assessment.

    An evaluation was done of New York City Board of Education's Project To Examine and Plan for Occupational Requisites and Employment (Project EXPLORE) for 1989-90. In its first year of funding, the project served 427 students of limited English proficiency and 58 English proficient students at Aviation and Long Island City High Schools in Queens.…

  6. Exploring the Relationship between Experienced Students' Preference for Open- and Closed-Book Examinations, Approaches to Learning and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karagiannopoulou, Evangelia; Milienos, Fotios S.

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between university students' approaches to learning and preference for the open- and closed-book examinations was investigated for 144 Greek undergraduate (56 third- and 88 fourth-year) students attending a Philosophy, Education and Psychology Department. The approaches were explored by the Approaches and Study Skills Inventory…

  7. Changing Perspectives: Exploring a pedagogy to examine other perspectives about stem cell research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    France, Bev; Mora, Helen A.; Bay, Jacquie L.

    2012-03-01

    This study explores how teachers developed and critically evaluated a range of teaching strategies that could support the discussion of a socio-scientific issue (SSI) that had the potential to be controversial. The issue was stem cell research and six New Zealand teachers of senior biology students (grades 12/13) took part in an action research project that was situational, collaborative and self-evaluative. The focus of the research was to identify communication barriers that interfered with classroom discussion and how teachers could help students cross cultural borders when they discussed SSIs that were outside their life worlds. The barriers to communication were access to relevant science knowledge, religion, language, an inability to question issues and cultural expectations of girls. Teachers trialled and adapted two discussion strategies, 'Drawing the Line' and 'Diamond Ranking' that provided a vehicle for their students to explore and discuss this issue from a range of perspectives. These discussion strategies enabled their students to take part in a dialogue where reciprocal conversation could occur because they had opportunities not only to explore their own perspectives but also other people's viewpoints.

  8. An Exploration of Behavioral Objectives for Police Promotional Examinations in New Jersey. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Leo S.

    An exploratory investigation of police promotional examinations was made in an attempt to improve the testing procedures that were in use. A primary goal of the study was to identify a pool of performances (tasks, behaviors) of police sergeants, lieutenants, and captains that might serve as referrents for job-related test items for promotional…

  9. Practices and Explorations on Talent-Training Mode of Self-Taught Higher Education Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Dong

    2011-01-01

    Since the existence of self-taught higher education examination, its fast development has contributed a lot to national higher education reform and economic development. This paper, based on analyzing the talent-training mode of China self-taught higher education, proposes countermeasures and suggestions for problems in the mode at present.

  10. An Examination of Gender Differences in Today's Mathematics Classrooms: Exploring Single-Gender Mathematics Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunlap, Celeste Elizabeth

    Much research identifies a gender gap in mathematics and some research points to single-gender mathematics classrooms as a solution to the mathematics gender divide. A 7-week study was conducted in which 5th grade students (N=50) were organized into two mathematics classes. The goal was to examine whether single-gender mathematics classes had an…

  11. Exploring the Core: An Examination of Required Courses in ALA-Accredited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Russell A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the required courses of ALA-accredited Library and Information Science programs as published on their websites. The study expands on previous research in this area. Findings show that the typical core curriculum has grown to include both research and information technology in addition to the more traditional subjects. The…

  12. Exploration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilburn, D.R.; Porter, K.E.

    1999-01-01

    This summary of international nonfuel mineral exploration activities for 1998 draws on available data from literature, industry and US Geological Survey (USGS) specialists. Data on exploration budgets by region and commodity are reported, significant mineral discoveries and exploration target areas are identified and government programs affecting the mineral exploration industry are discussed. Inferences and observations on mineral industry direction are drawn from these data and discussions.

  13. PISA Test Items and School-Based Examinations in Greece: Exploring the relationship between global and local assessment discourses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anagnostopoulou, Kyriaki; Hatzinikita, Vassilia; Christidou, Vasilia; Dimopoulos, Kostas

    2013-03-01

    The paper explores the relationship of the global and the local assessment discourses as expressed by Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) test items and school-based examinations, respectively. To this end, the paper compares PISA test items related to living systems and the context of life, health, and environment, with Greek school-based biology examinations' test items in terms of the nature of their textual construction. This nature is determined by the interplay of the notions of classification (content specialisation) and formality (code specialisation) modulated by both the linguistic and the visual expressive modes. The results of the analysis reveal disparities between assessment discourses promoted at the global and the local level. In particular, while PISA test items convey their scientific message (specialised content and code) principally through their visual mode, the specialised scientific meaning of school-based examinations test is mainly conveyed through their linguistic mode. On the other hand, the linguistic mode of PISA test items is mainly compatible with textual practices of the public domain (non-specialised content and code). Such a mismatch between assessment discourses at local and global level is expected to place Greek students at different discursive positions, promoting different types of knowledge. The expected shift from the epistemic positioning promoted in Greece to the one promoted by PISA could significantly restrict Greek students' ability to infer the PISA discursive context and produce appropriate responses. This factor could provide a meaningful contribution in the discussion of the relatively low achievement of Greek students in PISA scientific literacy assessment.

  14. Petrography of Rocks Examined by the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit within the Gusev Plains and Columbia Hills, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crumpler, L. S.; McSween, H.

    2005-12-01

    Petrographic and megascopic textures of rocks encountered along the traverse of the Spirit Mars Exploration Rover within the Gusev plains (landing site to hills) and within the Columbia Hills (West Spur to lower Husband Hill), together with chemical data based on in situ measurements with the Athena spectrometers, provide information about the mechanisms and conditions of rock emplacement. Primary igneous and low-grade alteration textures are identified within the plains whereas clastic and alteration textures dominate within the Columbia Hills. Plains rocks include primary igneous petrographic textures common to xenocrystic and phyric rocks, megascopic textures similar to that known to occur within differing vertical positions of terrestrial basaltic lavas, and uniform chemical compositions typical of batch melted mantle rocks. Apparent vesicularity (ratio of summed vesicle volume from area over rock unit volume) of rocks in the plains lava surface varied with host rock dimension and angularity. Vesicle distributions in the smaller clasts in the Gusev plains tend to be exponential, typical of upper sections, whereas, dis-tributions in larger, more angular Gusev plains blocks are characterized by hybrid distri-butions, typical of flow interiors. Since small vesicular clasts are a small fraction of the observed clast population, it is inferred that the upper vesicular zones within the Gusev plains lava flows were rela-tively thin (low vesicularity at shallow depths) compared with that predicted for lava flows on Earth. A thin upper vesicular zone in the Gusev plains lavas could be indirect evidence for atmospheric pressure close to current values at the time of Gusev plains basalt emplacement during the Hesperian. Rocks with volcaniclastic or impactite textures occur in outcrops visited within the Columbia Hills. Megascopic and microscopic (Microscopic Imager) textures were examined along apparent lamination planes at several outcrops of moderately consolidated

  15. A Preliminary Exploration of On-Line Study Question Performance and Response Certitude as Predictors of Future Examination Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grabe, Mark; Flannery, Kathryn

    2010-01-01

    This research evaluated an online study task intended to improve the study metacognition and examination performance of inexperienced college students. Existing research has commonly operationalized metacognition as the accuracy of examination score predictions. This research made use of the average discrepancy between rated confidence in…

  16. An Exploration of the Examination Script Features that Most Influence Expert Judgements in Three Methods of Evaluating Script Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suto, Irenka; Novakovic, Nadezda

    2012-01-01

    Some methods of determining grade boundaries within examinations, such as awarding, paired comparisons, and rank ordering, entail expert judgements of script quality. We aimed to identify the features of examinees' scripts that most influence judgements in the three methods. For contrasting examinations in biology and English, a Latin square…

  17. An Exploration of the Effect of Pre-Release Examination Materials on Classroom Practice in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Martin; Crisp, Victoria

    2009-01-01

    Although the school assessment context in England relies heavily on externally imposed forms of testing, it also takes many different forms, including the use of examinations with pre-release materials. These examinations allow teachers and students early access to materials that will be used during assessments at a later date. This project uses a…

  18. Exploring the Alignment between Post-Secondary Education Programs and Earnings: An Examination of 2005 Ontario Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Kristyn; Walters, David

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the influence that field of study and level of post-secondary education have on the earnings of recent graduates in Ontario. Graduates of trades, community college, and university programs are compared. Results suggest that graduates of applied and technical programs obtain higher earnings within two years of graduation than…

  19. Examination of Changes in Prospective Elementary Teachers' Epistemological Beliefs in Science and Exploration of Factors Meditating that Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deniz, Hasan

    2011-01-01

    Epistemological beliefs refer to an individual's thinking and beliefs about the nature of knowledge and knowing. The present study examined two research questions: (1) how do prospective elementary teachers' epistemological beliefs in science change as a result of instruction specifically designed to improve their epistemological beliefs and (2)…

  20. EyeSeeCam: an eye movement-driven head camera for the examination of natural visual exploration.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Erich; Villgrattner, Thomas; Vockeroth, Johannes; Bartl, Klaus; Kohlbecher, Stefan; Bardins, Stanislavs; Ulbrich, Heinz; Brandt, Thomas

    2009-05-01

    The prototype of a gaze-controlled, head-mounted camera (EyeSeeCam) was developed that provides the functionality for fundamental studies on human gaze behavior even under dynamic conditions like locomotion. EyeSeeCam incorporates active visual exploration by saccades with image stabilization during head, object, and surround motion just as occurs in human ocular motor control. This prototype is a first attempt to combine free user mobility with image stabilization and unrestricted exploration of the visual surround in a man-made technical vision system. The gaze-driven camera is supplemented by an additional wide-angle, head-fixed scene camera. In this scene view, the focused gaze view is embedded with picture-in-picture functionality, which provides an approximation of the foveated retinal content. Such a combined video clip can be viewed more comfortably than the saccade-pervaded image of the gaze camera alone. EyeSeeCam consists of a video-oculography (VOG) device and a camera motion device. The benchmark for the evaluation of such a device is the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR), which requires a latency on the order of 10 msec between head and eye (camera) movements for proper image stabilization. A new lightweight VOG was developed that is able to synchronously measure binocular eye positions at up to 600 Hz. The camera motion device consists of a parallel kinematics setup with a backlash-free gimbal joint that is driven by piezo actuators with no reduction gears. As a result, the latency between the rotations of an artificial eye and the camera was 10 msec, which is VOR-like. PMID:19645949

  1. Examination of Changes in Prospective Elementary Teachers' Epistemological Beliefs in Science and Exploration of Factors Meditating That Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deniz, Hasan

    2011-12-01

    Epistemological beliefs refer to an individual's thinking and beliefs about the nature of knowledge and knowing. The present study examined two research questions: (1) how do prospective elementary teachers' epistemological beliefs in science change as a result of instruction specifically designed to improve their epistemological beliefs and (2) what role does the conceptual ecology for epistemological beliefs play in their development? The study was correlational with a sample of 161 prospective elementary teachers (148 female, 13 male). Self-report questionnaires tapping four dimensions of epistemological beliefs (certainty-simplicity, justification, source, attainability of truth) were given to prospective elementary teachers at two time points during an introductory science course. Results indicated that prospective elementary teachers became more sophisticated in their beliefs across all four dimensions of epistemological beliefs. It was found that one component of conceptual ecology for epistemological beliefs, thinking dispositions, was related to the development of epistemological beliefs. Prospective teachers with high thinking dispositions developed more sophisticated beliefs in comparison to prospective teachers with low thinking dispositions.

  2. School-Based Assessments in High-Stakes Examinations in Bhutan: A Question of Trust? Exploring Inconsistencies between External Exam Scores, School-Based Assessments, Detailed Teacher Ratings, and Student Self-Ratings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luyten, Hans; Dolkar, Dechen

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the validity of school-based assessments when they serve to supplement scores on central tests in high-stakes examinations. The school-based continuous assessment (CA) marks are compared to the marks scored on the central written Bhutan Certificate of Secondary Education (BCSE) examination, to detailed teacher ratings of…

  3. Exploring the Nature of the H[subscript 2] Bond. 1. Using Spreadsheet Calculations to Examine the Valence Bond and Molecular Orbital Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halpern, Arthur M.; Glendening, Eric D.

    2013-01-01

    A three-part project for students in physical chemistry, computational chemistry, or independent study is described in which they explore applications of valence bond (VB) and molecular orbital-configuration interaction (MO-CI) treatments of H[subscript 2]. Using a scientific spreadsheet, students construct potential-energy (PE) curves for several…

  4. Sharing My Music with You: The Musical Presentation as a Tool for Exploring, Examining and Enhancing Self-Awareness in a Group Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bensimon, Moshe; Amir, Dorit

    2010-01-01

    Musical presentation (MP) is a diagnostic and therapeutic music therapy tool which focuses on the participant's emotional exploration and awareness-insight development. Using this tool people present themselves through music of their choice and subsequently receive feedback from their peers. This study investigates MP as a tool for enhancing…

  5. Enhancing Undergraduate Education: Examining Faculty Experiences during Their First Year in a Residential College and Exploring the Implications for Student Affairs Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jessup-Anger, Jody E.; Wawrzynski, Matthew R.; Yao, Christina W.

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative study employed a constructivist, case study approach to explore how faculty made meaning of their experiences in a newly developed residential college at a large, land-grant research university in the Midwest. Findings revealed that faculty focused on determining how to prioritize the numerous opportunities for involvement while…

  6. A Hierarchical Examination of the Immigrant Achievement Gap: The Additional Explanatory Power of Nationality and Educational Selectivity over Traditional Explorations of Race and Socioeconomic Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simms, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    This study compared immigrant and nonimmigrant educational achievement (i.e., the immigrant gap) in math by reexamining the explanatory power of race and socioeconomic status (SES)--two variables, perhaps, most commonly considered in educational research. Four research questions were explored through growth curve modeling, factor analysis, and…

  7. A Preliminary Examination of Identity Exploration and Commitment among Polish Adolescents with and without Motor Disability: Does Disability Constitute Diversity in Identity Development?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dominiak-Kochanek, Monika

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to define whether, and to what extent identity formation in late adolescence is disability specific. Ninety-eight adolescents participated in this study, including 43 students with motor disability and 55 students without disability. Identity exploration and commitment was measured by the Utrecht-Groningen Identity…

  8. Exploring the Research concerning Left Hemisphere/Right Hemisphere Cognitive Processes and Examining One Instructional Technique Which May Be Implemented across the Curriculum to Produce Holistic Thinkers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLendon, Gloria H.

    Current writings on the functions of the left and right hemispheres of the brain are examined, focusing upon possible implications for improving present educational techniques. It has been generally accepted by researchers that the organizational and verbalizing processes are functions of the left cerebral hemisphere, while creative and intuitive…

  9. An Examination of the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2003 Turkish Database with the Aim of Exploring the Relationship between Homework Variables and Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guzeller, Cem Oktay; Akin, Ayca

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between the amount of time spent on homework in all subjects (HTAS), the time spent on mathematics homework (MHT), confidence in doing mathematics homework (HCM) and the mathematics achievement of students in Turkey, based on data from the programme for international student assessment…

  10. Examination of the "Theory of Guidance" in the View of 'Ali Ibn Abi Talib (A): An Exploration into the Nahj Al-Balaghah

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rostami-Nasab, Abas Ali; Tajedini, Oranus; Sadatmoosavi, Ali

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the "Theory of Guidance" according to 'Ali ibn Abi Talib (a). This theory is based on three divine covenants or fundamentals in guidance including the divine Prophet, the divine Book, and the divine human nature ("fitrat"). Research in this regard seems essential because this theory has not been previously…

  11. Exploring Clinical Reasoning Strategies and Test-Taking Behaviors During Clinical Vignette Style Multiple-Choice Examinations: A Mixed Methods Study

    PubMed Central

    Heist, Brian Sanjay; Gonzalo, Jed David; Durning, Steven; Torre, Dario; Elnicki, David Michael

    2014-01-01

    Background Clinical vignette multiple-choice questions (MCQs) are widely used in medical education, but clinical reasoning (CR) strategies employed when approaching these questions have not been well described. Objectives The aims of the study were (1) to identify CR strategies and test-taking (TT) behaviors of physician trainees while solving clinical vignette MCQs; and (2) to examine the relationships between CR strategies and behaviors, and performance on a high-stakes clinical vignette MCQ examination. Methods Thirteen postgraduate year–1 level trainees completed 6 clinical vignette MCQs using a think-aloud protocol. Thematic analysis employing elements of grounded theory was performed on data transcriptions to identify CR strategies and TT behaviors. Participants' CR strategies and TT behaviors were then compared with their US Medical Licensing Examination Step 2 Clinical Knowledge scores. Results Twelve CR strategies and TT behaviors were identified. Individuals with low performance on Step 2 Clinical Knowledge demonstrated increased premature closure and increased faulty knowledge, and showed comparatively less ruling out of alternatives or admission of knowledge deficits. High performers on Step 2 Clinical Knowledge demonstrated increased ruling out of alternatives and admission of knowledge deficits, and less premature closure, faulty knowledge, or closure prior to reading the alternatives. Conclusions Different patterns of CR strategies and TT behaviors may be used by high and low performers during high-stakes clinical vignette MCQ examinations. PMID:26140123

  12. Examination of the Reelfoot Rift Petroleum System, south-central United States, and the elements that remain for potential exploration and development

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coleman, James; Pratt, Thomas L.

    2016-01-01

    No production has been established in the Reel-foot rift. However, at least nine of 22 exploratory wells have reported petroleum shows, mainly gas shows with some asphalt or solid hydrocarbon residue. Regional seismic profiling shows the presence of two large inversion structures (Blytheville arch and Pascola arch). The Blytheville arch is marked by a core of structurally thickened Elvins Shale, whereas the Pascola arch reflects the structural uplift of a portion of the entire rift basin. Structural uplift and faulting within the Reelfoot rift since the late Paleozoic appear to have disrupted older conventional hydrocarbon traps and likely spilled any potential conventional petroleum accumulations. The remaining potential resources within the Reelfoot rift are likely shale gas accumulations within the Elvins Shale; however, reservoir continuity and porosity as well as pervasive faulting appear to be significant future challenges for explorers and drillers.

  13. Exploring How to Walk the Talk: Examining the Practical Application of Models of Science Communication in Long-Term Ecological Research Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartock, L.; Rickard, L. N.

    2014-12-01

    This research investigates the relationship between science communication at a theoretical level and the practice of science communication in long-term ecological research sites (LTERs). In particular, we examine if and how the work of LTER science communication practitioners, individuals with the responsibility to communicate, report, or interpret the findings of his/her LTER with any other group, excluding through K-12 educational programs, aligns with theoretically established models of science communication. Broadly speaking, as over two decades of research in science communication attests, these models tend to emphasize the deficit approach, dialogue with and between audiences, and/or audience participation. Does the practitioners' work fall neatly into these three "ideal type" categories, or do their practices blur the boundaries of established models? Do practitioners appeal to more than one type of model in the course of their work? Is there evidence of hybrid approaches, or other, new models that have not yet been identified in the literature? Participating organizations will be selected from the Long Term Ecological Research Network, an organization of LTERs funded by the National Science Foundation. The LTER network is actively involved in science communication, as shown by the most recent LTER Strategic Communication Plan. Science communicators may be involved in variety of practices, such as creating translational materials for policymakers to better understand the findings of LTERs, developing training courses for conservation professionals, or organizing site tours for journalists or funders. Practitioners will participate in semi-structured interviews covering how their practices relate to established models of science communication, how they view their roles and responsibilities, and how they view their audience(s). This presentation will cover emerging results from ongoing analysis of interviews conducted with a purposive sample of these

  14. Exploring Size.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand, Judith, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    "Exploring" is a magazine of science, art, and human perception that communicates ideas museum exhibits cannot demonstrate easily by using experiments and activities for the classroom. This issue concentrates on size, examining it from a variety of viewpoints. The focus allows students to investigate and discuss interconnections among apparently…

  15. Aerial Explorers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Larry A.; Pisanich, Greg; Ippolito, Corey

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents recent results from a mission architecture study of planetary aerial explorers. In this study, several mission scenarios were developed in simulation and evaluated on success in meeting mission goals. This aerial explorer mission architecture study is unique in comparison with previous Mars airplane research activities. The study examines how aerial vehicles can find and gain access to otherwise inaccessible terrain features of interest. The aerial explorer also engages in a high-level of (indirect) surface interaction, despite not typically being able to takeoff and land or to engage in multiple flights/sorties. To achieve this goal, a new mission paradigm is proposed: aerial explorers should be considered as an additional element in the overall Entry, Descent, Landing System (EDLS) process. Further, aerial vehicles should be considered primarily as carrier/utility platforms whose purpose is to deliver air-deployed sensors and robotic devices, or symbiotes, to those high-value terrain features of interest.

  16. Ear examination

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003340.htm Ear examination To use the sharing features on this page, ... ear References King EF, Couch ME. History, physical examination, and the preoperative evaluation. In: Flint PW, Haughey ...

  17. Ear examination

    MedlinePlus

    King EF, Couch ME. History, physical examination, and the preoperative evaluation. In: Flint PW, Haughey BH, Lund LJ, et al, eds. Cummings Otolaryngology: Head & Neck Surgery . 6th ed. Philadelphia, ...

  18. [Examination procedures].

    PubMed

    Vassault, A; Arnaud, J; Szymanovicz, A

    2010-12-01

    Examination procedures have to be written for each examination according to the standard requirements. Using CE marked devices, technical inserts can be used, but because of their lack of homogeneity, it could be easier to document their use as a standard procedure. Document control policy applies for those procedures, the content of which could be as provided in this document. Electronic manuals can be used as well. PMID:21613016

  19. Biomorphic Explorers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thakoor, Sarita

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents, in viewgraph form, the first NASA/JPL workshop on Biomorphic Explorers for future missions. The topics include: 1) Biomorphic Explorers: Classification (Based on Mobility and Ambient Environment); 2) Biomorphic Flight Systems: Vision; 3) Biomorphic Explorer: Conceptual Design; 4) Biomorphic Gliders; 5) Summary and Roadmap; 6) Coordinated/Cooperative Exploration Scenario; and 7) Applications. This paper also presents illustrations of the various biomorphic explorers.

  20. Examining Children's Models of Seed.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jewell, Natalie

    2002-01-01

    Reports research that examines children's models of seed. Explores the conceptions held by children (N=75) of germination and seed formation. Concludes that children hold a restricted meaning for the term 'seed'. (DDR)

  1. Participatory Exploration

    NASA Video Gallery

    Kathy Nado delivers a presentation on Participatory Exploration on May 25, 2010, at the NASA Exploration Enterprise Workshop held in Galveston, TX. The purpose of this workshop was to present NASA'...

  2. Exploration Geophysics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savit, Carl H.

    1978-01-01

    Expansion of activity and confirmation of new technological directions characterized several fields of exploration geophysics in 1977. Advances in seismic-reflection exploration have been especially important. (Author/MA)

  3. Problematizing Assumptions, Examining Dilemmas, and Exploring Promising Possibilities in Culturally Relevant Pedagogy. A Response to "'I Didn't See It as a Cultural Thing': Supervisors of Student Teachers Define and Describe Culturally Responsive Supervision"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dantas-Whitney, Maria; Ulveland, R. Dana

    2016-01-01

    In response to the study and recommendations presented in the article "I Didn't See it as a Cultural Thing," written by Linda Griffin, Dyan Watson and Tonda Liggett, we explore three interrelated topics. First, we seek to problematize some of the assumptions in the study. We review some of the authors' approaches and assertions that seem…

  4. Vocational Rehabilitation: An Employment Program. Hearing on Examining the Vocational Rehabilitation System and the Rehabilitation Act, Focusing Slightly and Explore Some of the Issues, Including Linkage, the VR System Faces in Ohio, (Columbus, OH) before the Subcommittee on Employment and Training of the Committee on Labor and Human Resources. United States Senate, One Hundred Fifth Congress, First Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources.

    This congressional report contains testimony examining the vocational rehabilitation system and the Vocational Rehabilitation Act and exploring some of the issues, including linkage, faced by the vocational rehabilitation system in Ohio. Statements were provided by a U.S. senator (Mike DeWine, Ohio) and representatives of the following agencies…

  5. Examining the Pledge of Allegiance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Leisa A.

    2008-01-01

    To prepare students for effective citizenship, the author examines the Pledge of Allegiance and explores its meaning, history, and role in American history. The author includes quotes presenting different views of the U.S. Pledge of Allegiance and examples of pledges from different countries. Teachers are encouraged to have students examine their…

  6. Exploration Geochemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Closs, L. Graham

    1983-01-01

    Contributions in mineral-deposit model formulation, geochemical exploration in glaciated and arid environments, analytical and sampling problems, and bibliographic research were made in symposia held and proceedings volumes published during 1982. Highlights of these symposia and proceedings and comments on trends in exploration geochemistry are…

  7. Exploring the role nurses play at different stages of the birthing process. Developing strong and long-term relationships with women by examining relationship-building stages prior to delivery, during delivery, and after delivery.

    PubMed

    Peltier, J W; Schibrowski, J A; Westfall, J

    2000-01-01

    The health care community is becoming increasingly aware of the need to develop strong and long-term relationships with the women who make up the majority of the health care market. The perceived quality of obstetric care positively impacts future revenue streams by creating "family" loyalty for an umbrella of other health services offered by the provider organization. This article examines the differential impact that various service performance dimensions have on women's perceptions of quality for different stages of the birthing process, and how relationship-marketing principles can be utilized to develop loyal partnerships. The three distinct relationship-building stages are examined--birthing experiences prior to delivery, during delivery, and after delivery--along with their implications for perceptions of quality analyzed. PMID:11185870

  8. Human exploration mission studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cataldo, Robert L.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes several case studies of human space exploration, considered by the NASA's Office of Exploration in 1988. Special attention is given to the mission scenarios, the critical technology required in these expeditions, and the extraterrestrial power requirements of significant system elements. The cases examined include a manned expedition to Phobos, the inner Martian moon; a human expedition to Mars; the Lunar Observatory; and a lunar outpost to early Mars evolution.

  9. Explorer 24

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1964-01-01

    'This satellite, Explorer 24, was a 12-foot-diameter inflatable sphere developed by an engineering team at Langley. It provided information on complex solar radiation/air-density relationships in the upper atmosphere.' Explorer satellites were inflatable satellites--or satelloons, like Echo, and were developed as a follow-on program. They were intended as a vehicle to study the density of air in the upper atmosphere. Explorer 24 was launched in November 1964. Published in James R. Hansen, Spaceflight Revolution: NASA Langley Research Center From Sputnik to Apollo, NASA SP-4308, pp. 191-192.

  10. Exploring Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.

    2008-01-01

    With a temperature higher than the inside of your oven and atmospheric pressure equal to that a kilometer under the ocean, the surface of Venus is one of the most hostile environments in the solar system, and Venus exploration presents a challenge to technology. This lecture presents mission trade-offs and discusses a proposed mission concept for rover and aircraft based exploration of the surface and atmosphere of Venus. Several approaches to the technology, electronics, mechanical parts, and power systems, are discussed.

  11. Exploring the Alphabet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exploring, 1995

    1995-01-01

    This issue of "Exploring," is devoted primarily to examination of alphabets and the languages they represent. Major articles include: "Shrinking the Alphabet" (Pat Murphy), a comparison of alphabet composition for different languages; "The Puzzle of Linear B" (Paul Doherty), a history of archaeologists' deciphering of an early form of written…

  12. Antarctica: Discovery & Exploration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gascoigne, Toss; Collett, Peter

    An examination of Antarctica, from the first sightings to the heroic explorations of the late 18th and early 19th centuries to modern-day research, is presented in this book. Twelve chapters are as follows: (1) The search begins; (2) Whalers and sealers: bites and nibbles; (3) The new continent: first sight; (4) Wintering: the first party; (5)…

  13. The freedom to explore: examining the influence of independent mobility on weekday, weekend and after-school physical activity behaviour in children living in urban and inner-suburban neighbourhoods of varying socioeconomic status

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Children’s independent mobility (CIM) is critical to healthy development in childhood. The physical layout and social characteristics of neighbourhoods can impact opportunities for CIM. While global evidence is mounting on CIM, to the authors’ knowledge, Canadian data on CIM and related health outcomes (i.e., physical activity (PA) behaviour) are missing. The purpose of this study was to examine if CIM is related to multiple characteristics of accelerometry-measured PA behaviour (total PA, light PA, moderate-to-vigorous PA, time spent sedentary) and whether associations between CIM and PA behaviour systematically vary by place of residence, stratifying by gender and type of day/period (weekdays, after-school, weekend). Methods Participants were recruited through Project BEAT (Built Environment and Active Transport; http://www.beat.utoronto.ca). Children (n = 856) were stratified into four neighbourhood classifications based on the period of neighbourhood development (urban built environment (BE) (old BE) versus inner-suburban BE (new BE)) and socioeconomic status (SES; low SES and high SES). Physical activity was measured via accelerometry (ActiGraph GT1M). CIM was assessed via parental report and two categories were created (low CIM, n = 332; high CIM, n = 524). A series of two-factor ANOVAs were used to determine gender-specific differences in PA for weekdays, weekend days and the after-school period, according to level of CIM, across four neighbourhood classifications. Results Children who were granted at least some independent mobility (high CIM) had more positive PA profiles across the school week, during the after-school period, and over the weekend; they were also less sedentary. The influence of CIM on PA behaviour was particularly salient during the after-school period. Associations of CIM with PA varied by gender, and also by neighbourhood classification. CIM seemed to matter more in urban neighbourhoods for boys and suburban

  14. Exploring Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhns, William

    "Exploring Television" is an inquiry/discovery textbook designed to help students to understand, analyze, criticize, evaluate, and judge the experiences they have had in front of the television set. The text consists of three main parts. "The Medium" inquires into the radio-movie origins of television and prompts research into the networks and…

  15. Exploration Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Delores Beasley, NASA Public Affairs, introduces the panel who consist of: Scott "Doc" Horowitz, Associate Administrator of Exploration Systems from NASA Headquarters; Jeff Henley, Constellation Program Manager from NASA Johnson Space Flight Center; and Steve Cook, Manager Exploration Launch Office at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. Scott Horowitz presents a short video entitled, "Ares Launching the Future". He further explains how NASA personnel came up with the name of Ares and where the name Ares was derived. Jeff Henley, updates the Constellation program and Steve Cook presents two slide presentations detailing the Ares l crew launch vehicle and Ares 5 cargo launch vehicle. A short question and answer period from the news media follows.

  16. Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Jeffrey R.

    2006-01-01

    This abstract covers a one hour presentation on Space Exploration. The audience is elementary students; therefore there are few words on the slides, mostly pictures of living and working in space. The presentation opens with a few slides describing a day in the life of a space explorer. It begins with a launch, discussions of day-night cycles, eating, exercising, housekeeping, EVA, relaxation, and sleeping. The next section of the presentation shows photos of astronauts performing experiments on the ISS. Yokomi Elementary School launched this fall with the most advanced educational technology tools available in schools today. The science and technology magnet school is equipped with interactive white boards, digital projectors, integrated sound systems and several computers for use by teachers and students. The only elementary school in Fresno Unified with a science focus also houses dedicated science classrooms equipped specifically for elementary students to experience hands-on science instruction in addition to the regular elementary curriculum.

  17. Exploring Science Through Polar Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfirman, S. L.; Bell, R. E.; Zadoff, L.; Kelsey, R.

    2003-12-01

    Exploring the Poles is a First Year Seminar course taught at Barnard College, Columbia University. First Year Seminars are required of incoming students and are designed to encourage critical analysis in a small class setting with focused discussion. The class links historical polar exploration with current research in order to: introduce non-scientists to the value of environmental science through polar literature; discuss issues related to venturing into the unknown that are of relevance to any discipline: self-reliance, leadership, preparation, decisions under uncertainty; show students the human face of science; change attitudes about science and scientists; use data to engage students in exploring/understanding the environment and help them learn to draw conclusions from data; integrate research and education. These goals are met by bringing analysis of early exploration efforts together with a modern understanding of the polar environment. To date to class has followed the efforts of Nansen in the Fram, Scott and Amundsen in their race to the pole, and Shackleton's Endurance. As students read turn-of-the-century expedition journals, expedition progress is progressively revealed on an interactive map showing the environmental context. To bring the exploration process to life, students are assigned to expedition teams for specific years and the fates of the student "expeditions" are based on their own decisions. For example, in the Arctic, they navigate coastal sea ice and become frozen into the ice north of Siberia, re-creating Nansen's polar drift. Fates of the teams varied tremendously: some safely emerged at Fram Strait in 4 years, while others nearly became hopelessly lost in the Beaufort Gyre. Students thus learn about variability in the current polar environment through first hand experience, enabling them to appreciate the experiences, decisions, and, in some cases, the luck, of polar explorers. Evaluation by the Columbia Center for New Media, Teaching

  18. Global Explorers: An Examination of Program Processes and Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duerden, Mathew David

    2009-01-01

    This study utilizes longitudinal, mixed-method data drawn from participants in an environmental education/international immersion program for middle high-school students to study outcomes and processes associated with program participation. Studies of program outcomes and processes are important for better understanding the design and impact of…

  19. Human Challenges in Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lloyd, Charles W.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presents an overview using pictures some of the history of human exploration of the new frontiers of Earth and then examines some of the challenges to human exploration of space. Particular attention is given to the environmental factors and to the social and human factors that effect humans in space environments.

  20. Bringing life to space exploration.

    PubMed

    Noor, A K; Doyle, R J; Venneri, S L

    1999-11-01

    Characteristics of 21st century space exploration are examined. Characteristics discussed include autonomy, evolvability, robotic outposts, and an overview of future missions. Sidebar articles examine the application of lessons from biological systems to engineered systems and mission concepts taking shape at NASA. Those mission concepts include plans for Mars missions, sample return missions for Venus and a comet nucleus, Europa orbiter and lander missions, a Titan organics explorer, and a terrestrial planet finder. PMID:11542653

  1. Geoelectrical exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barseem, Mostafa Said; El Lateef, Talaat Ali Abd; Ezz El Deen, Hosny Mahomud; Abdel Rahman, Abd Allah Al Abaseiry

    2015-12-01

    Sinai development is a goal of successive governments in Egypt. The present study is a geoelectrical exploration to find appropriate solutions of the problems affecting the land of a Research Station in Southeast Al Qantara. This research station is one of the Desert Research Center stations to facilitate the development of desert land for agriculture by introducing applied research. It suffers from some problems which can be summarized in the shortage of irrigation water and water logging. The appropriate solutions of these problems have been delineated by the results of 1D and 2D geoelectrical measurements. Electrical resistivity (ER) revealed the subsurface sedimentary sequences and extension of subsurface layers in the horizontal and vertical directions, especially, the water bearing layer. Additionally it helped to choose the most suitable places to drill productive wells with a good condition.

  2. Cryogenic Fluid Transfer for Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chato, David J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses current plans and issues for exploration that involve the use of cryogenic transfer. The benefits of cryogenic transfer to exploration missions are examined. The current state of the art of transfer technology is reviewed. Mission concepts of operation for exploration are presented, and used to qualitatively discuss the performance benefits of transfer. The paper looks at the challenges faced to implement a cryogenic transfer system and suggest approaches to address them with advanced development research. Transfer rates required for exploration are shown to have already been achieved in ground test. Cost-effective approaches to the required on-orbit demonstration are suggested.

  3. Cryogenic Fluid Transfer for Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chato, David J.

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses current plans and issues for exploration that involve the use of cryogenic transfer. The benefits of cryogenic transfer to exploration missions are examined. The current state of the art of transfer technology is reviewed. Mission concepts of operation for exploration are presented, and used to qualitatively discuss the performance benefits of transfer. The paper looks at the challenges faced to implement a cryogenic transfer system and suggest approaches to address them with advanced development research. Transfer rates required for exploration are shown to have already been achieved in ground test. Cost effective approaches to the required on-orbit demonstration are suggested.

  4. [Exploring Aeronautics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Brandi

    2004-01-01

    This summer I have been working with the N.A.S.A. Project at Cuyahoga Community College (Tri-C) under the title of Exploring Aeronautics Project Leader. The class that I have worked with is comprised of students that will enter the eighth grade in the fall of 2004. The program primarily focuses upon math proficiency and individualized class projects. My duties have encompassed both realms. During the first 2-3 weeks of my internship, I worked at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) researching, organizing, and compiling information for weekly Scholastic Challenges and the Super Scholastic Challenge. I was able to complete an overview of Scholastic Challenge and staff responsibilities regarding the competition; a proposal for an interactive learning system, Quizdom; a schedule for challenge equipment, as well as a schedule listing submission deadlines for the staff. Also included in my tasks, during these first 2-3 weeks, were assisting Tammy Allen and Candice Thomas with the student application review and interview processes for student applicants. For the student and parent orientation, I was assigned publications and other varying tasks to complete before the start of the program. Upon the commencement of the program, I changed location from NASA GRC to Tri-C Metro Campus, where student classes for the Cleveland site are held. During the duration of the program, I work with the instructor for the Exploring Aeronautics class, kkkk, assisting in classroom management, daily attendance, curriculum, project building, and other tasks as needed. These tasks include the conducting of the weekly competition, known as Scholastic Challenge. As a Project Leader, I am also responsible for one subject area of the Scholastic Challenge aspect of the N.A.S.A. Project curriculum. Each week I have to prepare a mission that the participants will take home the following Monday and at least 10 questions that will be included in the pool of questions used for the Scholastic Challenge

  5. An international Mars exploration program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rea, Donald G.; Cunningham, Glenn E.; Craig, Mark K.; Conway, Harold L.

    1989-01-01

    The scientific reasons for a Mars exploration program are reviewed, and the robotic phase of such a program is examined. The functions and requirements of the rovers, surface stations and penetrators are addressed, as are those of the imaging and communications orbiters. The navigational functions which support the aerocapture and landing vehicles are examined.

  6. Examination Management and Examination Malpractice: The Nexus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogunji, James A.

    2011-01-01

    Examination malpractice or cheating has become a global phenomenon. In different countries of the world today, developed and developing, academic dishonesty especially cheating in examinations has heightened and taken frightening dimension. In many countries of the world this phenomenon has become a serious matter of concern that has left many…

  7. Project Explorer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dannenberg, K. K.; Henderson, A.; Lee, J.; Smith, G.; Stluka, E.

    1984-01-01

    PROJECT EXPLORER is a program that will fly student-developed experiments onboard the Space Shuttle in NASA's Get-Away Special (GAS) containers. The program is co-sponsored by the Alabama Space and Rocket Center, the Alabama-Mississippi Section of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Alabama A&M University and requires extensive support by the University of Alabama in Huntsville. A unique feature of this project will demonstrate transmissions to ground stations on amateur radio frequencies in English language. Experiments Nos. 1, 2, and 3 use the microgravity of space flight to study the solidification of lead-antimony and aluminum-copper alloys, the growth of potassium-tetracyanoplatinate hydrate crystals in an aqueous solution, and the germination of radish seeds. Flight results will be compared with Earth-based data. Experiment No. 4 features radio transmission and will also provide timing for the start of all other experiments. A microprocessor will obtain real-time data from all experiments as well as temperature and pressure measurements taken inside the canister. These data will be transmitted on previously announced amateur radio frequencies after they have been converted into the English language by a digitalker for general reception.

  8. Exploring Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breuil, Stéphanie

    2016-04-01

    Mars is our neighbour planet and has always fascinated humans as it has been seen as a potential abode for life. Knowledge about Mars is huge and was constructed step by step through numerous missions. It could be difficult to describe these missions, the associated technology, the results, the questions they raise, that's why an activity is proposed, that directly interests students. Their production is presented in the poster. Step 1: The main Mars feature and the first Mars explorations using telescope are presented to students. It should be really interesting to present "Mars Canals" from Percival Lowell as it should also warn students against flawed interpretation. Moreover, this study has raised the big question about extra-terrestrial life on Mars for the first time. Using Google Mars is then a good way to show the huge knowledge we have on the planet and to introduce modern missions. Step 2: Students have to choose and describe one of the Mars mission from ESA and NASA. They should work in pairs. Web sites from ESA and NASA are available and the teacher makes sure the main missions will be studied. Step 3: Students have to collect different pieces of information about the mission - When? Which technology? What were the main results? What type of questions does it raise? They prepare an oral presentation in the form they want (role play, academic presentation, using a poster, PowerPoint). They also have to produce playing cards about the mission that could be put on a timeline. Step 4: As a conclusion, the different cards concerning different missions are mixed. Groups of students receive cards and they have to put them on a timeline as fast as possible. It is also possible to play the game "timeline".

  9. Patient Eye Examinations - Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... Examinations, Adults Patient Eye Examinations, Children Refractive Errors Scientists in the Laboratory Visual Acuity Testing Patient Eye Examinations, Adults × Warning message Automatic fallback to the cURL connection method kicked in to handle the request. Result code ...

  10. Transitions: exploring the frontier.

    PubMed

    Corless, Inge B

    End-of-life experiences go by various terms, including near-death experiences (NDEs), death bed visions, death bed phenomena, death bed coincidences, and nearing death awareness. Death bed escorts is the term applied to the vision of deceased family members or friends who inform the dying person that they will be accompanied in the transition from life. In this article, I examine the subject of NDEs and death bed escorts, starting with the rich body of work provided by Robert and Beatrice Kastenbaum. A subject of some interest to Robert Kastenbaum, he explored this frontier in his many writings on dying, death, and bereavement. Ever the pioneer and having made the ultimate transition, he may yet be exploring new frontiers. PMID:25351590

  11. Engagement, Exploration, Empowerment.

    PubMed

    Stoffel, Virginia Ginny

    2015-01-01

    Engagement, exploration, and empowerment are significant practice strategies used by occupational therapy practitioners as a means of getting to know what matters to clients and how to facilitate their participation in everyday life. Applied to the American Occupational Therapy Association (AOTA) as an organization, professional engagement, exploration of new service contexts, and empowerment of members to take an active role in shaping the profession's future are examined. This address, given at the 2015 AOTA Annual Convention & Expo, looks to the future in terms of engaging greater numbers of members; participating in Vision 2025, a strategic planning initiative that will be unveiled at the 2016 AOTA Annual Conference & Expo; and empowering members to achieve excellence in occupational therapy. PMID:26565090

  12. Options for Mars exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pritchard, E. B.; Harrison, E. F.; Moore, J. W.

    1974-01-01

    The many possible post-Viking 1975 Mars mission options are explored. These include small atmospheric probe/landers (adaptations of the Venus Pioneer to Mars), repeat Vikings with and without science changes, long-life orbiters to provide coverage of both hemispheres for a full Martian year, small rovers deployed from the Viking lander with ranges of up to 1 km from it, large autonomous rovers, Mars sample-return missions and, finally, missions to the satellites of Mars, including sample return. The examination includes energy requirements and time frames.

  13. Exploring Big Haystacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollitt, Mark; Whitledge, Anthony

    The proliferation of computer-generated evidence in court proceedings during the last fifteen years has given rise to the new science of digital forensics and a new breed of law enforcement officials, "computer forensic examiners," who apply the rules of evidence, investigative methods and sophisticated technical skills to analyze digital data for use in court proceedings. This paper explores the technical challenges facing the law enforcement community and discusses the application of data mining and knowledge management techniques to cope with the increasingly massive data sets involved in digital forensic investigations.

  14. Examination Involving Students as Peer Examiners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ljungman, Anders G.; Silen, Charlotte

    2008-01-01

    The main interest in this article is students' involvement in assessment as a part of growth towards self-directedness in learning. In order to enhance students' development of autonomy in learning, a project involving "older" students as peer examiners for "younger" students was designed and carried out. Students in the sixth semester in a…

  15. Rod examination gauge

    SciTech Connect

    Bacvinskas, W.S.; Bayer, J.E.; Davis, W.W.; Fodor, G.; Kikta, T.J.; Matchett, R.L.; Nilsen, R.J.; Wilczynski, R.

    1991-12-31

    The present invention is directed to a semi-automatic rod examination gauge for performing a large number of exacting measurements on radioactive fuel rods. The rod examination gauge performs various measurements underwater with remote controlled machinery of high reliability. The rod examination gauge includes instruments and a closed circuit television camera for measuring fuel rod length, free hanging bow measurement, diameter measurement, oxide thickness measurement, cladding defect examination, rod ovality measurement, wear mark depth and volume measurement, as well as visual examination. A control system is provided including a programmable logic controller and a computer for providing a programmed sequence of operations for the rod examination and collection of data.

  16. Wood's lamp examination

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003386.htm Wood's lamp examination To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A Wood's lamp examination is a test that uses ultraviolet ( ...

  17. Wood's lamp examination

    MedlinePlus

    A Wood's lamp examination is a test that uses ultraviolet (UV) light to look at the skin closely. ... Gebhard RE. Wood's light examination. In: Pfenninger JL, Fowler GC, eds. ... Care . 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; 2010:chap ...

  18. The neurological examination.

    PubMed

    April, R S

    1995-06-01

    This chapter describes methods of clinical history taking and examination of the PLDD candidate with lumbar radicular symptoms. It stresses features of the classical neurological examination of the back and lower extremities in a concise, systematic fashion. PMID:10150641

  19. Wood's Lamp Examination

    MedlinePlus

    ... dermatologists to assist in the diagnosis of various pigment and infectious disorders. The examination is performed in ... lamp. If a fungal or bacterial infection or pigment disorder is present, Wood's lamp examination can strengthen ...

  20. Physics 300 Provincial Examination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education and Training, Winnipeg.

    This document consists of the physics 300 provincial examination (English version), a separate "provincial summary report" on the results of giving the test, and a separate French language version of the examination. This physics examination contains a 53-item multiple choice section and an 12 item free response section. Subsections of the test…

  1. Human exploration mission studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cataldo, Robert L.

    1989-01-01

    The Office of Exploration has established a process whereby all NASA field centers and other NASA Headquarters offices participate in the formulation and analysis of a wide range of mission strategies. These strategies were manifested into specific scenarios or candidate case studies. The case studies provided a systematic approach into analyzing each mission element. First, each case study must address several major themes and rationale including: national pride and international prestige, advancement of scientific knowledge, a catalyst for technology, economic benefits, space enterprise, international cooperation, and education and excellence. Second, the set of candidate case studies are formulated to encompass the technology requirement limits in the life sciences, launch capabilities, space transfer, automation, and robotics in space operations, power, and propulsion. The first set of reference case studies identify three major strategies: human expeditions, science outposts, and evolutionary expansion. During the past year, four case studies were examined to explore these strategies. The expeditionary missions include the Human Expedition to Phobos and Human Expedition to Mars case studies. The Lunar Observatory and Lunar Outpost to Early Mars Evolution case studies examined the later two strategies. This set of case studies established the framework to perform detailed mission analysis and system engineering to define a host of concepts and requirements for various space systems and advanced technologies. The details of each mission are described and, specifically, the results affecting the advanced technologies required to accomplish each mission scenario are presented.

  2. Bibliotherapy: "Literature as Exploration" Reconsidered

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Justman, Stewart

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author examines Louise Rosenblatt's "Literature as Exploration," a popular textbook used since 1938 (in five successive editions) in high school English classrooms across America. He discusses how the one-time college roommate of Margaret Mead managed to transform teaching literature into a form of student therapy that…

  3. Life sciences and Mars exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sulzman, Frank M.; Rummel, John D.; Leveton, Lauren B.; Teeter, Ron

    1990-01-01

    The major life science considerations for Mars exploration missions are discussed. Radiation protection and countermeasures for zero gravity are discussed. Considerations of crew psychological health considerations and life support systems are addressed. Scientific opportunities presented by manned Mars missions are examined.

  4. Skylab Dental Examination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Skylab 2 Commander Charles Conrad is seen undergoing a dental examination by the Medical Officer, Joseph Kerwin in the Skylab Medical Facility. In the absence of an examination chair, Conrad simply rotated his body to an upside down position to facilitate the procedure.

  5. Computer grading of examinations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frigerio, N. A.

    1969-01-01

    A method, using IBM cards and computer processing, automates examination grading and recording and permits use of computational problems. The student generates his own answers, and the instructor has much greater freedom in writing questions than is possible with multiple choice examinations.

  6. Examination Syllabus Comparisons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallatratt, J. L.

    1983-01-01

    A study was conducted based on an analysis of computer study courses leading to CSE and 0-level examinations. Several findings are discussed and questions about future developments are raised. Syllabus content (including history, hardware, basic computer science, programming, applications, and implications), format, and examinations are among the…

  7. Exploring the Universe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aviation/Space, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Highlights National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) space exploration studies, focusing on Voyager at Saturn, advanced Jupiter exploration, infrared observatory, space telescope, Dynamics Explorers (satellites designed to provide understanding of earth/sun energy relationship), and ozone studies. (JN)

  8. Intermodal Exploration and Perceptual Knowledge in Infancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spelke, Elizabeth S.; Owsley, Cynthia J.

    This report describes two exploration studies which examined the development of infants' intermodal knowledge by examining infants' auditorily guided visual search for objects. Experiment 1 examined intermodal search for the mother and father by 9 infants at each of three age levels: 3, 5, and 7 months of age; the final sample was 23 infants.…

  9. Explorations in Chaos Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maldonado, Armando; Bixler, David

    2012-03-01

    Chaos Theory is an interesting and important branch of physics. Many physical systems, such as weather or fluid flow, exhibit chaotic behavior. Experiments in simple mechanical or electrical systems, as well as simple simulations can be used as methods of studying chaos. Using a mechanical method, we connected a speaker and to a frequency modulator to bounce a table tennis ball. We recorded the ball's motion at different frequencies using a video camera. Using Tracker software we observed it's position versus it's velocity in order to analyze its chaotic behavior. For a simple simulation, we used the visual-based programming in LabView to examine chaotic behavior produced by some non-linear differential equations. Results from both the mechanical system and the simulations will be discussed. For future work, we plan to continue to explore some chaotic simulations and perform a sequence of experiments with an electrical system. Exploring these nonlinear chaotic systems can help us to better understand and model many phenomena found in nature.

  10. Exploration Technology Development & Demonstration

    NASA Video Gallery

    Chris Moore delivers a presentation from the Exploration Technology Development & Demonstration (ETDD) study team on May 25, 2010, at the NASA Exploration Enterprise Workshop held in Galveston, TX....

  11. Nanomaterials for Space Exploration Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moloney, Padraig G.

    2006-01-01

    Nano-engineered materials are multi-functional materials with superior mechanical, thermal and electrical properties. Nanomaterials may be used for a variety of space exploration applications, including ultracapacitors, active/passive thermal management materials, and nanofiltration for water recovery. Additional applications include electrical power/energy storage systems, hybrid systems power generation, advanced proton exchange membrane fuel cells, and air revitalization. The need for nanomaterials and their growth, characterization, processing and space exploration applications is discussed. Data is presented for developing solid-supported amine adsorbents based on carbon nanotube materials and functionalization of nanomaterials is examined.

  12. Endogenous strategy in exploration.

    PubMed

    Solman, Grayden J F; Kingstone, Alan

    2015-12-01

    We examined the characteristics of endogenous exploratory behaviors in a generalized search task in which guidance signals (e.g., landmarks, semantics, visual saliency, layout) were limited or precluded. Individuals looked for the highest valued cell in an array and were scored on the quality of the best value they could find. Exploration was guided only by the cells that had been previously examined, and the value of this guidance was manipulated by adjusting spatial autocorrelation to produce relatively smooth and rough landscapes-that is, arrays in which nearby cells had unrelated values (low correlation = rough) or similar values (high correlation = smooth). For search in increasingly rough as compared with smooth arrays, we found reduced performance despite increased sampling and increased time spent searching after revelation of a searcher's best cell. Spatially, sampling strategies tended toward more excursive, branching, and space-filling patterns as correlation decreased. Using a novel generalized-recurrence analysis, we report that these patterns reflect an increase in systematic search paths, characterized by regularized sweeps with localized infilling. These tendencies were likewise enhanced for high-performance as compared with low-performance participants. The results suggest a trade-off between guidance (in smooth arrays) and systematicity (in rough arrays), and they provide insight into the particular strategic approaches adopted by searchers when exogenous guiding information is minimized. PMID:26214501

  13. Introducing educational theory: vaginal examination.

    PubMed

    Killingley, Jo

    2015-09-01

    A vaginal examination (VE) is one of many core skills used in midwifery practice. Despite the controversy of whether it is necessary in all situations, in this article I take the standpoint that it is useful in providing a full clinical picture, especially at times when closer monitoring is recommended. Additionally, if the core skill is misinterpreted, the findings of the VE can distort the true clinical picture. To support the student, subjective assessment and individual learning pathways must be addressed to avoid unnecessary intervention and psychological impairment to the woman. This article explores some of the difficulties encountered with teaching and learning VE in clinical practice and offers concepts from educational theory to assist in clarifying the difficulties and offering new ways of thinking for both students and midwives. PMID:26547997

  14. Exploration for fossil and nuclear fuels from orbital altitudes. [results of ERTS program for oil exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Short, N. M.

    1974-01-01

    Results from the ERTS program pertinent to exploration for oil, gas, and uranium are discussed. A review of achievements in relevant geological studies from ERTS, and a survey of accomplishments oriented towards exploration for energy sources are presented along with an evaluation of the prospects and limitations of the space platform approach to fuel exploration, and an examination of continuing programs designed to prove out the use of ERTS and other space system in exploring for fuel resources.

  15. Test Anxiety in Written and Oral Examinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparfeldt, Jorn R.; Rost, Detlef H.; Baumeister, Ulrike M.; Christ, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    The distinction of different test anxiety reactions (e.g., worry, emotionality) is well established. Recently, additional relevance has been given to school-subject-specific test anxiety factors. The present study explored a further aspect concerning the structure of test anxiety experiences, specifically oral versus written examination modes. A…

  16. Examining Factors Predicting Students' Digital Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatlevik, Ove Edvard; Guðmundsdóttir, Gréta Björk; Loi, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine factors predicting lower secondary school students' digital competence and to explore differences between students when it comes to digital competence. Results from a digital competence test and survey in lower secondary school will be presented. It is important to learn more about and investigate what…

  17. Examining the Effects of New Teacher Induction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wechsler, Marjorie E.; Caspary, Kyra; Humphrey, Daniel C.; Matsko, Kavita Kapadia

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this research is to explore comprehensively the effect of induction on new teachers. Through a mixed-method design, the authors examine both the inputs of induction (i.e., the types of support provided for new teachers, its content, and frequency) and a variety of outcomes (i.e., teacher efficacy, teacher-reported growth, teacher…

  18. An Examination of Latino Students' Homework Routines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Sylvia

    2011-01-01

    Homework appears to be positively associated with better student outcomes. Although some researchers have explored the connection between time spent on homework and minority student achievement, few have examined the homework routines of Latino youth. Interviews with Latino high school students show that they have some difficulty completing daily…

  19. Dimensionality and DIF in a Licensure Examination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sykes, Robert C.; And Others

    The sources of multidimensionality found in several different forms of a licensure examination were studied. The relationship between one source of multidimensionality, differential item functioning (DIF) (or factors producing DIF), and content characteristics was explored in an attempt to isolate aspects of training or curriculum that could…

  20. Genesis Preliminary Examination Plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McNamara, K. M.; Stansbery, E. K.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of preliminary examination of the Genesis sample collectors is to provide information on the condition and availability of collector materials to the science community as a basis for allocation requests. Similarly, the information will be used by the Genesis Sample Allocation sub-committee of CAPTEM to determine the optimum allocation scheme, and by the Genesis Curator to determine the processing sequence for allocation production. The plan includes a decision process and detailed examination and documentation protocol for whole arrays and individual collectors (wafers, concentrator targets, bulk metallic glass, gold foil, and polished aluminum). It also includes a plan for communicating the information obtained to the scientific community. The plan does not include a detailed plan for preliminary examination of the SRC lid foil collectors, the process for removal of individual collectors from their frames, or for the subsequent subdivision of collector materials for allocation.

  1. Examining suicide: imaging's contributions.

    PubMed

    Church, Elizabeth J

    2015-01-01

    For many people, the death of hope leads inexorably to the conclusion that the only viable solution, the only way to put an end to unendurable pain, is suicide. What leads a person to commit this final, desperate act, and how might we predict, intervene, and prevent suicide? Health care workers, including radiologic technologists, can play an important role in detecting warning signs in patients and in better understanding what factors may lead to suicide. Although certain forms of suicide such as suicide bombings and assisted suicide are beyond its scope, this article explores medical imaging's contributions to the study of this phenomenon. PMID:25739108

  2. Examining the decomposed brain.

    PubMed

    MacKenzie, James Mackintosh

    2014-12-01

    Examination of the decomposed brain is a largely neglected area of forensic neuropathology. However, careful examination often yields valuable information that may assist in criminal proceedings. Decomposition encompasses the processes of autolysis, putrefaction, and decay. Most decomposed brains will be affected by both autolysis and putrefaction, resulting in a brain that may, at one end of the spectrum, be almost normal or, at the other end, pulpified, depending on the conditions in which the body remained after death and the postmortem interval. Naked eye examination may detect areas of hemorrhage and also guides appropriate sampling for histology. Histological appearances are often better than what would be predicted from the state of the brain. Histology often confirms macroscopic abnormalities and may also reveal other features such as ischemic injury. Silver staining demonstrates neuritic plaques, and immunocytochemistry for β-amyloid precursor protein and other molecules produces results comparable with those seen in well-preserved fixed brains. The usefulness of information derived from the examination of the decomposed brain in criminal proceedings is illustrated with 6 case reports drawn from the author's own practice. PMID:25384305

  3. Witness Disclaiming During Examination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stutman, Randall K.

    1986-01-01

    Supports research indicating that disclaimers have no effect on perceptions of source credibility. Reveals that frequency of disclaimer use was unrelated to subject-juror evaluations of witness credibility and testimony believability; females did not use more disclaimers than males during examination; and when females used disclaimers, they were…

  4. Scientist Examines Tornado Vortex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    In this Quick Time movie, a scientist examines what appears to be a tornado vortex (blue) coming out of a thunderstorm. The scientist uses 3D glasses to be able to see in 3 dimensions the different flows going out into the vortex. Earth science and weather studies are an important ongoing function of NASA and its affiliates.

  5. Curriculum Materials Examination System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, David J.

    This document is a guideline for selection and evaluation of social studies curriculum materials developed by the Marin Social Studies Project. Questions are presented which will help in the examination of materials so that specific strengths and weaknesses in the materials can be determined. Consideration is given to the objectives and rationale…

  6. Partly Tailored Examinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bedard, R.

    1974-01-01

    A type of examination in which additional questions are provided was used for Grade 12 Algebra and College 1 Introductory Calculus. An hypothesis was formulated that this procedure should reveal additional knowledge which whould be reflected in superior average scores for the class group. (Editor)

  7. Examination of the Mouth

    PubMed Central

    Kidd, H. R.

    1976-01-01

    In an examination of the mouth, a definite order should be followed, finishing with the presenting lesion. This article lists the most frequent local or systemic origins of oral lesions, and makes a plea for better recording of oral abnormalities. PMID:21308080

  8. A National Teacher Examination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanker, Albert

    1985-01-01

    The author calls for a tough national teacher examination to make teaching a genuine profession, to convince the public to pay teachers what they're worth, to empower teachers to make educational decision, to attract the best and brightest, and to ensure high quality education. Problems and prospects are discussed. (BS)

  9. An Investigation of Career Exploration among Undergraduate Business Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenhaus, Jeffrey H.; Connolly, Thomas F.

    1982-01-01

    Examined business students' career exploration, personal characteristics promoting exploration, relationship of exploration to occupational decision making, and students' perceptions of additional information needs. Results indicated a positive relationship between work role significance and exploration activity and that self-oriented exploration…

  10. Historic Cosmology Identity and Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nebergall, K.

    The role of the soul and spirit in the composition of human endeavour generally takes the form of motivational poster catch phrases or third-hand quotes. If the spirit equals the life of a creature, and one of the signs of life is locomotion, are humans not obliged by something even deeper than our humanity to explore the universe? This paper examines the roots and perspectives of our worldviews on identity, exploration, and the limitations and capacities of humanity. It will equip the reader to discuss the nature of exploration with audiences across a wide range of worldviews. Current cultures, regardless of religion or politics, are looped into a series of nihilistic patterns that must be broken by rediscovering our nature as living beings, and our obligations as human beings.

  11. Technology Needs to Support Future Mars Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nilsen, Erik N.; Baker, John; Lillard, Randolph P.

    2013-01-01

    The Mars Program Planning Group (MPPG) under the direction of Dr. Orlando Figueroa, was chartered to develop options for a program-level architecture for robotic exploration of Mars consistent with the objective to send humans to Mars in the 2030's. Scientific pathways were defined for future exploration, and multiple architectural options were developed that meet current science goals and support the future human exploration objectives. Integral to the process was the identification of critical technologies which enable the future scientific and human exploration goals. This paper describes the process for technology capabilities identification and examines the critical capability needs identified in the MPPG process. Several critical enabling technologies that have been identified to support the robotic exploration goals and with potential feedforward application to human exploration goals. Potential roadmaps for the development and validation of these technologies are discussed, including options for subscale technology demonstrations of future human exploration technologies on robotic missions.

  12. Explore with Us

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morales, Lester

    2012-01-01

    The fundamental goal of this vision is to advance U.S. scientific, security and economic interest through a robust space exploration program. Implement a sustained and affordable human and robotic program to explore the solar system and beyond. Extend human presence across the solar system, starting with a human return to the Moon by the year 2020, in preparation for human exploration of Mars and other destinations. Develop the innovative technologies, knowledge, and infrastructures both to explore and to support decisions about the destinations for human exploration. Promote international and commercial participation in exploration to further U.S. scientific, security, and economic interests.

  13. [Anamnesis and clinical examination].

    PubMed

    Grüne, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Anamnesis and clinical examination are the key functions of medical doctors to reveal the health problems of their patients. The correct assessment and handoff of these informations are the preconditions for a specific and cost saving diagnostic and therapy. The handoff can be made orally, in written form analogue or digital. The examination and documentation should be conducted in the order specified for every patient to avoid mistakes. New digital programs help to reach this aim but absorb the time of the medical doctor and depart him from the patients. Nurses and medical doctors should perform the rounds together for a mutually acquisition of information. This conduces towards a single-minded and cost-effectively diagnostic and therapy. PMID:26710199

  14. The neurologic examination.

    PubMed

    Averill, D R

    1981-08-01

    With practice, an orderly routine, and a basic understanding of neuroanatomy, the clinician should be able to tentatively localize lesions in the nervous system. Once the lesion is localized, ancillary studies are usually necessary to identify the disease process. In difficult cases when referral is impractical, an accurate description of the findings from the neurologic examination will greatly improve the value of consultation. PMID:6977917

  15. Visual examination apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haines, R. F.; Fitzgerald, J. W.; Rositano, S. A. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    An automated visual examination apparatus for measuring visual sensitivity and mapping blind spot location including a projection system for displaying to a patient a series of visual stimuli. A response switch enables him to indicate his reaction to the stimuli, and a recording system responsive to both the visual stimuli per se and the patient's response. The recording system thereby provides a correlated permanent record of both stimuli and response from which a substantive and readily apparent visual evaluation can be made.

  16. The independent medical examination.

    PubMed

    Ameis, Arthur; Zasler, Nathan D

    2002-05-01

    The physiatrist, owing to expertise in impairment and disability analysis, is able to offer the medicolegal process considerable assistance. This chapter describes the scope and process of the independent medical examination (IME) and provides an overview of its component parts. Practical guidelines are provided for performing a physiatric IME of professional standard, and for serving as an impartial, expert witness. Caveats are described regarding testifying and medicolegal ethical issues along with practice management advice. PMID:12122847

  17. Exploration and Mining Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2002-09-01

    This Exploration and Mining Technology Roadmap represents the third roadmap for the Mining Industry of the Future. It is based upon the results of the Exploration and Mining Roadmap Workshop held May 10 ñ 11, 2001.

  18. A Trigonometric Exploration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiDomenico, Angelo S.

    1992-01-01

    Gives an example of an open exploration using trigonometric relationships in which the law of cosines can be deduced from the law of sines. Discusses the characteristics and value of the exploration process. (MDH)

  19. Exploration cost-cutting

    SciTech Connect

    Huttrer, J.

    1996-12-31

    This presentation by Jerry Huttrer, President, Geothermal Management Company, discusses the general state of exploration in the geothermal industry today, and mentions some ways to economize and perhaps save costs of geothermal exploration in the future. He suggests an increased use of satellite imagery in the mapping of geothermal resources and the identification of hot spots. Also, coordinating with oil and gas exploration efforts, the efficiency of the exploration task could be optimized.

  20. Hot cell examination table

    DOEpatents

    Gaal, Peter S.; Ebejer, Lino P.; Kareis, James H.; Schlegel, Gary L.

    1991-01-01

    A table for use in a hot cell or similar controlled environment for use in examining specimens. The table has a movable table top that can be moved relative to a table frame. A shaft is fixedly mounted to the frame for axial rotation. A shaft traveler having a plurality of tilted rollers biased against the shaft is connected to the table top such that rotation of the shaft causes the shaft traveler to roll along the shaft. An electromagnetic drive is connected to the shaft and the frame for controllably rotating the shaft.

  1. Visual examination apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haines, R. F.; Fitzgerald, J. W.; Rositano, S. A. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    An automated visual examination apparatus for measuring visual sensitivity and mapping blind spot location is described. The apparatus includes a projection system for displaying to a patient a series of visual stimuli, a response switch enabling him to indicate his reaction to the stimuli, and a recording system responsive to both the visual stimuli per se and the patient's response. The recording system provides a correlated permanent record of both stimuli and response from which a substantive and readily apparent visual evaluation can be made.

  2. Birth Control Explorer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Relationships STIs Media Facebook Twitter Tumblr Shares · 5 Birth Control Explorer Sort by all methods most effective methods ... MORE You are here Home » Birth Control Explorer Birth Control Explorer If you’re having sex —or if ...

  3. Explorations in Statistics: Regression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curran-Everett, Douglas

    2011-01-01

    Learning about statistics is a lot like learning about science: the learning is more meaningful if you can actively explore. This seventh installment of "Explorations in Statistics" explores regression, a technique that estimates the nature of the relationship between two things for which we may only surmise a mechanistic or predictive connection.…

  4. Lunar Exploration Architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perino, Maria Antonietta

    The international space exploration plans foresee in the next decades multiple robotic and human missions to Moon and robotic missions to Mars, Phobos and other destinations. Notably the US has since the announcement of the US space exploration vision by President G. W. Bush in 2004 made significant progress in the further definition of its exploration programme focusing in the next decades in particular on human missions to Moon. Given the highly demanding nature of these missions, different initiatives have been recently taken at international level to discuss how the lunar exploration missions currently planned at national level could fit in a coordinate roadmap and contribute to lunar exploration. Thales Alenia Space - Italia is leading 3 studies for the European Space Agency focus on the analysis of the transportation, in-space and surface architectures required to meet ESA provided stakeholders exploration objectives and requirements. Main result of this activity is the identification of European near-term priorities for exploration missions and European long-term priorities for capability and technology developments related to planetary exploration missions. This paper will present the main studies' results drawing a European roadmap for exploration missions and capability and technology developments related to lunar exploration infrastructure development, taking into account the strategic and programmatic indications for exploration coming from ESA as well as the international exploration context.

  5. Examining Mars with SPICE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acton, Charles H.; Bachman, Nathaniel J.; Bytof, Jeff A.; Semenov, Boris V.; Taber, William; Turner, F. Scott; Wright, Edward D.

    1999-01-01

    The International Mars Conference highlights the wealth of scientific data now and soon to be acquired from an international armada of Mars-bound robotic spacecraft. Underlying the planning and interpretation of these scientific observations around and upon Mars are ancillary data and associated software needed to deal with trajectories or locations, instrument pointing, timing and Mars cartographic models. The NASA planetary community has adopted the SPICE system of ancillary data standards and allied tools to fill the need for consistent, reliable access to these basic data and a near limitless range of derived parameters. After substantial rapid growth in its formative years, the SPICE system continues to evolve today to meet new needs and improve ease of use. Adaptations to handle landers and rovers were prototyped on the Mars pathfinder mission and will next be used on Mars '01-'05. Incorporation of new methods to readily handle non-inertial reference frames has vastly extended the capability and simplified many computations. A translation of the SPICE Toolkit software suite to the C language has just been announced. To further support cartographic calculations associated with Mars exploration the SPICE developers at JPL have recently been asked by NASA to work with cartographers to develop standards and allied software for storing and accessing control net and shape model data sets; these will be highly integrated with existing SPICE components. NASA specifically supports the widest possible utilization of SPICE capabilities throughout the international space science community. With NASA backing the Russian Space Agency and Russian Academy of Science adopted the SPICE standards for the Mars 96 mission. The SPICE ephemeris component will shortly become the international standard for agencies using the Deep Space Network. U.S. and European scientists hope that ESA will employ SPICE standards on the Mars Express mission. SPICE is an open set of standards, and

  6. Mathematics Lecturers' Views of Examinations: Tensions and Possible Resolutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iannone, Paola; Simpson, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    If assessment drives learning and the closed book examination dominates the pattern of assessment for undergraduate mathematics (as it does in the UK), lecturers need to ensure that examinations reflect the learning they value. This article uses a mixed method approach to explore lecturers' views of the closed book examination in relation to other…

  7. Consistency and Inconsistency in PhD Thesis Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holbrook, Allyson; Bourke, Sid; Lovat, Terry; Fairbairn, Hedy

    2008-01-01

    This is a mixed methods investigation of consistency in PhD examination. At its core is the quantification of the content and conceptual analysis of examiner reports for 804 Australian theses. First, the level of consistency between what examiners say in their reports and the recommendation they provide for a thesis is explored, followed by an…

  8. Examining hydrogen transitions.

    SciTech Connect

    Plotkin, S. E.; Energy Systems

    2007-03-01

    This report describes the results of an effort to identify key analytic issues associated with modeling a transition to hydrogen as a fuel for light duty vehicles, and using insights gained from this effort to suggest ways to improve ongoing modeling efforts. The study reported on here examined multiple hydrogen scenarios reported in the literature, identified modeling issues associated with those scenario analyses, and examined three DOE-sponsored hydrogen transition models in the context of those modeling issues. The three hydrogen transition models are HyTrans (contractor: Oak Ridge National Laboratory), MARKAL/DOE* (Brookhaven National Laboratory), and NEMS-H2 (OnLocation, Inc). The goals of these models are (1) to help DOE improve its R&D effort by identifying key technology and other roadblocks to a transition and testing its technical program goals to determine whether they are likely to lead to the market success of hydrogen technologies, (2) to evaluate alternative policies to promote a transition, and (3) to estimate the costs and benefits of alternative pathways to hydrogen development.

  9. Microstructural examination of

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuoka, C.; Yoshizawa, H.; Nakagawa, Y. G.; Lapides, M. E.

    1993-10-01

    Fatigue tests were performed to examine how microstructural conditioning influences crack initiation and propagation in SA508 class 3 low-carbon steel. A 3-mm-long crack was introduced in compact tension (CT) fatigue test specimens under four different loads in order to obtain crack tip plastic zones at different stress intensity factor ranges, ΔK = 18, 36, 54, and 72 MPa√m. The microstructure of the plastic zones around the crack tip were examined by trans- mission electron microscopy (TEM) and selected area electron diffraction (SAD). Micro- orientation of the dislocation cells in the plastic zones of all of the CT samples increased to 4 deg from the level of an as-received sample. Four-point bending fatigue tests were performed for plate shape samples with a large cyclic strain range. The SAD value of the bending samples was also 4 deg in the damaged area where cracks already initiated at an early stage of the fatigue process. These test results indicate that the microstructural conditioning is a prerequisite for the fatigue crack initiation and propagation in SA508. These observations may lead to better under- standing of how fatigue initiation processes transit to cracks.

  10. Asteroid exploration and utilization: The Hawking explorer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, Alan; Date, Medha; Duarte, Manny; Erian, Neil; Gafka, George; Kappler, Peter; Patano, Scott; Perez, Martin; Ponce, Edgar; Radovich, Brian

    1991-01-01

    The Earth is nearing depletion of its natural resources at a time when human beings are rapidly expanding the frontiers of space. The resources which may exist on asteroids could have enormous potential for aiding and enhancing human space exploration as well as life on Earth. With the possibly limitless opportunities that exist, it is clear that asteroids are the next step for human existence in space. This report comprises the efforts of NEW WORLDS, Inc. to develop a comprehensive design for an asteroid exploration/sample return mission. This mission is a precursor to proof-of-concept missions that will investigate the validity of mining and materials processing on an asteroid. Project STONER (Systematic Transfer of Near Earth Resources) is based on two utilization scenarios: (1) moving an asteroid to an advantageous location for use by Earth; and (2) mining an asteroids and transporting raw materials back to Earth. The asteroid explorer/sample return mission is designed in the context of both scenarios and is the first phase of a long range plane for humans to utilize asteroid resources. The report concentrates specifically on the selection of the most promising asteroids for exploration and the development of an exploration scenario. Future utilization as well as subsystem requirements of an asteroid sample return probe are also addressed.

  11. Capability 9.1 Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckelkamp, Rick; Blacic, Jim

    2005-01-01

    The exploration challenge are: To build an efficient, cost effective exploration infrastructure, To coordinate exploration robots & crews from multiple. earth sites to accomplish science and exploration objectives. and To maximize self-sufficiency of the lunar/planetary exploration team.

  12. Flexible-Path Human Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherwood, B.; Adler, M.; Alkalai, L.; Burdick, G.; Coulter, D.; Jordan, F.; Naderi, F.; Graham, L.; Landis, R.; Drake, B.; Hoffman, S.; Grunsfeld, J.; Seery, B. D.

    2010-01-01

    In the fourth quarter of 2009 an in-house, multi-center NASA study team briefly examined "Flexible Path" concepts to begin understanding characteristics, content, and roles of potential missions consistent with the strategy proposed by the Augustine Committee. We present an overview of the study findings. Three illustrative human/robotic mission concepts not requiring planet surface operations are described: assembly of very large in-space telescopes in cis-lunar space; exploration of near Earth objects (NEOs); exploration of Mars' moon Phobos. For each, a representative mission is described, technology and science objectives are outlined, and a basic mission operations concept is quantified. A fourth type of mission, using the lunar surface as preparation for Mars, is also described. Each mission's "capability legacy" is summarized. All four illustrative missions could achieve NASA's stated human space exploration objectives and advance human space flight toward Mars surface exploration. Telescope assembly missions would require the fewest new system developments. NEO missions would offer a wide range of deep-space trip times between several months and two years. Phobos exploration would retire several Marsclass risks, leaving another large remainder set (associated with entry, descent, surface operations, and ascent) for retirement by subsequent missions. And extended lunar surface operations would build confidence for Mars surface missions by addressing a complementary set of risks. Six enabling developments (robotic precursors, ISS exploration testbed, heavy-lift launch, deep-space-capable crew capsule, deep-space habitat, and reusable in-space propulsion stage) would apply across multiple program sequence options, and thus could be started even without committing to a specific mission sequence now. Flexible Path appears to be a viable strategy, with meaningful and worthy mission content.

  13. Exploration Blueprint: Data Book

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drake, Bret G.

    2007-02-01

    The material contained in this report was compiled to capture the work performed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Exploration study team in the late 2002 timeframe. The "Exploration Blueprint Data Book" documents the analyses and findings of the 90-day Agency-wide study conducted from September - November 2002. During the summer of 2002, the NASA Deputy Administrator requested that a study be performed with the following objectives: (1) Develop the rationale for exploration beyond low-Earth orbit (2) Develop roadmaps for how to accomplish the first steps through humans to Mars (3) Develop design reference missions as a basis for the roadmaps 4) Make recommendations on what can be done now to effect this future This planning team, termed the Exploration Blueprint, performed architecture analyses to develop roadmaps for how to accomplish the first steps beyond LEO through the human exploration of Mars. The previous NASA Exploration Team activities laid the foundation and framework for development of NASA's Integrated Space Plan. The reference missions resulting from the analysis performed by the Exploration Blueprint team formed the basis for requirement definition, systems development, technology roadmapping, and risk assessments for future human exploration beyond low-Earth orbit. Emphasis was placed on developing recommendations on what could be done now to effect future exploration activities. The Exploration Blueprint team embraced the "Stepping Stone" approach to exploration where human and robotic activities are conducted through progressive expansion outward beyond low-Earth orbit. Results from this study produced a long-term strategy for exploration with near-term implementation plans, program recommendations, and technology investments. Specific results included the development of a common exploration crew vehicle concept, a unified space nuclear strategy, focused bioastronautics research objectives, and an integrated human

  14. Exploration Blueprint: Data Book

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, Bret G. (Editor)

    2007-01-01

    The material contained in this report was compiled to capture the work performed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Exploration study team in the late 2002 timeframe. The "Exploration Blueprint Data Book" documents the analyses and findings of the 90-day Agency-wide study conducted from September - November 2002. During the summer of 2002, the NASA Deputy Administrator requested that a study be performed with the following objectives: (1) Develop the rationale for exploration beyond low-Earth orbit (2) Develop roadmaps for how to accomplish the first steps through humans to Mars (3) Develop design reference missions as a basis for the roadmaps 4) Make recommendations on what can be done now to effect this future This planning team, termed the Exploration Blueprint, performed architecture analyses to develop roadmaps for how to accomplish the first steps beyond LEO through the human exploration of Mars. The previous NASA Exploration Team activities laid the foundation and framework for development of NASA's Integrated Space Plan. The reference missions resulting from the analysis performed by the Exploration Blueprint team formed the basis for requirement definition, systems development, technology roadmapping, and risk assessments for future human exploration beyond low-Earth orbit. Emphasis was placed on developing recommendations on what could be done now to effect future exploration activities. The Exploration Blueprint team embraced the "Stepping Stone" approach to exploration where human and robotic activities are conducted through progressive expansion outward beyond low-Earth orbit. Results from this study produced a long-term strategy for exploration with near-term implementation plans, program recommendations, and technology investments. Specific results included the development of a common exploration crew vehicle concept, a unified space nuclear strategy, focused bioastronautics research objectives, and an integrated human

  15. Commercial Driver Medical Examinations

    PubMed Central

    Moffitt, Gary; Hanowski, Richard J.; Kales, Stefanos N.; Porter, Richard J.; Hegmann, Kurt T.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to assess relationships between body mass index (BMI) and comorbid conditions within a large sample of truck drivers. Methods: Commercial driver medical examination data from 88,246 commercial drivers between 2005 and 2012 were analyzed for associations between BMI, medical disorders, and driver certification. Results: Most drivers were obese (53.3%, BMI >30.0 kg/m2) and morbidly obese (26.6%, BMI >35.0 kg/m2), higher than prior reports. Obese drivers were less likely to be certified for 2 years and more likely to report heart disease, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, nervous disorders, sleep disorders, and chronic low back pain (all P < 0.0001). There are relationships between multiple potentially disqualifying conditions and increasing obesity (P < 0.0001). Morbid obesity prevalence increased 8.9% and prevalence of three or more multiple conditions increased fourfold between 2005 and 2012. Conclusions: Obesity is related to multiple medical factors as well as increasing numbers of conditions that limit driving certification. PMID:25710607

  16. Diagnosis and complementary examinations.

    PubMed

    Menghini, Moreno; Duncan, Jacque L

    2014-01-01

    Development of neuroprotective therapies requires an understanding of the mechanisms of retinal degeneration and a way to monitor response to treatment. With the increasing availability of genetic testing, precise characterization of the retinal degeneration phenotype is essential. This chapter covers standard and innovative diagnostic techniques and complementary examinations needed for the evaluation and treatment of retinal degenerative diseases. It aims to provide an overview of functional and structural diagnostic tools for the evaluation of retinal degenerative diseases, but is not intended as a comprehensive reference. Subjective assessment of visual function includes psychophysical tests, such as perimetry and microperimetry. Electrophysiology tests, such as the electroretinogram and electro-oculogram, are crucial in the assessment of retinal degenerative diseases and provide an objective assessment of global photoreceptor and retinal pigment epithelial cell function. Retinal structural measures are correlated with measures of retinal function to characterize the disease phenotype, including fundus photography using color, near-infrared, and autofluorescence imaging. Ocular perfusion can be assessed using fluorescein, indocyanine green, and noninvasive angiography. Optical coherence tomography provides information about retinal structure. Resolution of all images of retinal structure can be improved using adaptive optics, which permits visualization of individual photoreceptors and retinal pigment epithelial cells in the macula. PMID:24732761

  17. NASA's Exploration Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tyburski, Timothy

    2006-01-01

    A Bold Vision for Space Exploration includes: 1) Complete the International Space Station; 2) Safely fly the Space Shuttle until 2010; 3) Develop and fly the Crew Exploration Vehicle no later than 2012; 4) Return to the moon no later than 2020; 5) Extend human presence across the solar system and beyond; 6) Implement a sustained and affordable human and robotic program; 7) Develop supporting innovative technologies, knowledge, and infrastructures; and 8) Promote international and commercial participation in exploration.

  18. Examining Archean methanotrophy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slotznick, Sarah P.; Fischer, Woodward W.

    2016-05-01

    The carbon isotope ratios preserved in sedimentary rocks can be used to fingerprint ancient metabolisms. Organic carbon in Late Archean samples stands out from that of other intervals with unusually low δ13C values (∼-45 to -60‰). It was hypothesized that these light compositions record ecosystem-wide methane cycling and methanotrophy, either of the aerobic or anaerobic variety. To test this idea, we studied the petrography and carbon and oxygen isotope systematics of well-known and spectacular occurrences of shallow water stromatolites from the 2.72 Ga Tumbiana Formation of Western Australia. We examined the carbonate cements and kerogen produced within the stromatolites, because methanotrophy is expected to leave an isotopic fingerprint in these carbon reservoirs. Mathematical modeling of Archean carbonate chemistry further reveals that methanotrophy should still have a discernible signature preserved in the isotopic record, somewhat diminished from those observed in Phanerozoic sedimentary basins due to higher dissolved inorganic carbon concentrations. These stromatolites contain kerogen with δ13Corg values of ∼ - 50 ‰. By microsampling different regions and textures within the stromatolites, we determined that the isotopic compositions of the authigenic calcite cements show a low degree of variation and are nearly identical to values estimated for seawater at this time; the lack of low and variable δ13Ccarb values implies that methanotrophy does not explain the low δ13Corg seen in the coeval kerogen. These observations do not support a methanotrophy hypothesis, but instead hint that the Late Archean may constitute an interval wherein autotrophs employed markedly different biochemical processes of energy conservation and carbon fixation.

  19. JPDR vessel steel examination

    SciTech Connect

    Corwin, W.R.; Broadhead, B.L.; Sokolov, M.A.

    1995-10-01

    There is a need to validate the results of irradiation effects research by the examination of material taken directly from the wall of a pressure vessel which has been irradiated during normal service. This task has been included with the HSSI Program to provide just such an evaluation of material from the wall of the pressure vessel from the JPDR. The JPDR was a small BWR that began operation in 1963. It operated until 1976, accumulating {approximately}17,000 h of operation, of which a little over 14,000 h were with the original 45-MWTh core, and the remaining fraction, late in life, with an upgraded 90-MWTh core. The pressure vessel of the JPDR, fabricated from A 302, grade B, modified steel with an internal weld overlay cladding of 304 stainless steel, is approximately 2 m ID and 73 mm thick. It was fabricated from two shell halves joined by longitudinal seam welds located 180{degrees} from each other. The rolling direction of the shell plates is parallel to the axis of the vessel. It operated at 273{degrees}C and reached a maximum fluence of about 2.3 x 10{sup 18} n/cm{sup 2} (> 1 MeV). The impurity contents in the base metal are 0.10 to 0.11% Cu and 0.010 to 0.017% P with a nickel content of 0.63 to 0.65%. Impurity contents of the weld metal are 0.11 to 0.14% Cu and 0.025 to 0.039% P with a nickel content of 0.59%.

  20. Technology Drives Exploration

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA is investing in the future by advancing its capabilities and developing transformative technologies required to reach the challenging destinations that await exploration. The Space Technology ...

  1. The Cosmic Background Explorer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gulkis, Samuel; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Outlines the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) mission to measure celestial radiation. Describes the instruments used and experiments involving differential microwave radiometers, and a far infrared absolute spectrophotometer. (YP)

  2. NASA Exploration Design Challenge

    NASA Video Gallery

    From the International Space Station, astronaut Sunita Williams welcomes participants to the NASA Exploration Design Challenge and explains the uncertainties about the effects of space radiation on...

  3. Teaching, Learning, and Planetary Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Robert A.

    2002-01-01

    This is the final report of a program that examined the fundamentals of education associated with space activities, promoted educational policy development in appropriate forums, and developed pathfinder products and services to demonstrate the utility of advanced communication technologies for space-based education. Our focus was on space astrophysics and planetary exploration, with a special emphasis on the themes of the Origins Program, with which the Principal Investigator (PI) had been involved from the outset. Teaching, Learning, and Planetary Exploration was also the core funding of the Space Telescope Science Institute's (ST ScI) Special Studies Office (SSO), and as such had provided basic support for such important NASA studies as the fix for Hubble Space Telescope (HST) spherical aberration, scientific conception of the HST Advanced Camera, specification of the Next-Generation Space Telescope (NGST), and the strategic plan for the second decade of the HST science program.

  4. Copernican Astronomy and Oceanic Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKittrick, Paul

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the relationships between the century long development of the “New Astronomy” (Copernicus’ axially rotating and solar orbiting earth, governed by Kepler’s laws of planetary motion) of the sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries and the emerging astronomical navigation technologies of the fifteenth and sixteenth century Iberian oceanic explorers and their sixteenth and seventeenth century Protestant competitors. Since the first breakthroughs in Portuguese astronomical navigation in ascertaining latitude at sea were based upon the theories and observations of classically trained Ptolemaic astronomers and cosmographers, it can be argued that the new heliocentric astronomy was not necessary for future developments in early modern navigation. By examining the history of the concurrent revolutions in early modern navigation and astronomy and focusing upon commonalities, we can identify the period during which the old astronomy provided navigators with insufficient results - perhaps hastening the acceptance of the new epistemology championed by Galileo and rejected by Bellarmine. Even though this happened during the period of northern protestant ascendancy in exploration, its roots can be seen during pre-Copernican acceptance in both Lutheran and Catholic Europe. Copernican mathematics was used to calculate Reinhold’s Prutenic Tables despite the author’s ontological rejection of the heliocentric hypothesis. These tables became essential for ascertaining latitude at sea. Kepler’s Rudophine Tables gained even more widespread currency across Europe. His theories were influenced by Gilbert’s work on magnetism - a work partially driven by the requirements of English polar exploration. Sailors themselves never needed to accept a heliocentric cosmography, but the data they brought back to the metropolis undermined Ptolemy, as better data kept them alive at sea. This exchange between theoretician and user in the early modern period drove both

  5. Explorer Program: X-ray Timing Explorer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This booklet describes the X-ray Timing Explorer (XTE), one in a series of Explorer missions administered by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Office of Space Science and managed by the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The X-ray astronomy observatory is scheduled for launch into low-Earth orbit by Delta 2 expendable launch vehicle in late summer of 1995. The mission is expected to operate for at least 2 years and will carry out in-depth timing and spectral studies of the X-ray sources in the 2 to 200 kilo-electron Volt (keV) range. XTE is intended to study the temporal and broad-band spectral phenomena associated with stellar and galactic systems containing compact objects, including neutron stars, white dwarfs, and black holes.

  6. The exploration metaphor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgreevy, Michael W.

    1991-01-01

    NASA's experience in planetary exploration has demonstrated that the desktop workstation is inadequate for many visualization situations. The primary mission displays for the unmanned Surveyor missions to the moon during the mid-1960's, for example, were environmental images assembled on the inside surfaces of spherical shells. Future exploration missions will greatly benefit from advances in digital computer and display technology, but there remain unmet user interface needs. Alternative user interfaces and metaphors are needed for planetary exploration and other interactions with complex spatial environments. These interfaces and metaphors would enable the user to directly explore environments and naturally manipulate objects in those environments. Personal simulators, virtual workstations, and telepresence user interfaces are systems capable of providing this integration of user space and task space. The Exploration Metaphor is a useful concept for guiding the design of user interfaces for virtual environments and telepresence. To apply the Exploration Metaphor is to assert that computing is like exploration, and to support objects, operations, and contexts comparable to those encountered in the exploration of natural environments. The Exploration Metaphor, under development for user interfaces in support of NASA's planetary exploration missions and goals, will also benefit other applications where complex spatial information must be visualized. Visualization methods and systems for planetary exploration are becoming increasingly integrated and interactive as computing technology improves. These advances will benefit from virtual environment and telepresence interface technology. A key development has been the processing of multiple images and other sensor data to create detailed digital models of the planets and moons. Data from images of the Earth, Mars, and Miranda, for example, have been converted into 3D models, and dynamic virtual fly-overs have been

  7. Stardust Interstellar Preliminary Examination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westphal, A.; Stardust Interstellar Preliminary Examation Team: http://www. ssl. berkeley. edu/~westphal/ISPE/

    2011-12-01

    A. J. Westphal, C. Allen, A. Ansari, S. Bajt, R. S. Bastien, H. A. Bechtel, J. Borg, F. E. Brenker, J. Bridges, D. E. Brownlee, M. Burchell, M. Burghammer, A. L. Butterworth, A. M. Davis, P. Cloetens, C. Floss, G. Flynn, D. Frank, Z. Gainsforth, E. Grün, P. R. Heck, J. K. Hillier, P. Hoppe, G. Huss, J. Huth, B. Hvide, A. Kearsley, A. J. King, B. Lai, J. Leitner, L. Lemelle, H. Leroux, R. Lettieri, W. Marchant, L. R. Nittler, R. Ogliore, F. Postberg, M. C. Price, S. A. Sandford, J.-A. Sans Tresseras, T. Schoonjans, S. Schmitz, G. Silversmit, A. Simionovici, V. A. Solé, R. Srama, T. Stephan, V. Sterken, J. Stodolna, R. M. Stroud, S. Sutton, M. Trieloff, P. Tsou, A. Tsuchiyama, T. Tyliszczak, B. Vekemans, L. Vincze, D. Zevin, M. E. Zolensky, >29,000 Stardust@home dusters ISPE author affiliations are at http://www.ssl.berkeley.edu/~westphal/ISPE/. In 2000 and 2002, a ~0.1m2 array of aerogel tiles and alumi-num foils onboard the Stardust spacecraft was exposed to the interstellar dust (ISD) stream for an integrated time of 200 days. The exposure took place in interplanetary space, beyond the orbit of Mars, and thus was free of the ubiquitous orbital debris in low-earth orbit that precludes effective searches for interstellar dust there. Despite the long exposure of the Stardust collector, <<100 ISD particles are expected to have been captured. The particles are thought to be ~1μm or less in size, and the total ISD collection is probably <10-6 by mass of the collection of cometary dust parti-cles captured in the Stardust cometary dust collector from the coma of the Jupiter-family comet Wild 2. Thus, although the first solid sample from the local interstellar medium is clearly of high interest, the diminutive size of the particles and the low numbers of particles present daunting challenges. Nevertheless, six recent developments have made a Preliminary Examination (PE) of this sample practical: (1) rapid automated digital optical scanning microscopy for three

  8. Explorations in Statistics: Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curran-Everett, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    Learning about statistics is a lot like learning about science: the learning is more meaningful if you can actively explore. This fifth installment of "Explorations in Statistics" revisits power, a concept fundamental to the test of a null hypothesis. Power is the probability that we reject the null hypothesis when it is false. Four things affect…

  9. We Are the Explorers

    NASA Video Gallery

    Why do we explore? Simply put, it is part of who we are, and it is something we have done throughout our history. In NASA’s new video, “We Are the Explorers,” we take a look at that tradition...

  10. Mars exploration planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eppler, Dean B.; Buoni, Corinne; Niehoff, John

    1993-01-01

    Mars exploration planning is discussed which is based on three scientific objectives: to understand Mars' geologic and geophysical evolution; to understand the present state and past evolution of Martian climate, and to determine the state of present biological activity and past life. The plan assumes a 25-year planning horizon, from 1995-2020, and includes both broad-scale and local exploration capabilities.

  11. Why Man Explores

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    This NASA Educational Publication was prepared from a transcript of a panel discussion held on July 2, 1976, in conjunction with the Viking Missions to Mars. The members of the Why Man Explores panel were selected as authorities in classical disciplines relating to exploration.

  12. Planetary Exploration in ESA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwehm, Gerhard H.

    2005-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on planetary exploration in the European Space Agency is shown. The topics include: 1) History of the Solar System Material; 2) ROSETTA: The Comet Mission; 3) A New Name For The Lander: PHILAE; 4) The Rosetta Mission; 5) Lander: Design Characteristics; 6) SMART-1 Mission; 7) MARS Express VENUS Express; 8) Planetary Exploration in ESA The Future.

  13. The Future of Human Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooke, Doug

    2001-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the near term future of human space exploration in terms of possible mission scenarios, propulsion technologies, orbital dynamics that lead to Low-Energy Transfer from Earth-Moon LI to Solar Libration Points and Return Potential Staging Point for Human Mars Missions. It also examines the required evolution of mission architecture, solar electric propulsion concept, vehicle concepts for future Mars missions, and an overview of a Mars Mission, Also in this presentation are pictures of several historic personages and occasions, and a view of a Mars Meteorite (i.e., ALH84001.0)

  14. LYMAN - The far ultraviolet explorer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moos, Warren; Osantowski, John F.

    1989-01-01

    The LYMAN FUSE mission concept for far ultraviolet astronomy is presented. The wavelength window from 100 to 1200 A provides access to a wide range of important scientific problems in cosmology, galactic structure, stellar evolution, and planetary magnetospheres, which cannot be studied in any other way. The LYMAN FUSE Phase A study is examining in detail mission operations, instrumentation technology, the construction of the instrument module, and the interfaces between the Instrument Module and the Explorer Platform Mission. Most of the mission observing time will be allotted through a competitive Guest Observer program analogous to that in operation for the IUE.

  15. Exploration Laboratory Analysis - ARC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krihak, Michael K.; Fung, Paul P.

    2012-01-01

    The Exploration Laboratory Analysis (ELA) project supports the Exploration Medical Capability (ExMC) risk, Risk of Inability to Adequately Treat an Ill or Injured Crew Member, and ExMC Gap 4.05: Lack of minimally invasive in-flight laboratory capabilities with limited consumables required for diagnosing identified Exploration Medical Conditions. To mitigate this risk, the availability of inflight laboratory analysis instrumentation has been identified as an essential capability in future exploration missions. Mission architecture poses constraints on equipment and procedures that will be available to treat evidence-based medical conditions according to the Space Medicine Exploration Medical Conditions List (SMEMCL). The SMEMCL provided diagnosis and treatment for the evidence-based medical conditions and hence, a basis for developing ELA functional requirements.

  16. Earthworms, Dirt, and Rotten Leaves: An Exploration in Ecology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Molly

    1994-01-01

    This article provides a model for inviting children to "an exploration in ecology" by observing earthworms. It gives reasons to explore earthworms and guides the investigator through a detailed examination of the worms to answer 21 observation questions. Explores the ways in which earthworms interact with their environment. (LZ)

  17. Lunar Daylight Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, Brand Norman

    2010-01-01

    With 1 rover, 2 astronauts and 3 days, the Apollo 17 Mission covered over 30 km, setup 10 scientific experiments and returned 110 kg of samples. This is a lot of science in a short time and the inspiration for a barebones, return-to-the-Moon strategy called Daylight Exploration. The Daylight Exploration approach poses an answer to the question, What could the Apollo crew have done with more time and today s robotics? In contrast to more ambitious and expensive strategies that create outposts then rely on pressurized rovers to drive to the science sites, Daylight Exploration is a low-overhead approach conceived to land near the scientific site, conduct Apollo-like exploration then leave before the sun goes down. A key motivation behind Daylight Exploration is cost reduction, but it does not come at the expense of scientific exploration. As a goal, Daylight Exploration provides access to the top 10 science sites by using the best capabilities of human and robotic exploration. Most science sites are within an equatorial band of 26 degrees latitude and on the Moon, at the equator, the day is 14 Earth days long; even more important, the lunar night is 14 days long. Human missions are constrained to 12 days because the energy storage systems required to operate during the lunar night adds mass, complexity and cost. In addition, short missions are beneficial because they require fewer consumables, do not require an airlock, reduce radiation exposure, minimize the dwell-time for the ascent and orbiting propulsion systems and allow a low-mass, campout accommodations. Key to Daylight Exploration is the use of piloted rovers used as tele-operated science platforms. Rovers are launched before or with the crew, and continue to operate between crew visits analyzing and collecting samples during the lunar daylight

  18. Human Exploration of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwynne, Owen; McKay, Chris; Zubrin, Robert

    1991-06-01

    Novel approaches to the human exploration of Mars are considered with emphasis on a space suit design, extraterrestrial surface mobility, and water supply. A possible way of transporting personnel on the surface of Mars uses a suborbital rocket that will hop from one site to the next, refuelling each time it lands and giving the Martian explorers effective global mobility. Telepresence could be used to avoid limiting the people on Mars to a small exploration area as a result of a lack of transportation infrastructure. Drawings and photographs are included.

  19. Explorer I Architects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1958-01-01

    The three men responsible for the success of Explorer 1, America's first Earth satellite which was launched January 31, 1958. At left is Dr. William H. Pickering, former director of JPL, which built and operated the satellite. Dr. James A. van Allen, center, of the State University of Iowa, designed and built the instrument on Explorer that discovered the radiation belts which circle the Earth. At right is Dr. Wernher von Braun, leader of the Army's Redstone Arsenal team which built the first stage Redstone rocket that launched Explorer 1.

  20. Why Do We Explore Space?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, E. W.; Skiles, J. W.

    2006-09-01

    The launch of the Soviet Sputnik satellite in 1957 challenged the American space enterprise to a race for political and technological superiority. During the Cold War era, the space program had a very clear goal - to show the world that we were the premier force and player in this new frontier. The American public could, therefore, relate to such a simplistic goal and largely was very supportive of the US space program. Since the end of the Cold War, the raison d'etre for space exploration has been less clear and not as well articulated. This paper is part of a dialogue hoping to solicit input from the public domain on the topic of space exploration. We first examine a previous study on some of the "why's" anticipated by the American public. Then we propose a triumvirate perspective to seek a balance among the romantic, pragmatic and scientific aspects of space faring ventures. Finally, we suggest a somewhat simplistic message that can be more easily related to the common person on the street. We assert that we go to space to "explore the Heavens, enhance the Earth and enrich humankind", and cite numerous concrete examples to support these three themes.(Disclaimer: these are personal ideas and opinions of the authors and do not represent an official NASA position. All references to NASA information are from NASA web pages or in the public domain. This paper is written from an American vantage point due to the authors' experience with the American space agency.)

  1. Sleeping in or Selecting out? Candidates' Absence from GCSE Examinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chamberlain, Suzanne

    2008-01-01

    For a multitude of reasons candidates do not always complete all assessments in the examinations they are entered for. Using examination data across a range of GCSE specifications offered by the Assessment and Qualifications Alliance, this article details the impact of "unaccepted" absence on educational attainment, and explores absence by mode of…

  2. Speed Isn't Everything: A Study of Examination Marking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nadas, Rita; Suto, Irenka

    2010-01-01

    The question of whether marking speed is related to marking accuracy is important for training examiners and planning realistic marking schedules. We explored marking speed in the context of a past examination for an international biology qualification for 14- to 16-year-olds. Forty-two markers with differing backgrounds experimentally marked 23…

  3. Untying the Knots: Examining the Complexities of Reflective Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jay, Joelle K.

    This paper examines issues related to reflective teaching, noting its role in teaching in general. The first section surveys the literature on reflection, exploring reflection from different angles as it applies to teaching and noting that these angles comprise a single concept of reflection. The rest of the paper examines what reflection is, in…

  4. An Examination of Emerging Adulthood in Romanian College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Larry J.

    2009-01-01

    Little work has been done to examine emerging adulthood in Eastern European countries such as Romania that are making the transition out of communism into the broader free-market economy of Western Europe. The purpose of this study was to (a) examine the criteria that college students in Romania have for adulthood, and (b) explore whether…

  5. Titanic: A Statistical Exploration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takis, Sandra L.

    1999-01-01

    Uses the available data about the Titanic's passengers to interest students in exploring categorical data and the chi-square distribution. Describes activities incorporated into a statistics class and gives additional resources for collecting information about the Titanic. (ASK)

  6. Academics explore humidity's benefits.

    PubMed

    Mortimer, Dave

    2008-11-01

    The effects of humidification on hospital superbugs are being explored by some of the UK's top academics, in what Dave Mortimer, national sales manager for Vapac Humidity Control, explains are the UK's first such studies. PMID:19044148

  7. Explore and Discover

    NASA Video Gallery

    Train to improve your aerobic and anaerobic fitness by carrying weighted objects in this activity. The Train Like an Astronaut project uses the excitement of exploration to challenge students to se...

  8. Mars Human Exploration Objectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briggs, Geoff

    1998-01-01

    This paper reviews the objectives and other considerations of Human exploration of Mars. The objectives of human exploration of Mars are: (1) to learn how Mars is similar to, and different from, Earth; (2) to explore possible life, past and present; (3) to discover what Mars is like now from the perspective of Geoscience and geologic history; and (4) how did Mars form and how did its formation differ from Earth. Considerations of human Martian exploration involve: (1) having a capable base laboratory; (2) having long range transportation; (3) having operational autonomy of the crew, and the requirement of the crew to possess a range of new cognitive processes along with easy communications with terrestrial colleagues; and finally (4) creating the human habitat along with human factors which involve more than just survivability.

  9. Mars Exploration Rover Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Barbara A.

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the Mars Exploration Rover Mission. The design of the Rover along with the Athena science payload is also described. Photographs of the Gusev Crater and Meridiani rocks are also shown.

  10. More Electrostatic Explorations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Gay; Gallai, Ditta

    1998-01-01

    Presents worksheet activities that enable students to explore the concept of electrostatic induction and learn the meaning of grounding. Students build two classic devices, the electrophorus and the leaf electroscope. (DDR)

  11. Abdominal exploration - series (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... surgical exploration of the abdomen, also called an exploratory laparotomy, may be recommended when there is abdominal ... blunt trauma"). Diseases that may be discovered by exploratory laparotomy include: inflammation of the appendix (acute appendicitis) ...

  12. Developing the MD Explorer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howie, Philip V.

    1993-04-01

    The MD Explorer is an eight-seat twin-turbine engine helicopter which is being developed using integrated product definition (IPD) team methodology. New techniques include NOTAR antitorque system for directional control, a composite fuselage, an all-composite bearingless main rotor, and digital cockpit displays. Three-dimensional CAD models are the basis of the entire Explorer design. Solid models provide vendor with design clarification, removing much of the normal drawing interpretation errors.

  13. The space exploration initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Priest, Pete

    1991-01-01

    A number of view graph charts are presented which outline the presentation. Outlined are reasons for going to Mars, why it is necessary to go to the Moon first, and the presidential decision on the space exploration initiative. Other representative charts are entitled: Lunar transportation system requirement drivers; Mars transportation system requirement drivers; National space policy goals; Exploration hardware needed; Mars mission profile; Science on the Moon and Mars; and Two independent reviews.

  14. Exploration Laboratory Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krihak, M.; Ronzano, K.; Shaw, T.

    2016-01-01

    The Exploration Laboratory Analysis (ELA) project supports the Exploration Medical Capability (ExMC) risk to minimize or reduce the risk of adverse health outcomes and decrements in performance due to in-flight medical capabilities on human exploration missions. To mitigate this risk, the availability of inflight laboratory analysis instrumentation has been identified as an essential capability for manned exploration missions. Since a single, compact space-ready laboratory analysis capability to perform all exploration clinical measurements is not commercially available, the ELA project objective is to demonstrate the feasibility of emerging operational and analytical capability as a biomedical diagnostics precursor to long duration manned exploration missions. The initial step towards ground and flight demonstrations in fiscal year (FY) 2015 was the down selection of platform technologies for demonstrations in the space environment. The technologies selected included two Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) performers: DNA Medicine Institutes rHEALTH X and Intelligent Optical Systems later flow assays combined with Holomics smartphone analyzer. The selection of these technologies were based on their compact size, breadth of analytical capability and favorable ability to process fluids in a space environment, among several factors. These two technologies will be advanced to meet ground and flight demonstration success criteria and requirements that will be finalized in FY16. Also, the down selected performers will continue the technology development phase towards meeting prototype deliverables in either late 2016 or 2017.

  15. Future Exploration of Venus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limaye, Sanjay

    Venus has been the target of exploration for half a century, before the successful Mariner 2 fly-by in December 1962. The decade after that was marked by growing sophistication in the instruments and spacecraft. During the second decade of Venus exploration (1972 - 1981) the instruments and spacecraft had advanced to make the first detailed survey of the planet and image the surface. During the third decade Venus was explored with more advanced instruments such as synthetic aperture radar and by balloons - the only balloons in another atmosphere ever flown till present. Then came a long pause until 2005 when ESA launched Venus Express, which is still orbiting the planet and returning data. The nearly two-dozen missions flown to Venus have painted a puzzling picture of Venus - we still do not have answers to some key questions. The foremost is why did Venus evolve so differently from Earth? International space agencies and scientists have been considering various approaches to exploring Venus through small and large missions. The Venus Exploration Analysis Group (NASA) has developed a Venus Exploration Roadmap and a comprehensive list of goals, objectives and investigations (www.lpi.usra.edu/vexag), but an international coordinated, comprehensive plan to explore Venus is needed. To fill this void, the COSPAR International Venus Exploration Working Group (IVEWG) has been active in fostering dialog and discussions among the space faring agencies. One small step in the future exploration of Venus is the formation of a joint Science Definition Team (SDT) (NASA and Roscosmos/IKI) for Russia’s Venera-D mission in early 2014. The team is expected to submit a report to respective agencies in early 2015. Towards identifying key surface regions and atmospheric regions of Venus, a workshop is being held in May 2014 by VEXAG to seek community input. It is likely that calls for proposals for missions will also be announced under the M class by ESA and under the Discovery

  16. Priorities for Venus Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glaze, L. S.; Beauchamp, P. M.; Chin, G.; Crisp, D.; Grimm, R. E.; Herrick, R. R.; Johnston, S.; Limaye, S. S.; Smrekar, S. E.; Ocampo, A.; Thompson, T. W.

    2013-12-01

    Venus remains one of the most enigmatic bodies in our Solar System. Important questions remain regarding the origin and evolution of the atmosphere, the history of the surface and interior, and how the surface and atmosphere interact. In a broader context, understanding Venus has implications for understanding the evolution of terrestrial planets in our Solar System as well as for interpreting the growing set of observations of extra-solar planets. The Venus Exploration Analysis Group (VEXAG), established in 2005, is chartered by NASA's Planetary Science Division and reports its findings to the NASA Advisory Council. Open to all interested scientists, VEXAG regularly evaluates Venus exploration goals, scientific objectives, investigations and critical measurement requirements, including especially recommendations in the NRC Decadal Survey and the Solar System Exploration Strategic Roadmap. At the last general meeting in November 2012, VEXAG resolved to update the scientific priorities and strategies for Venus exploration. To achieve this goal, three major tasks were defined for 2013, (1) update the document prioritizing Goals, Objectives and Investigations for Venus Exploration, (2) develop a Roadmap for Venus exploration that is consistent with VEXAG priorities as well as Planetary Decadal Survey priorities, and (3) develop a white paper on technologies for Venus missions. Proposed versions of all three documents were presented at the VEXAG general meeting in November 2013. Here, we present the findings and final versions of all three documents for community comment and feedback. A follow-on Workshop on Venus Exploration Targets is also being planned for the early summer of 2014. The workshop will provide a forum for the Venus science community to discuss approaches for addressing high priority investigations. Participants will be encouraged to present their ideas for specific targets on Venus (interior, surface and atmosphere) as well as to present specific data

  17. The Chinese Cult of Examinations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krebs, Sylvia H.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses how the cult of examinations continues to affect both teachers and students in China, and concludes that any serious reform of Chinese education depends on thoroughly rethinking the role of examinations in learning. (SR)

  18. Timing of the Medical Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christian, Cindy W.

    2011-01-01

    The medical examination of the sexually abused child may have evidentiary, medical, and therapeutic purposes, and the timing of the examination requires consideration of each of these objectives. In cases of acute sexual assault, emergent examinations may be needed to identify injury, collect forensic evidence, and provide infection and pregnancy…

  19. External Examining: Fit for Purpose?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloxham, Sue; Price, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    In a context of international concern about academic standards, the practice of external examining is widely admired for its role in defending standards. Yet a contradiction exists between this faith in examining and continuing concerns about standards. This article argues that external examining rests on assumptions about standards which are…

  20. Examining Chemistry at CSE Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeoman, G. D.

    1972-01-01

    Discusses advantages and disadvantages of centralized examination system in assessing affective and other non-cognitive abilities of students in England. Describes three modes of teaching and assessment: (1) syllabus set and examined by Regional Boards; (2) school, or small group of schools, may set syllabus which is examined by the Board; (3)…

  1. Let's Find out! Preschoolers as Scientific Explorers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brenneman, Kimberly

    2009-01-01

    Scientific Explorers both tall and small, ask questions about objects, living things, and events that interest or puzzle them. They seek answers by examining the world in specific ways that allow them to understand more about it. Young children are often described as natural scientists. They earn this description because they engage in many of the…

  2. Teaching Leadership as Exploring Sacred Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Getz, Cheryl

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the sacred space of teaching and learning by examining a five-year personal inquiry into the study and practice of teaching leadership. The research described exposes the value of engaging in action inquiry as a heuristic in the ongoing process of teaching and learning about leadership. The writing reflects five years of work…

  3. Exploring E-Learning. IES Report 376.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollard, E.; Hillage, J.

    This guide summarizes current research and commentary on e-learning, examining the key issues facing organizations exploring e-learning for employee development. The guide contains six sections. The first section provides an introduction to the issue of e-learning and a summary of the issues discussed in the remainder of the guide. Section 2…

  4. Exploring Literary Devices in Graphic Novels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dallacqua, Ashley K.

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the possibilities of graphic novels with young readers. During the 2009-2010 school year, while working with four fifth-grade students, the author examined the question "In what ways do readers engage while reading a graphic novel?" The fifth graders took part in book discussions and one-on-one interviews after reading two…

  5. Intrigue and potential of space exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Losh, H.

    1972-01-01

    A brief history of astronomy is presented. A chronology of events in the space program is summarized. The possibilities of interplanetary exploration are postulated. The accomplishments of astronomy in pointing the way to manned spaceflight and improved understanding of the solar system are examined.

  6. Career Exploration in Hospitality and Recreation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiley, Benaree; And Others

    This curriculum guide is designed to help students develop career decisionmaking skills which they may use throughout their lives and examine and explore hospitality and recreation occupations. Nine units are included, with each consisting of a teacher's guide and student materials. The teacher's guide includes an overview, objectives, rationale,…

  7. Exploring Issues with Students Despite the Barriers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onosko, Joseph J.

    1995-01-01

    Examines possible reasons for the lack of issues-oriented instruction in social studies classrooms. Provides curriculum suggestions to remedy this, including exploring debatable issues that can be researched and are interesting. Includes 12 instructional strategies designed to maintain student interest and smooth over rough spots. (MJP)

  8. Exploring Different Dimensions of Language Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coffin, Caroline

    2003-01-01

    Explores the way in which language teachers can diagnose language learners' competence from both a sociocultural and linguistic perspective. Uses two sample "letters of complaint" to consider competence in terms of how well the writers organize and structure their texts in relation to their social purpose and cultural context and then examines the…

  9. Principals' Learning Mechanisms: Exploring an Emerging Construct

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schechter, Chen; Qadach, Mowafaq

    2016-01-01

    This exploration of principal learning mechanisms (PLM) to support a learning-centered school aimed to develop, field-test, and validate a PLM-measuring instrument. Following exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses of items to examine factorial validity, the developed scale was correlated with other work-related established constructs (e.g.,…

  10. Exploring Technological Frontiers: Autonomy in Legal Scholarship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moses, Lyria Bennett

    2010-01-01

    In 1999, Barton Beebe critiqued a "golden age" of space law in the 1950s and 1960s in which obscure legal issues concerning space exploration and aliens were addressed. This article describes a more recent "golden age" in legal scholarship, namely that relating to virtual worlds such as World of Warcraft and Second Life. The author examines the…

  11. High temperature electronics applications in space exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jurgens, R. F.

    1981-01-01

    The extension of the range of operating temperatures of electronic components and systems for planetary exploration is examined. In particular, missions which utilize balloon-borne instruments to study the Venusian and Jovian atmospheres are discussed. Semiconductor development and devices including power sources, ultrastable oscillators, transmitters, antennas, electromechanical devices, and deployment systems are addressed.

  12. Exploring Space and Place with Walking Interviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Phil; Bunce, Griff; Evans, James; Gibbs, Hannah; Hein, Jane Ricketts

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the use of walking interviews as a research method. In spite of a wave of interest in methods which take interviewing out of the "safe," stationary environment, there has been limited work critically examining the techniques for undertaking such work. Curiously for a method which takes an explicitly spatial approach, few…

  13. Exploring Individual Differences in Language Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Murray; Doering, Jeffrey C.

    2014-01-01

    Understanders appear to routinely and immediately evaluate the congruence of discourse at many levels of analysis, processes often labeled "validation." This study was an initial exploration of individual differences in discourse validation. Text "reading-time" profiles were examined as a function of two negligibly correlated…

  14. Asteroid exploration and utilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radovich, Brian M.; Carlson, Alan E.; Date, Medha D.; Duarte, Manny G.; Erian, Neil F.; Gafka, George K.; Kappler, Peter H.; Patano, Scott J.; Perez, Martin; Ponce, Edgar

    1992-01-01

    The Earth is nearing depletion of its natural resources at a time when human beings are rapidly expanding the frontiers of space. The resources possessed by asteroids have enormous potential for aiding and enhancing human space exploration as well as life on Earth. Project STONER (Systematic Transfer of Near Earth Resources) is based on mining an asteroid and transporting raw materials back to Earth. The asteroid explorer/sample return mission is designed in the context of both scenarios and is the first phase of a long range plan for humans to utilize asteroid resources. Project STONER is divided into two parts: asteroid selection and explorer spacecraft design. The spacecraft design team is responsible for the selection and integration of the subsystems: GNC, communications, automation, propulsion, power, structures, thermal systems, scientific instruments, and mechanisms used on the surface to retrieve and store asteroid regolith. The sample return mission scenario consists of eight primary phases that are critical to the mission.

  15. Interactive chemical reactivity exploration.

    PubMed

    Haag, Moritz P; Vaucher, Alain C; Bosson, Maël; Redon, Stéphane; Reiher, Markus

    2014-10-20

    Elucidating chemical reactivity in complex molecular assemblies of a few hundred atoms is, despite the remarkable progress in quantum chemistry, still a major challenge. Black-box search methods to find intermediates and transition-state structures might fail in such situations because of the high-dimensionality of the potential energy surface. Here, we propose the concept of interactive chemical reactivity exploration to effectively introduce the chemist's intuition into the search process. We employ a haptic pointer device with force feedback to allow the operator the direct manipulation of structures in three dimensions along with simultaneous perception of the quantum mechanical response upon structure modification as forces. We elaborate on the details of how such an interactive exploration should proceed and which technical difficulties need to be overcome. All reactivity-exploration concepts developed for this purpose have been implemented in the samson programming environment. PMID:25205397

  16. Preparing for Human Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, Bret G.; Joosten, B. Kent

    1998-01-01

    NASA's Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) Enterprise is defining architectures and requirements for human exploration that radically reduce the costs of such missions through the use of advanced technologies, commercial partnerships and innovative systems strategies. In addition, the HEDS Enterprise is collaborating with the Space Science Enterprise to acquire needed early knowledge about Mars and to demonstrate critical technologies via robotic missions. This paper provides an overview of the technological challenges facing NASA as it prepares for human exploration. Emphasis is placed on identifying the key technologies including those which will provide the most return in terms of reducing total mission cost and/or reducing potential risk to the mission crew. Top-level requirements are provided for those critical enabling technology options currently under consideration.

  17. Solar system exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, Clark R.; Ramlose, Terri (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    The goal of planetary exploration is to understand the nature and development of the planets, as illustrated by pictures from the first two decades of spacecraft missions and by the imaginations of space artists. Planets, comets, asteroids, and moons are studied to discover the reasons for their similarities and differences and to find clues that contain information about the primordial process of planet origins. The scientific goals established by the National Academy of Sciences as the foundation of NASA's Solar System Exploration Program are covered: to determine the nature of the planetary system, to understand its origin and evolution, the development of life on Earth, and the principles that shape present day Earth.

  18. Multivariate Data EXplorer (MDX)

    SciTech Connect

    Steed, Chad Allen

    2012-08-01

    The MDX toolkit facilitates exploratory data analysis and visualization of multivariate datasets. MDX provides and interactive graphical user interface to load, explore, and modify multivariate datasets stored in tabular forms. MDX uses an extended version of the parallel coordinates plot and scatterplots to represent the data. The user can perform rapid visual queries using mouse gestures in the visualization panels to select rows or columns of interest. The visualization panel provides coordinated multiple views whereby selections made in one plot are propagated to the other plots. Users can also export selected data or reconfigure the visualization panel to explore relationships between columns and rows in the data.

  19. Robotics for Human Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fong, Terrence; Deans, Mathew; Bualat, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Robots can do a variety of work to increase the productivity of human explorers. Robots can perform tasks that are tedious, highly repetitive or long-duration. Robots can perform precursor tasks, such as reconnaissance, which help prepare for future human activity. Robots can work in support of astronauts, assisting or performing tasks in parallel. Robots can also perform "follow-up" work, completing tasks designated or started by humans. In this paper, we summarize the development and testing of robots designed to improve future human exploration of space.

  20. Improving Career Exploration. Implementation Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southwest Iowa Learning Resources Center, Red Oak.

    This junior high/middle school career exploration implementation manual is designed to assist in implementing a comprehensive career exploration program using four career exploration components developed in the Improving Career Exploration project. The first of six sections addresses career exploration and career/vocational development. Basic…

  1. International solar system exploration - Opportunities and obstacles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, J. W.; Parks, R. J.

    1982-01-01

    A review is conducted of the exploration of the solar system carried out with the aid of various types of spacecraft during the past two decades, taking into account also space missions planned for thy next few years. A wealth of information has been obtained regarding the planets and their satellites. However, there remain many important questions concerning the solar system, and a continuation of space exploration for the solution of these questions appears highly desirable, particularly when the comparatively little cost of these missions is taken into account. However, major fiscal limitations within the U.S. economy have led to pressure to postpone any new solar system exploration projects unless there can be major reductions in their cost. A special committee has been studying the options for future low-cost solar system exploration missions, giving attention also to some options for international implementation. Various aspects of joint space projects are examined.

  2. Human Exploration of Near-Earth Asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abell, Paul

    2013-01-01

    A major goal for NASA's human spaceflight program is to send astronauts to near-Earth asteroids (NEA) in the coming decades. Missions to NEAs would undoubtedly provide a great deal of technical and engineering data on spacecraft operations for future human space exploration while conducting in-depth scientific examinations of these primitive objects. However, before sending human explorers to NEAs, robotic investigations of these bodies would be required to maximize operational efficiency and reduce mission risk. These precursor missions to NEAs would fill crucial strategic knowledge gaps concerning their physical characteristics that are relevant for human exploration of these relatively unknown destinations. Dr. Paul Abell discussed some of the physical characteristics of NEOs that will be relevant for EVA considerations, reviewed the current data from previous NEA missions (e.g., Near-Earth Asteroid Rendezvous (NEAR) Shoemaker and Hayabusa), and discussed why future robotic and human missions to NEAs are important from space exploration and planetary defense perspectives.

  3. Physical examination during space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, B. A. Jr; Billica, R. D.; Bishop, S. L.; Blackwell, T.; Layne, C. S.; Harm, D. L.; Sandoz, G. R.; Rosenow, E. C. 3rd

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To develop techniques for conducting a physical examination in microgravity and to describe and document the physiologic changes noted with use of a modified basic physical examination. DESIGN: On the basis of data gathered from physical examinations on KC-135 flights, three physical variables were assessed serially in astronauts during two shuttle missions (of 8- and 10-day duration, respectively). Preflight, in-flight, and postflight examinations were conducted by trained physician-astronauts or flight surgeons, who used this modified examination. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Five male and two female crewmembers participated in the "hands-on" physical examination of all physiologic systems except the genitourinary system. Level of edema, intensity of bowel sounds, and peripheral reflexes were assessed and graded. RESULTS: This investigation identified unique elements of a physical examination performed during space flight that will assist in the development of standard methods for conducting examinations of astronauts in weightlessness. In addition, demonstrable changes induced by microgravity were noted in most physiologic systems examined. CONCLUSION: The data support the hypothesis that the microgravity examination differs from that conducted on earth or in a 1g environment. In addition, alterations in the physiologic response can be detected with use of hands-on technique. These data are invaluable in the development of optimal medical care for humans in space.

  4. Skylab Explores the Earth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    This book describes the Skylab 4 Earth Explorations Project. Photographs of the earth taken by the Skylab astronauts are reproduced here and accompanied by an analytical and explanatory text. Some of the geological and geographical topics covered are: (1) global tectonics - some geological analyses of observations and photographs from Skylab; (2)…

  5. Youth Exploring Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Diane

    2008-04-01

    This session features Youth Exploring Science (YES), Saint Louis Science Center's nationally recognized work-based teen development program. In YES, underserved audiences develop interest and understanding in physics through design engineering projects. I will discuss breaking down barriers, helping youth develop skills, and partnering with community organizations, universities and engineering firms.

  6. Exploring Volumetrically Indexed Cups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Dustin L.

    2011-01-01

    This article was inspired by a set of 12 cylindrical cups, which are volumetrically indexed; that is to say, the volume of cup "n" is equal to "n" times the volume of cup 1. Various sets of volumetrically indexed cylindrical cups are explored. I demonstrate how this children's toy is ripe for mathematical investigation, with connections to…

  7. Exploring Global Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Needler, Toby; Goodman, Bonnie

    The eight units in this volume are designed for use by an art teacher/specialist. Thematic ideas are presented, while skills, techniques, and materials are not dictated. The lessons encourage students to compare and contrast cultures, understand their own cultural experiences, and explore differences and commonalities among cultures. The materials…

  8. Exploring Careers. Sales Occupations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    "Exploring Careers" is a career education resource program, published in fifteen separate booklets, for junior high school-age students. It provides information about the world of work and offers its readers a way of learning about themselves and relating that information to career choices. The publications aim to build career awareness by means…

  9. Exploring Consumer Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Virginia; Sumrall, William; Mott, Michael; Mitchell, Elizabeth; Theobald, Becky

    2015-01-01

    Methods for facilitating students' standards-based consumer literacy are addressed via the use of problem solving with food and product labels. Fifth graders will be able to: (1) provide detailed analysis of food and product labels; (2) understand large themes, including production, distribution, and consumption; and (3) explore consumer…

  10. Exploring the Conceptual Universe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemp, Charles

    2012-01-01

    Humans can learn to organize many kinds of domains into categories, including real-world domains such as kinsfolk and synthetic domains such as sets of geometric figures that vary along several dimensions. Psychologists have studied many individual domains in detail, but there have been few attempts to characterize or explore the full space of…

  11. Exploring Careers in Music.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cincinnati Public Schools, OH.

    The career exploration program for grades 9 through 10, as part of a comprehensive K through 10 career development program, attempts to develop an awareness of and appreciation for work, extend knowledge of the variety of career opportunities, and provide experiences in career areas of individual interest. The document, a collection of materials…

  12. Exploring Sound with Insects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Laura; Meyer, John R.

    2010-01-01

    Differences in insect morphology and movement during singing provide a fascinating opportunity for students to investigate insects while learning about the characteristics of sound. In the activities described here, students use a free online computer software program to explore the songs of the major singing insects and experiment with making…

  13. International Ultraviolet Explorer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This report is the November 6, 1996 - October 9, 1997, IUE Final Report for the International Ultraviolet Explorer Final Archive contract. The ultimate objective of this contract is the completion of the archival reprocessing of all IUE data obtained at GSFC between 1978 and 1995.

  14. Exploration of Retailing Careers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkie, Barbara J.

    Designed as a semester unit of instruction at the middle or junior high school level in the exploration of retailing careers, this distributive education curriculum guide is divided into two sections: The Teacher's Guide and Student Materials. One of the elective courses intended as a followup to "Orientation to Marketing Careers," it provides the…

  15. Exploratorium: Exploring Water.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand, Judith, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This issue of Exploratorium focuses on water and its varied uses in our environment. Articles include: (1) "Adventures with Water" (Eric Muller); (2) "Water: The Liquid of Life" (Karen E. Kalumuck); (3) "Water-Drop Projector" (Gorazd Planinsic); (4) "Waterways and Means" (Pearl Tesler); (5) "Explore Natural Phenomena in the Museum--and Just…

  16. Oil Exploration Mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    After concluding an oil exploration agreement with the Republic of Yemen, Chevron International needed detailed geologic and topographic maps of the area. Chevron's remote sensing team used imagery from Landsat and SPOT, combining images into composite views. The project was successfully concluded and resulted in greatly improved base maps and unique topographic maps.

  17. Telescopes and space exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandt, J. C.; Maran, S. P.

    1976-01-01

    The necessity for different types of telescopes for astronomical investigations is discussed. Major findings in modern astronomy by ground-based and spaceborne telescopes are presented. Observations of the Crab Nebula, solar flares, interstellar gas, and the Black Hole are described. The theory of the oscillating universe is explored. Operating and planned telescopes are described.

  18. Exploring the Educational Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merritt, Elizabeth E.

    2012-01-01

    Futures studies uses scenarios--stories of the future--to explore how trends and events shaping our world may play out in future decades. This article features a short scenario set in California in 2037, depicting twelve-year-old Moya and her brother mart, whose "fenced community" has opted for a system of self-directed, online learning to educate…

  19. Exploring Japan through Rice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wojtan, Linda S.

    1998-01-01

    Explores the role of rice in Japanese culture by presenting historical background and teaching activities in a variety of categories, such as language, sociology, history, and contemporary politics. Suggests teachers create cross-cultural comparisons; for example, the role of corn in the United States. Provides a list of teacher resources. (CMK)

  20. Exploring Careers. Transportation Occupations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    "Exploring Careers" is a career education resource program, published in fifteen separate booklets, for junior high school-age students. It provides information about the world of work and offers its readers a way of learning about themselves and relating that information to career choices. The publications aim to build career awareness by means…

  1. Exploring Careers. Office Occupations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    "Exploring Careers" is a career education resource program, published in fifteen separate booklets, for junior high school-age students. It provides information about the world of work and offers its readers a way of learning about themselves and relating that information to career choices. The publications aim to build career awareness by means…

  2. Exploring Careers. Health Occupations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    "Exploring Careers" is a career education resource program, published in fifteen separate booklets, for junior high school-age students. It provides information about the world of work and offers its readers a way of learning about themselves and relating that information to career choices. The publications aim to build career awareness by means…

  3. Exploring Manufacturing Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iley, John; And Others

    These teacher's materials for an eight-unit course were developed to help students develop technological literacy, career exploration, and problem-solving skills relative to the manufacturing industries. The eight units include an overview of manufacturing, manufacturing enterprises and systems, manufacturing materials and selection, manufacturing…

  4. Introduction to Exploring Machines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Early Childhood Today, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Young children are fascinated by how things "work." They are at a stage of development where they want to experiment with the many ways to use an object or take things apart and put them back together. In the process of exploring tools and machines, children use the scientific method and problem-solving skills. They observe how things work, wonder…

  5. Explorers of the Universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alvarez, Marino C.; Busby, Michael R.; Sotoohi, Goli; Rodriguez, William J.; Hennig, Lee Ann; Berenty, Jerry; King, Terry; Grener, Doreen; Kruzan, John

    1998-01-01

    The Explorers of the Universe is a multifaceted scientific/literacy project that involves teachers and their students with problem oriented situations using authentic materials. This paper presents examples of self-directed cases researched by high school students and the met acognitive tools they use in the planning, carrying out, and finalizing their reports.

  6. Multimodal Information Exploration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stock, Oliviero; Zancanaro, Massimo; Strapparava, Carlo

    1997-01-01

    Discussion of information exploration and software design in computer-based educational systems focuses on the integration of hypermedia and natural language dialog. AlFRESCO is described, an interactive natural language-centered multimodal system that was developed for users interested in frescoes and paintings. (LRW)

  7. Exploring the Exploratorium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neill, Shirley Boes

    1978-01-01

    Describes a San Francisco, California, science museum whose design is based on the exploration of perception. The museum is arranged in sections on patterns, light color, eye logic, third dimension, sound, hearing, electricity, and the tactile gallery. Programs include teacher training, student learning experience, field trips and study projects,…

  8. Exploration of Business (9).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg.

    This guide provides teachers with a business exploration curriculum for grade 9. The course is designed to introduce beginning students to the language of business, to careers, to consumerism, to economics, and to technology. An "Overview" section presents the rationale, describes the program structure, and lists program goals and objectives. The…

  9. Exploration Medical Capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watkins, Sharmila; Baumann, David; Wu, Jimmy; Barsten, Kristina

    2010-01-01

    Exploration Medical Capability (ExMC) is an element of NASA's Human Research Program (HRP). ExMC's goal is to address the risk of the Inability to Adequately Recognize or Treat an Ill or Injured Crewmember. This poster highlights the approach ExMC has taken to address this goal and our current areas of interest. The Space Medicine Exploration Medical Condition List (SMEMCL) was created to identify medical conditions of concern during exploration missions. The list was derived from space flight medical incidents, the shuttle medical checklist, the International Space Station medical checklist, and expert opinion. The conditions on the list were prioritized according to mission type by a panel comprised of flight surgeons, physician astronauts, engineers, and scientists. From the prioritized list, the ExMC element determined the capabilities needed to address the medical conditions of concern. Where such capabilities were not currently available, a gap was identified. The element s research plan outlines these gaps and the tasks identified to achieve the desired capabilities for exploration missions. This poster is being presented to inform the audience of the gaps and tasks being investigated by ExMC and to encourage discussions of shared interests and possible future collaborations.

  10. Arne — Sublunarean Explorer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, M. S.; Thanga, J.; Wagner, R. V.; Hernandez, V. A.

    2014-10-01

    We propose a simple and cost effective reconnaissance of the Mare Tranquillitatis Pit with Arne, a small lander (<130 kg) that carries three flying microbots (or pit-bots) each with mass of 3 kg. Objectives serve key science and exploration needs.